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Sample records for psychosocial life support

  1. Perceived psychosocial needs, social support and quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects with late-stage HIV infection reported a lower social adjustment to the disease, a lower quality of life and more severe lifestyle changes. Satisfaction with social support correlated significantly with quality of life and social adjustment. It is therefore concluded that the higher the level of satisfaction with social support, ...

  2. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erango, Markos Abiso; Ayka, Zikie Ataro

    2015-01-01

    Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7-18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children), parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem.

  3. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erango MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self

  4. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  5. How Interdisciplinary Teamwork Contributes to Psychosocial Cancer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daem, Michiel; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Schrauwen, Wim; Leroux, Silvian; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The organization of psychosocial care is rather complex, and its provision diverse. Access is affected by the acceptance and attitude of patients and professional caregivers toward psychosocial care. The aims of this study were to examine when patients with cancer experience quality psychosocial care and to identify circumstances in collaboration that contribute to patient-perceived positive psychosocial care. This study used a qualitative design in which semistructured interviews were conducted with patients, hospital workers, and primary health professionals. Psychosocial care is often requested but also refused by patients with cancer. Based on this discrepancy, a distinction is made between psychosocial support and psychosocial interventions. Psychosocial support aims to reduce the chaos in patients' lives caused by cancer and is not shunned by patients. Psychosocial interventions comprise the formal care offered in response to psychosocial problems. Numerous patients are reluctant to use psychosocial interventions, which are often provided by psychologists. Psychosocial care aims to assist patients in bearing the difficulties of cancer and its treatment. Patients prefer informal support, given often in conjunction with physical care. This study confirms the important role of nurses in promoting psychosocial care. Patients perceive much support from nurses, although nurses are not considered to be professional psychosocial caregivers. Being perceived as approachable and trustworthy offers nurses a significant opportunity to bring more intense psychosocial interventions within reach of cancer patients.

  6. Promoting a combination approach to paediatric HIV psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzel, Anouk; Toska, Elona; Lovich, Ronnie; Widyono, Monique; Patel, Tejal; Foti, Carrie; Dziuban, Eric J; Phelps, B Ryan; Sugandhi, Nandita; Mark, Daniella; Altschuler, Jenny

    2013-11-01

    Ninety percent of the 3.4 million HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa. Their psychosocial well being is fundamental to establishing and maintaining successful treatment outcomes and overall quality of life. With the increased roll-out of antiretroviral treatment, HIV infection is shifting from a life-threatening to a chronic disease. However, even for paediatric patients enrolled in care and treatment, HIV can still be devastating due to the interaction of complex factors, particularly in the context of other household illness and overextended healthcare systems in sub-Saharan Africa.This article explores the negative effect of several interrelated HIV-specific factors on the psychosocial well being of HIV-infected children: disclosure, stigma and discrimination, and bereavement. However, drawing on clinical studies of resilience, it stresses the need to move beyond a focus on the individual as a full response to the needs of a sick child requires support for the individual child, caregiver-child dyads, extended families, communities, and institutions. This means providing early and progressive age appropriate interventions aimed at increasing the self-reliance and self-acceptance in children and their caregivers and promoting timely health-seeking behaviours. Critical barriers that cause poorer biomedical and psychosocial outcomes among children and caregiver must also be addressed as should the causes and consequences of stigma and associated gender and social norms.This article reviews interventions at different levels of the ecological model: individual-centred programs, family-centred interventions, programs that support or train healthcare providers, community interventions for HIV-infected children, and initiatives that improve the capacity of schools to provide more supportive environments for HIV-infected children. Although experience is increasing in approaches that address the psychosocial needs of vulnerable and HIV-infected children, there

  7. Family support group in psychosocial rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnuchamy, L.; Mathew, Baijumon K.; Mathew, Sheeba; Udayakumar, G.S.; Kalyanasundaram, S.; Ramprasad, Dharitri

    2005-01-01

    Background: Support groups for families of persons with mental illness are emerging as significant components in psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. Aim: To ascertain the expectations of family members who attend family support group meetings and to find out the efficacy of such programmes. Methods: The data were collected from support group members using a semi-structured interview schedule. The study sample (n=20) was drawn from family members who attended the support group meetings regularly for a minimum period of 6 months. Data analysis was done using percentile. Results: Analysis of the data revealed that members attending the support group meetings expected to get more information about the illness, develop skills to cope with problems at home and learn skills to deal with the ill person. An important finding of the study was that the members developed a ‘feeling of togetherness’ as a result of being a member of a group with common aims. Conclusion: Participation in a support group meeting positively affects key variables in the participant's adaptation to mental illness in a relative. PMID:20814460

  8. The Interplay of Work-Family Life and Psychosocial Adjustment for International Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature on the interplay of work-family life and psychosocial adjustment of married international graduate students to the United States, provide evidence for a complicated and integrated support mechanism for married international graduate students, and make specific recommendations. Empirical studies on student and expatriate work-family life and psychosocial adjustment are reviewed. Studies indicated a significant negative relationsh...

  9. Enhancing psychosocial support for HIV positive adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Webster Mavhu

    Full Text Available There is a recognized gap in the evidence base relating to the nature and components of interventions to address the psycho-social needs of HIV positive young people. We used mixed methods research to strengthen a community support group intervention for HIV positive young people based in Harare, Zimbabwe.A quantitative questionnaire was administered to HIV positive Africaid support group attendees. Afterwards, qualitative data were collected from young people aged 15-18 through tape-recorded in-depth interviews (n=10, 3 focus group discussions (FGDs and 16 life history narratives. Data were also collected from caregivers, health care workers, and community members through FGDs (n=6 groups and in-depth interviews (n=12. Quantitative data were processed and analysed using STATA 10. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis.229/310 young people completed the quantitative questionnaire (74% participation. Median age was 14 (range 6-18 years; 59% were female. Self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals was sub-optimal. Psychological well being was poor (median score on Shona Symptom Questionnaire 9/14; 63% were at risk of depression. Qualitative findings suggested that challenges faced by positive children include verbal abuse, stigma, and discrimination. While data showed that support group attendance is helpful, young people stressed that life outside the confines of the group was more challenging. Caregivers felt ill-equipped to support the children in their care. These data, combined with a previously validated conceptual framework for family-centred interventions, were used to guide the development of the existing programme of adolescent support groups into a more comprehensive evidence-based psychosocial support programme encompassing caregiver and household members.This study allowed us to describe the lived experiences of HIV positive young people and their caregivers in Zimbabwe. The findings contributed to the enhancement of

  10. Satisfaction with life, psychosocial health and materialism among Hungarian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F

    2006-11-01

    Previous research suggests that youth's life satisfaction may be influenced by health and certain socioeconomic/sociocultural factors, which may be important in a post-socialist country like Hungary. We investigated the relationship between youth's life satisfaction, materialism and their psychosocial health in a sample of secondary school students (N = 1114) in Hungary. Findings show that youth's psychosocial health may play an important role in their levels of life satisfaction, particularly depressive and psychosomatic symptoms and health behaviors (e.g. diet control and smoking). SES self-assessment and materialistic success were positively, while materialistic happiness was negatively related to youth's life satisfaction.

  11. Stress, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Ethnically Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Michelle; Langrehr, Kimberly J.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stress-buffering role of social support on indicators of psychosocial functioning among a combined and split sample of ethnically diverse college students. Although high social support significantly moderated 2 relationships in the combined sample, high and low levels of social support significantly reduced the effect of…

  12. The relationships of social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to prenatal psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Choi, W H; Lee, G L; Chan, Celia H Y; Cheung, Ray Y H; Lee, Irene L Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2012-12-01

    To report a study of the relations of prenatal psychosocial adaptation, social support, demographic and obstetric characteristics, uncertainty, information-seeking behaviour, motherhood normalization, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. Prenatal psychosocial assessment is recommended to identify psychosocial risk factors early to prevent psychiatric morbidities of mothers and children. However, knowledge on psychosocial adaptation and its explanatory variables is inconclusive. This study was non-experimental, with a cross-sectional, correlational, prospective design. The study investigated Hong Kong Chinese women during late pregnancy. Convenience sampling methods were used, with 550 women recruited from the low-risk clinics of three public hospitals. Data was collected between January-April 2007. A self-reported questionnaire was used, consisting of a number of measurements derived from an integrated framework of the Life Transition Theory and Theory of Uncertainty in Illness. Explanatory variables of psychosocial adaptation were identified using a structural equation modelling programme. The four explanatory variables of the psychosocial adaptation were social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. In the established model, which had good fit indices, greater psychosocial adaptation was associated with higher social support, higher self-efficacy, higher commitment to pregnancy, and lower uncertainty. The findings give clinicians and midwives guidance in the aspects to focus on when providing psychosocial assessment in routine prenatal screening. Since there are insufficient reliable screening tools to assist that assessment, midwives should receive adequate training, and effective screening instruments have to be identified. The explanatory role of uncertainty found in this study should encourage inquiries into the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation in pregnancy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  14. Medical-and-psychosocial factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hee Sug; Lee, Eun Hyun; Moon, Seong Mi

    2005-01-01

    Quality of life in patients with cancer may be influenced by various kinds of variables, such as personal, environmental, and medical factors. the purpose of this study was to identify the influencing factors on the quality of life in patients with cancer. One hundred and forty seven patients, who were taking medical therapy or following up after surgery for cervix cancer, participated in the present study. Quality of life, medical variables (cancer stage, type of treatment, follow-up status, and symptom distress), and psychosocial variables (mood disturbance, orientation to life, and social support) were measured. The obtained data were computed using multiple regression analyses. The medical-and-psychosocial variables explained 63.3% of the total variance in the quality of life (R 2 = 0.633, F = 16.969, ρ = .000). Cancer stage, symptom distress, mood disturbance, social support (family), and optimistic orientation to life were significant factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer. An integrative care program which includes medical-and-psychosocial characteristics of patients is essential to improve quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

  15. Medical-and-psychosocial factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Mi Son; Kang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hee Sug [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Hyun [Ajou Univerisity, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Seong Mi [Ajou University Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Quality of life in patients with cancer may be influenced by various kinds of variables, such as personal, environmental, and medical factors. the purpose of this study was to identify the influencing factors on the quality of life in patients with cancer. One hundred and forty seven patients, who were taking medical therapy or following up after surgery for cervix cancer, participated in the present study. Quality of life, medical variables (cancer stage, type of treatment, follow-up status, and symptom distress), and psychosocial variables (mood disturbance, orientation to life, and social support) were measured. The obtained data were computed using multiple regression analyses. The medical-and-psychosocial variables explained 63.3% of the total variance in the quality of life (R{sup 2} = 0.633, F = 16.969, {rho} = .000). Cancer stage, symptom distress, mood disturbance, social support (family), and optimistic orientation to life were significant factors influencing on the quality of life in patients with cervix cancer. An integrative care program which includes medical-and-psychosocial characteristics of patients is essential to improve quality of life in patients with cervix cancer.

  16. Advanced Cardiac Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document contains materials for an advanced college course in cardiac life support developed for the State of Iowa. The course syllabus lists the course title, hours, number, description, prerequisites, learning activities, instructional units, required text, six references, evaluation criteria, course objectives by units, course…

  17. Enhancing PMTCT programmes through psychosocial support and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the first 5 years of life – more than half before the age of 2.3 Even children not infected with HIV are affected by the epidemic: 15 million children have lost one or both parents to AIDS, and these children are more likely to experience poverty, homelessness and early death. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine Vol.

  18. Starship Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  19. Quality of life in pediatric cancer survivors: contributions of parental distress and psychosocial family risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, N M; Khu, M; Reynolds, K; Guilcher, G M T; Schulte, F S M

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk of poor quality of life and social-emotional outcomes following treatment. The relationship between parent psychological distress and child adjustment in pediatric cancer survivors has been well established. However, limited research has examined the factors that may buffer this association. The current study examined the associations between psychosocial family risk factors, parental psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (hrql) in pediatric cancer survivors. Fifty-two pediatric cancer survivors (34 males, 18 females, mean age = 11.92) and their parents were recruited from a long-term cancer survivor clinic. Children and their parents who consented to participate completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Parents completed a demographic information form, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (pat 2.0) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (bsi). The Intensity of Treatment Rating (itr-3) was evaluated by the research team. Multiple regression analyses revealed that parental psychological distress negatively predicted parent-reported hrql, while treatment intensity, gender, and psychosocial risk negatively predicted parent and child-reported hrql. Psychosocial risk moderated the association between parent psychological distress and parent-reported child hrql ( p = 0.03), whereby parents with high psychological distress but low levels of psychosocial risk reported their children to have higher hrql. Low levels of family psychosocial risk buffer the impact of parent psychological distress on child hrql in pediatric cancer survivors. The findings highlight the importance of identifying parents and families with at-risk psychological distress and psychosocial risk in order to provide targeted support interventions to mitigate the impact on hrql.

  20. [The Need for Psychosocial Support of Parents of Children in Neonatal Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Nicole; Karutz, Harald; Schenk, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    Background Advances in neonatal care have reduced mortality but increased morbidity in babies born pre-maturely or after high-risk pregnancies. However, this often increases the burden on the family and the parents in particular. A systematic review of the literature was conducted that demonstrated the importance of psychosocial support for parents of children in neonatal care. Methods A systematic search of Pubmed, Psyndex, CINAHI and medpilot was conducted. Reference lists of the included articles were also searched for relevant publications. A free-text search found further publications. Together, 78 publications (from 1975-2015) were included in our review. Results A shift from a biomedical model and child-centred treatment to family-centred care has already taken place in neonatal care. However, there is still a considerable gap between theory and practice. Although there is awareness of the need for psychosocial support of parents, the focus of day-to-day care is still on medical interventions and life-supporting treatment for the child. In particular, while the importance of an assessment of needs as a basis for family-centred psychosocial support appears to be well-known, validated screening instruments are rarely used. In addition, the demand for psychosocial support of parents is not just solely determined by the child's medical risk. Conclusions The results highlight the challenges of delivering individualised psychosocial support to families within a healthcare system of limited resources, with practitioners having to take into account the developing parent-child relationship as well as health economics. In future, psychosocial support should be based on evidence rather than intuition. Attachment theory and research, and health psychology can contribute to this development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The experience of cancer survivors in community-based psycho-social support activities in Shanghai, China: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Shen, Qian; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Li, Jiang; Luo, Zheng-Nian; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors are often embroiled in various physical and psycho-social issues as a consequence of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Psycho-social support activities in the phase of rehabilitation were provided to enhance their quality of life. This study seeks to explore and understand their experience of engagement in Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club (SCRC). Sixty-eight participants attended eight semi-structured focus group interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim, and thematic analysis framework was adopted for data analysis. The participants reported benefits such as psychological support, informational provision and tangible support in the activities. Public services were reported to have restored their dignity and enabled them to rediscover their own meaning of life. Participants also pointed out challenges on functioning and opportunity for development of SCRC. The psycho-social support activities of SCRC had influenced cancer survivor's life. Public health resources and supportive policies should be in place to support local self-help cancer rehabilitation groups.

  2. Psychosocial factors impacting on life transitions among young adults with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, B; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Livingston, P

    2016-01-01

    and Danish young adults with T2DM and to identify unmet support needs during life transitions. Method: A qualitative approach was adopted using thematic content analysis of 26 in-depth semi-structured interviews. An inductive descriptive content analysis was undertaken using a comparative coding system......Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide with a significant increase in young adults. There is limited information about psychosocial and service needs of this group. Aim: To explore similarities and differences in how psychosocial factors impact on Australian...

  3. Psychosocial and sociodemographic correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan-Mansour, Ayman M; Al Abeiat, Dana D; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim N; Ghannam, Bushra M; Hanouneh, Salah I

    2015-03-01

    Cancer is a worldwide disease, and the psychosocial concerns are nearly universal among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychosocial correlates of life satisfaction among patients diagnosed with cancer in Jordan. A cross-sectional survey using 92 patients diagnosed with cancer used to collect data in regard to life satisfaction, depressive symptoms, psychological distress, coping, and perceived social support. In general, about 50% of patients reported high level of life satisfaction and 50% of the patients reported moderate levels of ability to effectively cope with life situations. Moreover, 78% of patients reported that they had depressive symptoms and 45.3% of them reported that they had moderate to severe depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms had significant and negative correlation with life satisfaction (r = -0.50, p satisfaction (r = 0.05, p > 0.05). On the other hand, social support from others has positive and significant correlation with life satisfaction (r = 0.32, p satisfaction. Health professionals need to integrate their medical care with psychosocial intervention early at admission and during follow-up care, so early detection of psychological disturbances will help to implement effective treatment plans.

  4. Gender/Sex Differences in the Relationship between Psychosocial Work Exposures and Work and Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padkapayeva, Kathy; Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Bielecky, Amber; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Mustard, Cameron; Brisson, Chantal; Smith, Peter

    2018-04-18

    Stress is an important factor affecting the health of working population. While work exposures are determinants of levels of work and life stress, we do not know whether similar or different exposures are related to stress levels for men and women. This study aimed to formally examine male/female differences in the relationships between psychosocial work exposures and work and life stress in a representative sample of Canadian labour market participants. We used data from 2012 cycle of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a representative population-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada. The sample was restricted to employed labour force participants working 15+ hours per week (N = 8328, 48% female). To examine the relationship between work exposures and work and life stress, we conducted path analyses. Psychosocial work exposures included social support, job insecurity, job control, and job strain. Differences between estimates for men and women were explored using multigroup analyses, constraining paths between male and female models to be equivalent and examining the impact on change in model fit. Male/female differences were observed in the relationships between supervisor support and work stress levels as well as between job control, job insecurity, job strain, and life stress levels. Higher levels of supervisor support at work were associated with lower work stress among women, but not among men. Low job control had a direct protective effect on life stress for men but not for women, while high job strain had a direct adverse effect on life stress among women but not among men. Higher job insecurity was more strongly associated with higher life stress among men compared with women. The relationship between work stress and life stress was similar among men and women. The findings of this study suggest that the relationships between psychosocial exposures and work and life stress differ for men and women. Our study also raised important questions

  5. Immediate psycho-social support for disaster survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Navarro Gongóra, José; Espaillat, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    . The support was centered on (1) providing information; (2) facilitating social regulation of emotions; (3) supporting a social support network for the patient; (4) focusing coping efforts; and (5) normalization of reactions. Finally it is described how the crisis made values of caring, compassion......The article describes how psychosocial support in the immediate and mid-term disaster response for Haitian earthquake survivors in hospitals in the Dominican Republic could ameliorate some of the suffering and prevent the crisis from becoming crystallized into symptoms and complex grief...

  6. Development and pilot of an international survey: 'Radiation Therapists and Psychosocial Support'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Kelly L; Naehrig, Diana; Halkett, Georgia K B; Dhillon, Haryana M

    2018-06-07

    Up to one third of radiation therapy patients are reported to have unmet psychosocial needs. Radiation therapists (RTs) have daily contact with patients and can provide daily psychosocial support to reduce patient anxiety, fear and loneliness. However, RTs vary in their values, skills, training, knowledge and involvement in providing psychosocial support. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop an online survey instrument to explore RT values, skills, training and knowledge regarding patient anxiety and psychosocial support, and (2) pilot the instrument with RT professionals to assess content validity, functionality and length. An online cross-sectional survey, titled 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' was developed. Items included patient vignettes, embedded items from RT research, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL5). Four radiation oncology departments volunteered to pilot the survey; each nominated four RT staff to participate. Survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative feedback grouped and coded to determine whether the survey needed to be refined. Thirteen of sixteen RTs completed the pilot survey and feedback form. Median time to completion was 35 mins, with 54% of respondents stating this was too long. Respondents reported content, questions and response options were relevant and appropriate. Feedback was used to: refine the survey instrument, minimise responder burden and drop out and improve functionality and quality of data collection. This pilot of the 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' survey instrument demonstrated content validity and usability. The main survey will be circulated to a representative sample of RTs for completion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  7. Psychiatry: life events and social support in late life depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Alexandrino-Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of life events and social support in the broadly defined category of depression in late life. INTRODUCTION: Negative life events and lack of social support are associated with depression in the elderly. Currently, there are limited studies examining the association between life events, social support and late-life depression in Brazil. METHODS: We estimated the frequency of late-life depression within a household community sample of 367 subjects aged 60 years or greater with associated factors. ''Old age symptomatic depression'' was defined using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 1.1 tool. This diagnostic category included only late-life symptoms and consisted of the diagnoses of depression and dysthymia as well as a subsyndromal definition of depression, termed ''late subthreshold depression''. Social support and life events were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment and Referral Evaluation (SHORT-CARE inventory. RESULTS: ''Old age symptomatic depression'' occurred in 18.8% of the patients in the tested sample. In univariate analyses, this condition was associated with female gender, lifetime anxiety disorder and living alone. In multivariate models, ''old age symptomatic depression'' was associated with a perceived lack of social support in men and life events in women. DISCUSSION: Social support and life events were determined to be associated with late-life depression, but it is important to keep in mind the differences between genders. Also, further exploration of the role of lifetime anxiety disorder in late-life depression may be of future importance. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that this study helps to provide insight into the role of psychosocial factors in late-life depression.

  8. Postpartum follow-up: can psychosocial support reduce newborn readmissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilla, Dora; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Anderson, S Eric; Hopp, Joyce W

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether there was a relationship between postpartum psychosocial support from healthcare providers and the rate of normal newborn readmissions (NNRs), and whether there was a cost benefit to justify an intervention. Data were abstracted for all normal newborn births from 1999 to 2006 (N = 14,786) at a community hospital in southern California at three different time periods: (1) at baseline prior to any intervention (1999-2000), (2) the 4 years during the comprehensive psychosocial support intervention (2001-2004), and (3) the 2 years during a limited psychosocial support intervention (2004-2006). A cost-benefit analysis was performed to analyze whether the financial benefits from the intervention matched or exceeded the costs for NNRs. There was a significantly lower readmission rate of 1.0% (p = < .001) during the comprehensive intervention time period compared to baseline (2.3%) or to the limited intervention time period (2.3%). Although there was no significant difference in the average cost per newborn readmitted across the three study time periods, during the comprehensive intervention time period the average costs of a NNR were significantly lower ($4,180, p = .041) for the intervention group compared to those who received no intervention ($5,338). There was a cost benefit of 513,540 dollars due to fewer readmissions during the comprehensive time period, but it did not exceed the cost of the intervention. Providing comprehensive follow-up for new mothers in the postpartum period can reduce NNRs, thus lowering the average newborn readmission costs for those who receive psychosocial support. Followup for new mothers should be an accepted norm rather than the exception in postpartum care, but NNRs should not be considered the sole outcome in such programs.

  9. The impact of psychosocial adaptation status on quality of life for Chinese patients with visual impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-jie; Wang, Ai-ping; Yin, An-chun

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life and to examine the influential factors for Chinese people with visual impairments. The status of psychosocial adaptation is the main influential factor for quality of life. The correlation between psychosocial adaptation and quality of life for various diseases has been studied previously. However, there have been few reports on the impact of psychosocial adaptation on quality of life in people with visual impairments. Survey. In this study, subjects with visual impairment (n = 213) were interviewed to assess their demographics, disease-related information, psychosocial adaptation status and quality of life. The psychosocial adaptation questionnaire and quality of life scale for visually impaired patients were used to survey psychosocial adaptation and quality of life. Correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were used to study the association of psychosocial adaptation with quality of life in visually impaired patients. Psychosocial adaptation was significantly associated with quality of life, including the sense of belonging and psychological dimensions. The results also showed that there was statistical significance for the impact of occupational status, payment, monthly income (family), vision classification and psychosocial adaptation on quality of life, and the status of psychosocial adaptation was the main factor affecting the quality of life in people with visual impairments. It was found that the status of psychosocial adaptation was conspicuously associated with multiple dimensions of quality of life. Therefore, psychosocial adaptation status should be given close attention in clinical care. Our results could be used to guide nurses in making a plan for health education and nursing that improves the quality of life for the visually impaired. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Relative importance and interrelations between psychosocial factors and individualized quality of life of hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, David; Gidron, Yori; Jean, Tzipora; Granovsky, Ricardo; Schnieder, Alla

    2003-09-01

    Since quality of life (QOL) of hemodialysis (HD) patients is low and frequently difficult to improve by medical therapy, it is important to identify psychosocial correlates and life-domains important for HD patients' QOL. Our hypothesis was that psychosocial factors reflecting appraisal, external and internal resources/impediments correlate with QOL and compensate for adverse effects of disease-related variables on QOL. Forty-eight chronic HD-patients identified and rank-ordered life-domains important for QOL and rated their level of satisfaction with those domains. This was performed using a slightly modified version of the Self-Evaluated Individualized QOL (SEiQOL) Scale. Psychosocial factors included perceived-control (PC), social-support and hostility. Demographic and disease-related factors included age, gender, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, hematocrit, albumin and C-reactive protein. QOL was significantly correlated with PC (r = 0.65) and social-support (r = 0.38), and inversely correlated with hostility (r = -0.31), diabetes and hypoalbuminemia (all at least p < 0.05). PC mediated effects of certain variables (e.g., albumin, gender, hostility) and moderated effects of little social-support and hypoalbuminemia on QOL. Patients' most important QOL domains were health, with which satisfaction was lowest, followed by family, with which satisfaction was highest. Pending replication with larger samples, assessment and enhancement of PC may improve HD patients' QOL.

  11. Psychosocial stressors in inter-human relationships and health at each life stage: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Wang, Hongbing

    2004-05-01

    Currently, psychosocial stressors' impacts on health are increasing. Among these stressors, this review focused on inter-human relationships. Since social supports could be protective against ill health, consequences contributing to psychosocial stressors are discussed here in relation to social supports for each stage of childhood, adulthood and elderly status.For childhood, parental divorce/isolation, and child abuse/neglect appeared to be determinants of healthy development at either the initial or later stages. According to prospective studies, such stressors, especially those occurring until around 3 years of age, were associated with later adverse life quality in adulthood. Therefore, nationwide preventive strategies were developed in each country to monitor protective social programs.For adulthood, job strain was focused on Karasek's job strain model, effort-reward imbalance, employment grade and working hours. These psychosocial stressors were shown to affect not only the physical health but also the mental health of working people. These days, since Karoshi and even suicide related to excessive workloads are taking a toll on workplace organization, stress-coping abilities such as a sense of coherence were introduced from the individual-social interaction aspect.For elderly status, retirement, caring for the elderly, and spouse bereavement were discussed as psychosocial stressors. Some evidence indicates that these stressors could be determiants of health. Finally, social supports have been demonstrated to promote health and protect the elderly against diseases and death.

  12. Psychosocial intervention for children with narcolepsy: Parents' expectations and perceived support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippola-Pääkkönen, Anu; Härkäpää, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jukka; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Autti-Rämö, Ilona

    2016-04-18

    The study focuses on the parents of children who were affected by narcolepsy after a pandemic influenza and vaccination campaign in Finland. The main aim of the study was to clarify parents' expectations and perceived support from the intervention and to assess their need for additional support. The data were gathered using questionnaires. Fifty-eight parents answered the baseline questionnaire and 40 parents the final questionnaire. Parents' expectations of and perceived support from the intervention mainly related to peer support. The intervention offered an arena for sharing information and experiences and provided encouragement for coping in everyday life. Many expectations were not met, especially those concerning information about needed services, financial benefits and availability of local support. The results highlight that for persons with rare disorders and their families, an inpatient psychosocial intervention can offer an important arena to receive both informal and professionally led peer support. Comprehensive psychosocial and other support services are also needed in the community. Listening to parents' perspectives on the intervention and perceived support can help to establish multiform family-centred support for families with children affected by a rare chronic disabling condition. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. [Habitability and life support systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedov, Iu G; Adamovich, B A

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses various aspects of space vehicle habitability and life support systems. It describes variations in the chemical and microbial composition of an enclosed atmosphere during prolonged real and simulated flights. The paper gives a detailed description of life support systems and environmental investigations onboard the Mir station. It also outlines the development of space vehicle habitability and life support systems as related to future flights.

  14. Associations of psychosocial factors with pregnancy healthy life styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Omidvar

    Full Text Available Healthy behaviors in pregnant women have a major effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, only few studies have explored the relationship of multiple psychosocial factors with healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the five psychosocial factors of anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support are associated with six domains of healthy lifestyles in pregnant women, including nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization. In this cross-sectional study, 445 pregnant women from the obstetrics clinics of the teaching hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences were included. The subjects answered six questionnaires, including the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Prenatal Distress Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Questionnaire, and Marital Satisfaction Scale. We developed a series of simple linear regression models based on each subscale of lifestyle (nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization as the dependent variables and the five psychological variables (anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support as the independent variables. State and trait anxieties were the strongest negative predictors of all aspects of a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, depression was negatively associated with all of the six subscales of a healthy lifestyle. Pregnancy-specific stress was the only negative predictor of stress management and self-actualization. Marital dissatisfaction was negatively associated with nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, and self-actualization. Social support had negative and positive associations with healthy behaviors. The study suggests that more attention should be paid to identifying the psychological

  15. Associations of psychosocial factors with pregnancy healthy life styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian-Tilak, Karimallah; Nasiri Amiri, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Healthy behaviors in pregnant women have a major effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, only few studies have explored the relationship of multiple psychosocial factors with healthy lifestyles during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the five psychosocial factors of anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support are associated with six domains of healthy lifestyles in pregnant women, including nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization. In this cross-sectional study, 445 pregnant women from the obstetrics clinics of the teaching hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences were included. The subjects answered six questionnaires, including the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile, Beck Depression Inventory, Prenatal Distress Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Social Support Questionnaire, and Marital Satisfaction Scale. We developed a series of simple linear regression models based on each subscale of lifestyle (nutrition, physical activity, health responsibility, stress management, interpersonal relationships, and self-actualization) as the dependent variables and the five psychological variables (anxiety, stress, depression, marital dissatisfaction, and social support) as the independent variables. State and trait anxieties were the strongest negative predictors of all aspects of a healthy lifestyle. Furthermore, depression was negatively associated with all of the six subscales of a healthy lifestyle. Pregnancy-specific stress was the only negative predictor of stress management and self-actualization. Marital dissatisfaction was negatively associated with nutrition, stress management, health responsibility, and self-actualization. Social support had negative and positive associations with healthy behaviors. The study suggests that more attention should be paid to identifying the psychological risk factors in

  16. Adverse psychosocial working conditions and poor quality of life among financial service employees in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sergio; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-01-01

    Workers in the financial services sector are exposed to great stress at work. This study investigates whether exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions is independently associated with poor health-related physical and mental quality of life among financial services workers. We studied a nationwide representative sample of 2,054 workers of a large Brazilian state bank in 2008. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-reward imbalance (ERI) scale and the Job content questionnaire (JCQ). Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-12). Poor mental and physical HRQL was defined by the lowest quartiles of the SF-12 final score distributions. Associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. In the multivariate analysis, exposures to low control and lack of social support at work (JCQ) were associated with poor HRQL in the physical domain. Increasing effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment (ERI), on the other hand, were associated with poor HRQL in the mental domain, with a significant statistical trend. Overcommitment was also associated with poor physical HRQL. The results suggest that exposure to adverse psychosocial work conditions has a negative impact on both domains of HRQL among financial service workers. They also indicate that ERI and DC models capture different aspects of job strain.

