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Sample records for psychosocial outcomes related

  1. Relative relationships of general shame and body shame with body dysmorphic phenomenology and psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D; Davidson, Eliza; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2017-07-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with a perceived flaw in appearance and repetitive avoidance behaviors. BDD involves severe psychosocial outcomes (e.g., depression, suicidality, functional impairment). Identifying correlates of BDD symptoms and outcomes can inform treatment. Shame, a painful emotion felt in response to critical self-judgment, may be one key correlate. However, research on shame in BDD is scarce and previous studies have not distinguished general shame from body shame. This study examines the relative relationships between body shame and general shame with body dysmorphic phenomenology and psychosocial outcomes. Participants ( N = 184) were recruited online via BDD organizations and completed a survey. Path analysis was used to examine associations between body and general shame with 1) body dysmorphic phenomenology and 2) depression severity, suicide risk, and functional impairment. Both types of shame were differentially related to outcomes. Body shame was more strongly related to phenomenology, whereas general shame was more strongly related to psychosocial outcomes. Thus, it may be important for BDD treatment to focus on reducing both general and body shame. Further research should evaluate whether current treatments adequately address and reduce general and body shame, and whether addressing shame promotes better treatment outcomes.

  2. The perceived importance of physical activity: associations with psychosocial and health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; Szabo, Amanda N; White, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily L; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a 12-month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. In addition, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health-related and psychosocial outcomes were examined. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179) were recruited to participate in a 12-month exercise trial examining the association between changes in physical activity and fitness with changes in brain structure and psychological health. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition. Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and 12. Involvement in a 12-month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance, however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention. There were no significant associations at the end of the program. Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity-related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation.

  3. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Experience of Grandparent-Grandchild Relationships and Related Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayslip, Bert; Toledo, Ray M; Henderson, Craig E; Rodriguez, R Mishelle; Caballero Vela, Daniela M

    2018-01-01

    This study examined grandchildren's perceptions of the quality of their relationship with their grandmothers and how these perceptions relate to psychosocial outcomes. Eighty-two youth from Mexico and 99 youth from the United States aged between 13 and 16 participated. Results suggested that both cultures benefit in unique ways from positive relationship with their grandmothers. Yet, there were also differences in the relational experience of grandmother-grandchild relationships across cultures. Specifically, grandchildren in the U.S. sample reported higher relationship quality, relational competency, and self-efficacy than the grandchildren in the Mexico sample. Within the U.S. sample, relationship quality was associated with grandchildren's relational competence, while in the Mexico sample, relationship quality was associated with self-efficacy. Limitations of the present study include restricted generalizability to other age groups and to grandfathers and that only one element of the grandparent-grandchild dyad was sampled. Longitudinal research will improve our understanding of the causal dynamics of grandparent-grandchild relationships.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  5. A qualitative analysis of psychosocial outcomes among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Mullen, Colleen; Rouhani, Shada; Kuwert, Philipp; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Burkhardt, Gillian; Onyango, Monica; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Sexual violence is prevalent in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and has potentially devastating psychosocial consequences. Previous studies have reported on sexual violence and its impact on the mental health of survivors, but there are few studies conducted among women with sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). Women with SVRPs may be at greater risk of complex psychosocial outcomes, including social stigmatization. This study aimed to describe psychosocial outcomes among this subgroup of sexual violence survivors in order to inform future interventions. A mixed methods study was conducted in Bukavu, DRC in 2012 among adult women who self-reported an SVRP and either (1) were currently raising a child from an SVRP (parenting group) or (2) had terminated an SVRP (termination group). This manuscript presents qualitative findings from the mixed methods study. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling and a proportion engaged in semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted by trained female interviewers. Thematic content analysis was conducted and key themes were identified. In total, 55 women were interviewed, of whom 38 were in the parenting group and 17 in the termination group. Women with SVRPs experienced a myriad of emotional responses as they navigated their social environments following the SVRPs. Negative reactions, including social stigmatization and/or social rejection, toward women with SVRPs and toward children born from SVRPs were important influences on psychological well-being. Women expressed both internalized emotionality intertwined with externalized experiences in the social environment. Many women demonstrated resilience, or what could be termed post-traumatic growth, identifying avenues of agency to advance the social conditions for women. The findings from the qualitative study, and in particular, the respondents' needs and suggested strategies, may be useful to inform future research, programs, and

  6. A systematic review of exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions to improve health-related outcomes in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammant, Elke; Decaestecker, Karel; Bultijnck, Renée; Sundahl, Nora; Ost, Piet; Pauwels, Nele S; Deforche, Benedicte; Pieters, Ronny; Fonteyne, Valérie

    2018-05-01

    Summarizing the evidence on the effects of pre- and postoperative exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and physical fitness in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched independently by two authors from inception until 10 November 2017. Cited references of the studies and citing references retrieved via Web of Science were also checked. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies assessing effects of exercise and psychosocial interventions in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy were eligible. Primary outcome measures were PROs and physical fitness. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five RCTs (three exercise and two psychosocial studies) and one non-randomized psychosocial study comprising 317 bladder cancer patients were included. Timing of the intervention was preoperative ( n = 2), postoperative ( n = 2) or both pre- and postoperative ( n = 2). Positive effects of exercise were found for physical fitness ( n = 3), some health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) domains ( n = 2), personal activities in daily living ( n = 1) and muscle strength ( n = 1). Psychosocial interventions showed positive effects on anxiety ( n = 1), fatigue ( n = 1), depression ( n = 1), HRQoL ( n = 1) and posttraumatic growth ( n = 1). Quality assessment showed most shortcomings with sample sizes and strong heterogeneity was observed between studies. The evidence relating to the effects of exercise in bladder cancer is very limited and is even less for psychosocial interventions.

  7. Studying psychosocial adaptation to end-stage renal disease: the proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes as a base model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ramony; Brooks, Robert; Erlich, Jonathan; Gallagher, Martin; Snelling, Paul; Chow, Josephine; Suranyi, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Studying psychosocial adaptation in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is increasingly important, as it may explain the variability in health outcomes unaccounted for by clinical factors. The Brenner et al. proximal-distal model of health-related outcomes provides a theoretical foundation for understanding psychosocial adaptation and integrating health outcomes, clinical, and psychosocial factors (Brenner MH, Curbow B, Legro MW. The proximal-distal continuum of multiple health outcome measures: the case of cataract surgery. Med Care. 1995;33(4 Suppl):AS236-44). This study aims to empirically validate the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and examine the impact of psychosocial factors on the model. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with a sample of long-term dialysis patients (n=201). Eleven factors: quality of life (QoL), depression, positive affect, comorbidity, symptoms, physical functioning, disease accommodation, loss, self-efficacy, illness acceptance, and social support were measured by standardized psychometric scales. A three-month average of hemoglobin was used. Latent composite structural equation modeling was used to examine the models. The proximal-distal model with slight modification was supported by fit statistics [χ(2)=16.04, df=13, P=.25, root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA)=0.024], indicating that the impact of clinical factors on QoL is mediated through a range of functional and psychological factors, except for hemoglobin which impacts directly on QoL. The model with additional psychosocial factors was also supported by fit statistics (χ(2)=43.59, df=41, P=.36, RMSEA=0.018). These additional factors mainly impact on symptom status, psychological states, and QoL components of the model. The present study supported the proximal-distal model in the dialysis population and demonstrated the considerable impact of psychosocial factors on the model. The proximal-distal model plus psychosocial factors as a

  8. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  9. Family Structure and Children's Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…

  10. The Gutenberg Health Study: measuring psychosocial factors at work and predicting health and work-related outcomes with the ERI and the COPSOQ questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuebling, Matthias; Seidler, Andreas; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Latza, Ute; Wagner, Mandy; Hegewald, Janice; Liebers, Falk; Jankowiak, Sylvia; Zwiener, Isabella; Wild, Philipp S; Letzel, Stephan

    2013-06-04

    Several instruments have been developed to assess psychosocial workload. We compared two of these instruments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) with regard to congruent validity and internal validity. This analysis is based on a population-based sample of the baseline examination of 2,783 employees from the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). About half of the participants completed the ERI questionnaire (n = 1,342), the other half completed the COPSOQ (n = 1,441). First, the two samples were compared and descriptive analyses were carried out calculating mean values for both instruments in general, then separately for age, gender and main occupational groups. Second, we analyzed the relationship between ERI and COPSOQ scales on the workplace situation and on the workplace outcomes: job satisfaction, general health, burnout, satisfaction with life, by applying stepwise logistic regression analysis. For the majority of occupations, high effort as reflected by the ERI corresponded with high demands as reflected by the COPSOQ. Comparably, high reward (according to ERI) yielded a good agreement with high "influence and development" (according to COPSOQ). However, we could also find differences between ERI and COPSOQ concerning the intensity of psychosocial workload in some occupations (e.g., physicians/pharmacists or warehouse managers/warehousemen/transport workers). These differences point to differing theoretical concepts of ERI and COPSOQ. When the ability of ERI and COPSOQ was examined to determine the associations with health and work outcomes, burnout could be better predicted by the COPSOQ; this might be due to the fact that COPSOQ comprises the constructs "work-privacy conflict" and "emotional demand", which are closely related to burnout. However, methodological differences between these instruments limit their direct comparability. The ERI and COPSOQ instrument yielded similar results for most

  11. Systematic review of psychosocial outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Watson, Maggie; Aitken, Joanne F; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-11-01

    New advanced melanoma therapies are associated with improved survival; however, quality of survivorship, particularly psychosocial outcomes, for patients overall and those treated with newer therapies is unclear. Synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence about psychosocial outcomes for advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma patients. Five databases were searched (01/01/1980 to 31/01/2016). Inclusion criteria were as follows: advanced melanoma patients or sub-group analysis; assessed psychosocial outcomes; and English language. Fifty-two studies met review criteria (4 qualitative, 48 quantitative). Trials comprise mostly medical not psychosocial interventions, with psychosocial outcomes assessed within broader quality of life measures. Patients receiving chemotherapy or IFN-alpha showed decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Five trials of newer therapies appeared to show improvements in emotional and social function. Descriptive studies suggest that patients with advanced, versus localized disease, had decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Contributors to distress were largely unexplored, and no clear framework described coping/adjustment trajectories. Patients with advanced versus localized disease had more supportive care needs, particularly amount, quality, and timing of melanoma-related information, communication with and emotional support from clinicians. Limitations included: lack of theoretical underpinnings guiding study design; inconsistent measurement approaches; small sample sizes; non-representative sampling; and cross-sectional design. Quality trial evidence is needed to clarify the impact of treatment innovations for advanced melanoma on patients' psychosocial well-being. Survivorship research and subsequent translation of that knowledge into programs and services currently lags behind gains in the medical treatment of advanced melanoma, a troubling circumstance that requires immediate and focused

  12. Adiposity and psychosocial outcomes at ages 30 and 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Fergusson, David M; John Horwood, L; Carter, Frances A

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adiposity and adult psychosocial outcomes (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, self-esteem, household income, personal income, savings/investments) in a New Zealand birth cohort, by gender. Adiposity was assessed using Body Mass Index scores classified on a 3-point scale of BMI: depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, equivalized household income and savings/investments) remaining statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, for males there was a significant (p = 0.008) positive association between adiposity and higher personal net weekly income after covariate adjustment. The findings suggest evidence of gender differences in the associations between adiposity and psychosocial outcomes. For females, there were small but pervasive tendencies for increasing adiposity to be related to more adverse mental health, psychological well-being and economic outcomes; whereas for males adiposity was either unrelated to these outcomes, or in the case of personal income, associated with greater economic advantage. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  13. Linear and nonlinear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence : baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  14. Linear and non-linear relations between psychosocial job characteristics, subjective outcomes, and sickness absence: baseline results from SMASH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, J. de; Reuvers, M.M.E.N.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the demand-control-support (DCS) model by (a) using a more focused measure of job control, (b) testing for interactive and nonlinear relationships, and (c) further extending the model to the prediction of an objective outcome measure (i.e., company-administrated sickness

  15. Mechanisms underlying the effects of prenatal psychosocial stress on child outcomes: beyond the HPA axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from preclinical and clinical studies indicates that maternal psychosocial stress and anxiety during pregnancy adversely affect child outcomes. However, knowledge on the possible mechanisms underlying these relations is limited. In the present paper, we review the most often

  16. The comparative effects of group prenatal care on psychosocial outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-04-01

    To compare the psychosocial outcomes of the CenteringPregnancy (CP) model of group prenatal care to individual prenatal care, we conducted a prospective cohort study of women who chose CP group (N = 124) or individual prenatal care (N = 124). Study participants completed the first survey at study recruitment (mean gestational age 12.5 weeks), with 89% completing the second survey (mean gestational age 32.7 weeks) and 84% completing the third survey (6 weeks' postpartum). Multiple linear regression models compared changes by prenatal care model in pregnancy-specific distress, prenatal planning-preparation and avoidance coping, perceived stress, affect and depressive symptoms, pregnancy-related empowerment, and postpartum maternal-infant attachment and maternal functioning. Using intention-to-treat models, group prenatal care participants demonstrated a 3.2 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies. While group participants did not demonstrate significantly greater positive outcomes in other measures, women who were at greater psychosocial risk benefitted from participation in group prenatal care. Among women reporting inadequate social support in early pregnancy, group participants demonstrated a 2.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.03) in pregnancy-specific distress in late pregnancy and 5.6 point higher mean maternal functioning scores postpartum (p = 0.03). Among women with high pregnancy-specific distress in early pregnancy, group participants had an 8.3 point greater increase (p prenatal planning-preparation coping strategies in late pregnancy and a 4.9 point greater decrease (p = 0.02) in postpartum depressive symptom scores. This study provides further evidence that group prenatal care positively impacts the psychosocial well-being of women with greater stress or lower personal coping resources. Large randomized studies are needed to establish conclusively the biological and psychosocial benefits of group

  17. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  18. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte Kærgaard; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Carlsson, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    outcome. Objective The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme...

  19. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Sonne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of treatment in trials with trauma-affected refugees vary considerably not only between studies but also between patients within a single study. However, we know little about why some patients benefit more from treatment, as few studies have analysed predictors of treatment outcome. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine possible psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees. Method: The participants were 195 adult refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD who were enrolled in a 6- to 7-month treatment programme at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP, Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients’ past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ. Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results: Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly correlated to pre- to post treatment score changes on the majority of the ratings mentioned above. While employment status was the only single item significantly correlated to HTQ-score changes, a number of single items from the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly with changes in depression and anxiety symptoms, but the size of the correlation coefficients were modest. Conclusions: The total score of the CTP Predictor Index correlated significantly

  20. Moderating effect of gender on the prospective relation of physical activity with psychosocial outcomes and asthma control in adolescents: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents with asthma experience more psychosocial and physiological problems compared to their healthy peers. Physical activity (PA) might decrease these problems. This study was the first observational longitudinal study to examine whether habitual PA could predict changes in

  1. Physiotherapy and low back pain - part iii: outcomes research utilising the biosychosocial model: psychosocial outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Bardin

    2003-02-01

    has evolved that necessitates the use of a biopsychosocial model, focusing on illness rather than disease and incorporating the biological, psychological and social aspects that are important to understand and to study LBP in its chronic form. Traditional outcome measures that measure elements within the biological component are limited to assess the spectrum of impacts caused by chronic low back pain (CLBP and the validity, reliability and sensitivity of some of these measures has been questioned.Few physiologic tests of spine function are clinically meaningful to patients, objective physical findings can be absent, and in CLBP disability and activity intolerance are often disproportional to the original injury. Biological outcomes should be complemented by outcomes of the psychosocial aspects of back pain that measure the considerable functional and emotional impact on the quality of life of patients experiencing low back dysfunction. Outcomes research is an analysis of clinical practice as it actually occurs and can  make a valuable contribution to understanding the multidimensional impact of LBP. Psychosocial aspects of the biopsychosocial model for outcomes research are discussed in part III: functional status/disability, psychological impairment, patient satisfaction, health related quality of life

  2. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Andersen, Stig Krøger

    2014-01-01

    The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small num......-analysis aims to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes....

  3. Predicting Outcome in Patients With Work-Related Upper Extremity Disorders: A Prospective Study of Medical, Physical, Ergonomic, and Psychosocial Risk Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Grant D

    1999-01-01

    .... Over the past few decades, empirical investigations have found that medical, physical, ergonomic, and psychosocial factors are correlated with and/or predictive of these disorders (e.g., Armstrong et al., 1993; Bongers et al., 1993; Hales AND Bernard, 1996).

  4. Psycho-social outcome in liver transplanted children: beware of emotional self-assessment!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calinescu, Ana Maria; McLin, Valérie A; Belli, Dominque; Wildhaber, Barbara E

    2012-08-10

    Psycho-social outcome in children after liver transplantation (LT) is known to be inferior to age-related peers. Yet, when children and their parents are questioned by their nurse or physician about the child's psycho-social well-being, the answers usually are very positive. We hypothesized that patients and their parents after LT report their psycho-social well-being too enthusiastically when enquired by their personal care takers. LT at the Children's University Hospital of Geneva 1992-2007, age >3 years, 2 years. Children and their parents were questioned by their well-known, familiar nurse at the annual follow up visit about their personal well-being. To allow for evaluation of answers, scores (good, medium, bad) were attributed to the different questions. 46 children were included in the study. Mean age at enquiry was 9.7 years (SD 4 years), mean time after LT was 7.5 years (SD 4.2 years). The different themes were reported as good for: parent-child relationship (83%), relationship with peers (98%), relation with siblings (39%), sport activities (54%), play activities (78%), school performance (87%), expression skills (67%), and general behavior (89%). Most of our LT children and their parents consider, during a personal interview with a closely related, familiar nurse, that the child's psycho-social outcome is good. Yet, it is generally acknowledged that children after LT have negatively altered psycho-social outcomes. Thus, emotionally influenced reports about psycho-social outcome in children after LT must be looked at with care.

  5. Improving Outcome of Psychosocial Treatments by Enhancing Memory and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G.; Lee, Jason; Williams, Joseph; Hollon, Steven D.; Walker, Matthew P.; Thompson, Monique A.; Smith, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Mental disorders are prevalent and lead to significant impairment. Progress toward establishing treatments has been good. However, effect sizes are small to moderate, gains may not persist, and many patients derive no benefit. Our goal is to highlight the potential for empirically-supported psychosocial treatments to be improved by incorporating insights from cognitive psychology and research on education. Our central question is: If it were possible to improve memory for content of sessions of psychosocial treatments, would outcome substantially improve? This question arises from five lines of evidence: (a) mental illness is often characterized by memory impairment, (b) memory impairment is modifiable, (c) psychosocial treatments often involve the activation of emotion, (d) emotion can bias memory and (e) memory for psychosocial treatment sessions is poor. Insights from scientific knowledge on learning and memory are leveraged to derive strategies for a transdiagnostic and transtreatment cognitive support intervention. These strategies can be applied within and between sessions and to interventions delivered via computer, the internet and text message. Additional novel pathways to improving memory include improving sleep, engaging in exercise and imagery. Given that memory processes change across the lifespan, services to children and older adults may benefit from cognitive support. PMID:25544856

  6. The readability of psychosocial wellness patient resources: improving surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P readability consensus for mental health information on all websites analyzed was 9.52. Online resources for mental health disorders are more complex than recommended by the NIH and AMA. Efforts to improve readability of mental health and psychosocial wellness resources could benefit patient understanding and outcomes, especially in patients with lower literacy. Surgical outcomes are correlated with patient mental

  7. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  8. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  9. Associations between nine family dinner frequency measures and child weight, dietary and psychosocial outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Friend, Sarah E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Family meal frequency has been consistently and significantly associated with positive youth dietary and psychosocial outcomes but less consistently associated with weight outcomes. Family meal frequency measurement has varied widely and it is unclear how this variation may impact relationships with youth weight, dietary, and psychosocial outcomes. Objective This study assesses how five parent/caregiver-reported and four child-reported family dinner frequency measures correlate with each other and are associated with health-related outcomes. Design/Participants This secondary, cross-sectional analysis uses baseline, parent/caregiver (n=160) and 8–12 year old child (n=160) data from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus trial (collected 2011–2012). Data were obtained from objective measurements, dietary recall interviews, and psychosocial surveys. Outcome measures Outcomes included child body mass index z-scores (BMIz), fruit, vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage intake, dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index-2010 [HEI-2010]), family connectedness, and meal conversations. Statistical analyses performed Pearson correlations and general linear models were used to assess associations between family dinner frequency measures and outcomes. Results All family dinner frequency measures had comparable means and were correlated within and across parent/caregiver- and child-reporters (r=0.17–0.94, pdinner frequency measures were significantly associated with BMIz scores and 100% were significantly associated with fruit/vegetable intake and HEI-2010. In adjusted models, most significant associations with dietary and psychosocial outcomes remained but associations with child BMIz remained significant only for parent/caregiver- (β±SE= −0.07±0.03; pdinner frequency measures asking about ‘sitting and eating’ dinner. Conclusions In spite of phrasing variations in family dinner frequency measures (e.g., which family members

  10. Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport psychological skill levels and related psychosocial factors that distinguish ... players' perceived ability to be psychologically well prepared for competitions. ... reference to practical implications for future sport psychological skills training

  11. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  12. Adolescents with congenital heart disease: the importance of perceived parenting for psychosocial and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Eva; Missotten, Lies; Moons, Philip

    2011-11-01

    : Little is known about how parenting relates to psychosocial functioning and health behavior in adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). Different parenting styles were identified through relying on adolescent perceptions of multiple dimensions (regulation, responsiveness, and psychological control). The degree to which parents were perceived as consistent in their rearing style was assessed. : Adolescents with CHD were selected from the database of pediatric and congenital cardiology of the University Hospitals Leuven; control individuals were recruited at secondary schools. A total of 429 adolescents (14-18 years) with CHD participated; 403 were matched on gender and age with control individuals. Adolescents completed questionnaires on maternal and paternal regulation, psychological control, and responsiveness. Main outcome measures were depressive symptoms, loneliness, quality of life, health status, alcohol, cigarette, and drug use. : No significant differences emerged between adolescents with CHD and controls in perceived parenting styles. Democratic parenting was accompanied by the most optimal pattern of outcomes in adolescents with CHD, whereas psychologically controlling parenting by the least optimal pattern. Overprotective parenting was related to high patient substance use. Perceiving both parents as democratic turned out most favorably for psychosocial functioning and quality of life, whereas parental consistency was unrelated to substance use in adolescents with CHD. : By building bridges between the fields of adolescent medicine and family studies, the present study generated important information on the role of parents in psychosocial and behavioral functioning of adolescents with CHD. Future longitudinal studies could inform family-based interventions for this population.

  13. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup

    2015-01-01

    of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well......, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. METHODS...

  14. Friendship Quality and Psychosocial Outcomes among Children with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heverly-Fitt, Sara; Wimsatt, Maureen A.; Menzer, Melissa M.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Vannatta, Kathryn; Bigler, Erin D.; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined differences in friendship quality between children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and orthopedic injury (OI) and behavioral outcomes for children from both groups. Participants were 41 children with TBI and 43 children with OI (M age = 10.4). Data were collected using peer- and teacher-reported measures of participants’ social adjustment and parent-reported measures of children’s post-injury behaviors. Participants and their mutually nominated best friends also completed a measure of the quality of their friendships. Children with TBI reported significantly more support and satisfaction in their friendships than children with OI. Children with TBI and their mutual best friend were more similar in their reports of friendship quality compared to children with OI and their mutual best friends. Additionally, for children with TBI who were rejected by peers, friendship support buffered against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and predicted skills related to social competence. Friendship satisfaction was related to higher teacher ratings of social skills for the TBI group only. Positive and supportive friendships play an important role for children with TBI, especially for those not accepted by peers. Such friendships may protect children with TBI who are rejected against maladaptive psychosocial outcomes, and promote skills related to social competence. PMID:24840021

  15. Quality of life and psychosocial outcomes after fixed orthodontic treatment: a 17-year observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Brennan, David; Spencer, A John

    2011-12-01

    There is little evidence to suggest that orthodontic treatment can prevent or reduce the likelihood of dental caries or of periodontal disease or dental trauma and temporomandibular disorders, but there is a modest association between the presence of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need and quality of life. However, little is known of the long-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. This study reports on the longitudinal follow-up of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes of orthodontic treatment among a cohort of adults who were examined as adolescents in 1988/1989. Children who were examined in 1988/1989 were invited to a follow-up in 2005/2006. Respondents completed a questionnaire, which collected information on quality of life, receipt of orthodontic treatment and psychosocial factors, and were invited for a clinical examination. Oral health conditions including occlusal status using the Dental Aesthetic Index were recorded. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between the measured factors. There was no statistically significant association between occlusal status at adolescence and quality of life at adulthood. Those individuals who had orthodontic treatment but did not need orthodontic treatment had higher self-esteem (23.1, SD 5.2) and were more satisfied with life (18.5, SD 3.7) than other treatment groups (self-esteem range, 20.0-22.7; life satisfaction range, 16.4-18.1), anovaP life, P life. Orthodontic treatment was negatively associated with psychosocial factors (life satisfaction; fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) β = -0.91, P = 0.02 and self-esteem; FOT β = -1.39, P life and psychosocial factors. Receipt of fixed orthodontic treatment does not appear to be associated with oral health-related quality of life but appears to be negatively associated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The psychosocial and behavioral characteristics related to energy misreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jaclyn; Taren, Douglas L; Teixeira, Pedro J; Thomson, Cynthia A; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B; Houtkooper, Linda B

    2006-02-01

    Energy underreporting occurs in 2% to 85% and overreporting in 1% to 39% of various populations. Efforts are needed to understand the psychosocial and behavioral characteristics associated with misreporting to help improve the accuracy of dietary self-reporting. Past research suggests that higher social desirability and greater eating restraint are key factors influencing misreporting, while a history of dieting and being overweight are more moderately associated. Eating disinhibition, body image, depression, anxiety, and fear of negative evaluation may be related to energy misreporting, but evidence is insufficient. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the published associations among psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and energy misreporting.

  17. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...... Checklist-90, Global Assessment of Functioning scales, and pain rated on visual analogue scales. The relations between treatment outcomes and the total score as well as subscores of the CTP Predictor Index were analysed. Results Overall, the total score of the CTP Predictor Index was significantly...

  18. The use of a patient-reported outcome questionnaire to assess cancer survivorship concerns and psychosocial outcomes among recent survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Steven C; Stricker, Carrie T; DeMichele, Angela M; Schapira, Marilyn; Glanz, Karen; Griggs, Jennifer J; Jacobs, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    Survivor distress is well represented in the literature, but less is known about survivors' concerns and how these relate to adaptation. Using a newly designed Survivorship Concern Scale, we examined concerns and their relationship to psychosocial adaptation among recent breast cancer (BC) survivors. One hundred forty-three stage 0-III BC survivors completed an online assessment including the Survivorship Concern Scale (0-3 scale; alpha = 0.91), unmet needs, quality of life (QoL), and anxiety and depressive symptoms within 1 year of end of treatment. Participants were predominately white (76%), middle-aged (51 years), married (70%), and college educated (79%). Eighty-two percent were stage I or II at diagnosis. Mean degree of survivorship concern was moderate (M = 1.75, SD = 0.70) though variable (range = 0.12-3.00). Survivorship concerns were not significantly related to disease, treatment, or demographic variables except income (p = 0.02). Degree of survivorship concern was significantly associated with all indices of psychosocial adaptation: unmet need (r = 0.50), physical and mental QoL (r = -0.32 and r = -0.32, respectively), depressive symptoms (r = 0.21), and anxiety symptoms (r = 0.51; all p psychosocial adaptation. Adequately addressing concerns may be a way to improve psychosocial outcomes early in the survivorship trajectory.

  19. Spiritual transcendence as a predictor of psychosocial outcome from an outpatient substance abuse program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmont, Ralph L

    2004-09-01

    Does the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS; R. L. Piedmont, 1999) predict psychosocial outcomes from an outpatient substance abuse program? Self-report data on symptoms, personality, and coping resources were obtained for 73 consecutive admissions (57 men and 16 women; ages 19-66 years) at intake and again from the 56 (47 men and 9 women) who completed treatment. Controlling for relevant demographic variables, pretreatment STS scores were significantly related to self-ratings at posttreatment. The STS predicted treatment outcomes over and above the contribution of the five-factor model of personality. Significant partial correlations between pretreatment STS scores and therapist ratings of treatment outcome were also obtained. Spiritual Transcendence, especially the facets of Universality and Connectedness, appears to play a significant role in substance abuse recovery. (c) 2004 APA

  20. Community health worker interventions to promote psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV-A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Ra Han

    Full Text Available Community health worker (CHW interventions are a successful strategy to promote health among HIV-negative and persons living with HIV (PLWH. Psychosocial factors are critical dimensions of HIV/AIDS care contributing to prognosis of the disease, yet it is unclear how CHW interventions improve psychosocial outcomes in PLWH. The purpose of this study was to critically appraise the types, scope, and nature of CHW interventions designed to address psychosocial outcomes in PLWH.We performed database searches-PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Cochrane-to identify randomized controlled trials published in English before April 2017. Fourteen articles met the eligibility criteria.Half of the studies were conducted in the United States. Social cognitive theory was used more than once in nine theory-guided studies. CHW interventions were largely focused on reducing depression (n = 6 or stigma related to HIV (n = 4, or promoting quality of life (n = 4, social support (n = 4, and self-efficacy (n = 4. Didactic methods and role-playing were used to train CHWs. CHWs played multiple roles in delivering intervention, including a counselor and a supporter (n = 10, educator (n = 5, or a navigator (n = 3. CHW intervention fidelity was assessed in 4 studies. Five studies found positive changes in six psychosocial outcomes including quality of life (2 of 4 and self-efficacy (2 of 4. CHW interventions had no effect on social support in 2 of 4 studies, and stigma in 3 of 4 studies. None of the CHW interventions were successful in reducing depressive symptoms among PLWH.Evidence partially supported the use of CHWs in promoting psychosocial outcomes in PLWH. Future CHW intervention should be expanded in scope to address key psychosocial determinants of HIV/AIDS outcomes such as health literacy. Further, fidelity measures should be incorporated into intervention delivery.

  1. Auditory verbal memory and psychosocial symptoms are related in children with idiopathic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Yael; Ben Zeev, Bruria; Cohen, Roni; Shuper, Avinoam; Geva, Ronny

    2015-07-01

    Idiopathic epilepsies are considered to have relatively good prognoses and normal or near normal developmental outcomes. Nevertheless, accumulating studies demonstrate memory and psychosocial deficits in this population, and the prevalence, severity and relationships between these domains are still not well defined. We aimed to assess memory, psychosocial function, and the relationships between these two domains among children with idiopathic epilepsy syndromes using an extended neuropsychological battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive abilities, neuropsychological performance, and socioemotional behavior of 33 early adolescent children, diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy, ages 9-14years, were assessed and compared with 27 age- and education-matched healthy controls. Compared to controls, patients with stabilized idiopathic epilepsy exhibited higher risks for short-term memory deficits (auditory verbal and visual) (pmemory deficits (plong-term memory deficits (pmemory deficits was related to severity of psychosocial symptoms among the children with epilepsy but not in the healthy controls. Results suggest that deficient auditory verbal memory may be compromising psychosocial functioning in children with idiopathic epilepsy, possibly underscoring that cognitive variables, such as auditory verbal memory, should be assessed and treated in this population to prevent secondary symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Main Outcome Measures Five different sexual end points were measured using...... duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. Conclusion In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free...... testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A, et al. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions...

  3. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  4. Impact of Psychosocial Risk on Outcomes among Families Seeking Treatment for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Chen, Fang Fang; Pinto, Alison Taggi; Cox, Courtney; Robbins, Jennifer; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-04-02

    To test the hypothesis that children with elevated psychosocial risk would have increased attrition and worse weight outcomes in weight management treatment. This was a prospective cohort study of 100 new patients, aged 4-12 years, in a weight management clinic. Parents completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds of attrition from the clinic and a nonmeaningful change in body mass index (BMI) z-score (ie, psychosocial risk category, adjusting for child demographics and baseline weight category. The majority of patients were male (59%), black (36%) or white (43%), and had severe obesity (55%), and 59% of families were categorized as having moderate or high psychosocial risk. Over the 6-month period, 53% of families were lost to follow-up, and 67% did not have a clinically meaningful decrease in BMI z-score. Compared with children of families with low psychosocial risk, children of families with moderate or high psychosocial risk were 3.1 times (95% CI, 1.3-7.2 times) more likely to be lost to follow-up and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-7.9 times) more likely to have a non-clinically meaningful change in BMI z-score. Children presenting with increased psychosocial risk have higher attrition and poorer weight outcomes, supporting the need for psychosocial screening as a standard component of pediatric weight management treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Skidmore Edwards

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed.

  6. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation predicts post-transplantation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Ariel A; Rowe, Mina; Eid, Ahmad; Bluth, Keren; Merhav, Hadar; Khalaileh, Abed; Safadi, Rifaat

    2018-08-01

    Psychosocial factors greatly impact the course of patients throughout the liver transplantation process. A retrospective chart review was performed of patients who underwent liver transplantation at Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012. A composite psychosocial score was computed based on the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. Patients were divided into two groups based on compliance, support and insight: Optimal psychosocial score and Non-optimal psychosocial score. Post-liver transplantation survival and complication rates were evaluated. Out of 100 patients who underwent liver transplantation at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center between 2002 and 2012, 93% had a complete pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluation in the medical record performed by professional psychologists and social workers. Post-liver transplantation survival was significantly higher in the Optimal group (85%) as compared to the Non-optimal group (56%, p = .002). Post-liver transplantation rate of renal failure was significantly lower in the Optimal group. No significant differences were observed between the groups in other post-transplant complications. A patient's psychosocial status may impact outcomes following transplantation as inferior psychosocial grades were associated with lower overall survival and increased rates of complications. Pre-liver transplant psychosocial evaluations are an important tool to help predict survival following transplantation.

  7. Burnout among pilots: psychosocial factors related to happiness and performance at simulator training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerouti, Evangelia; Veldhuis, Wouter; Coombes, Claire; Hunter, Rob

    2018-06-18

    In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting. Moreover, burnout was negatively related to pilots' happiness with life. These findings highlight the importance of psychosocial factors and health for valuable outcomes for both pilots and airlines. Practitioner Summary: Using an online survey among the members of a European pilots' professional association, we examined the relationship between psychosocial factors (work characteristics, burnout) and outcomes (simulator training performance, happiness). Forty per cent of the participating pilots experience high burnout. Job demands were detrimental, whereas job resources were favourable for simulator training performance/happiness. Twitter text: 40% of airline pilots experience burnout and psychosocial work factors and burnout relate to performance at pilots' simulator training.

  8. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J; Robertson, Mary M; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S

    2010-07-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence.

  9. Unemployment and psychosocial outcomes to age 30: A fixed-effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F; Horwood, L John

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between exposure to unemployment and psychosocial outcomes over the period from 16 to 30 years, using data from a well-studied birth cohort. Data were collected over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977, who have been studied to age 30. Assessments of unemployment and psychosocial outcomes (mental health, substance abuse/dependence, criminal offending, adverse life events and life satisfaction) were obtained at ages 18, 21, 25 and 30. Prior to adjustment, an increasing duration of unemployment was associated with significant increases in the risk of all psychosocial outcomes. These associations were adjusted for confounding using conditional, fixed-effects regression techniques. The analyses showed significant (p unemployment and major depression (p = 0.05), alcohol abuse/dependence (p = 0.043), illicit substance abuse/dependence (p = 0.017), property/violent offending (p unemployment. The findings suggested that the association between unemployment and psychosocial outcomes was likely to involve a causal process in which unemployment led to increased risks of adverse psychosocial outcomes. Effect sizes were estimated using attributable risk; exposure to unemployment accounted for between 4.2 and 14.0% (median 10.8%) of the risk of experiencing the significant psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to unemployment had small but pervasive effects on psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with change in pain and disability outcomes in chronic low back pain patients treated by physiotherapist: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhowimel, Ahmed; AlOtaibi, Mazyad; Radford, Kathryn; Coulson, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Almost 80% of people have low back pain at least once in their life. Clinical guidelines emphasize the use of conservative physiotherapy and the importance of staying active. While the psychological factors predicting poor recovery following surgical intervention are understood, the psychosocial factors associated with poor outcomes following physiotherapy have yet to be identified. Electronic searches of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EBSCO were conducted using terms relating to psychosocial factors, chronic low back pain, disability and physiotherapy. Papers examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and pain and disability outcomes following physiotherapy were included. Two reviewers selected, appraised and extracted studies independently. In total, 10 observational studies were identified that suggested an association between fear of movement, depression, self-efficacy and catastrophizing in modifying pain and disability outcomes following physiotherapy. Although limited by methodological shortcomings of included studies, and heterogeneity of physiotherapy interventions and measures of disability and psychosocial outcomes, the findings are consistent with other research in the context of back pain and physiotherapy, which suggest an association between psychosocial factors, including fear of movement, catastrophizing and self-efficacy and pain and disability outcomes in chronic low back pain patients treated by physiotherapist. However, a direct relationship cannot be concluded from this study. Findings suggest an association between psychosocial factors, including fear of movement, catastrophizing and self-efficacy and pain and disability outcomes in chronic low back pain patients treated by physiotherapist, which warrants further study.

  11. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  12. Psychosocial outcomes in a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected adolescents in Western Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Gilbert, Tracy; Kasimbie, Kazie; Reid, Gail; Williams, Shelly Ann

    2018-02-05

    Background Psychosocial factors interact with adolescent development and affect the ability of HIV-infected adolescents to cope with and adhere to treatment. Aim To evaluate psychosocial outcomes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVAs) in Western Jamaica after psychosocial intervention. Methods The Bright Futures Paediatric Symptom Checklist (BF-PSC) was used for psychological screening of PHIVAs in Western Jamaica. Referred patients were evaluated using the Youth version of the Columbia Impairment Scale (CIS). Demographic, laboratory and clinical data obtained between July 2014 and June 2016 were evaluated retrospectively and outcomes were reviewed before and after psychosocial intervention. Results Sixty PHIVAs were enrolled and 36 (60%) had a positive BF-PSC score that necessitated referral. The BF-PSC correctly identified 89% of patients with impaired psychosocial assessment by CIS scores. Referred patients were less likely to adhere to treatment, to be virologically suppressed or to have a CD4+ count of >500 cells/μl, and were more likely to be in the late teenage group or to be of orphan status. After intervention, the prevalence of viral suppression increased and median viral load decreased. A difference in mean CD4+ cell count was detected before but not after intervention in teenage and orphan groups. Conclusions The BF-PSC identified at-risk PHIVAs with impaired psychosocial functioning. Increased vulnerability was noted in orphans and older teenagers. Psychosocial interventions (including family therapy) reduced psychosocial impairment and improved virological suppression. Mental health intervention should be instituted to facilitate improved clinical outcomes, autonomy of care and transition to adult care.

  13. Psychosocial adaptation status and health-related quality of life among older Chinese adults with visual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2009-09-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial adaptation status with vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the role of psychosocial adaptation in the linkage between visual impairment and vision-specific HRQOL outcomes among older adults with visual disorders. In this cross-sectional study, older urban adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their self-reported visual function, general health, psychosocial adaptation status, and vision-specific HRQOL. Performance-based measure of visual function marked by distance visual acuity was clinically conducted by ophthalmologists. It was found in the study that psychosocial adaptation status was significantly associated with vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of mental health symptoms due to vision and dependency on others due to vision. The results also showed that psychosocial adaptation status could buffer the effect of visual impairment on vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of social function, mental health, and dependency. Psychosocial adaptation status is significantly associated with multiple domains of vision-specific HRQOL. The findings have significant implications for health education and psychosocial intervention for older adults with age-related vision loss.

  14. Nondepressive Psychosocial Factors and CKD Outcomes in Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunyera, Joseph; Davenport, Clemontina A; Bhavsar, Nrupen A; Sims, Mario; Scialla, Julia; Pendergast, Jane; Hall, Rasheeda; Tyson, Crystal C; Russell, Jennifer St Clair; Wang, Wei; Correa, Adolfo; Boulware, L Ebony; Diamantidis, Clarissa J

    2018-02-07

    Established risk factors for CKD do not fully account for risk of CKD in black Americans. We studied the association of nondepressive psychosocial factors with risk of CKD in the Jackson Heart Study. We used principal component analysis to identify underlying constructs from 12 psychosocial baseline variables (perceived daily, lifetime, and burden of lifetime discrimination; stress; anger in; anger out; hostility; pessimism; John Henryism; spirituality; perceived social status; and social support). Using multivariable models adjusted for demographics and comorbidity, we examined the association of psychosocial variables with baseline CKD prevalence, eGFR decline, and incident CKD during follow-up. Of 3390 (64%) Jackson Heart Study participants with the required data, 656 (19%) had prevalent CKD. Those with CKD (versus no CKD) had lower perceived daily (mean [SD] score =7.6 [8.5] versus 9.7 [9.0]) and lifetime discrimination (2.5 [2.0] versus 3.1 [2.2]), lower perceived stress (4.2 [4.0] versus 5.2 [4.4]), higher hostility (12.1 [5.2] versus 11.5 [4.8]), higher John Henryism (30.0 [4.8] versus 29.7 [4.4]), and higher pessimism (2.3 [2.2] versus 2.0 [2.1]; all P psychosocial variables: factor 1, life stressors (perceived discrimination, stress); factor 2, moods (anger, hostility); and, factor 3, coping strategies (John Henryism, spirituality, social status, social support). After adjustments, factor 1 (life stressors) was negatively associated with prevalent CKD at baseline among women only: odds ratio, 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.65 to 0.89). After a median follow-up of 8 years, identified psychosocial factors were not significantly associated with eGFR decline (life stressors: β =0.08; 95% confidence interval, -0.02 to 0.17; moods: β =0.03; 95% confidence interval, -0.06 to 0.13; coping: β =-0.02; 95% confidence interval, -0.12 to 0.08) or incident CKD (life stressors: odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 1.29; moods: odds ratio, 1.02; 95

  15. Preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 and 5 years after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylde, Vikki; Trela-Larsen, Lea; Whitehouse, Michael R; Blom, Ashley W

    2017-10-01

    Background and purpose - Psychosocial factors are important risk factors for poor outcomes in the first year after total knee replacement (TKR), however their impact on long-term outcomes is unclear. We aimed to identify preoperative psychosocial risk factors for poor outcomes at 1 year and 5 years after TKR. Patients and methods - 266 patients were recruited prior to TKR surgery. Knee pain and function were assessed preoperatively and at 1 and 5 years postoperative using the WOMAC Pain score, WOMAC Function score and American Knee Society Score (AKSS) Knee score. Preoperative depression, anxiety, catastrophizing, pain self-efficacy and social support were assessed. Statistical analyses involved multiple linear regression and mixed effect linear regression. Results - Higher anxiety was a risk factor for worse pain at 1 year postoperative. No psychosocial factors were associated with any outcomes at 5 years postoperative. Analysis of change over time found that patients with higher pain self-efficacy had lower preoperative pain and experienced less improvement in pain up to 1 year postoperative. Higher pain self-efficacy was associated with less improvement in the AKSS up to 1 year postoperative but more improvement between 1 and 5 years postoperative. Interpretation - Preoperative anxiety was found to influence pain at 1 year after TKR. However, none of the psychosocial variables were risk factors for a poor outcome at 5 years post-operative, suggesting that the negative effects of anxiety on outcome do not persist in the longer-term.

  16. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes--design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Obel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the r......A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated...... with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age....

  17. Do psychosocial interventions improve rehabilitation outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A; Bird, Mackenzie L; Van Hoy, Erin E; Huston, Laura J; Spindler, Kurt P; Archer, Kristin R

    2018-03-01

    To examine the role of psychosocial interventions in improving patient-reported clinical outcomes, including return to sport/activity, and intermediary psychosocial factors after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Web of Science were searched from each database's inception to March 2017 for published studies in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Studies were included if they reported on the effects of a postoperative psychosocial intervention on a patient-reported clinical measure of disability, function, pain, quality of life, return to sport/activity, or intermediary psychosocial factor. Data were extracted using a standardized form and summary effects from each article were compiled. The methodological quality of randomized trials was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale and scores greater than 5/10 were considered high quality. A total of 893 articles were identified from the literature search. Of these, four randomized trials ( N = 210) met inclusion criteria. The four articles examined guided imagery and relaxation, coping modeling, and visual imagery as postoperative psychosocial interventions. Methodological quality scores of the studies ranged from 5 to 9. There were inconsistent findings for the additive benefit of psychosocial interventions for improving postoperative function, pain, or self-efficacy and limited evidence for improving postoperative quality of life, anxiety, or fear of reinjury. No study examined the effects of psychosocial interventions on return to sport/activity. Overall, there is limited evidence on the efficacy of postoperative psychosocial interventions for improving functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

  18. Comparative effects of meditation and exercise on physical and psychosocial health outcomes: a review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-03-01

    No review papers have examined studies that have directly compared non-active forms of meditation with exercise to evaluate effects on physical or psychosocial outcomes, which was the purpose of this paper. Studies were included if they had a randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, included a non-active form of meditation and exercise as intervention arms, and evaluated physical or psychosocial outcomes. The quality of included RCTs was rated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. Five RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The total sample size across all studies was N = 325. Of the main outcomes assessed across the five studies, meditation was shown to be more effective than the exercise comparison arm when evaluating the psychosocial outcomes of anxiety, altruism, and life changes. Additionally, meditation was more effective at reducing chronic neck pain at rest and pain-related bothersomeness. Exercise, however, was more effective in improving physical health-related quality of life, HDL and LDL cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose levels. The interventions were found to be comparable when evaluating the outcomes of well-being, ethanol consumption, and perceived stress levels. Four of the evaluated studies were determined to have an overall 'unclear' risk of bias and one study was found to have a 'high' risk of bias. Exercise and non-active meditation may uniquely influence various health-related outcomes. A continued exploration of the effects of exercise and non-active meditation in controlled trials may yield a better understanding of their benefits.

  19. School Disorder, School Connectedness, and Psychosocial Outcomes: Moderation by a Supportive Figure in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Hussain, Saida; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined whether students' perceptions of school disorder influenced their psychosocial outcomes directly and indirectly via connectedness to school. The current study also explored moderation by the presence of a supportive figure in the school and investigated gender differences. Participants were 28,104 high school students.…

  20. Survivors of septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, Lindy C.; Buysse, Corinne M.; Joosten, Koen F.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate long-term psychosocial outcomes in young adults who survived septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal septic shock) during childhood. A cross-sectional study. The psychological investigation took place in the department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the

  1. Survivors of septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis in childhood : Psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, Lindy C.; Buysse, Corinne M.; Joosten, Koen F.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Hazelzet, Jan A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M.

    Objective: To investigate long-term psychosocial outcomes in young adults who survived septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal septic shock) during childhood. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: The psychological investigation took place in the department of Child and

  2. Nonorganic Failure to Thrive: Developmental Outcomes and Psychosocial Assessment and Intervention Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffer, Robert W.; Kelley, Mary L.