  17. Effects of structured group psychosocial support sessions on psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeid, Jasem

    2018-02-21

    Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of structured psychosocial support sessions on the psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers in the Gaza Strip. This descriptive study involved children and female caregivers selected from six locations using a stratified sampling technique. External numerators collected data before and after the group sessions. Two interview questionnaires with questions about psychological and social status were used, one for children and one for caregivers. The caregivers' questionnaire also assessed their psychosocial knowledge. Adult participants and caregivers of participating children provided verbal consent. Data were analysed with SPSS, and a p value less than 0·05 indicated significance. 155 children (77 [50%] boys and 78 [50%] girls) and 155 female caregivers were enrolled from a population of 1720 children (50% boys and 50% girls) and 1720 female caregivers. The sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in participants, with the average psychosocial wellbeing score increasing from 58% to 87% in children and from 69% to 84% in caregivers. Caregivers' knowledge increased from 70% to 82%. Improvement was found in the various aspects of psychosocial wellbeing. No differences were found with respect to location, sex, and age. Structured group sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in children and caregivers and improved caregivers' knowledge. Given the design of this study, it is difficult to fully attribute these results to the

  18. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehlen, S.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schymura, B.; Firsching, M.; Duehmke, E.; Herschbach, P.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy brings a tumor patient into a special life situation in which different variables play a role of often unknown importance. The goal of this study was to investigate disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy with established psychodiagnostic questionnaires and to evaluate the effect on psychosocial support requirement in order to reduce stress and to improve quality of life and compliance during radiotherapeutical treatment. Patients and Methods: 732 patients were screened, of whom 446 (60.9%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion (refusals 21.0%, low Karnofsky performance status 6.6%, management problems 3.4%, language barriers 3.0%, cognitive restrictions 2.6%, death 2.5%). Disease specific aspects of stress in the questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Belastung von Krebspatienten, FBK), life situation (LS) and self-defined care requirements (BB) were self-rated by patients with different tumor types before radiotherapy. Medical and sociodemographic data were also documented. We investigated 446 patients (262 male, 184 female; median age 60.0 years) with different diagnoses. Results: Stress was observed mainly due to reduction of efficiency, anxiety and pain on the subscales. Women had a significant higher stress on subscales of pain (p=0.016) and anxiety (p=0.009), patients younger than 45 years in the subscale information (p=0.002) and patients older than 45 and younger than 60 years in the subscale anxiety (p=0.002) and the total score (p=0.003). Patients with mamma carcinoma had the highest stress. The maximum percentages of patients under high stress were found for the subscales of efficiency (43%) and anxiety (40%). The support requirement was characterized by the need of more medical information and dialogue with the doctor. We saw a significant correlation of high stress and high care requirement. Conclusions: Psychosocial support should be founded on psychosocial stress diagnostic and self-defined care

  19. Psychosocial crisis management: the unexplored intersection of crisis leadership and psychosocial support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, M.L.A.; Yzermans, C.J.; Jong, W.; Boin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological research has documented the serious health issues that can affect the victims of disasters and major crises. Yet, the psychosocial dimension of crisis has received little attention in crisis management literature. This paper integrates psychosocial principles with a model of

  20. [Psychosocial support after school shootings--what was learned from the Kauhajoki case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärä, Kirsti; Ala-aho, Sirkka; Hakala, Asta-Leena; Toivonen, Tarja; Turunen, Tuija

    2010-01-01

    On September 29, 2008 in Kauhajoki, a student killed ten persons and committed suicide. Many people in the region were subjected to an extensive sensation of threat and experienced mental effects of the tragedy. Aftercare of the tragedy has been coordinated by the Kauhajoki project. The project has aimed at ensuring that persons and communities traumatized by the event in their life and functioning will receive the required psychosocial support and appropriate treatment. The goal is to restore the mental balance and to maintain the ability to work and function.

  1. Iatrogenic effects of psychosocial interventions: treatment, life context, and personal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H

    2012-01-01

    Between 7% and 15% of individuals who participate in psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders may be worse off after treatment than before. Intervention-related predictors of iatrogenic effects include lack of bonding; lack of goal direction and monitoring; confrontation, criticism, and high emotional arousal; models and norms for substance use; and stigma and inaccurate expectations. Life context and personal predictors include lack of support, criticism, and more severe substance use and psychological problems. Ongoing monitoring and safety standards are needed to identify and counteract adverse consequences of intervention programs.

  2. Physical and psychosocial support requirements of 1,500 patients starting radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Luetgendorf-Cacig, C.; Schmid, M.P.; Komarek, E.; Poetter, R. [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private Univ. Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical Univ. of Vienna, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Lab. for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Background. The need for psychosocial support in cancer patients is estimated in the literature at 14-50%. At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, approximately 3,000 patients are seen annually. Due to limited staff resources, highly distressed patients need to be selected for focused support. A multidisciplinary screening questionnaire covering physical, social and psychological problems and needs was successfully implemented in clinical routine. We present the results of a representative sample of 1,500 heterogeneous cancer patients before beginning radiotherapy. Patients and methods. The prevalence rates of physical, social and psychological problems and needs were evaluated. Independent risk factors for critical psychological distress were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression model, in order to identify vulnerable subgroups for focused psychosocial support. Results. Critical psychological distress was found in 22% of the overall cohort, of whom only 26% reported a need for psychological information. Clinically relevant pain was suffered by 31%. Patients' most frequent complaints were weakness, sleeping difficulties and exhaustion. Consequently, 40% were impaired in activities and 35% reported a requirement for support in daily life. A need for further information was expressed by 37% of patients. Significant risk factors for critical psychological distress included pain, functional status, support requirements and patient-reported symptoms. Differences in tumor type, metastases and sociodemographic variables had no impact on critical psychological distress. Conclusion. Approximately one third of all patients beginning radiotherapy have physical, social and psychological problems and should receive focused psychosocial support. Multivariate analysis reveals that patients with impaired ''physical integrity'' are at a significantly higher risk of experiencing critical psychological distress. (orig.)

  3. Physical and psychosocial support requirements of 1,500 patients starting radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Luetgendorf-Cacig, C.; Schmid, M.P.; Komarek, E.; Poetter, R.; Ponocny-Seliger, E.; Doerr, W.; Medical Univ. of Vienna

    2013-01-01

    Background. The need for psychosocial support in cancer patients is estimated in the literature at 14-50%. At the Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of Vienna, approximately 3,000 patients are seen annually. Due to limited staff resources, highly distressed patients need to be selected for focused support. A multidisciplinary screening questionnaire covering physical, social and psychological problems and needs was successfully implemented in clinical routine. We present the results of a representative sample of 1,500 heterogeneous cancer patients before beginning radiotherapy. Patients and methods. The prevalence rates of physical, social and psychological problems and needs were evaluated. Independent risk factors for critical psychological distress were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression model, in order to identify vulnerable subgroups for focused psychosocial support. Results. Critical psychological distress was found in 22% of the overall cohort, of whom only 26% reported a need for psychological information. Clinically relevant pain was suffered by 31%. Patients' most frequent complaints were weakness, sleeping difficulties and exhaustion. Consequently, 40% were impaired in activities and 35% reported a requirement for support in daily life. A need for further information was expressed by 37% of patients. Significant risk factors for critical psychological distress included pain, functional status, support requirements and patient-reported symptoms. Differences in tumor type, metastases and sociodemographic variables had no impact on critical psychological distress. Conclusion. Approximately one third of all patients beginning radiotherapy have physical, social and psychological problems and should receive focused psychosocial support. Multivariate analysis reveals that patients with impaired ''physical integrity'' are at a significantly higher risk of experiencing critical psychological distress. (orig.)

  4. The work-life balance and psychosocial well-being of South Korean workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jae Won; Suh, Chunhui; Lee, Chae Kwan; Son, Byung Chul

    2018-01-01

    It is challenging to balance work and life, and little attention has been paid to the work-life balance and psychosocial well-being of South Koreans. We assessed the association between work-life balance and psychosocial well-being among paid Korean workers. This study was based on data from the fourth Korean Working Conditions Survey. We evaluated only paid workers, which constituted 30,649 of the total of 50,007 subjects surveyed. Poor work-life balance was defined based on the goodness of fit between working hours and social commitments. Well-being was measured using the World Health Organization WHO-5 index. Poisson regression with robust variances was used to calculate the estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) with confidence intervals. Poor work-life balance was associated with poor psychosocial well-being (PR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.21 to 1.28) even after adjusting for work-related and individual characteristics. Poor well-being was associated with low-level job autonomy (PR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.09), working for ≥53 h per week (PR = 1.10; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.14), blue-collar status (PR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.21), low-level support at work (PR = 1.32; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.36), age ≥ 50 years (PR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.26), the female gender (95% CI PR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07), and cohabitation (living with somebody) (PR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). Good well-being was associated with high-intensity work (PR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99), being the secondary earner in a household (PR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.79 to 0.85), and higher income (PR = 0.75; 95% CI 0.71 to 0.79). Work-life balance was associated with psychosocial well-being after adjusting for both work-related and individual characteristics.

  5. Life Support Systems: Environmental Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Environmental Monitoring (EM) systems task objectives are to develop and demonstrate onboard...

  6. Introduction to Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay

    2017-01-01

    This course provides an introduction to the design and development of life support systems to sustain humankind in the harsh environment of space. The life support technologies necessary to provide a respirable atmosphere and clean drinking water are emphasized in the course. A historical perspective, beginning with open loop systems employed aboard the earliest crewed spacecraft through the state-of-the-art life support technology utilized aboard the International Space Station today, will provide a framework for students to consider applications to possible future exploration missions and destinations which may vary greatly in duration and scope. Development of future technologies as well as guiding requirements for designing life support systems for crewed exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit are also considered in the course.

  7. Quality of life and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

    2012-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. The mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and men comprised 61% of participants. Forty-two percent reported a household income less than $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, whereas unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (P < 0.05). A significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was observed with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (P = 0.004) but not in the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (P = 0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL, and it highlights the need for longitudinal studies to examine this association in the future. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial

  9. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W E; van Poppel, M N; Bongers, P M; Koes, B W; Bouter, L M

    2000-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of observational studies. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial

  10. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate...

  11. The influence of husbands' or male partners' support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy resulting from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global health-related quality of life (HRQOL) quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The nonpartnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but in each of these cases, women reported serious current comorbidities. These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short term and long term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to their spouses/partners.

  12. Psychosocial support for orphans and vulnerable children in public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    group and society influences the complexity of an individual's ... and the psychosocial crisis of 'industry versus inferiority'. ... able to recognise cultural and individual differences. Therefore ... counselling and encouragement to enhance their.

  13. Advanced Life Support Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  14. Psychosocial distress and need for supportive counselling in patients during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, A. de; Steixner, E.; Stzankay, A.; Iglseder, W.; Soellner, W.; Auer, V.; Schiessling, G.; Lukas, P.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Psychosocial distress and patient attitude towards psychosocial support as well as the correlations with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics should be assessed. Methods: The stress due to cancer was measured in a consecutive sample of tumor patients at the start of radiotherapy (n=117) by use of the Hornheide Questionnaire. In addition, the interest of these patients in professional psychosocial support was assesed with the help of the Questionnaire for Psychosocial Support. Results: Patients in the course of radiotherapy and patients with a poor prognosis and advanced disease were more strongly distressed. 32.7% of patients wished professional psychosocial support from the oncologist treating them, 40.6% of the patients wished support from the oncologist and additionally from a psychotherapist or social worker. Interest in professional psychosocial support correlated with the amount of distress, but not with sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of training programs for oncologists in order to improve their ability to detect psychosocial distress in cancer patients and to offer adequate emotional support to them. (orig.) [de

  15. Psychosocial Support for Children Orphaned by HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitiyo, Jonathan; Chitiyo, Argnue; Chitiyo, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Healthy psychosocial development during childhood is a key determinant to the future well-being of all individuals. In many areas of Africa, demand for psychosocial support continues to grow in response to the increasing number of children left orphaned as a result of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. These orphans face various challenges and yet, in most…

  16. Psychosocial Support for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Public Primary Schools: Challenges and Intervention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwoma, Teresa; Pillay, Jace

    2015-01-01

    Much has been written about orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) with regard to their education and living. However, relatively few studies have documented the psychosocial support provided for OVC in public primary schools to enhance their psychosocial well-being. This study therefore contributes to the understanding of the challenges…

  17. Stable Roles, Changed Skills: Teacher Candidate Responses to Instruction about Adolescent Psychosocial Support Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate; Blosser, Allison

    2017-01-01

    By virtue of their day-to-day contact with students, teachers are uniquely positioned to notice and respond to student psychosocial issues, both mental health problems and issues like peer harassment that can contribute to mental health problems. Yet, teachers' opportunities to learn about providing psychosocial support remain scattered. The…

  18. Evaluation of Adolescents Diagnosed with Acne Vulgaris for Quality of Life and Psychosocial Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyüboglu, Murat; Kalay, Incilay; Eyüboglu, Damla

    2018-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition which affects most adolescents. It has a major impact on quality of life and psychosocial well-being. Aims: The aims of the study were to examine the psychosocial effects of acne on adolescents and changes in quality of life, and to reveal any difference in the possible effect between genders. In addition, an investigation of the association between acne severity and quality of life as well as psychosocial stress was conducted. Materials and Methods: The present study included 164 adolescents with a mean age of 12–18 years and was diagnosed with acne vulgaris without any previous treatment. The control group consisted of 188 healthy volunteers. Acne severity was evaluated by the global acne grading system. All patients filled in a Children's Dermatology Life Quality Index, Pediatric Quality of Life Questionnaire (PedsQL), and a Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The scores of SDQ and PedsQL were significantly lower in the case group. There was no significant correlation found between the genders in the control group for acne severity and scale scores. No significant correlation was found between acne severity and psychosocial challenges. Conclusions: The results of the present study show that acne has a significant effect on quality of life for adolescents, and this has an impact on their psychosocial life. Another important finding of the present study is that worsening in quality of life is not affected by some factors such as duration, severity of acne and age. PMID:29692454

  19. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Catherine; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Sandy; Caird, Jenny R; Perlen, Susan M; Eades, Sandra J; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    births (14 studies; average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.96), and infants born with low birthweight (14 studies; average RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94). There did not appear to be any adverse effects from the psychosocial interventions, and three studies measured an improvement in women’s psychological wellbeing. Authors’ conclusions Psychosocial interventions to support women to stop smoking in pregnancy can increase the proportion of women who stop smoking in late pregnancy, and reduce low birthweight and preterm births. PMID:24154953

  20. A qualitative exploration of psychosocial specialists' experiences of providing support in UK burn care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Ella; Griffiths, Catrin; Harcourt, Diana

    2018-01-01

    A burn can have a significant and long-lasting psychosocial impact on a patient and their family. The National Burn Care Standards (2013) recommend psychosocial support should be available in all UK burn services; however, little is known about how it is provided. The current study aimed to explore experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care, with a focus on the challenges they experience in their role. Semi-structured telephone interviews with eight psychosocial specialists (two psychotherapists and six clinical psychologists) who worked within UK burn care explored their experiences of providing support to patients and their families. Thematic analysis revealed two main themes: burn service-related experiences and challenges reflected health professionals having little time and resources to support all patients; reduced patient attendance due to them living large distances from service; psychosocial appointments being prioritised below wound-related treatments; and difficulties detecting patient needs with current outcome measures. Therapy-related experiences and challenges outlined the sociocultural and familial factors affecting engagement with support, difficulties treating patients with pre-existing mental health conditions within the burn service and individual differences in the stage at which patients are amenable to support. Findings provide an insight into the experiences of psychosocial specialists working in UK burn care and suggest a number of ways in which psychosocial provision in the NHS burn service could be developed.

  1. The Quality of Life of Hemodialysis Patients Is Affected Not Only by Medical but also Psychosocial Factors: a Canonical Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Kang, Gun Woo; Woo, Jungmin

    2018-04-02

    The quality of life (QoL) of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is very poor, plausibly due to both psychosocial and medical factors. This study aimed to determine the relationship among psychosocial factors, medical factors, and QoL in patients with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In total, 55 male and 47 female patients were evaluated (mean age, 57.1 ± 12.0 years). The QoL was evaluated using the Korean version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Abbreviated Version. The psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Zarit Burden Interview. The medical factors were assessed using laboratory examinations. Correlation and canonical correlation analyses were performed to investigate the association patterns. The QoL was significantly correlated with the psychosocial factors, and to a lesser extent with the medical factors. The medical and psychosocial factors were also correlated. The canonical correlation analysis indicated a correlation between QoL and psychosocial factors (1st canonical correlation = 0.696, P psychosocial factors were also correlated (1st canonical correlation = 0.689, P Psychosocial factors influence QoL in patients with ESRD, and should thus be carefully considered when caring for these patients in clinical practice. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  2. The Influence of Husbands' or Male Partners' Support on Women's Psychosocial Adjustment to Having an Ostomy Resulting from Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Methods Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global HRQOL quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Results Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The non-partnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but each of these cases, women reported serious current co-morbidities. Conclusions These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short- and long-term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to spouses/partners. PMID:19448512

  3. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  4. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Implications in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Dessinioti, Clio; Tzanetakou, Vasiliki; Korkoliakou, Panagiota; Zisimou, Chrisa; Antoniou, Christina; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2016-01-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a long-term skin disorder associated with high levels of psychological distress and significant life impact. To evaluate the quality of life, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and self-esteem in patients with HS. Ninety-four patients with HS were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression, anxiety, loneliness, and self-esteem of the patients were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The DLQI mean score was 11.43 ± 6.61 in patients with HS. The patients with HS presented statistically significantly higher anxiety (6.41 ± 3.31 vs. 5.00 ± 1.59, p loneliness and social isolation scores (42.86 ± 8.63 vs. 35.57 ± 6.17, p < 0.001) and lower self-esteem scores (18.91 ± 1.79 vs. 19.77 ± 2.53, p = 0.008) than the healthy controls. HS is a distressing, recurrent disease that impairs quality of life. We can suggest services that allow an integrated approach, which includes psychosocial support, offering the patients relief from isolation and an opportunity to share common experiences. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Psychosocial support for trauma-affected students after school shootings in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tuija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2014-01-01

    In Finland, as many as 20 people have lost their lives in two school shootings within one year. This article describes trauma-theoretical rationale, planning, and implementation of acute and long-term psychosocial aftercare that was organized in Kauhajoki where one of the school shootings happened. The aftercare was embedded in the school community's everyday life to enhance easy access. The aftercare proceeded in 6 phases, involving the immediate support phase at the first 24 hr, the acute phase for the first 2 weeks, followed by a 5-month period of empowerment, normalization, and creating "a safe place." The habituation phase coincided with the completion of the renovation of the damaged school building and students returning to the scene. The first anniversary was marked by shared rituals and remembrance, and the follow-up phase lasted until the end of the aftercare in 2 years. The aftercare contained, for example, psychoeducation, screening, and services at community, group, and individual levels.

  6. Post-disaster psychosocial support and quality improvement: A conceptual framework for understanding and improving the quality of psychosocial support programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, Michel L. A.; Thormar, Sigridur B.

    2015-01-01

    This article is original in that it addresses post-disaster psychosocial support programs from a quality-improvement perspective, not from the traditional viewpoint of mental health services. Based on a combination of renowned quality models, a framework is sketched that offers chances to better

  7. Psychosocial aspect of quality of life among working and unemployed nurses and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekirda, Marta; Chruściel, Paweł; Czekirda, Neomi; Jarosz, Mirosław J

    2017-09-21

    The objective of the study was to explain differences in the subjective evaluation of the psychological and social aspects of quality of life in a group of working and unemployed nurses and midwives. The survey was conducted in a group of 620 professionally-active and inactive people (315 nurses and 305 midwives), selected by random stratified-systematic sampling. The tool used to gather empirical material was the standardized questionnaire WHOQoL-100. Professionally-active nurses evaluated the mental domain less favourably (M=12.33), compared with unemployed nurses (M=12.73), and the difference between average values was statistically significant (p=.043). It is also worth noting that in the group of midwives there were significant differences in each discussed domain. The unemployed respondents evaluated more positively the overall quality of life (M=14.29; p=.005) and the mental domain (M=12.85; p=.009), while the social domain was evaluated less favourably by the professionally-active midwives (M=12.73; p=.022). Paradoxically, those who were unemployed made slightly more positive evaluations in comparison with the professionally active. Professional work is not a factor preferably affecting the quality of life and its psychosocial dimension. The higher quality of life of the unemployed respondents may result from the buffering impact of social support.

  8. Psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life in a UK population with Usher syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Gavin; Orford, Amy; Staines, Roy; McGee, Anna; Smith, Kimberley J

    2017-01-12

    To determine whether psychosocial well-being is associated with the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of people with Usher syndrome. The survey was advertised online and through deafblind-related charities, support groups and social groups throughout the UK. 90 people with Usher syndrome took part in the survey. Inclusion criteria are having a diagnosis of Usher syndrome, being 18 or older and being a UK resident. All participants took part in a survey that measured depressive symptoms, loneliness and social support (predictors) and their physical and mental HRQOL (outcomes). Measured confounders included age-related, sex-related and health-related characteristics. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses examined the association of each psychosocial well-being predictor with the physical and mental HRQOL outcomes while controlling for confounders in a stepwise manner. After adjusting for all confounders, psychosocial well-being was shown to predict physical and mental HRQOL in our population with Usher syndrome. Increasing depressive symptoms were predictive of poorer physical (β=-0.36, pUsher syndrome. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that psychosocial well-being is an important factor to consider in people with Usher syndrome alongside functional and physical impairment within research and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. [Ebola crisis in Guinea: psychosocial support for patients and caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benifei, Sarah; Facon-Delahaye, Aline; Vautier, Virginie

    2016-02-01

    The experience of the French military health service in the fight against the Ebola epidemic in Guinea, highlights the importance of what favours the emergence of an institutional life in a context of care faced with numerous constraints and extraordinary challenges. The meticulous drawing up of procedures and the juxtaposition of expertise goes hand in hand with the construction of a triangular care system (caregivers-patients-families). This relational approach ensures each player in this system is able to find their place and a balance between constraints and satisfactions, losses and successes, isolation and support. This balance seems to favour individual and group resilience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Late Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Erikson’s (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one’s relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over 75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socio-economic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men’s narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30–47 (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75–85) men completed a performance - based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression three to four decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and

  11. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  12. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, B.M.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the

  13. Quality of life and psychosocial outcomes after fixed orthodontic treatment: a 17-year observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrow, Peter; Brennan, David; Spencer, A John

    2011-12-01

    There is little evidence to suggest that orthodontic treatment can prevent or reduce the likelihood of dental caries or of periodontal disease or dental trauma and temporomandibular disorders, but there is a modest association between the presence of malocclusion/orthodontic treatment need and quality of life. However, little is known of the long-term outcomes of orthodontic treatment. This study reports on the longitudinal follow-up of quality of life and psychosocial outcomes of orthodontic treatment among a cohort of adults who were examined as adolescents in 1988/1989. Children who were examined in 1988/1989 were invited to a follow-up in 2005/2006. Respondents completed a questionnaire, which collected information on quality of life, receipt of orthodontic treatment and psychosocial factors, and were invited for a clinical examination. Oral health conditions including occlusal status using the Dental Aesthetic Index were recorded. Analysis of variance and multiple linear regression were used to examine the relationship between the measured factors. There was no statistically significant association between occlusal status at adolescence and quality of life at adulthood. Those individuals who had orthodontic treatment but did not need orthodontic treatment had higher self-esteem (23.1, SD 5.2) and were more satisfied with life (18.5, SD 3.7) than other treatment groups (self-esteem range, 20.0-22.7; life satisfaction range, 16.4-18.1), anovaP life, P life. Orthodontic treatment was negatively associated with psychosocial factors (life satisfaction; fixed orthodontic treatment (FOT) β = -0.91, P = 0.02 and self-esteem; FOT β = -1.39, P life and psychosocial factors. Receipt of fixed orthodontic treatment does not appear to be associated with oral health-related quality of life but appears to be negatively associated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Psycho-oncology assessment in Chinese populations: a systematic review of quality of life and psychosocial measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, M K; Chambers, S K; Shum, D; Ip, D; Dunn, J

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review describes psychosocial and quality of life (QOL) measures used in psycho-oncology research with cancer patients and caregivers in China. Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched (1980-2014). Studies reviewed met the following criteria: English language; peer-reviewed; sampled Chinese cancer patients/caregivers; developed, validated or assessed psychometric properties of psychosocial or QOL outcome measures; and reported validation data. The review examined characteristics of measures and participants, translation and cultural adaptation processes and psychometric properties of the measures. Ninety five studies met review criteria. Common characteristics of studies reviewed were they: assessed primarily QOL measures, sampled patients with breast, colorectal, or head and neck cancer, and validated existing measures (>80%) originating in North America or Europe. Few studies reported difficulties translating measures. Regarding psychometric properties of the measures >50% of studies reported subscale reliabilities adaptation and psychometric testing of psychosocial measures is needed. Developing support structures for translating and validating psychosocial measures would enable this and ensure Chinese psycho-oncology clinical practice and research keeps pace with international focus on patient reported outcome measures and data management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Quality of life, psychosocial strains and coping in parents of children with haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedebusch, S; Pollmann, H; Siegmund, B; Muthny, F A

    2008-09-01

    Quality of life in parents of children suffering from haemophilia may be diminished by the illness burden experienced in daily life and by non-adaptive ways of coping. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between parents' quality of life, their perceived psychosocial strains and ways of coping, and to compare parents' outcome to other paediatric illness groups (juvenile idiopathic arthritis, type 1 diabetes). In a cross-sectional study, parents completed a questionnaire concerning quality of life, psychosocial strains, coping strategies and needs as well as sociodemographic and illness parameters. Study participants were recruited in an ambulant haemophilia centre. A total of 55 parents (32 mothers, 23 fathers; age = 39.6; SD = 8.6) of children suffering from haemophilia (age = 11.0; SD = 6.4) took part in the study. Comparison groups were parents of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n = 161) and parents of children with type 1 diabetes (n = 69). Compared to parents from other paediatric illness groups, the parents of children with haemophilia experience less impact on their quality of life and lower psychosocial strains. Quality of life was predicted by the coping strategy 'improving marital relationship' (beta = 0.48) and by emotional strains and worries concerning future (beta = -0.43; explained variance 49%). Parents reported a pronounced need for further information on the comprehensive management of haemophilia. In the psychosocial care of families with a child suffering from -haemophilia, reducing psychosocial strains and strengthening adaptive coping strategies may be a preventive intervention for improving parents' quality of life.

  16. Epidemiologic studies of psychosocial factors associated with quality of life among patients with chronic diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Masayo

    2012-01-01

    A link between affective disturbances and physical disorders has been suggested since the Greco-Roman era. However, evidence supporting an association between mind and body is limited and mostly comes from North America and Europe. Additional local epidemiologic studies are needed so that more evidence can be collected on effective treatments and health management. Epidemiologic studies of Japanese with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and those on chronic hemodialysis examined the association between psychosocial factors and patient quality of life (QOL). Strong associations among depression, social support, and patient QOL were confirmed, which supports the findings of studies performed in Western countries. In addition, disparities between the perspectives of patients with RA and their doctors were observed. Alexithymia, a personality construct that reflects a deficit in the cognitive processing of emotion, had a stronger independent association with increased risk of 5-year mortality than did depression among patients with chronic hemodialysis. Physiological, biological, and psychosocial factors are associated and independently and interactively determine our health. Epidemiology is a powerful tool for identifying effective points of intervention, after considering all possible confounders. Future studies must clarify how health can be improved by using a psychosocial approach.

  17. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  18. Social Networks, Psychosocial Adaptation, and Preventive/Developmental Interventions: The Support Development Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, David M.

    The Support Development Group is an approach which explores and develops a theory for the relationship between network characteristics and notions of psychosocial adaptation. The approach is based on the assumption that teaching people to view their social world in network terms can be helpful to them. The Support Development Workshop is presented…

  19. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF12 in working populations: associations with psychosocial work characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudielka, Brigitte M; Hanebuth, Dirk; von Känel, Roland; Gander, Marie-Louise; Grande, Gesine; Fischer, Joachim E

    2005-10-01

    This study investigated the contribution of psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, job demand, social support at work, and effort-reward imbalance) to health-related quality of life. Data were derived from 2 aircraft manufacturing plants (N=1,855) at the start of a longitudinal study. Regression analysis showed that work characteristics (1st model) explained 19% of the variance in the mental summary score of the Short Form-12 Health Survey. R2 change for work characteristics decreased to 13%, accounting for demographics, socioeconomic status, body mass index, and medical condition (5th model). Including health behavior and personality factors (full model), R2 change for work characteristics remained significant. Psychosocial work characteristics account for relevant proportions in the subjective perception of mental health beyond a wide array of medical variables and personality factors. Copyright (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Parenting and child psychosocial problems : Effectiveness of parenting support in Preventive Child Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial problems (e.g. aggressive behaviour, fear, anxiety) frequently occur in children and may lead to serious restrictions in daily functioning currently and in later life, and are the major cause of long-term work disability in young adults. Ineffective and inconsistent parenting styles may

  1. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  2. A Negative Life Event Impairs Psychosocial Stress, Recovery and Running Economy of Runners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, R. T. A.; Brink, M. S.; Diercks, R. L.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.

    The purpose was to investigate how a negative life event (NLE) affects perceived psychosocial stress, recovery and running economy (RE). Competitive runners were monitored in a prospective non-experimental cohort study over one full training season in which they experienced the same unplanned severe

  3. Oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of cancer patients during oncology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaz, Bruno E; Treharne, Gareth J; Knight, Robert G; Conner, Tamlin S; Perez, David

    2017-09-01

    This study explored oncology healthcare professionals' perspectives on the psychosocial support needs of diverse cancer patients during oncology treatment. Six themes were identified using thematic analysis. Healthcare professionals highlighted the importance of their sensitivity, respect and emotional tact during appointments in order to effectively identify and meet the needs of oncology patients. Participants also emphasised the importance of building rapport that recognises patients as people. Patients' acceptance of treatment-related distress and uncertainty was described as required for uptake of available psychosocial supportive services. We offer some practical implications that may help improve cancer patients' experiences during oncology treatment.

  4. A Systematic Review of Unmet Information and Psychosocial Support Needs of Adults Diagnosed with Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Yong Gyu; Alhashemi, Ahmad; Fazelzad, Rouhi; Goldberg, Alyse S; Goldstein, David P; Sawka, Anna M

    2016-09-01

    Patient education and psychosocial support to patients are important elements of comprehensive cancer care, but the needs of thyroid cancer survivors are not well understood. The published English-language quantitative literature on (i) unmet medical information and (ii) psychosocial support needs of thyroid cancer survivors was systematically reviewed. A librarian information specialist searched seven electronic databases and a hand search was conducted. Two reviewers independently screened citations from the electronic search and reviewed relevant full-text papers. There was consensus between reviewers on the included papers, and duplicate independent abstraction was performed. The results were summarized descriptively. A total of 1984 unique electronic citations were screened, and 51 full-text studies were reviewed (three from the hand search). Seven cross-sectional, single-arm, survey studies were included, containing data from 6215 thyroid cancer survivor respondents. The respective study sizes ranged from 57 to 2398 subjects. All of the studies had some methodological limitations. Unmet information needs were variable relating to the disease, diagnostic tests, treatments, and co-ordination of medical care. There were relatively high unmet information needs related to aftercare (especially long-term effects of the disease or its treatment and its management) and psychosocial concerns (including practical and financial matters). Psychosocial support needs were incompletely met. Patient information on complementary and alternative medicine was very limited. In conclusion, thyroid cancer survivors perceive many unmet information needs, and these needs extend to aftercare. Psychosocial information and supportive care needs may be insufficiently met in this population. More work is needed to improve knowledge translation and psychosocial support for thyroid cancer survivors.