    1994-01-01

    This review describes Nonorganic Failure to Thrive, presents developmental outcomes, and discusses psychosocial assessment and intervention issues relevant to this developmental disability of early childhood, focusing on child-specific variables, situational and family variables, parent-child interaction variables, and biopsychosocial formulation…

  3. Parent Perceptions of Psychosocial Outcomes of Equine-Assisted Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vanessa Xue-Ling; Simmonds, Janette Graetz

    2018-01-01

    This research explored parents' perceptions of the psychosocial outcomes of their children's experience of receiving equine-assisted interventions (EAI). Participants were the parents of six children (aged 3-14) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted and the transcript data was analysed using…

  4. Psychosocial Outcomes of Adult Children of Mothers with Depression and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowbray, Carol T.; Mowbray, Orion P.

    2006-01-01

    Research has established that children of parents with mental illness, compared with normative samples, are more likely to have emotional/behavioral problems or psychiatric diagnoses themselves. Few studies have examined these children at adulthood, however, to document their diverse psychosocial outcomes and the parenting and contextual variables…

  5. Psychosocial outcomes in adult men born with hypospadias: A register-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Skarin Nordenvall

    Full Text Available In this nationwide matched cohort study, we have investigated whether being born with hypospadias affect subsequent psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. We analyzed prospectively collected data from national Swedish registers. Data on the diagnoses were collected from the National Patient Register and the Medical Birth Register. Data on psychosocial outcomes such as educational and income level, marital status and disability pension were collected from Statistics Sweden. The effects of covariates, such as age, county of birth, presence of other malformations and psychiatric illness, were taken into account. The associations between hypospadias and psychosocial outcomes were calculated using conditional logistic regression and expressed as odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We included 4378 men diagnosed with hypospadias, born between 1969 and 1993 in Sweden. Patients with hypospadias were matched with unaffected men by year of birth and birth county. We did not detect any differences in educational or income level. The probability of entering marriage (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.90-1.14 did not differ, regardless of phenotype. We did, however, detect a 40% increased probability of receiving a disability pension, (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20-1.61. In conclusion, men born with hypospadias in Sweden do not differ from unaffected men with respect to the majority of psychosocial outcomes studied. They are, however, at increased risk of receiving a disability pension, which motivates further investigations.

  6. Conduct Disorder and Psychosocial Outcomes at Age 30: Early Adult Psychopathology as a Potential Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M.; Seeley, John R.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with a number of adverse psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. There is consistent evidence that CD is predictive of antisocial behavior, but mixed evidence that CD is predictive of other externalizing and internalizing disorders. Further, externalizing and internalizing disorders are often associated with similar…

  7. Psychosocial predictors of treatment outcome for trauma-affected refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Charlotte; Carlsson, Jessica; Bech, Per

    2016-01-01

    at the Competence Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry (CTP), Denmark. The CTP Predictor Index used in the study included 15 different possible outcome predictors concerning the patients' past, chronicity of mental health problems, pain, treatment motivation, prerequisites for engaging in psychotherapy, and social...... situation. The primary outcome measure was PTSD symptoms measured on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Other outcome measures included the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25, the WHO-5 Well-being Index, Sheehan Disability Scale, Hamilton Depression and Anxiety Scales, the somatisation scale of the Symptoms...

  8. Psychosocial outcomes and interventions among cancer survivors diagnosed during adolescence and young adulthood (AYA): a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Marie; McDonnell, Glynnis; DeRosa, Antonio; Schuler, Tammy; Philip, Errol; Peterson, Lisa; Touza, Kaitlin; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Ford, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A cancer diagnosis during adolescence or young adulthood (AYA; defined as ages 15–39) generates unique medical and psychosocial needs as developmental milestones are simultaneously impacted. Past research highlights that AYAs’ experiences and psychosocial outcomes are different, and more research and attention is needed. We aimed to identify and synthesize literature regarding psychosocial outcomes, unique needs, and existing psychosocial interventions pertaining to individuals diagnosed with cancer exclusively during AYA, and to highlight areas for future research. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsycINFO (via OVID). Grey literature was searched using key term variations and combinations. Overall, 15,301 records were assessed by two independent reviewers, with 38 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Results Data synthesis of the 38 articles was organized by four main themes based on quality of life and survivorship: physical well-being (7 studies), psychological well-being (8 studies), social well-being (9 studies), and survivorship care (14 studies). The paucity of studies for such broad inclusion criteria highlights that this population is often combined or subsumed under other age groups, missing needs unique to these AYAs. Conclusions AYA cancer survivors’ experiences are nuanced, with interacting variables contributing to post-treatment outcomes. AYAs require age-appropriate and flexible care, informational needs and treatment-related education that foster autonomy for long-term survivorship, as well as improved follow-up care and psychological outcomes. Implications for Cancer Survivors By incorporating these findings into practice, the informational and unmet needs of AYAs can be addressed effectively. Education and programming is lacking specific and general subject matter specific to AYAs, incorporating ranging needs at different treatment stages. PMID

  9. Adult psychosocial outcome of prepubertal major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, B; Zimerman, B; Williams, M; Bolhofner, K; Craney, J L

    2001-06-01

    To compare adult psychosocial functioning (PSF) of subjects with prepubertal major depressive disorder (PMDD) to a normal comparison (NC) group. PSF of subjects with PMDD (n = 72) and of NC subjects (n = 28) was compared after prospective follow-up to adulthood. These 100 subjects were 90.9% of the baseline 110 subjects who participated in the "Nortriptyline in Childhood Depression: Follow-up Study." Research nurses who were blind to group status conducted telephone interviews using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE) to obtain PSF data. At follow-up, the PMDD group was 20.7+/-2.0 and the NC subjects were 20.9+/-2.2 years old. The PMDD subjects were 10.3+/-1.5 years old at baseline. Time between baseline and follow-up was 9.9+/-1.5 years. In the PMDD group, subjects with MDD, bipolar disorder, or substance use disorders during the previous 5 years had significantly worse PSF than NC subjects. These PSF impairments included significantly worse relationships with parents, siblings, and friends; significantly worse functioning in household, school, and work settings; and worse overall quality of life and global social adjustment. Although combined treatments for PMDD have little scientific basis, multimodality regimens seem prudent until definitive treatment data become available.

  10. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup; Andersen, Stig Krøger; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke

    2015-02-28

    The aims of antenatal education are broad and encompass outcomes related to pregnancy, birth, and parenthood. Both form and content of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. Bibliographic databases (Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO) were searched. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials irrespective of language, publication year, publication type, and publication status. Only trials carried out in the Western world were considered in this review. Studies were assessed for bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results are presented as structured summaries of the included trials and as forest plots. We identified 5,708 records. Of these, 17 studies met inclusion criteria. Studies varied greatly in content of the experimental and control condition. All outcomes were only reported in a single or a few trials, leading to limited or uncertain confidence in effect estimates. Given the heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes and also the high risk of bias of studies, we are unable to draw definitive conclusions as to the impact of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well-conducted randomized controlled trials with a low risk of bias. PROSPERO CRD42013004319.

  11. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.

  12. Relational aggression and adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jessica Roberts; Fredland, Nina; Han, Hae-Ra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Kub, Joan E

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relational aggression and its relationship with adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban, African American youth. Quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. The sample consisted of 185 predominantly African American (95.1%) seventh-grade students (mean age: 13.0; female: 58%) attending 4 urban middle schools. The Children's Social Behavior Scale and Social Experience Questionnaire were used to measure relational aggression and relational victimization. The Pediatric Symptom Checklist was used to assess psychosocial difficulties, including internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and attention problems. Physical health symptoms were measured with questions about colds/flu, headaches, and stomach aches. 2-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences in externalizing behavior, with perpetrators reporting higher levels than nonperpetrators. Victims reported more internalizing behavior than nonvictims; however, this was only significant for males. For females, significant negative effects on health outcomes were found, resulting from the interaction of perpetration and victimization. Findings suggest that relational aggression is a common occurrence among urban, minority adolescents and may result in adverse health outcomes. These results provide several avenues for future research and implications for healthcare practice. Intervention strategies are needed to prevent relational aggression and continual or subsequent adverse health symptoms.

  13. Psychosocial and Health Behavior Outcomes of Young Adults with Asthma or Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-04-30

    Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.

  14. Psychosocial consequences of leprosy and the related deformity in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qazi Azad-uz-zaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the psychosocial condition and consequences of the people affected by leprosy and the related deformity in some selected areas of Bangladesh. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from July to December 2015 among 92 leprosy-affected people. A pretested semi-structure questionnaire was used for collecting data by face to face interview from both the low prevalent areas of Khulna and the high prevalent area of Rangpur Division in Bangladesh. Results: Nearly two-fifth of respondents were observed having deformity. Among them, around four-fifth was from Khulna region, about half were above 50 years of age and more than half had monthly family income lower than 5 000 BDT. The development of deformity is found having highly significant association with region (P < 0.001, residence (P < 0.004, and family income (P < 0.004. Differences in consequences between ‘with deformity’ and ‘without deformity’ were found very high. About 65% of the respondents with deformity ‘think less’ of himself, and nearly 60% felt ashamed or embarrassed, 53% had to change job, and 47% was used to think having less respect in the society where the percentage was much lower in all cases to ‘without deformity’ group. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and start multidrug therapy at the earliest stages have chanced to reduce the leprosy-resulted deformity, disfigurement and disability. For those who already have had some nerve damages, health education is highly important to prevent further injury and hence psychosocial consequences.

  15. Racial and ethnic disparities in functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Kreutzer, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    Because of the growing minority population in the past 3 decades in the United States and the increasing numbers of individuals who sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI), researchers and clinicians have started to pay more attention to the role of race and ethnicity in outcomes after TBI, with the goal of better serving this population. The aim of this article is to review the literature on the influence of race/ethnicity on functional, psychosocial, and neurobehavioral outcomes after TBI. Specifically, the following 8 areas of outcomes will be examined: (1) treatment outcomes, (2) neuropsychological outcomes, (3) employment/productivity, (4) functional outcomes, (5) community integration, (6) marital status, (7) quality of life/life satisfaction, and (8) emotional/neurobehavioral outcomes. To conclude this review, suggestions for improvements in professional competency, research, systems of care, and training are proposed.

  16. Psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life in a UK population with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Gavin; Orford, Amy; Staines, Roy; McGee, Anna; Smith, Kimberley J

    2017-01-12

    To determine whether psychosocial well-being is associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with Usher syndrome. The survey was advertised online and through deafblind-related charities, support groups and social groups throughout the UK. 90 people with Usher syndrome took part in the survey. Inclusion criteria are having a diagnosis of Usher syndrome, being 18 or older and being a UK resident. All participants took part in a survey that measured depressive symptoms, loneliness and social support (predictors) and their physical and mental HRQOL (outcomes). Measured confounders included age-related, sex-related and health-related characteristics. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses examined the association of each psychosocial well-being predictor with the physical and mental HRQOL outcomes while controlling for confounders in a stepwise manner. After adjusting for all confounders, psychosocial well-being was shown to predict physical and mental HRQOL in our population with Usher syndrome. Increasing depressive symptoms were predictive of poorer physical (β=-0.36, pUsher syndrome. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that psychosocial well-being is an important factor to consider in people with Usher syndrome alongside functional and physical impairment within research and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Psychosocial job strain and risk of adverse birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small....../large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and second, if social support affected any associations. DESIGN: Study population was 48 890 pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Multinomial logistic regression estimated ORs. Covariates included: maternal age, BMI, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol and coffee...... consumption, manual work, serious maternal disease, parental height and gestational age at interview. In accordance with Good Epidemiological Practice, a protocol outlined the study design before analyses were initiated. RESULTS: High job strain was associated with significantly lower odds of being born LGA...

  18. Intergenerational Transmission of Familial Boundary Dissolution: Observations and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Egeland, Byron

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the transmission of boundary dissolution (BD) in parent-child relationships from parental behaviors observed in early childhood to adolescent behaviors observed at age 13 and relations to adolescent psychosocial adaptation. The goals of the study are (a) to examine the developmental relation of early childhood BD to several…

  19. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate...

  20. Neighborhood Conditions and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Middle-Aged African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Maya; Sanders, Erin A; Schootman, Mario; Chang, Jen Jen; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, Douglas K

    2017-04-01

    We examined associations between observed neighborhood conditions (good/adverse) and psychosocial outcomes (stress, depressive symptoms, resilience, and sense of control) among middle-aged and older African Americans. The sample included 455 middle-aged and older African Americans examined in Wave 10 of the African American Health (AAH) study. Linear regression was adjusted for attrition, self-selection into neighborhoods, and potential confounders, and stratified by the duration at current address (stress (standardized β = -0.18; P = .002) and depressive symptoms (standardized β = -0.12; P = .048). Among those who lived at their current address for stress (standardized β = 0.18; P = .305) or depressive symptoms (standardized β = 0.36; P = .080). Neighborhood conditions appear to have significant, complex associations with psychosocial factors among middle-aged and older African Americans. This holds important policy implications, especially since adverse neighborhood conditions may still result in adverse physical health outcomes in individuals with >5 years at current residence despite being associated with better psychosocial outcomes.

  1. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  2. A Systematic Review of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Psychosocial Outcomes in People with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maber-Aleksandrowicz, Sarah; Avent, Cerian; Hassiotis, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review the literature on animal assisted therapy (AAT) in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) measuring psychosocial outcomes (behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional). Quantitative studies were found through a systematic search that identified studies using AAT in people with ID and measuring psychosocial outcomes (behavioural, cognitive, emotional and social). The quality of studies was assessed using a standardised tool and rated as strong, moderate or weak. Only published articles from peer-reviewed journals were included. No language or age restrictions were applied. Over half of the included studies were identified outside standard database searches (e.g. hand searching reference lists from included articles, references from AAT websites and using Google Scholar and a Grey Literature Database). Ten studies were included in the final review; two were rated as moderate quality and eight were rated as weak quality. Overall there was a positive improvement reported from studies for all psychosocial outcomes (with some cognitive, behavioural, social, emotional components reaching statistical significance p ≤ 0.01). Despite having no age restrictions, the included studies had participants that were mainly children and adolescents, in particular favouring male participants, which may limit generalisation. More rigorous methodology is required to improve the quality of future studies including in the main multicentre randomised designs and improved reporting according to CONSORT criteria. Further research should expand to include adults with ID and specific disorders such as challenging behaviour or mental illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Insight, self-stigma and psychosocial outcomes in Schizophrenia: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y-J; Chang, H-A; Kao, Y-C; Tzeng, N-S; Lu, C-W; Loh, C-H

    2018-04-01

    Poor insight is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with acute illness severity, medication non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes. Paradoxically, high insight has been associated with various undesirable outcomes, including low self-esteem, depression and low subjective quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the growing body of studies conducted in Western countries supporting the pernicious effects of improved insight in psychosis, which bases on the level of self-stigma, the effects are unclear in non-Western societies. The current study examined the role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight and psychosocial outcomes in a Chinese population. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from two general university hospitals. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were recorded and self-report scales were employed to measure self-stigma, depression, insight, self-esteem and subjective QoL. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the cross-sectional data. High levels of self-stigma were reported by 39% of the participants (n = 67). The influences of insight, self-stigma, self-esteem and depression on subjective QoL were confirmed by the SEM results. Our model with the closest fit to the data (χ 2 = 33.28; df = 20; p = 0.03; χ 2/df = 1.66; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.06) demonstrated that self-stigma might fully mediate the association of insight with low self-esteem, depression and poor subjective QoL. High insight into illness contributed to self-stigma, which caused low self-esteem and depression and, consequently, low QoL. Notably, insight did not directly affect self-esteem, depression or QoL. Furthermore, the association of insight with poor psychosocial outcomes was not moderated by self-stigma. Our findings support the mediating model of insight relevant to the poor psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with

  4. The relationship of undernutrition/psychosocial factors and developmental outcomes of children in extreme poverty in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Berhanu Nigussie; Abessa, Teklu Gemechu; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Vanvuchelen, Marleen; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Kolsteren, Patrick; Granitzer, Marita

    2018-02-09

    , limited child-to-child interactions and mother-child relationships were negatively related mainly to gross motor and language performances of children in extreme poverty. Undernutrition and psychosocial factors were negatively related to the developmental outcomes, independently, of children living in extreme poverty. Intervention, for these children, should integrate home-based play-assisted developmental stimulation and nutritional rehabilitation.

  5. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  6. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  7. Differences on psychosocial outcomes between male and female caregivers of children with life-limiting illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Steele, Rose; Cadell, Susan; Hemsworth, David

    2011-06-01

    This secondary analysis of data examined the psychosocial outcomes of meaning in caregiving, self-esteem, optimism, burden, depression, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth in 273 parents caring for children with life-limiting illnesses to (a) determine if there were gender differences and (b) identify gender-specific correlations among these outcomes. Findings suggest that significant gender differences exist. Women reported higher average scores compared with men for meaning in caregiving, depression, burden, and posttraumatic growth and lower average scores for optimism. Correlations also revealed some significant differences. Health care professionals need to be aware of gender differences and tailor their interventions appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks related to occupational safety and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milczarek, M.; Brun, E.; Houtman, I.; Goudswaard, A.; Evers, M.; Bovenkamp, M. van de; Roskams, N.; Op de Beeck, R.; Pahkin, K.; Berthet, M.; Morvan, E.; Kuhn, K.; Kaluza, K.; Hupke, M.; Hauke, A.; Reinert, D.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Perez, J.; Oncins de Frutos, M.

    2007-01-01

    This report is in cooperation with TNO Work and Employment and the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. The expert forecast on emerging psychosocial risks was carried out by means of the Delphi method. The main emerging psychosocial risks revealed were related to new forms of employment

  9. Dyadic interdependence of psychosocial outcomes among haematological cancer survivors and their support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Hall, Alix; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Lynagh, Marita; Campbell, Sharon; Bradstock, Ken; Williamson, Anna; Carey, Mariko; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the dyadic relationships between unmet need, depression, and anxiety in people diagnosed with haematological cancer and their support persons. Adult survivors (18 years+) who had been diagnosed with a haematological cancer were recruited to a cross-sectional mailed survey via five state cancer registries in Australia. Participating survivors invited a support person to also complete a survey. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the relationships among survivor and support person self-reported depression, anxiety, and unmet needs. Of the 4299 eligible haematological cancer survivors contacted by the registries, 1511 (35%) returned a completed survey as did 1004 support persons. There were 787 dyads with complete data. After adjusting for age, gender, rurality, cancer type, and whether the support person was a relative, positive correlations were found between survivor and support person scores for depression (p = 0.0029) and unmet needs (p < 0.001), but not anxiety scores (p = 0.075). Survivor unmet needs were significantly related to support person depression (p = 0.0036). Support person unmet needs were significantly related to a higher depression score for survivors (p = 0.0067). Greater support person unmet needs were significantly related to a higher anxiety score for survivors (p = 0.0083). Survivor unmet needs did not have a significant relationship to support person anxiety (p = 0.78). Unmet needs may mediate the interdependence of psychosocial experiences for survivors and support persons, although a longitudinal study is required to confirm causality. Addressing unmet needs may be a potential target for improving outcomes for both groups.

  10. Community-Based Psychosocial Treatment Has an Impact on Social Processing and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Varga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients have serious impairments in social cognition, which often persists after significant reduction in clinical symptoms. Community-based psychosocial treatments aim to recover social functioning for mentally ill individuals. Our aim was to examine prospective changes in social cognition and functional outcomes in two groups of schizophrenic patients involved in two forms of community-based psychosocial treatments namely case management (CM and community-based club (CC compared to a matched, treatment as usual (TAU group of patients. We hypothesized that CC and CM groups would exhibit better functional and social cognitive outcomes after a 6-month long psychosocial treatment period. Seventy-five patients participated either in CC, CM or TAU. Both CC and CM took part in community-based psychosocial treatment programs including trainings, such as communication and assertiveness trainings. In addition, CC provided group therapeutic treatments and a continuously available day care where patients had the possibility to participate in various social interactions. All participants were in remission, and on maintenance antipsychotic treatment. Participants were assessed on all study variables at two time points: baseline and after 6 months with a battery of questionnaires that examined affective face perception, affective prosody perception, pragmatic language comprehension and ToM. Our results showed that functional outcomes improved significantly in the CC as well as in the CM groups, in contrast to the TAU group. While analyzing summary scores of social cognition, it was found that only the CC group increased its performance in social cognition. In addition, a significant between-group difference in social cognitive function was found after 6 months between the three groups, with the CC group performing best. When investigating associations between changes in social cognition and changes in functional outcomes during a 6-month long

  11. Cluster subgroups based on overall pressure pain sensitivity and psychosocial factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Differences in clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Suzana C; George, Steven Z; Leite, Raquel D V; Oliveira, Anamaria S; Chaves, Thais C

    2018-05-17

    We aimed to empirically derive psychosocial and pain sensitivity subgroups using cluster analysis within a sample of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and to investigate derived subgroups for differences in pain and disability outcomes. Eighty female participants with CMP answered psychosocial and disability scales and were assessed for pressure pain sensitivity. A cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between subgroups. Psychosocial factors (kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression) and overall pressure pain threshold (PPT) were entered into the cluster analysis. Three subgroups were empirically derived: cluster 1 (high pain sensitivity and high psychosocial distress; n = 12) characterized by low overall PPT and high psychosocial scores; cluster 2 (high pain sensitivity and intermediate psychosocial distress; n = 39) characterized by low overall PPT and intermediate psychosocial scores; and cluster 3 (low pain sensitivity and low psychosocial distress; n = 29) characterized by high overall PPT and low psychosocial scores compared to the other subgroups. Cluster 1 showed higher values for mean pain intensity (F (2,77)  = 10.58, p cluster 3, and cluster 1 showed higher values for disability (F (2,77)  = 3.81, p = 0.03) compared with both clusters 2 and 3. Only cluster 1 was distinct from cluster 3 according to both pain and disability outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety were the psychosocial variables that best differentiated the subgroups. Overall, these results call attention to the importance of considering pain sensitivity and psychosocial variables to obtain a more comprehensive characterization of CMP patients' subtypes.

  12. Motivation, treatment engagement and psychosocial outcomes in outpatients with severe mental illness: a test of Self-Determination Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochems, Eline C; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van Dam, Arno; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2017-09-01

    Currently, it is unclear whether Self-Determination Theory (SDT) applies to the mental health care of patients with severe mental illness (SMI). Therefore, the current study tested the process model of SDT in a sample of outpatients with SMI. Participants were 294 adult outpatients with a primary diagnosis of a psychotic disorder or a personality disorder and their clinicians (n = 57). Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesized relationships between autonomy support, perceived competence, types of motivation, treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life at two time points and across the two diagnostic groups. The expected relations among the SDT variables were found, but additional direct paths between perceived competence and clinical outcomes were needed to obtain good model fit. The obtained process model was found to be stable across time and different diagnostic patient groups, and was able to explain 18% to 36% of variance in treatment engagement, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. It is concluded that SDT can be a useful basis for interventions in the mental health care for outpatients with SMI. Additional experimental research is needed to confirm the causality of the relations between the SDT constructs and their ability to influence treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male cou...

  14. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms

  15. Which Psychosocial Factors Are Related to Drinking among Rural Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jennifer A.; Botvin, Gilbert J.; Spoth, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of psychosocial factors with alcohol use for adolescents residing in rural Iowa. This association was also tested separately for boys and girls. Seventh graders (N = 1673) self-reported alcohol use, peer drinking norms, adult drinking norms, drug refusal assertiveness, drug refusal techniques, life skills,…

  16. Directional preference and functional outcomes among subjects classified at high psychosocial risk using STarT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneke, Mark W; Edmond, Susan; Young, Michelle; Grigsby, David; McClenahan, Brian; McGill, Troy

    2018-03-14

    Physiotherapy has an important role in managing patients with non-specific low back pain who experience elevated psychosocial distress or risk for chronic disability. In terms of evidence-based physiotherapy practice, cognitive-behavioural approaches for patients at high psychosocial risk are the recommended management to improve patient treatment outcomes. Evidence also suggests that directional preference (DP) is an important treatment effect modifier for prescribing specific exercises for patients to improve outcomes. Little is known about the influence of treatment techniques based on DP on outcomes for patients classified as high psychosocial risk using the Subgroups for Targeted Treatment (STarT) Back Screening Tool. This study aimed to examine the association between functional status (FS) at rehabilitation discharge for patients experiencing low back pain classified at high STarT psychosocial risk and whose symptoms showed a DP versus No-DP. High STarT risk patients (n = 138) completed intake surveys, that is, the lumbar FS of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., and STarT, and were evaluated for DP by physiotherapists credentialed in McKenzie methods. The FS measure of Focus On Therapeutic Outcomes, Inc., was repeated at discharge. DP and No-DP prevalence rates were calculated. Associations between first-visit DP and No-DP and change in FS were assessed using univariate and multivariate regression models controlling for 11 risk-adjusted variables. One hundred nine patients classified as high STarT risk had complete intake and discharge FS and DP data. Prevalence rate for DP was 65.1%. A significant and clinically important difference (7.98 FS points; p = .03) in change in function at discharge between DP and No-DP was observed after controlling for all confounding variables in the final model. Findings suggest that interventions matched to DP are effective for managing high psychological risk patients and may provide physiotherapists with an

  17. A randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of a STOMA psychosocial intervention programme on the outcomes of colorectal patients with a stoma: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Siew Hoon; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Lai, Jiunn Herng; He, Hong-Gu

    2015-06-01

    To report a study protocol that evaluates the effects of a psychosocial intervention on patients with a newly formed stoma. With the loss of a significant body function and distorted body image, stoma patients experience physical, psychological and social challenges. Nurses have an important role in helping patients' make a smooth transition to living with their stoma. Limited studies have examined the effects of psychosocial interventions on improving stoma-related health outcomes. A randomized controlled trial is planned. Eighty-four patients with newly formed stoma in a tertiary hospital in Singapore (Research Ethics Committee approval obtained in January 2013) will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to either a control group who receive routine care or an intervention group who receive STOMA psychosocial intervention besides routine care. Outcome variables include stoma care self-efficacy, days to stoma proficiency, length of hospital stay, acceptance of stoma, anxiety and depression and quality of life. Data will be collected at four time points: before randomization and intervention (baseline), on the day of discharge (mid-intervention), at 4 weeks after discharge (postintervention 1) and at 4 months after discharge (postintervention 2). This study will develop a psychosocial intervention programme, which may improve patients' stoma-related outcomes. The findings will provide direction to health professionals about education and the type of support that could be offered to patients concerning stoma care in the hospital setting, which will eventually improve their quality of life. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Family strain and its relation to psychosocial dysfunction in children and adolescents after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaller, T; Petersen, I; Petermann, F; Fischer, L; Grabhorn, E; Schulz, K-H

    2014-12-01

    Parental functioning is essential to children's development. Therefore, this cross-sectional single-center study examined the prevalence of family strain in 181 parents and its associations to psychosocial functioning in their children after LT. Median age at LT was one yr. Mean time elapsed since LT was 5.8 yr. The IFS, and the SDQ were applied to parents. Family strain in the present sample was comparable to that in the German normative group of families with a chronically ill or disabled child, but families of LT recipients showed a significantly higher financial impact, impact on coping, and impact on siblings (p family strain (R(2)  = 0.42). Parents reported less family strain after living-related compared with deceased donation. Family strain was significantly correlated to psychosocial dysfunction in children post-LT. Present findings demonstrate a risk of maladjustment to the post-LT condition in families. They emphasize the importance of psychological assessment of parents and patients during transplant and follow-up to ensure the best achievable long-term outcome of patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychosocial Stress During First Pregnancy Predicts Infant Health Outcomes in the First Postnatal Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, A L; DiBenedetto, M R; Paul, I M; Zhu, J; Kjerulff, K H

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychosocial stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first postnatal year. A sample of 3000 women completed a stress inventory (the Psychosocial Hassles Scale) during their third trimester before first childbirth. Infant health outcomes were measured via maternal report at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. Poisson regression was used to model the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on infant health outcomes in the first year, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, insurance coverage, marital status, and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Women who were younger, minority, unmarried, publicly insured and without a college degree were more likely to report high levels of prenatal stress. High prenatal stress was a significant predictor of maternal reporting of gastrointestinal illness (p stress was also a significant predictor of urgent care visits (p stress is associated with increased maternal reporting of infant illness, as well as increased frequency of both urgent care visits and emergency department visits.

  20. Facial Identity and Self-Perception: An Examination of Psychosocial Outcomes in Cosmetic Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Benjamin; Beer, Jacob

    2017-06-01

    The psychosocial health of patients undergoing cosmetic procedures has often been linked to a host of pre-existing conditions, including the type of procedure being performed. Age, gender, and the psychological state of the patients also contribute to the perceived outcome. Specifically, the presence or absence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) has been identified as an independent marker for unhappiness following cosmetic procedures.1 However, no study has, to our knowledge, identified a more precise indicator that is associated with higher rates of patient dissatisfaction from cosmetic procedure. This review identifies facial identity and self-perception as potential identifiers of future patient dissatisfaction with cosmetic procedures. Specifically, we believe that patients with a realistic facial identity and self-perception are more likely to be satisfied than those whose self-perceptions are distorted. Patients undergoing restorative procedures, including blepharoplasty, rhytidectomy, and liposuction, are more likely to have an increased outcome favorability rating than those undergoing type change procedures, such as rhinoplasty and breast augmentation. Age, which typically is an independent variable for satisfaction, tends to be associated with increased favorability ratings following cosmetic procedures. Female gender is a second variable associated with higher satisfaction. The authors believe that negative facial identity and self-perception are risk factors for patient dissatisfaction with cosmetic procedural outcomes. Based on this assumption, clinicians may want to focus on the face as a particular area of psychosocial concern. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(6):617-620..

  1. Relating Psychosocial Variables in High School to Alcohol Use Trajectories During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrow, Craig

    2000-01-01

    .... This study examined psychosocial variables-including peer focus, social skills, affect, antisocial behavior, gender, and sex-role attitudes-in an attempt to uncover variables related to changes...

  2. The psychosocial burden of human papillomavirus related disease and screening interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirotta, M; Ung, L; Stein, A; Conway, E L; Mast, T C; Fairley, C K; Garland, S

    2009-12-01

    (i) To assess the psychosocial burden of testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) related genital disease or of a HPV-related diagnosis; (ii) to compare an instrument specifically designed to measure HPV-related psychosocial burden with other generic quality of life (QoL) instruments. A cross-sectional design. Researchers recruited women from outpatient clinics at a major tertiary women's hospital and a sexual health centre who completed surveys within 3 months of receiving 331 women, 18-45 years, who had experienced a normal cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) result, an abnormal Pap result, biopsy confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or external genital warts (EGW). The HPV impact profile (HIP) designed to assess the psychosocial impact of HPV; two general health-related QoL surveys-the EuroQoL VAS and the Sheehan disability scale; and a HPV knowledge survey. Response rate was 78%. Significant psychosocial impacts were found for women screened for, or having a diagnosis of, HPV-related genital disease. The largest impact was in women with CIN 2/3 and EGW. This HPV-related psychosocial impact was most sensitively detected with the HIP. Relative to generic measures of QoL, the HIP provided insight into the full range of psychosocial impacts of HPV testing and diagnoses. Clinicians need to be aware of the potential psychosocial impact of testing for or diagnosing HPV-related genital disease, in particular CIN 2/3 and EGW. The HIP survey is a more sensitive measure of the psychosocial impact of HPV-related genital disease than generic QoL surveys.

  3. Early post-operative psychosocial and weight predictors of later outcome in bariatric surgery: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A; de la Piedad Garcia, X; Brennan, L

    2017-03-01

    This is the first systematic review to synthesize the evidence concerning early post-operative variables predictive of later weight and psychosocial outcomes in bariatric surgery. Eight electronic databases for empirical studies were searched (1954 to 2016). Most of the 39 included studies reported solely on weight outcomes; eating and psychosocial outcomes were less common. A better early weight loss trajectory was the most consistent predictor of more successful medium-term weight outcome (≤24 months); however, its relationship to longer term weight loss maintenance is less certain. Early eating adaptation may be associated with later weight loss, but further research is needed. Evidence is lacking for associations between early adherence or early psychosocial variables and later outcome. In particular, the relationship between early post-operative depression and later weight remains unclear. Little research has considered early prediction of later eating or psychosocial outcomes. Consideration of mediating or moderating relationships is lacking. The body of evidence is limited, and synthesis is hampered by heterogeneity in the type and time at which predictors and outcomes are measured and quality of statistical reporting. Further research on prospective prediction of bariatric surgery outcome is needed to guide early post-operative intervention for those at greatest risk of poor outcomes. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Feng-Cheng; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1) to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2) to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled. Methods A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine), psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress), job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support), and prolonged fatigue. Results A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue. Conclusion Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers’ prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables. PMID:26930064

  5. The Association between Job-Related Psychosocial Factors and Prolonged Fatigue among Industrial Employees in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Cheng Tang

    Full Text Available Prolonged fatigue is common among employees, but the relationship between prolonged fatigue and job-related psychosocial factors is seldom studied. This study aimed (1 to assess the individual relations of physical condition, psychological condition, and job-related psychosocial factors to prolonged fatigue among employees, and (2 to clarify the associations between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue using hierarchical regression when demographic characteristics, physical condition, and psychological condition were controlled.A cross-sectional study was employed. A questionnaire was used to obtain information pertaining to demographic characteristics, physical condition (perceived physical health and exercise routine, psychological condition (perceived mental health and psychological distress, job-related psychosocial factors (job demand, job control, and workplace social support, and prolonged fatigue.A total of 3,109 employees were recruited. Using multiple regression with controlled demographic characteristics, psychological condition explained 52.0% of the variance in prolonged fatigue. Physical condition and job-related psychosocial factors had an adjusted R2 of 0.370 and 0.251, respectively. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that, among job-related psychosocial factors, job demand and job control showed significant associations with fatigue.Our findings highlight the role of job demand and job control, in addition to the role of perceived physical health, perceived mental health, and psychological distress, in workers' prolonged fatigue. However, more research is required to verify the causation among all the variables.

  6. A systematic review of inequalities in psychosocial outcomes for women with breast cancer according to residential location and Indigenous status in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youl, P H; Dasgupta, P; Youlden, D; Aitken, J F; Garvey, G; Zorbas, H; Chynoweth, J; Wallington, I; Baade, P D

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to examine variations in psychosocial outcomes by residential location and Indigenous status in women diagnosed with breast cancer (BC) in Australia. Systematic searches were undertaken using multiple databases covering articles between 1 January 1990 and 1 March 2015 focusing on adult women with BC in an Australian setting and measuring quality of life (QOL), psychological distress or psychosocial support. Thirteen quantitative and three qualitative articles were included. Two quantitative and one qualitative article were rated high quality, seven moderate and the remaining were low quality. No studies examining inequalities by Indigenous status were identified. Non-metropolitan women were more likely to record lower QOL relating to breast cancer-specific concerns and reported a lack of information and resources specific to their needs. Continuity of support, ongoing care and access to specialist and allied health professionals were major concerns for non-metropolitan women. Non-metropolitan women identified unmet needs in relation to travel, fear of cancer recurrence and lack of psychosocial support. Overall, there was a lack of evidence relating to variations in psychosocial outcomes for women with BC according to residential status or Indigenous status. While the review identified some specific concerns for non-metropolitan women with BC, it was limited by the lack of good quality studies using standardised measures. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Assessment of psychosocial outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a systematic review of available instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakefield CE

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Claire E Wakefield,1,2 Pandora Patterson,3 Fiona E J McDonald,3 Helen L Wilson,1,2 Esther Davis,3 Ursula M Sansom-Daly2,41School of Women's and Children's Health, UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Centre for Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3CanTeen, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: Given the burgeoning body of research relating to the psychosocial needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs with cancer, this review aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and appropriateness of the instruments available for use in this unique population. Specifically, we reviewed published instruments developed to assess psychological distress (depression, anxiety, stress, and fear of recurrence, psychological growth (resilience, posttraumatic growth, and benefit finding, unmet needs, coping, quality of life, identity, and mindfulness-based practices and skills in AYAs with cancer. Given the dearth of validated instruments targeting AYAs with cancer, this review also provides a summary of promising measures yet to be formally validated in this population.Methods: Five electronic databases were searched by a team of six researchers, and studies involving AYAs (who have or have had cancer aged 15–30 years, and published between 1982 and 2012 were reviewed. Of 410 abstracts, 7 instruments were identified as validated in this population, with a further 19 identified as promising.Results: While there are numerous scales to assess psychosocial outcomes in cancer, few have been specifically validated for AYAs affected by cancer, particularly in the domains of psychological distress, psychological growth, coping, unmet needs, and identity. There are relatively more instruments validated, or promising, for assessment of quality of life than scales for other domains.Conclusion: In the AYA context

  8. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  9. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  10. Long-term psychosocial outcomes among bereaved siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Abby R; Postier, Andrea; Osenga, Kaci; Kreicbergs, Ulrika; Neville, Bridget; Dussel, Veronica; Wolfe, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    The death of a child from cancer affects the entire family. Little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of bereaved siblings. To describe 1) the prevalence of risky health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support among bereaved siblings and 2) potentially modifiable factors associated with poor outcomes. Bereaved siblings were eligible for this dual-center, cross-sectional, survey-based study if they were 16 years or older and their parents had enrolled in one of three prior studies about caring for children with cancer at the end of life. Linear regression models identified associations between personal perspectives before, during, and after the family's cancer experience and outcomes (health behaviors, psychological distress, and social support). Fifty-eight siblings completed surveys (62% response rate). They were approximately 12 years bereaved, with a mean age of 26 years at the time of the survey (SD 7.8). Anxiety, depression, and illicit substance use increased during the year after their brother/sister's death but then returned to baseline. Siblings who reported dissatisfaction with communication, poor preparation for death, missed opportunities to say goodbye, and/or a perceived negative impact of the cancer experience on relationships tended to have higher distress and lower social support scores (P siblings reported that their loss still affected them; half stated that the experience impacted current educational and career goals. How siblings experience the death of a child with cancer may impact their long-term psychosocial well-being. Sibling-directed communication and concurrent supportive care during the cancer experience and the year after the sibling death may mitigate poor long-term outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychosocial outcomes and counselee satisfaction following genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: A patient-reported outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberguggenberger, Anne; Sztankay, Monika; Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Weber, Ingrid; Hubalek, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Zschocke, Johannes; Martini, Caroline; Egle, Daniel; Dünser, Martina; Gamper, Eva; Meraner, Verena

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the psychosocial consequences of genetic counseling and testing (GCT) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) at follow-up in a "real-life" sample of counselees at an Austrian tertiary care center. The study cohort included counselees who had undergone genetic counseling for HBOC and completed a follow-up self-report questionnaire battery on psychosocial outcomes (quality of life, psychological distress, satisfaction with counseling and decisions). For comparison of distress, we recruited a reference sample of breast cancer survivors (BCS; n=665) who had not requested GCT in the same setting. Overall, counselees did not exhibit increased levels of anxiety and depression when compared to BCS. No specific follow-up deleterious psychosocial consequences were detected among the former group. Of the 137 counselees, 22.6% and 9.8% experienced clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression, respectively, at an average follow-up time of 1.8years. However, both anxiety and depression significantly decreased with time and were alike between counselees with and without cancer diagnosis. Follow-up cancer worry seems to be significantly higher among counselees who had not undergone genetic testing or were undecided about it than among counselees who had been tested. Our results strongly support GCT as part of routine care for patients with HBOC. The risk factors of increased distress in specific subgroups of counselees, such as recent cancer diagnosis or uncertainty about testing, warrant further exploration and specific attention in clinical routines. Particularly, the psychological needs of undecided counselees warrant ongoing attention and potential follow-ups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Objective and subjective psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an investigation of the relative importance of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Rossell, Susan L

    2014-06-01

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) experience significant psychosocial impairment. Understandings of the nature and causes of such impairment is limited by the lack of research exploring the extent to which subjectively reported functioning should be valued as an indicator of objective dysfunction, or examining the relative influence of neurocognition, social cognition and emotion regulation on these important, but different aspects of psychosocial functioning in the context of mania and depression symptoms. This study aimed to address this paucity of research by conducting a comprehensive investigation of psychosocial functioning in a well characterised group of BD patients. Fifty-one BD patients were compared to 52 healthy controls on objectively and subjectively assessed psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between current mood symptoms, psychosocial function and neurocognitive, social cognitive and emotion regulation measures were also examined in the patient group. Patients had significantly worse scores on the global objective and subjective functioning measures relative to controls. In the patient group, although these scores were correlated, regression analyses showed that variance in each of the measures was explained by different predictors. Depressive symptomatology was the most important predictor of global subjective functioning, and neurocognition had a concurrent and important influence with depressive symptoms on objective psychosocial function. Emotion regulation also had an indirect effect on psychosocial functioning via its influence on depressive symptomatology. As this study was cross-sectional in nature, we are unable to draw precise conclusions regarding contributing pathways involved in psychosocial functioning in BD. These results suggest that patients' own evaluations of their subjective functioning represent important indicators of the extent to which their observable function is impaired. They also highlight the importance of

  14. Gender-associated differences in the psychosocial and developmental outcome in patients affected with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine; Reutter, Heiko M; Grässer, Melanie F; Fisch, Margit; Noeker, Meinolf

    2006-02-01

    To identify problems in the long-term psychosocial and developmental outcome specific to patients with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), using a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire, as there are various techniques of reconstruction to repair BEEC but to date neither patients nor surgeons have a clear answer about which type gives the most acceptable long-term results. Increasingly many patients with BEEC reach adulthood and wish to have sexual relationships and families. To date, no studies have used disease-specific psychological instruments to measure the psychosocial status of patients with BEEC. Thus we contacted 208 patients with BEEC, and 122 were enrolled, covering the complete spectrum of the BEEC. The data assessed included the surgical reconstruction, subjective assessment of continence, developmental milestones, school performance and career, overall satisfaction in life, disease-specific fears and partnership experiences in patients aged >18 years. We compared affected females and males to assess gender-associated differences in quality of life. Affected females had more close friendships, fewer disadvantages in relation to healthy female peers and more partnerships than the males. Family planning seemed to be less of a problem in affected females. There were no gender differences in the adjustments within school and professional career, which was very good in general. Future studies are needed to assess the disease-specific anxieties, considering gender-specific differences.

  15. Erectile dysfunction, masculinity, and psychosocial outcomes: a review of the experiences of men after prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Chung, Eric; Wittert, Gary; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-02-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) treatment side-effects such as erectile dysfunction (ED) can impact men's quality of life (QoL), psychosocial and psycho-sexual adjustment. Masculinity (i.e., men's identity or sense of themselves as being a man) may also be linked to how men respond to PC treatment and ED however the exact nature of this link is unclear. This review aims to provide a snapshot of the current state of evidence regarding ED, masculinity and psychosocial impacts after PC treatment. Three databases (Medline/PsycINFO, CINHAL, and EMBASE) were searched January 1st 1980 to January 31st 2016. Study inclusion criteria were: patients treated for PC; ED or sexual function measured; masculinity measured in quantitative studies or emerged as a theme in qualitative studies; included psychosocial or QoL outcome(s); published in English language, peer-reviewed journal articles. Fifty two articles (14 quantitative, 38 qualitative) met review criteria. Studies were predominantly cross-sectional, North American, samples of heterosexual men, with localised PC, and treated with radical prostatectomy. Results show that masculinity framed men's responses to, and was harmed by their experience with, ED after PC treatment. In qualitative studies, men with ED consistently reported lost (no longer a man) or diminished (less of a man) masculinity, and this was linked to depression, embarrassment, decreased self-worth, and fear of being stigmatised. The correlation between ED and masculinity was similarly supported in quantitative studies. In two studies, masculinity was also a moderator of poorer QoL and mental health outcomes for PC patients with ED. In qualitative studies, masculinity underpinned how men interpreted and adjusted to their experience. Men used traditional (hegemonic) coping responses including emotional restraint, stoicism, acceptance, optimism, and humour or rationalised their experience relative to their age (ED inevitable), prolonged life (ED small price to pay

  16. Fight for Your Right to Fruit: Psychosocial Outcomes of a Manga Comic Promoting Fruit Consumption in Middle-School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, May May; Green, Melanie C; Tate, Deborah F; Cai, Jianwen; Wyka, Katarzyna; Ammerman, Alice S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to a manga comic (Japanese comic art) with messages promoting fruit consumption influenced psychosocial variables associated with increased fruit intake in middle-school youth. A three-group, randomized, single-session study was conducted in two public middle schools in central North Carolina. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) comic (manga comic promoting fruit consumption, (b) newsletter (newsletter about fruit), or (c) attention-control (newsletter about ancient Greece). Participants included N = 263 youth, with a mean age of 13.18 years (SD = 1.12). Outcome expectations, self-efficacy, and knowledge related to fruit intake were measured at baseline and immediately after reading. Secondary outcomes included transportation (degree to which participants are immersed in their media) and enjoyment, measured at posttest. Data were analyzed using regression analyses. Comic group participants tended to have greater change in outcome expectations related to fruit intake compared to the attention-control group and greater transportation and enjoyment than the newsletter and attention-control groups. Study results are promising and suggest that manga comics may be a useful format to promote positive health beliefs in youth.