  5. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2011-10-29

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007-10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007-09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] -0·38, 95% CI -0·55 to -0·20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (-0·36, -0·83 to 0·10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD -0·24, -0·40 to -0·09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Mental health and psychosocial support in humanitarian settings: linking practice and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Barbui, Corrado; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Betancourt, Theresa S; Souza, Renato; Golaz, Anne; van Ommeren, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This review links practice, funding, and evidence for interventions for mental health and psychosocial wellbeing in humanitarian settings. We studied practice by reviewing reports of mental health and psychosocial support activities (2007–10); funding by analysis of the financial tracking service and the creditor reporting system (2007–09); and interventions by systematic review and meta-analysis. In 160 reports, the five most commonly reported activities were basic counselling for individuals (39%); facilitation of community support of vulnerable individuals (23%); provision of child-friendly spaces (21%); support of community-initiated social support (21%); and basic counselling for groups and families (20%). Most interventions took place and were funded outside national mental health and protection systems. 32 controlled studies of interventions were identified, 13 of which were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that met the criteria for meta-analysis. Two studies showed promising effects for strengthening community and family supports. Psychosocial wellbeing was not included as an outcome in the meta-analysis, because its definition varied across studies. In adults with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), meta-analysis of seven RCTs showed beneficial effects for several interventions (psychotherapy and psychosocial supports) compared with usual care or waiting list (standardised mean difference [SMD] −0.38, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.20). In children, meta-analysis of four RCTs failed to show an effect for symptoms of PTSD (−0.36, −0.83 to 0.10), but showed a beneficial effect of interventions (group psychotherapy, school-based support, and other psychosocial support) for internalising symptoms (six RCTs; SMD −0.24, −0.40 to −0.09). Overall, research and evidence focuses on interventions that are infrequently implemented, whereas the most commonly used interventions have had little rigorous scrutiny. PMID:22008428

  7. Are psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in patients with haematological cancer? A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, Priscilla; Soubeyran, Pierre; Cousson-Gélie, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Haematological cancers differ from other cancers mainly with regard to treatment strategies: surgery is used for diagnostic purposes but rarely for treatment, whereas chemotherapy is of central importance and, in some cases, cures patients. This article reviews studies that examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and quality of life (QoL) in haematological cancer patients. A review of the literature was conducted from the databases 'PsycInfo', 'Medline' and 'Science Direct' using the keywords 'lymphoma', 'leukaemia', 'myeloma', 'quality of life', 'psychosocial factors', 'coping', 'social support', 'personality', 'anxiety,' 'depression', 'locus of control' and 'alexithymia'. Fourteen studies were analysed. One study found positive relationships between sense of coherence and health-related QoL, whereas another showed a positive link between self-esteem and QoL. Another study suggested that a high external health locus of control was related to a better QoL. Fighting spirit had a positive impact on QoL for two studies, and helplessness-hopelessness was positively related to emotional distress in one study. Two studies indicated the relationships between emotional distress and QoL. Satisfaction with information about disease determined emotional distress in another study. Social support, general health perceptions, global meaning or spirituality were found to improve QoL in four other reports. Literature about the relationships between psychosocial factors and QoL is lacking. Sense of coherence, self-esteem and health locus of control, coping strategies, social support, global meaning or emotional distress are associated with QoL. Results concerning coping and social support should be interpreted with caution because of level II evidence in studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Basic life support in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Macías, A; Manrique Martínez, I; Rodríguez Núñez, A; López-Herce Cid, J

    2006-09-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is the combination of maneuvers that identifies the child in cardiopulmonary arrest and initiates the substitution of respiratory and circulatory function, without the use of technical adjuncts, until the child can receive more advanced treatment. BLS includes a sequence of steps or maneuvers that should be performed sequentially: ensuring the safety of rescuer and child, assessing unconsciousness, calling for help, positioning the victim, opening the airway, assessing breathing, ventilating, assessing signs of circulation and/or central arterial pulse, performing chest compressions, activating the emergency medical service system, and checking the results of resuscitation. The most important changes in the new guidelines are the compression: ventilation ratio and the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction. A compression/ ventilation ratio of 30:2 will be recommended for lay rescuers of infants, children and adults. Health professionals will use a compression: ventilation ratio of 15:2 for infants and children. If the health professional is alone, he/she may also use a ratio of 30:2 to avoid fatigue. In the algorithm for relieving foreign body airway obstruction, when the child becomes unconscious, the maneuvers will be similar to the BLS sequence with chest compressions (functioning as a deobstruction procedure) and ventilation, with reassessment of the mouth every 2 min to check for a foreign body, and evaluation of breathing and the presence of vital signs. BLS maneuvers are easy to learn and can be performed by anyone with adequate training. Therefore, BLS should be taught to all citizens.

  9. Bioregenerative life-support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    Long-duration future habitation of space involving great distances from Earth and/or large crew sizes (eg, lunar outpost, Mars base) will require a controlled ecological life-support system (CELSS) to simultaneously revitalize atmosphere (liberate oxygen and fix carbon dioxide), purify water (via transpiration), and generate human food (for a vegetarian diet). Photosynthetic higher plants and algae will provide the essential functions of biomass productivity in a CELSS, and a combination of physicochemical and bioregenerative processes will be used to regenerate renewable resources from waste materials. Crop selection criteria for a CELSS include nutritional use characteristics as well as horticultural characteristics. Cereals, legumes, and oilseed crops are used to provide the major macronutrients for the CELSS diet. A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Specialized Center of Research and Training (NSCORT) was established at Purdue University to establish proof of the concept of the sustainability of a CELSS. The Biosphere 2 project in Arizona is providing a model for predicted and unpredicted situations that arise as a result of closure in a complex natural ecosystem.

  10. The use of physical activity, sport and outdoor life as tools of psychosocial intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Andersson, Eva; Best, James

    2018-01-01

    The core values in the Nordic welfare model are health equality and social inclusion. Individuals with mental disorders and/or a history of substance use disorder are often excluded from the core value of equality. Psychosocial interventions such as physical activity and outdoor life can have...... several benefits for those suffering from mental disorders. Firstly, such interventions can have therapeutic effects. Secondly, they show benefits for somatic health and the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Finally, they can provide an environment for experiencing self-efficacy, lead to improved...... quality of life, and promote the development and building of social relationships. This paper provides a critical review of current evidence for physical activity and outdoor life as psychosocial interventions in psychiatric and substance misuse treatment, with specific examples from Norway, Sweden...

  11. Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dückers, Michel L. A.; Thormar, Sigridur B.; Juen, Barbara; Ajdukovic, Dean; Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy; Olff, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental

  12. Psychosocially Supportive Design: The Case for Greater Attention to Social Space Within the Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlan, Rebecca

    2018-04-01

    Models of patient and family-centered care advocate catering to psychosocial needs when designing healthcare facilities yet there is little evidence available to determine how the built environment can cater to psychosocial needs. This article highlights the obstacles to overcoming this knowledge deficit in the pursuit of evidence-based guidelines to inform social provisions within the pediatric hospital setting. It will propose a working definition for psychosocial space and identify new research directions to enhance understandings of the relationship between social space and well-being. While traditional multibed ward configurations afforded opportunities for peer support relationships to develop, both for patients and caregivers, the contemporary preference for single-occupancy rooms intensifies the need to critically examine social spaces within the pediatric hospital. Research suggests a correlation between social support and well-being. This article reviews the research underpinning contemporary understandings of this relationship; it positions literature from sociology, environmental psychology, and evidence-based design to highlight the limitations of this knowledge and identify where additional research is required to inform evidence-based design guidelines for psychosocially supportive spaces within pediatric healthcare settings. Evidence regarding the therapeutic value of social support within the pediatric hospital is not sufficiently sophisticated or conclusive to inform guidelines for the provision of social space with pediatric hospitals. There is an urgent need for targeted research to inform evidence-based design guidelines; this will demand a broad disciplinary approach.

  13. School Disorder, School Connectedness, and Psychosocial Outcomes: Moderation by a Supportive Figure in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Hussain, Saida; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined whether students' perceptions of school disorder influenced their psychosocial outcomes directly and indirectly via connectedness to school. The current study also explored moderation by the presence of a supportive figure in the school and investigated gender differences. Participants were 28,104 high school students.…

  14. Demographic characteristics of patients using a fully integrated psychosocial support service for cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Teresa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial support services are an important component of modern cancer treatment. A major challenge for all psychosocial services is the achievement of equity of use. Previous studies in the UK have found that women of higher socio-economic status with breast cancer were over-represented amongst those accessing support services. People with other cancer diagnoses, those from socio-economically deprived areas, and men, were under-represented. Findings The Oncology Health Service, Kingston Upon Hull, UK, delivers fully integrated psychosocial support and interventions. To assess equity of access in this service, a cross-sectional study of all patients with cancer accessing the service during a 5 day period was carried out. One hundred and forty-five patients attended. Forty four percent were male, and the types of cancer were broadly in the proportions expected on the basis of population prevalence (breast cancer 22%, colorectal cancer 21%, lung cancer 16%. Sixty six percent came from the three most deprived quintiles of the Townsend deprivation Index. Conclusions The fully integrated Oncology Health Service in Hull is accessed by a more diverse range of patients than previously reported for other services, and is an example of a model of service by which socially equitable use of psychosocial support in the National Health Service might be achieved.

  15. Main strategies of specialists’ team work on psychosocial support for women with alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhyvylko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In compliance with the principles of bioethics and deontology, during  2013-2017, acomprehensive examination of women with a diagnosis of «total alopecia» was conducted on the basis of the Center for Reconstructive and Restorative Medicine of the Clinic of theOdessaNationalMedicalUniversity. 233 women aged 22 - 45 years old were examined. 76 persons had passed outpatient comprehensive course of author therapy, and 62 persons received treatment in accordance with the «Clinical protocol» but did not receive comprehensive psychosocial assistance. The patients under examination had violations in  psycho-emotional, personal level, level of social functioning. A range of measures of psychosocial support, aimed at providing qualified transdisciplinary help to the patients and their families have been worked out. Their effectiveness is proved on the basis of evidence-based medicine. Within the framework of the research the peculiarities of the psychoemotional sphere of women with total alopecia are determined. Scientifically substantiated, developed and implemented in practice psychosocial support of women with total alopecia, which consisted of psycho-corrective measures using modern mobile e-health technologies. Approbation of measures of psychosocial support showed their effectiveness in 70,89% of cases (р≤0,05. Due to the allocation and systematization of predictors, provocative and supporting factors of diseases, the system of modular medical and social prevention of total alopecia in women was developed, which includes three modules: universal, indicative and selective prevention.

  16. African American Patients' Psychosocial Support Needs and Barriers to Treatment: Patient Needs Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Bilkins, Brianna; Diamond, Guy; Willis, Alliric I; Mitchell, Edith P; Davey, Adam; Young, Faith M

    2016-09-01

    This study assessed adult patient's psychosocial support needs and treatment barriers in an urban diverse cancer center. A needs assessment was conducted with a convenience sample of adult oncology patients (n = 113; 71.7 % African American). Most patients were parenting school-age children and worried about them (96 %); 86.7 % would attend a family support program. Among patients who were married or partnered (68 %), 63.7 % were concerned about communication, coping, and emotional support; 53.9 % would attend a couple support program. Patients identified similar treatment barriers: transportation, babysitting for younger children, convenience of time/place, and refreshments. Findings suggest that behavioral health care providers should be available to screen cancer patients and improve access to appropriate psychosocial oncology support programs.

  17. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-06-08

    Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277). Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = -0.21, 95% CI = -0.27 - -0.14). Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.25 - -0.11). Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  18. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo M. Havermans

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. Methods In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277. Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Results A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = −0.21, 95% CI = −0.27 – -0.14. Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = −0.18, 95% CI = −0.25 – -0.11. Conclusions Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. Trial registration This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  19. In-School Psychosocial Support Services for Safeguarding Children's Rights: Results and Implications of a Botswana Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntinda, Kayi; Maree, Jacobus Gideon; Mpofu, Elias; Seeco, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    In-school psychosocial support services are intended to create safe learning environments for children, enabling the children to attain age-appropriate developmental tasks. This study investigated protections to children's right to safe learning environments through the provision of in-school psychosocial support services. Participants were 230…

  20. The effects of music-supported therapy on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions in chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Dawson, Deirdre R; Wright, Rebecca; Honjo, Kie; Chen, Joyce L; Chen, J Jean; Black, Sandra E; Stuss, Donald T; Ross, Bernhard

    2018-05-24

    Neuroplasticity accompanying learning is a key mediator of stroke rehabilitation. Training in playing music in healthy populations and patients with movement disorders requires resources within motor, sensory, cognitive, and affective systems, and coordination among these systems. We investigated effects of music-supported therapy (MST) in chronic stroke on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial functions compared to conventional physical training (GRASP). Twenty-eight adults with unilateral arm and hand impairment were randomly assigned to MST (n = 14) and GRASP (n = 14) and received 30 h of training over a 10-week period. The assessment was conducted at four time points: before intervention, after 5 weeks, after 10 weeks, and 3 months after training completion. As for two of our three primary outcome measures concerning motor function, all patients slightly improved in Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment hand score, while the time to complete Action Research Arm Test became shorter in the MST group. The third primary outcome measure for well-being, Stroke Impact Scale, was improved for emotion and social communication earlier in MST and coincided with the improved executive function for task switching and music rhythm perception. The results confirmed previous findings and expanded the potential usage of MST for enhancing quality of life in community-dwelling chronic-stage survivors. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Interactions among Ecological Factors That Explain the Psychosocial Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thurston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the associations and interactions among ecological factors and explain the psychosocial quality of life of children with complex needs. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey consenting parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child from 0 to 19 years, resided in Simcoe/York, and there were multiple family needs. Regression analysis was used to explore associations and interactions. n=429. Results. Younger children, without conduct disorder, without hostile and punitive parenting and with low adverse family impact demonstrated the highest levels of psychosocial quality of life. Statistically significant interactions between processes of care and parent variables highlight the complexity of real life situations. Conclusions. It is not possible to fully understand the child's psychosocial quality of life in complex needs families by considering only simple associations between ecological factors. A multitude of factors and interactions between these factors are simultaneously present and the care of these families requires a holistic approach.

  2. Counselling Intervention in the Provision of Psycho-Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Everyone needs adjustment to get along or survive ones social and physical environment. The widows in this part of the world need it more than anyone due to the hardship culture has placed on them. The study examined the psychological and social support being rendered to the widows for adjustment. One hundred and ...

  3. An asthma-related quality of life instrument is unable to identify asthmatic children with major psychosocial problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibosch, M.M.; Reidsma, C.; Landstra, A.; Hugen, C.A.C.; Gerrits, P.; Brouwer, M.; Gent, R. van; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial problems among children and adolescents with asthma interfere with adherence to treatment and therefore need attention in asthma care. It is unknown whether the already frequently implemented asthma-related quality of life (QoL) instruments reflect psychosocial

  4. Mental health and psychosocial support after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yutaka; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Since the Great East Japan Earthquake, Keio University School of Medicine has, at the request of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, provided mental health and psychosocial support to those living in Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture. This report covers the types of support provided in Soma City and discusses previous studies that were used as the model for current support practice and the results gained from actual performance. Also included is a summary of the objectives that were or were not achieved for medical support compared with recommendations from previous studies. Furthermore, future directions for medical support are also discussed.

  5. Psychosocial identity (representation in the daily life (Theatrum Mundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de la Villa Moral Jiménez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The search and subsequent redefinition of the personal and social identity constitutes one of the main objectives of everyone individual, as well as the differentiation and dialectical relationship between the self and the others. Similar dynamic and multidetermined process has been influenced by the symbolic and socialized action of the property groups and of others legitimize for the purpose agencies (family, peer-groups, mass-media, etc.. Likewise, we proceed to the presentation of identity in the daily life, goffmanian way, in the social stage where it shows manifold roles, way of characters in scene with several scripts to perform. Actor's personal identity derives from a socialized identity constructed from and by social relationships. In this article, by a psychosociological analysis perspective and with a dramatic art approach, we resort to the "theatrum mundi" analysis with the purpose of exemplify those self theatrical (representations in the social scene. 

  6. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  7. Relationship of psychosocial work factors and health-related quality of life in male automotive assembly workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than

    2007-06-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between psychosocial work factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in male automotive assembly plant workers in Malaysia. A total of 728 male workers were recruited in March-July 2005 from 2 major automotive assembly plants in Selangor and Pahang. In this cross-sectional study, information on socio-demography, psychosocial work factors using the 97-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and an abbreviated 26-item version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire containing 4 domains (physical health, psychological, social relationship, and environment) was self-administered to all workers involved. The prevalence of reported good or very good overall HRQOL and general health was 64.9% and 53.7%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that created skill was positively associated with physical health and psychological domains; whilst, skill discretion was positively associated with social relationship and environment domains. Social support was positively associated with physical health and environment domains; whilst, co-worker support was positively associated with psychological and social relationship domains. Job insecurity and hazardous condition were negatively associated with all domains, whilst psychological job demands was negatively associated with the environment domain of HRQOL.

  8. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Issues in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Madalinska, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    textabstractProstate and ovarian cancers are among the leading causes of death in Western countries. Applied preventive health strategies, including screening and early medical treatments either with prophylactic or curative intention, may substantially affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). This thesis focuses on the psychosocial and QOL issues involved in the evaluation of early-detected and treated prostate cancer among men in the general population, and in the evaluation of preventive he...

  9. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; e Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health...

  10. The Mediating Role of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Tendency to Forgive, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning of Terror Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Michael

    2018-06-12

    The study reported in this article examined the relationship between psychosocial functioning and tendency to forgive, social support, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of terror survivors (N = 108). Structural equation modeling was used to examine whether PTSD symptoms mediated the association between tendency to forgive, social support, and psychosocial functioning. The findings demonstrated that the association between tendency to forgive and psychosocial functioning was mediated exclusively by PTSD symptoms, whereas the association between social support and psychosocial functioning was partially mediated by PTSD symptoms. The study reinforces the importance of addressing trauma survivors' psychosocial functioning as an emotional state associated with tendency to forgive, social support, and PTSD symptoms. In addition, the findings suggest that when treating trauma survivors, therapists should be aware of PTSD not only as an emotional consequence of trauma, but also as a mediator of numerous emotional and cognitive coping mechanisms.

  11. Parental palliative cancer: psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life in adolescents participating in a German family counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Franziska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45, 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390 and HRQoL (R2adj =.239 best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.

  12. Health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in accident and emergency attenders suffering from psychosocial crises: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senneseth, Mette; Alsaker, Kjersti; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2012-01-01

    Aims This paper is a report of a study of health-related quality of life and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients attending an Accident and Emergency department because of psychosocial crises. Background Psychosocial crises are commonplace globally, but there is little knowledge about patients attending Accident and Emergency departments because of psychosocial crises. Methods Data were collected at an Accident and Emergency department in Norway from September 2008 to June 2009. A total of 99 adults participated in the baseline study and 41 of these participated at 2 months follow-up. The Short Form-36 Health Survey and the Post Traumatic Symptom Scale were used to obtain data. Findings Participants reported significantly lower scores in all health-related quality of life domains at baseline compared with the general Norwegian population. The mental health score was two standard deviations below the norm. Health-related quality of life scores were improved and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reduced after 2 months. High levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were reported by 78% of the participants at baseline and 59% at follow-up. Participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at follow-up also reported low health-related quality of life scores. Conclusion This study suggests a need for an acute psychosocial intervention and an opportunity to receive follow-up support at Accident and Emergency departments. PMID:21740459

  13. Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Capra, Angela M; Braveman, Paula A; Jensvold, Nancy G; Escobar, Gabriel J; Lieu, Tracy A

    2003-07-01

    Breastfeeding rates fall short of goals set in Healthy People 2010 and other national recommendations. The current, national breastfeeding continuation rate of 29% at 6 months lags behind the Healthy People 2010 goal of 50%. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations between breastfeeding discontinuation at 2 and 12 weeks postpartum and clinician support, maternal physical and mental health status, workplace issues, and other factors amenable to intervention. A prospective cohort study was conducted of low-risk mothers and infants who were in a health maintenance organization and enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of home visits. Mothers were interviewed in person at 1 to 2 days postpartum and by telephone at 2 and 12 weeks. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the independent effects of the predictors of interest, adjusting for sociodemographic and other confounding variables. Of the 1163 mother-newborn pairs in the cohort, 1007 (87%) initiated breastfeeding, 872 (75%) were breastfeeding at the 2-week interview, and 646 (55%) were breastfeeding at the 12-week interview. In the final multivariate models, breastfeeding discontinuation at 2 weeks was associated with lack of confidence in ability to breastfeed at the 1- to 2-day interview (odds ratio [OR]: 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-7.6), early breastfeeding problems (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-1.97), Asian race/ethnicity (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1-5.7), and lower maternal education (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Mothers were much less likely to discontinue breastfeeding at 12 weeks postpartum if they reported (during the 12-week interview) having received encouragement from their clinician to breastfeed (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.4-0.8). Breastfeeding discontinuation at 12 weeks was also associated with demographic factors and maternal depressive symptoms (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) and returning to work or school by 12 weeks postpartum (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.8-3.3). Our results indicate

  14. [Association between psychosocial aspects of work and quality of life among motorcycle taxi drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Jules Ramon Brito; Boery, Eduardo Nagib; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Araújo, Tânia Maria de; Pereira, Rafael; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Rios, Marcela Andrade; Amorim, Camila Rego; Moreira, Ramon Missias; Boery, Rita Narriman Silva de Oliveira; Sales, Zenilda Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of motorcycle taxi drivers and the association with psychosocial characteristics of their work. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a sample of 400 motorcycle taxi drivers in Jequié, Bahia State, Brazil. The study used a form containing demographic and socioeconomic data, WHO Quality of Life-Bref Questionnaire (WHOQOL-Bref), and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Motorcycle taxi drivers with greater decision-making control over their work showed better self-rated quality of life in the psychological domain; those with high psychological demands presented better self-rated quality of life in the social relations and environmental domains; those with high strain and active work showed better self-rated quality of life in the social and environmental domains. The psychosocial work environment and especially decision-making autonomy were thus important determinants of self-rated quality of life in this group of motorcycle taxi drivers.

  15. Psychological workshops for children and adolescents suffering from malignant disease: The model of psychosocial support during hospitalization and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klikovac Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric psycho-oncology within psycho-oncology is a highly developed scientific discipline in the world, both at the level of basic research and the development of theoretical concepts and at the practical level, which refers to the creation and implementation of various models of psychosocial support to children and young people who are suffering from various malignant diseases and their families during all stages of the demanding oncology treatment. One of the models of psychosocial support for children are workshops, as a form of group psychological treatment in which children and young people who are in distress, crisis, shock and even trauma, acquire a new positive experience and which provides new insights and knowledge to empower and boost the quality of life for overcoming severe malignant disease and treatment through meaningful games, all of which leads to overcoming the 'downtime' and regression and encouraging further psychological development. The outcome of workshop activities are various products (drawings, photographs, videos, posters, written material, but also positive feelings and behaviours in children and adolescents. The main objectives of introducing psychological workshops at the department of pediatric hematology-oncology in our community are, on the one hand, to provide professional counselling and support to children and young people during hospitalization and, on the other, to introduce a standard psychological procedure and quality psychological practice of group psychological counselling for sick children and young people in the hospital environment.

  16. Social support, hopelessness and life satisfaction among Roma and non-Roma adolescents in Slovakia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolarcik, P.; Geckova, A. Madarasova; Reijneveld, S. A.; van Dijk, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence on the psychosocial determinants of health among Roma adolescents is completely lacking. Our aim was to compare social support, life satisfaction and hopelessness of Slovak Roma and non-Roma adolescents and to assess the impact of parental education and social desirability on these

  17. Perceived psychosocial needs, social support and quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived social dysfunction was in four areas – fear of stigma in 15 (83.3%) subjects, lack of satisfying relationship with family in 15 (83.3%) subjects, lack of inner motivation in 12 (66.7%) subjects and social isolation in 12 (66.7%) subjects. Subjects with extrovert personality perceived significantly more lifestyle changes, ...

  18. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  19. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported. This study aimed to assess GD adolescents' global functioning after psychological support and puberty suppression. Two hundred one GD adolescents were included in this study. In a longitudinal design we evaluated adolescents' global functioning every 6 months from the first visit. All adolescents completed the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale (UGDS), a self-report measure of GD-related discomfort. We used the Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) to assess the psychosocial functioning of adolescents. At baseline, GD adolescents showed poor functioning with a CGAS mean score of 57.7 ± 12.3. GD adolescents' global functioning improved significantly after 6 months of psychological support (CGAS mean score: 60.7 ± 12.5; P puberty suppression had significantly better psychosocial functioning after 12 months of GnRHa (67.4 ± 13.9) compared with when they had received only psychological support (60.9 ± 12.2, P = 0.001). Psychological support and puberty suppression were both associated with an improved global psychosocial functioning in GD adolescents. Both these interventions may be considered effective in the clinical management of psychosocial functioning difficulties in GD adolescents. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Hospital Costs Of Extracorporeal Life Support Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Lansink-Hartgring, Annemieke; van den Hengel, Berber; van der Bij, Wim; Erasmus, Michiel E.; Mariani, Massimo A.; Rienstra, Michiel; Cernak, Vladimir; Vermeulen, Karin M.; van den Bergh, Walter M.

    Objectives: To conduct an exploration of the hospital costs of extracorporeal life support therapy. Extracorporeal life support seems an efficient therapy for acute, potentially reversible cardiac or respiratory failure, when conventional therapy has been inadequate, or as bridge to transplant, but

  1. Institutional capacity to provide psychosocial oncology support services: A report from the Association of Oncology Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kayser, Karen; Padgett, Lynne; Sundstrom, Laura; Jobin, Chad; Nelson, Krista; Fineberg, Iris C

    2016-06-15

    This study reports cancer-treating institutions' capacity to deliver comprehensive psychosocial support services. Oncology care providers at 60 cancer-treating institutions completed surveys assessing the capacity of their institutions to provide psychosocial care. Capacity was assessed with the Cancer Psychosocial Care Matrix (CPCM) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Scores represented individuals' perceptions of their cancer program's performance with respect to 10 fundamental elements of psychosocial care. Among 2134 respondents, 62% reported a mid-level capacity for ≥5 of 10 CPCM items. In comparison with other types of cancer programs (eg, NCI-designated, academic, or comprehensive centers), providers at community cancer programs reported a significantly greater capacity with respect to patient-provider communication, psychosocial needs assessment, and continuity in the delivery of psychosocial care over time. Nurses and primary medical providers reported a significantly lower capacity for linking patients and families with needed psychosocial services within their respective cancer programs. They also reported a significantly higher capacity for conducting follow-up, re-evaluations, and adjustments of psychosocial treatment plans. Cancer programs are performing moderately well in terms of communicating to patients the importance of psychosocial care, identifying patient psychosocial needs, and referring patients and families to psychosocial services. They are doing less well with respect to the provision of that care over time. Findings suggest that gaps in psychosocial service capacity are a function of patient, provider, and system characteristics. These results may be useful in formulating strategies to enhance psychosocial care delivery. Cancer 2016;122:1937-45. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. The influence of psychosocial factors in veteran adjustment to civilian life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Margaret A; Ferreira, Nuno; Henderson, Mike

    2018-03-25

    Although most veterans have a successful transition to civilian life when they leave the military, some struggle to cope and adjust to the demands and challenges of civilian life. This study explores how a variety of psychosocial factors influence veteran adjustment to civilian life in Scotland, UK, and which of these factors predict a poor adjustment. One hundred and fifty-four veterans across Scotland completed a set of questionnaires that measured veteran adjustment difficulty, quality of life, mental health, stigma, self-stigma, attitude towards help-seeking, likelihood of help-seeking, experiential avoidance, reappraisal and suppression. Veteran adjustment difficulty and quality of life were significantly correlated to a number of psychosocial factors. Mental health, experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal were found to be predictors of veteran adjustment difficulty, and experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal partially mediated the relationship between mental health and veteran adjustment, with experiential avoidance being the stronger mediator. Our findings suggest that early assessment of experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal and the provision of relevant emotion regulation skills training could potentially reduce the veteran's need for more complex (and costly) psychological interventions in the future. Implications for veterans, as well as the services and professionals involved with veteran transition and health care are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The Efficacy of Psychosocial Occupational Therapy Services on Quality of life of Chronic Pschiatric Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Hojjati-Abed

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life has recently been recognized as an important goal of health care in psychiatry. In this study quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients was evaluated after psychosocial occupational therapy interventions. Materials & Methods: This study is interventional and quasi experimental. Twoenty four chronic mental patients who had refered to SINA Daily Center as intervention group and fifty chronic mental patients as control group were selected by simle and convenient sampling. The instrument was Wisconsin Quality of Life Client Questionnaire that included 8 subscales. Occupational therapy services consisting group therapy, activity therapy and art therapy, according to center’ plane, were performed during 3 months (2 times in week, 90 minutes in each session for intervention group. Independent T test & Paired T test were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups in parts of QOL before intervention, but after intervention, significant differences were observed in mean scores of satisfaction level, occupational activities, psychological well–being, physical health and total quality o life (P<0.001, also social relation (P=0.005 and economic situation (P=0.003.There was no significant difference between two group in symptoms (P=0.277 and activity of daily living (P=0.020 after intervention. Conclusion: Psychosocial occupational therapy services are effective on satisfaction level and quality of life of chronic psychiatric patients.

  4. Psychosocial issues and quality of life in patients on renal replacement therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulou, Alkioni; Hardalias, Andreas; Fourtounas, Costas; Berati, Stavroula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate psychosocial variables related to objective and subjective indicators of quality of life in a single center cohort study of patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis (Hd), Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and renal transplant recipients (RTx). We studied 40 HD patients, 36 CAPD, and 48 RTx patients by a special questionnaire examining demographics, functional status, employment status, and impact of therapy on psychosocial issues such as anxiety and depression. The RTx patients disclosed a better functional and employment status than the CAPD and the HD patients. They were also more compliant and satisfied with their therapy and their relationship with the medical and nursing personnel. The CAPD patients were also more satisfied, more compliant, better motivated, and less anxious and depressed compared with the HD patients who scored low in every aspect studied. Successful renal transplantation is a superior modality of therapy than HD or CAPD regarding psychosocial and quality of life issues. However these results can partially be explained by some selection bias, as RTx patients are usually younger and CAPD patients are selected for this modality after examining functional and social status. (author)

  5. Violence and other stressful life events as triggers of depression and anxiety: what psychosocial resources protect African American mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Ronzio, Cynthia R

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the risk and protective factors related to maternal mental health problems is important for improving the well-being of mothers and children, particularly in African American populations which may be at greater risk for maternal depression and resulting child behavior problems. This study explored whether three psychosocial resources--emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity--serve as protective factors in the face of specific stressful events that may trigger African American mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms. Standard self-report measures of depression, anxiety, negative life events, community violence, abuse, emotional resilience, social support, and ethnic identity were administered to African American mothers (N=209) of 2-18 month-old children. Linear regression models revealed main effects of negative life events and abuse on increased depression and anxiety symptoms, while emotional resilience and social support predicted decreased symptoms. There was also a significant interaction revealing a protective-reactive effect of ethnic identity on the associations of witnessed community violence with depression and anxiety symptoms. It is important for primary care providers to screen African American mothers for negative life events and abuse to identify those at increased risk for maternal depression and anxiety symptoms. Treatment programs should target emotional resilience, enhanced social support, and stronger ethnic group affiliation, which may be most effective at preventing mental health problems among mothers exposed to relative lower levels of community violence.