  17. Work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control among working adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Francis B; Roblin, Douglas W; Okosun, Ike S; Goodman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and four subscales of work-related psychosocial stress at study baseline and over time. We used survey data from a major HMO located in the Southeastern part of the US on health and healthy behaviors linked with patients' clinical, pharmacy and laboratory records for the period between 2005 and 2009. Study participants (n=537) consisted of working adults aged 25-59 years, diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) but without advanced micro or macrovascular complications at the time of the survey. We estimated the baseline (2005) association between HbA1c and work-related psychosocial stress and their interactions using linear regression analysis. Using individual growth model approach, we estimated the association between HbA1c over time and work-related psychosocial stress. Each of the models controlled for socio-demographic variables, diet and physical activity factor, laboratory factor, physical examinations variables and medication use in a hierarchical fashion. After adjusting for all study covariates, we did not find a significant association between work-related psychosocial stress and glycemic control either at baseline or over time. Among fairly healthy middle aged working adults with DM, work-related psychosocial stress was not directly associated with glycemic control. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations among measures of energy balance related behaviors and psychosocial determinants in urban upper elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelli, Lorraine N; Gray, Heewon Lee; Paul, Rachel C; Contento, Isobel R; Koch, Pamela A

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevention is a pressing issue. Understanding the relationships among eating and physical activity behaviors and potential psychosocial determinants of behavior will help us design more effective interventions. This study aimed to examine such relationships in a large sample of urban elementary school children. Fifth grade students in 20 recruited New York City public schools completed a validated questionnaire on six "do more" (fruits and vegetables and physical activity) and "do less" (sweetened beverages, processed packaged snacks, fast food and sedentary behavior) energy balance related behaviors (EBRBs) and psychosocial determinants of behavior from social cognitive and self-determination theories. Correlations among behaviors and hierarchical linear model analyses of the relationship between psychosocial determinants and behaviors were conducted for those with complete data (n = 952). The "do more" and the "do less" behaviors were significantly correlated within categories (p food-related behaviors were correlated with physical activity but so were sports drinks, while the "do less" food-related behaviors tended to be correlated to sedentary behavior (p intention. Interventions can address the healthy and less healthy clusters of behaviors together, focusing on strategies to enhance their self-efficacy and habit strength for the "do more" behaviors and outcome expectations to motivate intention to choose fewer "do less" behaviors, along with enhancing self-efficacy and habit. Research can examine these determinants as potential mediators of change in intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The moderating effect of psychosocial factors in the relation between neighborhood walkability and children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haese, Sara; Gheysen, Freja; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deforche, Benedicte; Van Dyck, Delfien; Cardon, Greet

    2016-12-09

    The study aimed to investigate if psychosocial factors moderate the association between objective walkability and different domains of children's physical activity (PA). A second aim of the study was to investigate the direct associations between psychosocial factors and children's PA. Based on previous literature, it was hypothesized that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles. Data were collected between December 2011 and May 2013 as part of the Belgian Environmental Physical Activity Study in children (BEPAS-child). In total, data from 494 children and one of their parents were included in the study. Children wore an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days and together with one of their parents, they completed the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire. Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning their child's psychosocial factors toward PA (i.e. parental attitude toward their child's PA, parental social norm toward their child's PA, parental support, friend support, children's self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers toward sports and PA). Neighborhood walkability was calculated using geographical information systems (GIS). Multilevel cross-classified analyses were conducted. Of the 42 investigated interactions between neighborhood walkability and psychosocial factors in relation to PA among children, only 7 significant interactions were found of which 3 were only significant among children from low-income neighborhoods. Parental support and self-efficacy were positive correlates of children's PA in high- and low-income neighborhoods independent of the level of walkability, but effect sizes were small. The hypothesis that walkability would be more strongly related to PA among children with negative psychosocial profiles could not be confirmed and in general, psychosocial factors and objective walkability did not interact in relation to children's PA. Focusing on parental support and self

  20. Association of work-related factors with psychosocial job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among Japanese pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Katsura; Ohya, Yukihiro; Kawakami, Norito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Fujimura, Masanori

    2007-11-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore what work-related factors were associated with job stress among pediatricians in Japan, as determined by the demand-control-support model and psychosomatic symptoms. We sent an anonymous questionnaire to a random sample of 3,000 members selected from the nationwide register of the Japan Pediatric Society and received 850 responses (response rate, 28%). Data from the 590 respondents who worked more than 35 h per week as a pediatrician and had no missing responses in the questionnaire were analyzed. We measured workload-related variables (e.g. working hours, work schedule) and recovery-related variables (e.g. workdays with no overtime, days off with no work in the past month) as exposure variables, and psychosocial job stressors (the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire) and psychosomatic symptoms as outcome variables. Longer working hours per week was significantly associated with greater job demand, lower job control and more psychosomatic symptoms (pworking hours, more workdays with no overtime was significantly associated with lower job demand, greater job control and fewer psychosomatic symptoms (plong working hours is a risk factor for job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms, and that workdays with no overtime is a protective factor which may facilitate recovery. Controlling working hours and encouraging non-overtime workdays may be important for reducing job stressors and psychosomatic symptoms among pediatricians in Japan.

  1. Psychosocial working conditions and work-related stressors among UK veterinary surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, David J; Yadegarfar, Ghasem; Baldwin, David S

    2009-08-01

    Anecdotally, veterinary surgeons report high levels of work-related stress. To investigate psychosocial working conditions, self-reported causes of work-related stress and satisfaction among a representative sample of vets practising in the UK. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire mailed to a stratified random sample of 3200 vets. The Health & Safety Executive Management Standards Indicator Tool and a series of bespoke questions were embedded in a 120 item questionnaire, which also assessed anxiety and depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, suicidal ideation, positive mental well-being and work-home interaction. A total of 1796 useable questionnaires were returned (response rate 56%). Number of hours worked and making professional mistakes were the main reported contributors to stress. Good clinical outcomes and relationships with colleagues were the greatest sources of satisfaction. Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with less favourable working conditions. Compared to the general population, the sample reported higher risk of work-related stress for demands and managerial support but lower risk for relationships and change. The results could be used to inform the development of targeted interventions.

  2. Influence of CHDs on psycho-social and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visootsak, Jeannie; Huddleston, Lillie; Buterbaugh, Allison; Perkins, Adrienne; Sherman, Stephanie; Hunter, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the family psycho-social outcomes of children with Down syndrome and atrioventricular septal defect, and examine the impact of these variables on the child's neurodevelopmental outcome. This was a cross-sectional study that consisted of 57 children with Down syndrome - 20 cases and 37 controls - of ~12-14 months of age. In both groups, we assessed the development of the child, the quality of the child's home environment, and parenting stress. Compared with the Down syndrome without CHD group, the atrioventricular septal defect group revealed lower scores in all developmental domains, less optimal home environments, and higher parental stress. Significant differences in development were seen in the areas of cognition (p=0.04), expressive language (p=0.05), and gross motor (pneurodevelopmental deficits. Finding that parental stress and home environment may play a role in the neurodevelopmental outcomes may prompt new family-directed interventions and anticipatory guidance for the families of children with Down syndrome who have a CHD.

  3. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  4. Effectiveness of storytelling interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adult patients with a life-threatening illness: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenau, Mai Nanna; Jackson, Inger Marie

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of storytelling interventions on psychosocial outcomes. In this review, storytelling is where adult patients with a life-threatening illness tell their illness story, facilitated by a healthcare professional.Specifically the review questions are.

  5. Personally tailored activities for improving psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia in long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Ralph; Renom, Anna; Renom, Helena; Meyer, Gabriele

    2018-02-13

    People with dementia who are being cared for in long-term care settings are often not engaged in meaningful activities. Offering them activities which are tailored to their individual interests and preferences might improve their quality of life and reduce challenging behaviour. ∙ To assess the effects of personally tailored activities on psychosocial outcomes for people with dementia living in long-term care facilities.∙ To describe the components of the interventions.∙ To describe conditions which enhance the effectiveness of personally tailored activities in this setting. We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register, on 16 June 2017 using the terms: personally tailored OR individualized OR individualised OR individual OR person-centred OR meaningful OR personhood OR involvement OR engagement OR engaging OR identity. We also performed additional searches in MEDLINE (Ovid SP), Embase (Ovid SP), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), Web of Science (ISI Web of Science), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) ICTRP, to ensure that the search for the review was as up to date and as comprehensive as possible. We included randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials offering personally tailored activities. All interventions included an assessment of the participants' present or past preferences for, or interests in, particular activities as a basis for an individual activity plan. Control groups received either usual care or an active control intervention. Two authors independently checked the articles for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of included studies. For all studies, we assessed the risk of selection bias, performance bias, attrition bias and detection bias. In case of missing information, we contacted the study authors. We included eight studies with 957 participants. The mean age of participants in the studies ranged from 78 to 88

  6. Mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes among psychiatric outpatients: findings from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Louisa; Lau, Ying Wen; Pang, Shirlene; Abdin, Edimansyah; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Chong, Siow Ann; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether self-stigma mediates the relationship between perceived stigma and quality of life, self-esteem and general functioning among outpatients with depression, schizophrenia, anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Outpatient clinics at a tertiary psychiatric hospital in Singapore. Participants 280 outpatients with a primary clinical diagnosis of either schizophrenia, depression, anxiety or OCD. Methods Data were collected in relation to self-stigma, perceived stigma, self-esteem, functioning and quality of life. In order to examine the mediating role of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes, bootstrapping mediation analyses were used. Results Mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between perceived stigma and psychosocial outcomes was subject to the effects of self-stigma among the overall sample. Separate mediation analyses were conducted by diagnoses and showed differences in the mediating effects of self-stigma. Among the whole sample and the subsample with OCD, self-stigma mediated the relationship between perceived stigma and all psychosocial outcomes. For those with anxiety, depression and schizophrenia, the mediating effects of self-stigma were present in all relationships except (1) perceived stigma with physical health in the anxiety sample, (2) perceived stigma with social relationships in the depression sample and (3) perceived stigma with physical health in the schizophrenia sample. Conclusions The mediating effects of self-stigma on the relationship between perceived stigma and various psychosocial outcomes are evident and differ across diagnoses. Interventions to address and reduce the effects of self-stigma along with targeted treatments and psychoeducation to assist people with mental illness overcome or better manage self-stigma while providing them the skills to counteract public stigma are needed. PMID:28851803

  7. Psychosocial impact of screening for intracranial aneurysms in relatives with familial subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wermer, M. J. H.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; van Nunen, P.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Anderson, C. S.; Rinkel, G. J. E.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose - In families with >= 2 relatives with intracranial aneurysms (IAs), screening for IAs in asymptomatic first-degree relatives is often recommended. We assessed the long-term psychosocial impact of such screening. Methods - We identified all persons with IA (screen-positives)

  8. Factors Related to Healthy Siblings' Psychosocial Adjustment to Children With Cancer: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaczewski, Tara; Chang, Karen; Coddington, Jennifer; Berg, Abby

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors related to the psychosocial adjustment of healthy siblings of children with cancer (HSCC). An integrative review was conducted. Controlled vocabularies relevant to siblings, pediatrics, children, neoplasms, and psychosocial adaptation were used to search Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed. Articles that met inclusion criteria (eg, quantitative studies related to HSCC's psychosocial adjustment; had sample sizes of at least 30; and HSCC age between 1 and 19 years) were reviewed. Key findings of selected articles were analyzed according to sibling characteristics, social support, and contextual factors. Seven nonexperimental and 5 quasi-experimental studies were reviewed. HSCC's characteristics (eg, age, gender), perceived social support from family and summer camp, and perceived contextual factors (eg, role overload, family adaptability) were significant factors that correlated with HSCC's psychosocial adjustment. When caring for a child diagnosed with cancer, nurses need to include HSCC in the assessment of a family unit's adaptation to cancer distress and provide appropriate interventions to promote HSCC's psychosocial well-being. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  9. Effect of Physical and Psychosocial Interventions on Hormone and Performance Outcomes in Professional Rugby Union Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahorn, Joshua; Serpell, Benjamin G; McKune, Andrew; Pumpa, Kate L

    2017-11-01

    Strahorn, J, Serpell, BG, McKune, A, and Pumpa, KL. Effect of physical and psychosocial interventions on hormone and performance outcomes in professional rugby union players: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3158-3169, 2017-This systematic review investigates the acute effects of physical or psychosocial interventions on testosterone and cortisol responses in elite male rugby union players, and the subsequent association with physical performance areas (e.g., strength, power, sprint performance) or key performance indicators (e.g., coach-identified skills). Medline (via EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, InformIT, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, with 6 articles examining the effect of speed, strength or power training, and the remaining 3 psychosocial interventions. Quality assessment of the articles as determined by their PEDro score was either 6 or 7 out of 11. This review found that both physical and psychosocial interventions can alter testosterone and cortisol, and physical performance areas important for rugby union are affected by these changes. The limited literature in the field supports the notion that physical interventions of short duration and high intensity, and psychosocial interventions that create a positive environment may elicit a hormonal response that is associated with favorable performance outcomes. Studies that reported psychosocial interventions suggest that testosterone and cortisol may be altered in elite rugby players without metabolic stress, something of great interest to elite athletes and coaches who are looking to elicit a performance advantage without increasing athlete load. Overall, this review identified that when the testosterone responses to an intervention are notably greater than that of cortisol, favorable outcomes are likely. Further research is required to improve our understanding on how to best manipulate training to induce

  10. Psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia in terms of their short stature-related stress: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Naoko; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To assess psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia using a nationwide survey. Achondroplasia, showing short stature and disproportionately short limbs, causes physical inconvenience such as difficulty in reaching high objects. It is, however, still controversial whether the condition is associated with psychological problems, especially in childhood. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. To evaluate psychosocial profiles and adaptation processes in children with achondroplasia, we developed an inventory of scales based on the psychological stress model of which conceptual framework was comprised of stressor, coping process, coping resource and adaptation outcome domains. Participants were recruited nationwide through the largest advocacy support group for achondroplasia in Japan. Of the 130 group members, 73 X-ray-diagnosed patients, aged 8-18 years, completed the inventory of questionnaires to be analysed. As for the stressor domain, patients experienced short stature-related unpleasant experiences more frequently (z-score: +1·3 in average, +3·9 in physical inconvenience). Nevertheless, these experiences had little effect on the coping process (threat appraisal: -0·2, control appraisal: +0·1) and the adaptation outcome (stress response: +0·3, self-concept: 0·0). Interestingly, self-efficacy in the coping resource domain was noticeably increased (+3·1) and was strongly correlated with most variables in the coping process and in adaptation outcome domains. Although the children with achondroplasia experienced more short stature-related stressors, there was no evidence of any psychosocial maladaptation. This finding suggests that coping process as well as coping resources such as self-efficacy could be important targets for promoting psychological adjustment in children with achondroplasia. To help children with achondroplasia adapt socially, nurses and other healthcare providers should routinely assess their psychological adaptation

  11. Longitudinal health-related quality of life outcomes and related factors after pediatric SCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, M; Atenafu, E; Hancock, K

    2009-08-01

    Our purpose was to investigate longitudinally health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes and related factors up to 2 years post-pediatric SCT. A total of 99 mothers of patients, aged 1.5-17 years, completed two standardized HRQOL questionnaires, generic and disease specific (DS), about the child, and reported on their own symptoms of depression and family function pre-SCT, 12 and 24 months post-SCT. Clinical (diagnosis, radiation), child (age) and family (maternal depression) information was also obtained. Significant improvement in physical and psychosocial HRQOL from pre-SCT to 1 or 2 years post-SCT was reported. Survivors of ALL were reported to have poorer physical and psychosocial HRQOL than survivors of solid tumors on the DS measure. Maternal depression was negatively associated with physical and psychosocial HRQOL. Maternal education (higher) at pre-SCT predicted improvements in physical domains 2 years post-SCT; mother's age (older) and child's age (younger) also predicted improvements of physical and emotional HRQOL. We conclude that survivors of pediatric SCT improved physical and psychosocial HRQOL by 1 and 2 years post-SCT. Older survivors whose mothers are younger and distressed, with lower education at SCT have compromised HRQOL compared to other survivors. This study has important implications for the care of SCT survivors and their families.

  12. Effect of psychosocial distress on outcome for head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen M; Hsu, Sophia; Felix, Care; Garst, Jordan; Yoshizaki, Taeko

    2018-03-01

    To determine the impact of pretreatment psychosocial distress on compliance to radiation therapy (RT) and clinical outcomes for patients with head and neck cancer STUDY DESIGN: Self-reported responses to the mood and anxiety domains of the University of Washington Quality of Life instrument were reviewed among 133 patients with newly diagnosed head and neck cancer prior to initiating RT. Varying definitions were used (total number of unexpectedly missed RT days, >5 days continuous interruption of RT outside of weekends, >10 days continuous interruption of RT, and failure to complete prescribed course of RT) to analyze the effect of psychosocial disruption on compliance. Survival was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. The prevalence of pretreatment depression and anxiety was 23% and 47%, respectively. Continuous RT breaks >5 days occurred in 46%, 33%, 10%, 9%, and 0% of patients whose mood was rated as "extremely depressed," "somewhat depressed," "neither in a good mood or depressed," "generally good," and "excellent," respectively (P = .0016). The corresponding proportion of patients who did not complete their planned RT was 23%, 11%, 5%, and 3%, and 0%, respectively (P = .043). The 2-year overall survival of patients who were "extremely depressed" or "somewhat depressed" at baseline was 71% versus 86% for all others (P = .026). Depression was independently associated with decreased overall survival on logistical regression analysis. Pretreatment depression predicted for decreased RT compliance and inferior survival for head and neck cancer. Additional research to overcome potential barriers to treatment in this setting may be warranted. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:641-645, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Survival, hypothalamic obesity, and neuropsychological/psychosocial status after childhood-onset craniopharyngioma: newly reported long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, Anthe S; Hoffmann, Anika; Gebhardt, Ursel; Warmuth-Metz, Monika; Daubenbüchel, Anna M M; Müller, Hermann L

    2015-07-01

    Quality of life (QoL) and long-term prognosis are frequently, and often severely, impaired in craniopharyngioma (CP) patients. Knowledge of risk factors for long-term outcome is important for optimization of treatment. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS), body mass index (BMI), neuropsychological status (EORTCQLQ-C30, MFI-20), and psychosocial status were analyzed in 261 patients with childhood-onset CP diagnosed before 2000 and longitudinally observed in HIT-Endo. Twenty-year OS was lower (P = .006) in CP with hypothalamic involvement (HI) (n = 132; 0.84 ± 0.04) when compared with CP without HI (n = 82; 0.95 ± 0.04). OS was not related to degree of resection, sex, age at diagnosis, or year of diagnosis (before/after 1990). PFS (n = 168; 0.58 ± 0.05) was lower in younger patients (12 years of follow-up, patients with HI presented no further increase in BMI. QoL in CP patients with HI was impaired by obesity, physical fatigue, reduced motivation, dyspnea, diarrhea, and nonoptimal psychosocial development. OS and QoL are impaired by HI in long-term survivors of CP. HI is associated with severe obesity, which plateaus after 12 years. OS/PFS are not related to degree of resection, but gross-total resection should be avoided in cases of HI to prevent further hypothalamic damage, which exacerbates sequelae. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rejection Sensitivity as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Emily A; Owen Yeates, Keith; Rubin, Kenneth H; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Stancin, Terry; Hoskinson, Kristen R

    2017-07-01

    The current study examines whether psychosocial outcomes following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) vary as a function of children's rejection sensitivity (RS), defined as their disposition to be hypersensitive to cues of rejection from peers. Children ages 8-13 with a history of severe TBI (STBI, n=16), complicated mild/moderate TBI (n=35), or orthopedic injury (OI, n=49) completed measures assessing self-esteem and RS on average 3.28 years post-injury (SD=1.33, range=1.25-6.34). Parents reported on their child's emotional and behavioral functioning and social participation. Regression analyses found moderation of group differences by RS for three outcomes: social participation, self-perceptions of social acceptance, and externalizing behavior problems. Conditional effects at varying levels of RS indicated that externalizing problems and social participation were significantly worse for children with STBI at high levels of RS, compared to children with OI. Social participation for the STBI group remained significantly lower than the OI group at mean levels of RS, but not at low levels of RS. At high levels of RS, self-perceptions of social acceptance were lower for children with moderate TBI compared to OI, but group differences were not significant at mean or low levels of RS. No evidence of moderation was found for global self-worth, self-perceptions of physical appearance or athletic ability, or internalizing problems. The findings highlight the salient nature of social outcomes in the context of varying levels of RS. These findings may have implications for the design of interventions to improve social outcomes following TBI. (JINS, 2017, 23, 451-459).

  15. Initiation and Maintenance of Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. The role of Outcome Expectation and Satisfaction with the Psychosocial Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Larsen, J.K.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    A premise of this study was that different psychological processes would predict the initiation and maintenance of weight loss after surgery for morbid obesity. Our aim was to examine whether more favorable preoperative expectations of psychosocial outcomes predict weight loss in the first year

  16. Which psychosocial factors are related to chelation adherence in thalassemia? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Mughal, Kulsoom; Porter, John B

    2010-06-01

    Good adherence to iron chelation therapy in thalassemia is crucial. Although there is evidence that adherence is related to regimen factors, there has been less emphasis on the relationship between psychosocial (psychological, demographic and social) factors and adherence. We present a systematic review of psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence in thalassemia. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Information was extracted regarding the study characteristics and the relationship between psychosocial factors and chelation adherence. Methodological quality was rated. The studies took place in a range of countries, were mostly cross sectional in design, and examined adherence to deferoxamine (DFO) only. Sample sizes ranged from 15 to 1573. A variety of psychosocial variables were examined. Definitions of adherence varied between studies and non adherence rates were also variable (9 to 66%). Older age was consistently associated with lower levels of chelation adherence. There were few other consistent findings. The methodological quality of studies was variable. There is a need for more methodologically sophisticated and theoretically informed studies on psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence. We offer specific suggestions.

  17. A prospective study of musculoskeletal outcomes among manufacturing workers: II. Effects of psychosocial stress and work organization factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerr, Fredric; Fethke, Nathan B; Anton, Dan; Merlino, Linda; Rosecrance, John; Marcus, Michele; Jones, Michael P

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize associations between psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders. Methodological limitations of previous studies of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors and musculoskeletal outcomes have produced inconsistent associations. In this prospective epidemiologic study of 386 workers, questionnaires to assess decision latitude ("control") and psychological job demands ("demand") were administered to study participants and were used to classify them into job strain "quadrants". Measures of job stress and job change were collected during each week of follow-up. Incident hand/arm and neck/shoulder symptoms and disorders were ascertained weekly. Associations between exposure measures and musculoskeletal outcomes were estimated with proportional hazard methods. When compared to the low-demand/high-control job strain referent category, large increases in risk of hand/arm disorders were observed for both high-demand/high-control (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.23, 16.4]) and high-demand/low-control job strain categories (HR = 5.18,95% CI = [1.39, 19.4]). Similar associations were observed for hand/arm symptoms. A strong association was also observed between the low-demand/low-control job strain category and neck/shoulder disorders (HR = 6.46, 95% CI = [1.46, 28.6]). Statistically significant associations were also observed between weekly stress level and weekly job change and several musculoskeletal outcomes. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and work organizational factors and musculoskeletal outcomes were large and in the hypothesized direction. Prevention of occupational musculoskeletal disorders may require attention to psychosocial and work organizational factors in addition to physical factors. Methods to control adverse effects of psychosocial and work organizational risk factors should be explored.

  18. A systematic review of the psychosocial outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction: does the impact of erectile dysfunction extend beyond a man's inability to have sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Althof, Stanley E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report and analyze the published data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for (i) the psychosocial outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) before treatment with a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor; and (ii) the change in psychosocial outcomes after the use of a PDE5 inhibitor in men with ED. The method used was a prospectively designed systematic literature review of publications reported in MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, and PsychINFO from January 1, 1995 to May 14, 2012. The main outcome measures were scores on psychosocial measures in men who were treated for ED with a PDE5 inhibitor before and after treatment. A total of 1,714 publications were retrieved; 1,674 publications were excluded because they did not meet the design requirements of the review, and 40 publications (32 RCTs) were retained. Before treatment, men who participated in clinical trials reported relatively good quality of life and overall relationships, but poor sexual relationships and sexual satisfaction, diminished confidence, low self-esteem, and symptoms of depression. After treatment, there were significant improvements from baseline in most of these measures, except for overall life satisfaction and overall relationship satisfaction. ED and the treatment of ED are associated with substantially broader aspects of a man's life than just erectile functioning. This review demonstrates the importance of evaluating the psychosocial factors associated with ED and its treatment, and the importance of using standardized scales to conduct this evaluation. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationships among physical and psychological functioning in men with ED. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  19. Teaching about Psychosocial Aspects of Disability: Emphasizing Person-Environment Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Dana S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some psychosocial aspects of disability linked to the person--environment relation that teachers should share in the psychology classroom. Disability is an often-overlooked form of diversity, one that teachers should discuss alongside race, gender, sexual orientation, social class/socioeconomic status (SES), religiosity, and…

  20. Disillusionment Trilogy: a Study of the Effects of Work-Related and Psychosocial Stress Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José FERNÁNDEZ GALINDO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, disorders derived from work-related and psychosocial stress are increasingly important. Here the influence of professional activities on personal and family life and on the psyche is analysed by means of three films filmed in different periods: the North American The Arrangement (1969, the Spanish The Green Pastures (1979 and the Canadian The Age of Ignorance (2007.

  1. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  2. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and

  3. Individual and group based parenting programmes for improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and their children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jane; Smailagic, Nadja; Bennett, Cathy; Huband, Nick; Jones, Hannah; Coren, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Parenting programmes are a potentially important means of supporting teenage parents and improving outcomes for their children, and parenting support is a priority across most Western countries. This review updates the previous version published in 2001. Objectives To examine the effectiveness of parenting programmes in improving psychosocial outcomes for teenage parents and developmental outcomes in their children. Search methods We searched to find new studies for this updated review in January 2008 and May 2010 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, ASSIA, CINAHL, DARE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and Social Science Citation Index. The National Research Register (NRR) was last searched in May 2005 and UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio Database in May 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials assessing short-term parenting interventions aimed specifically at teenage parents and a control group (no-treatment, waiting list or treatment-as-usual). Data collection and analysis We assessed the risk of bias in each study. We standardised the treatment effect for each outcome in each study by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores between the intervention and control groups by the pooled standard deviation. Main results We included eight studies with 513 participants, providing a total of 47 comparisons of outcome between intervention and control conditions. Nineteen comparisons were statistically significant, all favouring the intervention group. We conducted nine meta-analyses using data from four studies in total (each meta-analysis included data from two studies). Four meta-analyses showed statistically significant findings favouring the intervention group for the following outcomes: parent responsiveness to the child post-intervention (SMD −0.91, 95% CI −1.52 to −0.30, P = 0.04); infant responsiveness to mother at follow-up (SMD −0.65, 95% CI −1.25 to −0.06, P = 0.03); and an overall measure of parent

  4. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-06-08

    Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277). Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = -0.21, 95% CI = -0.27 - -0.14). Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.25 - -0.11). Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  5. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo M. Havermans

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277. Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Results A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.27 – -0.14. Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = −0.18, 95% CI = −0.25 – -0.11. Conclusions Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. Trial registration This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  6. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  7. Perceptions of psychosocial hazards, work-related stress and workplace priority risks in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortum, Evelyn; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Tom

    2011-01-01

    During the last few decades, major global developments in the world of work include an international trend to shift production to developing countries, with wide variations in working conditions and exposure to traditional and emerging occupational risks, such as psychosocial risks. The latter have rarely been addressed or explored in developing and economically-emerging country contexts while we find an abundant body of research from industrialized countries. The research presented, which is part of a larger study, explored the perception of multi-disciplinary experts from different regions, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), of the nature of psychosocial hazards, and work-related stress, as well as their views on workplace priorities that require urgent attention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 experts from developing countries which were subjected to thematic analysis. A two-tiered Delphi survey was completed by 74 experts in the first round with 53 of these experts completing the survey in the second round. Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress were mostly seen as interchangeable in terms of source and effect and all participants perceived them as concern to their workforce. Through the interviews and the Delphi surveys they allude to our contemporary understanding of psychosocial risks. Workplace risks of priority differed by region but primarily work-related stress, injury and accident prevention, and substance abuse and risk behaviors were reported to require urgent attention. The current lack of awareness and research in the area of psychosocial risks and work-related stress hampers action in developing countries. International experts should support the exchange of information and the development of interventions in workplaces in developing countries with a view to integrating these emerging risks into comprehensive occupational health and safety policy frameworks to make such approaches more effective.

  8. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  9. Psychosocial outcomes for preschool children and families after surgery for complex congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosig, C L; Mussatto, K A; Kuhn, E M; Tweddell, J S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the psychosocial outcomes of preschool-aged survivors (ages 3-6 years) of hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS; n=13) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA; n=13). Parents completed the following measures: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, Impact on the Family Scale, Parenting Stress Index, Parent Behavior Checklist, and Child Behavior Checklist. Quality of life scores did not differ from those of healthy controls. Parents of children with HLHS reported more negative impact of the child's illness on the family and more parenting stress than parents of children with TGA. Parents of both groups of children were more permissive in their parenting style than parents of healthy controls. Children with HLHS had higher rates of attention and externalizing behavior problems than children with TGA. The results highlight the need for practitioners working with these children and families to ask about parental stress, family functioning, and behavioral expectations for the child in the context of routine medical/cardiac follow-up.

  10. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents......, and social capital); and (4) Statistical power: acceptable to detect a 20% increased risk in IHD. Eleven new papers met the inclusion criteria 1-3; a total of 44 papers were evaluated regarding inclusion criteria 4. Of 169 statistical analyses, only 10 analyses in 2 papers had acceptable statistical power...... to determine to what extent psychosocial factors at work are risk factors of IHD. There is a need for considering statistical power when planning studies....

  11. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes - design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulstrup Ane M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age. Methods and design We will use the Danish National Birth Cohort where 100.000 children are included at baseline. In the present study 49,340 pregnancies will be included. Multinomial logistic regression will be applied to estimate odds ratios for the outcomes: preterm; full term but small for gestational age; full term but large for gestational age, as a function of job-strain (high strain, active and passive versus low strain. In the analysis we control for maternal age, Body Mass Index, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, coffee consumption, type of work (manual versus non-manual, maternal serious disease and parents' heights as well as gestational age at interview. Discussion The prospective nature of the design and the high number of participants strengthen the study. The large statistical power allows for interpretable results regardless of whether or not the hypotheses are confirmed. This is, however, not a controlled study since all kinds of 'natural' interventions takes place throughout pregnancy (e.g. work absence, medical treatment and job-redesign. The analysis will be performed from a public health perspective. From this perspective, we are not primarily interested in the effect of job strain per se but if there is residual effect of job strain after naturally occurring preventive measures have been taken.

  12. Employees' psychosocial career preoccupations in relation to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    addressing employees' career establishment preoccupations is likely to ... developmental task concerns and job and career satisfaction (Flaherty & Pappas. 2002 .... group, career and economic stability and security, establishing opportunities for .... practical effect) preoccupations and work-related commitment only. In terms ...

  13. A randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention for cancer patients integrated into routine care: the PROMPT study (promoting optimal outcomes in mood through tailored psychosocial therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolley Damien

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite evidence that up to 35% of patients with cancer experience significant distress, access to effective psychosocial care is limited by lack of systematic approaches to assessment, a paucity of psychosocial services, and patient reluctance to accept treatment either because of perceived stigma or difficulties with access to specialist psycho-oncology services due to isolation or disease burden. This paper presents an overview of a randomised study to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief tailored psychosocial Intervention delivered by health professionals in cancer care who undergo focused training and participate in clinical supervision. Methods/design Health professionals from the disciplines of nursing, occupational therapy, speech pathology, dietetics, physiotherapy or radiation therapy will participate in training to deliver the psychosocial Intervention focusing on core concepts of supportive-expressive, cognitive and dignity-conserving care. Health professional training will consist of completion of a self-directed manual and participation in a skills development session. Participating health professionals will be supported through structured clinical supervision whilst delivering the Intervention. In the stepped wedge design each of the 5 participating clinical sites will be allocated in random order from Control condition to Training then delivery of the Intervention. A total of 600 patients will be recruited across all sites. Based on level of distress or risk factors eligible patients will receive up to 4 sessions, each of up to 30 minutes in length, delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Participants will be assessed at baseline and 10-week follow-up. Patient outcome measures include anxiety and depression, quality of life, unmet psychological and supportive care needs. Health professional measures include psychological morbidity, stress and burnout. Process evaluation will be conducted to assess perceptions

  14. Sensory loss and its consequences for couples’ psychosocial and relational wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Elsass, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has shown that marital communication is key to couples' successful illness adjustment. However, little is known about couples' experiences of health conditions characterised by communication difficulties such as acquired hearing, vision, and dual-sensory loss. The aim...... of this review was to identify the effect of sensory loss, and associated communication difficulties, on couples' relational and psychosocial adjustment. Method: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies investigating the social, psychological, and relational impact of sensory loss on couples...

  15. Evaluating Questionnaires Used to Assess Self-Reported Physical Activity and Psychosocial Outcomes Among Survivors of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer: A Cognitive Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Amanda; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Physical activity is increasingly being studied as a way to improve psychosocial outcomes (e.g., quality of life, self-efficacy, physical self-perceptions, self-esteem, body image, posttraumatic growth) among survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer. Assessing levels of and associations between self-reported physical activity and psychosocial outcomes requires clear, appropriate, and relevant questionnaires. To explore how survivors of AYA cancer interpreted and responded to the following eight published questionnaires: Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, Rosenberg Global Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0 (RAND-36), cognitive interviews were conducted with three men and four women age 18-36 years who were diagnosed with cancer at age 16-35 years. Initially, the first seven questionnaires listed above were assessed. Summaries of the interviews were prepared and compared across participants. Potential concerns were identified with the FACT-G; thus, a second interview was conducted with participants to explore the clarity, appropriateness, and relevance of the RAND-36. Concerns identified for the FACT-G related mostly to the lack of relevance of items pertaining to cancer-specific aspects of quality of life given that participants were posttreatment. No or few concerns related to comprehension and/or structure/logic were identified for the other questionnaires. In general, the questionnaires assessed were clear, appropriate, and relevant. Participants' feedback suggested they could be used to assess self-reported physical activity and varied psychosocial outcomes in studies with survivors of AYA cancer, either with or without slight modifications.

  16. Physical and psychosocial disability in elderly subjects in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman-Rock, M.; Odding, E.; Hofman, A.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine physical and psychosocial disability in subjects aged 55 to 74 years living in the community, in relation to pain in the hip and/or knee, and to explore the relationships between pain, physical and psychosocial disability, and selected background variables. Methods. A

  17. An asthma-related quality of life instrument is unable to identify asthmatic children with major psychosocial problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibosch, M.M.; Reidsma, C.; Landstra, A.; Hugen, C.A.C.; Gerrits, P.; Brouwer, M.; Gent, R. van; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial problems among children and adolescents with asthma interfere with adherence to treatment and therefore need attention in asthma care. It is unknown whether the already frequently implemented asthma-related quality of life (QoL) instruments reflect psychosocial

  18. Patient's perceptions of chronic kidney disease and their association with psychosocial and clinical outcomes: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Amy L; Yates, Thomas; Smith, Alice C; Chilcot, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) form organized beliefs regarding their illness and treatment. These perceptions influence the coping strategies employed by an individual to manage his/her illness and may act as a predictor for his/her willingness to engage in self-management behaviours. While illness perceptions have been identified as predictors of non-adherence, depression and mortality in dialysis patients, there is a paucity of research in CKD patients not requiring renal replacement therapy. This narrative review synthesizes the existing literature regarding the role of illness perceptions and associated clinical and psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Studies were identified following database searches of AMED, BNI, CINAHL, EMBASE, Health Business Elite, HMIC, Medline, PsycINFO and Google Scholar in January 2016. Despite the small evidence base, existing studies indicate that negative illness perceptions are associated with disease progression and a number of psychosocial outcomes in non-dialysis CKD patients. Evidence from other clinical populations suggests that illness perceptions are modifiable through psychological intervention, which may be most effective if delivered early before beliefs have the chance to become more established. Therefore, targeting illness perceptions in the earlier stages of CKD may be optimal. Further studies are now required to ascertain the mechanisms through which illness perceptions predict psychosocial and clinical outcomes in CKD patients and to ultimately test the efficacy of illness perception-based interventions.

  19. Smart Device Use and Perceived Physical and Psychosocial Outcomes among Hong Kong Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wai Hang Kwok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive electronic screen-based activities have been found to be associated with negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalences and patterns of smart device activities and the purposes and perceived outcomes related to smart device use, and the differences in patterns of smart device activities between adolescents who did and did not perceive these outcomes. The study was a cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong primary and secondary school students. Demographic characteristics, purpose and pattern of the activities, and frequencies of the outcomes were measured. Data from 960 adolescents aged 10–19 were analyzed. Nearly 86% of the sample use smart device daily. The one-week prevalence of perceived sleep deprivation, eye discomfort, musculoskeletal discomfort, family conflict and cyberbullying victimization related to smart device use were nearly 50%, 45%, 40%, 20% and 5% respectively. More than 25% of the respondents were at risk of negative outcomes related to smart device activities for more than 1 h per day, browsing and gaming on at least 4 days per week and watching TV/movies and posting on more than 2 days per week. Their patterns of smart device activities may put a significant number of them at risk of negative outcomes.

  20. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A

    2016-07-01

    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial Comorbidities Related to Return to Work Rates Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Eleanor R; Conley, Yvette; Crago, Elizabeth; Sherwood, Paula; Poloyac, Samuel M; Ren, Dianxu; Stanfill, Ansley G

    2018-05-21

    Purpose Ability to return to work (RTW) after stroke has been shown to have positive psychosocial benefits on survivors. Although one-fifth of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) survivors suffer from poor psychosocial outcomes, the relationship between such outcomes and RTW post-stroke is not clear. This project explores the relationship between age, gender, race, marital status, anxiety and depression and RTW 3 and 12 months post-aSAH. Methods Demographic and clinical variables were collected from the electronic medical record at the time of aSAH admission. Anxiety and depression were assessed at 3 and 12 months post-aSAH using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in 121 subjects. RTW for previously employed patients was dichotomized into yes/no at their 3 or 12 month follow-up appointment. Results Older age was significantly associated with failure to RTW at 3 and 12 months post-aSAH (p = 0.003 and 0.011, respectively). Female gender showed a trending but nonsignificant relationship with RTW at 12 months (p = 0.081). High scores of depression, State anxiety, and Trait anxiety all had significant associations with failure to RTW 12 months post-aSAH (0.007 ≤ p ≤ 0.048). At 3 months, there was a significant interaction between older age and high State or Trait anxiety with failure to RTW 12 months post-aSAH (p = 0.025, 0.042 respectively). Conclusions Patients who are older and suffer from poor psychological outcomes are at an increased risk of failing to RTW 1-year post-aSAH. Our interactive results give us information about which patients should be streamlined for therapy to target their psychosocial needs.

  2. Do problem-solving interventions improve psychosocial outcomes in vision impaired adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Edith E; Xie, Jing; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Rees, Gwyneth

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of problem-solving interventions on psychosocial outcomes in vision impaired adults. A systematic search of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published between 1990 and 2013, that investigated the impact of problem-solving interventions on depressive symptoms, emotional distress, quality of life (QoL) and functioning was conducted. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised study quality. Data permitting, intervention effects were statistically pooled and meta-analyses were performed, otherwise summarised descriptively. Eleven studies (reporting on eight trials) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis showed problem-solving interventions improved vision-related functioning (standardised mean change [SMC]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.27) and emotional distress (SMC: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.19). There was no evidence to support improvements in depressive symptoms (SMC: -0.27, 95% CI: -0.66 to 0.12) and insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of problem-solving interventions on QoL. The small number of well-designed studies and narrow inclusion criteria limit the conclusions drawn from this review. However, problem-solving skills may be important for nurturing daily functioning and reducing emotional distress for adults with vision impairment. Given the empirical support for the importance of effective problem-solving skills in managing chronic illness, more well-designed RCTs are needed with diverse vision impaired samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A study into psychosocial factors as predictors of work-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2016-07-14

    To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work-family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work-family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.

  4. Work Related Psychosocial and Organizational Factors for Neck Pain in Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Hitchcock, Edward; Haldeman, Scott; Swanson, Naomi; Lu, Ming-Lun; Choi, BongKyoo; Nakata, Akinori; Baker, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a prevalent musculoskeletal condition among workers in the United States. This study explores a set of workplace psychosocial and organization-related factors for neck pain. Methods Data used for this study comes from the 2010 National Health interview Survey which provides a representative sample of the US population. To account for the complex sampling design, the Taylor linearized variance estimation method was used. Logistic regression models were constructed to measure the associations. Results This study demonstrated significant associations between neck pain and a set of workplace risk factors including work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity, non-standard work arrangements, multiple jobs and long work hours. Conclusion Workers with neck pain may benefit from intervention programs that address issues related to these workplace risk factors. Future studies exploring both psychosocial risk factors and physical risk factors with a longitudinal design will be important. PMID:27184340

  5. Individual, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors related to insomnia among Norwegian musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Saksvik-Lehouillier, Ingvild; Bjerkeset, Ottar; Vaag, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Musicians report a considerably higher prevalence of insomnia symptoms compared to community samples in the general workforce. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between insomnia and health, work-related, and lifestyle factors among musicians. A total of 645 full-time musicians completed a questionnaire measuring insomnia symptoms: personality, psychosocial factors (perceived job demands, job control, effort-reward imbalance, and general social support), and lifestyle (s...

  6. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...... risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD....

  7. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  8. Interaction between the RGS6 gene and psychosocial stress on obesity-related traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Min, Kyoung-Bok

    2017-03-31

    Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and arises from the interactions between environmental factors and multiple genes. Psychosocial stress may affect the risk for obesity, modifying food intake and choice. A recent study suggested regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) as a novel candidate gene for obesity in terms of reward-related feeding under stress. In this study, we tried to verify the unidentified connection between RGS6 and human obesity with psychosocial stress in a Korean population. A total of 1,462 adult subjects, who participated in the Korean Association Resource cohort project, were included for this analysis. Obesity-related traits including waist circumference, body mass index, and visceral adipose tissue were recorded. A total of 4 intronic SNPs for the RGS6 gene were used for this study. We found that interactions between SNP rs2239219 and psychosocial stress are significantly associated with abdominal obesity (p = 0.007). As risk allele of this SNP increased, prevalence of abdominal obesity under high-stress conditions gradually increased (p = 0.013). However, we found no SNPs-by-stress interaction effect on other adiposity phenotypes. This study suggests that RGS6 is closely linked to stress-induced abdominal obesity in Korean adults.

  9. Intellectual disability among Dutch homeless people: prevalence and related psychosocial problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Van Straaten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless people in the Netherlands, and report relationships between ID and psychosocial problems in terms of psychological distress, substance (misuse and dependence, as well as demographic characteristics in this cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is part of a cohort study among homeless people in the four major cities of the Netherlands. Data were derived from 387 homeless people who were interviewed and screened for ID six months after the baseline measurement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ2 tests were performed to analyze relationships between ID, psychosocial problems and demographic characteristics. FINDINGS: Of all cohort members, 29.5% had a suspected ID. Participants with a suspected ID had a higher mean age, were more likely to be male and to fall in the lowest category of education than participants without a suspected ID. Having a suspected ID was related to general psychological distress (OR  = 1.56, p<0.05, somatization (OR  = 1.84, p<0.01, depression (OR  = 1.58, p<0.05 and substance dependence (OR  = 1.88, p<0.05. No relationships were found between a suspected ID and anxiety, regular substance use, substance misuse and primary substance of use. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ID among Dutch homeless people is higher than in the general population, and is related to more psychosocial problems than among homeless people without ID. Homeless people with a suspected ID appear to be a vulnerable subgroup within the homeless population. This endorses the importance of the extra attention required for this subgroup.

  10. Social Relations at the Collective Level: The Meaning and Measurement of Collective Control in Research on the Psychosocial Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Øystein Saksvik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we suggest that organizational-level social relations should be defined and measured as workplace norms. We base this argument on new research on the components of the psychosocial work environment and on the availability of new techniques for measuring and analyzing workplace norms as organizational properties. Workplace norms emerge from interactions and negotiations among organizational actors, through which patterns of behavior, attitudes, and perspectives become defined as legitimate. This is an underestimated dimension of the psychosocial work environment that should be assessed with two types of data: self-reports by employees of their experiences in the workplace (task-level control and self-reports by employees and employers of collective or group-level norms. Hierarchical linear modeling is an especially useful tool for analyzing the relationships between workplace norms and different organizational outcomes because it allows researchers to separate the effects of individual-level variables from group or organizational-level factors. Our approach is anchored in the Nordic perspective of the work environment developed over the past 50 years.

  11. Psychosocial therapy for Parkinson's-related dementia: study protocol for the INVEST randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sheree A; McDonald, Kathryn R; Vatter, Sabina; Orgeta, Vasiliki; Poliakoff, Ellen; Smith, Sarah; Silverdale, Monty A; Fu, Bo; Leroi, Iracema

    2017-06-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI-PD) or dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are characterised by motor and 'non-motor' symptoms which impact on quality of life. Treatment options are generally limited to pharmacological approaches. We developed a psychosocial intervention to improve cognition, quality of life and companion burden for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB. Here, we describe the protocol for a single-blind randomised controlled trial to assess feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of the intervention and to evaluate treatment implementation. The interaction among the intervention and selected outcome measures and the efficacy of this intervention in improving cognition for people with MCI-PD, PDD or DLB will also be explored. Dyads will be randomised into two treatment arms to receive either 'treatment as usual' (TAU) or cognitive stimulation therapy specifically adapted for Parkinson's-related dementias (CST-PD), involving 30 min sessions delivered at home by the study companion three times per week over 10 weeks. A mixed-methods approach will be used to collect data on the operational aspects of the trial and treatment implementation. This will involve diary keeping, telephone follow-ups, dyad checklists and researcher ratings. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising recruitment, acceptability and tolerance of the intervention, and treatment implementation. To pilot an outcome measure of efficacy, we will undertake an inferential analysis to test our hypothesis that compared with TAU, CST-PD improves cognition. Qualitative approaches using thematic analysis will also be applied. Our findings will inform a larger definitive trial. Ethical opinion was granted (REC reference: 15/YH/0531). Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conferences. We will prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with PD and dementia. ISRCTN (ISRCTN11455062). © Article author

  12. Subthreshold and threshold attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in childhood: psychosocial outcomes in adolescence in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norén Selinus, E; Molero, Y; Lichtenstein, P; Anckarsäter, H; Lundström, S; Bottai, M; Hellner Gumpert, C

    2016-12-01

    To examine the association between different levels of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and sex differences in psychosocial outcomes during adolescence. Swedish children (n = 4635) were screened for neuropsychiatric symptoms at age 9 or 12. ADHD symptoms were divided into three levels: screen-negative, screen-intermediate, and screen-positive. At follow-up (age 15), parents and teenagers filled out questionnaires regarding (i) hyperactivity/inattention, (ii) peer problems, (iii) school problems, (iv) internalizing problems, (v) antisocial behaviour, (vi) alcohol misuse, and (vii) drug misuse. All outcomes were controlled for symptoms of diagnostic categories other than ADHD. Increasing levels of ADHD symptoms in childhood were associated with higher proportions of adolescents who displayed negative psychosocial outcomes. More girls than boys reported internalizing problems (all levels) and risky drug use (screen-intermediate and screen-positive only). More boys reported antisocial behaviour at the screen-negative and screen-intermediate levels, but at the screen-positive level, similar proportions of girls and boys displayed antisocial behaviour. The findings support the view that ADHD symptoms, as well as their negative outcomes, are dimensionally distributed in the population and that adolescent girls and boys display different risk profiles. The findings confirm that ADHD symptoms are associated with higher risk of drug misuse in girls. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Psychosocial and career outcomes of peer mentorship in medical resident education: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethrick, Helen; Nowell, Lorelli; Oddone Paolucci, Elizabeth; Lorenzetti, Liza; Jacobsen, Michele; Clancy, Tracey; Lorenzetti, Diane L

    2017-08-31

    Many medical residents lack ready access to social and emotional supports that enable them to successfully cope with the challenges associated with medical residency. This absence of support has been shown to lead to high levels of burnout, decreased mental wellbeing, and difficulty mastering professional competencies in this population. While there is emerging evidence that peer mentoring can be an important source of psychosocial and career-related support for many individuals, the extent of the evidence regarding the benefits of peer mentorship in medical residency education has not yet been established. We describe a protocol for a systematic review to assess the effects of peer mentoring on medical residents' mental wellbeing, social connectedness, and professional competencies. Studies included in this review will be those that report on peer-mentoring relationships among medical residents. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods studies will be eligible for inclusion. No date or language limits will be applied. We will search EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, ERIC, Education Research Complete, and Academic Research Complete databases to identify relevant studies. Two authors will independently assess all abstracts and full-text studies for inclusion and study quality and extract study data in duplicate. This is the first systematic review to explicitly explore the role of peer mentoring in the context of medical residency education. We anticipate that the findings from this review will raise awareness of the benefits and challenges associated with peer-mentoring relationships, further the development and implementation of formal peer-mentoring programs for medical residents, and, through identifying gaps in the existing literature, inform future research efforts. This protocol has not been registered in PROSPERO or any other publicly accessible registry.

  14. Psychosocial predictors of health outcomes in colorectal cancer: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paulo M G; Carvalho, André F; McIntyre, Roger S; Pavlidis, Nicholas; Hyphantis, Thomas N

    2014-07-01

    A diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its long-term treatment may lead to significant psychological distress and impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for a significant proportion of patients. We searched the PubMed/MEDLINE electronic database for available literature on the associations between personality characteristics, depression, psychological distress and HRQoL in CRC. Additional references were identified through the citation tracking of the included articles. Recent evidence indicates that Type-D (distressed) personality may predict distress among CRC patients. Additionally, other personality traits, such as specific ego defense mechanisms, influence the coping responses and HRQoL. Although the presence of a stoma has been linked to the development of depressive symptoms and impairment in HRQoL in CRC patients, more prospective studies are necessary to confirm these associations. Sense of coherence (SOC) has both a moderating and mediating effect on health (especially mental health and HRQoL), and preliminary data indicate that SOC may be an independent predictor of CRC survival. The interplay between personality variables during the elaboration of "the impaired role" is complex, and the assessment of personality traits may be incorporated into a comprehensive psychosomatic evaluation of CRC patients. More well-designed prospective investigations are necessary to establish the contributory role of personality dimensions for the development of and protection from distress and impairment in the HRQoL of CRC patients, which could eventually lead to the development of psychosocial interventions that are personalized to this patient population (for example, manual-based psychotherapies). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...

  16. Adolescent Obesity and Young Adult Psychosocial Outcomes: Gender and Racial Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Michael J.; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Williams, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    Using a sample of 7,881 African American (915 males and 1,073 females) and White (2,864 males and 3,029 females) adolescents from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the psychosocial consequences that obese adolescents encounter as they reach young adulthood. Results indicate that obesity…

  17. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy after acquired brain injury in Argentina: psychosocial outcomes in connection with the time elapsed before treatment initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saux, Gastón; Demey, Ignacio; Rojas, Galeno; Feldberg, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) on psychosocial outcomes in Argentinean patients with acquired brain injury (ABI), in connection with the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. Self-reported data from patients in a naturalistic setting was collected before and after CRT. An outpatient sample of 75 Spanish-speaking patients with cognitive disturbances secondary to ABI (49 male/26 female, age: 50.2 ± 20.1 years; education 14.3 ± 3.2 years) completed a set of scales on their daily living activities, memory self-perception, quality-of-life and mood. Single and multi-group analyses were conducted, considering pre- and post- responses and the time elapsed between injury and treatment initiation. The influence of socio-demographic moderators was controlled during comparisons. Results suggest an improvement in several psychosocial indicators after treatment. Additionally, correlations and group comparisons showed greater improvement in subjective memory and quality-of-life self-reports in patients who began treatment earlier than those who began treatment after a longer time period. Overall, results suggest that CRT is associated with positive results in different areas of the psychosocial domain and that post-injury time can mediate this effect.

  18. Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  19. Epilepsy-related clinical factors and psychosocial functions in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Soyong; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Eun, Baik-Lin; Nam, Sang Ook; Kim, Sun Jun; Chung, Hee Jung; Kwon, Soon Hak; Lee, Young-Mock; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Wook; Oh, Kyung Ja; Kim, Heung Dong

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the different influencing patterns of demographic and epilepsy-related variables on various aspects of psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy. Five hundred ninety-eight patients with pediatric epilepsy between the ages of 4 and 18 years (boys=360, 60% and girls=238, 40%) and their parents participated in the study. Parents completed the Social Maturity Scale (SMS), the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL), and the Korean version of the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (K-QOLCE) to assess daily living function, behavior, and quality of life. The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) was completed by clinicians to assess general adaptive function. Demographic variables, such as age and sex of child, and epilepsy-related clinical variables, including seizure type, seizure frequency, duration of epilepsy, and number of medications, were obtained from medical records. Demographic and epilepsy-related clinical variables had a strong influence (22-32%) on the cognition-related domain such as general adaptive function, school/total competence, and quality of life for cognitive function while a comparatively smaller effect (2-16%) on the more psychological domain including behavioral, emotional, and social variables. Younger age, shorter duration of illness, and smaller number of medications showed a strong positive impact on psychosocial function in pediatric epilepsy, particularly for adaptive function, competence, and quality-of-life aspects. Given the wide range of impact of demographic and clinical variables on various facets of psychosocial functions, more specific understanding of the various aspects of factors and their particular pattern of influence may enable more effective therapeutic approaches that address both the medical and psychological needs in pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Personal, Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Related to Sick Building Syndrome in Official Employees of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Lu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome (SBS is a combination of symptoms that can be attributed to exposure to specific building conditions. The present study recruited 389 participants aged 20–65 years from 87 offices of 16 institutions to examine if personal factors, work-related psychosocial stress, and work environments, were associated with five groups of SBS symptoms, including symptoms for eyes, upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract, skin, and non-specific systems. Indoor environmental conditions were monitored. Data were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression (MLR analyses and were reported as adjusted Odds Ratios (aOR. SBS symptoms for eyes were associated with older age, sensitivity to tobacco, and low indoor air flow. Upper respiratory symptoms were related to smoking, low social support, longer work days, and dry air. High indoor air flow was associated with reduced upper respiratory symptoms (aOR = 0.29; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.13–0.67. Lower respiratory symptoms were associated with high work pressure, longer work hours, chemical exposure, migraine, and exposure to new interior painting. Recent interior painting exposure was associated with a high estimated relative risk of low respiratory symptoms (aOR = 20.6; 95% CI = 2.96–143. Smoking, longer work days, low indoor air flow, indoor dryness, and volatile organics exposure, were associated with other non-specified symptoms including headache, tiredness, difficulty concentrating, anger, and dizziness. In conclusion, there are various SBS symptoms associated with different personal characteristics, psychosocial, and environmental factors. Psychosocial factors had stronger relationships with lower respiratory symptoms than with other types of SBS symptoms. Good ventilation could reduce risk factors and may relieve SBS symptoms.

  1. Coping Strategies as Predictors and Mediators of Disability-Related Variables and Psychosocial Adaptation: An Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livneh, Hanoch; Wilson, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationships among four predictors (functional limitations, perceived visibility of condition, and two disability-associated affective responses-anxiety and depression), coping strategies, and two outcome measures of psychosocial adaptation to disability. Findings suggest that coping strategies add significantly to the variance in…

  2. Short-Term Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Neuropsychological-Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Giampaolo; Daccò, Silvia; Sacco, Ferdinando; Micieli, Wilma; Cavedini, Paolo; Caldirola, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care. At the beginning and the end of the hospitalization we evaluated: neuropsychological performance (cognitive tests on verbal/visual working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency, and comprehension); psychosocial functioning by the Rehabilitation Areas Form (RAF, handbook VADO); illness severity by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Repeated-measure ANOVA and Pearson's linear correlation were used. We found significant improvement (pneuropsychological tests except for one, in 4 out of 6 RAF psychosocial areas ("involvement in ward activities", "autonomies", "self-care", and "self-management of health") and in clinical symptoms severity. No associations were found between the amelioration of clinical symptoms and neuropsychological or psychosocial improvement. A S-T PsyRP without specific cognitive remediation trainings may improve several cognitive/functional domains in MDD or BD inpatients, probably by offering opportunities to engage in demanding problem-solving conditions and cognitively stimulating activities.

  3. Social participation and psychosocial outcomes of young adults with chronic physical conditions: Comparing recipients and non-recipients of disability benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Marjolijn I; Sattoe, Jane N T; Miedema, Harald S; van Staa, AnneLoes

    2018-03-01

    Little is known about any differences between young people with chronic physical conditions who do and do not apply for disability benefits in young adulthood for providing insights for future policy and rehabilitation care. We aimed to identify predictors during adolescence of receiving disability benefits in young adulthood and to compare recipients and non-recipients of benefits in social participation and psychosocial outcomes in young adulthood. Follow-up study of 18 to 25 year olds with various chronic conditions who at adolescent age completed a web-based survey (n=518; T0). The outcome was receiving disability benefits (yes or no). Associations with background characteristics, social participation, and impact of the chronic condition were explored with stepwise multivariate modelling, using T0 variables. Differences between recipients and non-recipients were explored using chi-square tests and t-tests. Receiving disability benefits in young adulthood was associated with greater extent of physical disability, receiving less special education, absenteeism at school/work, and low health-related quality of life during adolescence. In young adulthood, recipients of benefits reported higher perceived impact of the chronic condition on their school/work career and lower quality of life than non-recipients. Social participation varied across domains. This study provides important insights into the characteristics of a vulnerable subgroup of young people with chronic physical conditions. Disability benefit recipients experienced more impact of their chronic condition and reported a lower health-related quality of life over time than non-recipients. Rehabilitation professionals are encouraged to use patient-reported outcomes to address the lived experiences and screen the need for psychosocial support of this vulnerable subgroup of young people with chronic physical conditions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. What interventions can improve quality of life or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review with meta-analysis of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Pappas, Evangelos; De Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2018-03-16

    To systematically review evidence of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of treatment strategies on quality of life (QoL) or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science were searched from inception to November 2017. We included RCTs investigating the effect of conservative interventions on QoL or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee OA. Only RCTs considering these outcomes as primary were included. Pooled data supported the use of exercise therapy compared with controls for improving health-related and knee-related QoL. There was limited evidence that a combined treatment of yoga, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound may be effective in improving QoL. Limited evidence supported the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without being combined with exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress. Exercise therapy (with or without being combined with other interventions) seems to be effective in improving health-related and knee-related QoL or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee OA. In addition, evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress in individuals with knee OA. CRD42016047602. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Good practices in managing work-related indoor air problems: a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Vähämäki, Kari; Kähkönen, Erkki; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Reijula, Kari

    2004-07-01

    Indoor air problems at workplaces are often exceedingly complex. Technical questions are interrelated with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the problem solving process are also put to the test. The objective of our study was to analyze the process of managing and solving indoor air problems from a psychosocial perspective. This collective case study was based on data from questionnaires, interviews and various documentary materials. Technical inspections of the buildings and indoor air measurements were also carried out. The following four factors best differentiated successful cases from impeded cases: extensive multiprofessional collaboration and participative action, systematic action and perseverance, investment in information and communication, and process thinking and learning. The study also proposed a theoretical model for the role of the psychosocial work environment in indoor air problems. The expertise related to social and human aspects of problem solving plays a significant role in solving indoor air problems. Failures to properly handle these aspects may lead to resources being wasted and result in a problematic situation becoming stagnant or worse. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.

  7. Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Background While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Conclusions/Significance Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts. PMID:21957464

  8. Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huepe

    Full Text Available While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire, domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale, drug intake (ONUDD, self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation. Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.

  9. The effect of acupuncture on psychosocial outcomes for women experiencing infertility: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Carmady, Bridget; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2011-10-01

    The study objectives were to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture for reducing infertility-related stress. The study design was a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared with a wait-list control. The study was conducted at The University of Western Sydney. Thirty-two (32) women aged 20-45 years, with a diagnosis of infertility, or a history of unsuccessfully trying to conceive for 12 months or more, were the subjects of the study. Women received six sessions of acupuncture over 8 weeks. The primary outcomes were infertility self-efficacy, anxiety, and infertility-related stress. The women's experience of infertility and acupuncture is also reported. At the end of the 8-week intervention, women in the acupuncture group reported significant changes on two domains on the Fertility Problem Inventory with less social concern (mean difference [MD] -3.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] -7.58 to 0.84, p=0.05), and less relationship concern (MD -3.66, 95% CI -6.80 to -0.052, p=0.02). There were also trends toward a reduction of infertility stress on other domains, and a trend toward improved self-efficacy (MD 11.9, 95% CI -2.20 to 26.0, p=0.09) and less anxiety (MD -2.54, 95% CI -5.95 to 0.86, p=0.08) in the acupuncture group compared with the wait-list control. Women described the experience and impact of acupuncture as positive relating to a sense of relaxation and time out, the engagement with the practitioner, and an intervention that had very few negative side-effects. Changes were also perceived after treatment with women describing a physical and psychologic sense of relaxation and calmness, and a changed perspective in relation to coping. Acupuncture may be a useful intervention to assist with the reduction of infertility-related stress. Further research is justified.

  10. Impact of a goal setting and decision support telephone coaching intervention on diet, psychosocial, and decision outcomes among people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Christine M; Miller, Carla K; Wills, Celia E

    2017-07-01

    Evaluate a 16-week decision support and goal-setting intervention to compare diet quality, decision, and diabetes-related outcomes to a control group. Adults with type 2 diabetes (n=54) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants completed one in-person motivational interviewing and decision support session followed by seven biweekly telephone coaching calls. Participants reported previous goal attempts and set diet- and/or physical activity-related goals during coaching calls. Control group participants received information about local health care resources on the same contact schedule. There was a significant difference between groups for diabetes empowerment (p=0.045). A significant increase in diet quality, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes empowerment, and a significant decrease in diabetes distress and depressive symptoms (all p≤0.05) occurred in the intervention group. Decision confidence to achieve diet-related goals significantly improved from baseline to week 8 but then declined at study end (both p≤0.05). Setting specific diet-related goals may promote dietary change, and telephone coaching can improve psychosocial outcomes related to diabetes self-management. Informed shared decision making can facilitate progressively challenging yet attainable goals tailored to individuals' lifestyle. Decision coaching may empower patients to improve self-management practices and reduce distress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. THE RELATION BETWEEN PSYCHOSOCIAL WORK FACTORS AND MUSCULOSKELETAL SYMPTOMS AMONG COMPUTER WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Prodanovska-Stojcevska; Jovica Jovanovic; Tanja Jovanovska; Domnika Rajchanovska; Izabela Filov; Biljana Bogdanova

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several epidemiological studies have shown that intensive computer work and other factors of work organization, involving physical and psychosocial exposure to computer work, are associated with increased risk of neck and upper extremity disorders.OBJECTIVES:The aim of this study is to present psychosocial work factors and their relationship to musculoskeletal symptoms among computer workers.MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessing p...

  12. Outcome evaluation of a community center-based program for mothers at high psychosocial risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; Máiquez, María Luisa; Correa, Ana Delia; Martín, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez, Guacimara

    2006-09-01

    This study reported the outcome evaluation of the "Apoyo Personal y Familiar" (APF) program for poorly-educated mothers from multi-problem families, showing inadequate behavior with their children. APF is a community-based multi-site program delivered through weekly group meetings in municipal resource centers. A total of 340 mothers referred by the municipal social services of Tenerife, Spain were assessed; 185 mothers participated in the APF program that lasted 8 months, and 155 mothers were in the control group. Pre-post test comparisons for the intervention group and post-test comparisons with the control group on self-rating measures of maternal beliefs, personal agency and child-rearing practices were performed. Multivariate tests, t tests and effect sizes (ES) were calculated to determine the program effectiveness on the outcome measures. Mothers' support of nurturist and nativist beliefs and the reported use of Neglect-permissive and Coercive practices significantly decreased after program completion whereas the reported use of Inductive practices significantly increased. Increases in self-efficacy, internal control and role difficulty were also significant in relation to those of the control group. The program was especially effective for older mothers, with fewer children, living in a two-parent family, in urban areas and with either low or medium educational levels. The program was very effective in changing the mothers' perceived competences and modestly effective in changing their beliefs about child development and education and reported child-rearing practices. Changes in personal agency are very important for at-risk parents who feel helpless and with no control over their lives.

  13. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial outcomes of Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with acute coronary syndromes: a prospective repeated measures study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Dominic S K; Chau, Janita P C; Chang, Anne M

    2007-08-01

    Western studies have suggested that emotional stress and distress impacted on the morbidity and mortality in people following acute coronary events. Symptoms of anxiety and depression have been associated with re-infarction and death, prolonged recovery and disability and depression may precipitate the client's low self-esteem. This study examined perceived anxiety, depression and self-esteem of Hong Kong Chinese clients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over a 6-month period following hospital admission. To examine: A prospective, repeated measures design with measures taken on two occasions over a 6-month period; (1) within the 1st week of hospital admission following the onset of ACS and (2) at 6 months follow up. Convenient sample of 182 voluntary consented clients admitted with ACS to a major public hospital in Hong Kong who could communicate in Chinese, complete questionnaires, cognitive intact, and were haemodynamically stable and free from acute chest pain at the time of interview. Baseline data were obtained within 1 week after hospital admission. The follow-up data was collected 6 months after hospital discharge. The Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), State Self-esteem Scale (SSES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were used to assess anxiety and depression, state self-esteem, and trait self-esteem, respectively. Findings suggested gender differences in clients' perception in anxiety, depression and self-esteem. Improvements in clients' perception of these variables were evident over the 6-month period following their acute coronary events. The study confirmed the western notion that psychosocial problems are common among coronary clients and this also applies to Hong Kong Chinese diagnosed with ACS. Further studies to explore effective interventions to address these psychosocial issues are recommended.

  15. A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Labeled, Parallel Group Trial of Sildenafil in Alcohol-Associated Erectile Dysfunction: The Impact on Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grinshpoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction (ED and psychosocial outcomes in alcohol-dependent (AD men, 108 men with these diagnoses were randomly assigned to either take sildenafil (50 mg as add-on to standard treatment for AD, or the same treatment without sildenafil, for 12 weeks. Only 50 patients in sildenafil group and 51 in control group twice completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and a battery of self-report questionnaires. IIEF scores and psychosocial functioning, self-esteem and support from friends improved only for sildenafil-treated patients (P < 0.001. The high effect sizes suggest that the observed benefits are unlikely to be a placebo effect, although their unspecific nature could not be ruled out. In men with ED associated with AD, sildenafil improves both ED and psychosocial outcomes. Further placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted.

  16. Longitudinal psychosocial factors related to symptoms of Internet addiction among adults in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-11-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the psychosocial factors from adolescence to adulthood as related to symptoms of Internet addiction (IA) during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N=548) followed from adolescence to early midlife (mean age=43; SD=2.8). The findings supported a meditational model: adolescent (mean age=16) conflictual parent-child relationship was associated with internalizing problem behaviors at mean age 21 in emerging adulthood (b=0.13, ptherapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescent and his/her parents, cognitive-behavioral treatment of internalizing problem behaviors, and effective treatment of individuals who have alcohol/drug use problems may reduce the likelihood of having symptoms of IA in early midlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Musculoskeletal complaints among nurses related to patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors - Based on logbook registrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, S.; Precht, D.H.; Suadicani, P.

    2009-01-01

    The aims were to evaluate the inter-method reliability of a registration sheet for patient handling tasks, to study the day-to-day variation of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) and to examine whether patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors were associated with MSC. Nurses (n = 148...... transfer and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting MSC and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days (15%-30% and 17%-37%, respectively) and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer task were associated with LPB and transfer tasks were associated with KP. Our...... results confirm a relationship between work factors and MSC and indicate that logs could be one way to obtain a better understanding of the complex interaction of various nursing working conditions in relation to MSC. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7...

  18. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and health-related behavior among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn

    2009-02-01

    Despite the popularity of self-rated health (SRH) in Western countries as a useful public health tool, it has only rarely been used in Asian countries. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether measures of psychosocial functioning and health-related factors differ according to SRH in a school-based sample of Thai adolescents. The survey was given to 2519 adolescents attending 10 coeducational secondary high schools in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand and included measures of psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness) and certain health-related factors (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep). The proportion of boys (5.1%) reporting that they were not healthy was similar to the proportion of girls (4.6%) making the same rating. These adolescents showed a pattern of overall poor health risk. Compared to adolescent peers who rated their health as healthy or very healthy, they were less physically active, got less sleep, were more likely to be overweight, and scored lower on loneliness, shyness, hopelessness, and self-rated happiness. The present pattern of poor health risk warrants attention and supports the merit of using SRH in adolescent health assessment. SRH is easy to obtain and simple to assess and single-item assessments of SRH appear to be valid measures of health status in adults and adolescent. Interventions, such as health counseling, mental health counseling, and health education, can target adolescents who rate themselves as 'not healthy' or report poor health status.

  20. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  1. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of life...

  2. Medical-Legal Partnerships At Veterans Affairs Medical Centers Improved Housing And Psychosocial Outcomes For Vets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Middleton, Margaret; Villegas, Jennifer; Johnson, Cindy; Retkin, Randye; Seidman, Alison; Sherman, Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2017-12-01

    Medical-legal partnerships-collaborations between legal professionals and health care providers that help patients address civil legal problems that can affect health and well-being-have been implemented at several Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers to serve homeless and low-income veterans with mental illness. We describe the outcomes of veterans who accessed legal services at four partnership sites in Connecticut and New York in the period 2014-16. The partnerships served 950 veterans, who collectively had 1,384 legal issues; on average, the issues took 5.4 hours' worth of legal services to resolve. The most common problems were related to VA benefits, housing, family issues, and consumer issues. Among a subsample of 148 veterans who were followed for one year, we observed significant improvements in housing, income, and mental health. Veterans who received more partnership services showed greater improvements in housing and mental health than those who received fewer services, and those who achieved their predefined legal goals showed greater improvements in housing status and community integration than those who did not. Medical-legal partnerships represent an opportunity to expand cross-sector, community-based partnerships in the VA health care system to address social determinants of mental health.

  3. Bereaved relatives' decision about deceased organ donation: An integrated psycho-social study conducted in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge S; Martínez, José M; Soria-Oliver, María; Aramayona, Begoña; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martín, María J; Almendros, Carmen

    2018-05-01

    Family refusal to organ donation of a deceased relative represents one of the most important barriers to organ transplantation. Although a large literature about family decisions has amassed, the existing evidence needs further integration and structuring. This study seeks to analyse relationships between bereaved relatives' decisions and a wide range of factors that converge in the family decision process, including interactions and complex relationship patterns, and taking psychosocial theoretical frameworks as reference to conceptualize empirical findings. This observational study examined 16 Spanish hospitals during a 36-month period. Transplant coordination teams collected data of 421 cases of family decision processes about donation (338 donations/83 refusals) through a previously validated instrument. Indicators of the following factors were collected: deceased's characteristics; circumstances of death; bereaved relatives' characteristics, beliefs, and expressions; behaviour of health and coordination staff; and family's emotional responses. Three global hypotheses related to bivariate and multivariate relations of factors with family decisions and relationships/interactions among factors were tested. Relatives' beliefs about the deceased's wishes concerning donation are the strongest predictor of family decisions. However, family decisions are also related to the deceased's characteristics, relatives' characteristics, satisfaction with medical attention, satisfaction with personal treatment and relatives' emotional responses, and other factors. Relatives' emotional reactions are related to satisfaction with health-staff interventions and condition family decision, even if deceased's will concerning donation is known and positive. Relatives' beliefs about deceased's wishes concerning donation vary as a function of deceased's characteristics and according to relatives' characteristics. Understanding of family decisions underlying organ donation may greatly

  4. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung; Moon, Sun Hye

    2011-06-01

    A rapid increase in the population of migrant workers in Korea has brought new challenges regarding the possible effects of acculturation on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of acculturation- and work-related psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders among migrant female workers living in Korea. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A translated, structured questionnaire was administrated to 156 southeastern Asian female full-time workers living in Korea. About 35% of the participants experienced some type(s) of work-related musculoskeletal disorder(s), which were more prevalent in Vietnamese women than in Thai and Filipino women. Women who preferred to maintain their own heritage and to reject the host country heritage were at risk for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.

  5. Childhood Obesity: Psychosocial Outcomes and the Role of Weight Bias and Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield, Pauline V.

    2009-01-01

    Research, policy and media discourses highlight negative physical and non-physical outcomes for overweight/obese children and adolescents compared with their non-overweight/obese peers. The research findings that have positioned this "vulnerable" group are reviewed with particular reference to the desired outcomes of the "Every Child Matters"…

  6. Relationship between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health among Chinese medical staff: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying-Zhi; Chu, Xi; Meng, Shi-Jiao; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li-Juan; Yan, Yu-Xiang

    2018-03-06

    The study aimed to develop and validate a model to measure psychosocial factors at work among medical staff in China based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The second aim of the current study was to clarify the association between stress-related psychosocial work factors and suboptimal health status. The cross-sectional study was conducted using clustered sampling method. Xuanwu Hospital, a 3A grade hospital in Beijing. Nine hundred and fourteen medical staff aged over 40 years were sampled. Seven hundred and ninety-seven valid questionnaires were collected and used for further analyses. The sample included 94% of the Han population. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaires-25 were used to assess the psychosocial factors at work and suboptimal health status, respectively. CFA was conducted to establish the evaluating method of COPSOQ. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the relationship between suboptimal health status and stress-related psychosocial work factors among Chinese medical staff. There was a strong correlation among the five dimensions of COPSOQ based on the first-order factor model. Then, we established two second-order factors including negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors to evaluate psychosocial factors at work, and the second-order factor model fit well. The high score in negative (OR (95% CI)=1.47 (1.34 to 1.62), Pwork factors increased and decreased the risk of suboptimal health, respectively. This relationship remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounders and when using different cut-offs of suboptimal health status. Among medical staff, the second-order factor model was a suitable method to evaluate the COPSOQ. The negative and positive psychosocial work stress factors might be the risk and protective factors of suboptimal health, respectively. Moreover, negative psychosocial work stress was the most associated

  7. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  8. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  9. Slipping and holding minds: A psychosocial analysis of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Saville Young

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper elucidates a methodological approach to interview text that tries to acknowledge the psychosocial nature of disability and thereby ensuring that empirical work in disability studies complements theoretical arguments already developed. Objectives: The aim of this study is to outline a psychosocial conceptualisation of maternal subjectivity in relation to childhood disability and to apply this conceptualisation as an analytic tool to segments of an interview with a mother of a child with physical and developmental disabilities. Method: Drawing on psychoanalysis and attachment literature alongside critical social psychology we take readers through the analysis of an interview extract with a particular mother. Through a fine grained analysis, we demonstrate the value of attending to the affective processes in and around the text rooted in the particular intersubjective exchange (‘here and how’ of the interview and the particular socio-historical context (‘there and then’ in which the mother, child and researcher are located. Findings: The reading draws attention to discourses that position this particular mother and her children in particular ways while also pointing to investments in these discourses such that these discourses are not purely social but play affective functions. Conclusion: This paper demonstrates the value of using multiple lenses to read the text, seeking to understand what is going on from within each lens (discursive/social, interpersonal, intrapsychic, while also seeking to disrupt this understanding as we take up the position of a different lens. This approach enables us to hold onto the complexity and locatedness of maternal subjectivity for mothers of children with disabilities.

  10. Environmental enrichment reduces chronic psychosocial stress-induced anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi, Amine

    2017-07-03

    Previous research from our laboratory has shown that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress increased voluntary ethanol consumption and preference as well as acquisition of ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice. This study was done to determine whether an enriched environment could have "curative" effects on chronic psychosocial stress-induced ethanol intake and CPP. For this purpose, experimental mice "intruders" were exposed to the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) housing for 19 consecutive days in the presence of an aggressive "resident" mouse. At the end of that period, mice were tested for their anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM) test then housed in a standard or enriched environment (SE or EE respectively). Anxiety and ethanol-related behaviors were investigated using the open field (OF) test, a standard two-bottle choice drinking paradigm, and the CPP procedure. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to single housed colony (SHC) controls. In addition, CSC exposure increased voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-CPP. Interestingly, we found that EE significantly and consistently reduced anxiety and ethanol consumption and preference. However, neither tastants' (saccharin and quinine) intake nor blood ethanol metabolism were affected by EE. Finally, and most importantly, EE reduced the acquisition of CPP induced by 1.5g/kg ethanol. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that EE can reduce voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol-induced conditioned reward and seems to be one of the strategies to reduce the behavioral deficits and the risk of anxiety-induced alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mental distress among shift workers in Norwegian offshore petroleum industry--relative influence of individual and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljoså, Cathrine Haugene; Tyssen, Reidar; Lau, Bjørn

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between individual and psychosocial work factors and mental distress among offshore shift workers in the Norwegian petroleum industry. All 2406 employees of a large Norwegian oil and gas company, who worked offshore during a two-week period in August 2006, were invited to participate in the web-based survey. Completed questionnaires were received from 1336 employees (56% response rate). The outcome variable was mental distress, assessed with a shortened version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-5). The following individual factors were adjusted for: age, gender, marital status, and shift work locus of control. Psychosocial work factors included: night work, demands, control and support, and shift work-home interference. The level of mental distress was higher among men than women. In the adjusted regression model, the following were associated with mental distress: (i) high scores on quantitative demands, (ii) low level of support, and (iii) high level of shift work-home interference. Psychosocial work factors explained 76% of the total explained variance (adjusted R (²)=0.21) in the final adjusted model. Psychosocial work factors, such as quantitative demands, support, and shift work-home interference were independently associated with mental distress. Shift schedules were only univariately associated with mental distress.

  12. Returning to paid employment after stroke: the Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree L Hackett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine which early modifiable factors are associated with younger stroke survivors' ability to return to paid work in a cohort study with 12-months of follow-up conducted in 20 stroke units in the Stroke Services NSW clinical network. PARTICIPANTS: Were aged >17 and <65 years, recent (within 28 days stroke, able to speak English sufficiently to respond to study questions, and able to provide written informed consent. Participants with language or cognitive impairment were eligible to participate if their proxy provided consent and completed assessments on the participants' behalf. The main outcome measure was return to paid work during the 12 months following stroke. RESULTS: Of 441 consented participants (average age 52 years, 68% male, 83% with ischemic stroke, 218 were in paid full-time and 53 in paid part-time work immediately before their stroke, of whom 202 (75% returned to paid part- or full-time work within 12 months. Being male, female without a prior activity restricting illness, younger, independent in activities of daily living (ADL at 28 days after stroke, and having private health insurance was associated with return to paid work, following adjustment for other illnesses and a history of depression before stroke (C statistic 0·81. Work stress and post stroke depression showed no such independent association. CONCLUSIONS: Given that independence in ADL is the strongest predictor of return to paid work within 12 months of stroke, these data reinforce the importance of reducing stroke-related disability and increasing independence for younger stroke survivors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTRN 12608000459325.

  13. Labor rights of employees of the private security providers in El Salvador, and their relation to psychosocial risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Coca Muñoz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws the attention of the academic community, businessmen, worker associations/unions, and public decision makers to the relation between preventing psychosocial risks for private security workers in El Salvador, and the respect for their worker rights as enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic, the Labor Code, and the General Law for the Prevention of Risk at the Workplace. It addresses the doctrine and legal framework of psychosocial risk, and government responsibility in terms of occupational security and health –specifically, the intervention of work inspections by the Ministry of Labor, and verifying psychosocial risks.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v4i1.1557

  14. Age-Related Patterns in Cancer Pain and Its Psychosocial Impact: Investigating the Role of Variability in Physical and Mental Health Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynn R; Dworkin, Robert H; Warr, David; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Macpherson, Alison K; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla; Lawrence Librach, S; Moore, Malcolm; Shepherd, Frances A; Gagliese, Lucia

    2017-03-03

    Age-related patterns in cancer pain remain equivocal. Most studies ignore heterogeneity across multiple domains of well-being, and the potential role of physical (PH) and mental health (MH) quality of life (QOL) in these age-related patterns is unknown. We investigated the relationships between age and cancer pain intensity, qualities, and interference, and physical and psychosocial adaptation and the interaction between age and PH and MH QOL on pain and adaptation to cancer pain. In this cross-sectional study, 244 patients with advanced cancer and pain completed measures of pain, QOL, physical function, and psychosocial well-being. Pearson's correlations and ANOVAs assessed relationships between age and demographic and clinical factors, pain, and physical and psychosocial measures. Regression models tested the role of age and its interaction with PH and MH QOL on pain and physical and psychosocial adaptation. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving an opioid prescription, greater likelihood of having comorbidities, and worse functional status. When we did not account for these factors, age was not associated with pain and most adaptation indices. When we did account for these factors and PH QOL, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic and neuropathic pain and several indices of psychosocial adaptation. Most interestingly, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, MH QOL. This study addresses knowledge gaps about factors underlying age-related patterns in cancer pain. Impaired MH QOL may be a proxy for age-related patterns in cancer pain. This study investigated age-related patterns in the experience of cancer pain and the role of quality of life in resilience and vulnerability to pain and adaptation to pain. Older age is associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, mental health quality of life, suggesting that impaired mental health quality of

  15. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescents with different profiles of individuation in relation to parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Puklek Levpušček

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuation in relation to parents represents an important developmental task during adolescence. The article focuses on the examination of different profiles of individuation in relation to parents and how these profiles manifest themselves in different periods of adolescence. We were also interested in the psychosocial characteristics that vary among adolescents with different profiles of individuation. The sample consisted of 593 adolescents in the age range of 13 to 18 years. The adolescents filled in the self-report questionnaires of individuation in relation to parents and friends, perceived parental behavior, and perceived self-efficacy in learning. They also reported about the frequency of psychological symptoms experienced in the last month. To identify the diverse groups of adolescents the scores on the scale of individuation in relation to parents were subjected to a cluster analysis. Finally, the four-cluster solution was chosen. The clusters were named: Good connectedness with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Highly harmonious relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy, Cold relationship with parents with threatened autonomy and Ambivalent relationship with parents. The results confirmed the hypothesis, that most adolescents will be classified in the profiles of good relationship with parents with non-threatened autonomy. The results also showed that the combination of moderate emotional connectedness with parents, low parental idealization, ability to integrate autonomy and connectedness, low denial of dependency needs and low engulfment anxiety represent the most favorable individuation pattern for psychological adaptation of adolescents.

  16. 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj

    2012-01-01

    years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES......, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES. RESULTS: At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.......80). CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes. (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....

  17. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  18. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.D.M.; Terwee, C.B.; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Bouter, L.M.; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Methods: Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report

  19. Psychosocial Adaptation to Visual Impairment and Its Relationship to Depressive Affect in Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Jennifer; Hill, Robert D.; Kleinschmidt, Julia J.; Gregg, Charles H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this study we examined psychosocial adaptation to vision loss and its relationship to depressive symptomatology in legally blind older adults with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). Design and Methods: The 144 study participants were outpatients of a large regional vision clinic that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of…

  20. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  1. Comorbidity, Pain, Utilization, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Older versus Younger Sickle Cell Adults: The PiSCES Project

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    Donna K. McClish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with SCD now usually live well into adulthood. Whereas transitions into adulthood are now often studied, little is published about aging beyond the transition period. We therefore studied age-associated SCD differences in utilization, pain, and psychosocial variables. Methods. Subjects were 232 adults in the Pain in Sickle Cell Epidemiology Study (PiSCES. Data included demographics, comorbidity, and psychosocial measures. SCD-related pain and health care utilization were recorded in diaries. We compared 3 age groups: 16–25 (transition, 26–36 (younger adults, and 37–64 (older adults years. Results. Compared to the 2 adult groups, the transition group reported fewer physical challenges via comorbidities, somatic complaints, and pain frequency, though pain intensity did not differ on crisis or noncrisis pain days. The transition group utilized opioids less often, made fewer ambulatory visits, and had better quality of life, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for pain and comorbidities. However, the transition group reported more use of behavioral coping strategies. Conclusion. We found fewer biological challenges, visits, and better quality of life, in transition-aged versus older adults with SCD, but more behavioral coping. Further study is required to determine whether age-appropriate health care, behavioral, or other interventions could improve age-specific life challenges of patients with SCD.

  2. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

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    Metzke Christa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS. Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the three measurement points in time and compared to the rest of the sample. Comparisons included questionnaire data regarding emotional and behavioural problems, life events, coping style, self-related cognitions, perceived parenting style, perceived school environment, and size and efficiency of the social network. Results The size of the groups with PSU increased continuously across time. The cross-sectional correlates of PSU were characterized by a similar pattern that included higher scores for externalizing behaviour, and both number and negative impact of life events across all three times. At time 1 and 2 subjects with PSU also experienced less favourable parenting styles and school environments. Longitudinally, PSU in young adulthood was predicted most strongly and persistently by previous risk status, externalizing problems and male gender. Conclusion Problematic substance use is a major problem in youth. Its contributing pattern of associated and predictive psychosocial variables can be identified in the community.

  3. The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Treadwell, Marsha; Weissman, Lina; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-12-01

    Children with siblings coping with chronic illness experience stresses and disruptions in daily life as families work together to care for the affected child. Research suggests that children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be at risk for adjustment problems, impaired psychosocial functioning, and reduced quality of life. These potential stressors affect the child with SCD as well as their caregivers and other family members. This study examined the role of family functioning on the psychosocial functioning of healthy siblings of children with SCD. Participants were 65 healthy African-American siblings of children with SCD with a mean age of 11.19 years (range: 7-16) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adjustment including demographic surveys, the Family Relations Scale (FRS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Increased number of emergency room visits (β = -0.28, P Family functioning mediated this effect (β = 0.27; P family expressiveness (total score, r = -0.34; P family conflict (total score, r = 0.41; P family expressiveness, support, and conflict are indicated for this population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Eschmann, Susanne; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-10-11

    The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU) across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS). Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the three measurement points in time and compared to the rest of the sample. Comparisons included questionnaire data regarding emotional and behavioural problems, life events, coping style, self-related cognitions, perceived parenting style, perceived school environment, and size and efficiency of the social network. The size of the groups with PSU increased continuously across time. The cross-sectional correlates of PSU were characterized by a similar pattern that included higher scores for externalizing behaviour, and both number and negative impact of life events across all three times. At time 1 and 2 subjects with PSU also experienced less favourable parenting styles and school environments. Longitudinally, PSU in young adulthood was predicted most strongly and persistently by previous risk status, externalizing problems and male gender. Problematic substance use is a major problem in youth. Its contributing pattern of associated and predictive psychosocial variables can be identified in the community.

  5. Acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.

  6. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS in Mansoura city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omar Khashaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD] among emergency medical responders (EMRs. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140 EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140 nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI, Beck depression inventory (BDI, and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%, followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8% and young victims (87.14%. Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P 0.05. There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6, exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI = 1.6 (0.5-4.4 and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI 1.4 (0.53.7 (P > 0.05 Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.

  7. Psychosocial work aspects, stress and musculoskeletal pain among musicians. A systematic review in search of correlates and predictors of playing-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-16

    Musicians face numerous psychosocial and physical demands at work resulting in high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike physical risks, little is known about psychosocial work factors influencing such health problems in this particular group. The paper aimed to identify psychosocial work demands resulting in musculoskeletal problems among musicians. A systematic review was undertaken to find data linking psychosocial work demands or stress with musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. The exploration of databases resulted in nine research studies linking psychosocial aspects of work or stress with musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The analyzed studies linked psychosocial aspects with musculoskeletal problems in three ways - showing proportions of people indicating particular causes of pain, indicating correlations between these variables or performing regression analysis showing psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal pain. Only a few studies have undertaken the issue of psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The results revealed that some psychosocial aspects of work, e.g. long hours at work, work content, high job demands, low control/influence, lack of social support, were related to musculoskeletal pain, however, the methods and results were inconsistent. The extant studies employed variety of definitions of psychosocial aspects that hindered the possibility for consistent conclusions. Basing on those conclusions, future directions were offered.

  8. Associations Between Pre-Implant Psychosocial Factors and Spinal Cord Stimulation Outcome: Evaluation Using the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Andrew R; Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Kukal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has variable effectiveness in controlling chronic pain. Previous research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors are associated with diminished results of SCS. The objective of this investigation is to examine associations between pre-implant psychological functioning as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) and SCS outcomes. SCS candidates at two sites (total N = 319) completed the MMPI-2-RF and measures of pain, emotional distress, and functional ability as part of a pre-implant psychological evaluation. At an average of 5 months post-implant, patients completed the measures of pain and emotional distress a second time. Poorer SCS outcomes and poorer patient satisfaction were associated with higher pre-implant MMPI-2-RF scores on scales used to assess emotional dysfunction, somatic/cognitive complaints, and interpersonal problems. Ways through which pre-implant psychological evaluations of spinal cord stimulator candidates can be informed by MMPI-2-RF findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Enhancing Collegiate Women’s Soccer Psychosocial and Performance Outcomes by Promoting Intrinsic Sources of Sport Enjoyment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P. Barnicle, Damon Burton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of an applied mental skills training (MST intervention utilizing mental skills to enhance intrinsic sources of enjoyment (ISOEs as a means of promoting self-confidence, motivational style, and athletic performance, while also decreasing trait anxiety. The intervention project was designed to increase intrinsic SOE using a systematic and individualized mental training protocol, and then examine its relationships to mental skills and soccer performance. A Division 1 collegiate women’s soccer team was randomly assigned to treatment (n = 8 and control (n = 11 groups, equally distributed by academic year, position, and pre-season coach-evaluated starters and non-starts. Results revealed that the MST intervention significantly increased intrinsic enjoyment targeted psychological and competitive outcomes, both in practice and competition within the treatment group as compared to the control group. This study’s support for the impact mental skills training may have had on ISOEs, as well as other psychosocial outcomes and athletic performance can serve to highlight a mental skill often overlooked by consultants and coaches.

  10. Psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue amongst nurses in Brunei: structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hanif; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2017-09-01

    Psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue have adverse effects on individual nurses and place a substantial financial burden on health care. Evidence of an association has been reported in the literature, but no theoretical explanation has been published to date. To explore and develop a structural model to provide a theoretical explanation for this relationship. A cross-sectional study using data from 201 valid samples of emergency and critical care nurses across public hospitals in Brunei was performed via self-administered questionnaire. The structural equation model was assessed using partial least squares analysis. A valid and robust structural model was constructed. This revealed that 61.5% of the variance in chronic fatigue could be explained by psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders pathways. Among the psychosocial factors, work-family conflict was identified as a key mediator for progression of musculoskeletal problems and subsequent fatigue through stress and burnout. This report provides a novel theoretical contribution to understanding the relationship between psychosocial factors, musculoskeletal disorders and work-related fatigue. These preliminary results may be useful for future studies on the development of work-related fatigue and musculoskeletal disorders, particularly the central role of work-family conflict. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning - a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    Background : In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives : We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method : In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results : Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = -0.32, p  psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p  psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p  > 0.05). Conclusion : Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict.

  12. PTSD symptom severity relates to cognitive and psycho-social dysfunctioning – a study with Congolese refugees in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainamani, Herbert E.; Elbert, Thomas; Olema, David K.; Hecker, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: In the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), civilians have been heavily exposed to traumatic stressors. Traumatizing experiences cumulatively heighten the risk for trauma-related disorders, and with it affect cognitive and psycho-social functioning. Objectives: We aimed at investigating the association between trauma-related disorders and cognitive and psycho-social functioning and hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity would negatively correlate with executive functioning, working memory and psycho-social functioning in everyday life. Method: In total, 323 Congolese refugees (mean age: 31.3 years) who arrived in the Ugandan Nakivale refugee settlement after January 2012 were assessed regarding their exposure to traumatic events, PTSD symptom severity (posttraumatic symptom scale interview), executive functioning (Tower of London), working memory performance (Corsi block tapping task) and psycho-social dysfunctioning (Luo functioning scale). Results: Hierarchical regression analyses indicated a significant negative association between PTSD symptom severity and working memory (β = –0.32, p psycho-social functioning in everyday life was positively related with PTSD symptom severity (β = 0.70, p psycho-social dysfunctioning (β = 0.09, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Trauma survivors not only suffer from the core PTSD symptoms but also from impaired cognitive functioning. PTSD symptom severity seems furthermore to be related to impaired psycho-social functioning. Our findings suggest that trauma-related mental health problems may heighten the risk for poverty and lack of prospect and further aggravate the consequences of war and conflict. PMID:28326164

  13. Biomedical Risk, Psychosocial Influences, and Developmental Outcomes: Lessons from the Pediatric HIV Population in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi; Abubakar, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I discuss biomedical factors (e.g., disease severity and…

  14. Biomedical risk, psychosocial influences, and developmental outcomes : Lessons from the pediatric HIV population in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is home to millions of HIV-affected children. These children are likely to experience multiple developmental delays. In this chapter, I present data highlighting compromised neurobehavioral, mental health, and scholastic outcomes for children affected by HIV. Furthermore, I

  15. Pain, Work-related Characteristics, and Psychosocial Factors among Computer Workers at a University Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Felicio, Lilian Ramiro; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Ribeiro da Silva, Dalila Terrinha; Vigário Dos Santos, Patrícia

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] Complaint of pain is common in computer workers, encouraging the investigation of pain-related workplace factors. This study investigated the relationship among work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors, and pain among computer workers from a university center. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects (median age, 32.0 years; interquartile range, 26.8-34.5 years) were subjected to measurement of bioelectrical impedance; photogrammetry; workplace measurements; and pain complaint, quality of life, and motivation questionnaires. [Results] The low back was the most prevalent region of complaint (76.9%). The number of body regions for which subjects complained of pain was greater in the no rest breaks group, which also presented higher prevalences of neck (62.5%) and low back (100%) pain. There were also observed associations between neck complaint and quality of life; neck complaint and head protrusion; wrist complaint and shoulder angle; and use of a chair back and thoracic pain. [Conclusion] Complaint of pain was associated with no short rest breaks, no use of a chair back, poor quality of life, high head protrusion, and shoulder angle while using the mouse of a computer.

  16. Mediation of psychosocial determinants in the relation between socio-economic status and adolescents' diet quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Vynckier, Lisa; Moreno, Luis A; Beghin, Laurent; de la O, Alex; Forsner, Maria; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Huybrechts, Inge; Iguacel, Isabel; Kafatos, Antonio; Kersting, Mathilde; Leclercq, Catherine; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascension; Molnar, Denes; Sjöström, Michael; Widhalm, Kurt; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2018-04-01

    To examine the underlying reasons for the positive relation between socio-economic status (SES) and the diet quality of adolescents. In 2081 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) of the European HELENA study, a continuous variable on diet quality via 2-day 24-h recalls was available. SES was reflected by parental education, parental occupation and family affluence. Mediation by several psychosocial determinants was tested: self-efficacy, availability at school and home, social support, barriers, benefits, awareness and some self-reported influencers (parents, school, taste, health, friends, food readily available, easy preparation, hunger, price and habits). Multiple mediation analyses were adjusted for age, sex and country. The availability of soft drinks and fruit at home, social support, parental influence, barriers, price influence, taste influence, health influence and food being readily available were significant mediators. The multiple mediation indirect effect accounted for 23-64% of the total effect. Both occupation and education and both maternal and paternal factors could be explained by the mediation. The unavailability of soft drinks was the strongest mediator (17-44% of the total effect). Up to 64% of the positive relation between SES and the diet quality in adolescence could be explained by several healthy eating determinants. Focusing on these factors in low-SES populations can minimize social inequalities in diet and health by improving the diet of these specific adolescents.