  6. Psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and emotional wellbeing for recently diagnosed cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galway, Karen; Black, Amanda; Cantwell, Marie; Cardwell, Chris R; Mills, Moyra; Donnelly, Michael

    2012-11-14

    A cancer diagnosis may lead to significant psychological distress in up to 75% of cases. There is a lack of clarity about the most effective ways to address this psychological distress. To assess the effects of psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life (QoL) and general psychological distress in the 12-month phase following an initial cancer diagnosis. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 4), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO up to January 2011. We also searched registers of clinical trials, abstracts of scientific meetings and reference lists of included studies. Electronic searches were carried out across all primary sources of peer-reviewed publications using detailed criteria. No language restrictions were imposed. Randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions involving interpersonal dialogue between a 'trained helper' and individual newly diagnosed cancer patients were selected. Only trials measuring QoL and general psychological distress were included. Trials involving a combination of pharmacological therapy and interpersonal dialogue were excluded, as were trials involving couples, family members or group formats. Trial data were examined and selected by two authors in pairs with mediation from a third author where required. Where possible, outcome data were extracted for combining in a meta-analyses. Continuous outcomes were compared using standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals, using a random-effects model. The primary outcome, QoL, was examined in subgroups by outcome measurement, cancer site, theoretical basis for intervention, mode of delivery and discipline of trained helper. The secondary outcome, general psychological distress (including anxiety and depression), was examined according to specified outcome measures. A total of 3309 records were identified, examined and the trials subjected to selection criteria; 30 trials were included in

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  8. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  9. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  10. Mental health and psychosocial support in crisis and conflict: report of the Mental Health Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allden, K; Jones, L; Weissbecker, I; Wessells, M; Bolton, P; Betancourt, T S; Hijazi, Z; Galappatti, A; Yamout, R; Patel, P; Sumathipala, A

    2009-01-01

    The Working Group on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support was convened as part of the 2009 Harvard Humanitarian Action Summit. The Working Group chose to focus on ethical issues in mental health and psychosocial research and programming in humanitarian settings. The Working Group built on previous work and recommendations, such as the Inter-Agency Standing Committee's Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. The objective of this working group was to address one of the factors contributing to the deficiency of research and the need to develop the evidence base on mental health and psychosocial support interventions during complex emergencies by proposing ethical research guidelines. Outcomes research is vital for effective program development in emergency settings, but to date, no comprehensive ethical guidelines exist for guiding such research efforts. Working Group members conducted literature reviews which included peer-reviewed publications, agency reports, and relevant guidelines on the following topics: general ethical principles in research, cross-cultural issues, research in resource-poor countries, and specific populations such as trauma and torture survivors, refugees, minorities, children and youth, and the mentally ill. Working Group members also shared key points regarding ethical issues encountered in their own research and fieldwork. The group adapted a broad definition of the term "research", which encompasses needs assessments and data gathering, as well as monitoring and evaluation. The guidelines are conceptualized as applying to formal and informal processes of assessment and evaluation in which researchers as well as most service providers engage. The group reached consensus that it would be unethical not to conduct research and evaluate outcomes of mental health and psychosocial interventions in emergency settings, given that there currently is very little good evidence base for such interventions

  11. Measuring and modelling the quality of 40 post-disaster mental health and psychosocial support programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dückers, Michel L A; Thormar, Sigridur B; Juen, Barbara; Ajdukovic, Dean; Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy; Olff, Miranda

    2018-01-01

    Disasters can have an enormous impact on the health and well-being of those affected. Internationally, governments and service providers are often challenged to address complex psychosocial problems. Ideally, the potentially broad range of support activities include a coherent, high-quality mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programme. We present a theory-driven quantitative analysis of the quality of 40 MHPSS programmes, mostly implemented in European disaster settings. The objective is to measure quality domains recognized as relevant in the literature and to empirically test associations. During the EU project "Operationalizing Psychosocial Support in Crisis" (OPSIC) an evaluation survey was designed and developed for this purpose and completed by 40 MHPSS programme coordinators involved in different mass emergencies and disasters. We analysed the survey data in two steps. Firstly, we used the data to operationalize quality domains of a MHPSS programme, tested constructs and assessed their internal consistency reliability. A total of 26 out of 44 survey items clustered into three of the four domains identified within the theoretical framework: "planning and delivery system" (Cronbach's alpha 0.82); "general evaluation criteria" (Cronbach's alpha 0.82); and "essential psychosocial principles" (Cronbach's alpha 0.75). "Measures and interventions applied", theoretically a potential fourth domain, could not be confirmed to empirically cluster together. Secondly, several models with associations between domains and measures and interventions were tested and compared. The model with the best fit suggests that in MHPSS programmes with a higher planning and delivery systems score, a larger number of measures and interventions from evidence-informed guidelines are applied. In such programmes, coordinators are more positive about general evaluation criteria and the realization of essential psychosocial principles. Moreover, the analyses showed that some

  12. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (pacne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition.

  13. Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly S.; Ewert, Michael K.; Keener, John F.

    2018-01-01

    The Baseline Values and Assumptions Document (BVAD) provides analysts, modelers, and other life support researchers with a common set of values and assumptions which can be used as a baseline in their studies. This baseline, in turn, provides a common point of origin from which many studies in the community may depart, making research results easier to compare and providing researchers with reasonable values to assume for areas outside their experience. This document identifies many specific physical quantities that define life support systems, serving as a general reference for spacecraft life support system technology developers.

  14. The contribution of case study design to supporting research on Clubhouse psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeburn, Toby; Schmied, Virginia; Hungerford, Catherine; Cleary, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Psychosocial Clubhouses provide recovery-focused psychosocial rehabilitation to people with serious mental illness at over 300 sites in more than 30 countries worldwide. To deliver the services involved, Clubhouses employ a complex mix of theory, programs and relationships, with this complexity presenting a number of challenges to those undertaking Clubhouse research. This paper provides an overview of the usefulness of case study designs for Clubhouse researchers; and suggests ways in which the evaluation of Clubhouse models can be facilitated. The paper begins by providing a brief explanation of the Clubhouse model of psychosocial rehabilitation, and the need for ongoing evaluation of the services delivered. This explanation is followed by an introduction to case study design, with consideration given to the way in which case studies have been used in past Clubhouse research. It is posited that case study design provides a methodological framework that supports the analysis of either quantitative, qualitative or a mixture of both types of data to investigate complex phenomena in their everyday contexts, and thereby support the development of theory. As such, case study approaches to research are well suited to the Clubhouse environment. The paper concludes with recommendations for future Clubhouse researchers who choose to employ a case study design. While the quality of case study research that explores Clubhouses has been variable in the past, if applied in a diligent manner, case study design has a valuable contribution to make in future Clubhouse research.

  15. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  16. Peer Support and Psychosocial Pain Management Strategies for Children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nabors

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews information on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE in children. Children with this chronic illness often experience pain related to their condition. They also can experience social isolation. This paper reviews psychosocial information on peer support and cognitive behavioral pain management strategies. The information presented in this paper provides new insights for health professionals assisting children and families in coping with psychological facets of this disease. Research focusing on ways by which peers and friends can support the child’s use of psychological pain management strategies will provide new information for the literature.

  17. Life Support Systems: Oxygen Generation and Recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Oxygen Generation and Recovery technology development area encompasses several sub-tasks in an...

  18. NextSTEP Hybrid Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextSTEP Phase I Hybrid Life Support Systems (HLSS) effort assessed options, performance, and reliability for various mission scenarios using contractor-developed...

  19. Hybrid Life Support System Technology Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R. C.; Wetzel, J. P.; Richter, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    Demonstration of plant-based hybrid life support technologies in deep space will validate the function of these technologies for long duration missions, such as Mars transit, while providing dietary variety to improve habitability.

  20. Differences on psychosocial outcomes between male and female caregivers of children with life-limiting illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Monica; Steele, Rose; Cadell, Susan; Hemsworth, David

    2011-06-01

    This secondary analysis of data examined the psychosocial outcomes of meaning in caregiving, self-esteem, optimism, burden, depression, spirituality, and posttraumatic growth in 273 parents caring for children with life-limiting illnesses to (a) determine if there were gender differences and (b) identify gender-specific correlations among these outcomes. Findings suggest that significant gender differences exist. Women reported higher average scores compared with men for meaning in caregiving, depression, burden, and posttraumatic growth and lower average scores for optimism. Correlations also revealed some significant differences. Health care professionals need to be aware of gender differences and tailor their interventions appropriately. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  2. Life Support for Deep Space and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    How should life support for deep space be developed? The International Space Station (ISS) life support system is the operational result of many decades of research and development. Long duration deep space missions such as Mars have been expected to use matured and upgraded versions of ISS life support. Deep space life support must use the knowledge base incorporated in ISS but it must also meet much more difficult requirements. The primary new requirement is that life support in deep space must be considerably more reliable than on ISS or anywhere in the Earth-Moon system, where emergency resupply and a quick return are possible. Due to the great distance from Earth and the long duration of deep space missions, if life support systems fail, the traditional approaches for emergency supply of oxygen and water, emergency supply of parts, and crew return to Earth or escape to a safe haven are likely infeasible. The Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance approach used by ISS is unsuitable for deep space with ORU's as large and complex as those originally provided in ISS designs because it minimizes opportunities for commonality of spares, requires replacement of many functional parts with each failure, and results in substantial launch mass and volume penalties. It has become impractical even for ISS after the shuttle era, resulting in the need for ad hoc repair activity at lower assembly levels with consequent crew time penalties and extended repair timelines. Less complex, more robust technical approaches may be needed to meet the difficult deep space requirements for reliability, maintainability, and reparability. Developing an entirely new life support system would neglect what has been achieved. The suggested approach is use the ISS life support technologies as a platform to build on and to continue to improve ISS subsystems while also developing new subsystems where needed to meet deep space requirements.

  3. Social support mediates the association between benefit finding and quality of life in caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Charles; Barry, Lorna; Gallagher, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    The psychosocial pathways underlying associations between benefit finding and quality of life are poorly understood. Here, we examined associations between benefit finding, social support, optimism and quality of life in a sample of 84 caregivers. Results revealed that quality of life was predicted by benefit finding, optimism and social support. Moreover, the association between benefit finding and quality of life was explained by social support, but not optimism; caregivers who reported greater benefit finding perceived their social support be higher and this, in turn, had a positive effect on their overall quality of life. These results underscore the importance of harnessing benefit finding to enhance caregiver quality of life. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Psychosocial interventions for rehabilitation and reintegration into daily life of pediatric cancer survivors and their families: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peikert, Mona Leandra; Inhestern, Laura; Bergelt, Corinna

    2018-01-01

    The survival rate of childhood cancer patients increased over the past decades. However, even after successful treatment the transition back to normalcy is often a major challenge for the whole family. Therefore, this study aims to provide an overview of psychosocial interventions for childhood cancer survivors and their families in the first years after the end of cancer treatment. We conducted a systematic review following the PRISMA Checklist (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; PROSPERO registration number: CRD42017059782). In November 2016 and September 2017, we searched the databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYNDEX, and Web of Science. We included studies investigating psychosocial interventions for childhood cancer survivors diagnosed under the age of 21, their family members or the family as a whole. Further, we summarized the study characteristics and conducted a narrative synthesis of the results. Finally, we assessed the study quality with the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. We identified a total of 8215 records based on our database searches and 17 additional records through hand searches. We included 33 articles in the qualitative synthesis. Most of the studies described interventions for the cancer survivor (n = 15). Nine studies investigated interventions for the whole family, and two studies interventions for siblings. The interventions mainly take place in an outpatient group setting (n = 15). Overall, most of the studies reported a significant psychosocial benefit of the interventions. However, the quality of the included studies was limited. In summary, we identified a broad range of different interventions and thus could give a comprehensive overview of existing interventions for childhood cancer survivors and their families. However, there is a necessity for high quality studies. The results may help to optimize health care services that support families with the re-entry into daily

  5. Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care: more likely with low family social support and poor parenting skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between family social support, parenting skills and child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care. We obtained data on 1,331 children (response rate 56.6%), 4-18 years old, enrolled in preventive child health care, and child and adolescent social care and mental health care because of psychosocial problems, and on 463 children (response rate 70.3%) not enrolled in psychosocial care. Results showed that enrolment in psychosocial care was associated with low family social support (odds ratio; 95%-confidence interval: 3.2; 2.4-4.4), and with poor parenting skills, i.e. poor supervision (1.5; 1.1-2.1) and inconsistent disciplining (1.5; 1.1-2.1). Children's psychosocial problems partially mediated the associations with family social support and completely with parenting skills. Children's problems did not moderate the associations. Positive parenting was not associated with care enrolment. We conclude that low family social support and poor parenting are important factors associated with enrolment, in particular because they are associated with more frequent occurrence of children's psychosocial problems. This implies that professionals and policymakers need to be aware that factors in children's social environment are related with enrolment in psychosocial care, in addition to children's psychosocial problems.

  6. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle EMC; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID...

  7. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.M. Alavinia (Seyed Mahammad); F.J. Bredt (Folef); D. Lindeboom; L.A.M. Elders (Leo); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n =

  8. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Adaptation to Chronic Illness and Disability: Preliminary Analysis of a Conceptual and Theoretical Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Malachy

    2005-01-01

    This article describes and presents an initial analysis of a quality-of-life?based model of psychosocial adaptation to chronic illness and disability. This model, termed disability centrality, represents a conceptual and theoretical synthesis of several existing theories and models, drawn from the quality-of life, rehabilitation counseling, and…

  9. Growing into disability benefits? Psychosocial course of life of young adults with a chronic somatic disease or disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoof, Eefje; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Heymans, Hugo; Grootenhuis, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Aim: A growing number of young adults with somatic diseases/disabilities since childhood apply for disability benefits. The achievement of psychosocial milestones while growing up (course of life) is assumed to be related to job participation. This study assessed the course of life of young adult

  10. Mathematical Modeling Of Life-Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshan, Panchalam K.; Ganapathi, Balasubramanian; Jan, Darrell L.; Ferrall, Joseph F.; Rohatgi, Naresh K.

    1994-01-01

    Generic hierarchical model of life-support system developed to facilitate comparisons of options in design of system. Model represents combinations of interdependent subsystems supporting microbes, plants, fish, and land animals (including humans). Generic model enables rapid configuration of variety of specific life support component models for tradeoff studies culminating in single system design. Enables rapid evaluation of effects of substituting alternate technologies and even entire groups of technologies and subsystems. Used to synthesize and analyze life-support systems ranging from relatively simple, nonregenerative units like aquariums to complex closed-loop systems aboard submarines or spacecraft. Model, called Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS), coded in such chemical-process-simulation languages as Aspen Plus and expressed as three-dimensional spreadsheet.

  11. Quality of life psychosocial characteristics in Greek patients with leg ulcers: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Armyra, Kalliopi; Christodoulou, Christos; Sgontzou, Themis; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, George; Liordou, Fotini; Zakopoulou, Nikoletta; Zouridaki, Eftychia

    2016-10-01

    Chronic leg ulcers are a public health problem that can have a significant impact on the patient's physical, socioeconomic and psychological status. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients suffering from leg ulcers. A total of 102 patients were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), respectively. The mean DLQI score was 13·38 ± 2·59, suggesting a serious effect on the quality of life of patients. Those with leg ulcers had statistically significant higher scores according to the HADS-total scale (P = 0·031) and HADS-anxiety subscale (P = 0·015) compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (P = 0·029). Female patients presented with a higher score of anxiety (P = 0·027) and social isolation (P = 0·048), and worse quality of life (P = 0·018) than male patients. A severe quality of life impairment was documented, reflecting a significant psychosocial impact on patients with leg ulcers. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quality of life assessment of patients with schizophrenic spectrum disorders from Psychosocial Care Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assessing the quality of life and the clinical and social-demographic factors associated in schizophrenic spectrum patients (ICD-10 F20-F29 attending CAPS at the programmatic area 3.0. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of schizophrenic spectrum patients who have been enrolled in 2008 in CAPS in programmatic area (AP 3 at Rio de Janeiro city, using MINIPLUS to assess schizophrenia spectrum disorder and use of psychoactive substances, Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS to assess psychiatric symptoms and Quality of Life Scale (QLS-BR to assess the quality of life. RESULTS: Seventy nine patients were included, of whom 74 (93.7% presented some impairment in quality of life. The most frequently affected area was occupational performance. Variables that showed a significant association with severe impairment of quality of life were: marital status, race, occupation, who patients lived with, homelessness, having children, previous psychiatric hospitalization, negative symptoms and symptoms designated as not applicable (being characterized by a lack of typical positive and negative symptoms. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of these factors should be crucial to implement health policies and psychosocial rehabilitation programs focused on improving the quality of life of these patients.

  13. IT for advanced Life Support in English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejerø Pedersen, Birgitte; Jeberg, Kirsten Ann; Koerner, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how IT support can be established for the treatment and documentation of advanced life support (ALS) in a hospital. In close collaboration with clinical researchers, a running prototype of an IT solution to support the clinical decisions in ALS was developed and tried out...... in a full scale simulation environment. We have named this IT solution the CardioData Prototype....

  14. Psychosocial factors of modern work life and incident depression in Denmark 2000-06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else; Thielen, Karsten; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    . By logistic regression we calculated odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs) for depression, controlling for age, sex, occupational social position, family status, alcohol consumption, seniority and MDI score at baseline. Results Preliminary results showed that work pace (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1......Depressions and depressive symptoms play a major explanatory role to sickness absence and early retirement at the Danish labour market, and represent a general public health issue. Modern work life is borderless, transient and lack sense of community. Aim of study was to analyse the effect...... of psychosocial factors of modern work life on the incidence of depression. Methods Baseline data 2000 were collected from a sample of 7588 Danish men and women aged 40 and 50 years. By October 2006, a follow-up survey was sent to all respondents. Persons, who at baseline were unemployed, with current or prior...

  15. Mutual support, affective leadership, and community rehabilitation. An experience of psychosocial accompaniment for the “rehabilitation” of victims of the armed conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan David Villa Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The systematization of an experience of psychosocial accompaniment to victims of the armed conflict in the city of Medellin is introduced. This study allowed to understand and to demonstrate that the strategies for community strengthening, the training of leaders and affective men and women leaders, the peer support, the psychosocial action from the empowerment of communities and their support networks, are necessary actions to generate personal and collective empowerment, emotional recovery, subjective transformations, and experiences of reconstruction of projects of life, the social fabric, and the re-dignification of victims of the armed conflict inColombia. It is therefore proposed to develop processes of integral repair from the communities rather than to carry out, from above and vertically, projects, usually away from the needs and possibilities of the people.

  16. Psychosocial adaptation status and health-related quality of life among older Chinese adults with visual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2009-09-01

    To examine the association of psychosocial adaptation status with vision-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the role of psychosocial adaptation in the linkage between visual impairment and vision-specific HRQOL outcomes among older adults with visual disorders. In this cross-sectional study, older urban adults with visual problems (N = 167) were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to assess their self-reported visual function, general health, psychosocial adaptation status, and vision-specific HRQOL. Performance-based measure of visual function marked by distance visual acuity was clinically conducted by ophthalmologists. It was found in the study that psychosocial adaptation status was significantly associated with vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of mental health symptoms due to vision and dependency on others due to vision. The results also showed that psychosocial adaptation status could buffer the effect of visual impairment on vision-specific HRQOL, including the domains of social function, mental health, and dependency. Psychosocial adaptation status is significantly associated with multiple domains of vision-specific HRQOL. The findings have significant implications for health education and psychosocial intervention for older adults with age-related vision loss.

  17. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T I J; Alavinia, S M; Bredt, F J; Lindeboom, D; Elders, L A M; Burdorf, A

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors.

  18. Nonpharmacological management and psychosocial support for children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Ho Yoo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Compared to that in the Caucasian population, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM incidence rates are very low in Koreans. Therefore, compared to the recent development of pharmacological therapy applicable to Korean children with T1DM, interest in nonpharmacological therapy and psychosocial support systems remains low, as is the development of Korean-style T1DM education programs for therapeutic application. Children who have been newly diagnosed with diabetes are placed in completely new environments for treatment. For appropriate control of diabetes, patients have to self-monitor blood glucose levels and inject insulin several times a day and must use extreme self-control when they eat foods to avoid increases in blood glucose levels. Blood glucose excursions resulting from impaired pancreatic ?#993;?cell functions cause mental stress due to vague fears of chronic complications of diabetes. In addition, children with diabetes cannot be excluded from the substantial amount of studies required of Korean adolescents, and the absolute shortage of time for ideal control of diabetes adds to their mental stress. Many of these patients are psychologically isolated in school where they spend most of their time, and they are not appropriately considered or supported with respect to blood glucose control in many cases. In this respect, this author will introduce some of the newest views on nonpharmacological therapy and psychosocial support systems that account for important parts of T1DM management and seek measures to apply them in conformity with the social characteristics of Korea.

  19. Perceived need for psychosocial support depending on emotional distress and mental comorbidity in men and women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Hermann; Weis, Joachim; Koch, Uwe; Brähler, Elmar; Härter, Martin; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Boehncke, Anna; Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Richard, Matthias; Sehner, Susanne; Szalai, Carina; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    Although elevated levels of distress are supposed to constitute a need for psychosocial support, the relation between elevated distress and need for support does not appear to be straightforward. We aimed to determine cancer patients' perceived need for psychosocial support, and examine the relation of need to both self-reported emotional distress and the interview-based diagnosis of a mental disorder. In a multicenter, cross-sectional study in Germany, 4020 cancer patients (mean age 58 years, 51% women) were evaluated. We obtained self-reports of need for psychosocial support. We measured distress with the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Distress Thermometer (DT) and depressive symptoms with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). In a subsample, we evaluated the presence of a mental disorder using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). 32.1% (95%-CI 30.6 to 33.6) of patients perceived a need for psychosocial support. Younger age, female sex, and higher education were associated with more needs, being married and living with a partner with fewer needs, respectively. While up to 51.2% of patients with elevated distress levels reported a need for psychosocial support, up to 26.1% of those without elevated distress levels perceived such a need. Results were similar across distress assessment methods. Our findings emphasize that the occurrence of mental distress is one important but not an exclusive factor among different motives to report the need for psychosocial support. We should thus consider multifaceted perspectives, facilitators and barriers when planning and implementing patient-centered psychosocial care services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C.; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interven...

  1. Learning to Control Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Devika

    2004-01-01

    Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges. In particular, advanced life support systems are nonlinear coupled dynamical systems and it is difficult for humans to take all interactions into account to design an effective control strategy. In this project. we developed several reinforcement learning controllers that actively explore the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated these controllers using a discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation, called BioSim, designed by Nasa scientists David Kortenkamp and Scott Bell has multiple, interacting life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. They are implemented in a consumer/producer relationship in which certain modules produce resources that are consumed by other modules. Stores hold resources between modules. Control of this simulation is via adjusting flows of resources between modules and into/out of stores. We developed adaptive algorithms that control the flow of resources in BioSim. Our learning algorithms discovered several ingenious strategies for maximizing mission length by controlling the air and water recycling systems as well as crop planting schedules. By exploiting non-linearities in the overall system dynamics, the learned controllers easily out- performed controllers written by human experts. In sum, we accomplished three goals. We (1) developed foundations for learning models of coupled dynamical systems by active exploration of the state space, (2) developed and tested algorithms that learn to efficiently control air and water recycling processes as well as crop scheduling in Biosim, and (3) developed an understanding of the role machine learning in designing control systems for

  2. Quality of Life in Workers and Stress: Gender Differences in Exposure to Psychosocial Risks and Perceived Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Cedrone, Fabrizio; Sanità, Donatella; Ricci, Pasquale; Corbosiero, Paola; Di Traglia, Mario; Greco, Emilio; Stansfeld, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Quality of working life is the result of many factors inherent in the workplace environment, especially in terms of exposure to psychosocial risks. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of life with special attention to gender differences. The HSE-IT questionnaire and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index were administered to a group of workers (74 males and 33 females). The authors also used Cronbach's alpha test to assess the internal consistency of both questionnaires and the Mann-Whitney test to evaluate the significance of gender differences in both questionnaires. The HSE-IT highlighted the existence of work-related stress in all the population with a critical perception regarding the domain "Relationships." Furthermore, gender analysis highlighted the presence of two additional domains in the female population: "Demand" ( p = 0,002) and "Support from Managers" ( p = 0,287). The WHO-5 highlighted a well-being level below the standard cut-off point with a significant gender difference ( p = 0.009) for males (18, SD = 6) as compared to females (14, SD = 6,4). Cronbach's alpha values indicated a high level of internal consistency for both of our scales. The risk assessment of quality of working life should take into due account the individual characteristics of workers, with special attention to gender.

  3. Quality of Life in Workers and Stress: Gender Differences in Exposure to Psychosocial Risks and Perceived Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quality of working life is the result of many factors inherent in the workplace environment, especially in terms of exposure to psychosocial risks. Objectives. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of life with special attention to gender differences. Methods. The HSE-IT questionnaire and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index were administered to a group of workers (74 males and 33 females. The authors also used Cronbach’s alpha test to assess the internal consistency of both questionnaires and the Mann–Whitney test to evaluate the significance of gender differences in both questionnaires. Results. The HSE-IT highlighted the existence of work-related stress in all the population with a critical perception regarding the domain “Relationships.” Furthermore, gender analysis highlighted the presence of two additional domains in the female population: “Demand” (p = 0,002 and “Support from Managers” (p = 0,287. The WHO-5 highlighted a well-being level below the standard cut-off point with a significant gender difference (p=0.009 for males (18, SD = 6 as compared to females (14, SD = 6,4. Cronbach’s alpha values indicated a high level of internal consistency for both of our scales. Conclusions. The risk assessment of quality of working life should take into due account the individual characteristics of workers, with special attention to gender.

  4. Work-related psychosocial stress and the risk of type 2 diabetes in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, K-Y; Xu, W; Mangialasche, F; Fratiglioni, L; Wang, H-X

    2017-06-01

    Although work-related psychosocial stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been investigated, the association between lifelong work stress and T2DM in later life remains unclear. This study examined whether high work stress increased the risk of T2DM risk in later life, accounting also for other sources of stress outside work, such as burden from household chores. From the population-based prospective study SNAC-K, 2719 diabetes-free participants aged ≥60 years were identified and followed up for 6 years. T2DM was ascertained by glycated haemoglobin level, self-report, hypoglycaemic medication use and clinical records. Levels of job control and demands over the whole working life were assessed by a validated matrix. Household chores load was assessed by hours spent on such chores. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between job strain and T2DM. During the 6-year follow-up, 154 incident cases of T2DM were identified. High job strain was associated with T2DM occurrence amongst the 60-year-old cohort (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.27-7.77), and only amongst women (OR = 6.18, 95% CI: 1.22-31.26), but not in men. When taking into account household chores load, a more pronounced risk of T2DM was associated with high job strain in combination with heavy household chores load in women aged 60 years at baseline (OR = 9.45, 95% CI: 1.17-76.53). Work-related psychosocial stress may increase the risk of T2DM only amongst women in their early 60s. The risk can be amplified by high household chores load. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. Psychosocial Health Disparities Among Black Bisexual Men in the U.S.: Effects of Sexuality Nondisclosure and Gay Community Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M Reuel; Bukowski, Leigh; Eaton, Lisa A; Matthews, Derrick D; Dyer, Typhanye V; Siconolfi, Dan; Stall, Ron

    2018-04-05

    Compared with Black gay men, Black bisexual men experience psychosocial health disparities, including depression, polydrug use, physical assault, and intimate partner violence (IPV). Black bisexual men are also less likely to disclose their sexuality, which may result in them receiving less sexual minority community support, exacerbating psychosocial health disparities. We assessed relationships between bisexual behavior, bisexual identity, sexuality nondisclosure, gay community support, and psychosocial morbidities among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Between 2014 and 2017, survey data were collected from Black MSM ≥ 18 years old (n = 4430) at Black Pride events in six U.S. cities. We differentiated between bisexual-identified men reporting past-year sex with men and women (bisexual MSMW, 8.4%); gay-identified men reporting sex with men only (gay MSMO, 73.1%); gay MSMW (8.0%); and bisexual MSMO (8.4%). Multivariable regressions contrasted these groups by psychosocial morbidities, sexuality nondisclosure, and gay community support. Structural equation models assessed total, direct, and indirect effects. Compared with gay MSMO, bisexual MSMW and gay MSMW were significantly more likely to report polydrug use, depression symptoms, IPV, physical assault, sexuality nondisclosure, and lack of gay community support. Lack of gay community support had significant indirect effects on the relationships between bisexual behavior and psychosocial morbidity (p psychosocial morbidity (p Psychosocial health disparities experienced by Black bisexual men are associated with both bisexual behavior and bisexual identity. Interventions decreasing biphobia will facilitate opportunities for protective sexuality disclosure and access to sexual minority community support.

  6. Breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy: Distress, depressive symptoms and unmet needs of psychosocial support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luutonen, Sinikka; Vahlberg, Tero; Eloranta, Sini; Hyvaeri, Heidi; Salminen, Eeva

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can cause considerable psychological consequences, which may remain unrecognized and untreated. In this study, the prevalence of depressive symptoms and distress, and unmet needs for psychosocial support were assessed among breast cancer patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy. Material and methods: Out of 389 consecutive patients, 276 responded and comprised the final study group. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory. Distress was measured with the Distress Thermometer. Hospital records of the patients were examined for additional information. Results: Nearly one third of patients (32.1%) displayed depressive symptoms, and more than a quarter of patients (28.4%) experienced distress. Younger age (p = 0.001) and negative hormone receptor status (p = 0.008) were independent factors associated with distress. One quarter of the patients expressed an unmet need for psychosocial support, which was independently associated with depressive symptoms and/or distress (p = 0.001) and younger age (p = 0.006). Conclusions: During radiotherapy for breast cancer, the staff should have awareness of the higher risk of depression and distress in their patients and should consider screening tools to recognise distress and depressive symptoms. Special attention should be paid to younger patients.

  7. FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS): development and feasibility of a psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Hanin; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Wehner, Peder Skov; Hasle, Henrik; Rosthøj, Steen; Kazak, Anne E; E Bidstrup, Pernille

    2017-02-01

    We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home. Families were recruited from all four pediatric oncology departments in Denmark after the end of intensive cancer treatment. We evaluated the feasibility of the intervention and of a RCT design for comparing the intervention with usual care. The evaluation was conducted among families enrolled in the study by tracking procedures and parents' evaluations. A total of 68 families (68 mothers, 60 fathers, 68 children with cancer and 73 siblings) were enrolled, with a participation rate of 62% of families. Fathers were highly represented (88% of families); also families with single parents (12%) and parents with basic education (7-12 years of primary, secondary, and grammar school education) were represented (12%). The dropout rate was 12% of families (all in the control group), and two families did not complete the intervention because of relapse. Evaluation by parents in the intervention group showed overall satisfaction with the format, timing, and content of the intervention. The results indicate that the FAMOS intervention is feasible in terms of recruitment, retention, and acceptability. The effects of the intervention on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, family functioning, and quality of life will be reported after the nationwide RCT has been completed.

  8. The relationship between family social support and quality of life in diabetic female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Life quality of diabetic patients is always affected by psychosocial problems, physical disorders, and life style changes. It seems that the perceived social support could intervene in improving the life quality of these patients. The present study was carried out aiming to examine the relation between family social support and life quality of female patients with diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study. The statistical population included 173 diabetic females who were randomly selected from patients referred to Kermanshah diabetes research center. Data were collected using life quality questionnaire (Short Form-36 as well as perceived social support scale. The data analysis indicated that there is a significant correlation between family support and life quality of patients. Furthermore, concerning the components of life quality, there is a significant correlation between family social support and physical performance, physical limitation, tiredness, emotional health, social performance, pain, and general health of patients. However, no significant relation was found between family support and limitation of patients. Results showed that there is a direct relation between family support and the life quality in females with diabetes. Hence, it can be concluded that giving the family support to the female diabetic patients can increase their quality of life.