  17. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  18. Socioeconomic and psychosocial correlates of oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armfield, Jason M; Mejía, Gloria C; Jamieson, Lisa M

    2013-08-01

    It has been proposed that psychosocial variables are important determinants of oral health outcomes. In addition, the effect of socioeconomic factors in oral health has been argued to work through the shaping of psychosocial stressors and resources. This study therefore aimed to examine the role of psychosocial factors in oral health after controlling for selected socioeconomic and behavioural factors. Logistic and generalised linear regression analyses were conducted on self-rated oral health, untreated decayed teeth and number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) from dentate participants in a national survey of adult oral health (n = 5364) conducted in 2004-2006 in Australia. After controlling for all other variables, more frequent dental visiting and toothbrushing were associated with poorer self-rated oral health, more untreated decay and higher DMFT. Pervasive socioeconomic inequalities were demonstrated, with higher income, having a tertiary degree, higher self-perceived social standing and not being employed all significantly associated with oral health after controlling for the other variables. The only psychosocial variables related to self-rated oral health were the stressors perceived stress and perceived constraints. Psychosocial resources were not statistically associated with self-rated oral health and no psychosocial variables were significantly associated with either untreated decayed teeth or DMFT after controlling for the other variables. Although the role of behavioural and socioeconomic variables as determinants of oral health was supported, the role of psychosocial variables in oral health outcomes received mixed support. © 2013 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Influence of work-related psychosocial factors on the prevalence of chronic pain and quality of life in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-04-25

    Working is a common cause of chronic pain for workers. However, most of them need to continue working despite the pain in order to make a living unless they get a sick leave or retirement. We hypothesised that the therapeutic effect of vocational rehabilitation may depend on psychosocial factors related to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association of work-related psychosocial factors with the prevalence of chronic pain or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among workers with chronic pain. We examined 1764 workers aged 20-59 years in the pain-associated cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Japan. The outcomes were (1) chronic pain prevalence among all workers and (2) low Euro QoL (EQ-5D job satisfaction. Workplace social support and job satisfaction were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression model including age, sex, smoking, exercise, sleep time, work hours, body mass index, personal consumption expenditure, intensity of pain and the presence of severe depressive symptoms. Chronic pain prevalence was higher among males reporting job dissatisfaction compared with those reporting job satisfaction. No difference was observed among women. Chronic pain prevalence did not differ between workers of either sex reporting poor workplace social support compared with those reporting sufficient support. Among workers with chronic pain, low HRQoL was more frequent in those reporting job dissatisfaction. Similarly, low HRQoL was more frequent in patients with chronic pain reporting poor social support from supervisors or co-workers compared with patients reporting sufficient support. Work-related psychosocial factors are critical for HRQoL in patients with chronic pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Is there a gender difference in the effect of work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors on musculoskeletal symptoms and related sickness absence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Determine whether there are gender differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors on low back, neck, shoulder, or hand–arm symptoms and related sickness absence was the objective. Data of a prospective cohort with a follow-up period of three years were

  1. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work—physical, psychosocial, and organisational.
METHODS—The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company.
RESULTS—Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women and men. Among women, 16% reported bullying at the workplace, which was linked with a doubled risk of high incidence of sickness (OR 1.91 (1.31 to 2.77)). For men, the strongest association was found for those reporting anxiety about reorganisation of the workplace (OR 1.93 (1.34 to 2.77)).
CONCLUSIONS—Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.


Keywords: incidence of sickness; work environment; sex PMID:11171931

  2. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    .95) for women and men, respectively. Working instead of taking sick leave when ill, was more prevalent in the group with a high incidence of sickness (OR 1.74 (1.30 to 2.33) for women, OR 1.60 (1.22 to 2.10) for men). Overtime work of more than 50 hours a year was linked with low incidence of sickness for women......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... incidence of sickness among both women and men. For heavy lifting, an odds ratio (OR) of 1.70 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.22 to 2.39) among women, and OR 1.70 (1.20 to 2.41) among men was found. For monotonous movements the risk estimates were OR 1.42 (1.03 to 1.97) and OR 1.45 (1.08 to 1...

  3. Intergenerational transmission of family meal patterns from adolescence to parenthood: longitudinal associations with parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Miller, Jonathan; Watts, Allison; Larson, Nicole; Loth, Katie A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-02-01

    The present study examined longitudinal associations between four family meal patterns (i.e. never had regular family meals, started having regular family meals, stopped having regular family meals, maintained having regular family meals) and young adult parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. In addition, family meal patterns of parents were compared with those of non-parents. Analysis of data from the longitudinal Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Adolescents and Young Adults) study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between family meal patterns and parents' dietary intake, weight-related behaviours and psychosocial well-being. School and in-home settings. At baseline (1998; EAT-I), adolescents (n 4746) from socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse households completed a survey and anthropometric measurements at school. At follow-up (2015; EAT-IV), participants who were parents (n 726) and who were non-parents with significant others (n 618) completed an online survey. Young adult parents who reported having regular family meals as an adolescent and as a parent ('maintainers'), or who started having regular family meals with their own families ('starters'), reported more healthful dietary, weight-related and psychosocial outcomes compared with young adults who never reported having regular family meals ('nevers'; Pfamily meal starters than non-parents. Results suggest that mental and physical health benefits of having regular family meals may be realized as a parent whether the routine of regular family meals is carried forward from adolescence into parenthood, or if the routine is started in parenthood.

  4. Association of Dietary Habits with Psychosocial Outcomes in Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernandez, M; Alvarez-Gallardo, I C; Segura-Jimenez, V; Estevez-Lopez, F; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virgina A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex multidimensional disorder with pain as its main symptom. Fibromyalgia imposes a psychosocial burden on individuals that negatively impacts quality of life. The relationship of dietary habits with these psychosocial aspects is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The

  5. Family history assessment of personality disorders: II. Association with measures of psychosocial functioning in direct evaluations with relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, M E; Ferro, T; Klein, D N

    1997-01-01

    To test the convergent validity of the Family History Interview for Personality Disorders (FHIPD), as well as the general utility of informants' reports of personality disorders, we explored the relationship between proband informant reports of Axis II diagnoses on the FHIPD and relative reports of various indices of psychosocial adjustment. Subjects were the first degree relatives (n = 454) of 224 probands participating in a family study of mood and personality disorders. Relatives provided information on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID), the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE), and other variables reflecting aspects of psychosocial dysfunction that are common in personality disorders. Proband informants were interviewed about their relatives using the FHIPD Proband informant reports of personality disorders on the FHIPD were associated with a variety of forms of psychosocial dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology dysfunction as determined in direct assessments with the relatives, even for those with no diagnosable Axis II psychopathology on direct interview. These results support the convergent validity of the FHIPD, and suggest that informants may provide important information on Axis II psychopathology that is not obtained from direct interviews with the subjects themselves.

  6. Tailored and integrated Web-based tools for improving psychosocial outcomes of cancer patients: the DoTTI development framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Rochelle; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Tzelepis, Flora; Henskens, Frans; Paul, Christine; Stevenson, William

    2014-03-14

    Effective communication with cancer patients and their families about their disease, treatment options, and possible outcomes may improve psychosocial outcomes. However, traditional approaches to providing information to patients, including verbal information and written booklets, have a number of shortcomings centered on their limited ability to meet patient preferences and literacy levels. New-generation Web-based technologies offer an innovative and pragmatic solution for overcoming these limitations by providing a platform for interactive information seeking, information sharing, and user-centered tailoring. The primary goal of this paper is to discuss the advantages of comprehensive and iterative Web-based technologies for health information provision and propose a four-phase framework for the development of Web-based information tools. The proposed framework draws on our experience of constructing a Web-based information tool for hematological cancer patients and their families. The framework is based on principles for the development and evaluation of complex interventions and draws on the Agile methodology of software programming that emphasizes collaboration and iteration throughout the development process. The DoTTI framework provides a model for a comprehensive and iterative approach to the development of Web-based informational tools for patients. The process involves 4 phases of development: (1) Design and development, (2) Testing early iterations, (3) Testing for effectiveness, and (4) Integration and implementation. At each step, stakeholders (including researchers, clinicians, consumers, and programmers) are engaged in consultations to review progress, provide feedback on versions of the Web-based tool, and based on feedback, determine the appropriate next steps in development. This 4-phase framework is evidence-informed and consumer-centered and could be applied widely to develop Web-based programs for a diverse range of diseases.

  7. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  8. (Health-related) quality of life and psychosocial factors in adolescents with chronic disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teresa; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Leal, Isabel; do Céu Machado, Maria

    2017-11-23

    Background Research on living with a chronic disease (CD) in adolescence is increasing. However, studies on the relevance of psychosocial factors are still needed. The present review, focuses on the impact of living with a CD in adolescence on on quality of life (QoL), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosocial factors. Methods A literature review of articles identified through PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES (these last two ones comprise the Ebsco Host platform) and original peer-reviewed research papers, published between 2010 and 2015, with no restrictions regarding the format/source of interventions, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or types of comparisons were included. Results Eighteen papers met the inclusion criteria and contradictory results were found: the majority showed a significantly higher risk of impairment on QoL/HRQoL and psychosocial factors, whereas others reported a significantly lower risk of impairment (highlighting possible protective factors), or no significant differences. Heterogeneity in the assessment procedures and substantial difficulties in considering adolescence as a single and independent age group, were also noted. Conclusion The higher risk of impairment and the heterogeneity observed between cohorts, reinforce the need to work towards consensual procedures, which allow for more accurate comparisons among studies. Additionally, it conveys the challenge to find more effective interventions. Furthermore, it is highly suggested to routinely assess HRQoL/psychosocial factors within an individualized framework, to considerer adolescents as a single/independent group, to emphasize potential protective factors, and, to increase youth's participation in their own adaptation process and in health promotion in general. These are possible future directions that could enable multidisciplinary responses to improve HRQoL and psychosocial care in adolescents with a CD.

  9. Work-related psychosocial stress as a risk factor for asthma, allergy, and respiratory infections in the Swedish workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runeson-Broberg, Roma; Norbäck, Dan

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the association between work-related psychosocial stress and asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections. 532 randomly selected occupationally active people (272 men, 260 women; M age = 41 yr., SD = 13) in Sweden participated. Information on history of asthma, atopy, and respiratory infections was collected by a postal self-report questionnaire. Work stress was assessed based on the demands-control-support model. Current asthma and respiratory infections were associated with work-related psychosocial stress. When stratified for sex, these associations were only found in men. Associations between low control, low support, and current asthma were found among young participants ( 40 years) low supervisor support was associated with frequent respiratory infections.

  10. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for Australian-born and non-Australian born women and associated pregnancy and birth outcomes: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Barnett, Bryanne; Kohlhoff, Jane; Drum, Maya Elizabeth; Munoz, Ana Maria; Thornton, Charlene

    2015-11-09

    One in four Australians is born overseas and 47% are either born overseas or have a parent who was. Obstetric and psychosocial risk factors for these women may differ. Data from one Sydney hospital (2012-2013) of all births recorded in the ObstetriX database were analysed (n = 3,092). Demographics, obstetric and psychosocial risk profile, obstetric interventions and complications and selected maternal and neonatal outcomes were examined for women born in Australia and overseas. Women born in Australia were younger, more likely to be primiparous (28.6 v 27.5%), be obese (32.0% v 21.4%), smoke (19.7 % v 3.0%), have an epidural (26.2% v 20.2%) and were less likely to have gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (6.8% v 13.7% when compared to non-Australian born women. The highest rates of GDM, Gestational Hypertension (GH) and maternal anaemia were seen in women born in China, the Philippines and Pakistan respectively. Differences were also seen in psychosocial screening between Australian and non-Australian women with Australian-born women more likely to smoke and report a mental health disorder. There was an association between having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥ 13 and other psychosocial issues, such as thoughts of self-harm, domestic violence, childhood abuse etc. These women were also less likely to breastfeed. Women with an EPDS ≥ 13 at booking compared to women with EPDS ≤12 had a higher chance of being diagnosed with GDM (AOR 1.85 95% CI 1.14-3.0). There are significant differences in obstetric and psychosocial risk profiles and maternal and neonatal outcomes between Australian-born and non-Australian born women. In particular there appears to be an association between an EPDS of ≥13 and developing GDM, which warrants further investigation.

  11. The effect of antenatal education in small classes on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Andersen, Stig Krøger; Due, Pernille; Koushede, Vibeke

    2014-02-13

    The aims of antenatal education contain both outcomes related to pregnancy, birth and parenthood. Both content and methods of antenatal education have changed over time without evidence of effects on relevant outcomes. The effect of antenatal education in groups, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education. The latest Cochrane review, assessed as up-to-date in 2007, concluded that the effect of antenatal education for childbirth or parenthood or both remains largely unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. Eligible studies include individually randomized as well as cluster-randomized trials irrespective of language, publication year, publication type, and publication status. Only interventions carried out in the Western world will be considered in this review. We will search the databases Medline, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PsycINFO using relevant search terms. Two independent review authors will extract data and assess risk of bias. Results will be presented as structured summaries of the included trials. A meta-analysis will be conducted. We will assess heterogeneity by using both the Chi-squared test and the I-squared statistic, and conduct subgroup analysis separately for various intervention types. In healthcare systems with limited resources evidence of the effectiveness of services provided is important for decision making, and there is a need for policy makers to implement changes in healthcare systems based on scientific evidence. The effectiveness of antenatal education in small classes is still questioned. Therefore an up-to-date systematic review is needed.This systematic review protocol was registered within the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) as number CRD42013004319.

  12. European ways to combat psychosocial risks related to work organisation : towards organisational interventions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Morvan, E.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Vaas, F.; Wiezer, N.

    2004-01-01

    From 24-26 November 2004, the 6h Annual Conference of the European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology ‘Healthy, Efficient & Productive Organisations’ was held in Oporto, Portugal. During this conference, the Workshop ‘Organisational interventions to combat psychosocial factors of stress’ was

  13. Psychosocial work characteristics and psychological strain in relation to low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Bongers, P.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Houtman, I.L.D.; Ariëns, G.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics and low-back pain and the potential intermediate role of psychological strain variables in this relationship. The research was part of a prospective cohort study of risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms. The study

  14. Psychosocial Factors Related to Lateral and Medial Epicondylitis: Results From Pooled Study Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiese, Matthew S; Hegmann, Kurt T; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Tang, Ruoliang; Garg, Arun

    2016-06-01

    The goal is to assess the relationships between psychosocial factors and both medial and lateral epicondylitis after adjustment for personal and job physical exposures. One thousand eight hundred twenty-four participants were included in pooled analyses. Ten psychosocial factors were assessed. One hundred twenty-one (6.6%) and 34 (1.9%) participants have lateral and medial epicondylitis, respectively. Nine psychosocial factors assessed had significant trends or associations with lateral epicondylitis, the largest of which was between physical exhaustion after work and lateral epicondylitis with and odds ratio of 7.04 (95% confidence interval = 2.02 to 24.51). Eight psychosocial factors had significant trends or relationships with medial epicondylitis, with the largest being between mental exhaustion after work with an odds ratio of 6.51 (95% confidence interval = 1.57 to 27.04). The breadth and strength of these associations after adjustment for confounding factors demonstrate meaningful relationships that need to be further investigated in prospective analyses.

  15. Adolescents' school-related self-concept mediates motor skills and psychosocial well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viholainen, Helena; Aro, Tuija; Purtsi, Jarno; Tolvanen, Asko; Cantell, Marja

    Background The health benefits of exercise participation and physical activity for mental health and psychosocial well-being (PSWB) have been shown in several studies. However, one important background factor, that is, motor skills (MSs), has largely been ignored. In addition, most of the existing

  16. Validity and Reliability of Psychosocial Factors Related to Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapka, Jane G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The construct validity of hypothesized survey items and data reduction procedures for selected psychosocial constructs frequently used in breast cancer screening research were investigated in telephone interviews with randomly selected samples of 1,184 and 903 women and a sample of 169 Hispanic clinic clients. Validity of the constructs is…

  17. Work-related psychosocial stress and risk of preterm, low birthweight delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homer, C J; James, S A; Siegel, E

    1990-02-01

    We investigated whether work-related psychologic stress--defined as work characterized by both high psychologic demands and limited control over the response to these demands--increases a woman's risk of delivering a preterm, low birthweight infant. We studied 786 employed pregnant women included in the National Longitudinal Survey of Labor Market Experience, Youth Cohort (NLSY), a nationally representative sample of 12,686 young adults. Data concerning work status, job title, and other factors affecting pregnancy outcome were obtained from the NLSY. Assessment of job experience was based on job title, using an established catalogue of occupation characteristics. After accounting for the physical exertion entailed in a job, occupational psychologic stress as measured by job title was not associated with preterm, low birthweight delivery for the sample as a whole (Relative risk = 1.16, 95% confidence interval .45, 2.95). For those women who did not want to remain in the work force, work-related stress increased their risk of experiencing this outcome (RR = 8.1, 95% CI 1.5, 50.2). Personal motivation toward work, as well as the physical effort of work, should be considered in evaluating the impact of a job's psychologic characteristics on pregnancy outcome.

  18. Two year psychosocial and mental health outcomes for refugees subjected to restrictive or supportive immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Zachary; Momartin, Shakeh; Silove, Derrick; Coello, Marianio; Aroche, Jorge; Tay, Kuo Wei

    2011-04-01

    Australia has been at the forefront of implementing immigration policies that aim to limit the flow of asylum seekers over recent decades. Two controversial polices have been the use of immigration detention for unauthorized arrivals and the issuing of temporary protection visas (TPVs) for refugees who arrived without valid visas. We conducted a longitudinal survey over 2 years commencing in 2003 of 104 consecutive refugees from Iran and Afghanistan attending a state-wide early intervention program in New South Wales. The sample included those released from immigration detention on TPVs (n = 47) and others granted permanent protection visas prior to entering Australia (PPVs, n = 57). Psychological symptoms were assessed at baseline and follow-up by the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ), the Hopkins symptom checklist-25 (HSCL), the GHQ-30 and the Penn State Worry Questionnaires (PSWQ). English language competency, daily living difficulties and coping-related activities were also assessed. The results indicated that TPVs had higher baseline scores than PPVs on the HTQ PTSD scale, the HSCL scales, and the GHQ. ANCOVA models adjusting for baseline symptom scores indicated an increase in anxiety, depression and overall distress for TPVs whereas PPVs showed improvement over time. PTSD remained high at follow-up for TPVs and low amongst PPVs with no significant change over time. The TPVs showed a significant increase in worry at follow-up. TPVs showed no improvement in their English language skills and became increasingly socially withdrawn whereas PPVs exhibited substantial language improvements and became more socially engaged. TPV holders also reported persistently higher levels of distress in relation to a wide range of post-migration living difficulties whereas PPVs reported few problems in meeting these resettlement challenges. The data suggest a pattern of growing mental distress, ongoing resettlement difficulties, social isolation, and difficulty in the

  19. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF12 in working populations: associations with psychosocial work characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Hanebuth, Dirk; von Känel, Roland; Gander, Marie-Louise; Grande, Gesine; Fischer, Joachim E

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, job demand, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance) to health-related quality of life. Data were derived from 2 aircraft manufacturing plants (N=1,855) at the start of a longitudinal study. Regression analysis showed that work characteristics (1st model) explained 19% of the variance in the mental summary score of the Short Form-12 Health Survey. R2 change for work characteristics decreased to 13%, accounting for demographics, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and medical condition (5th model). Including health behavior and personality factors (full model), R2 change for work characteristics remained significant. Psychosocial work characteristics account for relevant proportions in the subjective perception of mental health beyond a wide array of medical variables and personality factors. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Environmental and psycho-social factors related to prostate cancer risk in the Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei Ling; Lin, Ji; Hou, Jian Guo; Xu, Lei; Cui, Xin Gang; Xu, Xing Xing; Yu, Yong Wei; Han, Xue; Wang, Guo Min; Guo, Jian Ming; Xu, Dan Feng; Thompson, Timothy C; Cao, Guang Wen; Zhang, Hong Wei

    2014-09-01

    To study the risk environmental and psycho-social factors associated to prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese population. 250 PCa patients and 500 controls were enrolled in this case-control study. Information was collected and logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for relationship between lifestyle, eating habits and psycho-social factors with PCa risk. Green vegetables and green tea were associated with a decreased risk of PCa (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.28-0.53; OR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.40-0.87, respectively). Family history of PCa (OR=7.16, 95% CI: 2.01-25.49), history of prostate diseases (OR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.53-3.41), alcohol consumption (OR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.33-2.90), red meat consumption (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.20-2.52), barbecued (OR=2.29, 95% CI: 1.11-4.73) or fried (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.24-4.43) foods were related with increased PCa risk. Negative psycho-social factors including occupational setbacks (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.00-2.59), marital separation (OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.29-2.91), self-contained suffering (OR=2.37, 95% CI: 1.58-3.55), and high sensitivity to the personal comments (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.18-2.54) were related to PCa. Regular consumption of green vegetables and green tea may suggest protective effects on PCa. Alcohol consumption, red meat consumption and barbecued or fried foods were associated with PCa. Negative psycho-social factors may also play a role in the incidence of PCa in Chinese population. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  1. Combining biological and psychosocial baseline variables did not improve prediction of outcome of a very-low-energy diet in a clinic referral population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, P; Purcell, K; Kuyruk, S; Proietto, J; Prendergast, L A

    2018-02-01

    Consistent, strong predictors of obesity treatment outcomes have not been identified. It has been suggested that broadening the range of predictor variables examined may be valuable. We explored methods to predict outcomes of a very-low-energy diet (VLED)-based programme in a clinically comparable setting, using a wide array of pre-intervention biological and psychosocial participant data. A total of 61 women and 39 men (mean ± standard deviation [SD] body mass index: 39.8 ± 7.3 kg/m 2 ) underwent an 8-week VLED and 12-month follow-up. At baseline, participants underwent a blood test and assessment of psychological, social and behavioural factors previously associated with treatment outcomes. Logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, decision trees and random forests were used to model outcomes from baseline variables. Of the 100 participants, 88 completed the VLED and 42 attended the Week 60 visit. Overall prediction rates for weight loss of ≥10% at weeks 8 and 60, and attrition at Week 60, using combined data were between 77.8 and 87.6% for logistic regression, and lower for other methods. When logistic regression analyses included only baseline demographic and anthropometric variables, prediction rates were 76.2-86.1%. In this population, considering a wide range of biological and psychosocial data did not improve outcome prediction compared to simply-obtained baseline characteristics. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with outcomes for patients undergoing rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltov, Petko; Côte, Julie; Truchon, Manon; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2008-01-01

    Identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors (measured prior to treatment) that were associated with post-treatment self-perceived pain and disability and two secondary outcomes: psychological distress, and return to work in patients undergoing multidisciplinary rehabilitation for chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD). Interviews were conducted with 28 patients with chronic WAD at entry to and completion of an intensive rehabilitation program, and a telephone interview was carried out three months later. Participants completed pain and disability, and psychological distress questionnaires, at baseline and at both follow-ups. They also completed psychosocial questionnaires and provided socio-demographic information. The effect of each of the independent variables on the outcomes was first evaluated by simple regressions, and then subsequently by multiple regression analysis. Higher baseline pain and disability predicted higher pain and disability at both follow-ups (p factor that affected pain and disability post-rehabilitation. Psychosocial factors played a role in the prognosis of psychological distress and return to work.

  3. Bariatric Surgery and Kidney-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex R; Grams, Morgan E; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of severe obesity in both the general and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) populations continues to rise, with more than one-fifth of CKD patients in the United States having a body mass index of ≥35 kg/m 2 . Severe obesity has significant renal consequences, including increased risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and nephrolithiasis. Bariatric surgery represents an effective method for achieving sustained weight loss, and evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that bariatric surgery is also effective in improving blood pressure, reducing hyperglycemia, and even inducing diabetes remission. There is also observational evidence suggesting that bariatric surgery may diminish the long-term risk of kidney function decline and ESRD. Bariatric surgery appears to be relatively safe in patients with CKD, with postoperative complications only slightly higher than in the general bariatric surgery population. The use of bariatric surgery in patients with CKD might help prevent progression to ESRD or enable selected ESRD patients with severe obesity to become candidates for kidney transplantation. However, there are also renal risks in bariatric surgery, namely, acute kidney injury, nephrolithiasis, and, in rare cases, oxalate nephropathy, particularly in types of surgery involving higher degrees of malabsorption. Although bariatric surgery may improve long-term kidney outcomes, this potential benefit remains unproved and must be balanced with potential adverse events.

  4. Are Workplace Psychosocial Factors Associated With Work-Related Injury in the US Workforce?: National Health Interview Survey, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnacio, Yvonne; Pratt, Michael E; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Graber, Judith M

    2017-10-01

    Psychosocial hazards in the workplace may adversely impact occupational and general health, including injury risk. Among 16,417 adult workers in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey Occupational Health Supplement, weighted prevalence estimates were calculated for work-related injuries (WRI) and any injuries. The association between injury and psychosocial occupational hazards (job insecurity, work-family imbalance, hostile work environment) was assessed adjusting for sociodemographic and occupational factors. WRI prevalence was 0.65% (n = 99); any injury prevalence was 2.46% (n = 427). In multivariable models job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and hostile work environment were each positively associated with WRI prevalence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.60, 95% CI: 0.97-2.65; OR: 1.69, 95% CI 0.96-2.89; and 2.01, 95% CI 0.94-4.33, respectively). Stressful working conditions may contribute to injuries. There is need for ongoing surveillance of occupational psychosocial risk factors and further study of their relationship with injury.

  5. Self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy: Psychosocial and seizure-related correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen Ling; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lai, Tai Sum; Lam, Siu Man

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated self-esteem in adolescents with epilepsy and its association with psychosocial and disease-related variables. This was a cross-sectional study with patients enrolled between January and June 2010. Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory for Children (CFSEI-2) was administered to 140 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10-18years attending mainstream schools. Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly lower overall self-esteem score when compared with those with asthma, 17±5.21 versus 19.4±3.83, respectively (P=0.005). Thirty-one (22.1%) children with epilepsy compared with 4 (8.3%) with asthma had overall self-esteem score below the cutoff (P=0.034). There was a significant correlation between overall self-esteem score and duration of epilepsy, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) anxiety score, HADS depression score, and Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD symptoms and Normal-Behaviors (SWAN) rating combined score. The impact of various correlates on individual domains was not identical. Independent factors associated with low overall self-esteem were HADS depression score (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.2; P=0.002), duration of epilepsy (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.88; P=0.024), and father employment status economically inactive (OR: 11.9; 95% CI: 1.07, 125; P=0.044). Seizure-free ≥12months was a favorable factor that was less likely to be associated with low self-esteem (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.81; P=0.028). Self-esteem was compromised in adolescents with epilepsy. A significant correlation between self-esteem and psychological comorbidities was demonstrated. Enhancing social support and education programs may improve the self-esteem and, ultimately, the lives of adolescents living with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative aging stereotypes and their relation with psychosocial variables in the elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Palacios, C; Trianes Torres, M V; Blanca Mena, M J

    2009-01-01

    This study explores whether there is a relationship between the level of belief in negative aging stereotypes in 65-year-old people and their results concerning some psychosocial variables. These were selected for their relevance for health and well being in elderly people. These were: living situation, responsibilities toward others, subjective health, frequency of medical appointments, subjective age, participation in community social activities and regular physical activity. The sample consisted of 757 people of low educational level, ranged from 65 to 96 years. Age and gender were homogeneously distributed. Participants were non-institutionalized people. Firstly, the psychosocial variables under focus were assessed by means of seven questions. Secondly, a questionnaire about negative aging stereotypes (CENVE) was administered. It was composed of three factors: health, motivational-social and character-personality. Results show that a high score in negative stereotypes is significantly associated to the studied variables, except for living situation, showing a worse quality of life (QoL) profile. Results are discussed in terms of their utility for assessment and psychosocial intervention, which is meant to improve health in the elderly.

  7. Relations between work and upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP) and the moderating role of psychosocial work factors on the relation between computer work and UEMSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Stock, Susan R; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Kline, Rex; Messing, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Computer work has been identified as a risk factor for upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP). But few studies have investigated how psychosocial and organizational work factors affect this relation. Nor have gender differences in the relation between UEMSP and these work factors  been studied. We sought to estimate: (1) the association between UEMSP and a range of physical, psychosocial and organizational work exposures, including the duration of computer work, and (2) the moderating effect of psychosocial work exposures on the relation between computer work and UEMSP. Using 2007-2008 Québec survey data on 2478 workers, we carried out gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression modeling and two-way interaction analyses. In both genders, odds of UEMSP were higher with exposure to high physical work demands and emotionally demanding work. Additionally among women, UEMSP were associated with duration of occupational computer exposure, sexual harassment, tense situations when dealing with clients, high quantitative demands and lack of prospects for promotion, and among men, with low coworker support, episodes of unemployment, low job security and contradictory work demands. Among women, the effect of computer work on UEMSP was considerably increased in the presence of emotionally demanding work, and may also be moderated by low recognition at work, contradictory work demands, and low supervisor support. These results suggest that the relations between UEMSP and computer work are moderated by psychosocial work exposures and that the relations between working conditions and UEMSP are somewhat different for each gender, highlighting the complexity of these relations and the importance of considering gender.

  8. Psychosocial factors affecting resilience in Nepalese individuals with earthquake-related spinal cord injury: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Muna; Maneewat, Khomapak; Sae-Sia, Wipa

    2018-03-02

    One of many types of injuries following an earthquake is spinal cord injury (SCI) which is a life-long medically complex injury and high-cost health problem. Despite several negative consequences, some persons with SCI are resilient enough to achieve positive adjustment, greater acceptance, and better quality of life. Since resilience is influenced by several factors and can vary by context, it is beneficial to explore factors that affect the resilience of people who sustained spinal cord injury from the 2015 earthquake in Nepal. A descriptive cross-sectional study included 82 participants from the Spinal Injury Rehabilitation Center and communities in Nepal. Participants completed the Demographic and Injury-related Questionnaire, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Moorong Self-efficacy Scale, Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Pearson's correlation and point biserial correlation analyses were performed to examine associations between resilience and independent variables. A hierarchical regression analysis was used to identify the influence of certain factors. Findings indicated significant associations between resilience and social support (r = 0.42, p resilience and spirituality (r = - 0.12, p > 0.05). In hierarchical regression analysis, an overall regression model explained 46% of the variance in resilience. Self-efficacy (β = 0.28, p = 0.007) and depressive mood (β = - 0.24, p = 0.016) significantly determined resilience after controlling the effect of demographic variables. Among the demographic factors, being male significantly explained the variance in resilience (β = 0.31, p = 0.001). Multiple psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with resilience in people who sustained an earthquake-related SCI. Mental health professionals should demonstrate concern and consider such factors in allocating care in this group. Development

  9. Cultural intelligence and work-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlaegel, Christopher; Richter, Nicole Franziska; Taras, Vas

    2017-01-01

    ) the results of the bivariate metaanalyses indicate that CQ and its underlying dimensions are positively associated with expatriation intention, job satisfaction, cultural adjustment, transformational leadership, and different performance outcomes (task performance, contextual performance, and team performance...

  10. Work-related psychosocial factors and onset of metabolic syndrome among workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Imamura, Kotaro; Ando, Emiko; Asai, Yumi; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nishida, Norimitsu; Arima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-06-22

    Metabolic syndrome is an important public health target because of its high prevalence worldwide. Work-related psychosocial factors have been identified as determinants of metabolic syndrome components. However, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome as an aggregated cluster. The aim of this study is to examine this association from published prospective studies. The systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Japan Medical Abstracts Society). Studies that (1) examined the association between work-related psychosocial factors and the onset of metabolic syndrome, (2) had a longitudinal or prospective cohort design, (3) were conducted among workers, (4) provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, (5) were published as original articles written in English or Japanese, and (6) having been published until the end of 2016 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The findings from this study could be useful for assessing metabolic syndrome risk factors in the workplace, and determining approaches for prevention of metabolic syndrome in the future. PROSPERO CRD42016039096 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO_REBRANDING/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016039096). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout – Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana M. Ilić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS. Material and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI. Results: A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M ± standard deviation (SD = 74.57±16.85 and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74 demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60. Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Conclusions: Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2:167–178

  12. Workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence: a study from a nationally representative sample of Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Nakata, Akinori; Park, Jae Bum; Swanson, Naomi G

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and injury absence in the workplace. This study aims to assess the association of comprehensive workplace psychosocial factors with work-related injury absence among Korean workers. The data (n = 7,856) were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample (n = 10,043) of the Korean working population. The survey instrument contained questions about hours of work, physical risk factors, work organization, and the effect of work on health/injury. Work-related injury absence was indicated by a dichotomous variable with at least 1 day absence during the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratio and confidence interval (CI). Incremental adjustments for sociodemographic, health behavior, and occupational confounding variables were employed in the models. The overall 1-year prevalence of work-related injury absence in this study was 1.37 % (95 % CI, 1.11-1.63 %). Those who experienced violence at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 7.05 (95 % CI, 2.69-18.5)), threat of violence at work (aOR, 4.25 (95 % CI, 1.32-13.64)), low job autonomy (aOR, 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.17-2.74)), and high job strain (aOR, 2.38 (95 % CI, 1.29-4.42) had an increased risk of injury absence, compared with their respective counterparts (p workers in Korea were at a near fourfold risk of work absence due to occupational injuries, compared with managers in low-risk jobs. Workplace violence and increased job strain were two key workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence.

  13. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout - Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M

    2017-03-24

    Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women∗: ∗2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    , et al. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women. J Sex Med 2017;14:366-379. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Obesity and body mass index (BMI) in relation to life-style and psycho-social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Tirabassi, G; Faloia, E; Boscaro, M; Polito, A; Ciarapica, D; Zaccaria, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample of Italian subjects, which also assesses the relationship between obesity and psychological health. We hypothesize that obesity is related to many factors, such as life-style, behavioral, socio-economic, and psychological aspects. The sample was made up of 107 obese and non-obese subjects, aged 50-74. All participants were given a multidimensional assessment, which included anthropometric, psycho-social and life-style evaluation. As per the protocol a structured life-style questionnaire designed to gather information on anthropometric measurements, socio-economic factors, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and food intake. The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) for the evaluation of a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology; the Binge Eating Scale (BES) for the assessment of disorders in the eating habits were administered. BMI was associated with age and education, socio-economic status and smoking in both genders. Psychological factors for obesity differed between overweight men and women. In conclusion, obesity and non-obesity appear as two different entities in some aspects. The increase in the prevalence of obesity in elderly subjects could lead to disability and age-related diseases. For this reason, greater insight of the factors related to the development of obesity is required to develop treatment strategies weight-loss prevention programs.

  16. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to the onset of premature labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R W; Webster, P A; Binu, P S; Maskrey, N; Phillips, A B

    1979-08-18

    A modified life events inventory was presented over a four-month period to 132 consecutive women going into spontaneous labour in Hull and Manchester. Three study groups were identified according to the duration of pregnancy. The levels of psychosocial stress in pregnancy were found to be particularly high in the mothers whose babies were born preterm. Stressful events may precipitate preterm labour in some women. The concept of antenatal care may have to be broadened if the incidence of premature labour and resulting perinatal mortality are to be reduced.

  17. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Bernotaite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania teachers. Material and Methods: The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%. Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 – psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI – occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire – psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR. Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI level. Results: Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional – 8.3%, severe – 2.9%. Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4% reported job strain and 59.6% – low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56–6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27–19.62 for severe bullying. Conclusions: Occasional and severe bullying were strong

  18. Workplace bullying and mental health among teachers in relation to psychosocial job characteristics and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernotaite, Lina; Malinauskiene, Vilija

    2017-06-19

    The objective of the study has been to assess the associations between psychological distress and exposure to workplace bullying, taking into account possible influence of adverse psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout in a sample of Kaunas (Lithuania) teachers. The study sample included 517 teachers from 13 secondary schools and was conducted in 2014. The participants filled in the anonymous questionnaire (response rate 71.3%). Twenty-two-item Negative Acts Questionnaire (H. Hoel and S. Einarsen) was used for measuring the exposure to workplace bullying, Goldberg 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) - psychological distress, Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - occupational burnout, Karasek Demand-Control questionnaire - psychosocial job stressors. The IBM SPSS Statistics version 20.0 was used for performing the statistical analysis. Associations between psychological distress, exposure to workplace bullying, psychosocial job characteristics and occupational burnout were analyzed in the logistic regression and expressed in terms of odds ratios (OR). Statistical significance was determined using the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. Workplace bullying was prevalent among Kaunas teachers (occasional - 8.3%, severe - 2.9%). Twenty-five percent of teachers suffered from psychological distress. High emotional exhaustion was found in 25.6% of them, high depersonalization in 10.6% and low personal achievement in 33.7% of cases. Almost a half of respondents (47.4%) reported job strain and 59.6% - low social support at work. Occasional and severe bullying was associated with psychological distress after adjusting to job strain, social support and emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment (adjusted OR was 3.27, 95% CI: 1.56-6.84 for occasional and 4.98, 95% CI: 1.27-19.62 for severe bullying). Occasional and severe bullying were strong predictors for psychological distress. Burnout did not mediate those associations. The

  19. Perfectionism dimensions and dependency in relation to personality vulnerability and psychosocial adjustment in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Schwartzman, Deborah; Looper, Karl J; Sigal, John J; Pierre, Andrena; Kotowycz, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The present study sought to illuminate self-criticism and personal standards dimensions of perfectionism and dependency as specific cognitive-personality vulnerability factors that might contribute to a better understanding of numerous psychosocial problem areas that are relevant to coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with clinically significant CAD completed self-report questionnaires. Zero-order correlations and factor analysis results revealed that self-criticism was primarily related to personality vulnerability (aggression/anger/hostility, Type D negative affectivity) and psychosocial maladjustment (depressive symptoms, worry, avoidant coping, support dissatisfaction), whereas personal standards was primarily related to adaptive coping (problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation) and dependency was primarily related to worry. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated the incremental utility of self-criticism, personal standards, and dependency in relation to (mal)adjustment over and above aggression/anger/hostility, negative affectivity, and social inhibition. Continued efforts to understand the role of perfectionism dimensions and dependency in CAD appear warranted.

  20. The mediating role of work-related musculoskeletal disorders on the link between psychosocial factors and absenteeism among administrative workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zulkifli; Othman, Abdul Kadir; Ahmad, Mohamad Fahimi; Justine, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between psychosocial factors (i.e., job demand, decision latitude, social support, physical environment, and personal risk factors), work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs), and productivity as measured by workers' perceived absenteeism. Data were collected from the selected administrative workers (administrative assistant) and analyzed using cross tabulation. The results indicate that all psychological factors are not significantly associated with WRMDs, except for the association between personal risk factors and hip/thigh disorders. Subsequently, WRMDs do not significantly contribute to explaining absenteeism. The managerial and research implications of this study are deliberately discussed.

  1. Being Nontraditional and Learning Online: Assessing the Psychosocial Learning Environments, Self-Efficacy, and Affective Outcomes among College Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Roslyn La'Toya

    2014-01-01

    The study compared traditional and nontraditional students' attitudes about the psychosocial learning environment and their influence on self-efficacy, enjoyment of online learning, and student satisfaction by using Moos' (1979) Model of Environmental and Personal Variables and the three dimensions of social climate as its theoretical framework.…

  2. An investigation of the impact of regular use of the Wii Fit to improve motor and psychosocial outcomes in children with movement difficulties: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J; Jones, V; Hill, E L; Green, D; Male, I

    2014-03-01

    Children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (DCD) experience poor motor and psychosocial outcomes. Interventions are often limited within the healthcare system, and little is known about how technology might be used within schools or homes to promote the motor skills and/or psychosocial development of these children. This study aimed to evaluate whether short, regular school-based sessions of movement experience using a commercially available home video game console (Nintendo's Wii Fit) would lead to benefits in both motor and psychosocial domains in children with DCD. A randomized crossover controlled trial of children with movement difficulties/DCD was conducted. Children were randomly assigned to an intervention (n = 10) or comparison (n = 8) group. The intervention group spent 10 min thrice weekly for 1 month using Wii Fit during the lunch break, while the comparison group took part in their regular Jump Ahead programme. Pre- and post-intervention assessments considered motor proficiency, self-perceived ability and satisfaction and parental assessment of emotional and behavioural problems. Significant gains were seen in motor proficiency, the child's perception of his/her motor ability and reported emotional well-being for many, but not all children. This study provides preliminary evidence to support the use of the Wii Fit within therapeutic programmes for children with movement difficulties. This simple, popular intervention represents a plausible method to support children's motor and psychosocial development. It is not possible from our data to say which children are most likely to benefit from such a programme and particularly what the dose and duration should be. Further research is required to inform across these and other questions regarding the implementation of virtual reality technologies in therapeutic services for children with movement difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. How empathy, egocentrism, Kohlberg's moral development, and Erikson's psychosocial development are related to attitudes toward war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Lewandowski, L M

    1991-12-01

    In this exploratory study 91 students took a questionnaire which measured their feelings of oneness with all humanity, their egocentrism, level of moral development according to Kohlberg, psychosocial development according to Erikson, and their attitude toward war, diplomacy, the Gulf war, civilians and soldiers in the Gulf area, etc. The hypothesis that empathy with humankind leads to concern about those involved and opposition to war was supported. These individuals were more likely to endorse values expressed in Kohlberg's Level 6. Students endorsing Level 4, law-and-order mortality, especially if they had no friends overseas and used no news source other than the usual U.S. mass media, were more likely to be pro-war, believe President Bush and the military briefings, and opposite reliance on diplomacy. If people had experienced war, they were more frequently against it. However, hardship experienced, lack of egocentrism, believing in a greater good for a greater number of people (Kohlberg's Level 5), and Erikson's psychosocial development were not associated with students' orientation toward war. Further research is suggested.

  4. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L; Browning, Wesley R; Raper, James L; Mugavero, Michael J; Turan, Janet M

    2017-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes-information that can be used to shape interventions.

  6. Do single and partnered women with gynecologic cancer differ in types and intensities of illness- and treatment-related psychosocial concerns? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Janet M; Mah, Kenneth; Fyles, Anthony; Winton, Susan; Greenwood, Sarah; DePetrillo, Denny; Devins, Gerald M

    2007-09-01

    We compared the psychosocial and psychosexual concerns of single and partnered women with gynecologic cancer, since relationship status and psychosocial context are known to affect sexuality, a life domain commonly affected by this cancer. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 49 women (68% response), with ovarian (n=31), endometrial (n=12), and cervical (n=6) cancer, responded to a 72-item self-report Cancer Concerns Questionnaire and additional psychosocial questionnaires. Single (n=13) and partnered women (n=36) similarly reported prognosis as their highest concern, but single women (26% of the sample) reported that communication with the treatment team, treatment side effects, and prognosis were of greater salience to them than did partnered women. The latter group had greater sexuality and partner relationship concerns. These preliminary findings suggest that relationship status, whether partnered or single, influences current psychosocial concerns among women with gynecologic cancer, despite similar levels of illness- and treatment-related intrusions on important life domains.

  7. The PiGeOn project: protocol of a longitudinal study examining psychosocial and ethical issues and outcomes in germline genomic sequencing for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-23

    Advances in genomics offer promise for earlier detection or prevention of cancer, by personalisation of medical care tailored to an individual's genomic risk status. However genome sequencing can generate an unprecedented volume of results for the patient to process with potential implications for their families and reproductive choices. This paper describes a protocol for a study (PiGeOn) that aims to explore how patients and their blood relatives experience germline genomic sequencing, to help guide the appropriate future implementation of genome sequencing into routine clinical practice. We have designed a mixed-methods, prospective, cohort sub-study of a germline genomic sequencing study that targets adults with cancer suggestive of a genetic aetiology. One thousand probands and 2000 of their blood relatives will undergo germline genomic sequencing as part of the parent study in Sydney, Australia between 2016 and 2020. Test results are expected within12-15 months of recruitment. For the PiGeOn sub-study, participants will be invited to complete surveys at baseline, three months and twelve months after baseline using self-administered questionnaires, to assess the experience of long waits for results (despite being informed that results may not be returned) and expectations of receiving them. Subsets of both probands and blood relatives will be purposively sampled and invited to participate in three semi-structured qualitative interviews (at baseline and each follow-up) to triangulate the data. Ethical themes identified in the data will be used to inform critical revisions of normative ethical concepts or frameworks. This will be one of the first studies internationally to follow the psychosocial impact on probands and their blood relatives who undergo germline genome sequencing, over time. Study results will inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as informed consent for genomic sequencing, and informing participants and their relatives of specific

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  9. Relationship between early somatic, radiological, cognitive and psychosocial findings and outcome during a one-year follow-up in 117 patients suffering from common whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanov, B P; Sturzenegger, M; De Stefano, G; Schnidrig, A

    1994-05-01

    To analyse the significance of the interplay between somatic and psychosocial factors in influencing the course of recovery a non-selected well defined group of 117 whiplash patients was investigated. Initial examination was performed, on average, 7.2 +/- 4.2 days after trauma and follow-ups were carried out at 3, 6 and 12 months. At the initial investigation all patients were given a neurological examination, cognitive and psychosocial factor assessment and cervical spine X-rays. At each follow-up stepwise regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between initial findings and the course of recovery. Fifty-one (44%), 36 (31%) and 28 (24%) patients were symptomatic at 3, 6 and 12 months respectively. Poor improvement at all examinations was significantly correlated with factors associated with severity of injury such as initial symptoms of radicular irritation and intensity of neck pain. Moreover, results indicate that poor recovery is related to severity of injury in addition to some pre-traumatic factors (previous history of head trauma and headache) and initial injury-related reaction (i.e. sleep disturbances, reduced speed of information processing and nervousness). However, psychosocial factors did not prove predictive at any follow-up examination. These results indicate that symptoms suggesting a more severe neck injury appear to be particularly related to delayed recovery from common whiplash. Moreover these results may be of value in the objective evaluation of potentially difficult claims for compensation, which may in some cases be falsely based.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence for self-management behaviors in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A; Koelmeyer, Louise; Mackie, Helen; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and affective psychosocial factors have been found to underlie adherence to preventive behaviors in women at risk of developing lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if these factors are associated with adherence to self-management behaviors for women diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Women with BCRL were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organization and three Australian lymphedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing demographics, medical history, adherence to self-management behaviors, psychosocial variables (personal control, treatment control, consequences, distress, and self-regulation of affect), and knowledge about lymphedema self-management. A total of 166 women participated in the study. Participants reported adhering to a mean of five out of seven behaviors, with 19.5% of participants adhering to all seven behaviors. Adherence to individual behaviors ranged from 65% (self-lymphatic drainage) to 98.2% (skin care). Greater knowledge about lymphedema was significantly correlated with higher adherence. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only medical history factors (time since diagnosis and having undergone hormone replacement therapy) predicted a significant amount of the variance in adherence. These findings highlight the importance of patient knowledge for optimal adherence to a self-management regimen. In addition, medical history factors may identify if a patient is at risk of nonadherence. The lack of association of adherence with other psychosocial factors considered in this study indicates that factors underlying adherence in affected women differ considerably from those factors prompting preventive behavior adherence in the at-risk population.

  11. Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Amber M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial and other working conditions and body-mass index (BMI in a working population. This study contributes to the approximately dozen investigations of job stress, which have demonstrated mixed positive and negative results in relation to obesity, overweight and BMI. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among working Australians in the state of Victoria. Participants were contacted by telephone from a random sample of phone book listings. Information on body mass index was self-reported as were psychosocial work conditions assessed using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. Other working conditions measured included working hours, shift work, and physical demand. Separate linear regression analyses were undertaken for males and females, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1101 interviews (526 men and 575 women were completed. Multivariate models (adjusted for socio-demographics demonstrated no associations between job strain, as measured using the demand/control model, or ERI using the effort/reward imbalance model (after further adjustment for over commitment and BMI among men and women. Multivariate models demonstrated a negative association between low reward and BMI among women. Among men, multivariate models demonstrated positive associations between high effort, high psychological demand, long working hours and BMI and a negative association between high physical demand and BMI. After controlling for the effort/reward imbalance or the demand/control model, the association between physical demand and working longer hours and BMI remained. Conclusion Among men and women the were differing patterns of both exposures to psychosocial working conditions and associations with BMI. Among men, working long hours was positively associated with higher BMI and this association was partly

  12. Fatigue, psychosocial adaptation and quality of life one year after traumatic brain injury and suspected traumatic axonal injury; evaluations of patients and relatives: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson, Eva; Skoglund, Thomas; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2013-09-01

    To describe fatigue and its relationship to cognition, psychosocial adjustment, quality of life (QoL), work status and relative's experiences 12 months after suspected traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Eighteen patients were assessed with the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), the European Questionnaire 5 Dimensions health-related quality of life, the Glasgow Coma Outcome Scale Extended, and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) (patient and relative). Return to work was registered. At 1 year, fatigue still caused great problems in daily life. Although fatigue and cognition (BNIS) did not correlate, the more fatigued patients subjectively experienced significantly more cognitive dysfunction. Although D-FIS and QoL did not correlate, most patients reported that feelings of tiredness and dullness related to having lower QoL. However, lower QoL was associated with cognitive and attention disability (BNIS), subjective perception of executive dysfunction, lack of motivation, and mood disturbances (EBIQ). Neither fatigue nor cognition associated with return to work. The general consequences of TAI showed good agreement between patients' and relatives' experiences. The patient's subjective experience of the impact of TAI seems to be most essential, as it is the objective reality that the patient responds to, and this should therefore be assessed and treated.

  13. How Are Students' Attitudes Related to Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in technology education related to the school subject Sloyd (craft). The research question of this article is: "How are ninth grade students' attitudes towards the subject related to their learning outcomes?"…

  14. Dose-related effects of delta-9-THC on emotional responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Emma; Lutz, Joseph A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis smokers often report that they use the drug to relax or to relieve emotional stress. However, few clinical studies have shown evidence of the stress-relieving effects of cannabis or cannabinoid agonists. In this study, we sought to assess the influence of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a main active ingredient of cannabis, upon emotional responses to an acute psychosocial stressor among healthy young adults. Healthy volunteers (N=42) participated in two experimental sessions, one with psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and another with a non-stressful task, after receiving 0 (N=13), 7.5mg (N=14) or 12.5mg (N=15) oral THC. Capsules were administered under randomized, double blind conditions, 2.5h before the tasks began. We measured subjective mood and drug effects, vital signs and salivary cortisol before and at repeated times after the capsule and tasks. Subjects also appraised the tasks, before and after completion. In comparison to placebo, 7.5mg THC significantly reduced self-reported subjective distress after the TSST and attenuated post-task appraisals of the TSST as threatening and challenging. By contrast, 12.5mg THC increased negative mood overall i.e., both before and throughout the tasks, and pre-task ratings of the TSST as threatening and challenging. It also impaired TSST performance and attenuated blood pressure reactivity to the stressor. Our findings suggest that a low dose of THC produces subjective stress-relieving effects in line with those commonly reported among cannabis users, but that higher doses may non-specifically increase negative mood. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Continuity, psychosocial correlates, and outcome of problematic substance use from adolescence to young adulthood in a community sample

    OpenAIRE

    Steinhausen, H C; Eschmann, S; Winkler Metzke, C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The study of the continuity, psychosocial correlates, and prediction of problematic substance use (PSU) across time from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Substance use was studied in a cohort of N = 593 subjects who had been assessed at three times between adolescence and young adulthood within the Zurich Psychology and Psychopathology Study (ZAPPS). Based on the frequency of tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption, groups with PSU were defined at each of the thr...

  16. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  17. Growing Pains: The Impact of Disaster-Related and Daily Stressors on the Psychological and Psychosocial Functioning of Youth in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Gaithri A.; Miller, Kenneth E.; Berger, Dale E.

    2010-01-01

    Daily stressors may mediate the relation between exposure to disaster-related stressors and psychological and psychosocial distress among youth in disaster-affected countries. A sample of 427 Sri Lankan Sinhalese, Tamil, and Muslim youth (mean age = 14.5) completed a survey with measures of exposure to disaster-related stressors and daily…

  18. Relationship of psychosocial work factors and health-related quality of life in male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than

    2007-06-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between psychosocial work factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in male automotive assembly plant workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 male workers were recruited in March-July 2005 from 2 major automotive assembly plants in Selangor and Pahang. In this cross-sectional study, information on socio-demography, psychosocial work factors using the 97-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and an abbreviated 26-item version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire containing 4 domains (physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment) was self-administered to all workers involved. The prevalence of reported good or very good overall HRQOL and general health was 64.9% and 53.7%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that created skill was positively associated with physical health and psychological domains; whilst, skill discretion was positively associated with social relationship and environment domains. Social support was positively associated with physical health and environment domains; whilst, co-worker support was positively associated with psychological and social relationship domains. Job insecurity and hazardous condition were negatively associated with all domains, whilst psychological job demands was negatively associated with the environment domain of HRQOL.

  19. The Munik—Reteaming Method is a Way to Rehabilitate Psychosomatic and Work-Related Diseases and a Way to Create Healthy Psychosocial Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia von Vultée

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental illness and stress are increasing at work. Sick leaves escalate. It is suggested to be due to organizational factors. There are a few methods to identify the organizational factors creating the negative psychosocial atmosphere at work. In Sweden, the work-related diseases have increased by 70% since 2010. Methods: Munik is a validated assessment instrument to identify psychosocial status among employees and find weak and strong organizational factors involved in the individual psychosocial well-being. We measure psychosocial well-being as mental energy, work-related exhaustion, and work satisfaction. Conclusions: In this study, we evaluate the treatment of employees at risk with low values on mental energy, high risk for developing work-related exhaustion, and reporting poor work satisfaction. Originality: We used Ben Furman’s positive solution-based coaching/therapy. This resulted in a more satisfied work group, and even though this group showed a large risk of developing work-related exhaustion in the start, none of the participants got on sick leave during the coaching/therapy period. After 3 months, 8 of 10 reported higher values on all 3 psychosocial levels measured.

  20. Health Related Outcomes of Successful Development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2016), s. 76-82 ISSN 1210-7778 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : successful development * longitudinal study * health -related variables Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.682, year: 2016

  1. How Does Stigma Affect People Living with HIV? The Mediating Roles of Internalized and Anticipated HIV Stigma in the Effects of Perceived Community Stigma on Health and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhwani, Henna; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Browning, Wesley R.; Raper, James L.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Turan, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Few researchers have attempted to examine the mechanisms through which HIV-related stigma in the community is processed and experienced at an individual level by people living with HIV. We examined how the effects of perceived HIV stigma in the community on health outcomes for people living with HIV are mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma. Participants (N = 203) from an HIV clinic completed self-report measures and their clinical data were obtained from medical records. Results suggested that the association between perceived community stigma and affective, cognitive, and mental health outcomes (self-esteem, depressive symptoms, avoidance coping, self-blame) are mediated by internalized stigma. Furthermore, a serial mediation model suggested that perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated community stigma, which in turn leads to lower medication adherence. The associations between perceived community stigma and interpersonal outcomes (social support, trust in physicians) were mediated by internalized stigma and anticipated stigma, again in a serial fashion (perceived community stigma leads to internalized stigma, which leads to anticipated stigma, which in turn leads to interpersonal outcomes). These results suggest that perceived HIV-related stigma in the community may cause people living with HIV to internalize stigma and anticipate stigmatizing experiences, resulting in adverse health and psychosocial outcomes—information that can be used to shape interventions. PMID:27272742

  2. Parental palliative cancer: psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life in adolescents participating in a German family counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Franziska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45, 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390 and HRQoL (R2adj =.239 best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.

  3. Psychosocial differences related to parenting infants among single and married mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Debra Beach; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the psychosocial factors, self-esteem, sense of mastery, life stress, and social support among first-time married and single mothers in early parenthood. A cross-sectional comparative design was used to study secondary data. A convenience sample of 80 first-time mothers completed self-report instruments on self-esteem, sense of mastery, social, and life stress at 6-8 weeks after birth. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and ANOVA. A statistically significant difference was found between married and single mothers on self esteem (F = 9.314, df = 1, p = .003) and sense of mastery (F = 4.919, df = 1, p = .030). There were no statistical differences found between married and single mothers on social support and life stress. Findings support Belsky's (1984) theoretical assertion that personal psychological resources are most indicative of successful parenting. Further, interventions directed toward enhancing single mothers' sense of mastery and self-esteem may be needed to facilitate maternal role transition.

  4. Do psychosocial work conditions predict risk of disability pensioning? An analysis of register-based outcomes using pooled data on 40,554 observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Thomas; Burr, Hermann; Borg, Vilhelm

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether high psychosocial job demands (quantitative demands and work pace) and low psychosocial job resources (influence at work and quality of leadership) predicted risk of disability pensioning among employees in four occupational groups--employees working with customers, employees working with clients, office workers and manual workers--in line with the propositions of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Survey data from 40,554 individuals were fitted to the DREAM register containing information on payments of disability pension. Using multi-adjusted Cox regression, observations were followed in the DREAM-register to assess risk of disability pensioning. Average follow-up time was 5.9 years (SD=3.0). Low levels of influence at work predicted an increased risk of disability pensioning and medium levels of quantitative demands predicted a decreased risk of disability pensioning in the study population. We found significant interaction effects between job demands and job resources as combinations low quality of leadership and high job demands predicted the highest rate of disability pensioning. Further analyses showed some, but no statistically significant, differences between the four occupational groups in the associations between job demands, job resources and risk of disability pensioning. The study showed that psychosocial job demands and job resources predicted risk of disability pensioning. The direction of some of the observed associations countered the expectations of the JD-R model and the findings of the present study therefore imply that associations between job demands, job resources and adverse labour market outcomes are more complex than conceptualised in the JD-R model. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Flourishing in New Zealand Workers: Associations With Lifestyle Behaviors, Physical Health, Psychosocial, and Work-Related Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Lucy C; Jarden, Aaron; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and associations of flourishing among a large sample of New Zealand workers. A categorical diagnosis of flourishing was applied to data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, a nationally representative sample of adults in paid employment (n = 5549) containing various lifestyle, physical, psychosocial, and work-related indicators. One in four New Zealand workers were categorized as flourishing. Being older and married, reporting greater income, financial security, physical health, autonomy, strengths awareness and use, work-life balance, job satisfaction, participation in the Five Ways to Well-being, volunteering, and feeling appreciated by others were all positively associated with worker flourishing independent of sociodemographics. Flourishing is a useful additional indicator for evaluating the prevalence, and identifying the drivers, of employee well-being. Employers may benefit from promoting these indicators among staff.

  6. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment......-1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995-1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997-1999). RESULTS: Those who became...... caregivers were more likely to increase frequency of alcohol consumption, but only if they also reported low decision latitude at work (OR= 1.65, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.37 compared with non-caregivers with average decision latitude), or belonged to low occupational social class (OR=2.38, 95% CI 1.17 to 4...

  7. Do Menstrual Hygiene Management Interventions Improve Education and Psychosocial Outcomes for Women and Girls in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. Objectives To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls’ education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. Methods Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers. Results Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads). A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11). Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some

  8. Do Menstrual Hygiene Management Interventions Improve Education and Psychosocial Outcomes for Women and Girls in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hennegan

    Full Text Available Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls.To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls' education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries.Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers.Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads. A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11. Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms.There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some indication of positive results, further

  9. Do Menstrual Hygiene Management Interventions Improve Education and Psychosocial Outcomes for Women and Girls in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennegan, Julie; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls' education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers. Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads). A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11). Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms. There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some indication of positive results, further research is needed

  10. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  11. Agency attribution: event-related potentials and outcome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednark, Jeffery G; Franz, Elizabeth A

    2014-04-01

    Knowledge about the effects of our actions is an underlying feature of voluntary behavior. Given the importance of identifying the outcomes of our actions, it has been proposed that the sensory outcomes of self-made actions are inherently different from those of externally caused outcomes. Thus, the outcomes of self-made actions are likely to be more motivationally significant for an agent. We used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between the perceived motivational significance of an outcome and the attribution of agency in the presence of others. In our experiment, we assessed agency attribution in the presence of another agent by varying the degree of contiguity between participants' self-made actions and the sensory outcome. Specifically, we assessed the feedback correct-related positivity (fCRP) and the novelty P3 measures of an outcome's motivational significance and unexpectedness, respectively. Results revealed that both the fCRP and participants' agency attributions were significantly influenced by action-outcome contiguity. However, when action-outcome contiguity was ambiguous, novelty P3 amplitude was a reliable indicator of agency attribution. Prior agency attributions were also found to influence attribution in trials with ambiguous and low action-outcome contiguity. Participants' use of multiple cues to determine agency is consistent with the cue integration theory of agency. In addition to these novel findings, this study supports growing evidence suggesting that reinforcement processes play a significant role in the sense of agency.

  12. Effects of Active Videogames on Physical Activity and Related Outcomes Among Healthy Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W C

    2014-06-01

    This review systematically evaluated the effects of active videogames (AVGs) on physical activity (PA) and related outcomes in healthy children. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve articles published from January 2000 through August 2013. Included were original studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals, that included at least one subgroup of healthy participants not older than 18 years, and that measured at least one PA-related cognitive, psychosocial, or behavioral outcome. All study designs were included, but only intervention studies with PA comparison between groups or across time were assessed for methodological quality. Evidence strength for intervention studies was stratified by settings (including the free-living home setting, the school, community, or primary care setting with structured AVG sessions [i.e., AVG play of participants was organized by teachers or researchers], and multiple settings). Fifty-four articles were identified, including 32 studies that examined the immediate PA effects (i.e., energy expenditure and PA levels during AVG play), one survey study, and 21 intervention studies aimed to promote PA. AVGs led to light- to moderate-intensity PA among studies of immediate PA outcomes. No effect was identified of AVGs on PA in the home setting. Moderate evidence was found that structured AVG play could improve PA. Inconclusive evidence was found for the effect of AVGs on PA in multiple settings. The present review does not support using AVGs alone in the home setting to promote PA. Structured AVG play has the potential to promote PA in children.

  13. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  14. Alternative outcomes create biased expectations regarding the received outcome: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Déborah; Bentin, Shlomo; Deouell, Leon Y

    2018-05-01

    After choosing between uncertain options, one might get feedback on both the outcome of the chosen option and the outcome of the unchosen option (the alternative). Behavioral research has shown that in such cases people engage in outcome comparison, and that the alternative outcome influences the way one evaluates his own received outcome. Moreover, this influence differs whether one was responsible or not for the choice made. In two studies, we looked for the electrophysiological correlates of outcome comparison. Subjects chose one of two boxes shown on the screen, each box contained a gain or a loss. The alternative outcome was always revealed first, followed by the received outcome. In half of the trials the software picked one box instead of subjects. We tested whether the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P3 elicited by the received reflect outcome comparison. As expected, we found that the FRN and P3 were more positive when the received outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). The FRN and P3 were also sensitive to the value of the alternative outcome, but contrary to our predictions, they were more positive when the alternative outcome was a gain (vs. a loss). As the FRN and P3 are sensitive to expectations, we hypothesized that our findings might result from subjects' biased expectations: subjects might have wrongly believed that a good (bad) alternative outcome signaled a bad (good) received outcome. This hypothesis, coined as the Alternative Omen Effect, was confirmed in parallel in a series of behavioral experiments: people see an illusory negative correlation between the uncorrelated outcomes of choice options (reported in Marciano-Romm et al. (2016)). A challenge for future research will be to disentangle the effects of expectation from those of outcome comparison. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-term outcome after whiplash injury. A 2-year follow-up considering features of injury mechanism and somatic, radiologic, and psychosocial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanov, B P; Sturzenegger, M; Di Stefano, G

    1995-09-01

    With the increased incidence of whiplash injury following the introduction of compulsory car seat belts, a large number of reports have dealt with the aftermath of this condition. Previous studies, however, focused on somatic symptoms on the one hand or considered only psychological or neuropsychological variables on the other hand, often in loosely defined or selected groups of patients. No study so far has analyzed the long-term outcome in a nonselected group of patients using a clear injury definition considering patient history; somatic, radiologic, and neuropsychological findings; and features of the injury mechanisms assessed soon after trauma and during follow-up. the present investigation was designed to assess these combined factors. According to a strict definition of whiplash injury, we assessed a consecutive nonselected sample of 117 patients with recent injury who had similar sociocultural and educational backgrounds. The patients had been in automobile crashes and were all equally covered by accident insurance according to the country-wide scheme. Initial examination was performed 7.2 +/- 4.2 days after trauma, and follow-up examinations 3, 6, 12, and 24 months later. At baseline, features of injury mechanism, subjective complaints, and different aspects of patient history were documented and cervical spine X rays performed. At all examinations patients underwent neurologic examination and cognitive and psychosocial factor assessment. At 2 years, patients were divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic groups and then compared with regard to the initial findings. In addition, symptomatic patients who were disabled at the 2-year follow-up examination and symptomatic patients not disabled (that is, they were able to work at the pretraumatic level) were compared regarding initial and 2-year findings. At 2 years, 18% of patients still had injury-related symptoms. With regard to baseline findings the following significant differences were found: Symptomatic

  16. The relation of cognitive learning strategies to psychosocial employability attributes amongst black adult learners in the economic and management sciences field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-07-01

    Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale. Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution. Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity. Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace. Contribution: The study contributes new insights to the employability and learning andeducation literature. The results may potentially inform formal learning and assessmentdesign in order to improve adult learners’ learning performance and employability.

  17. Psychosocial Factors that Shape Substance Abuse and Related Mental Health of Women Military Veterans who Use Community-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Glover, Dawn L; Washington, Donna L; Hamilton, Alison B

    2018-02-27

    Women Veterans who use the Veterans Health Administration (VA) have high rates of substance abuse and poorer health than non-Veteran women. Less is known about the psychosocial needs of women Veterans who seek care in non-VA settings. We provide a grounded description of factors that impact substance abuse, mental health, and related quality of life of women Veterans who use non-VA community-based health and social services. Utilizing a mixed methods design, we conducted semi-structured in-person interviews with 22 women Veterans in Los Angeles in 2013-2015. The current health of these women Veterans was shaped by substance abuse and several other factors, including: histories of trauma (in childhood, during military service) and discrimination, and associated mental health conditions; post-military socio-economic stressors; shifting social roles and adverse social support; and lost personal identity after military service. Psychosocial factors collectively underscore areas in which delivery of health and social services to women Veterans being treated in non-VA settings could be improved: (1) diffuse, implement, and sustain evidence-based gender-sensitive substance abuse treatment; (2) address traumas contributing to poor health; (3) recognize stress proliferation processes erode women's capacity to access healthcare or cope with stressors in healthy ways; (4) champion women Veterans who embody resilience and thereby can help others to form empowered personal identities of health and wellness. Findings can inform interventions and services that ameliorate vulnerability to substance abuse and other health risks among women Veterans.

  18. The role of psychosocial and physical work-related factors on the health-related quality of life of Iranian industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarami, Hamidreza; Stallones, Lorann; Nazifi, Morteza; Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad

    2016-10-17

    The role of psychosocial and physical work factors in predicting health related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been investigated among Iranian industrial workers. The present study is designed to assess these relationships among Iranian workers from steel and cosmetic factories. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 280 workers from two factories. Psychosocial and physical work factors and HRQOL were measured by the Persian translations of the following questionnaires: Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief). An instrument was developed to assess socio-demographic, health, and other work-related factors. The data were analyzed using independent t-tests, Pearson product moment correlation and hierarchical multiple regression. Results revealed that the respondents generally had poor HRQOLs especially in the environmental domain. The steel factory workers who were exposed to higher levels of occupational risk factors suffered from poorer HRQOL compared to the cosmetic factory workers. The results of hierarchical regression for all participants revealed that social support, sleep quality, work schedule, smoking and exercise were significant predictors of all domains of HRQOL. To improve the worker's HRQOL, intervention programs should focus on promoting social support, sleep quality, exercise and smoking habits. Moreover, reducing hazardous work environments should be considered an important intervention to promote HRQOL.

  19. An Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Decision About Deceased Organ Donation (IMROD): Joining Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge S; Soria-Oliver, Maria; Aramayona, Begoña; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez, José M; Martín, María J

    2018-01-01

    Organ transplantation remains currently limited because the demand for organs far exceeds the supply. Though organ procurement is a complex process involving social, organizational, and clinical factors, one of the most relevant limitations of organ availability is family refusal to donate organs of a deceased relative. In the past decades, a remarkable corpus of evidence about the factors conditioning relatives' consent has been generated. However, research in the field has been carried out mainly by means of merely empirical approaches, and only partial attempts have been made to integrate the existing empirical evidence within conceptual and theoretically based frameworks. Accordingly, this work articulates the proposal of an Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Organ Donation (IMROD) which offers a systematic view of the factors and psychosocial processes involved in family decision and their interrelations. Relatives' experience is conceptualized as a decision process about the possibility of vicariously performing an altruistic behavior that takes place under one of the most stressful experiences of one's lifetime and in the context of interaction with different healthcare professionals. Drawing on this, in the proposed model, the influence of the implied factors and their interrelations/interactions are structured and interpreted according to their theoretically based relation with processes like rational/heuristic decision-making, uncertainty, stress, bereavement, emotional reactions, sense of reciprocity, sense of freedom to decide, and attitudes/intentions toward one's own and the deceased's organ donation. Our model also develops a processual perspective and suggests different decisional scenarios that may be reached as a result of the combinations of the considered factors. Each of these scenarios may imply different balances between factors that enhance or hinder donation, such as different levels of uncertainty and potential decisional conflict

  20. An Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Decision About Deceased Organ Donation (IMROD: Joining Pieces of the Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S. López

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation remains currently limited because the demand for organs far exceeds the supply. Though organ procurement is a complex process involving social, organizational, and clinical factors, one of the most relevant limitations of organ availability is family refusal to donate organs of a deceased relative. In the past decades, a remarkable corpus of evidence about the factors conditioning relatives' consent has been generated. However, research in the field has been carried out mainly by means of merely empirical approaches, and only partial attempts have been made to integrate the existing empirical evidence within conceptual and theoretically based frameworks. Accordingly, this work articulates the proposal of an Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Organ Donation (IMROD which offers a systematic view of the factors and psychosocial processes involved in family decision and their interrelations. Relatives' experience is conceptualized as a decision process about the possibility of vicariously performing an altruistic behavior that takes place under one of the most stressful experiences of one's lifetime and in the context of interaction with different healthcare professionals. Drawing on this, in the proposed model, the influence of the implied factors and their interrelations/interactions are structured and interpreted according to their theoretically based relation with processes like rational/heuristic decision-making, uncertainty, stress, bereavement, emotional reactions, sense of reciprocity, sense of freedom to decide, and attitudes/intentions toward one's own and the deceased's organ donation. Our model also develops a processual perspective and suggests different decisional scenarios that may be reached as a result of the combinations of the considered factors. Each of these scenarios may imply different balances between factors that enhance or hinder donation, such as different levels of uncertainty and potential

  1. An Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Decision About Deceased Organ Donation (IMROD): Joining Pieces of the Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jorge S.; Soria-Oliver, Maria; Aramayona, Begoña; García-Sánchez, Rubén; Martínez, José M.; Martín, María J.

    2018-01-01

    Organ transplantation remains currently limited because the demand for organs far exceeds the supply. Though organ procurement is a complex process involving social, organizational, and clinical factors, one of the most relevant limitations of organ availability is family refusal to donate organs of a deceased relative. In the past decades, a remarkable corpus of evidence about the factors conditioning relatives' consent has been generated. However, research in the field has been carried out mainly by means of merely empirical approaches, and only partial attempts have been made to integrate the existing empirical evidence within conceptual and theoretically based frameworks. Accordingly, this work articulates the proposal of an Integrated Psychosocial Model of Relatives' Organ Donation (IMROD) which offers a systematic view of the factors and psychosocial processes involved in family decision and their interrelations. Relatives' experience is conceptualized as a decision process about the possibility of vicariously performing an altruistic behavior that takes place under one of the most stressful experiences of one's lifetime and in the context of interaction with different healthcare professionals. Drawing on this, in the proposed model, the influence of the implied factors and their interrelations/interactions are structured and interpreted according to their theoretically based relation with processes like rational/heuristic decision-making, uncertainty, stress, bereavement, emotional reactions, sense of reciprocity, sense of freedom to decide, and attitudes/intentions toward one's own and the deceased's organ donation. Our model also develops a processual perspective and suggests different decisional scenarios that may be reached as a result of the combinations of the considered factors. Each of these scenarios may imply different balances between factors that enhance or hinder donation, such as different levels of uncertainty and potential decisional conflict

  2. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  3. [Psychosocial workload, sick leave, and health-related well being: an empirical study from the perspective of gender research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, K; Rödel, A; Hessel, A; Brähler, E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test hypotheses on the consequences of gender role expectations with regard to the extent of work stress, selected health-related measures and their associations. Data on psychosocial workload (questionnaire of effort-reward imbalance), sick leave (self-reports of the duration of medically certified sick leave during the past two years) and health-related well being were collected in a representative sample of German full-time employees (n = 666). Hypotheses were tested using analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) and moderated linear regression analyses. Women reported lower health-related well-being as compared to men while effort-reward imbalance and sick leave did not differ between the sexes. Parents reported slightly longer durations of sick leave during the past two years than childless participants (not significant). The results of stratified linear regression analyses show stronger associations between effort-reward imbalance and both health-related measures for women with children than for men with children, while single men and women do not differ in this regard. Evidence of this kind can be useful for the purposeful planning and implementation of health promotion measures at work. Women with children would be a group deserving special attention. The findings also point to continuing differences in gender role expectations in the family context.

  4. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  5. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  6. Clear associations between demographic and psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Burdorf, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Hazes, J.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Objective. To identify demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients had inflammatory joint complaints for less than 12 months. Data

  7. Clear associations between demographic and psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.W.M. Evers (Arne); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To identify demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients had inflammatory joint complaints for less than 12 months.

  8. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and

  9. Substance abuse and psychosocial adaptation to physical disability: analysis of the literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Ebener, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the current state of the literature with respect to substance abuse and psychosocial adjustment in persons with disabilities. The two primary databases containing the literature related to rehabilitation and disability issues (PsychINFO and MedLine) were searched to identify articles addressing the psychosocial impact of substance abuse in persons with disabilities. Eleven empirical articles specifically measuring the strength of the relationship between substance use and psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities were selected for analysis. Of the studies identified, five were related to spinal cord injury, three were related to traumatic brain injury, one was related to chronic back pain, one was related to HIV/AIDS, and one was related to persons with any type of disability. Each of the studies used different methodologies, measured substance abuse in different ways, and examined different psychosocial outcome variables. Examination of trends suggested that pre-injury substance abuse appears to be unrelated to acceptance of disability in persons with spinal cord injury and negatively associated with satisfaction in persons with traumatic brain injury. Recent substance abuse tends to have a detrimental effect on psychosocial outcomes across all disability groups. Future research, combined with appropriate pre-service and continuing education related to substance abuse and disability for rehabilitation practitioners, has the potential to lead to improved psychosocial outcomes in persons with disabilities.

  10. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  11. How psychosocial factors affect well-being of practice assistants at work in general medical care?--a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Katja; Berger, Sarah; Gavartina, Amina; Zaroti, Stavria; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2015-11-11

    Well-being at work is an important aspect of a workforce strategy. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate psychosocial factors and health and work-related outcomes of practices assistants depending on their employment status in general medical practices. This observational study was based on a questionnaire survey to evaluate psychosocial aspects at work in general medical practices. A standardized questionnaire was used, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Beside descriptive analyses linear regression analyses were performed for each health and work-related outcome scale of the COPSOQ. 586 practice assistants out of 794 respondents (73.8 %) from 234 general medical practices completed the questionnaire. Practice assistants reported the highest scores for the psychosocial factor 'sense of community' (mean = 85.9) and the lower score for 'influence at work' (mean = 41.2). Moreover, practice assistants who worked part-time rated their psychosocial factors at work and health-related outcomes more positively than full-time employees. Furthermore, the two scales of health related outcomes 'burnout' and 'job satisfaction' showed strong associations between different psychosocial factors and socio-demographic variables. Psychosocial factors at work influence well-being at work and could be strong risk factors for poor health and work-related outcomes. Effective management of these issues could have an impact on the retention and recruitment of health care staff.

  12. Psychosocial Factors and Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Southeastern Asian Female Workers Living in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonkyeong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: Acculturation strategy and nationality were found to be significant factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Health professionals need to accommodate acculturation contexts into risk assessment and intervention development for work-related musculoskeletal disorders separately for different nationalities.

  13. A Nationwide Population-Based Approach to Study Health-Related and Psychosocial Aspects of Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-31

    unbiased information on educational performance in adults with NF1. Education is an important and challenging life goal for anyone - but even more...from child - into adulthood in a similar approach by determining the following psychosocial and socioeconomic achievements or life goals based on... educational attainment (study 5) • to thoroughly investigate the psychosocial burden (depression, anxiety, quality of life) (study 6) and impairment in

  14. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  15. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Shankardass, Ketan; O’Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Fahey, John; Joseph, KS; Morinis, Julia; Allen, Victoria M

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. Methods A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 11...

  16. Psychosocial adaptation: an evolutionary concept analysis exploring a common multidisciplinary language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, Yenly; McMillan, Diana E

    2015-11-01

    To provide the first known concept analysis of psychosocial adaptation, exploring its evolution from the concept adaptation. We also determine how psychosocial adaptation is conceptualized across nursing, health, sociobehavioural and education disciplines. Psychosocial adaptation is an important conceptual term that is poorly defined in nursing and other health, sociobehavioural and education disciplines. A thorough understanding of the concept's application in nursing and across disciplines can help to clarify its meaning, facilitate a more effective common language between disciplines and inform future psychosocial adaptation research. Rodger's evolutionary view guided this concept analysis. Peer-reviewed English and Spanish manuscripts published between 2011-2013 were retrieved from the following databases: CINAHL, Psych INFO, PubMed, Scopus and LILACS. Eighty-nine articles related to psychosocial adaptation were included in the analysis. Findings identify key attributes, antecedents and consequences associated with the use of the concept. Findings were compared vis-a-vis reported characteristics of adaptation. The attributes characterizing psychosocial adaptation are: change, process, continuity, interaction and influence. In psychosocial adaptation, new life conditions serve as antecedents, while consequences are good or bad outcomes. Important features of the evolution of this concept include its broad appropriation across the reviewed disciplines. The attributes of psychosocial adaptation, have some similarities to those of general adaptation. Both concepts include an aspect of change, but unlike adaptation, psychosocial adaptation has branched away from biological descriptors, such as homeostasis and tends to focus on relational characteristics, such as interaction and influences. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Whipp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education. Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical and student learning outcomes within high school physical education classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59 were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach. Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in physical education.

  18. The effects of formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching on psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and motor learning outcomes in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben; Dimmock, James A; Soh, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Peer teaching is recognized as a powerful instructional method; however, there is a paucity of studies that have evaluated the outcomes experienced by peer-teachers and their student recipients in the context of trained, non-reciprocal, high school physical education (PE). Accordingly, the effectiveness of a formalized and trained non-reciprocal peer teaching (T-PT) program upon psychosocial, behavioral, pedagogical, and student learning outcomes within high school PE classes was investigated. Students from eight intact classes (106 males, 94 females, Mage = 12.46, SD = 0.59) were randomly assigned to either a T-PT intervention group (taught by a volunteer peer-teacher who was trained in line with a tactical games approach) or untrained group (U-PT; where volunteer peer-teachers received no formal training, but did receive guidance on the game concepts to teach). Data were collected over 10 lessons in a 5-week soccer unit. Mixed-model ANOVAs/MANOVAs revealed that, in comparison to U-PT, the T-PT program significantly enhanced in-game performance actions and academic learning time among student recipients. Those in the T-PT also provided greater levels of feedback and structured learning time, as well as reporting more positive feelings about peer teaching and fewer perceived barriers to accessing learning outcomes. These findings show that non-reciprocal peer-teachers who receive formalized support through training and tactical games approach-based teaching resources can enhance behavioral, pedagogical, and motor performance outcomes in PE.

  19. Psychosocial Intervention for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Hans-Werner; Kammerer, Annette; Holz, Frank; Miller, Daniel; Becker, Stefanie; Kaspar, Roman; Himmelsbach, Ines

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated an emotion-focused and a problem-focused intervention designed for patients with age-related macular degeneration. It found a limited decrease in depression in the emotion-focused group and an increase in active problem orientation and in adaptation to vision loss in the problem-focused group.

  20. An Urban Food Store Intervention Positively Affects Food-Related Psychosocial Variables and Food Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…

  1. Psychosocial work environment and mental health-related long-term sickness absence among nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corné A.M.; van Hoffen, Marieke F.A.; Waage, Siri; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Twisk, Jos W R; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Moen, Bente E.; Pallesen, Ståle

    Purpose: We investigated which job demands and job resources were predictive of mental health-related long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in nurses. Methods: The data of 2059 nurses were obtained from the Norwegian survey of Shift work, Sleep and Health. Job demands (psychological demands, role

  2. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.

  3. Psychosocial and Clinical Outcomes of a Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Asians and Pacific Islanders with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inouye, Jillian; Li, Dongmei; Davis, James; Arakaki, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are twice as likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes compared to Caucasians. The objective was to determine the effect of cognitive behavioral therapy on quality of life, general health perceptions, depressive symptoms, and glycemia in Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes. The design was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing cognitive behavioral therapy to diabetes education and support for six weekly sessions. Participants were recruited from two endocrinology practices; 207 were enrolled. The cognitive behavioral therapy group was provided self-management tools which included biofeedback, breathing exercises, and stress relievers, while the diabetes education and support group included diabetes education and group discussions. Assessments of psychosocial and clinical outcomes were obtained before and after sessions and 12 months PostSession. Differences between the two groups were examined using linear mixed-effects models with linear contrasts. The cognitive behavioral therapy group had improved depressive symptom scores from PreSession to EndSession compared to the diabetes education and support group (P < .03), but the improvement did not extend to 12 months PostSession. Similar results were observed with misguided support scores in the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (P < .03) and susceptibility in health beliefs (P < .01), but no significant differences in HbA1c improvement were found between the two groups. Both interventions improved outcomes from baseline but were not sustained for 1 year.

  4. Work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave in patients with neck or upper extremity complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bot, Sandra D M; Terwee, Caroline B; van der Windt, Daniëlle A W M; van der Beek, Allard J; Bouter, Lex M; Dekker, Joost

    2007-08-01

    To study work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for sick leave among patients who have visited their general practitioner for neck or upper extremity complaints. Three hundred and forty two patients with neck or upper extremity complaints completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Cox regression models were used to investigate the association between work-related risk factors and sick leave (i.e., lost days from work due to neck or upper extremity complaints in 3 months). Effect modification by sick leave at baseline, sex, worrying and musculoskeletal co-morbidity was evaluated by adding product terms to the regression models. In the subgroup of patients who scored high on the pain copying scale "worrying" the hazard ratio of sick leave was 1.32 (95% CI 1.07-1.62) per 10% increase in heavy physical work. The subgroup of patients who were sitting for long periods of time had a reduced risk of sick leave as compared to patients who did not spend a lot of time sitting, again only in patients who scored high on the pain coping scale "worrying" (adjusted HR=0.17, 95%-CI 0.04-0.72). Other work-related risk factors were not significantly related to sick leave. Heavy physical work increased the risk of sick leave and prolonged sitting reduced the risk of sick leave in a subgroup of patients who worried much about their pain. Additional large longitudinal studies of sufficiently large size among employees with neck or upper extremity complaints are needed to confirm our results.

  5. Physical and psychosocial prerequisites of functioning in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being among office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren-Rönkä, Tuulikki; Ojanen, Markku T; Leskinen, Esko K; Tmustalampi, Sirpa; Mälkiä, Esko A

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical and psychological prerequisites of functioning, as well as the social environment at work and personal factors, in relation to work ability and general subjective well-being in a group of office workers. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional investigation, using path analysis, of office workers. The subjects comprised 88 volunteers, 24 men and 64 women, from the same workplace [mean age 45.7 (SD 8.6) years]. The independent variables were measured using psychosocial and physical questionnaires and physical measurements. The first dependent variable, work ability, was measured by a work ability index. The second dependent variable, general subjective well-being, was assessed by life satisfaction and meaning of life. The variables were structured according to a modified version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Forward flexion of the spine, intensity of musculoskeletal symptoms, self-confidence, and mental stress at work explained 58% of work ability and had indirect effects on general subjective well-being. Self-confidence, mood, and work ability had a direct effect on general subjective well-being. The model developed explained 68% of general subjective well-being. Age played a significant role in this study population. The prerequisites of physical functioning are important in maintaining work ability, particularly among aging workers, and psychological prerequisites of functioning are of even greater importance in maintaining general subjective well-being.

  6. Psychosocial Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Male and Female Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: The VALOR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shona C; Schnurr, Paula P; Kulish, Andrea L; Holowka, Darren W; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond

    2015-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans suffer from high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the growing number of women in the military, there is a critical need to understand the nature and extent of potential gender differences in PTSD-associated psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans, which has not been studied to date. We used data from a gender-balanced national patient registry of warzone-deployed OEF/OIF veterans (Project VALOR: Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry) to determine the impact of gender on PTSD-related psychosocial functioning and HRQOL in 1,530 United States Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (50% female) with and without PTSD. Overall psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning (IPF) and mental and physical HRQOL with the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12) Mental and Physical Component Summary scores, respectively. Stratified linear regression models estimated gender-specific associations, controlling for demographic, deployment, and postdeployment factors. Interaction models tested for significant effect moderation by gender. In gender-stratified models, PTSD was strongly associated with higher IPF scores (greater functional impairment), with similar associations by gender. PTSD was also associated with lower Mental Component Summary scores (lower mental HRQOL) in both men and women, with no evidence of effect moderation by gender. PTSD was associated with lower Physical Component Summery scores in women but not men in adjusted models; however, interactions were not significant. PTSD among warzone-deployed OEF/OIF veterans is associated with significant impairments in both overall psychosocial functioning and HRQOL, with associations that are largely similar by gender. Findings support the need for thorough and continuous assessment of functional impairment and HRQOL

  7. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  8. Gender-based Outcomes and Acceptability of a Computer-assisted Psychosocial Intervention for Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V; Pavlicova, Martina; Hatch-Maillette, Mary; Hu, Mei-Chen; Bailey, Genie L; Sugarman, Dawn E; Miele, Gloria M; Rieckmann, Traci; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; Turrigiano, Eva; Greenfield, Shelly F

    2015-06-01

    Digital technologies show promise for increasing treatment accessibility and improving quality of care, but little is known about gender differences. This secondary analysis uses data from a multi-site effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted behavioral intervention, conducted within NIDA's National Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network, to explore gender differences in intervention acceptability and treatment outcomes. Men (n=314) and women (n=192) were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of treatment-as-usual (TAU) or modified TAU+Therapeutic Education System (TES), whereby TES substituted for 2hours of TAU per week. TES is composed of 62 Web-delivered, multimedia modules, covering skills for achieving and maintaining abstinence plus prize-based incentives contingent on abstinence and treatment adherence. Outcomes were: (1) abstinence from drugs and heavy drinking in the last 4weeks of treatment, (2) retention, (3) social functioning, and (4) drug and alcohol craving. Acceptability was the mean score across five indicators (i.e., interesting, useful, novel, easy to understand, and satisfaction). Gender did not moderate the effect of treatment on any outcome. Women reported higher acceptability scores at week 4 (p=.02), but no gender differences were detected at weeks 8 or 12. Acceptability was positively associated with abstinence, but only among women (p=.01). Findings suggest that men and women derive similar benefits from participating in a computer-assisted intervention, a promising outcome as technology-based treatments expand. Acceptability was associated with abstinence outcomes among women. Future research should explore characteristics of women who report less satisfaction with this modality of treatment and ways to improve overall acceptability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sexual behaviour related to psycho-social factors in a population of Danish homosexual and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K W; Fouchard, J R; Krasnik, A; Zoffmann, H; Jacobsen, H L; Kreiner, S

    1992-05-01

    An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was distributed to (1) male members of the Danish Gay and Lesbian Association (2) through a gay magazine and (3) to readers of a gay pornographic magazine. For the purpose of this study sexual practices were classified into three categories taking into account the HIV-status of the respondent and his partner(s): safe sex (mutual masturbation, sex with condoms, sex without condoms between two HIV-positives), potentially safe sex (oral-genital sex without condoms irrespective of HIV-status, anal-genital sex without condoms between two HIV-negatives), unsafe sex (anal-genital sex without condoms between discordant partners or partners of unknown HIV status). Of the 2058 respondents 29.7% had had unsafe sex in the last 12 months. Multivariate analysis by recursive graphical models showed that sexual practice was directly related (that is conditionally dependent given the rest of the variables) to having a steady partner. Among men without a steady partner sexual practice was also directly related to age and number of partners showing an increase in unsafe sex with number of partners and a decrease with age. Thus of the men 16-19 years of age 43.5% had had unsafe sex irrespective of number of partners vs 5.7% of men older than 44 years and with one to two partners. Sexual practice was not directly related to any other demographic or psychosocial factor in the study. The adopted classification of sexual practice preclude that the high occurrence of unsafe sex could be explained by unsafe sex taking place among partners of concordant HIV status. The results emphasize the need for further preventive efforts to reduce transmission of HIV among homosexual men.

  10. Relative size predicts competitive outcome through 2 million years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liow, Lee Hsiang; Di Martino, Emanuela; Krzeminska, Malgorzata; Ramsfjell, Mali; Rust, Seabourne; Taylor, Paul D; Voje, Kjetil L

    2017-08-01

    Competition is an important biotic interaction that influences survival and reproduction. While competition on ecological timescales has received great attention, little is known about competition on evolutionary timescales. Do competitive abilities change over hundreds of thousands to millions of years? Can we predict competitive outcomes using phenotypic traits? How much do traits that confer competitive advantage and competitive outcomes change? Here we show, using communities of encrusting marine bryozoans spanning more than 2 million years, that size is a significant determinant of overgrowth outcomes: colonies with larger zooids tend to overgrow colonies with smaller zooids. We also detected temporally coordinated changes in average zooid sizes, suggesting that different species responded to a common external driver. Although species-specific average zooid sizes change over evolutionary timescales, species-specific competitive abilities seem relatively stable, suggesting that traits other than zooid size also control overgrowth outcomes and/or that evolutionary constraints are involved. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  11. Work-related threats and violence in human service sectors: The importance of the psycho-social work environment examined in a multilevel prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie; Biering, Karin; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2018-01-01

    Threats and violence at work are major concerns for employees in many human service sectors. The prevention of work-related violence is a major challenge for employees and management. The purpose of this study was to identify prospective associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related threats and violence in four high risk human service sectors. Questionnaire data was collected from 3011 employees working at psychiatric wards, in the elder sector, in the Prison and Probation Service and at Special Schools. Associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were then studied using a one-year follow-up design and multilevel logistic regression analyses. The analyses showed that quantitative demands, high emotional demands, low level of influence over own work-situation, low predictability, low rewards at work, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts and low organizational justice had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related threats. Furthermore, high emotional demands, low predictability, low role clarity, many role conflicts, many work-family conflicts, low supervisor quality and low support from nearest supervisor had statistically significant associations with high levels of work-related violence. Finally, across the four sectors both similar and different associations between psycho-social work environment and work-related violence and threats were found. The results of the study underline the importance of including the psycho-social work environment as a supplement to existing violence prevention methods and interventions aimed at reducing work-related violence and threats.

  12. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  13. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.

  14. Communication, Psychosocial, and Educational Outcomes of Children with Cochlear Implants and Challenges Remaining for Professionals and Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Punch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and a synthesis of the findings of a large, multifaceted study investigating outcomes from paediatric cochlear implantation. The study included children implanted at several Australian implant clinics and attending a variety of early intervention and educational settings across a range of locations in eastern Australia. It investigated three major aspects of childhood cochlear implantation: (1 parental expectations of their children's implantation, (2 families' decision-making processes, and (3 the communication, social, and educational outcomes of cochlear implantation for deaf children. It employed a mixed-methods approach in which quantitative survey data were gathered from 247 parents and 151 teachers, and qualitative data from semistructured interviews with 27 parents, 15 teachers, and 11 children and adolescents with cochlear implants. The summarised findings highlight several areas where challenges remain for implant clinics, parents, and educators if children with cochlear implants are to reach their full potential personally, educationally, and socially.

  15. The Relationship Between Posttraumatic Growth and Psychosocial Variables in Survivors of State Terrorism and Their Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Faúndez-Abarca, Ximena; Arancibia-Martini, Héctor; Ceruti-Mahn, Cristián

    2017-08-01

    The present study explores reports of growth in survivors and family members of victims of state terrorism ( N = 254) in Chile from 1973 to 1990. The results indicate the presence of reports of posttraumatic growth ( M = 4.69) and a positive and statistically significant correlation with variables related to the life impact of the stressful events ( r = .46), social sharing of emotions ( r = .32), deliberate rumination ( r = .37), positive reappraisal ( r = .35), reconciliation ( r = .39), spiritual practices ( r = .33), and meaning in life ( r = .51). The relationship between growth and forgiveness is not statistically significant. The variables that best predict posttraumatic growth are positive reappraisal (β = .28), life impact (β = .24), meaning in life β = .23), and reconciliation (β = .20). The forward-method hierarchical model indicates that these variables are significant predictors of growth levels, R 2 = .53, F(8, 210) = 30.08, p state terrorism manage to grow after these experiences, and the redefinition of meaning in life and the positive reappraisal of the traumatic experiences are the elements that make it possible to create a new narrative about the past.

  16. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  17. An urban food store intervention positively affects food-related psychosocial variables and food behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A

    2010-06-01

    Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.

  18. The key role of psychosocial risk on therapeutic outcome in obese children and adolescents. Results from a longitudinal multicenter study.

    OpenAIRE

    Röbl, Markus; de Souza, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Gellhaus, Ines; Zwiauer, Karl; Holl, Reinhard W.; Wiegand, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. Methods: 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software ...