  9. Perceived Social Support from Friends and Family and Psychosocial Functioning in Bisexual Young Adult College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Raymond L., Jr.; Mohr, Jonathan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which perceived social support was associated with depression, life satisfaction, and internalized binegativity in a sample of 210 bisexual young adult college students. Two types of social support (general and sexuality specific) and 2 sources of social support (family and friends) were…

  10. Life Support with Failures and Variable Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The life support system for long duration missions will recycle oxygen and water to reduce the material resupply mass from Earth. The impact of life support failures was investigated by dynamic simulation of a lunar outpost habitat life support model. The model was modified to simulate resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and storage failures. Many failures impact the lunar outpost water supply directly or indirectly, depending on the water balance and water storage. Failure effects on the water supply are reduced if Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) water use is low and the water supply is ample. Additional oxygen can be supplied by scavenging unused propellant or by production from regolith, but the amounts obtained can vary significantly. The requirements for oxygen and water can also vary significantly, especially for EVA. Providing storage buffers can improve efficiency and reliability, and minimize the chance of supply failing to meet demand. Life support failures and supply variations can be survivable if effective solutions are provided by the system design

  11. Monitoring and life-support devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noback, C.R.; Murphy, C.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic and physical principles involved in interpreting films, and some of the altered anatomy and pathology that may be seen on such films, are discussed. This chapter considers the radiographic appearances of monitoring and life-support devices. Appropriate positioning and function are shown, as are some of the complications associated with their placement and/or function

  12. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Pickering, Karen D.; Cox, Marlon; Towsend, Neil; Campbell, Colin; Flynn, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of several technology development projects sponsored by NASA s Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project is developing life support technologies (including water recovery and space suit life support technologies) needed for humans to live and work productively in space. NGLS has three project tasks: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, and Alternative Water Processor (AWP). The RCA swing bed and VOR tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit, with focus on test article development and integrated testing in an Advanced PLSS in cooperation with the Advanced Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Project. An RCA swing-bed provides integrated carbon dioxide removal and humidity control that can be regenerated in real time during an EVA. The VOR technology will significantly increase the number of pressure settings available to the space suit. Current space suit pressure regulators are limited to only two settings whereas the adjustability of the advanced regulator will be nearly continuous. The AWP effort, based on natural biological processes and membrane-based secondary treatment, will result in the development of a system capable of recycling wastewater from sources expected in future exploration missions, including hygiene and laundry water. This paper will provide a status of technology development activities and future plans.

  13. No improvement in distress and quality of life following psychosocial cancer rehabilitation. A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2012-01-01

    of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) from baseline to 1 and 6 months' follow-up were measured. Analyses were adjusted for baseline scores of outcome, cancer site, time since diagnosis, gender, age and education. Results: Of 507 patients, 452 were included in the analyses, 404 completed the 1-month and 394 the 6-month......Objective: Rehabilitation programmes are intended to help cancer patients achieve optimal functioning and live independently. We evaluated whether a psychosocial rehabilitation course was effective in relieving cancer patients' distress and improving their well-being. Methods: Patients with breast......, prostate or colorectal cancer diagnosed within 2 years who had finished primary treatment were randomised to usual care or a 6-day residential course of lectures, discussions and peer groups on issues related to treatment and living with cancer. Changes in self-reported distress (POMS-Sf) and quality...

  14. The Adaptive Basis of Psychosocial Acceleration: Comment on beyond Mental Health, Life History Strategies Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2012-01-01

    Four of the articles published in this special section of "Developmental Psychology" build on and refine psychosocial acceleration theory. In this short commentary, we discuss some of the adaptive assumptions of psychosocial acceleration theory that have not received much attention. Psychosocial acceleration theory relies on the behavior of…

  15. Life Support Systems: Wastewater Processing and Water Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Wastewater Processing and Water Management task: Within an integrated life support system, water...

  16. Perceived social support and life satisfaction in persons with somatization disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Life satisfaction and perceived social support been shown to improve the well-being of a person and also affect the outcome of treatment in somatization disorder. The phenomenon of somatization was explored in relation to the perceived social support and life satisfaction. Aim: This study aimed at investigating perceived social support and life satisfaction in people with somatization disorder. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on persons having somatization disorder attending the outpatient unit of LGB Regional Institute of Mental Health, Tezpur, Assam. Satisfaction with life scale and multidimensional scale of perceived social support were used to assess life satisfaction and perceived social support respectively. Results: Women reported more somatic symptoms than men. Family perceived social support was high in the patient in comparison to significant others′ perceived social support and friends′ perceived social support. Perceived social support showed that a significant positive correlation was found with life satisfaction. Conclusion: Poor social support and low life satisfaction might be a stress response with regard to increased distress severity and psychosocial stressors rather than a cultural response to express psychological problems in somatic terms.

  17. Cyrogenic Life Support Technology Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, David R.

    2015-01-01

    KSC has used cryogenic life support (liquid air based) technology successfully for many years to support spaceflight operations. This technology has many benefits unique to cryogenics when compared to traditional compressed gas systems: passive cooling, lighter, longer duration, and lower operating pressure. However, there are also several limiting factors that have prevented the technology from being commercialized. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (NIOSH-OMSHR) has partnered with NASA to develop a complete liquid air based life support solution for emergency mine escape and rescue. The project will develop and demonstrate various prototype devices and incorporate new technological innovations that have to date prevented commercialization.

  18. Dyadic interdependence of psychosocial outcomes among haematological cancer survivors and their support persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Christine; Hall, Alix; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Lynagh, Marita; Campbell, Sharon; Bradstock, Ken; Williamson, Anna; Carey, Mariko; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the dyadic relationships between unmet need, depression, and anxiety in people diagnosed with haematological cancer and their support persons. Adult survivors (18 years+) who had been diagnosed with a haematological cancer were recruited to a cross-sectional mailed survey via five state cancer registries in Australia. Participating survivors invited a support person to also complete a survey. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the relationships among survivor and support person self-reported depression, anxiety, and unmet needs. Of the 4299 eligible haematological cancer survivors contacted by the registries, 1511 (35%) returned a completed survey as did 1004 support persons. There were 787 dyads with complete data. After adjusting for age, gender, rurality, cancer type, and whether the support person was a relative, positive correlations were found between survivor and support person scores for depression (p = 0.0029) and unmet needs (p < 0.001), but not anxiety scores (p = 0.075). Survivor unmet needs were significantly related to support person depression (p = 0.0036). Support person unmet needs were significantly related to a higher depression score for survivors (p = 0.0067). Greater support person unmet needs were significantly related to a higher anxiety score for survivors (p = 0.0083). Survivor unmet needs did not have a significant relationship to support person anxiety (p = 0.78). Unmet needs may mediate the interdependence of psychosocial experiences for survivors and support persons, although a longitudinal study is required to confirm causality. Addressing unmet needs may be a potential target for improving outcomes for both groups.

  19. Gender differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being among Swedish managers and non-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda

    2015-11-01

    To explore differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being between managers and non-managers, female and male managers, and managers in the public and private sectors. Data were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2010, including 602 female managers, 4174 female non-managers, 906 male managers, and 2832 male non-managers. Psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, satisfaction, and well-being were investigated among non-managers and managers and male and female managers, using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, educational level, staff category, and labour market sector. Both female and male managers reported high job demands and interference between work and personal life, but also high influence, high satisfaction with work and life, and low amount of sickness absence more often than non-managers of the same sex. However, female managers reported high quantitative and emotional demands, low influence, and work-personal life interference more frequently than male managers. More psychosocial work stressors were also reported in the public sector, where many women work. Male managers more often reported conflicts with superiors, lack of support, and personal life-work interference. Female managers reported poor well-being to a greater extent than male managers, but were more satisfied with their lives. Lack of motivation due to limited increase in satisfaction and organisational benefits is not likely to hinder women from taking on managerial roles. Managerial women's higher overall demands, lower influence at work, and poorer well-being relative to men's could hinder female managers from reaching higher organisational levels.

  20. Quality of life and psychosocial issues in ventilated patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaub-Wittemer, Dagmar; Steinbüchel, Nicole von; Wasner, Maria; Laier-Groeneveld, Gerhard; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2003-10-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is an efficient palliative measure for symptoms of chronic hypoventilation in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and can also lengthen survival. A subset of ALS patients undergoes tracheostomy ventilation (TV) for life prolongation. We investigated the quality of life (QOL) and psychosocial situation of 52 home ventilated ALS patients and their caregivers. The battery included sociodemographic, generic, and disease-specific variables, as well as the Profile of Mood States and the Munich Quality of Life Dimensions List. Data were compared between the NIV (n=32) and the TV (n=21) groups. Mean ventilation time was 14 months for NIV and 35 months for TV. Eighty-one percent of TV patients had been tracheotomized without informed consent. The data show a good overall QOL for both NIV and TV patients, but a very high burden of care for TV caregivers, 30% of whom rated their own QOL lower than their patient's QOL. Sexuality was an important issue. Thus, any assessment of QOL in a home palliative care situation should include the primary caregivers.

  1. Effectiveness of storytelling interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adult patients with a life-threatening illness: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenau, Mai Nanna; Jackson, Inger Marie

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of storytelling interventions on psychosocial outcomes. In this review, storytelling is where adult patients with a life-threatening illness tell their illness story, facilitated by a healthcare professional.Specifically the review questions are.

  2. Rapid Deterioration of Basic Life Support Skills in Dentists With Basic Life Support Healthcare Provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogami, Kentaro; Taniguchi, Shogo; Ichiyama, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between basic life support skills in dentists who had completed the American Heart Association's Basic Life Support (BLS) Healthcare Provider qualification and time since course completion. Thirty-six dentists who had completed the 2005 BLS Healthcare Provider course participated in the study. We asked participants to perform 2 cycles of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a mannequin and evaluated basic life support skills. Dentists who had previously completed the BLS Healthcare Provider course displayed both prolonged reaction times, and the quality of their basic life support skills deteriorated rapidly. There were no correlations between basic life support skills and time since course completion. Our results suggest that basic life support skills deteriorate rapidly for dentists who have completed the BLS Healthcare Provider. Newer guidelines stressing chest compressions over ventilation may help improve performance over time, allowing better cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dental office emergencies. Moreover, it may be effective to provide a more specialized version of the life support course to train the dentists, stressing issues that may be more likely to occur in the dental office.

  3. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  4. Next Generation Life Support Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Chullen, Cinda; Vega, Leticia; Cox, Marlon R.; Aitchison, Lindsay T.; Lange, Kevin E.; Pensinger, Stuart J.; Meyer, Caitlin E.; Flynn, Michael; Jackson, W. Andrew; hide

    2014-01-01

    Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) is one of over twenty technology development projects sponsored by NASA's Game Changing Development Program. The NGLS Project develops selected life support technologies needed for humans to live and work productively in space, with focus on technologies for future use in spacecraft cabin and space suit applications. Over the last three years, NGLS had five main project elements: Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing bed, High Performance (HP) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove, Alternative Water Processor (AWP) and Series-Bosch Carbon Dioxide Reduction. The RCA swing bed, VOR and HP EVA Glove tasks are directed at key technology needs for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) and pressure garment for an Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). Focus is on prototyping and integrated testing in cooperation with the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced EVA Project. The HP EVA Glove Element, new this fiscal year, includes the generation of requirements and standards to guide development and evaluation of new glove designs. The AWP and Bosch efforts focus on regenerative technologies to further close spacecraft cabin atmosphere revitalization and water recovery loops and to meet technology maturation milestones defined in NASA's Space Technology Roadmaps. These activities are aimed at increasing affordability, reliability, and vehicle self-sufficiency while decreasing mass and mission cost, supporting a capability-driven architecture for extending human presence beyond low-Earth orbit, along a human path toward Mars. This paper provides a status of current technology development activities with a brief overview of future plans.

  5. Burden of Disease: The Psychosocial Impact of Rosacea on a Patient's Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Tu T

    2013-07-01

    Rosacea is a chronic skin disorder that adversely affects patients' quality of life. Current studies focus on the therapies that treat the clinical signs and symptoms of rosacea, but the impact of this disease on patients' emotional health and quality of life is often overlooked. To describe the disease burden of rosacea and the psychosocial implications on patients' quality of life and to review the current understanding of the disease and the available therapies. The facial skin manifestations of rosacea have significant implications on patients' well-being and social and emotional health. The 4 clinical subtypes of this disease include erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular, and patients may present with more than 1 subtype. Patients with rosacea have reported a negative burden of their disease, such as low self-esteem, low self-confidence, and decreased social interactions. Improvement of the clinical symptoms of rosacea improves the patient's emotional well-being and quality of life. Several topical medications and 1 oral medication have been approved for the treatment of rosacea. Although current therapies do not cure the disease and do not treat the facial erythema associated with it, they do treat the papules and pustules associated with this condition. Proper management of the signs and symptoms of rosacea has been shown to improve patients' quality of life. The self-perception of disease severity varies among patients with rosacea, so physicians should carefully consider each patient's concerns when prescribing a treatment regimen. Although no cure exists, effective treatment options aid in the management of signs and symptoms of rosacea. New therapies that treat the broad range of rosacea symptoms are needed.

  6. Economics and ethics of paediatric respiratory extra corporeal life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, M; Doyle, Y; O'Hare, B; Healy, M; Nölke, L

    2013-09-01

    Extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of life support, which facilitates gas exchange outside the body via an oxygenator and a centrifugal pumping system. A paediatric cardiac ECMO programme was established in 2005 at Our Lady's Children's Hospital, Crumlin (OLCHC) and to date 75 patients have received ECMO, the majority being post operative cardiac patients. The outcome data compares favourably with international figures. ECMO has been most successful in the treatment of newborn infants with life threatening respiratory failure from conditions such as meconium aspiration, respiratory distress syndrome and respiratory infections. There is no formal paediatric respiratory ECMO programme at OLCHC, or anywhere else in Ireland. Currently, neonates requiring respiratory ECMO are transferred to centres in Sweden or the UK at an average cost of 133,000 Euros/infant, funded by the Health Service Executive E112 treatment abroad scheme. There is considerable morbidity associated with the transfer of critically ill infants, as well as significant psycho-social impact on families. OLCHC is not funded to provide respiratory ECMO, although the equipment and expertise required are similar to cardiac ECMO and are currently in place. The average cost of an ECMO run at OLCHC is 65,000 Euros. There is now a strong argument for a fully funded single national cardiac and respiratory paediatric ECMO centre, similar to that for adult patients.

  7. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children and Significance of Psychosocial Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Lok

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays increasing complexity of living conditions of children influence every aspect of family atmosphere, parent-child relationships and child rearing practices. These are significant factors in development of childrens personality and sustaining their mental health. Although family environment is considered to be safest environment for children, many parents grind them consciously or unconsciously on the grounds of edification which might cause problems in their physical, spiritual, mental and affective growth leading them to be unhealthy individuals. Therefore, children exposed to violence by their family members should be determined by a multidisciplinary team to make a psychosocial support available. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 156-161

  8. Positive and negative meanings are simultaneously ascribed to colorectal cancer: relationship to quality of life and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Aldo Aguirre; Garland, Sheila N; Martopullo, Celestina; Pelletier, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Experiencing cancer can give rise to existential concerns causing great distress, and consequently drive individuals to make sense of what cancer may mean to their lives. To date, meaning-based research in the context of cancer has largely focused on one possible outcome of this process, the emergence of positive meanings (e.g. post-traumatic growth). However, negative meanings may also be ascribed to cancer, simultaneously with positive meanings. This study focused on the nature of the co-existence of positive and negative meanings in a sample of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer to find out whether negative meaning had an impact on quality of life and psychosocial adjustment above and beyond positive meaning. Participants were given questionnaires measuring meaning-made, quality of life, and psychological distress. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a subgroup from the original sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that negative meaning-made (i.e. helplessness) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life and increased levels of depression/anxiety above and beyond positive meaning-made (i.e. life meaningfulness, acceptance, and perceived benefits). Correlational analyses and interview data revealed that negative meaning-made was mainly associated with physical and functional disability, while positive meaning-made was mostly related to emotional and psychological well-being. Meanings of varying valence may simultaneously be ascribed to cancer as it impacts different life dimensions, and they may independently influence quality of life and psychosocial adjustment. The presence of positive meaning was not enough to prevent the detrimental effects of negative meaning on psychosocial adjustment and quality of life among individuals taking part in this study. Future attention to negative meaning is warranted, as it may be at least as important as positive meaning in predicting psychosocial adjustment and quality of

  9. Psychosocial Functioning and Health-Related Quality of Life Associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Male and Female Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: The VALOR Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shona C; Schnurr, Paula P; Kulish, Andrea L; Holowka, Darren W; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond

    2015-12-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans suffer from high rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the growing number of women in the military, there is a critical need to understand the nature and extent of potential gender differences in PTSD-associated psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF)/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans, which has not been studied to date. We used data from a gender-balanced national patient registry of warzone-deployed OEF/OIF veterans (Project VALOR: Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry) to determine the impact of gender on PTSD-related psychosocial functioning and HRQOL in 1,530 United States Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (50% female) with and without PTSD. Overall psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Inventory of Psychosocial Functioning (IPF) and mental and physical HRQOL with the Veterans RAND 12-item Health Survey (VR-12) Mental and Physical Component Summary scores, respectively. Stratified linear regression models estimated gender-specific associations, controlling for demographic, deployment, and postdeployment factors. Interaction models tested for significant effect moderation by gender. In gender-stratified models, PTSD was strongly associated with higher IPF scores (greater functional impairment), with similar associations by gender. PTSD was also associated with lower Mental Component Summary scores (lower mental HRQOL) in both men and women, with no evidence of effect moderation by gender. PTSD was associated with lower Physical Component Summery scores in women but not men in adjusted models; however, interactions were not significant. PTSD among warzone-deployed OEF/OIF veterans is associated with significant impairments in both overall psychosocial functioning and HRQOL, with associations that are largely similar by gender. Findings support the need for thorough and continuous assessment of functional impairment and HRQOL

  10. A critical review of the use of technology to provide psychosocial support for children and young people with long-term conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldiss, Susie; Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Mobbs, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel M

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology have offered health professionals alternative mediums of providing support to patients with long-term conditions. This critical review evaluated and assessed the benefit of electronic media technologies in supporting children and young people with long-term conditions. Of 664 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Supportive technology tended to increase disease-related knowledge and improve aspects of psychosocial function. Supportive technology did not improve quality of life, reduce health service use or decrease school absences. The poor methodological quality of current evidence and lack of involvement of users in product development contribute to the uncertainty that supportive technology is beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Developing Reliable Life Support for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and

  12. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Pineda, Jose A; Hemphill, J Claude

    2015-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subset of stroke due to bleeding within the parenchyma of the brain. It is potentially lethal, and survival depends on ensuring an adequate airway, reversal of coagulopathy, and proper diagnosis. ICH was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol because intervention within the first critical hour may improve outcome, and it is critical to have site-specific protocols to drive care quickly and efficiently.

  13. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: A case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila Mariam

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics. In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  14. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans: a case of Dar-es Salaam City, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayombo, Edmund J; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Massila, Mariam

    2005-07-29

    Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were involved in taking care of orphans were visited at their "vilinge" (traditional clinics). In total they had 72 orphans, 31 being boys and 41 being girls with age range from 3 years to 19. It was learned that traditional healers, besides providing remedies for illnesses/diseases of orphans, they also provided other basic needs. Further, they even provided psychosocial support allowing children to cope with orphan hood life with ease. Traditional healers are living within communities at the grass roots level; and appear unnoticed hidden forces, which are involved in taking care of orphans. This role of traditional healers in taking care of orphans needs to be recognised and even scaling it up by empowering them both in financial terms and training in basic skills of psychosocial techniques in how to handle orphans, in order to reduce discrimination and stigmatisation in the communities where they live.

  15. [Psychosocial adjustment, psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rosália; Teixeira, Flávio; Silva, Ana Margarida; Vaz, Cláudia; Vieira, Daniela; Proença, Cidália; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to study the psychosocial adjustment (PSA), psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) to determine which demographic and clinical variables negatively affect adjustment and which increase resilience. The study included 74 patients with CHD, 41 male and 33 female, aged between 12 and 26 years (mean 18.76±3.86). Demographic information and a complete clinical history were obtained. The participants were interviewed regarding social support, family environment, self-image and physical limitations. A standardized psychiatric interview was conducted, and self-report questionnaires were administered for assessment of PSA (Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report) and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life - Short Version). A caregiver completed an observational version of the PSA questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist or Adult Behavior Checklist). Female participants showed more feelings of anxiety and depression (U=952.500; p=0.003), thought problems (U=929.500; p=0.005) and aggressive behavior (U=999.000; p=0.000). They also showed a higher rate of psychopathology. Patients with complex forms of CHD reported more thought problems (U=442.000; p=0.027) and internalization (U=429.000; p=0.021). Compared to the Portuguese population as a whole, participants showed better quality of life in the domains of social relationships (t=2.333; p=0.022) and environment (t=3.754; p=0.000). Patients who had undergone surgery had worse quality of life in physical terms (t=-1.989; p=0.050), social relationships (t=-2.012; p=0.048) and general quality of life (U=563.000; p=0.037), compared to those who were not operated. Better social support was associated with better quality of life in physical terms (t=3.287; p=0.002) and social relationships (t=3.669; p=0.000). Better school performance was also associated with better overall quality of life (U=457.000; p=0.046), less withdrawn behavior

  16. Space Life-Support Engineering Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagrave, Richard C. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    This report covers the seventeen months of work performed under an extended one year NASA University Grant awarded to Iowa State University to perform research on topics relating to the development of closed-loop long-term life support systems with the initial principal focus on space water management. In the first phase of the program, investigators from chemistry and chemical engineering with demonstrated expertise in systems analysis, thermodynamics, analytical chemistry and instrumentation, performed research and development in two major related areas; the development of low-cost, accurate, and durable sensors for trace chemical and biological species, and the development of unsteady-state simulation packages for use in the development and optimization of control systems for life support systems. In the second year of the program, emphasis was redirected towards concentrating on the development of dynamic simulation techniques and software and on performing a thermodynamic systems analysis, centered on availability or energy analysis, in an effort to begin optimizing the systems needed for water purification. The third year of the program, the subject of this report, was devoted to the analysis of the water balance for the interaction between humans and the life support system during space flight and exercise, to analysis of the cardiopulmonary systems of humans during space flight, and to analysis of entropy production during operation of the air recovery system during space flight.

  17. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  18. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Tei-Tominaga, Maki

    2018-05-08

    Background : Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods : A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional), presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results : Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions : Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  19. The Association between Quality Improvement Initiatives in Dementia Care and Supportive Psychosocial Work Environments in Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miharu Nakanishi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quality improvement initiatives can help nursing homes strengthen psychosocial work environments. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between supportive psychosocial work environment, and professional and organizational characteristics regarding quality improvement initiatives in dementia care. Methods: A paper questionnaire survey was administered to a convenience sample of 365 professional caregivers in 12 special nursing homes in Japan. Psychosocial work environment was assessed using the Social Capital and Ethical Climate at the Workplace Scale to calculate a score of social capital in the workplace, ethical leadership, and exclusive workplace climate. Variables for quality improvement initiatives included type of home (unit-type or traditional, presence of additional benefit for dementia care, and professionalism in dementia care among caregivers evaluated using the Japanese version of the Sense of Competence in Dementia Care Staff Scale. Results: Elevated professionalism and unit-type home were significantly associated with high social capital, strong ethical leadership, and low exclusive workplace climate. The presence of dementia care benefit was not associated with any subscale of psychosocial work environment. Conclusions: Quality improvement initiatives to foster supportive psychosocial work environment should enhance professionalism in dementia care with unit-based team building of professional caregivers in special nursing homes.

  20. Psychosocial Quality-of-Life, Lifestyle and Adiposity: A Longitudinal Study in Pre-schoolers (Ballabeina Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Susi, Kriemler; Marques-Vidal, Pedro M; Nydegger, Andreas; Puder, Jardena J

    2016-06-01

    In obesity prevention, understanding psychosocial influences in early life is pivotal. Reviews reported contradictory results and a lack of longitudinal studies focusing on underlying lifestyle factors. This study tested whether psychosocial Quality-Of-Life (QOL) was associated with pre-schoolers' lifestyle and adiposity changes over one school year and whether lifestyle moderated the latter. It was hypothesised that QOL might not impact adiposity in everybody but that this might depend on preceding lifestyle. Longitudinal data from 291 Swiss pre-schoolers (initially 3.9-6.3 years) was available. The following measures were used in longitudinal regressions: psychosocial QOL by PedsQL, adiposity (BMI z-score, waist, fat%), diet (food frequency), sedentary time and accelerometer-based activity. Concerning lifestyle, low psychosocial QOL was only related to unfavourable changes in diet (less fruit β = 0.21 and more fat intake β = -0.28) and lower physical activity (β = 0.21). Longitudinal QOL-adiposity relations appeared only after moderation by lifestyle factors (beta-range 0.13-0.67). Low psychosocial QOL was associated with increased adiposity in children with an unhealthy diet intake or high sedentary time. By contrast, low psychosocial QOL was associated with decreasing adiposity in high fruit consumers or more physically active pre-schoolers. Results emphasise the need for testing moderation in the QOL-adiposity relation. An unhealthy diet can be a vulnerability factor and high physical activity a protective factor in QOL-related adiposity. Consequently, QOL and lifestyle should be targeted concurrently in multi-factorial obesity prevention. The environment should be an 'activity encouraging, healthy food zone' that minimises opportunities for stress-induced eating. In addition, appropriate stress coping skills should be acquired.

  1. Psychosocial challenges affecting the quality of life in adults with epilepsy and their carers in Africa: A review of published evidence between 1994 and 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Keikelame, Mpoe J.; Suliaman, Tamzyn; Hendriksz, Marleen; Swartz, Leslie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little attention has been paid to the psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers in Africa in published studies conducted between 1994 and 2014 – yet these psychosocial challenges have been reported to have a major impact on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with the illness and those who care for them. Aim: This review aimed to examine the literature on published studies conducted in Africa between 1994 and 2014 that examined psychosocial ch...

  2. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-01-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency ...

  3. Relevance or Excellence? Setting Research Priorities for Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Humanitarian Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Wietse A; Patel, Vikram; Tomlinson, Mark; Baingana, Florence; Galappatti, Ananda; Silove, Derrick; Sondorp, Egbert; van Ommeren, Mark; Wessells, Michael G; Catherine, Panter-Brick

    2012-01-01

    Background: Humanitarian crises are associated with an increase in mental disorders and psychological distress. Despite the emerging consensus on intervention strategies in humanitarian settings, the field of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) in humanitarian settings lacks a consensus-based research agenda. Methods: From August 2009 to February 2010, we contacted policymakers, academic researchers, and humanitarian aid workers, and conducted nine semistructured focus group discussions with 114 participants in three locations (Peru, Uganda, and Nepal), in both the capitals and remote humanitarian settings. Local stakeholders representing a range of academic expertise (psychiatry, psychology, social work, child protection, and medical anthropology) and organizations (governments, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and UN agencies) were asked to identify priority questions for MHPSS research in humanitarian settings, and to discuss factors that hamper and facilitate research. Results: Thematic analyses of transcripts show that participants broadly agreed on prioritized research themes in the following order: (1) the prevalence and burden of mental health and psychosocial difficulties in humanitarian settings, (2) how MHPSS implementation can be improved, (3) evaluation of specific MHPSS interventions, (4) the determinants of mental health and psychological distress, and (5) improved research methods and processes. Rather than differences in research themes across countries, what emerged was a disconnect between different groups of stakeholders regarding research processes: the perceived lack of translation of research findings into actual policy and programs; misunderstanding of research methods by aid workers; different appreciation of the time needed to conduct research; and disputed universality of research constructs. Conclusions: To advance a collaborative research agenda, actors in this field need to bridge the perceived disconnect between

  4. Psychosocial health and quality of life among children with cardiac diagnoses: agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika J; Lai, Lillian; Goldfield, Gary; Sananes, Renee; Longmuir, Patricia E

    2017-05-01

    Psychosocial health issues are common among children with cardiac diagnoses. Understanding parent and child perceptions is important because parents are the primary health information source. Significant discrepancies have been documented between parent/child quality-of-life data but have not been examined among psychosocial diagnostic instruments. This study examined agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports of psychosocial health and quality of life in the paediatric cardiology population. Children (n=50, 6-14 years) with diagnoses of CHDs (n=38), arrhythmia (n=5), cardiomyopathy (n=4), or infectious disease affecting the heart (n=3) were enrolled, completing one or more outcome measures. Children and their parents completed self-reports and parent proxy reports of quality of life - Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - and psychosocial health - Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (Version 2). Patients also completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Associations (Pearson's correlations, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients) and differences (Student's t-tests) between parent proxy reports and child self-reports were evaluated. Moderate parent-child correlations were found for physical (R=0.33, p=0.03), school (R=0.43, pParent-child reports of externalising behaviour problems, for example aggression, were strongly correlated (R=0.70, pparent-child associations were found for emotional quality of life (R=0.25, p=0.10), internalising problems (R=0.17, p=0.56), personal adjustment/adaptation skills (R=0.23, p=0.42), or anxiety (R=0.07, p=0.72). Our data suggest that clinicians caring for paediatric cardiac patients should assess both parent and child perspectives, particularly in relation to domains such as anxiety and emotional quality of life, which are more difficult to observe.

  5. Attachment Style, Social Support, and Coping as Psychosocial Correlates of Happiness in Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lisa; Catalano, Denise; Sung, Connie; Phillips, Brian; Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the roles of attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. Participants: 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries. Outcome Measures: Happiness…

  6. Termination of life support after major trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, D J; Hansen-Flaschen, J

    2000-06-01

    As the population continues to age, greater numbers and more severely injured elderly patients require care in ICUs. With the attendant increase in the medical complexity of such patients, investigators anticipate that trauma and critical care resources will become increasingly stretched. Because of economic and societal forces, it will become increasingly important for trauma surgeons to appropriately counsel patients and their families regarding the outcome from their injuries and to become comfortable approaching families about withdrawal of support when medical futility is recognized. The authors propose the following guidelines for discussing limitation or termination of life support with patients and their families. Physicians should (1) discuss the patient's wishes regarding life support on admission or early in the hospital course; (2) at the initial discussion, establish who the decision maker will be if the patient is or becomes incapacitated; (3) maintain regular communication and continuity of care; and (4) inevitably, when conflict occurs, involve consultants and a hospital ethics committee for assistance in its resolution.

  7. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  8. NASA's Interests in Bioregenerative Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2018-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies and around the world have had long-standing interest in using plants and biological approaches for regenerative life support. In particular, NASA's Kennedy Space Center, has conducted research in this area for over 30 years. One unique aspect to this testing was NASA's Biomass Production Chamber, which had four vertically stacked growing shelves inside a large, 113 cubic meter chamber. This was perhaps one of the first working examples of a vertical agriculture system in the world. A review of some of this research along with some of the more salient findings will be presented.

  9. Psychosocial Distress of Patients with Psoriasis: Protocol for an Assessment of Care Needs and the Development of a Supportive Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Jördis Maria; Dirmaier, Jörg; Augustin, Matthias; Dwinger, Sarah; Christalle, Eva; Härter, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich

    2018-02-07

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is often associated with a number of somatic and mental comorbidity. Patients with psoriasis show an increased risk of depression and (social) anxiety. The aims of this study are 1) to explore the psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis and to assess their care needs; and 2) to develop a supportive intervention based on the prior results. A multi-stage design with four phases combining quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used and conducted in two centers. 1) A scoping review and focus groups will be used to design a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial distress and care needs of the patients. 2) The questionnaire developed in phase 1 will be used in a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of psychosocial distress and supportive care needs in 400 patients with psoriasis. 3) A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to identify psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for patients with psoriasis and to describe their effectiveness. 4) Based on the results of the phases 2 and 3 a manualized supportive intervention will be developed and the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention will be assessed. Currently, phase 1 of the project has been completed and the recruitment for phase 2 has been started. The systematic review and meta-analysis of phase 3 are conducted simultaneously to phase 2 and results are expected soon. Phase 4 has not been started yet. The expected results of this study will show the extent of psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis in Germany and supplement previous research with findings about the supportive care needs of this patient group. Moreover, the developed intervention will help to address the psychosocial support needs of patients with psoriasis. Research shows that psychosocial support is strongly needed. ©Jördis Maria Zill, Jörg Dirmaier, Matthias Augustin, Sarah Dwinger, Eva Christalle, Martin Härter, Ulrich Mrowietz

  10. Influence of work-related psychosocial factors on the prevalence of chronic pain and quality of life in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Imano, Hironori; Kitamura, Akihiko; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2016-04-25

    Working is a common cause of chronic pain for workers. However, most of them need to continue working despite the pain in order to make a living unless they get a sick leave or retirement. We hypothesised that the therapeutic effect of vocational rehabilitation may depend on psychosocial factors related to the workplace. To test this hypothesis, we examined the association of work-related psychosocial factors with the prevalence of chronic pain or health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among workers with chronic pain. We examined 1764 workers aged 20-59 years in the pain-associated cross-sectional epidemiological survey in Japan. The outcomes were (1) chronic pain prevalence among all workers and (2) low Euro QoL (EQ-5D job satisfaction. Workplace social support and job satisfaction were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted ORs were calculated using a logistic regression model including age, sex, smoking, exercise, sleep time, work hours, body mass index, personal consumption expenditure, intensity of pain and the presence of severe depressive symptoms. Chronic pain prevalence was higher among males reporting job dissatisfaction compared with those reporting job satisfaction. No difference was observed among women. Chronic pain prevalence did not differ between workers of either sex reporting poor workplace social support compared with those reporting sufficient support. Among workers with chronic pain, low HRQoL was more frequent in those reporting job dissatisfaction. Similarly, low HRQoL was more frequent in patients with chronic pain reporting poor social support from supervisors or co-workers compared with patients reporting sufficient support. Work-related psychosocial factors are critical for HRQoL in patients with chronic pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Association between social contact frequency and negative symptoms, psychosocial functioning and quality of life in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Karin; Millier, Aurelie; Amri, Ikbal; Aballéa, Samuel; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-12-30

    The lack of social contacts may be an important element in the presumed vicious circle aggravating, or at least stabilising negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A European 2-year cohort study collected negative symptom scores, psychosocial functioning scores, objective social contact frequency scores and quality of life scores every 6 months. Bivariate analyses, correlation analyses, multivariate regressions and random effects regressions were conducted to describe relations between social contact and outcomes of interest and to gain a better understanding of this relation over time. Using data from 1208 patients with schizophrenia, a link between social contact frequency and negative symptom scores, functioning and quality of life at baseline was established. Regression models confirmed the significant association between social contact and negative symptoms as well as psychosocial functioning. This study aimed at demonstrating the importance of social contact for deficient behavioural aspects of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Group Life Design with Teachers in the Context of Poverty Related Psychosocial Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlhare, Rubina; Wood, Lesley; Meyer, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Working in challenging contexts can impact negatively on a teacher's sense of purpose and efficacy. This article explores the potential of group Life Design (LD), a narrative constructivist career counselling process, for supporting ten South African school teachers working at an under-resourced school with understanding their career aspirations…

  13. The role of psychosocial and physical work-related factors on the health-related quality of life of Iranian industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokarami, Hamidreza; Stallones, Lorann; Nazifi, Morteza; Taghavi, Sayed Mohammad

    2016-10-17

    The role of psychosocial and physical work factors in predicting health related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been investigated among Iranian industrial workers. The present study is designed to assess these relationships among Iranian workers from steel and cosmetic factories. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 280 workers from two factories. Psychosocial and physical work factors and HRQOL were measured by the Persian translations of the following questionnaires: Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief (WHOQOL-Brief). An instrument was developed to assess socio-demographic, health, and other work-related factors. The data were analyzed using independent t-tests, Pearson product moment correlation and hierarchical multiple regression. Results revealed that the respondents generally had poor HRQOLs especially in the environmental domain. The steel factory workers who were exposed to higher levels of occupational risk factors suffered from poorer HRQOL compared to the cosmetic factory workers. The results of hierarchical regression for all participants revealed that social support, sleep quality, work schedule, smoking and exercise were significant predictors of all domains of HRQOL. To improve the worker's HRQOL, intervention programs should focus on promoting social support, sleep quality, exercise and smoking habits. Moreover, reducing hazardous work environments should be considered an important intervention to promote HRQOL.

  14. (Health-related) quality of life and psychosocial factors in adolescents with chronic disease: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Teresa; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Simões, Celeste; Leal, Isabel; do Céu Machado, Maria

    2017-11-23

    Background Research on living with a chronic disease (CD) in adolescence is increasing. However, studies on the relevance of psychosocial factors are still needed. The present review, focuses on the impact of living with a CD in adolescence on on quality of life (QoL), health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychosocial factors. Methods A literature review of articles identified through PubMed, PsycINFO and PsycARTICLES (these last two ones comprise the Ebsco Host platform) and original peer-reviewed research papers, published between 2010 and 2015, with no restrictions regarding the format/source of interventions, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or types of comparisons were included. Results Eighteen papers met the inclusion criteria and contradictory results were found: the majority showed a significantly higher risk of impairment on QoL/HRQoL and psychosocial factors, whereas others reported a significantly lower risk of impairment (highlighting possible protective factors), or no significant differences. Heterogeneity in the assessment procedures and substantial difficulties in considering adolescence as a single and independent age group, were also noted. Conclusion The higher risk of impairment and the heterogeneity observed between cohorts, reinforce the need to work towards consensual procedures, which allow for more accurate comparisons among studies. Additionally, it conveys the challenge to find more effective interventions. Furthermore, it is highly suggested to routinely assess HRQoL/psychosocial factors within an individualized framework, to considerer adolescents as a single/independent group, to emphasize potential protective factors, and, to increase youth's participation in their own adaptation process and in health promotion in general. These are possible future directions that could enable multidisciplinary responses to improve HRQoL and psychosocial care in adolescents with a CD.

  15. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) Program: Feasibility and Preliminary Support for a Psychosocial Intervention for Teenage Drivers with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Hulme, Kevin; Linke, Stuart; Nelson-Tuttle, Chris; Pariseau, Meaghan; Gangloff, Brian; Lewis, Kemper; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Gormley, Matthew; Gera, Shradha; Buck, Melina

    2011-01-01

    Teenage drivers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at considerable risk for negative driving outcomes, including traffic citations, accidents, and injuries. Presently, no efficacious psychosocial interventions exist for teenage drivers with ADHD. The Supporting a Teen's Effective Entry to the Roadway (STEER) program is a…

  16. Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellussi, L; Mandalà, M; Passàli, F M; Passàli, G C; Lauriello, M; Passali, D

    2005-12-01

    Purpose of this study was to correlate results from a survey on otitis media and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. This survey investigated prevalence of otitis media (OM) in our territory, influence on development of language and personality and social costs. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory is a suitable test to differentiate state anxiety caused by a specific event [in this case, otitis media with effusion (OME)] from a trait anxiety (anxious personality) in parents and caregivers. The otitis media study was conducted, retrospectively, in two primary public schools in Colle Val D'Elsa (Siena) on 252 children (6-11 years old). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test had been administered to the parents or caregivers of 20 paediatric outpatients (4-12 years, mean 6.8) at the ENT Department of Siena University. The results of the OM survey showed a correlation between OM and difficulties in speech and reading, delayed answering and limited vocabulary. All these problems improved as children grew up. On the other hand, psycho-social development appeared to be more problematic even in the 4th and 5th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or caregivers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly concerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or caregivers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an anxious personality. These findings could be helpful in understanding the real severity of symptoms. The two proposed tests could provide complementary data to evaluate children with OME: the OM survey can be used as a screening test to detect children with non-symptomatic OME, to establish whether delayed language development may be associated with OME, to predict prognosis and children's quality of life as well as social costs of OME; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test can be used to reveal a state or a trait

  17. Extracorporeal life support in pediatric cardiac patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Di NARDO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Life Support (ECLS is a valuable tool in the management of neonates and older children with severe cardiac or respiratory failure. In this review, we focus on ECLS when used for neonatal and pediatric cardiac disease. Strict selection of patients and timely deployment are necessary to optimize outcomes. Although every attempt should be made to deploy ECLS urgently rather than emergently, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR is being increasingly used and reasonable survival rates have been achieved after initiation of ECLS during active compressions of the chest following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Contraindications to ECLS are falling over time, although lethal chromosomal abnormalities, severe irreversible brain injury, and extremely low gestational age and weight (<32 weeks gestation or <1.5 kg remain firm contraindications.

  18. Human life support for advanced space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzkopf, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    The requirements for a human life support system for long-duration space missions are reviewed. The system design of a controlled ecological life support system is briefly described, followed by a more detailed account of the study of the conceptual design of a Lunar Based CELSS. The latter is to provide a safe, reliable, recycling lunar base life support system based on a hybrid physicochemical/biological representative technology. The most important conclusion reached by this study is that implementation of a completely recycling CELSS approach for a lunar base is not only feasible, but eminently practical. On a cumulative launch mass basis, a 4-person Lunar Base CELSS would pay for itself in approximately 2.6 years relative to a physicochemical air/water recycling system with resupply of food from the Earth. For crew sizes of 30 and 100, the breakeven point would come even sooner, after 2.1 and 1.7 years, respectively, due to the increased mass savings that can be realized with the larger plant growth units. Two other conclusions are particularly important with regard to the orientation of future research and technology development. First, the mass estimates of the Lunar Base CELSS indicate that a primary design objective in implementing this kind of system must be to minimized the mass and power requirement of the food production plant growth units, which greatly surpass those of the other air and water recycling systems. Consequently, substantial research must be directed at identifying ways to produce food more efficiently. On the other hand, detailed studies to identify the best technology options for the other subsystems should not be expected to produce dramatic reductions in either mass or power requirement of a Lunar Base CELSS. The most crucial evaluation criterion must, therefore, be the capability for functional integration of these technologies into the ultimate design of the system. Secondly, this study illustrates that existing or near

  19. Life support approaches for Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, A. E.; Ewert, M. K.; Hanford, A. J.

    Life support approaches for Mars missions are evaluated using an equivalent system mass (ESM) approach, in which all significant costs are converted into mass units. The best approach, as defined by the lowest mission ESM, depends on several mission parameters, notably duration, environment and consequent infrastructure costs, and crew size, as well as the characteristics of the technologies which are available. Generally, for the missions under consideration, physicochemical regeneration is most cost effective. However, bioregeneration is likely to be of use for producing salad crops for any mission, for producing staple crops for medium duration missions, and for most food, air and water regeneration for long missions (durations of a decade). Potential applications of in situ resource utilization need to be considered further.

  20. Childhood abuse and late-life depression: Mediating effects of psychosocial factors for early- and late-onset depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielaard, Ilse; Hoyer, Mathijs; Rhebergen, Didi; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C

    2018-03-01

    Childhood abuse makes people vulnerable to developing depression, even in late life. Psychosocial factors that are common in late life, such as loneliness or lack of a partner, may explain this association. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between childhood abuse and depression in older adults can be explained by psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (aged 60-93), including 132 without lifetime depression, 242 persons with an early-onset depression (Childhood abuse (yes/no) and a frequency-based childhood abuse index were included. Multinomial regression and multivariable mediation analyses were used to examine the association between childhood abuse and the onset of depression, and the influence of loneliness, social network, and partner status. Multinomial regression analyses showed a significant association between childhood abuse and the childhood abuse index with early- and late-onset depression. Multivariable mediation analyses showed that the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression was partly mediated by social network size and loneliness. This was particularly present for emotional neglect and psychological abuse, but not for physical and sexual abuse. No psychosocial mediators were found for the association between childhood abuse and late-onset depression. A smaller social network and feelings of loneliness mediate the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression in older adults. Our findings show the importance of detecting childhood abuse as well as the age at depression onset and mapping of relevant psychosocial factors in the treatment of late-life depression. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Study protocol: translating and implementing psychosocial interventions in aged home care the lifestyle engagement activity program (LEAP) for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process

  2. Methodological Challenges in Studies Comparing Prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Timmy; Jones, Courtney M C; Shah, Manish N; Cushman, Jeremy T; Jusko, Todd A

    2017-08-01

    Determining the most appropriate level of care for patients in the prehospital setting during medical emergencies is essential. A large body of literature suggests that, compared with Basic Life Support (BLS) care, Advanced Life Support (ALS) care is not associated with increased patient survival or decreased mortality. The purpose of this special report is to synthesize the literature to identify common study design and analytic challenges in research studies that examine the effect of ALS, compared to BLS, on patient outcomes. The challenges discussed in this report include: (1) choice of outcome measure; (2) logistic regression modeling of common outcomes; (3) baseline differences between study groups (confounding); (4) inappropriate statistical adjustment; and (5) inclusion of patients who are no longer at risk for the outcome. These challenges may affect the results of studies, and thus, conclusions of studies regarding the effect of level of prehospital care on patient outcomes should require cautious interpretation. Specific alternatives for avoiding these challenges are presented. Li T , Jones CMC , Shah MN , Cushman JT , Jusko TA . Methodological challenges in studies comparing prehospital Advanced Life Support with Basic Life Support. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):444-450.

  3. Obesity and body mass index (BMI) in relation to life-style and psycho-social aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Tirabassi, G; Faloia, E; Boscaro, M; Polito, A; Ciarapica, D; Zaccaria, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in middle-aged adults and the elderly. This multifactorial phenomenon may have different causes, such as incorrect nutritional and dietary habits, psycho-social aspects and sedentary life-style. It is becoming a serious problem, due also to the world's ageing society. The aim of this study is to provide preliminary results on BMI, life-style and psycho-social aspects in a sample of Italian subjects, which also assesses the relationship between obesity and psychological health. We hypothesize that obesity is related to many factors, such as life-style, behavioral, socio-economic, and psychological aspects. The sample was made up of 107 obese and non-obese subjects, aged 50-74. All participants were given a multidimensional assessment, which included anthropometric, psycho-social and life-style evaluation. As per the protocol a structured life-style questionnaire designed to gather information on anthropometric measurements, socio-economic factors, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and food intake. The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) for the evaluation of a broad range of psychological problems and symptoms of psychopathology; the Binge Eating Scale (BES) for the assessment of disorders in the eating habits were administered. BMI was associated with age and education, socio-economic status and smoking in both genders. Psychological factors for obesity differed between overweight men and women. In conclusion, obesity and non-obesity appear as two different entities in some aspects. The increase in the prevalence of obesity in elderly subjects could lead to disability and age-related diseases. For this reason, greater insight of the factors related to the development of obesity is required to develop treatment strategies weight-loss prevention programs.

  4. Association between severity of illicit drug dependence and quality of life in a psychosocial care center in BRAZIL: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campêlo, Selva Rios; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Dias, Danilo Rocha; Caixeta, Camila Cardoso; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues; Porto, Celmo Celeno

    2017-11-17

    Quality of life must be one of the main purposes for the treatment of drug users, requiring a better understanding of the association between the quality of life and the severity of dependency. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between severity of substance use in various areas of human functioning and quality of life of illicit drug users in a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. This cross-sectional study included 60 participants - illicit drug users - treated at a psychosocial care center for alcohol and drugs. Participants were evaluated with the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-Bref) instrument to measure the quality of life, the 6th version of Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6) to assess the severity of dependence in several areas and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to identify the presence of psychiatric disorders. Pearson and Spearman correlation tests and linear regression were applied to verify the association between the severity of dependence and the quality of life, and Student's t-test to compare the mean quality of life between individuals with and without psychiatric comorbidities. Negative correlation was found between the severity of dependence on the drugs dimensions: alcohol, psychiatric, medical, legal, family/social support and family/social problems of ASI-6, and the quality of life domains measured by the WHOQOL-Bref. The evidence was strongest in the psychiatric and medical dimensions. There was a significant difference in the quality of life mean among participants presenting or not presenting psychiatric comorbidities, for the psychological domain in anxiety disorders, and for the physical and psychological domains in mood disorders. The quality of life decreased as the severity of dependence increased, with different results in the various areas of the participant's life. This result emphasizes the need for training the professional team which works in the

  5. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    HONDA, Ayumi; DATE, Yutaka; ABE, Yasuyo; AOYAGI, Kiyoshi; HONDA, Sumihisa

    2015-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20...

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life of Latin-American Immigrants and Spanish-Born Attended in Spanish Primary Health Care: Socio-Demographic and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero-Fort, Miguel Ángel; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma; Bragado-Alvárez, Carmen; Abánades-Herranz, Juan Carlos; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Background This study compares the health-related quality of life of Spanish-born and Latin American-born individuals settled in Spain. Socio-demographic and psychosocial factors associated with health-related quality of life are analyzed. Methods A cross-sectional Primary Health Care multi center-based study of Latin American-born (n = 691) and Spanish-born (n = 903) outpatients from 15 Primary Health Care Centers (Madrid, Spain). The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to assess health-related quality of life. Socio-demographic, psychosocial, and specific migration data were also collected. Results Compared to Spanish-born participants, Latin American-born participants reported higher health-related quality of life in the physical functioning and vitality dimensions. Across the entire sample, Latin American-born participants, younger participants, men and those with high social support reported significantly higher levels of physical health. Men with higher social support and a higher income reported significantly higher mental health. When stratified by gender, data show that for men physical health was only positively associated with younger age. For women, in addition to age, social support and marital status were significantly related. Both men and women with higher social support and income had significantly better mental health. Finally, for immigrants, the physical and mental health components of health-related quality of life were not found to be significantly associated with any of the pre-migration factors or conditions of migration. Only the variable “exposure to political violence” was significantly associated with the mental health component (p = 0.014). Conclusions The key factors to understanding HRQoL among Latin American-born immigrants settled in Spain are age, sex and social support. Therefore, strategies to maintain optimal health outcomes in these immigrant communities should include public policies on

  7. [Knowledge about basic life support in European students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, József; Pandúr, Attila; Pék, Emese; Deutsch, Krisztina; Bánfai, Bálint; Radnai, Balázs; Betlehem, József

    2014-05-25

    Better knowledge and skills of basic life support can save millions of lives each year in Europe. The aim of this study was to measure the knowledge about basic life support in European students. From 13 European countries 1527 volunteer participated in the survey. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic questions and knowledge regarding basic life support. The maximum possible score was 18. Those participants who had basic life support training earned 11.91 points, while those who had not participated in lifesaving education had 9.6 points (pbasic life support between students from different European countries. Western European youth, and those who were trained had better performance.

  8. Creation of closed life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I.

    The 40-year-long experience in devising ecological systems with a significantly closed material cycling (CES), which are intended for human life support outside the Earth's biosphere, allows us to state that this problem has been largely solved technically. To test the terrestrial prototypes of these systems: Bios in Krasnoyarsk, the Terrestrial Ecological System (TES) in Moscow, and Bioplex in Houston, crews of humans stayed inside them over long periods of time. In Bios-3 humans could be fully (100%) provided with regenerated air and water and with a vegetable part (80%) of their diet. One human requires 4.5 kW of light energy, which is equal to the light energy incident on an 8-m2 surface perpendicular to solar rays in the Earth's orbit. The regeneration of air and water can be alternatively performed by a 17-L2 microalgal cultivator with a light-receiving surface of 8 m at 2 kW of light energy or by a conveyer culture of agricultural plants. To regenerate the vegetable part of2 the diet to the full, the area must increase to 31.5 m per person. Similar values have been obtained in the TES and in Bioplex. It can be concluded that the system is ready to be implemented in the engineering-technical designs of specific versions: for orbital flights, for missions to Mars and other planets, and for stations on the Moon and Mars. To improve the CES further, a number of new key problems should be resolved. The first of them are: to robotize the technological processes and to establish an optimized system of the internal control of the CES by the crew working in it; to develop a hybrid physicochemical-biological technology for returning the dead-end products of biosynthesis into the system's cycling; to solve the fundamental problem of regenerating the human ration completely inside the CES by the autotrophic chemo - and photosynthesis. Once this problem is solved, the energy requirements for life support in space will be significantly reduced. This will also considerably

  9. Dyads affected by chronic heart failure: a randomized study evaluating effects of education and psychosocial support to patients with heart failure and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Susanna; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Hjelm, Carina; Strömberg, Anna

    2012-05-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) causes great suffering for both patients and their partners. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an integrated dyad care program with education and psychosocial support to patients with CHF and their partners during a postdischarge period after acute deterioration of CHF. One hundred fifty-five patient-caregiver dyads were randomized to usual care (n = 71) or a psychoeducation intervention (n = 84) delivered in 3 modules through nurse-led face-to-face counseling, computer-based education, and other written teaching materials to assist dyads to develop problem-solving skills. Follow-up assessments were completed after 3 and 12 months to assess perceived control, perceived health, depressive symptoms, self-care, and caregiver burden. Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of dyads in the experimental and control groups were similar at baseline. Significant differences were observed in patients' perceived control over the cardiac condition after 3 (P effect was seen for the caregivers.No group differences were observed over time in dyads' health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms, patients' self-care behaviors, and partners' experiences of caregiver burden. Integrated dyad care focusing on skill-building and problem-solving education and psychosocial support was effective in initially enhancing patients' levels of perceived control. More frequent professional contact and ongoing skills training may be necessary to have a higher impact on dyad outcomes and warrants further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping the current situation in life and life satisfaction in specific areas of life Center for psychosocial rehabilitation clients, company MANA, ops Olomouc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Lemrová

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with mapping the quality of life of individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia. Surveying the quality of life of schizophrenics may be complicated due to the symptomatology - e.g. negative results during the higher levels of anxiety. Apart from health: age, gender, occupation, family, social contacts, finances, opportunities for rehabilitation and psychoeducational programmes are all among the important factors of the individual quality of life. Our research group comprised 16 clients (male n=12, female n=4 of the Psychosocial Rehabilitation Centre, MANA o.p.s. Olomouc. Average age of our respondents was 38.2. Except for 4 male respondents, all the rest were unemployed at the time of the survey, 3 respondents were living alone, others with parents or a partner. Average age of the male respondents at the time of their first hospitalization was 22, of the female respondents 18.5. The Czech version of the Quality of life questionnaire (Dotazník životní spokojenosti - DŽS was the basis of our primary method. In view of the sociodemographic data of our respondents, we have surveyed the level of the individual quality of life in the areas of health, financial situation, oneself and friends, acquaintances and relatives. A supplementary method was based on the SEIQoL (Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life, a questionnaire for monitoring the importance of happiness with individually chosen life themes (QL and an overall level of quality of life (VAS. The goal was to ascertain the level of happiness in the aforementioned areas of life DŽS and the correlation with age, importance and quality of life themes and their correlation with current overall quality of life. The lowest level of happiness (DŽS was measured in the overall level of the current quality of life (VAS in connection to gender (male=60.7%, female=43.8%, but in view of the low number of female respondents (n=4 we consider this result an

  11. The secret life of objects. A psycho-social analysis of consumption's imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Almagro González

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Advertising in general, and television advertising in particular, is an important communication channel through which values, lifestyles, and even the socially-shared "imaginary" are transmitted. A psycho-social analysis of the imaginary contents in television advertisements is specially called-for, given that contemporary culture, strongly marked by the use of the images, constitutes what some theoreticians call "the audio-visual age". In this article we analyse advertisements from a psycho-social perspective, to identify the way in which advertisements articulate, through images, the social imaginary.

  12. The secret life of objects. A psycho-social analysis of consumption's imaginary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagro González, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising in general, and television advertising in particular, is an important communication channel through which values, lifestyles, and even the socially-shared "imaginary" are transmitted. A psycho-social analysis of the imaginary contents in television advertisements is specially called-for, given that contemporary culture, strongly marked by the use of the images, constitutes what some theoreticians call "the audio-visual age". In this article we analyse advertisements from a psycho-social perspective, to identify the way in which advertisements articulate, through images, the social imaginary.

  13. Enhanced Psychosocial Support for Caregiver Burden for Patients With Chronic Kidney Failure Choosing Not to Be Treated by Dialysis or Transplantation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Ying; Yip, Terence; Yap, Desmond Y H; Sham, Mau Kwong; Wong, Yim Chi; Lau, Vikki Wai Kee; Li, Cho Wing; Cheng, Benjamin Hon Wai; Lo, Wai Kei; Chan, Tak Mao

    2016-04-01

    Family caregivers of patients with chronic kidney failure have increased burden, as reflected by their high frequency of physical and mental disturbances. The impact of enhanced psychosocial support to caregivers of patients with chronic kidney failure remains unclear. Open-label randomized controlled trial. All new patients referred to the renal palliative clinic were screened. Caregivers of patients who met the following criteria were recruited: (1) chronic kidney failure as defined by creatinine clearance renal care (control). Enhanced psychosocial support included counseling and psychosocial interventions by an on-site palliative care nurse and designated social worker. Each caregiver was followed up at 2- to 4-week intervals for up to 6 months. Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in caregivers and McGill Quality of Life scores in patients of both groups were compared. 29 pairs of family caregivers/patients with chronic kidney failure were randomly assigned (intervention, n=14; control, n=15). Mean ages of patients and caregivers were 81.6 ± 5.1 and 59.8 ± 14.2 (SD) years, respectively. The intervention group showed significantly lower ZBI scores than the control group at 1 and 3 months (22.0 ± 5.3 vs 31.6 ± 9.5 and 21.3 ± 6.6 vs 33.4 ± 7.2; P=0.006 and P=0.009, respectively). HADS anxiety scores of caregivers who received the intervention were significantly lower than those of controls at 1 and 3 months (7.1 ± 3.2 vs 10.1 ± 2.2 and 6.5 ± 4.5 vs 11.0 ± 3.1; P=0.01 and P=0.03, respectively). Insignificant reductions in ZBI and HADS scores were found at 6 months. 19 patients died (intervention, n=10; control, n=9) during the study period. The study is limited by a relatively small sample size and short duration. Enhanced psychosocial support program in patients with chronic kidney failure and caregivers resulted in an early significant reduction in caregiver burden and anxiety. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney

  14. Life-sustaining support: ethical, cultural, and spiritual conflicts. Part II: Staff support--a neonatal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, Amy; Schloemann, Johanna

    2002-06-01

    As medical knowledge and technology continue to increase, so will the ability to provide life-sustaining support to patients who otherwise would not survive. Along with these advances comes the responsibility of not only meeting the clinical needs of our patients, but also of understanding how the family's culture and spirituality will affect their perception of the situation and their decision-making process. As the U.S. continues to become a more culturally diverse society, health care professionals will need to make changes in their practice to meet the psychosocial needs of their patients and respect their treatment decisions. Part I of this series (April 2002) discussed how the cultural and spiritual belief systems of Baby S's family affected their decision-making processes and also their ability to cope with the impending death of their infant. The development of a culturally competent health care team can help bridge the gap between culturally diverse individuals. This article addresses the following questions: 1. What legal alternatives are available to the staff to protect the patient from suffering associated with the continuation of futile life-sustaining support? 2. What conflicts might the staff experience as a result of the continuation of futile life-sustaining support? 3. What efforts can be made to support members of the staff? 4. What can be done to prepare others in the health care professions to deal more effectively with ethical/cultural issues?

  15. Socio-Demographic Factors, Social Support, Quality of Life, and HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn J; Okundaye, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    The increase in the access to biomedical interventions for people living with HIV/AIDS in the developing world has not been adequately matched with the requisite psychosocial treatments to help improve the effectiveness of biomedical interventions. Therefore, in this study the author seeks to determine whether socio-demographic characteristics and social support are associated with quality of life in individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members was obtained via cross-sectional design survey. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS), and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that there was a positive association between overall social support and overall quality of life (r = .51). It also showed that being younger, male, attending support group meetings for over a year, and having ≥ 13 years of schooling related to higher quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world are discussed.

  16. Cognitive and affective determinants of decisions to attend a group psychosocial support program for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Linda D; Booth, Roger J; Schlatter, Melanie; Ziginskas, Danute; Harman, John E; Benson, Stephen R C

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study assesses the roles of illness beliefs, emotion regulation factors, and sociodemographic characteristics in decisions to participate in a group support program for women recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Women recruited during clinic visits 2 to 4 weeks after diagnosis completed measures of affective and cognitive factors identified by Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of illness self-regulation: cancer-related distress, avoidance tendencies, beliefs that the breast cancer was caused by stress and altered immunity, and personal control beliefs. Measures of general anxiety and depression, social support, and demographic characteristics were also completed; prognostic status information was obtained from medical records. All women were encouraged to participate in a free, 12-week program offering coping skills training and group support. Participation was recorded by program staff. Of the 110 women, 54 (49%) participated in the group support program and 56 (51%) did not. Logistic regression analyses revealed that participation was predicted by stronger beliefs that the cancer was caused by altered immunity, higher cancer-related distress, lower avoidance tendencies, and younger age. Participation in the group psychosocial support program appeared to be guided by cognitive and affective factors identified by the Common-Sense Model. Psychosocial support programs and informational materials promoting their use may attract more participants if they are tailored to focus on resolving cancer-related distress rather than on general anxiety or depression, appeal to those with high avoidance tendencies, address the role of immune function in cancer progression, and meet the needs of older participants.

  17. Antecedent and Concurrent Psychosocial Skills That Support High Levels of Achievement within Talent Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula; Subotnik, Rena F.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation and emotional regulation are important for the sustained focused study and practice required for high levels of achievement and creative productivity in adulthood. Using the talent development model proposed by the authors as a framework, the authors discuss several important psychosocial skills based on the psychological research…

  18. Psychosocial stress based on public speech in humans: is there a real life/laboratory setting cross-adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezova, D; Hlavacova, N; Dicko, I; Solarikova, P; Brezina, I

    2016-07-01

    Repeated or chronic exposure to stressors is associated with changes in neuroendocrine responses depending on the type, intensity, number and frequency of stress exposure as well as previous stress experience. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that salivary cortisol and cardiovascular responses to real-life psychosocial stressors related to public performance can cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress induced by public speech under laboratory setting. The sample consisted of 22 healthy male volunteers, which were either actors, more precisely students of dramatic arts or non-actors, students of other fields. The stress task consisted of 15 min anticipatory preparation phase and 15 min of public speech on an emotionally charged topic. The actors, who were accustomed to public speaking, responded with a rise in salivary cortisol as well as blood pressure to laboratory public speech. The values of salivary cortisol, systolic blood pressure and state anxiety were lower in actors compared to non-actors. Unlike non-actors, subjects with experience in public speaking did not show stress-induced rise in the heart rate. Evaluation of personality traits revealed that actors scored significantly higher in extraversion than the subjects in the non-actor group. In conclusion, neuroendocrine responses to real-life stressors in actors can partially cross-adapt with responses to psychosocial stress under laboratory setting. The most evident adaptation was at the level of heart rate responses. The public speech tasks may be of help in evaluation of the ability to cope with stress in real life in artists by simple laboratory testing.