  19. The key role of psychosocial risk on therapeutic outcome in obese children and adolescents. Results from a longitudinal multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röbl, Markus; de Souza, Martin; Schiel, Ralf; Gellhaus, Ines; Zwiauer, Karl; Holl, Reinhard W; Wiegand, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8%) attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19) compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14) and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11). Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  20. The Key Role of Psychosocial Risk on Therapeutic Outcome in Obese Children and Adolescents. Results from a Longitudinal Multicenter Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Röbl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood obesity is high on the global public health agenda. Although risk factors are well known, the influence of social risk on the therapeutic outcome of lifestyle intervention is poorly examined. This study aims to investigate the influence of migration background, low education, and parental unemployment. Methods: 62,147 patients participated in multidimensional lifestyle intervention programs in 179 pediatric obesity centers. Data were collected using standardized software for longitudinal multicenter documentation. 12,305 (19.8% attended care for 6-24 months, undergoing an intensive therapy period and subsequent follow-ups for up to 3 years. A cumulative social risk score was calculated based on different risk indicators. Results: Migration background, low education, and parental employment significantly influenced the outcome of lifestyle intervention. The observed BMI-SDS reduction was significantly higher in the subgroup with low social risks factors (Δ BMI-SDS -0.19 compared to those presenting moderate (Δ BMI-SDS -0.14 and high social risk (Δ BMI-SDS -0.11. Conclusion: Our data underline the effect of children's social setting on the outcome of multidimensional lifestyle intervention. The presence of a high social risk burden is a negative predictor for successful weight loss. Specific therapeutic programs need to be developed for disadvantaged children and adolescents.

  1. Synergistic Effects of Psychosocial Stress and Mild Peripheral Infection on Inducing Microglial Activation in the Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus and Long-Lasting Deficits in Hippocampus-Related Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Wen-Yu; Su, Chien-Chou; Sun, Li-Han; Cherng, Chianfang G.; Yu, Lung

    2018-04-30

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment and stress may cause immune activation in the brain, an event which has been thought to play a role in mediating stress-induced cognitive dysfunction. However, the enduring impact of psychosocial stress on brain immune activation or cognitive deficits has not been well investigated. Likewise, it remains unexplored whether there exist synergistic effects of psychosocial stress and a weak systemic LPS treatment on brain immune activation and/or cognitive function. In this work, a 10-day social defeat regimen was used to model psychosocial stress and the number and density of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1)-stained microglia was used to reveal brain immune activation in male Balb/C mice. The social defeat regimen did not cause observable microglial activation in dentate gyrus (DG) 24 h after the conclusion of the regimen. Microglial activation peaked in DG 24 h following a single 1 mg/kg intra-peritoneal LPS injection. At this time point, DG microglial activation was not evident providing 0.125 mg/kg or lower of LPS was used, this dose of LPS was, thus, regarded as the “sub-threshold” in this study. Twenty-four h after the conclusion of the defeat regimen, mice received a social interaction test to determine their defeat stress susceptibility and a “sub-threshold” LPS injection. DG microglial activation was observed in the defeat-stress susceptible, but not in the resilient, mice. Furthermore, the stress-susceptible mice showed impairment in object location and Y maze tasks 24 and 72 h after the “sub-threshold” LPS injection. These results suggest that psychosocial stress, when combined with a negligible peripheral infection, may induce long-lasting hippocampus-related memory deficits exclusively in subjects susceptible to psychosocial stresses.

  2. Psycho-social aspects of personal health monitoring: a descriptive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlan, Holger; Schmidt, Silke

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at providing a short review on already published studies addressing psycho-social issues of personal health monitoring (PHM). Both core questions addressed within this review are: What is the impact of PHM on intended psycho-social and health-related outcomes? And which psycho-social issues affected by or related to PHM have already been investigated? This descriptive review based on a literature search using various databases (Psycinfo, Psyndex, Pubmed, SSCI). Resulting 428 abstracts were coded regarding their psycho-social content. Inspection of results was carried out along the relevance of the papers regarding psycho-social issues. Research in PHM focuses on telemonitoring and smart home applications: Tele-monitoring studies are directed to outcome-related questions, smart home studies to feasibility issues. Despite of technological matters, comparability of both systems in psycho-social issues is lacking. Tele-monitoring has been proven for impact on patient groups with chronic diseases, yet smart home still lacks evidence in health-related and psycho-social matters. Smart home applications have been investigated with respect to attitudes, perceptions and concerns of end-users, telemonitoring regarding acceptance and adherence.

  3. Sexuality-Related Outcomes of Adolescent Children of Teen Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between being an adolescent child of a teen mother and sexuality-related outcomes was investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Adolescents whose mothers were teenagers at first birth were more likely to have had sex by age 16 than other adolescents. Gender moderated this effect, as this relationship…

  4. Outcome of pregnancy related acute kidney injury requiring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (AKI) severe enough to require dialysis is now rare in developed countries but is still a significant cause of maternal mortality in many resource constrained countries. However, there is scanty information from many sub-Saharan countries about outcomes of patient who ...

  5. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borries, A K L; Verkes, R J; Bulten, B H; Cools, R; de Bruijn, E R A

    2013-12-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model predicts an FRN on negative prediction errors, as well as implying a role for the FRN in learning and the adaptation of behavior. However, these predictions have recently been challenged. Notably, studies so far have used tasks in which the outcomes have been contingent on the response. In these paradigms, the need to adapt behavioral responses is present only for negative, not for positive feedback. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of positive as well as negative violations of expectancy on FRN amplitudes, without the usual confound of behavioral adjustments. A reversal-learning task was employed in which outcome value and outcome expectancy were orthogonalized; that is, both positive and negative outcomes were equally unexpected. The results revealed a double dissociation, with effects of valence but not expectancy on the FRN and, conversely, effects of expectancy but not valence on the P300. While FRN amplitudes were largest for negative-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome expectancy, P300 amplitudes were largest for unexpected-outcome trials, irrespective of outcome valence. These FRN effects were interpreted to reflect an evaluation along a good-bad dimension, rather than reflecting a negative prediction error or a role in behavioral adaptation. By contrast, the P300 reflects the updating of information relevant for behavior in a changing context.

  6. Magnitude of income-related disparities in adverse perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Fahey, John; Joseph, Ks; Morinis, Julia; Allen, Victoria M

    2014-03-04

    To assess and compare multiple measurements of socioeconomic position (SEP) in order to determine the relationship with adverse perinatal outcomes across various contexts. A birth registry, the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database, was confidentially linked to income tax and related information for the year in which delivery occurred. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine odds ratios between multiple indicators of SEP and multiple adverse perinatal outcomes in 117734 singleton births between 1988 and 2003. Models for after tax family income were also adjusted for neighborhood deprivation to gauge the relative magnitude of effects related to SEP at both levels. Effects of SEP were stratified by single- versus multiple-parent family composition, and by urban versus rural location of residence. The risk of small for gestational age and spontaneous preterm birth was higher across all the indicators of lower SEP, while risk for large for gestational age was lower across indicators of lower SEP. Higher risk of postneonatal death was demonstrated for several measures of lower SEP. Higher material deprivation in the neighborhood of residence was associated with increased risk for perinatal death, small for gestational age birth, and iatrogenic and spontaneous preterm birth. Family composition and urbanicity were shown to modify the association between income and some perinatal outcomes. This study highlights the importance of understanding the definitions of SEP and the mechanisms that lead to the association between income and poor perinatal outcomes, and broadening the types of SEP measures used in some cases.

  7. Prevention of low back pain in the military cluster randomized trial: effects of brief psychosocial education on total and low back pain-related health care costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, John D; Wu, Samuel S; Teyhen, Deydre S; Robinson, Michael E; George, Steven Z

    2014-04-01

    Effective strategies for preventing low back pain (LBP) have remained elusive, despite annual direct health care costs exceeding $85 billion dollars annually. In our recently completed Prevention of Low Back Pain in the Military (POLM) trial, a brief psychosocial education program (PSEP) that reduced fear and threat of LBP reduced the incidence of health care-seeking for LBP. The purpose of this cost analysis was to determine if soldiers who received psychosocial education experienced lower health care costs compared with soldiers who did not receive psychosocial education. The POLM trial was a cluster randomized trial with four intervention arms and a 2-year follow-up. Consecutive subjects (n=4,295) entering a 16-week training program at Fort Sam Houston, TX, to become a combat medic in the U.S. Army were considered for participation. In addition to an assigned exercise program, soldiers were cluster randomized to receive or not receive a brief psychosocial education program delivered in a group setting. The Military Health System Management Analysis and Reporting Tool was used to extract total and LBP-related health care costs associated with LBP incidence over a 2-year follow-up period. After adjusting for postrandomization differences between the groups, the median total LBP-related health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred LBP-related costs during the 2-year follow-up period were $26 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($60 vs. $86, respectively, p=.034). The adjusted median total health care costs for soldiers who received PSEP and incurred at least some health care costs during the 2-year follow-up period were estimated at $2 per soldier lower than for those who did not receive PSEP ($2,439 vs. $2,441, respectively, p=.242). The results from this analysis demonstrate that a brief psychosocial education program was only marginally effective in reducing LBP-related health care costs and was not effective in reducing

  8. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  9. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  10. Health behaviors and work-related outcomes among school employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Merrill, Ray M; Masterson, Travis

    2015-05-01

    To determine the association between selected health behaviors and work-related outcomes among 2398 school-based employees who voluntarily enrolled in a worksite wellness program. This study presents participants' baseline data collected from a personal health assessment used by Well-Steps, a third-party wellness company. Employees with high levels of exercise, fruit/vegetable consumption, or restful sleep exhibited higher job-performance and job-satisfaction, and lower absenteeism (p job-performance (Prevalence Ratio=1.09; 95% CI=1.05-1.13), job-satisfaction (Prevalence Ratio=1.53; 95% CI=1.30-1.80), and lower absenteeism (Prevalence Ratio=1.16; 95% CI=1.08-1.325). Further, number of co-occurring health behaviors influenced other satisfaction and emotional health outcomes. Selected healthy behaviors, individually or co-occurring, are associated with health outcomes potentially important at the worksite.

  11. Work-related acute physical injuries, chronic overuse complaints, and the psychosocial work environment in Danish primary care chiropractic practice - a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mille Charlotte; Aagaard, Tine; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the physical and psychosocial work environment of chiropractors and their work-related health complaints, and this has never been described for Danish chiropractors. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe work-related acute physical injuries, overuse complaints, and psychosocial stress in Danish chiropractic work settings. We developed a questionnaire specifically for this study and distributed it electronically in August 2016 using SurveyXact to all 575 members of the Danish Chiropractors' Association working in primary care clinics. Chiropractors were asked about their work-related acute physical injuries and overuse complaints as well as any psychosocial stress they experienced at work during the previous year. We described our sample and variables using means, medians, ranges, and confidence intervals where appropriate. Statistically significant differences between genders, types of complaints and injuries, and between clinic owners and associates were examined using Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests, where appropriate, or by examining confidence intervals for non-overlap. 355 (65.2%) chiropractors answered the survey. Of these, 216 (61%, 95% CI 56-66) had experienced a work-related acute physical injury and/or overuse complaint during the previous year. Work-related overuse complaints were most commonly reported in the low back, wrist, thumb, and shoulder, and were more common among women (63%, 95% CI 56-70) than men (51%, 95% CI 43-59). Chiropractors with more than five years in practice (59%, 95% CI 52-64) reported significantly fewer work-related acute injuries and overuse complaints during the previous year compared with chiropractors with less than five years in practice (83%, 95% CI 73-91). In general, these practicing Danish chiropractors reported having a good psychosocial work environment, and 90% of chiropractors "always" or "often" felt that they were motivated and committed to their work. This sample of Danish

  12. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  13. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822345

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes

  14. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  15. Long-Term Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes After Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: A Case-Controlled Comparison to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbinson, Meredith; Zarshenas, Sareh; Cullen, Nora K

    2017-12-01

    Despite the increasing rate of survival from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI), there is a paucity of evidence on the long-term functional outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation among these nontrauma patients compared to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To compare functional and psychosocial outcomes of patients with HIBI to those of case-matched patients with TBI 4-11 years after brain insult. Retrospective, matched case-controlled study. Data at the time of rehabilitation admission and discharge were collected as part of a larger acquired brain injury (ABI) database at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (TRI) between 1999 and 2009. This study consisted of 11 patients with HIBI and 11 patients with TBI that attended the neuro-rehabilitation day program at TRI during a similar time frame and were matched on age, admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, and acute care length of stay (ALOS). At 4-11 years following brain insult, patients were reassessed using the FIM, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4 (MPAI-4). At follow-up, patients with HIBI had significantly lower FIM motor and cognitive scores than patients with TBI (75.3 ± 20.6 versus 88.1 ± 4.78, P MPAI-4 at follow-up (P < .05). The study results suggest that patients with HIBI achieve less long-term functional improvements compared to patients with TBI. Further research is warranted to compare the components of inpatient rehabilitation while adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics between these 2 groups of patients. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The PiGeOn project: protocol for a longitudinal study examining psychosocial, behavioural and ethical issues and outcomes in cancer tumour genomic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Megan; Newson, Ainsley J; Meiser, Bettina; Juraskova, Ilona; Goldstein, David; Tucker, Kathy; Ballinger, Mandy L; Hess, Dominique; Schlub, Timothy E; Biesecker, Barbara; Vines, Richard; Vines, Kate; Thomas, David; Young, Mary-Anne; Savard, Jacqueline; Jacobs, Chris; Butow, Phyllis

    2018-04-05

    Genomic sequencing in cancer (both tumour and germline), and development of therapies targeted to tumour genetic status, hold great promise for improvement of patient outcomes. However, the imminent introduction of genomics into clinical practice calls for better understanding of how patients value, experience, and cope with this novel technology and its often complex results. Here we describe a protocol for a novel mixed-methods, prospective study (PiGeOn) that aims to examine patients' psychosocial, cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to tumour genomic profiling and to integrate a parallel critical ethical analysis of returning results. This is a cohort sub-study of a parent tumour genomic profiling programme enrolling patients with advanced cancer. One thousand patients will be recruited for the parent study in Sydney, Australia from 2016 to 2019. They will be asked to complete surveys at baseline, three, and five months. Primary outcomes are: knowledge, preferences, attitudes and values. A purposively sampled subset of patients will be asked to participate in three semi-structured interviews (at each time point) to provide deeper data interpretation. Relevant ethical themes will be critically analysed to iteratively develop or refine normative ethical concepts or frameworks currently used in the return of genetic information. This will be the first Australian study to collect longitudinal data on cancer patients' experience of tumour genomic profiling. Findings will be used to inform ongoing ethical debates on issues such as how to effectively obtain informed consent for genomic profiling return results, distinguish between research and clinical practice and manage patient expectations. The combination of quantitative and qualitative methods will provide comprehensive and critical data on how patients cope with 'actionable' and 'non-actionable' results. This information is needed to ensure that when tumour genomic profiling becomes part of routine

  17. Relating quality of life to Glasgow outcome scale health states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosty, Jennifer; Macyszyn, Luke; Lai, Kevin; McCroskery, James; Park, Hae-Ran; Stein, Sherman C

    2012-05-01

    There has recently been a call for the adoption of comparative effectiveness research (CER) and related research approaches for studying traumatic brain injury (TBI). These methods allow researchers to compare the effectiveness of different therapies in producing patient-oriented outcomes of interest. Heretofore, the only measures by which to compare such therapies have been mortality and rate of poor outcome. Better comparisons can be made if parametric, preference-based quality-of-life (QOL) values are available for intermediate outcomes, such as those described by the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE). Our objective was therefore to determine QOL for the health states described by the GOSE. We interviewed community members at least 18 years of age using the standard gamble method to assess QOL for descriptions of GOSE scores of 2-7 derived from the structured interview. Linear regression analysis was also performed to assess the effect of age, gender, and years of education on QOL. One hundred and one participants between the ages of 18 and 83 were interviewed (mean age 40 ± 19 years), including 55 men and 46 women. Functional impairment and QOL showed a strong inverse relationship, as assessed by both linear regression and the Spearman rank order coefficient. No consistent effect or age, gender, or years of education was seen. As expected, QOL decreased with functional outcome as described by the GOSE. The results of this study will provide the groundwork for future groups seeking to apply CER methods to clinical studies of TBI.

  18. Psychosocial and psychosexual aspects of disorders of sex development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2010-01-01

    Psychosocial aspects of the treatment of disorders of sex development (DSDs) concern gender assignment, information management and communication, timing of medical interventions, consequences of surgery, and sexuality. Although outcome is often satisfactory, a variety of medical and psychosocial

  19. Instrument development and evaluation for patient-related outcomes assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnik M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Małgorzata Farnik, Władysław PierzchałaDepartment of Pneumonology, Silesian University of Medicine, Katowice, PolandAbstract: Patient-related outcomes measures could provide important information for the current state of the art in medical care and even have an impact on macrodecisions in the health care system. Patient-related outcomes were initially defined as subjective health indicators that allow disability and illness to be assessed, based on patient, caregiver, or physician self-reports. As illness involves psychological and behavioral complex processes of care, a multidisciplinary approach in measuring patient-reported outcomes should be recommended, such as quality of life questionnaires. Patient-related outcomes measures should correspond to specific clinical situations and bring opportunities to improve quality of care. Objective measurements enable quantitative data to be collected and analyzed. Depending on the aim of the research, investigators can use existing methods or develop new tools. This publication presents a methodology for developing patient-related outcomes measures, based on a multistage procedure. The proper definition of specific study objectives and the methodology of instrument development are crucial for successfully transferring the study concept. The model of instrument development is the process of starting from the preliminary phase and includes questionnaire design and scaling, pilot testing (cognitive debriefing, revision of the preliminary version, evaluation of the new tool, and implementation. Validation of the new instrument includes reliability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and responsiveness. The process of designing the new tool should involve a panel of experts, including clinicians, psychologists (preliminary phase, and statisticians (scale development and scoring, and patients (cognitive debriefing. Implementation of a new tool should be followed by evaluation study – assessment of

  20. Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes of Hand Transplantation Compared with Prosthetic Fitting in Below-Elbow Amputees: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Salminger

    Full Text Available Hand-transplantation and improvements in the field of prostheses opened new frontiers in restoring hand function in below-elbow amputees. Both concepts aim at restoring reliable hand function, however, the indications, advantages and limitations for each treatment must be carefully considered depending on level and extent of amputation. Here we report our findings of a multi-center cohort study comparing hand function and quality-of-life of people with transplanted versus prosthetic hands.Hand function in amputees with either transplant or prostheses was tested with Action Research Arm Test (ARAT, Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure (SHAP and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand measure (DASH. Quality-of-life was compared with the Short-Form 36 (SF-36.Transplanted patients (n = 5 achieved a mean ARAT score of 40.86 ± 8.07 and an average SHAP score of 75.00 ± 11.06. Prosthetic patients (n = 7 achieved a mean ARAT score of 39.00 ± 3.61 and an average SHAP score of 75.43 ± 10.81. There was no significant difference between transplanted and prosthetic hands in ARAT, SHAP or DASH. While quality-of-life metrics were equivocal for four scales of the SF-36, transplanted patients reported significantly higher scores in "role-physical" (p = 0.006, "vitality" (p = 0.008, "role-emotional" (p = 0.035 and "mental-health" (p = 0.003.The indications for hand transplantation or prosthetic fitting in below-elbow amputees require careful consideration. As functional outcomes were not significantly different between groups, patient's best interests and the route of least harm should guide treatment. Due to the immunosuppressive side-effects, the indication for allotransplantation must still be restrictive, the best being bilateral amputees.

  1. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  2. The relationship between negative responses to HIV status disclosure and psychosocial outcomes among people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cama, Elena; Brener, Loren; Slavin, Sean; de Wit, John

    2017-07-01

    This report examines rates of HIV status disclosure and negative responses to disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia. Among 697 people living with HIV, most (>90%) had disclosed their status to friends, sexual partners and health providers. Almost a third had not disclosed to family, and half had not told any work colleagues. Negative responses to disclosure (e.g. blame, rejection) by all groups were associated with increased HIV-related stigma, psychological distress and diminished social support and health satisfaction. These results shed light on rates of disclosure among people living with HIV in Australia and the adverse health impacts of negative responses to disclosure.

  3. Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well...... associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings.......-being and work conditions. The respondents did not differ from the nonrespondents regarding hospital admissions and death in the follow-up period (1978-1984). Sixty-two cases of MI were registered among the 2,045 bus drivers in 1978-1984. On this basis relative risk for MI was calculated with a multiple...... regression model for independent variables regarding psychosocial well-being and work conditions. High work load (driving in heavy traffic) was significantly associated with the occurrence of MI. Of the psychosocial factors "no social contact with colleagues" and "increased work pace" were also significantly...

  4. Psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in adults: a long-term population-based follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Teasdale, T W

    2004-01-01

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: On a national basis to conduct a 5, 10 and 15 year follow-up study of representative samples of survivors after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to identify factors of importance for long-term survival and life satisfaction after TBI occurring in 1982, 1987 or 1992. RESEARCH......, against up to 14% of cranial fracture patients. Significantly more cerebral lesion patients than cranial fracture patients found emotional control more difficult, as well as increased difficulties with memory and concentration, maintenance of leisure time interests and general life satisfaction....... In the long run, an important factor influencing survival among cerebral lesion patients seemed to be whether relations with family and friends could be maintained at the pre-injury level....

  5. Do Savings Mediate Changes in Adolescents' Future Orientation and Health-Related Outcomes? Findings From Randomized Experiment in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimli, Leyla; Ssewamala, Fred M

    2015-10-01

    This present study tests the proposition that an economic strengthening intervention for families caring for AIDS-orphaned adolescents would positively affect adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes through increased asset accumulation (in this case, by increasing family savings). Using longitudinal data from the cluster-randomized experiment, we ran generalized estimating equation models with robust standard errors clustering on individual observations. To examine whether family savings mediate the effect of the intervention on adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes, analyses were conducted in three steps: (1) testing the effect of intervention on mediator; (2) testing the effect of mediator on outcomes, controlling for the intervention; and (3) testing the significance of mediating effect using Sobel-Goodman method. Asymmetric confidence intervals for mediated effect were obtained through bootstrapping-to address the assumption of normal distribution. Results indicate that participation in a matched Child Savings Account (CSA) program improved adolescents' future orientation and psychosocial outcomes by reducing hopelessness, enhancing self-concept, and improving adolescents' confidence about their educational plans. However, the positive intervention effect on adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes was not transmitted through saving. In other words, participation in the matched CSA program improved adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes regardless of its impact on reported savings. Further research is necessary to understand exactly how participation in economic strengthening interventions, for example, those that employ matched CSAs, shape adolescent future orientation and psychosocial outcomes: what, if not savings, transmits the treatment effect and how? Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sickness absence in relation to psychosocial work factors among daytime workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Masaya; Nakata, Akinori; Haratani, Takashi; Kaida, Kosuke; Fukasawa, Kenji; Hanada, Takanobu; Ito, Akiko

    2007-04-01

    Associations between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence were investigated in a cross-sectional study of 833 daytime workers. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding psychosocial work factors using the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Generic Job Stress Questionnaire (job control, quantitative workload, cognitive demands, variance in workload, intragroup conflict, intergroup conflict, supervisor support, coworker support, family support, job satisfaction and depressive symptoms) and the number of days of sickness absence within the previous year. Multivariate analyses of covariance with age and occupation as covariates (MANCOVA) were used to test the relationships between psychosocial work factors and sickness absence stratified by sex. In men, the age-adjusted MANCOVA showed that, quantitative workload was highest in the 0.5-4.5 d of sickness absence group (pjob satisfaction and depressive symptoms) in this group were almost identical to the levels recorded in the no sickness absence group. In contrast, low levels of job control (pjob satisfaction (pjob satisfaction was associated with 5 d or more sickness absence (p<0.10). This study suggests that appropriate use of sickness absence at times of being exposed to high quantitative workload may help male workers to recover from stressful situations.

  7. The acute effects of exercise on cortical excitation and psychosocial outcomes in men treated for prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSanta Mina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Regular exercise improves psychological wellbeing in men treated for prostate cancer. For this population and among cancer survivors in general, the effect of a single bout of exercise on self-report or objective measures of psychological wellbeing has not been examined. We examined the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on the cortical silent period (CSP and on self-reported mood in men that have received treatment for prostate cancer. Methods: Thirty-six prostate cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 60 minutes of low to moderate intensity exercise or to a control condition. Outcomes were assessed immediately before and after either the exercise or the control condition. Results: No significant differences in baseline CSP or mood were observed following the exercise session or control conditions. Participants with higher scores of trait anxiety had significantly shorter CSP at baseline, as well as those receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Age and baseline CSP had a low-moderate, but significant negative correlation. Changes in CSP following the exercise condition were strongly negatively correlated with changes in self-reported vigor. Conclusions: While we did not observe any acute effect of exercise on the CSP in this population, the associations between CSP and trait anxiety, age, and vigor are novel findings requiring further examination.Implications for Cancer Survivors: Exercise did not acutely affect our participants in measures of psychological wellbeing. Additional mechanisms to explain the chronic psychosocial benefits of exercise previously observed in men with prostate cancer require further exploration.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01715064 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01715064

  8. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  9. Physicians' Psychosocial Work Conditions and Quality of Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Angerer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician jobs are associated with adverse psychosocial work conditions. We summarize research on the relationship of physicians' psychosocial work conditions and quality of care. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO. All studies were classified into three categories of care quality outcomes: Associations between physicians' psychosocial work conditions and (1 the physician-patient-relationship, or (2 the care process and outcomes, or (3 medical errors were examined. Results: 12 publications met the inclusion criteria. Most studies relied on observational cross-sectional and controlled intervention designs. All studies provide at least partial support for physicians’ psychosocial work conditions being related to quality of care. Conclusions: This review found preliminary evidence that detrimental physicians’ psychosocial work conditions adversely influence patient care quality. Future research needs to apply strong designs to disentangle the indirect and direct effects of adverse psychosocial work conditions on physicians as well as on quality of care.Keywords: psychosocial work conditions, physicians, quality of care, physician-patient-relationship, hospital, errors, review, work stress, clinicians

  10. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...... population of Denmark for the years 1981-1999 with full records on demographics, health and work status for each person, and with a link from every working person to a plant. We use the method of matching on observables to estimate the counter-factual of what would have happened to the health of a particular...

  11. Visual outcomes in relation to time to treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Bloch, Sara Brandi; Fuchs, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relation between the interval from diagnosis to initiation of intravitreal injection therapy and visual outcome in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to report changes over time in fellow-eye status. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. The study included...

  12. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  13. A qualitative exploration of psychosocial specialists' experiences of providing support in UK burn care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ella; Griffiths, Catrin; Harcourt, Diana

    2018-01-01

    A burn can have a significant and long-lasting psychosocial impact on a patient and their family. The National Burn Care Standards (2013) recommend psychosocial support should be available in all UK burn services; however, little is known about how it is provided. The current study aimed to explore experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care, with a focus on the challenges they experience in their role. Semi-structured telephone interviews with eight psychosocial specialists (two psychotherapists and six clinical psychologists) who worked within UK burn care explored their experiences of providing support to patients and their families. Thematic analysis revealed two main themes: burn service-related experiences and challenges reflected health professionals having little time and resources to support all patients; reduced patient attendance due to them living large distances from service; psychosocial appointments being prioritised below wound-related treatments; and difficulties detecting patient needs with current outcome measures. Therapy-related experiences and challenges outlined the sociocultural and familial factors affecting engagement with support, difficulties treating patients with pre-existing mental health conditions within the burn service and individual differences in the stage at which patients are amenable to support. Findings provide an insight into the experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care and suggest a number of ways in which psychosocial provision in the NHS burn service could be developed.

  14. Parent proxy-reported quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: is it related to parental psychosocial distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Mackinnon, A; Waters, E

    2012-07-01

    Parent-proxy reports of quality of life (QOL) are often used to guide decisions about children with cerebral palsy (CP), although little is known about the factors that influence parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the relationship between parental psychosocial distress and parent proxy-reported QOL; and (ii) whether parental psychosocial distress mediates the relationship between child impairment and proxy-reported QOL. A sample of 201 primary caregivers of children aged 4-12 years with CP completed the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children, a condition-specific QOL instrument, and a measure of psychosocial distress, the Kessler 10. The children, evenly distributed by gender (56% male) were sampled across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels (Level I = 18%, II = 28%, III = 14%, IV = 11%, V = 27%). Consistent with the hypotheses, parental distress was negatively correlated with all domains of parent proxy-reported QOL (r = -0.18 to r = -0.55). The relationship between impairment and proxy-reported QOL was mediated by parental distress for five of the seven domains of QOL (social well-being and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional well-being and self-esteem, and pain and impact of disability). Child impairment did not predict access to services or family health. This is the first study that assesses the relationship between parental distress and proxy-reported QOL for children with CP. Although the cross-sectional nature of the available data precludes any statements of causality, the results suggest that, when using parent proxy, the parents' psychological state should also be measured. This is particularly important when, as is often the case for child disability research, proxy-reported QOL are the only available data. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, J.

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suicide. The most notorious music genres in this regard are rap/hip hop, and harder forms of rock such as heavy metal and punk. This thesis focused on the role of ‘music taste’ by; analyzing the consis...

  16. Factors related to the cortisol awakening response of children working on the streets and siblings, before and after 2 years of a psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Andrea Feijo; Juruena, Mario Francisco; Maciel, Mariana Rangel; Cavalcante-Nobrega, Luciana Porto; Cividanes, Giuliana Claudia; Fossaluza, Victor; Calsavara, Vinicius; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Cleare, Anthony James; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-02-28

    The study objective was to observe the cortisol awakening response (CAR) pattern before and after a psychosocial intervention with children from dysfunctional families who had at least one child working on the streets, and to verify factors related to it. Two hundred and eleven children between 7 and 14 years old were selected and 191 were included, 178 were re-evaluated 2 years after, of whom 113 had cortisol measures completed. Besides cortisol, they were evaluated at baseline and at end point regarding: abuse/neglect, mental health symptoms, exposure to urban violence and family environment. There was no significant difference between the CAR area under the curve (AUC) before and after the intervention. Two regression analysis models were built to evaluate factors related to the CAR before and after intervention. Before the intervention, working on the streets (vs. not) was related to a greater cortisol increase after awakening, at follow-up, having suffered physical punishment (vs. not) was related to a flattened cortisol response. The intervention was not associated with changes in the magnitude of the CAR AUC, though the CAR was associated with psychosocial stressors pre- and post-intervention. Effective interventions for children at risk that might shape a physiological cortisol response are still needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epilepsy and outcome in FOXG1-related disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Laurie E.; Ma, Mandy; Ahmed, Sohnee; Bertrand, Mary; Dobyns, William B.; Wheless, James; Paciorkowski, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective FOXG1-related disorders are associated with severe intellectual disability, absent speech with autistic features, and epilepsy. Children with deletions or intragenic mutations of FOXG1 also have postnatal microcephaly, morphologic abnormalities of the corpus callosum, and choreiform movements. Duplications of 14q12 often present with infantile spasms, and have subsequent intellectual disability with autistic features. Long term epilepsy outcome and response to treatment has not been studied systematically in a well-described cohort of subjects with FOXG1-related disorders. We report on the epilepsy features and developmental outcome of 23 new subjects with deletions or intragenic mutations of FOXG1, and 7 subjects with duplications. Methods Subjects had either chromosomal microarray or FOXG1 gene sequencing performed as part of routine clinical care. Development and epilepsy follow-up data were collected from medical records from treating neurologists and through telephone parental interviews using standardized questionnaires. Results Epilepsy was diagnosed in 87% of the subjects with FOXG1-related disorders. The mean age of epilepsy diagnosis in FOXG1 duplications was significantly younger than those with deletions/intragenic mutations (p=0.0002). All of the duplication FOXG1 children with infantile spasms responded to hormonal therapy and only one required long-term anti-epileptic therapy. In contrast, more children with deletions/intragenic mutations required anti-epileptic drugs on follow-up (p<0.0005). All subjects with FOXG1-related disorders had neurodevelopmental disabilities after 3 years of age, regardless of the epilepsy type or intractability of seizures. All had impaired verbal language and social contact, and three duplication subjects were formally diagnosed with autism. Subjects with deletion/intragenic mutations however had significantly worse ambulation (p=0.04) and functional hand use (p<0.0005). Significance Epilepsy and

  18. Menopause and myocardial infarction risk among employed women in relation to work and family psychosocial factors in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinauskiene, Vilija; Tamosiunas, Abdonas

    2010-05-01

    To assess the relationship between menopause and age at menopause and the risk of the first non-fatal myocardial infarction taking into account the possible influence of psychosocial job characteristics, marital stress, level of social support, educational level, occupation, age and traditional ischemic heart disease risk factors. Population-based case-control study among 35-61 years old employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Totally 122 myocardial infarction cases and 371 controls were interviewed in 2001-2004. The logistic regression analysis was performed. Younger age at menopause (women was 1.15; 95% CI 0.48-2.75. The association between low job control and myocardial infarction showed step increase, women in the lowest quartile of job control had the highest myocardial infarction risk (OR=4.51; 95% CI 1.90-10.75), while those in the second and third quartiles showed modest risk. Marital stress was an independent myocardial infarction risk factor for employed women (adjusted OR=2.36; 95% CI 1.07-5.19). Menopausal status and younger age at menopause showed only a tendency for increase in myocardial infarction risk among the employed women in Kaunas, Lithuania. Adverse psychosocial job characteristics as low job control, as well as marital stress play more important role in the development of the first myocardial infarction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes

  20. Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams: Implementation Fidelity and Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Ruth A; Posze, Lynn; Willauer, Tina M; Hall, Martin T

    2015-01-01

    Although integrated programs between child welfare and substance abuse treatment are recommended for families with co-occurring child maltreatment and substance use disorders, implementing integrated service delivery strategies with fidelity is a challenging process. This study of the first five years of the Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Team (START) program examines implementation fidelity using a model proposed by Carroll et al. (2007). The study describes the process of strengthening moderators of implementation fidelity, trends in adherence to START service delivery standards, and trends in parent and child outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative measures were used to prospectively study three START sites serving 341 families with 550 parents and 717 children. To achieve implementation fidelity to service delivery standards required a pre-service year and two full years of operation, persistent leadership, and facilitative actions that challenged the existing paradigm. Over four years of service delivery, the time from the child protective services report to completion of five drug treatment sessions was reduced by an average of 75 days. This trend was associated with an increase in parent retention, parental sobriety, and parent retention of child custody. Conclusions/Importance: Understanding the implementation processes necessary to establish complex integrated programs may support realistic allocation of resources. Although implementation fidelity is a moderator of program outcome, complex inter-agency interventions may benefit from innovative measures of fidelity that promote improvement without extensive cost and data collection burden. The implementation framework applied in this study was useful in examining implementation processes, fidelity, and related outcomes.

  1. Exploring factors influencing HbA1c and psychosocial outcomes in people with type 1 diabetes after training in advanced carbohydrate counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Signe; Vistisen, Dorte; Almdal, Thomas; Hommel, Eva; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis of the StenoABC Study was to identify determinants of the changes in HbA1c observed after training of people with type 1 diabetes in advanced carbohydrate counting (ACC) and automated bolus calculator (ABC) use, and further to investigate psychosocial effects of these insulin dosing approaches. Validated diabetes-specific questionnaires were used to assess diabetes treatment satisfaction, problem areas in diabetes, fear of hypoglycemia and diabetes dependent quality of life before and one year after the training. In addition, numeracy was tested (using a non-validated test developed specifically for this study) and behavioral measures (number of daily blood glucose measurements and self-reported use of ACC) were obtained. Associations between change in HbA1c and these measures plus sex, age, diabetes duration and BMI were tested. Numeracy was the only baseline predictor of yearly change in HbA1c identified. Higher levels of numeracy were associated with greater reductions in HbA1c (P=0.031). No associations between change in HbA1c and the behavioral measures investigated were found, nor were any clinically relevant associations between changes in HbA1c and questionnaire scores. Treatment satisfaction increased in all users of ACC (PHbA1c after training in ACC were inversely related to numeracy. Use of an ABC did not compensate for poor numeracy skills. However, device use reduced fear of hypoglycemia compared with ACC without ABC use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Self-report and parent-report of physical and psychosocial well-being in Dutch adolescents with type 1 diabetes in relation to glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdijk Mieke C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine physical and psychosocial well-being of adolescents with type 1 diabetes by self-report and parent report and to explore associations with glycemic control and other clinical and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Demographic, medical and psychosocial data were gathered from 4 participating outpatient pediatric diabetes clinics in the Netherlands. Ninety-one patients completed the Child Health Questionnaire-CF87 (CHQ-CF87, Centre for Epidemiological Studies scale for Depression (CES-D, and the DFCS (Diabetes-specific Family Conflict Scale. Parents completed the CHQ-PF50, CES-D and the DFCS. Results Mean age was 14.9 years (± 1.1, mean HbA1c 8.8% (± 1.7; 6.2–15.0%. Compared to healthy controls, patients scored lower on CHQ subscales role functioning-physical and general health. Parents reported less favorable scores on the behavior subscale than adolescents. Fewer diabetes-specific family conflicts were associated with better psychosocial well-being and less depressive symptoms. Living in a one-parent family, being member of an ethnic minority and reporting lower well-being were all associated with higher HbA1c values. Conclusion Overall, adolescents with type 1 diabetes report optimal well-being and parent report is in accordance with these findings. Poor glycemic control is common, with single-parent families and ethnic minorities particularly at risk. High HbA1c values are related to lower social and family functioning.

  3. The Voice of Experience: Diet and Weight Change in Women with Breast Cancer Associate with Psychosocial and Treatment-Related Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Vivienne; Campbell, Sharon; Mccargar, Linda; Mourtzakis, Marina; Hanning, Rhona

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated relationships between psychosocial and treatment-related factors, diet, and weight change in women treated with chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Comprehensive qualitative interviews were conducted with 28 women who were within 12 months of completing chemotherapy treatment. Changes in food intake and eating patterns were universal over the course of chemotherapy, with broad variability in treatment effects and associated dietary responses linked to weight change. Increased appetite, food cravings, and intake of energy-dense comfort foods were more common among women who gained weight during treatment (n = 11). Changes in taste, nausea, and emotional distress were central in promoting these dietary responses. Women who lost weight during treatment (n = 6) tended to report more severe and persistent side effects of treatment leading to poor appetite and lower food intake, and they were more likely to live alone. While the etiology of weight change in this population is complex, this study suggests that changes in food intake related to treatment and psychosocial challenges may play an important role for some women. These findings may help to identify women who are most at risk of weight change during treatment and may inform the development of tailored dietary interventions.

  4. Impact of Noncaregiving-Related Stressors on Informal Caregiver Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austrom, Mary Guerriero; Lu, Yvonne Yueh-Feng; Perkins, Anthony J; Boustani, Malaz; Callahan, Christopher M; Hendrie, Hugh C

    2014-08-01

    Caregivers of persons with dementia are stressed. Stressors not related to care recipients' needs impact caregiver outcomes, yet are seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to report the most stressful events experienced by spouse caregivers of older adults with Alzheimer s disease during a 6-month period. 31 caregivers completed the Most Stressful Event form, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Revised Memory Behavioral Problem Checklist (R-MBPC). Fisher's exact test and two-sample t-test were used to compare Most Stressful Events between caregivers. ANOVA model tested whether the PHQ-9 and R-MBPC subscales differed by stressor. Caregivers reported no stressors 21.5% of the time, 1-2 stressors 25% of the time, and 3 stressors 53% of the time with 318 stressors reported in total. Care recipient needs (30.2%), caregiver needs (26.7%), and decision-making (16.7%) were the most frequently reported stressors. Using a mixed effects model, there were associations between the Most Stressful Events and depression (p = 0.016), mobility (p = 0.024) and caregiver issues (p = 0.009) subscales of R-MBPC. Results can be used to develop targeted intervention and support strategies for spouse caregivers experiencing non-caregiving related stressorsas well as the traditional challenges with caregiving related issues. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Electrophysiological Correlates of Cue-Related Processing in a Gambling Task: Early Outcome Evaluation or Outcome Expectation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have suggested that cues that predict outcomes elicit a feedback-related-like negativity (FRN-like negativity reflecting initial appraisals of whether desired outcomes are probable. Some other studies, however, have found that the cues that predict outcomes elicited event-related potentials (ERPs that reflect the expectation to outcomes (e.g., outcome expectations. Given these mixed findings, this study aimed to examine whether the brain activity elicited by predictive cues in a gambling task reflected the initial evaluations of the outcomes, the outcome expectations, or both. We used a gambling task in which the participants were told to guess which of two doors hid a reward. At the beginning of each trial, a cue was presented to inform the participants of how many doors hid a reward. We found that these predictive cues elicited a FRN-like negativity at the frontal sites within around 200–300 ms. However, this negativity did not significantly differ between the cues that fully predicted gains and the cues that fully predicted losses. Furthermore, predictive cues elicited an expectation-related slow wave, and cues that predicted gains with a 50% probability elicited a larger expectation-related slow wave than cues that fully predicted gains or losses. Our results suggest that cues predicting outcomes reflect outcome expectations rather than initial evaluations of the forthcoming outcomes.

  6. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    %). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention.......01), self-care management (p depression symptoms (p ...OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). DESIGN: A one-year follow-up study. SETTING: A CR programme (Go...

  7. Psychosocial working conditions and stress in UK social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ravalier, J.M

    2018-01-01

    It is well documented that exposure to chronic negative working conditions leads to stress. This subsequently impacts sickness absence and attrition, making it a key consideration for policymakers and academics alike. This study therefore seeks to investigate the influence of psychosocial working conditions on stress and related outcomes: sickness presenteeism, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions in UK social workers (SWs). A cross-sectional survey was used, in addition to a single open...

  8. Workplace harassment, active coping, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S

    2001-01-01

    While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.

  9. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Özgür; Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015-2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder.

  10. Exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors in relation to symptoms of common mental disorders among European professional football referees: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Urban; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J; Rosier, Philippe; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The study aim was to explore the association of physical and psychosocial stressors (severe injuries, surgeries, recent life events, social support) with one-season onset of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMDs) among European professional football referees. Methods An observational prospective cohort study over a follow-up period of one season (2015–2016) was conducted among professional football referees from Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Norway, Russia, Scotland and Sweden. Based on physical and psychosocial stressors as well as symptoms of CMD, an electronic questionnaire in English and French was set up and distributed by eight football federations involved. Results The prevalence of symptoms of CMD ranged from 5.9% for distress to 19.2% for eating disorders. A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree of satisfaction about social support were significantly related to the occurrence of symptoms of CMD with an OR of 2.63 and an OR of 1.10, respectively. Conclusion A higher number of severe injuries and a lower degree on satisfaction about social support were found to be significantly associated with the onset of symptoms of CMD among European professional football referees. Referees suffering from severe injuries were nearly three times more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Referees who reported a low satisfaction of social support were significantly more likely to report symptoms of eating disorder. PMID:29629180

  11. Effects of Psychosocial Stress on Subsequent Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langgartner, Dominik; Wachter, Ulrich; Hartmann, Clair; Gröger, Michael; Vogt, Josef; Merz, Tamara; McCook, Oscar; Fink, Marina; Kress, Sandra; Georgieff, Michael; Kunze, Julia F; Radermacher, Peter L; Reber, Stefan O; Wepler, Martin

    2018-06-08

    Hypoxemia and tissue ischemia during hemorrhage as well as formation of oxygen and nitrogen radicals during resuscitation promote hyperinflammation and, consequently, trigger severe multiple-organ-failure (MOF). Individuals diagnosed with stress-related disorders or reporting a life history of psychosocial stress are characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and a reduced glucocorticoid (GC) signaling. We hypothesized that exposure to chronic psychosocial stress during adulthood prior to hemorrhagic shock increases oxidative/nitrosative stress and therefore the risk of developing MOF in mice. To induce chronic psychosocial stress linked to mild immune activation and reduced GC signaling in male mice, the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC) paradigm was employed. Single-housed (SHC) mice were used as controls. Subsequently, CSC and SHC mice were exposed to hemorrhagic shock following resuscitation to investigate the effects of prior psychosocial stress load on survival, organ function, metabolism, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and inflammatory readouts. An increased adrenal weight in CSC mice indicates that the stress paradigm reliably worked. However, no effect of prior psychosocial stress on outcome after subsequent hemorrhage and resuscitation could be detected. Chronic psychosocial stress during adulthood is not sufficient to promote hemodynamic complications, organ dysfunction, metabolic disturbances and did not increase the risk of MOF after subsequent hemorrhage and resuscitation. Intravenous norepinephrine to keep target hemodynamics might have led to a certain level of oxidative stress in both groups and, therefore, disguised potential effects of chronic psychosocial stress on organ function after hemorrhagic shock in the present murine trauma model.

  12. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  13. Relationships between psychosocial outcomes in adolescents who are obese and their parents during a multi-disciplinary family-based healthy lifestyle intervention: One-year follow-up of a waitlist controlled trial (Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Davis, Melissa C; Straker, Leon M

    2016-07-07

    Limited studies have investigated relationships in psychosocial outcomes between adolescents who are obese and their parents and how psychosocial outcomes change during participation in a physical activity and healthy eating intervention. This study examined both adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes while participating in a one - year multi-disciplinary family-based intervention: Curtin University's Activity, Food, and Attitudes Program (CAFAP). Following a waitlist control period, the intervention was delivered to adolescent (n = 56, ages 11-16) and parent participants over 8 weeks, with one-year maintenance follow-up. Adolescent depression and quality of life, family functioning, and parent depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed at six time points: baseline and prior to intervention (e.g., waitlist control period), immediately following intervention, and at 3, 6, and 12 months post-intervention. Relationships between adolescent and parent psychosocial outcomes were assessed using Spearman correlations and changes in both adolescent and parent outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were compared to changes in behavioural (physical activity and healthy eating) and physical (weight) outcomes using independent samples t-tests. The majority of psychosocial outcomes were significantly correlated between adolescents and parents across the one-year follow-up. Adolescent depression, psychosocial and physical quality of life outcomes significantly improved before or following intervention and were maintained at 6-months or one-year follow-up. Parent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were reduced during waitlist and primarily remained improved. Changes in adolescent psychosocial outcomes were shown to be partially associated with behavioural changes and independent of physical changes. Adolescents in CAFAP improved psychosocial and physical quality of life and reversed the typical

  14. Vision-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer; Prajna, N. Venkatesh; Krishnan, K. Tiruvengada; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Raghavan, Anita; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; O’Brien, Kieran S.; Ray, Kathryn J.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Porco, Travis C.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.; Keenan, Jeremy D.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Given the limitations in health care resources, quality-of-life measures for interventions have gained importance. OBJECTIVE To determine whether vision-related quality-of-life outcomes were different between the natamycin and voriconazole treatment arms in the Mycotic Ulcer Treatment Trial I, as measured by an Indian Vision Function Questionnaire. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Secondary analysis (performed October 11–25, 2014) of a double-masked, multicenter, randomized, active comparator–controlled, clinical trial at multiple locations of the Aravind Eye Care System in South India that enrolled patients with culture- or smear-positive filamentous fungal corneal ulcers who had a baseline visual acuity of 20/40 to 20/400 (logMAR of 0.3–1.3). INTERVENTIONS Study participants were randomly assigned to topical voriconazole, 1%, or topical natamycin, 5%. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Subscale score on the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire from each of the 4 subscales (mobility, activity limitation, psychosocial impact, and visual function) at 3 months. RESULTS A total of 323 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 292 (90.4%) completed the Indian Vision Function Questionnaire at 3 months. The majority of study participants had subscale scores consistent with excellent function. After adjusting for baseline visual acuity and organism, we found that study participants in the natamycin-treated group scored, on average, 4.3 points (95% CI, 0.1–8.5) higher than study participants in the voriconazole-treated group (P = .046). In subgroup analyses looking at ulcers caused by Fusarium species and adjusting for baseline best spectacle–corrected visual acuity, the natamycin-treated group scored 8.4 points (95% CI, 1.9–14.9) higher than the voriconazole-treated group (P = .01). Differences in quality of life were not detected for patients with Aspergillus or other non-Fusarium species as the causative organism (1.5 points [95% CI, −3.9 to 6.9]; P

  15. Clients’ psychosocial communication and midwives’ verbal and nonverbal communication during prenatal counseling for anomaly screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Pereboom, M.T.R.; Spelten, E.R.; Hutton, E.K.; Dulmen, S. van

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study focuses on facilitation of clients’ psychosocial communication during prenatal counseling for fetal anomaly screening. We assessed how psychosocial communication by clients is related to midwives’ psychosocial and affective communication, client-directed gaze and counseling

  16. Role of Video Games in Improving Health-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Brian A.; Carroll, Mary V.; McNamara, Megan; Klem, Mary Lou; King, Brandy; Rich, Michael O.; Chan, Chun W.; Nayak, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Context Video games represent a multibillion-dollar industry in the U.S. Although video gaming has been associated with many negative health consequences, it may also be useful for therapeutic purposes. The goal of this study was to determine whether video games may be useful in improving health outcomes. Evidence acquisition Literature searches were performed in February 2010 in six databases: the Center on Media and Child Health Database of Research, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Reference lists were hand-searched to identify additional studies. Only RCTs that tested the effect of video games on a positive, clinically relevant health consequence were included. Study selection criteria were strictly defined and applied by two researchers working independently. Study background information (e.g., location, funding source), sample data (e.g., number of study participants, demographics), intervention and control details, outcomes data, and quality measures were abstracted independently by two researchers. Evidence synthesis Of 1452 articles retrieved using the current search strategy, 38 met all criteria for inclusion. Eligible studies used video games to provide physical therapy, psychological therapy, improved disease self-management, health education, distraction from discomfort, increased physical activity, and skills training for clinicians. Among the 38 studies, a total of 195 health outcomes were examined. Video games improved 69% of psychological therapy outcomes, 59% of physical therapy outcomes, 50% of physical activity outcomes, 46% of clinician skills outcomes, 42% of health education outcomes, 42% of pain distraction outcomes, and 37% of disease self-management outcomes. Study quality was generally poor; for example, two thirds (66%) of studies had follow-up periods of video games to improve health outcomes, particularly in the areas of psychological therapy and physical therapy. RCTs with

  17. Management Strategies and Outcomes for VHL-related Craniospinal Hemangioblastomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christ Ordookhanian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioblastomas are rare and benign tumors accounting for less than 2% of all central nervous system (CNS tumors. The vast majority of hemangioblastomas occur sporadically, whereas a small number of cases, especially in younger patients, are associated with Von Hippel–Lindau (VHL syndrome. It is thought that loss of tumor suppressor function of the VHL gene results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor alpha with downstream activation of cellular proliferative and angiogenic genes that promote tumorigenesis. VHL-related hemangioblastomas predominantly occur in the cerebellum and spine. Lesions are often diagnosed on contrast-enhanced craniospinal MRIs, and the diagnosis of VHL occurs through assessment for germline VHL mutations. Surgical resection remains the primary treatment modality for symptomatic or worrisome lesions, with excellent local control rates and neurological outcomes. Stereotactic radiotherapy can be employed in patients who are deemed high risk for surgery, have multiple lesions, or have non-resectable lesions. Given the tendency for development of either new or multiple lesions, close radiographic surveillance is often recommended for asymptomatic lesions.

  18. Psychosocial Factors Versus Single Predictors: A Factor Analytic Approach to Cardiovascular Outcomes in The Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    later than men (Bello & Mosca, 2004). Also, for women 6 taking oral contraceptives , smoking significantly increases their risk of developing CVD...to include both the physiological processes involved in stress and the stress response as well as the emotional and psychological aspects of stress...and stressors (Mason, 1975). The emotional and psychological aspects of stress are critical components in the link between psychosocial factors and

  19. Sibling relationship quality and psychosocial outcomes among adult siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with intellectual disability without autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeny, Theodore S; Ellis, Brandi M; Rankin, James A; Barry, Tammy D

    2017-03-01

    Research on adult typically-developing (TD) siblings of individuals with developmental disabilities remains limited, and outcomes for TD siblings appear to vary widely. For the current study, 82 adult TD siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability (ID) completed questionnaires about themselves and their affected sibling. Results of this study suggest that the attitudes possessed by adult TD siblings are important to consider when understanding adult TD sibling outcomes. Specifically, data indicate that higher levels of positive sibling relationship attitudes are related to TD siblings providing more aid/support to their sibling with a disability, along with having higher levels of general life satisfaction, and negatively related to levels of stress and depressive symptoms among TD siblings. Consistent with previous child research, siblings of individuals with ASD reported fewer positive sibling relationship attitudes compared to siblings of individuals with ID. Finally, group membership related to aid provided, depressive symptoms, and stress of TD siblings indirectly through sibling relationship attitudes. Overall, results indicate that sibling relationship attitudes may be particularly important to consider when conceptualizing sibling relationships when one sibling has an intellectual or developmental disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Ecology of Child Soldiers: Child, Family, and Community Determinants of Mental Health, Psychosocial Wellbeing, and Reintegration in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kohrt, Brandon A.; Jordans, Mark J.D.; Tol, Wietse A.; Perera, Em; Karki, Rohit; Koirala, Suraj; Upadhaya, Nawaraj

    2010-01-01

    This study employs social ecology to evaluate psychosocial wellbeing in a cross-sectional sample of 142 former child soldiers in Nepal. Outcome measures included the Depression Self Rating Scale (DSRS), Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CPSS), and locally developed measures of function impairment and reintegration. At the child level, traumatic exposures, especially torture, predicted poor outcomes, while education improved outcomes. At the family level, conflict-related death of a relative, ...

  1. Feasibility of a Psychosocial Rehabilitation Intervention to Enhance the Involvement of Relatives in Cancer Rehabilitation: Pilot Study for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L, Ledderer; KI, Cour; O, Mogensen

    2013-01-01

    . We developed an innovative rehabilitation program to be offered to the patient and a relative as a pair. Objective The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the feasibility of the intervention in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and to evaluate the impact on quality of life. Methods...... significant difference was observed between the intervention and the control group. Pairs reported that the time of inclusion was inconvenient and that rehabilitation ought to meet their changing needs. Conclusions The pilot study showed that it may be difficult to conduct an RCT of a psychosocial...... rehabilitation intervention for pairs, and difficulties with inclusion and drop out have to be addressed. Interventions need to be carefully developed and tested before evaluating an effect in a large-scale study....

  2. Field testing a questionnaire assessing parental psychosocial factors related to consumption of calcium-rich foods by Hispanic, Asian, and Non-Hispanic white young adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyduna, Jennifer L; Boushey, Carol J; Bruhn, Christine M; Reicks, Marla; Auld, Garry W; Cluskey, Mary; Edlefsen, Miriam; Misner, Scottie; Olson, Beth; Schram, Jessica; Zaghloul, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Intervention strategies to increase calcium intake of parents and young adolescent children could be improved by identifying psychosocial factors influencing intake. The objective was to develop a tool to assess factors related to calcium intake among parents and Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white young adolescent children (10-13 years) meeting acceptable standards for psychometric properties. A parent questionnaire was constructed from interviews conducted to identify factors. Parents (n = 166) in the United States completed the questionnaire, with seventy-one completing it twice. Two constructs (Attitudes/Preferences and Social/Environmental) were identified and described by eighteen subscales with Cronbach's alpha levels from .50 to .79. Test-retest coefficients ranged from .68 to .85 (p food intake among parents and young adolescent children.

  3. Age-related distance esotropia: Clinical features and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Liaño Sánchez, P; Olavarri González, G; Merino Sanz, P; Escribano Villafruela, J C

    2016-12-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of a group of patients with age-related distance esotropia (ARDE). A retrospective study was conducted on a consecutive case series of 16 adult patients diagnosed with ARDE between 2008 and 2015. The clinical features evaluated included mean age and gender, primary position deviations at distance and near, measured in prism dioptres (pd), treatment offered in each case, and post-surgical deviations. Ductions and versions were full, with no evidence of lateral rectus paresis. None of these patients had any obvious underlying neurological disorder, such as, high myopia or thyroid disease. A good result is considered to be the disappearance of diplopia in all positions of gaze. A total of 16 patients (11 females [68.8%]) were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 78.19±6.77 years. The mean initial esodeviation was 2.25±3.08 pd at near (-4 to +8 pd) and 9.5±4.18 pd at distance (2 to 18 pd). Treatment was not necessary in 5 cases because the symptoms were intermittent or well-tolerated. Of the 11 patients with symptoms, one was corrected with an external base therapeutic prism. Botulinum toxin was administered in another patient, without satisfactory results. Unilateral medial rectus muscle recession was performed on one patient, and unilateral lateral rectus plication on 7 patients, indicating prisms before surgery. One patient refused surgery despite continuous diplopia in far vision. After a mean follow-up of 16.5 months, all operated patients were asymptomatic. Not all patients with ARDE require treatment, as the tolerance to diplopia varies from one subject to another. Both medial rectus weakening and lateral rectus strengthening provides excellent results. Crown Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Pregnancy outcome in women with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Quitterie; Poupon-Bourdy, Stéphanie; Rabilloud, Muriel; Al Mufti, Lina; Rousset Jablonski, Christine; Lemonnier, Lydie; Nove-Josserand, Raphaële; Touzet, Sandrine; Durieu, Isabelle

    2017-10-01

    With increasing life expectancy, more women with cystic fibrosis and diabetes mellitus become pregnant. We investigated how pre-gestational diabetes (cystic fibrosis-related diabetes) influenced pregnancy outcome and the clinical status of these women. We analyzed all pregnancies reported to the French cystic fibrosis registry between 2001 and 2012, and compared forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ) and body mass index before and after pregnancy in women with and without pre-gestational diabetes having a first delivery. A total 249 women delivered 314 infants. Among these, 189 women had a first delivery and 29 of these had pre-gestational diabetes. There was a trend towards a higher rate of assisted conception among diabetic women (53.8%) than non-diabetic women (34.5%, p = 0.06), and the rate of cesarean section was significantly higher in diabetic women (48% vs. 21.4%, p = 0.005). The rate of preterm birth and mean infant birthweight did not differ significantly between diabetic and non-diabetic women. Forced expiratory volume before pregnancy was significantly lower in the diabetic group. The decline in forced expiratory volume and body mass index following pregnancy did not differ between the women with and those without pre-gestational diabetes. Pre-gestational diabetes in women with cystic fibrosis is associated with a higher rate of cesarean section but does not seem to have a clinically significant impact on fetal growth or preterm delivery. The changes in maternal pulmonary and nutritional status following pregnancy in women with cystic fibrosis were not influenced by pre-gestational diabetes. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Are Psychosocial Resources Associated With Perceived Facial Aging in Men?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilou Noser MSc

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Looking younger than actual age has been related to a variety of health outcomes. Optimism, self-esteem, and relationship satisfaction are important psychosocial resources for mental health. Little is known about their relation with a younger facial appearance. Objective: This study analyzed whether these psychosocial resources are associated with a younger facial appearance and if their effects were mediated through mental health. Method: A sample of N = 223 self-reporting healthy men aged 40 to 75 years filled in questionnaires to assess optimism (Life Orientation Test–Revised, self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale, relationship satisfaction (Relationship Assessment Scale, and mental health (Short-Form Health Survey. Five female raters estimated the visual age of each participant from a frontal face photograph. Results: Looking younger (compared with chronological age was correlated with optimism, relationship satisfaction, and mental health. Mediation analyses and structural equation modeling indicated that mental health mediated the association between each psychosocial resource and a younger appearance. Discussion: The results emphasize the importance of promoting psychosocial resources and mental health in men 40+ for the maintenance of good health and the deceleration of facial aging.

  6. Demographic, Medical, and Psychosocial Predictors of Pregnancy Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Niles, Andrea N; Guardino, Christine M; Khaled, Mona; Kramer, Michael S

    2016-09-01

    Pregnancy anxiety is associated with risk of preterm birth and an array of other birth, infant, and childhood outcomes. However, previous research has not helped identify those pregnant women at greatest risk of experiencing this specific, contextually-based affective condition. We examined associations between demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors and pregnancy anxiety at 24-26 weeks of gestation in a prospective, multicentre cohort study of 5271 pregnant women in Montreal, Canada. Multivariate analyses indicated that higher pregnancy anxiety was independently related to having an unintended pregnancy, first birth, higher medical risk, and higher perceived risk of complications. Among psychosocial variables, higher pregnancy anxiety was associated with lower perceived control of pregnancy, lower commitment to the pregnancy, more stressful life events, higher perceived stress, presence of job stress, lower self-esteem and more social support. Pregnancy anxiety was also higher in women who had experienced early income adversity and those who did not speak French as their primary language. Psychosocial variables explained a significant amount of the variance in pregnancy anxiety independently of demographic and medical variables. Women with pregnancy-related risk factors, stress of various kinds, and other psychosocial factors experienced higher pregnancy anxiety in this large Canadian sample. Some of the unique predictors of pregnancy anxiety match those of earlier US studies, while others point in new directions. Screening for high pregnancy anxiety may be warranted, particularly among women giving birth for the first time and those with high-risk pregnancies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Factors related to drug approvals : predictors of outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Bert

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters':

  8. Health outcomes and related effects of using social media in chronic disease management: a literature review and analysis of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the future for social media in chronic disease management appears to be optimistic, there is limited concrete evidence indicating whether and how social media use significantly improves patient outcomes. This review examines the health outcomes and related effects of using social media, while also exploring the unique affordances underpinning these effects. Few studies have investigated social media's potential in chronic disease, but those we found indicate impact on health status and other effects are positive, with none indicating adverse events. Benefits have been reported for psychosocial management via the ability to foster support and share information; however, there is less evidence of benefits for physical condition management. We found that studies covered a very limited range of social media platforms and that there is an ongoing propensity towards reporting investigations of earlier social platforms, such as online support groups (OSG), discussion forums and message boards. Finally, it is hypothesized that for social media to form a more meaningful part of effective chronic disease management, interventions need to be tailored to the individualized needs of sufferers. The particular affordances of social media that appear salient in this regard from analysis of the literature include: identity, flexibility, structure, narration and adaptation. This review suggests further research of high methodological quality is required to investigate the affordances of social media and how these can best serve chronic disease sufferers. Evidence-based practice (EBP) using social media may then be considered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychosocial Benefits of Cooking Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Nicole; Touchton-Leonard, Katherine; Ross, Alyson

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Cooking interventions are used in therapeutic and rehabilitative settings; however, little is known about the influence of these interventions on psychosocial outcomes. This systematic review examines the research evidence regarding the influence of cooking interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A systematic review of the…

  10. Parent-professional alliance and outcomes of child, parent, and family treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Pijnenburg, H.M.P.H.M.; Hattum, M.J.C. van; McLeod, B.D.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    This review systematically explored research examining the relation between parent-professional alliance and outcomes of psychosocial treatments provided to children, and their parents and families. Study findings and methodological characteristics were reviewed to investigate the evidence linking

  11. Long-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes in children following anesthesia: A comparison of the effects of general versus regional anesthesia on term infants delivered by elective cesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouni Alameddine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the effects of general anesthesia on the fetal and neonatal brain are limited. Animal studies demonstrated that anesthetic agents leave their consequences in the form of learning and memory deficits. The effects of propofol on the fetal neurodevelopment are not clear yet. Materials and Methods: This is a telephone-based questionnaire survey that addressed the effect of general anesthesia by propofol during cesarean section at term with no perinatal complications on the psychosocial behavior of children at 8-10 years of age compared with children having same characteristics except for delivery under neuraxial anesthesia using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist as a score. Results: A total of 187 children were born at term between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004 with no perinatal distress under induction of general anesthesia by propofol. 66 children (35.3% were lost to follow-up and parents of two children (1.1% refused to participate. A total of 189 children were included in the study: 119 were born by cesarean section under general anesthesia and 70 were born by cesarean section under neuraxial block. The incidence of psychosocial behavior impairment at 8-10 years of age was not found to be affected by the mode of anesthesia during delivery by cesarean section nor by neonatal nor parental characteristics. Conclusion: Exposure to propofol as an induction agent for general anesthesia or cesarean section does not seem to increase the psychosocial behavior disorder development risk at 8-10 years of age.

  12. Exploring factors influencing HbA1c and psychosocial outcomes in people with type 1 diabetes after training in advanced carbohydrate counting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Signe; Vistisen, Dorte; Almdal, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    was tested (using a non-validated test developed specifically for this study) and behavioral measures (number of daily blood glucose measurements and self-reported use of ACC) were obtained. Associations between change in HbA1c and these measures plus sex, age, diabetes duration and BMI were tested. RESULTS......AIMS: The purpose of this secondary analysis of the StenoABC Study was to identify determinants of the changes in HbA1c observed after training of people with type 1 diabetes in advanced carbohydrate counting (ACC) and automated bolus calculator (ABC) use, and further to investigate psychosocial...

  13. Psychosocial Clusters and their Associations with Well-Being and Health: An Empirical Strategy for Identifying Psychosocial Predictors Most Relevant to Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M.; Bowen, Deborah; Weinberg, Janice; Kroenke, Candyce; Luo, Juhua; Messina, Catherine; Shumaker, Sally; Tindle, Hilary A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Strategies for identifying the most relevant psychosocial predictors in studies of racial/ethnic minority women’s health are limited because they largely exclude cultural influences and they assume that psychosocial predictors are independent. This paper proposes and tests an empirical solution. METHODS Hierarchical cluster analysis, conducted with data from 140,652 Women’s Health Initiative participants, identified clusters among individual psychosocial predictors. Multivariable analyses tested associations between clusters and health outcomes. RESULTS A Social Cluster and a Stress Cluster were identified. The Social Cluster was positively associated with well-being and inversely associated with chronic disease index, and the Stress Cluster was inversely associated with well-being and positively associated with chronic disease index. As hypothesized, the magnitude of association between clusters and outcomes differed by race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS By identifying psychosocial clusters and their associations with health, we have taken an important step toward understanding how individual psychosocial predictors interrelate and how empirically formed Stress and Social clusters relate to health outcomes. This study has also demonstrated important insight about differences in associations between these psychosocial clusters and health among racial/ethnic minorities. These differences could signal the best pathways for intervention modification and tailoring. PMID:27279761

  14. Does an advantageous occupational position make women happier in contemporary Japan? Findings from the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Umeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational position is one of the determinants of psychological health, but this association may differ for men and women depending on the social context. In contemporary Japanese society, occupational gender segregation persists despite increased numbers of women participating in the labour market, which may contribute to gender specific patterns in the prevalence of poor psychological health. The present study examined gender specific associations between occupational position and psychological health in Japan, and the potential mediating effects of job control and effort–reward imbalance in these associations. We used data obtained from 7123 men and 2222 women, aged between 18 and 65 years, who participated in an occupational cohort study, the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE, between 2011 and 2012. We used logistic regression to examine the association between occupational position and poor psychological health, adjusted for age, working hours, household income and education, as well as psychosocial work characteristics (job control and effort–reward imbalance. The prevalence of poor psychological health increased from manual/service occupations (23% to professionals/managers (38% among women, while it did not vary by occupational position among men. In women, the significant association between occupational position and psychological health was not explained by job control, but was attenuated by effort–reward imbalance. Our findings suggest that Japanese women in more advantaged occupational positions are likely to be at a greater risk for poor psychological health due to higher levels of effort–reward imbalance at work.

  15. Habitus and the Psychosocial: Bourdieu with Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the potential of habitus to provide a window on the psychosocial. The paper works with a notion of psychosocial study as inquiry into the mutual constitution of the individual and the social relations within which they are enmeshed. At the same time it attempts to deepen and enrich notions of habitus. Although the strong focus…

  16. Relations among Ethnic Identity, Parenting Style, and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes in European American and East Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, Bakhtawar

    The challenges of identity formation are particularly difficult for minority youth because of the clash of traditional culture and the host culture. This study examined the effects of parenting style, acculturation, and parent and adolescent ethnic identity on the self-esteem and school performance of East Indian and European American adolescents.…

  17. The CORE study protocol: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial to test a co-design technique to optimise psychosocial recovery outcomes for people affected by mental illness in the community mental health setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Victoria J; Chondros, Patty; Piper, Donella; Callander, Rosemary; Weavell, Wayne; Godbee, Kali; Potiriadis, Maria; Richard, Lauralie; Densely, Konstancja; Herrman, Helen; Furler, John; Pierce, David; Schuster, Tibor; Iedema, Rick; Gunn, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction User engagement in mental health service design is heralded as integral to health systems quality and performance, but does engagement improve health outcomes? This article describes the CORE study protocol, a novel stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial (SWCRCT) to improve psychosocial recovery outcomes for people with severe mental illness. Methods An SWCRCT with a nested process evaluation will be conducted over nearly 4 years in Victoria, Australia. 11 teams from four mental health service providers will be randomly allocated to one of three dates 9 months apart to start the intervention. The intervention, a modified version of Mental Health Experience Co-Design (MH ECO), will be delivered to 30 service users, 30 carers and 10 staff in each cluster. Outcome data will be collected at baseline (6 months) and at completion of each intervention wave. The primary outcome is improvement in recovery score using the 24-item Revised Recovery Assessment Scale for service users. Secondary outcomes are improvements to user and carer mental health and well-being using the shortened 8-item version of the WHOQOL Quality of Life scale (EUROHIS), changes to staff attitudes using the 19-item Staff Attitudes to Recovery Scale and recovery orientation of services using the 36-item Recovery Self Assessment Scale (provider version). Intervention and usual care periods will be compared using a linear mixed effects model for continuous outcomes and a generalised linear mixed effects model for binary outcomes. Participants will be analysed in the group that the cluster was assigned to at each time point. Ethics and dissemination The University of Melbourne, Human Research Ethics Committee (1340299.3) and the Federal and State Departments of Health Committees (Project 20/2014) granted ethics approval. Baseline data results will be reported in 2015 and outcomes data in 2017. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN

  18. The tense the hostile and the distressed : Multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles based on the ESC interview in coronary artery disease patients. The THORESCI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, E.M.J.; Denollet, J.; Vermunt, J.K.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kupper, N.

    2017-01-01

    Background While single psychosocial factors have been associated with cardiovascular outcomes, it is still unclear how they cluster. Therefore, we examined whether latent multidimensional psychosocial risk profiles could be identified in the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) psychosocial

  19. Evaluating prevalence and risk factors of building-related symptoms among office workers: Seasonal characteristics of symptoms and psychosocial and physical environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2017-04-12

    Psychosocial and environmental factors at the workplace play a significant role in building-related symptoms (BRSs). Environmental factors change during summer cooling and winter heating using air-conditioning systems. Thus, significant risk factors in each season need to be clarified. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted during summer in Japan and seasonal differences between summer and winter were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 489 offices. Possible risk factors for BRSs associated with the work environment, indoor air quality, and job stressors were examined by multiple regression analyses. Among people having at least one BRS, the prevalence of BRSs in summer (27.8%) was slightly higher than that in winter (24.9%). High prevalence was observed for eye and nasal symptoms related to dryness and general symptoms related to psychological distress in both seasons. Analyses revealed that dryness of air was an important and significant risk factor associated with BRSs, and job stressors were significantly associated with general symptoms in both seasons. Conversely, humidity was a significant risk factor of general symptoms in summer (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.43). Carpeting, recently painted walls, and unpleasant chemical odors in summer and noise, dust and dirt, and unpleasant odors such as body or food odors in both seasons were significant risk factors for BRSs. Improvements in the physical environmental qualities in an office throughout the year are important along with the reduction in psychological distress related to work.

  20. Women with coronary artery disease report worse health-related quality of life outcomes compared to men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith P Diane

    2004-05-01

    further examine gender differences in psychosocial adjustment following treatment for CAD, as adjustment for traditional clinical variables fails to explain sex differences in health related quality of life outcomes.

  1. Identifying Indicators Related to Constructs for Engineering Design Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Cheryl A.; Dixon, Raymond A.

    2016-01-01

    This study ranked constructs articulated by Childress and Rhodes (2008) and identified the key indicators for each construct as a starting point to explore what should be included on an instrument to measure the engineering design process and outcomes of students in high schools that use the PLTW and EbDTM curricula in Idaho. A case-study design…

  2. How related multiscreening could positively affect advertising outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segijn, C.M.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Smit, E.G.

    2017-01-01

    The use of multiple screens, also known as multiscreening, is assumed to have detrimental consequences for advertising outcomes. However, many people are engaging in this form of media multitasking on a daily basis. Therefore, it is important to focus on how to improve the effectiveness of

  3. Drugs, Recipes, Babies, Bathwater, and Psychotherapy Process-Outcome Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, William B.

    1994-01-01

    Responds to critiques of Stiles and Shapiro's (1994) discussion of process-outcome correlation problem by Silberschatz (1994) and Sechrest (1994). Contends that, contrary to Silberschatz's and Sechrest's multivariate suggestions, problem is not in measures or analyses but in interpretation of results, particularly in failure to incorporate fully…

  4. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Mental stress and psychosocial factors at work in relation to multiple-site musculoskeletal pain: a longitudinal study of kitchen workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Eija; Leino-Arjas, Päivi; Ojajärvi, Anneli; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Riihimäki, Hilkka

    2011-04-01

    Among 385 female kitchen workers, we examined (1) whether mental stress and psychosocial factors at work (job control, skill discretion, supervisor support, co-worker relationships, and hurry) predict multiple-site musculoskeletal pain (MSP; defined as pain at ≥ 3 of seven sites) and (2) reversedly, whether MSP predicts these psychosocial factors. Data were collected by questionnaire at 3-month intervals during 2 years. Trajectory analysis was applied. Four trajectories of MSP prevalence emerged: Low, Descending, Ascending, and High. For the psychosocial factors, a two-trajectory model (Ascending or High vs. Low) yielded the best fit. In logistic regression analysis, with the Low MSP trajectory as reference, poor co-worker relationships (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), mental stress (3.1) and hurry (2.1) at baseline predicted belonging to the High MSP trajectory. Also MSP at baseline predicted the trajectories (Ascending vs. Low) of low job control (2.2) and mental stress (3.2). Adverse changes in most psychosocial factors were associated with belonging to the High (ORs between 2.3 and 8.6) and Ascending (2.7-5.5) MSP trajectories. In generalized estimating equations, time-lagged by 3 months, all psychosocial factors but two predicted MSP (1.4-2.1), allowing, e.g. for MSP at baseline, and vice versa, MSP predicted low job control, low supervisor support, and mental stress (1.4-2.0), after adjustment for e.g. the relevant psychosocial factor at baseline. In conclusion, we found that several psychosocial factors predicted MSP and that MSP predicted several psychosocial factors. The results suggest a cumulative process in which adverse psychosocial factors and MSP influence each other. Copyright © 2010 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial and cessation-related differences between tobacco-marijuana co-users and single product users in a college student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Matthew N; Haardörfer, Regine; Windle, Michael; Berg, Carla

    2018-02-01

    Limited research has examined psychosocial factors that differ among cigarette users, marijuana users, and co-users and influence their cessation efforts. We examined: 1) sociodemographic, mental health, and other substance use in relation to user category; and 2) associations among these factors in relation to recent quit attempts and readiness to quit among single product versus co-users. We used a cross-sectional design to study college students aged 18-25 from seven Georgia campuses, focusing on the 721 reporting cigarette and/or marijuana use in the past 4months (238 cigarette-only; 331 marijuana-only; 152 co-users). Multinomial logistic regression showed that correlates (p'susers were more likely to report readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes versus marijuana (p'susers reported readiness to quit, 41.18% of cigarette-only and 21.75% of marijuana-only users reported recent quit attempts (p's<0.001). Binary logistic regressions indicated distinct correlates of readiness to quit and quit attempts of cigarettes and marijuana. Cessation efforts of the respective products must attend to co-use with the other product to better understand relative perceptions of importance and confidence in quitting and actual cessation efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The potential impact of recruitment method on sample characteristics and treatment outcomes in a psychosocial trial for women with co-occurring substance use disorder and PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Winstanley, Erin L; Somoza, Eugene; Brigham, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Recruitment method can impact the sample composition of a clinical trial and, thus, the generalizability of the results, but the importance of recruitment method in substance use disorder trials has received little attention. The present paper sought to address this research gap by evaluating the association between recruitment method and sample characteristics and treatment outcomes in a substance use disorder trial. In a multi-site trial evaluating Seeking Safety (SS), relative to Women's Health Education (WHE), for women with co-occurring PTSD (either sub-threshold or full PTSD) and substance use disorders, one site assessed the method by which each participant was recruited. Data from this site (n=106), which recruited participants from newspaper advertising and clinic intakes, were analyzed. Participants recruited through advertising, relative to those from the clinic, had significantly higher levels of baseline drug use and higher rates of meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for full PTSD. Results suggest that the effectiveness of SS in decreasing PTSD symptoms was greater for participants recruited through advertising relative to those recruited from the clinic. Conversely, the results revealed a significant treatment effect in the clinic-recruited participants, not seen in the advertising-recruited participants, with SS, relative to WHE, participants being more likely to report past week drug use during the follow-up phase. Recruitment method may impact sample composition and treatment effects. Replication of this finding would have important implications for substance use disorder efficacy trials which often utilize advertising to recruit participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcer, Laura J; Miller, David H; Reingold, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple...... sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique...... of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes...

  9. Relational conflict and outcomes from an online divorce education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Sarah; Becher, Emily H; McCann, Ellie; McGuire, Jenifer; Powell, Sharon

    2017-06-01

    The impact of conflict on co-parenting outcomes of divorce education programs is not widely explored in the literature despite the prevalence of conflict in divorce. This study used outcome data from a sample of participants (N=272) who took the online Parents Forever™ course between 2012 and 2014. Participants were asked questions about positive and negative co-parenting behaviors as well their levels of conflict before and after the divorce or separation. There was on average a slight increase in conflict from post to follow-up (M=-0.397, SD=1.54). Simple linear regression analyses indicated that change in conflict explained a significant proportion of the variance in positive co-parenting scores, R 2 =0.07, F(1, 270)=19.98, pimpacts co-parenting behaviors targeted in the Parents Forever ™ course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors related to drug approvals: predictors of outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberti, Lawrence; Breckenridge, Alasdair; Hoekman, Jarno; McAuslane, Neil; Stolk, Pieter; Leufkens, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    There is growing interest in characterising factors associated with positive regulatory outcomes for drug marketing authorisations. We assessed empirical studies published over the past 15 years seeking to identify predictive factors. Factors were classified to one of four 'factor clusters': evidentiary support; product or indication characteristics; company experience or strategy; social and regulatory factors. We observed a heterogeneous mix of technical factors (e.g., study designs, clinical evidence of efficacy) and less studied social factors (e.g., company-regulator interactions). We confirmed factors known to be of relevance to drug approval decisions (imperative) and a cohort of less understood (compensatory) social factors. Having robust supportive clinical evidence, addressing rare or serious illness, following scientific advice and prior company experience were associated with positive outcomes, which illustrated the multifactorial nature of regulatory decision making and factors need to be considered holistically while having varying, context-dependent importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of long-term treatment outcome in combat and peacekeeping veterans with military-related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J Don; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie; St Cyr, Kate; Elhai, Jon D; Sareen, Jitender

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a significant psychiatric condition that may result from exposure to combat; it has been associated with severe psychosocial dysfunction. This study examined the predictors of long-term treatment outcomes in a group of veterans with military-related PTSD. The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of 151 consecutive veterans treated at an outpatient clinic for veterans with psychiatric disorders resulting from their military operations between January 2002 and May 2012. The diagnosis of PTSD was made using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. As part of treatment as usual, all patients completed the PTSD Checklist-Military version and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at intake and at each follow-up appointment, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) at intake, and either the SF-36 or the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey at follow-up. All patients received psychoeducation about PTSD and combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Analyses demonstrated a significant and progressive improvement in PTSD severity over the 2-year period ([n = 117] Yuan-Bentler χ²40 = 221.25, P loss of probable PTSD diagnosis, is possible in an outpatient setting for veterans with chronic military-related PTSD. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy and its relation to perinatal outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Verma; Smita Baheti; Medhavi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is one of the cause for adverse perinatal outcome. Pregnant women are at high risk for UTIs. Women exposed to antepartum urinary tract infection had increased incidence of delivering infants with low birth weights, premature infants, preterm infants with low birth weights, than those who were not exposed. Women exposed to antepartum urinary tract infection were also more likely to experience premature labor, hypertension or preeclampsia and anemia. Meth...

  13. A Qualitative Investigation of Health Care Professionals', Patients' and Partners' Views on Psychosocial Issues and Related Interventions for Couples Coping with Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Regan

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that cancer affects couples as an interdependent system and that couple-based psychosocial interventions are efficacious in reducing distress and improving coping skills. However, adoption of a couples-focused approach into cancer care is limited. Previous research has shown that patients and partners hold differing views from health care professionals (HCPs regarding their psychosocial needs, and HCPs from different disciplines also hold divergent views regarding couples' psychosocial needs. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of HCPs and couples on the provision of couple-focused psychosocial care in routine cancer services.A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was undertaken with 20 HCPs (medical oncologists, nurses, psycho-oncology professionals and 20 couples where one member had been diagnosed with cancer (breast, prostate, head/neck, bowel, multiple myeloma. Interviews were analysed using the framework approach.Three core themes were identified: "How Do Couples Cope with Cancer?" emphasised the positive and negative coping strategies used by couples, and highlighted that partners perceived a lack of engagement by HCPs. "What Is Couple-focused Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer?" described varying perspectives regarding the value of couple-focused psychosocial care and variation in the types of support couples need among HCPs and couples. Whereas most couples did not perceive a need for specialist couple-focused support and interventions, most HCPs felt couple-focused psychosocial care was necessary. "How Can Couple-Focused Psychosocial Care be Improved?" described couples' view of a need for better provision of information, and the importance of their relationship with oncology clinicians. HCPs identified a lack of confidence in responding to the emotional needs of couples, and barriers to providing psychosocial care, including challenges identifying distress (through screening and

  14. Health-related quality of life outcomes after cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Amedeo; Mazloum, Dania El; Bihl, Florian

    2011-12-07

    Gallbladder diseases are very common in developed countries. Complicated gallstone disease represents the most frequent of biliary disorders for which surgery is regularly advocated. As regards, cholecystectomy represents a common abdominal surgical intervention; it can be performed as either an elective intervention or emergency surgery, in the case of gangrene, perforation, peritonitis or sepsis. Nowadays, the laparoscopic approach is preferred over open laparotomy. Globally, numerous cholecystectomies are performed daily; however, little evidence exists regarding assessment of post-surgical quality of life (QOL) following these interventions. To assess post-cholecystectomy QOL, in fact, documentation of high quality care has been subject to extended discussions, and the use of patient-reported outcome satisfaction for quality improvement has been advocated for several years. However, there has been little research published regarding QOL outcomes following cholecystectomy; in addition, much of the current literature lacks systematic data on patient-centered outcomes. Then, although several tools have been used to measure QOL after cholecystectomy, difficulty remains in selecting meaningful parameters in order to obtain reproducible data to reflect postoperative QOL. The aim of this study was to review the impact of surgery for gallbladder diseases on QOL. This review includes Medline searches of current literature on QOL following cholecystectomy. Most studies demonstrated that symptomatic patients profited more from surgery than patients receiving an elective intervention. Thus, the gain in QOL depends on the general conditions before surgery, and patients without symptoms profit less or may even have a reduction in QOL.

  15. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Related Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors: A Study Using Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Haldeman, Scott; Lu, Ming-Lun; Baker, Dean

    2016-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of low back pain, to investigate associations between low back pain and a set of emerging workplace risk factors, and to identify worker groups with an increased vulnerability for low back pain in the United States. The data used for this cross-sectional study came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, which was designed to collect data on health conditions and related risk factors from the US civilian population. The variance estimation method was used to compute weighted data for prevalence of low back pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and age were performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence interval (CI) for low back pain. The examined work-related psychosocial risk factors included work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment, and job insecurity. Work hours, occupation, and other work organizational factors (nonstandard work arrangements and alternative shifts) were also examined. The prevalence of self-reported low back pain in the previous 3 months among workers in the United States was 25.7% in 2010. Female or older workers were at increased risk of experiencing low back pain. We found significant associations between low back pain and a set of psychosocial factors, including work-family imbalance (OR 1.27, CI 1.15-1.41), exposure to hostile work (OR 1.39, CI 1.25-1.55), and job insecurity (OR 1.44, CI 1.24-1.67), while controlling for demographic characteristics and other health-related factors. Older workers who had nonstandard work arrangements were more likely to report low back pain. Women who worked 41 to 45 hours per week and younger workers who worked >60 hours per week had an increased risk for low back pain. Workers from several occupation groups, including male health care practitioners, female and younger health care support workers, and female farming, fishing, and forestry workers, had an increased risk of

  16. Low Back Pain Prevalence and Related Workplace Psychosocial Risk Factors: A Study Using Data From the 2010 National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiou; Haldeman, Scott; Lu, Ming-Lun; Baker, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence of low back pain, to investigate associations between low back pain and a set of emerging workplace risk factors and to identify worker groups with an increased vulnerability for low back pain in the US. Methods The data used for this study came from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was designed to collect data on health conditions and related risk factors obtained from the US civilian population. The variance estimation method was used to compute weighted data for prevalence of low back pain. Multivariable logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and age were performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% Confidence Interval (CI) for low back pain. The examined work-related psychosocial risk factors included work-family imbalance, exposure to a hostile work environment and job insecurity. Work hours, occupation and other work organizational factors (non-standard work arrangements and alternative shifts) were also examined. Results The prevalence rate of self-reported low back pain in previous three months among workers in the U.S. was 25.7% in 2010. Female or older workers were at increased risk of experiencing low back pain. We found significant associations between low back pain and a set of psychosocial factors, including work-family imbalance (OR 1.27, CI 1.15–1.41), exposure to hostile work (OR 1.39, CI 1.25–1.55), and job insecurity (OR 1.44, CI 1.24–1.67), while controlling for demographic characteristics and other health related factors. Older workers who had non-standard work arrangements were more likely to report low back pain. Females who worked 41–45 hours per week and younger workers who worked over 60 hours per week had an increased risk for low back pain. Workers from several occupation groups, including, male healthcare practitioners, female and younger healthcare support workers, and female farming, fishing and forestry workers had

  17. Can favorable psychosocial work conditions and high work dedication protect against the occurrence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joling, C.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Ybema, J.F.; Bongers, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. This study investigated whether work dedication and job resources are longitudinally related to work-related musculoskeletal disorders and whether job resources buffer the impact of job demands on these disorders? Methods. Data were used from a longitudinal three-phase study (2004, 2005,

  18. Bidirectional relations between parenting practices and child externalizing behavior: a cross-lagged panel analysis in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Lindhiem, Oliver; Kolko, David J; Trentacosta, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    In the current study, we examined longitudinal changes in, and bidirectional effects between, parenting practices and child behavior problems in the context of a psychosocial treatment and 3-year follow-up period. The sample comprised 139 parent-child dyads (child ages 6-11) who participated in a modular treatment protocol for early-onset ODD or CD. Parenting practices and child behavior problems were assessed at six time-points using multiple measures and multiple reporters. The data were analyzed using cross-lagged panel analyses. Results indicated robust temporal stabilities of parenting practices and child behavior problems, in the context of treatment-related improvements, but bidirectional effects between parenting practices and child behavior were less frequently detected. Our findings suggest that bidirectional effects are relatively smaller than the temporal stability of each construct for school-age children with ODD/CD and their parents, following a multi-modal clinical intervention that is directed at both parents and children. Implications for treatment and intervention are discussed.

  19. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anavekar, Nagesh S; McMurray, John J V; Velazquez, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. METHODS: As part of the Valsartan...... captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality...

  20. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances

  1. Management of Work–Related Injuries Leading to Amputation and Its Relation with Treatment Outcome

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    Iravan Masoudi-Asl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal" mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0 mso-tstyle-colband-size:0 mso-style-noshow:yes mso-style-priority:99 mso-style-parent:"" mso-padding-alt:0mm 5.4pt 0mm 5.4pt mso-para-margin-top:0mm mso-para-margin-right:0mm mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt mso-para-margin-left:0mm line-height:115% mso-pagination:widow-orphan font-size:11.0pt font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif" mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin mso-bidi-font-family:Arial mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi}   Objective: Work related accidents are considered as a significant health problem of working population. The goal of this study was to determine relation of treatment management with treatment outcome of Work-Related injuries leading to amputation.   Materials & Methods: current study was based on correlation method which was evidence based and was based on actual data of medical records of occupational accidents leading to amputations. Study population included all injuries that suffered limb amputation due to work and were referred to Laleh hospital during 2005 to 2009 (N=135. The data were collected by check list and analyzed by descriptive and inferential Statistics.   Results: Taking care method had a considerable effect on success of replant operation of that limb (P<0.001 so that in 95.23% of injuries whom principles of primary care had been done for them during transportation of amputated limb to hospital, had a successful operation. Treatment results of injuries in large limbs have had a strong relation to interval of incident occurrence to start of operation (P=0.038 How to refer injuries to hospital has not had a meaningful impact on treatment outcome (P=0.469 although referring injuries from health centers of workplace directly to hospital had more successful result comparing to

  2. Vision and vision-related outcome measures in multiple sclerosis

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    Balcer, Laura J.; Miller, David H.; Reingold, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    Visual impairment is a key manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Acute optic neuritis is a common, often presenting manifestation, but visual deficits and structural loss of retinal axonal and neuronal integrity can occur even without a history of optic neuritis. Interest in vision in multiple sclerosis is growing, partially in response to the development of sensitive visual function tests, structural markers such as optical coherence tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and quality of life measures that give clinical meaning to the structure-function correlations that are unique to the afferent visual pathway. Abnormal eye movements also are common in multiple sclerosis, but quantitative assessment methods that can be applied in practice and clinical trials are not readily available. We summarize here a comprehensive literature search and the discussion at a recent international meeting of investigators involved in the development and study of visual outcomes in multiple sclerosis, which had, as its overriding goals, to review the state of the field and identify areas for future research. We review data and principles to help us understand the importance of vision as a model for outcomes assessment in clinical practice and therapeutic trials in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25433914

  3. Sex-related differences in outcomes after hallux valgus surgery.

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    Choi, Gi Won; Kim, Hak Jun; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Ji Wun; Park, Sung Bum; Kim, Jin Kak

    2015-03-01

    With differences between the sexes in foot bone anatomy and ligamentous laxity, there is the possibility that the results of hallux valgus surgery may also differ between the sexes. We aimed to compare the results of hallux valgus surgery between the sexes. The authors retrospectively reviewed 60 males (66 feet) and 70 females (82 feet) who underwent distal or proximal chevron osteotomy for the treatment of hallux valgus deformity between June 2005 and December 2011. We compared the clinical and radiologic outcomes between the sexes. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics between the sexes. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score, visual analogue scale for pain, and patient satisfaction at the last follow-up did not differ significantly between the sexes. The mean preoperative hallux valgus angle (HVA) and inter-metatarsal angle (IMA) were not significantly different between the sexes. At the last follow-up, the mean HVA was significantly greater in females (p=0.003) than in males; mean IMA was not significantly different between the sexes. The mean correction of HVA in males was significantly greater than that in females (p=0.014). There were no significant differences between the sexes regarding clinical outcomes after distal and proximal chevron osteotomy. However, male patients achieved greater correction of HVA than female patients. There is a possibility that sexual dimorphism of the foot may affect postoperative HVA.

  4. Implementing the psychosocial standards in pediatric cancer: Current staffing and services available.

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    Scialla, Michele A; Canter, Kimberly S; Chen, Fang Fang; Kolb, E Anders; Sandler, Eric; Wiener, Lori; Kazak, Anne E

    2017-11-01

    Fifteen evidence-based Standards for Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and Their Families (Standards) were published in 2015. The Standards cover a broad range of topics and circumstances and require qualified multidisciplinary staff to be implemented. This paper presents data on the availability of psychosocial staff and existing practices at pediatric oncology programs in the United States, providing data that can be used to advocate for expanded services and prepare for implementation of the Standards. Up to three healthcare professionals from 144 programs (72% response rate) participated in an online survey conducted June-December 2016. There were 99 pediatric oncologists with clinical leadership responsibility (Medical Director/Clinical Director), 132 psychosocial leaders in pediatric oncology (Director of Psychosocial Services/Manager/most senior staff member), and 58 administrators in pediatric oncology (Administrative Director/Business Administrator/Director of Operations). The primary outcomes were number and type of psychosocial staff, psychosocial practices, and identified challenges in the delivery of psychosocial care. Over 90% of programs have social workers and child life specialists who provide care to children with cancer and their families. Fewer programs have psychologists (60%), neuropsychologists (31%), or psychiatrists (19%). Challenges in psychosocial care are primarily based on pragmatic issues related to funding and reimbursement. Most participating pediatric oncology programs appear to have at least the basic level of staffing necessary to implement of some of the Standards. However, the lack of a more comprehensive multidisciplinary team is a likely barrier in the implementation of the full set of Standards. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

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    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  7. Hope, emotion regulation, and psychosocial well-being in patients newly diagnosed with cancer.

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    Peh, Chao Xu; Kua, Ee Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-05-01

    Patients newly diagnosed with cancer are often confronted with feelings of uncertainty and life threat. A significant proportion may report impairments in psychosocial well-being. Previous studies examining protective psychological factors such as hope and emotion regulation (ER) have yet to investigate these processes concurrently within a common self-regulation framework and/or focus on newly diagnosed patients. The present study aimed to examine how hope and ER may relate to psychosocial outcomes of patients newly diagnosed with cancer. The present study used a cross-sectional design with self-report questionnaires. Participants were newly diagnosed patients (N = 101) recruited from three cancer therapy clinics in a hospital. Patients completed measures of hope, ER (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), and psychosocial well-being (life satisfaction and negative affectivity). Findings showed that (1) hope and reappraisal, but not suppression, were associated with well-being and (2) the interaction between hope and reappraisal was associated with well-being; reappraisal was not associated with well-being in high hope patients, while high reappraisal was associated with better well-being in low hope patients. Individual differences in hope and reappraisal appeared to be associated with psychosocial outcomes in newly diagnosed cancer patients. Hopeful thinking appeared to benefit patients' psychosocial well-being. In addition, an interaction effect between hope and reappraisal suggested that reappraisal as an ER strategy may be particularly adaptive for patients with low hope.

  8. Combat amputees' health-related quality of life and psychological outcomes: A brief report from the wounded warrior recovery project.

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