  19. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Late-Life Cognitive and Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses…

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  1. Nonlinear Dynamic Models in Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    To facilitate analysis, ALS systems are often assumed to be linear and time invariant, but they usually have important nonlinear and dynamic aspects. Nonlinear dynamic behavior can be caused by time varying inputs, changes in system parameters, nonlinear system functions, closed loop feedback delays, and limits on buffer storage or processing rates. Dynamic models are usually cataloged according to the number of state variables. The simplest dynamic models are linear, using only integration, multiplication, addition, and subtraction of the state variables. A general linear model with only two state variables can produce all the possible dynamic behavior of linear systems with many state variables, including stability, oscillation, or exponential growth and decay. Linear systems can be described using mathematical analysis. Nonlinear dynamics can be fully explored only by computer simulations of models. Unexpected behavior is produced by simple models having only two or three state variables with simple mathematical relations between them. Closed loop feedback delays are a major source of system instability. Exceeding limits on buffer storage or processing rates forces systems to change operating mode. Different equilibrium points may be reached from different initial conditions. Instead of one stable equilibrium point, the system may have several equilibrium points, oscillate at different frequencies, or even behave chaotically, depending on the system inputs and initial conditions. The frequency spectrum of an output oscillation may contain harmonics and the sums and differences of input frequencies, but it may also contain a stable limit cycle oscillation not related to input frequencies. We must investigate the nonlinear dynamic aspects of advanced life support systems to understand and counter undesirable behavior.

  2. Sanitation-related psychosocial stress: A grounded theory study of women across the life-course in Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Hulland, Kristyna R S; Caruso, Bethany A; Swain, Rojalin; Freeman, Matthew C; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2015-08-01

    While sanitation interventions have focused primarily on child health, women's unique health risks from inadequate sanitation are gaining recognition as a priority issue. This study examines the range of sanitation-related psychosocial stressors during routine sanitation practices in Odisha, India. Between August 2013 and March 2014, we conducted in-depth interviews with 56 women in four life stages: adolescent, newly married, pregnant and established adult women in three settings: urban slums, rural villages and indigenous villages. Using a grounded theory approach, the study team transcribed, translated, coded and discussed interviews using detailed analytic memos to identify and characterize stressors at each life stage and study site. We found that sanitation practices encompassed more than defecation and urination and included carrying water, washing, bathing, menstrual management, and changing clothes. During the course of these activities, women encountered three broad types of stressors-environmental, social, and sexual-the intensity of which were modified by the woman's life stage, living environment, and access to sanitation facilities. Environmental barriers, social factors and fears of sexual violence all contributed to sanitation-related psychosocial stress. Though women responded with small changes to sanitation practices, they were unable to significantly modify their circumstances, notably by achieving adequate privacy for sanitation-related behaviors. A better understanding of the range of causes of stress and adaptive behaviors is needed to inform context-specific, gender-sensitive sanitation interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual quality of life, body image distress, and psychosocial outcomes in colorectal cancer: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Handorf, Elizabeth; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A

    2018-04-20

    The objectives were to assess changes in sexual QOL and body image distress over time and to examine longitudinal associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes in a sample of colorectal cancer patients. Participants (N = 141) completed a mail-based survey assessing sexual QOL [sexual distress (ISS), treatment impact on sexual function (SFQ), sexual function (FSFI; IIEF)], body image distress (BIS), and psychosocial outcomes [relationship quality (DAS-4), depressive symptoms (CESD-SF), and health-related QOL (HRQOL; FACT-C)]; 88 patients completed 6-month follow-up surveys (62%). Gender and cancer subgroups (male vs. female; rectal vs. colon cancer) were compared and longitudinal models examined associations between sexual QOL and body image variables with psychosocial outcomes over time and by subgroup. Impairments in sexual QOL and body image distress were common. Women and patients with rectal cancer reported worse body image distress compared to men (p = .005) and those with colon cancer (p = .03), respectively; compared to patients with colon cancer, those with rectal cancer reported worse treatment impact (p image distress decreased (p = .02), while sexual QOL was stable (e.g., 58% classified as dysfunctional at both time points, p = .13). For most sexual and body image predictors, worse impairment was associated with worse psychosocial outcomes over time. Several significant gender and cancer subgroup effects were found. Sexual QOL and body image are compromised after colorectal cancer and tend to remain impaired if unaddressed. Sexual concerns should be addressed early to limit broader-reaching psychosocial effects.

  4. Psychosocial care for persons affected by emergencies and major incidents: a Delphi study to determine the needs of professional first responders for education, training and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John; Kemp, Verity; Newman, Jonathan; Novelli, David; Doyle, Christopher; Walter, Darren; Williams, Richard

    2013-10-01

    The role of ambulance clinicians in providing psychosocial care in major incidents and emergencies is recognised in recent Department of Health guidance. The study described in this paper identified NHS professional first responders' needs for education about survivors' psychosocial responses, training in psychosocial skills, and continuing support. Ambulance staff participated in an online Delphi questionnaire, comprising 74 items (Round 1) on 7-point Likert scales. Second-round and third-round participants each received feedback based on the previous round, and responded to modified versions of the original items and to new items for clarification. One hundred and two participants took part in Round 1; 47 statements (64%) achieved consensus. In Round 2, 72 people from Round 1 participated; 15 out of 39 statements (38%) achieved consensus. In Round 3, 49 people from Round 2 participated; 15 out of 27 statements (59%) achieved consensus. Overall, there was consensus in the following areas: 'psychosocial needs of patients' (consensus in 34/37 items); 'possible sources of stress in your work' (8/9); 'impacts of distress in your work' (7/10); 'meeting your own emotional needs' (4/5); 'support within your organisation' (2/5); 'needs for training in psychosocial skills for patients' (15/15); 'my needs for psychosocial training and support' (5/6). Ambulance clinicians recognise their own education needs and the importance of their being offered psychosocial training and support. The authors recommend that, in order to meet patients' psychosocial needs effectively, ambulance clinicians are provided with education and training in a number of skills and their own psychosocial support should be enhanced.

  5. Experiencing emotional and psychosocial support during preparation for re-integration: a study of street children under the care of Retrak Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Eslaminejad, Paria

    2016-01-01

    Erasmus Mundus Master’s Programme in Social Work with Families and Children This thesis investigates children’s experience of psychosocial and emotional support of (non-parental) caregivers in residential facilities in preparation for their re-integration into family based care. The thesis urges that successful preparation of ‘street children’ for re-integration into family based care requires professional psychosocial and emotional support.The author uses Bowlby’s attachment theory as wel...

  6. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  7. Work-related social support modulates effects of early life stress on limbic reactivity during stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Deobald, Ulrich; Bruch, Heike; Bönke, Luisa; Stevense, Amie; Fan, Yan; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2017-12-15

    Early life stress (ELS) affects stress- reactivity via limbic brain regions implicated such as hippocampus and amygdala. Social support is a major protective factor against ELS effects, while subjects with ELS experience reportedly perceive less of it in their daily life. The workplace, where most adults spend a substantial amount of time in their daily lives, might serve as a major resource for social support. Since previous data demonstrated that social support attenuates stress reactivity, we here used a psychosocial stress task to test the hypothesis that work-related social support modulates the effects of ELS. Results show decreased amygdala reactivity during stress in ELS subjects who report high levels of work- related social support, thereby indicating a signature for reduced stress reactivity. However, this effect was only observable on the neural, but not on the behavioral level, since social support had no buffering effect regarding the subjective experience of stress in daily life as well as regarding feelings of uncontrollability induced by the stress task. Accordingly, our data suggest that subjects with ELS experiences might benefit from interventions targeted at lowering their subjective stress levels by helping them to better perceive the availability of social support in their daily lives.

  8. NASA Advanced Exploration Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA’s Habitability Architecture Team.

  9. Parent proxy-reported quality of life for children with cerebral palsy: is it related to parental psychosocial distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E; Mackinnon, A; Waters, E

    2012-07-01

    Parent-proxy reports of quality of life (QOL) are often used to guide decisions about children with cerebral palsy (CP), although little is known about the factors that influence parent-proxy reports. The aim of this study was to examine (i) the relationship between parental psychosocial distress and parent proxy-reported QOL; and (ii) whether parental psychosocial distress mediates the relationship between child impairment and proxy-reported QOL. A sample of 201 primary caregivers of children aged 4-12 years with CP completed the Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire for Children, a condition-specific QOL instrument, and a measure of psychosocial distress, the Kessler 10. The children, evenly distributed by gender (56% male) were sampled across Gross Motor Function Classification System levels (Level I = 18%, II = 28%, III = 14%, IV = 11%, V = 27%). Consistent with the hypotheses, parental distress was negatively correlated with all domains of parent proxy-reported QOL (r = -0.18 to r = -0.55). The relationship between impairment and proxy-reported QOL was mediated by parental distress for five of the seven domains of QOL (social well-being and acceptance, feelings about functioning, participation and physical health, emotional well-being and self-esteem, and pain and impact of disability). Child impairment did not predict access to services or family health. This is the first study that assesses the relationship between parental distress and proxy-reported QOL for children with CP. Although the cross-sectional nature of the available data precludes any statements of causality, the results suggest that, when using parent proxy, the parents' psychological state should also be measured. This is particularly important when, as is often the case for child disability research, proxy-reported QOL are the only available data. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. The influence of exercise training on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with congenital heart disease:A review of intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, K.; Helbing, W.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.

    Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in

  11. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  12. Psychological impact of a possible radiation exposure including psychosocial support required in case of such a scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, Kaustubh

    2014-01-01

    In the early years of the Atomic Age, radiation accidents or exposure was limited to laboratories or facilities. After the major accidents at TMI, Goainia, Chernobyl, when a large proportion of the population were exposed, interest in the psychosocial aspects has developed. In order to understand the psychological impact, an understanding of the causation of symptoms is necessary. Stress, anxiety, fear, physiological correlates and psychological consequences are thus explained. The different clinical entities and the ways and means of tackling them are described. Further, 'psychological first aid' and ameliorating measures are discussed too. Finally, prevention of psychological impact including education, community support, information dissemination etc. is described. (author)

  13. Is advanced life support better than basic life support in prehospital care? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryynänen Olli-Pekka

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support and BLS- (basic life support levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim - The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods - In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results - We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service, ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions - ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is

  14. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim

    2016-08-30

    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  15. A blended psychosocial support program for partners of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and progressive muscular atrophy: protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Jessica; Beelen, Anita; Drossaert, Constance H C; Kolijn, Ruud; van den Berg, Leonard H; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Schröder, Carin D

    2018-05-02

    Informal caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Progressive Muscular Atrophy (PMA) face stressful demands due to severe impairments and prospect of early death of the patients they care for. Caregivers often experience feelings of psychological distress and caregiver burden, but supportive interventions are lacking. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a psychosocial support program aimed at enhancing feelings of control over caregiving tasks and reducing psychological distress. This support program is based on an existing program for adult partners of people with cancer and is adapted to meet the needs of ALS caregivers. This study is a randomized controlled trial using a wait-list control design. One hundred and forty caregiver-patient dyads, recruited from a nationwide database and through the website of the Dutch ALS Center, will be either randomized to a support program or a wait-list control group. The blended intervention is based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and consists of 1 face-to-face contact, 6 online guided modules and 1 telephone contact. The intervention can be worked through in 8 weeks. The effectiveness and the participants' satisfaction with the intervention will be evaluated using a mixed method design. Caregivers and patients will be asked to fill in questionnaires on 4 occasions during the study: baseline, 3 months, 6 months and 9 months. The main study outcome is the psychological distress of the caregiver assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes are caregiver burden, caregiver quality of life, quality of life of the patient and psychological distress of the patient. Group differences in primary and secondary outcomes at 6 months will be compared with linear mixed model analysis. In a subgroup of caregivers we will explore experiences with the support program through semi-structured interviews. Usage of the online modules will be logged

  16. Subjective Quality of Life and Perceived Adequacy of Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One such major concern pertains to the very general experiences of life of the elderly and associated factors. The purpose of this study was then to specifically assess the subjective quality of life and perceived adequacy of social support and the possible socio-demographic factors making differences in quality of life.

  17. What interventions can improve quality of life or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee osteoarthritis? A systematic review with meta-analysis of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briani, Ronaldo Valdir; Ferreira, Amanda Schenatto; Pazzinatto, Marcella Ferraz; Pappas, Evangelos; De Oliveira Silva, Danilo; Azevedo, Fábio Mícolis de

    2018-03-16

    To systematically review evidence of primary outcomes from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effect of treatment strategies on quality of life (QoL) or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Systematic review with meta-analysis. Medline, Embase, SPORTDiscus, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science were searched from inception to November 2017. We included RCTs investigating the effect of conservative interventions on QoL or psychosocial factors in individuals with knee OA. Only RCTs considering these outcomes as primary were included. Pooled data supported the use of exercise therapy compared with controls for improving health-related and knee-related QoL. There was limited evidence that a combined treatment of yoga, transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound may be effective in improving QoL. Limited evidence supported the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without being combined with exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress. Exercise therapy (with or without being combined with other interventions) seems to be effective in improving health-related and knee-related QoL or psychosocial factors of individuals with knee OA. In addition, evidence supports the use of cognitive behavioural therapies (with or without exercise therapy) for improving psychosocial factors such as self-efficacy, depression and psychological distress in individuals with knee OA. CRD42016047602. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Improving basic life support training for medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Mariam Lami, Pooja Nair, Karishma GadhviFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, London, UKAbstract: Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.Keywords: medical education, basic life support

  19. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed. PMID:27516753

  1. Adaptability and Life Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mi; Lin, Weipeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moderating role of social support in the relationship between adaptability and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 99 undergraduate freshmen in a Chinese university using a lagged design with a 1-month interval. Results demonstrated that social support moderated the relation between adaptability and life satisfaction, such that the positive relation between adaptability and life satisfaction was stronger for individuals with higher levels of social support than for individuals with lower levels of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of this result are discussed.

  2. Closure of Regenerative Life Support Systems: Results of the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel; Henninger, D.; Edeen, M.; Lewis, J.; Smth, F.; Verostko, C.

    2006-01-01

    Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency. Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period 1995 to 1998 a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads. Named the Lunar-Mars Life Support Test Project (LMLSTP), four integrated human tests were conducted with increasing duration, complexity and closure. The first test, LMLSTP Phase I, was designed to demonstrate the ability of higher plants to revitalize cabin atmosphere. A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing 11.2 square meters of actively growing wheat. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. During the second and third tests, LMLSTP Phases II & IIa, four crew members spent 30 days and 60 days, respectively, in a larger sealed chamber. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater. Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Production of potable water from wastewater included urine treatment (vapor compression distillation), primary treatment (ultrafiltration/reverse osmosis and multi-filtration) and post

  3. Addressing culture and context in humanitarian response: preparing desk reviews to inform mental health and psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, M Claire; Jordans, Mark J D; Kohrt, Brandon A; Ventevogel, Peter; Kirmayer, Laurence J; Hassan, Ghayda; Chiumento, Anna; van Ommeren, Mark; Tol, Wietse A

    2017-01-01

    Delivery of effective mental health and psychosocial support programs requires knowledge of existing health systems and socio-cultural context. To respond rapidly to humanitarian emergencies, international organizations often seek to design programs according to international guidelines and mobilize external human resources to manage and deliver programs. Familiarizing international humanitarian practitioners with local culture and contextualizing programs is essential to minimize risk of harm, maximize benefit, and optimize efficient use of resources. Timely literature reviews on traditional health practices, cultural beliefs and attitudes toward mental health and illness, local health care systems and previous experiences with humanitarian interventions can provide international practitioners with crucial background information to improve their capacity to work efficiently and with maximum benefit. In this paper, we draw on experience implementing desk review guidance from the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNHCR, the United Nations Refugee Agency (2012) in four diverse humanitarian crises (earthquakes in Haiti and Nepal; forced displacement among Syrians and Congolese). We discuss critical parameters for the design and implementation of desk reviews, and discuss current challenges and future directions to improve mental health care and psychosocial support in humanitarian emergencies.

  4. Description and initial evaluation of an educational and psychosocial support model for adults with congenitally malformed hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönning, Helén; Nielsen, Niels Erik; Swahn, Eva; Strömberg, Anna

    2011-05-01

    Various programmes for adults with congenitally malformed hearts have been developed, but detailed descriptions of content, rationale and goals are often missing. The aim of this study was to describe and make an initial evaluation of a follow-up model for adults with congenitally malformed hearts, focusing on education and psychosocial support by a multidisciplinary team (EPS). The model is described in steps and evaluated with regards to perceptions of knowledge, anxiety and satisfaction. The EPS model included a policlinic visit to the physician/nurse (medical consultation, computer-based and individual education face-to-face as well as psychosocial support) and a 1-month telephone follow-up. Fifty-five adults (mean age 34, 29 women) with the nine most common forms of congenitally malformed hearts participated in the EPS model as well as the 3-months follow-up. Knowledge about congenital heart malformation had increased in 40% of the participants at the 3-months follow-up. This study describes and evaluates a model that combines a multidisciplinary approach and computer-based education for follow-up of adults with congenitally malformed hearts. The EPS model was found to increase self-estimated knowledge, but further evaluations need to be conducted to prove patient-centred outcomes over time. The model is now ready to be implemented in adults with congenitally malformed hearts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Can basic life support personnel safely determine that advanced life support is not needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, D C; Wydro, G C

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether firefighter/emergency medical technicians-basic (FF/EMT-Bs) staffing basic life support (BLS) ambulances in a two-tiered emergency medical services (EMS) system can safely determine when advanced life support (ALS) is not needed. This was a prospective, observational study conducted in two academic emergency departments (EDs) receiving patients from a large urban fire-based EMS system. Runs were studied to which ALS and BLS ambulances were simultaneously dispatched, with the patient transported by the BLS unit. Prospectively established criteria for potential need for ALS were used to determine whether the FF/EMT-B's decision to cancel the ALS unit was safe, and simple outcomes (admission rate, length of stay, mortality) were examined. In the system studied, BLS crews may cancel responding ALS units at their discretion; there are no protocols or medical criteria for cancellation. A convenience sample of 69 cases was collected. In 52 cases (75%), the BLS providers indicated that they cancelled the responding ALS unit because they did not feel ALS was needed. Of these, 40 (77%) met study criteria for ALS: 39 had potentially serious chief complaints, nine had abnormal vital signs, and ten had physical exam findings that warranted ALS. Forty-five (87%) received an intervention immediately upon ED arrival that could have been provided in the field by an ALS unit, and 16 (31%) were admitted, with a median length of stay of 3.3 days (range 1.1-73.4 days). One patient died. Firefighter/EMT-Bs, working without protocols or medical criteria, cannot always safely determine which patients may require ALS intervention.

  6. Life support for aquatic species - past; present; future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slenzka, K.

    Life Support is a basic issue since manned space flight began. Not only to support astronauts and cosmonauts with the essential things to live, however, also animals which were carried for research to space etc together with men need support systems to survive under space conditions. Most of the animals transported to space participate at the life support system of the spacecraft. However, aquatic species live in water as environment and thus need special developments. Research with aquatic animals has a long tradition in manned space flight resulting in numerous life support systems for them starting with simple plastic bags up to complex support hardware. Most of the recent developments have to be identified as part of a technological oriented system and can be described as small technospheres. As the importance arose to study our Earth as the extraordinary Biosphere we live in, the modeling of small ecosystems began as part of ecophysiological research. In parallel the investigations of Bioregenerative Life Support Systems were launched and identified as necessity for long-term space missions or traveling to Moon and Mars and beyond. This paper focus on previous developments of Life Support Systems for aquatic animals and will show future potential developments towards Bioregenerative Life Support which additionally strongly benefits to our Earth's basic understanding.

  7. Building Resilience in Families, Communities, and Organizations: A Training Program in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, Jack; Simon, Winnifred

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the Summer Institute in Global Mental Health and Psychosocial Support, a brief immersion training program for mental health, health, and allied professionals who work with populations that have endured severe adversities and trauma, such as domestic and political violence, extreme poverty, armed conflict, epidemics, and natural disasters. The course taught participants to apply collaborative and contextually sensitive approaches to enhance social connectedness and resilience in families, communities, and organizations. This article presents core training principles and vignettes which illustrate how those engaging in such interventions must: (1) work in the context of a strong and supportive organization; (2) appreciate the complexity of the systems with which they are engaging; and (3) be open to the possibilities for healing and transformation. The program utilized a combination of didactic presentations, hands-on interactive exercises, case studies, and experiential approaches to organizational team building and staff stress management. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. Reliability Growth in Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    A hardware system's failure rate often increases over time due to wear and aging, but not always. Some systems instead show reliability growth, a decreasing failure rate with time, due to effective failure analysis and remedial hardware upgrades. Reliability grows when failure causes are removed by improved design. A mathematical reliability growth model allows the reliability growth rate to be computed from the failure data. The space shuttle was extensively maintained, refurbished, and upgraded after each flight and it experienced significant reliability growth during its operational life. In contrast, the International Space Station (ISS) is much more difficult to maintain and upgrade and its failure rate has been constant over time. The ISS Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) reliability has slightly decreased. Failures on ISS and with the ISS CDRA continue to be a challenge.

  9. Study of basic-life-support training for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivilaithon, Winchana; Amnaumpatanapon, Kumpon; Limjindaporn, Chitlada; Imsuwan, Intanon; Daorattanachai, Kiattichai

    2015-03-01

    To study about attitude and knowledge regarding basic-life-support among college students outside medical system. The cross-sectional study in the emergency department of Thammasat Hospital. The authors included college students at least aged 18 years old and volunteers to be study subjects. The authors collected data about attitudes and knowledge in performing basic-life-support by using set of questionnaires. 250 college students participated in the two hours trainingprogram. Most ofparticipants (42.4%) were second-year college students, of which 50 of 250 participants (20%) had trained in basic-life-support program. Twenty-seven of 250 participants (10.8%) had experience in basic-life-support outside the hospital. Most of participants had good attitude for doing basic-life-support. Participants had a significant improved score following training (mean score 8.66 and 12.34, respectively, pbasic-life-support to cardiac arrest patient. The training program in basic-life-support has significant impact on knowledge after training.

  10. Social support moderates caregiver life satisfaction following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergh, Tanya C; Hanks, Robin A; Rapport, Lisa J; Coleman, Renee D

    2003-12-01

    Social support is an important determinant of adjustment following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained by a family member. The present study examined the extent to which social support moderates the influence of characteristics of the person with injury on caregiver subjective well-being. Sixty pairs of individuals who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and their caregivers (N=120) participated. Years postinjury ranged from 0.3 to 9.9 ( M=4.8, SD=2.6). Cognitive, functional, and neurobehavioral functioning of participants with TBI were assessed using neuropsychological tests and rating scales. Caregiver life satisfaction and perceived social support were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that time since injury was unrelated to life satisfaction. Neurobehavioral disturbances showed an inverse relation with life satisfaction. Social support emerged as an important moderator of life satisfaction. Only among caregivers with low social support was cognitive dysfunction adversely related to life satisfaction. Similarly, a trend suggested that patient unawareness of deficit was associated with caregiver life dissatisfaction only among caregivers with low social support. In contrast, these characteristics were unrelated to life satisfaction among caregivers with adequate social support.

  11. The influence of psychosocial variables on the use of religious/spiritual coping and quality of life among Danish cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Frølund; Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Zachariae, Robert

    “THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL VARIABLES ON THE USE OF RELIGIOUS/SPIRITUAL COPING AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG DANISH CANCER PATIENTS” Pedersen, H.F., Pedersen, C.G., Zachariae, R. Psychooncology Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital and University of Aarhus, Denmark Aim: Use of religious....../spiritual resources in coping may be prevalent in patients with cancer considering the life-threatening nature of the illness. Religious/spiritual coping has been found to have both positive and negative effects on quality of life and illness adjustment among cancer patients, with adaptive religious coping styles...... on quality of life Design/Method: A prospective study of 1.500 newly diagnosed Danish lung cancer patients, will be compared to a healthy, age and gender matched control group with respect to their use of religious/spiritual coping, quality of life, and relevant psychosocial variables. Lung cancer patients...

  12. Psychosocial challenges affecting the quality of life in adults with epilepsy and their carers in Africa: A review of published evidence between 1994 and 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoe J. Keikelame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers in Africa in published studies conducted between 1994 and 2014 – yet these psychosocial challenges have been reported to have a major impact on the quality of life (QOL of people living with the illness and those who care for them. Aim: This review aimed to examine the literature on published studies conducted in Africa between 1994 and 2014 that examined psychosocial challenges of adult people with epilepsy and their carers. The aim was to examine the kind of psychosocial challenges from published evidence and to identify gaps in current knowledge. Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Africa Wide, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PASCAL, SABINET and Google Scholar databases and hand searches of Epilepsy & Behavior, Epilepsia, South African Medical Journal, African Journal of Disability, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine were reviewed. Results: Very few studies in Africa have examined psychosocial challenges affecting the adult patients with epilepsy and their carers. This review reported the existence of evidence of such challenges and the insights into the psychosocial and economic factors that underpin them. There is evidence that where these have been addressed, there were valuable insights on the types of psychosocial, socio-cultural and socio-economic challenges. Collaborative empowering interventions are needed to enable the attainment of good QOL for those affected. Conclusion: Research on psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers from different sectors of healthcare to inform the design of appropriate models is needed.

  13. Psychosocial challenges affecting the quality of life in adults with epilepsy and their carers in Africa: A review of published evidence between 1994 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikelame, Mpoe J; Suliaman, Tamzyn; Hendriksz, Marleen; Swartz, Leslie

    2017-03-30

    Little attention has been paid to the psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers in Africa in published studies conducted between 1994 and 2014 - yet these psychosocial challenges have been reported to have a major impact on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with the illness and those who care for them. This review aimed to examine the literature on published studies conducted in Africa between 1994 and 2014 that examined psychosocial challenges of adult people with epilepsy and their carers. The aim was to examine the kind of psychosocial challenges from published evidence and to identify gaps in current knowledge. MEDLINE, PubMed, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Africa Wide, PsycINFO, EMBASE, PASCAL, SABINET and Google Scholar databases and hand searches of Epilepsy & Behavior, Epilepsia, South African Medical Journal, African Journal of Disability, African Journal of Primary Health Care and Family Medicine were reviewed. Very few studies in Africa have examined psychosocial challenges affecting the adult patients with epilepsy and their carers. This review reported the existence of evidence of such challenges and the insights into the psychosocial and economic factors that underpin them. There is evidence that where these have been addressed, there were valuable insights on the types of psychosocial, socio-cultural and socio-economic challenges. Collaborative empowering interventions are needed to enable the attainment of good QOL for those affected. Research on psychosocial challenges of adult patients with epilepsy and their carers from different sectors of healthcare to inform the design of appropriate models is needed.

  14. Effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Lie

    2016-05-06

    Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with bladder cancer. Meanwhile, positive psycho-social variables in oncology field have increasingly received attention. However, the assessment of quality of life of bladder cancer patients and the integrative effects of positive psycho-social variables has limited reporting. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life as well as the integrative effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 365 bladder cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic variables, FACT-BL, Perceived Social Support Scale, Adult Hope Scale, and Resilience Scale-14 during July 2013 to July 2014. The average score of FACT-BL was 87.60 ± 16.27 (Mean ± SD). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that social support, hope and resilience as a whole accounted for 30.3 % variance of quality of life. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, social support, hope and resilience significantly and positively associated with quality of life, respectively. Quality of life for bladder cancer patients was at a low level in China, which should receive more attention in Chinese medical institutions. More importantly, efforts to increase social support, hope and resilience might be useful to support the quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients.

  15. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, T.; Schaub, R.; Hiestermann, A.; Kirschner, W.; Robra, B.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems.
DESIGN—Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model includi...

  16. Pediatric advanced life support and sedation of pediatric dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbin

    2016-03-01

    Programs provided by the Korea Association of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation include Basic Life Support (BLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS), Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS), and Korean Advanced Life Support (KALS). However, programs pertinent to dental care are lacking. Since 2015, related organizations have been attempting to develop a Dental Advanced Life Support (DALS) program, which can meet the needs of the dental environment. Generally, for initial management of emergency situations, basic life support is most important. However, emergencies in young children mostly involve breathing. Therefore, physicians who treat pediatric dental patients should learn PALS. It is necessary for the physician to regularly renew training every two years to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations. In order to manage emergency situations in the pediatric dental clinic, respiratory support is most important. Therefore, mastering professional PALS, which includes respiratory care and core cases, particularly upper airway obstruction and respiratory depression caused by a respiratory control problem, would be highly desirable for a physician who treats pediatric dental patients. Regular training and renewal training every two years is absolutely necessary to be able to immediately implement professional skills in emergency situations.

  17. Clear associations between demographic and psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuskens, G.A.; Burdorf, A.; Evers, A.W.M.; Hazes, J.M.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Objective. To identify demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients had inflammatory joint complaints for less than 12 months. Data

  18. Clear associations between demographic and psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Geuskens (Goedele); A. Burdorf (Alex); A.W.M. Evers (Arne); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To identify demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with early inflammatory joint complaints. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients had inflammatory joint complaints for less than 12 months.

  19. Life Course Stage and Social Support Mobilization for End-of-Life Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaValley, Susan A; Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-01

    Caregivers of terminally ill patients are at risk for anxiety, depression, and social isolation. Social support from friends, family members, neighbors, and health care professionals can potentially prevent or mitigate caregiver strain. While previous research documents the importance of social support in helping end-of-life caregivers cope with caregiving demands, little is known about differences in social support experiences among caregivers at different life course stages. Using life course theory, this study analyzes data from in-depth interviews with 50 caregivers of patients enrolled in hospice services to compare barriers to mobilizing social support among caregivers at two life course stages: midlife caregivers caring for parents and older adult caregivers caring for spouses/partners. Older adult caregivers reported different barriers to mobilizing social support compared with midlife caregivers. Findings enhance the understanding of how caregivers' life course stage affects their barriers to mobilization of social support resources.

  20. What influences parents' decisions to limit or withdraw life support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mahesh; Meert, Kathleen L; Sarnaik, Ashok P

    2005-09-01

    Decisions to forgo life support from critically ill children are commonly faced by parents and physicians. Previous research regarding parents' perspectives on the decision-making process has been limited by retrospective methods and the use of closed-ended questionnaires. We prospectively identified and described parents' self-reported influences on decisions to forgo life support from their children. Deeper understanding of parents' views will allow physicians to focus end-of-life discussions on factors important to parents and help resolve conflicts. Prospective, qualitative pilot study. Pediatric intensive care unit of a university-affiliated children's hospital. A total of 14 parents of ten children whose pediatric intensive care unit physician had made a recommendation to limit or withdraw life support. : In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with parents during their decision-making process. Factors influencing the parents in this study in their decision to forgo life support included their previous experience with death and end-of-life decision making for others, their personal observations of their child's suffering, their perceptions of their child's will to survive, their need to protect and advocate for their child, and the family's financial resources and concerns regarding life-long care. Parents in this study expressed the desire to do what is best for their child but struggled with feelings of selfishness, guilt, and the need to avoid agony and sorrow. Physician recommendations, review of options, and joint formulation of a plan helped parents gain a sense of control over their situation. Parents of eight children agreed to forgo life support and parents of two did not. Prospective interviews with open-ended questions identified factors influencing parents' decision making not previously described in the critical care literature such as parents' past experiences with end-of-life decisions and their anticipated emotional adjustments and

  1. Psychosocial Implications of Usher Syndrome, Type I, throughout the Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, I. D.

    1995-01-01

    Usher syndrome, Type I, requires multiple adaptations throughout the life cycle because each stage of life has tasks and losses associated with deafness and progressive retinitis pigmentosa. This article examines the issues raised at each stage, using clinical vignettes from persons who have this condition and their families. (Author/DB)

  2. Ionic Liquids Enabling Revolutionary Closed-Loop Life Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is to utilize ionic liquids with the Bosch process to achieve closed-loop life support. Specific tasks are to: 1) Advance the technology readiness of...

  3. Water Walls: Highly Reliable and Massively Redundant Life Support Architecture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — WATER WALLS (WW) takes an approach to providing a life support system, Forward Osmosis (FO), that is biologically and chemically passive, using mechanical systems...

  4. Life Support Systems: Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems project Trace Contaminant and Particulate Control task: Work in the area of trace contamination and...

  5. Improving basic life support training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Mariam; Nair, Pooja; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Questions have been raised about basic life support (BLS) training in medical education. This article addresses the research evidence behind why BLS training is inadequate and suggests recommendations for improving BLS training for medical students.

  6. Novel Composite Membrane for Space Life Supporting System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space life-supporting systems require effective removal of metabolic CO2 from the cabin atmosphere with minimal loss of O2. Conventional techniques, using either...

  7. Common symptoms in middle aged women: their relation to employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social support in a Swedish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, G; Ostergren, P O

    2000-03-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing interest among researchers, in women's overall life circumstances and their relation to women's health status. For example, paid employment has been considered an important part of women's living conditions in Western societies as the number of women entering the labour market has grown constantly over the past decades. When comparing men's and women's health, one of the most consistent findings is a higher rate of symptoms among women. The most commonly reported symptoms in women are depressive symptoms, symptoms of bodily tension and chronic pain from muscles and joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions and social network/support are associated with middle aged women's health status in terms of common symptoms. A mailed questionnaire was used in a cross sectional design assessing socioeconomic factors, employment status, psychosocial work conditions according to the demand/control model, social network/support and an index based on the 15 most frequent symptoms presented by middle aged women when seeking health care. A rural community with 13,200 inhabitants in the western part of Sweden. Women were randomly selected from the general population in the study area, 40 to 50 years of age. The response rate was 81.7 per cent. Women who were non-employed had a significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.82; 95% confidence intervals 1.69, 4.70), as well as women exposed to job strain (OR = 3.27; 1.92, 5.57), independently of the level of social network/support. Furthermore, exposure to low social support, low social anchorage or low social participation independently showed significantly increased odds of a high level of common symptoms (OR = 2.75; 1.71, 4.42; OR = 2.91; 1.81, 4.69 and OR = 1.69; 1.10, 2.61, respectively). Work related factors, such as non-employment and job strain, and circumstances

  8. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees,

  9. Empirically supported psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder: Current state of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, Stephanie; Gold, Alexandra K; Sheikh, Sana; Marcus, Peter H; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder requires psychiatric medications, but even guideline-concordant treatment fails to bring many patients to remission or keep them euthymic. To address this gap, researchers have developed adjunctive psychotherapies. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the evidence for the efficacy of manualized psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder. We conducted a search of the literature to examine recent (2007-present), randomized controlled studies of the following psychotherapy interventions for bipolar disorder: psychoeducation (PE), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT), dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and family therapies such as family focused therapy (FFT). All of the psychotherapy interventions appear to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms. Psychoeducation and CBT are associated with increased time to mood episode relapse or recurrence. MBCT has demonstrated a particular effectiveness in improving depressive and anxiety symptoms. Online psychotherapy interventions, programs combining one or more psychotherapy interventions, and targeted interventions centering on particular symptoms have been the focus of recent, randomized controlled studies in bipolar disorder. Psychotherapy interventions for the treatment of bipolar disorder have substantial evidence for efficacy. The next challenge will to disseminate these psychotherapies into the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Developing young person’s Face IT: Online psychosocial support for adolescents struggling with conditions or injuries affecting their appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Williamson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A participatory action approach with potential users and clinical experts was employed to design and evaluate the acceptability of young person’s Face IT (YP Face IT, an online intervention incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training for adolescents with appearance-related anxiety as a result of a visible difference. Workshops with adolescents and clinicians informed a prototype YP Face IT which underwent a usability analysis by 28 multidisciplinary health professionals and 18 adolescents, before 10 adolescents completed it at home. Acceptability data obtained online and via interview were analysed using content analysis. Participants found YP Face IT acceptable and believed it would provide much needed and easy access to psychosocial support. They requested that it should be made widely available either as a self-management tool requiring minimal supervision from a health professional or to compliment therapist-led care.

  11. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and psychosocial functioning (Pain Severity, Interference, Support, Life Control, and Affective Distress) were ...

  12. Gender differences in the influence of economic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on later-life health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prus, Steven G; Gee, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Gender differences in exposure to social resources play a significant role in influencing gender inequalities in health. A related question--and our focus--asks whether these inequalities are also influenced by gendered vulnerabilities to social forces. Specifically, this paper examines the differential impact of social forces on the health of elderly (65+) men and women. Multiple linear regression analysis is used to estimate gender differences in the influence of socioeconomic, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors on both self-rated health and overall functional health using data from the 1994-1995 National Population Health Survey. Key findings include: 1) the relationship between income and health is significant for older women only, whereas the converse holds for education; 2) having an acceptable body weight is positively associated with health for elderly women only; and 3) stress-related factors are stronger determinants of health for older women. Our findings shed light on the processes of healthy aging for men and women, and suggest that interventions to improve the health of elderly Canadians need to be gender-specific.

  13. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence to treatment and quality of life in people living with HIV/AIDS in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisla Ücker Calvetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this article was to investigate the biopsychosocial factors that influence adherence to treatment and the quality of life of individuals who have been successfully following the HIV/AIDS treatment. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study carried out with 120 HIV positive participants in the south of Brazil. Among the variables studied, of note are: perceived stress, social support, symptoms of anxiety and depression and quality of life. Results: The results show that a moderate to high adherence to the treatment paired with a strong sense of social support indicate a higher quality of life. Conclusion: The combination of social support and antiretroviral treatment have an impact on physical conditions, improving immune response and quality of life.

  14. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (pself-esteem than male patients. Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions.

  15. Stigma, marginalization and psychosocial well-being of orphans in Rwanda: exploring the mediation role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, Tehetna Alemu; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and marginalization are one of the major challenges orphans face in their daily lives, particularly in developing countries, but little is known about their impacts on mental health. This study examines how orphan-related characteristics, stigma and marginalization are associated with psychosocial well-being. It further analyses the role of social support in mediating between stigma and marginalization and mental health, indicated by emotional well-being and mental distress. The participants in this study were 430 Rwandan orphans who were 10-25 years of age, and of whom 179 were females and 251 were males. Results showed that high levels of stigma and marginalization were associated with a lower level of emotional well-being and higher levels of mental distress. A mediation analysis indicated that low level of social support due to stigma and marginalization contributed significantly to low level of emotional well-being. Once stigma, marginalization and social support were fully accounted for, AIDS orphans exhibited higher levels of mental distress than those who were orphaned by genocide or other causes. Future interventions designed to reduce stigma and marginalization for orphans and actions that facilitate social support can significantly improve emotional well-being and reduce mental distress among orphans.

  16. Need for Cost Optimization of Space Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Anderson, Grant

    2017-01-01

    As the nation plans manned missions that go far beyond Earth orbit to Mars, there is an urgent need for a robust, disciplined systems engineering methodology that can identify an optimized Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLSS) architecture for long duration deep space missions. But unlike the previously used Equivalent System Mass (ESM), the method must be inclusive of all driving parameters and emphasize the economic analysis of life support system design. The key parameter for this analysis is Life Cycle Cost (LCC). LCC takes into account the cost for development and qualification of the system, launch costs, operational costs, maintenance costs and all other relevant and associated costs. Additionally, an effective methodology must consider system technical performance, safety, reliability, maintainability, crew time, and other factors that could affect the overall merit of the life support system.

  17. IT logistics support life cycle of products in air engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.С. Кулик

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  Questions of increase of efficiency of a supply with information of creation and support in operation of modern aviation engines are considered. The revealed most perspective directions of development of complex systems of support of life cycle aviation technics.

  18. Family functioning in severe brain injuries: correlations with caregivers' burden, perceived social support and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bonfiglio, Luca; Di Bernardo, Carolina; Ulivi, Chiara; Virgillito, Alessandra; Rossi, Bruno; Carboncini, Maria Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Severe brain injuries have long-term consequences on functional status and psychosocial functioning. Family life can be greatly influenced as well, and features of high caregiver burden can emerge. Although the data on caregivers' distress are constantly increasing, less information is available about the role of family functioning. Thirty caregivers of hospitalised patients with severe brain injuries received questionnaires for the evaluation of caregiver burden, family functioning and perceived social support. A semi-structured interview was performed for the evaluation of quality of life. Family cohesion and adaptability positively correlated with caregivers' quality of life and perceived social support. Partner caregivers' scores were significantly higher on the time-dependent burden than those of sons and daughters, whereas the latter scored higher on the emotional burden.

  19. Mental health and psychosocial support for South Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda: a needs and resource assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adaku, Alex; Okello, James; Lowry, Blakeley; Kane, Jeremy C; Alderman, Stephen; Musisi, Seggane; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-01-01

    Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions. We conducted a MHPSS needs and resource assessment in Rhino Camp refugee settlement in northern Uganda, between June and August 2014. We followed World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) guidelines for MHPSS needs assessments in humanitarian settings. The assessment used a range of methodologies including: 1) a desk (literature) review to understand the context for mental health service provision; 2) an analysis of data from existing health information systems (HIS); 3) an assessment of the current infrastructure for service provision using a shortened version of a Who does What Where until When (4Ws); and 4) semi-structured individual and group interviews (total n = 86) with key informants (n = 13) and general community members (individual interviews n = 28, four focus groups with n = 45). Data from the HIS indicated that visits to health centers in refugee settlements attributable to psychotic disorders, severe emotional disorders, and other psychological complaints increased following the refugee influx between 2013 and 2014, but overall help-seeking from health centers was low compared to estimates from epidemiological studies. In semi-structured interviews the three highest ranked mental health and psychosocial problems included "overthinking", ethnic conflict, and child abuse. Other concerns included family separation, drug abuse, poverty, and unaccompanied minors. The 4Ws assessment revealed that there were

  20. Psychosocial problems and support needs of cancer patients through the course of illness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Zegers, M.; Heijmans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: During the last decades the number of people living with cancer has increased steadily because of better survival rates. Surviving cancer does however not imply that the illness has disappeared from the patient’s life. Healthcare use remains higher for years. This may relate to

  1. Coping With Diverse Sex Development: Treatment Experiences and Psychosocial Support During Childhood and Adolescence and Adult Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Gedrose, Benjamin; Handford, Christina; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, retrospective, and correlational study was to examine the relationships between childhood treatment experiences, parental care, and social support, and outcome in adults with different diverse sex development (DSD). The data of 69 participants from an exploratory questionnaire were collected in a retrospective German study. The majority received medical treatment in relation to their DSD during childhood and adolescence. Seventy percent reported having had a best friend and 29% a confidant during childhood. Sixty-one percent showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and 45% reported suicidal thoughts at least at one point in their lives. Quality of parental care and having had a best friend correlated positively with adult outcome, whereas treatment experiences correlated with aspects of impaired adjustment. Social support and DSD-related treatment experiences appear to have an impact on adult well-being. Appropriate psychosocial care including peer-to-peer support should be made available to children with DSD and their families. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Communication, support and psychosocial work environment affecting psychological distress among working women aged 20 to 39 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ayumi; Date, Yutaka; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Honda, Sumihisa

    2016-01-01

    When compared with their older counterparts, younger women are more likely to have depressive symptoms because they more often experience interrupted work history and a heavy childrearing burden. The purposes of the present study were 1) to investigate the possible association of psychosocial work environment with psychological distress and 2) to examine the way by which communication and support in the workplace affect to psychological distress among young women. We studied 198 women aged 20 to 39 yr in a cross-sectional study. The Kessler Scale-10 (K10 Scale) was used to examine psychological distress. In employees who experienced interpersonal conflict, those who had little or no conversations with their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 4.2), and those who received little or no support from their supervisor and/or co-workers had a significantly increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 3.8) compared to those who had more frequent communication and received more support. Harmonious communication in the workplace can help prevent psychological distress among employees, which in turn may enable them to be satisfied with their work.

  3. Psychosocial Pathways to STEM Engagement among Graduate Students in the Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheri L.; Dyar, Christina; Maung, Nina; London, Bonita

    2016-01-01

    Despite growing diversity among life sciences professionals, members of historically underrepresented groups (e.g., women) continue to encounter barriers to academic and career advancement, such as subtle messages and stereotypes that signal low value for women, and fewer opportunities for quality mentoring relationships. These barriers reinforce…

  4. Psychosocial and Quality of Life Issues in Prostate and Ovarian Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. Madalinska

    2007-01-01

    textabstractProstate and ovarian cancers are among the leading causes of death in Western countries. Applied preventive health strategies, including screening and early medical treatments either with prophylactic or curative intention, may substantially affect patients’ quality of life (QOL). This

  5. Building social participation with a support group users: challenges of care qualification in a Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Corrêa Detomini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The literature points out a lack of studies describing practical experiences approaching the role of social participation, even though, the subject Brazilian Health System (SUS as a principle is valued by theoretical-conceptual works. The lack of studies is especially observed in mental health care services, where the existing studies focus on the users’ management engagement as part of psychosocial rehabilitation. Thus, this article introduces an experience developed in a Center for Psycho-Social Attention (CAPS, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, aiming to address the issue of social participation in care qualification, in accordance to legislation and technical standards. Thisstudy focused on two types of sources. 1 Internship Final Report of a Psycology Student including 54 sessions of a support group, 2 technical and legal documents concerning the SUS and the National Mental Health Policy and Humanization. The service aspects were analyzed through technical and legislative foundations - focusing the needs and claims on group discussions, classified as structure and process, used to assess the health care quality. Most concerns were listed on normative Ordinances and Regulations. Achieving social participation was not an institutional premise and, among the main difficulties was the medical/outpatient centered model and the representation of “crazy”/”CAPS users” as incapable. It requires: i integration of “clinic” and “politics”; ii intensification of interdisciplinary and psychological care; iii respect the citizenship of mental health users, and, finally, iv that the collective participation spaces do not exhaust themselves. Therefore, the collective participation spaces need practical recommendations in order to improve the structures and work processes and meet the users’ needs.

  6. Bringing psychosocial support to headache sufferers using information and communication technology: lessons learned from asking potential users what they want.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Anna; Stinson, Jennifer; Mackay, Bonnie; Watters, Carolyn; Tougas, Michelle; White, Meghan; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    Headaches are a major concern for which psychosocial interventions are recommended. However, headache sufferers do not always have ready access to these interventions. Technology has been used to improve access, especially in young people. To examine user preferences to inform the development of an Internet-based psychosocial intervention including smartphone technology, referred to as the Wireless Headache Intervention. The methodology followed a participatory design cycle, including 25 headache sufferers (14 to 28 years of age) who informed the prototype design. All participants were familiar with smartphones and the Internet. Through two iterative cycles of focus groups stratified according to age, qualitative data were collected by asking user preferences for the different planned components of the intervention (ie, smartphone pain diary, Internet-based self-management treatment, social support) and other relevant aspects (ie, smartphone versus computer delivery, and ways of reaching target audience). NVivo 8 with content analysis was used to analyze data and reflect themes as guided by the thematic survey. Participants reported a preference for completing the smartphone pain diary on a daily basis. Participants believed that the program should facilitate easy access to information regarding headaches and management strategies. They also wanted access to other headache sufferers and experts. Participants believed that the program should be customizable and interactive. They reinforced the need and value of an integrated smartphone and Internet-based application. The results provide insight into a participatory design to guide design decisions for the type of intervention for which success relies largely on self-motivation. The results also provide recommendations for design of similar interventions that may benefit from the integration of mobile applications to Internet-based interventions. The present research contributes to the theoretical frameworks that

  7. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  8. A Canadian Cross-Sectional Survey on Psychosocial Supports for People Living Type 1 or 2 Diabetes: Health-Care Providers' Awareness, Capacity, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jennica; Vallis, Michael; Boutette, Stephanie; Gall Casey, Carolyn; Yu, Catherine H

    2017-11-09

    Addressing psychosocial issues is critical for diabetes self-management. This work explores health-care professionals' (HCPs') 1) perceived relevance of various psychosocial issues in diabetes management and 2) confidence in working on these issues within their services. An online cross-sectional survey was developed based on the Capacity-Opportunity-Motivation Behaviour Model. It assessed self-rated confidence in supporting patients with psychosocial issues (capability), perceived relevance of these issues (motivation) and facilitators of skill development (opportunity). An e-mail invitation was sent to all Diabetes Canada's professional members, conference delegates and committee members. Qualitative responses were analyzed using thematic analysis. Of the 260 responses received (25% response rate), many were Diabetes Canada professional members (83%) and/or certified diabetes educators (66%). The largest professional groups in the sample were registered nurses (44%) and registered dietitians (33%). All psychosocial issues were perceived as somewhat or extremely important by at least 80% of respondents (range, 80% to 97%). However, HCPs were less confident in supporting their patients with these psychosocial issues; significantly fewer respondents reported that they felt somewhat or extremely confident (range, 26% to 62%). Depression (80%) and anxiety (80%) were the issues in which guidance was most desired. Most respondents wanted some form of formal self-management support training (83%). Preferred training methods included in-person workshops (56%), webinars (56%) and conference sessions (51%). Motivation to address psychosocial issues in diabetes was high, but capacity to do so and opportunity to learn how were both low. These findings can be used to develop a targeted strategy to help address this gap. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. In-Service Teacher Training to Provide Psychosocial Support and Care in High-Risk and High-Need Schools: School-Based Intervention Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersöhn, Liesel; Loots, Tilda; Eloff, Irma; Ferreira, Ronél

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a South African case study to argue that postcolonial, emerging economy societies in transition often contain schools characterised as high risk and high need. Such schools require teachers to adapt to roles other than facilitating learning, such as psychosocial support and care, and which requires additional professional…

  10. Relationships between nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support, pregnancy planning, and psychosocial adaptation in a sample of mothers: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fan-Hao; Avant, Kay C; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Fetzer, Susan J

    2008-08-01

    Women worldwide experience pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting yet tolerate this significant prenatal stressor. The physical and emotional stress caused by pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting may influence maternal psychosocial adaptation yet few studies have examined these relationships. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships between nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support and their ability to predict maternal psychosocial adaptation among Taiwanese women during early pregnancy. A correlational, cross-sectional research design. Four prenatal clinics in Taiwan. Women (n=243) who had completed the 6-16 week of gestation consented to participate. Subjects completed four self-report questionnaires in additional to providing demographic data: Index of Nausea, Vomiting, and Retching (INVR), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL), and the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (PSEQ). Pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting was experienced in varying degrees by 188 (77.4%) women. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 37.6% of the variance in maternal psychosocial adaptation was explained by the severity of nausea and vomiting, perceived stress, social support, and pregnancy planning. Women at higher risk for poor maternal psychosocial adaptation have not planned their pregnancy and experience severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting. Severe pregnancy-related nausea and vomiting associated with high-perceived stress levels may be mediated by social support.

  11. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-09-16

    To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20,000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100,000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Nalmefene can be seen as a cost-effective treatment for alcohol dependence, with substantial public

  12. The cost-effectiveness and public health benefit of nalmefene added to psychosocial support for the reduction of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels: a Markov model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laramée, Philippe; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Rahhali, Nora; Knight, Chris; Barbosa, Carolina; François, Clément; Toumi, Mondher; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nalmefene combined with psychosocial support is cost-effective compared with psychosocial support alone for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients with high/very high drinking risk levels (DRLs) as defined by the WHO, and to evaluate the public health benefit of reducing harmful alcohol-attributable diseases, injuries and deaths. Design Decision modelling using Markov chains compared costs and effects over 5 years. Setting The analysis was from the perspective of the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. Participants The model considered the licensed population for nalmefene, specifically adults with both alcohol dependence and high/very high DRLs, who do not require immediate detoxification and who continue to have high/very high DRLs after initial assessment. Data sources We modelled treatment effect using data from three clinical trials for nalmefene (ESENSE 1 (NCT00811720), ESENSE 2 (NCT00812461) and SENSE (NCT00811941)). Baseline characteristics of the model population, treatment resource utilisation and utilities were from these trials. We estimated the number of alcohol-attributable events occurring at different levels of alcohol consumption based on published epidemiological risk-relation studies. Health-related costs were from UK sources. Main outcome measures We measured incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained and number of alcohol-attributable harmful events avoided. Results Nalmefene in combination with psychosocial support had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £5204 per QALY gained, and was therefore cost-effective at the £20 000 per QALY gained decision threshold. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusion was robust. Nalmefene plus psychosocial support led to the avoidance of 7179 alcohol-attributable diseases/injuries and 309 deaths per 100 000 patients compared to psychosocial support alone over the course of 5 years. Conclusions

  13. Comparative study of quality of life and psychosocial characteristics in patients with psoriasis and leg ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Torlidi-Kordera, Evangelia; Zouridaki, Eftychia; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis and leg ulcers have a marked impact on the patient's quality of life and represent a life-long burden for affected patients. The aim of this study is to compare the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, and loneliness in patients with psoriasis and leg-ulcer patients. Eighty patients with leg ulcers, eighty patients with psoriasis, and eighty healthy controls were included in this study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness of the patient, and self-esteem were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3), and the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES), respectively. The DLQI score among patients with psoriasis was 12.74 ± 4.89 and leg ulcer patients was 13.28 ± 2.57. The patients with psoriasis presented statistically significant higher anxiety (9.87 ± 4.56) than both leg ulcer patients (8.26 ± 2.82) and controls (6.45 ± 1.89), while leg ulcer patients also presented higher anxiety than controls. Regarding self-esteem, although there were no significant differences between the patients with psoriasis (15.25 ± 3.20) and the ones with leg ulcers (15.89 ± 2.93), they both presented statistically significant lower self-esteem scores than control group (18.53 ± 3.04). The patients with psoriasis presented statistically significant higher levels of loneliness and social isolation (46.18 ± 6.63) compared to leg ulcer patients (43.73 ± 5.68) than controls (42.49 ± 3.41). Psoriasis and leg ulcers are long-term skin diseases associated with significant impairment of the patient's quality of life, anxiety, and self-esteem, which are frequently under-recognized. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  14. Psychosocial Factors, Maladaptive Cognitive Schemas, and Depression in Young Adults: An Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Cankaya, Banu

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined a psychosocial-cognitive model that integrates recent findings on the independent effects of early maladaptive cognitive schemas (EMSs; Young, 1994) and psychosocial factors/stressors; viz., social support, expressed emotion, stressful life events and daily hassles, on level of depressive symptoms in young adults. Consistent with Beck's theory of depression, the expectation was that individuals with the EMSs would be more likely to respond to psychosocial stressors...

  15. Psychosocial distress and need for supportive counselling in patients during radiotherapy; Subjektiv erlebte Belastung und Bedarf an psychosozialer Unterstuetzung bei Tumorpatienten in strahlentherapeutischer Behandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, A. de; Steixner, E.; Stzankay, A.; Iglseder, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Innsbruck (Austria); Soellner, W.; Auer, V.; Schiessling, G. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Innsbruck (Austria); Lukas, P.

    1998-08-01

    Purpose: Psychosocial distress and patient attitude towards psychosocial support as well as the correlations with clinical and sociodemographic characteristics should be assessed. Methods: The stress due to cancer was measured in a consecutive sample of tumor patients at the start of radiotherapy (n=117) by use of the Hornheide Questionnaire. In addition, the interest of these patients in professional psychosocial support was assesed with the help of the Questionnaire for Psychosocial Support. Results: Patients in the course of radiotherapy and patients with a poor prognosis and advanced disease were more strongly distressed. 32.7% of patients wished professional psychosocial support from the oncologist treating them, 40.6% of the patients wished support from the oncologist and additionally from a psychotherapist or social worker. Interest in professional psychosocial support correlated with the amount of distress, but not with sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Results stress the importance of training programs for oncologists in order to improve their ability to detect psychosocial distress in cancer patients and to offer adequate emotional support to them. (orig.) [Deutsch] Hintergrund: Tumorpatienten fuehlen sich vor allem am Beginn einer strahlentherapeutischen Behandlung belastet. Der Mangel an ausreichendem Wissen ueber die Art und das Ausmass der Belastung sowie ueber die Einstellung der Patienten gegenueber psychosozialer Unterstuetzung erschwert die Ausarbeitung adaequater Unterstuetzungsangebote. Patienten und Methoden: Bei einer konsekutiven Stichprobe von Krebspatienten am Beginn der strahlentherapeutischen Behandlung (n=117) wurde die Belastung durch die Tumorerkrankung mit der Kurzform des Hornheider Fragebogens untersucht. Das Interesse an professioneller psychosozialer Unterstuetzung wurde mit Hilfe des Fragebogens zur psychosozialen Unterstuetzung erhoben. Letztere wurde in einen an den behandelnden Onkologen sowie an einen Psychotherapeuten

  16. Psychosocial Intervention Improves Depression, Quality of Life, and Fluid Adherence in Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D.; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E.; Saggi, Subodh J.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention p...

  17. Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Saggi, Subodh J; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention phase, CBT was administered chairside during dialysis treatments for 3 months; participants were assessed 3 and 6 months after randomization. Compared with the wait-list group, the treatment-first group achieved significantly larger reductions in Beck Depression Inventory II (self-reported, P=0.03) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (clinician-reported, P<0.001) scores after intervention. Mean scores for the treatment-first group did not change significantly at the 3-month follow-up. Among participants with depression diagnosed at baseline, 89% in the treatment-first group were not depressed at the end of treatment compared with 38% in the wait-list group (Fisher's exact test, P=0.01). Furthermore, the treatment-first group experienced greater improvements in quality of life, assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (P=0.04), and interdialytic weight gain (P=0.002) than the wait-list group, although no effect on compliance was evident at follow-up. In summary, CBT led to significant improvements in depression, quality of life, and prescription compliance in this trial, and studies should be undertaken to assess the long-term effects of CBT on morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD.

  18. Social Support Moderates the Relationship Between Perceived Stress and Quality of Life in Patients With a Left Ventricular Assist Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, Martha; Russell, Stuart D; Davidson, Patricia M; Budhathoki, Chakra; Han, Hae-Ra; Grady, Kathleen L; Desai, Shashank; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl

    2018-04-20

    Living with a left ventricular assist device has significant psychosocial sequelae that affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this study was to (1) describe psychosocial indicators of stress including perceived stress, depression, fatigue, and coping; (2) examine relationships among stress indicators by level of perceived stress; (3) examine relationships among indicators of stress and clinical outcomes; and (4) test the moderation of social support on the relationship between stress and clinical outcomes. Participants were recruited from 2 outpatient clinics in a cross-sectional study design. Standardized measures were self-administered via survey. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple linear regression analysis were conducted. The sample (N = 62) was mostly male (78%), black (47%), and married (66%), with a mean age of 56.5 ± 13 years. The overall sample had a moderate stress profile: moderate perceived stress (mean, 11.7 ± 7), few depressive symptoms (mean, 3.2 ± 3.9), and moderate fatigue (mean, 14.3 ± 9.1). Increased perceived stress was associated with fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maladaptive coping (P stress and fatigue were significant correlates of overall HRQOL (adj. R = 0.41, P relationship between perceived stress and HRQOL, controlling for fatigue (R = 0.49, P stress have worse depressive symptoms, fatigue, and coping. The influence of high social support to improve the relationship between stress and HRQOL underscores the importance of a comprehensive plan to address psychosocial factors.

  19. Quality of life of French Canadian parents raising a child with autism spectrum disorder and effects of psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Émilie; Poirier, Nathalie; Sankey, Carol; Belzil, Andréa; Dionne, Carmen

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the quality of life of parents of a child with autism spectrum disorder in Quebec. Seventy-seven participants completed a questionnaire with socio-biographic information and five self-assessed scales, to measure perceived stress, social support and control, coping strategies, and quality of life. Perception of their child's autonomy level, of the severity of the disorder, of the family's income, as well as changes in their professional or familial organization influenced parents' quality of life. Perceiving their situation as a threat predicted poor quality of life, whereas satisfaction of social support predicted good quality of life. In addition, parents who used problem solving and support-seeking coping strategies had a better relationship with their child, whereas those who used more emotion-centered coping strategies struggled. Lastly, parents who felt they had the power to contribute to their child's development were more satisfied and less disturbed. Beyond the parents' actual situation, our results underscore the importance of paying attention to their own perception of the situation in order to provide them with appropriate support.

  20. Effective work-life balance support for various household structures

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelhuis, L.L. ten; Lippe, T. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today’s workforce encompasses a wide variety of employees with specifi c needs and resources when it comes to balancing work and life roles. Our study explores whether various types of work-life balance support measures improve employee helping behavior and performance among single employees, employees with a partner, and employees with a partner and children. Using a sample of 482 employees at 24 organizations, the results showed that the organization’s work-family culture improved work perf...

  1. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: improving access to psychosocial care for individuals with persistent pain: supporting the National Pain Strategy's call for interdisciplinary pain care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, E Amy; Cheatle, Martin; Keefe, Francis J; Dhingra, Lara

    2018-03-01

    Policy makers have articulated a need for clear, evidence-based guidance to help inform pain policy. Persistent pain is common, expensive, and debilitating, and requires comprehensive assessment and treatment planning. Recently released opioid prescribing guidelines by the CDC (2016) emphasize the importance of using nonopioid therapies before considering opioid treatment for those without a malignant illness. The National Pain Strategy (2016) underscores the importance of comprehensive, interdisciplinary pain care. Unfortunately, despite persuasive evidence supporting the efficacy of psychosocial approaches, these interventions are inaccessible to the majority of Americans. Psychosocial approaches to pain management should be available for all individuals with persistent pain and in all health care settings and contexts as part of the comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach to pain care as outlined in the National Pain Strategy. To achieve this, we must prioritize reimbursement of evidence-based psychosocial approaches for pain assessment and management and improve provider training and competencies to implement these approaches.

  2. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents: A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Rooij, A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mheen, H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  3. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents : A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  4. [Habitability and biological life support systems for man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazenko, O G; Grigor'ev, A I; Meleshko, G I; Shepelev, E Ia

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses general concepts and specific details of the habitability of space stations and planetary bases completely isolated from the Earth for long periods of time. It emphasizes inadequacy of the present-day knowledge about natural conditions that provide a biologically acceptable environment on the Earth as well as lack of information about life support systems as a source of consumables (oxygen, water, food) and a tool for waste management. The habitability of advanced space vehicles is closely related to closed bioregenerative systems used as life support systems.

  5. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  6. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  7. Peer Mentoring: A Way forward for Supporting Preservice EFL Teachers Psychosocially during the Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Thi Mai

    2013-01-01

    During the past several years, the importance of practicum as a vital proportion of the preservice teacher education program has been increasingly emphasized. There have been a number of initiatives for supporting preservice teachers. Among these, peer based relationship is increasingly emerged as an innovative strategy to provide additional…

  8. The Impact of Social Support from Teachers on the Psychosocial Functioning of Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    There has been extensive research on the negative outcomes experienced by homeless youth and the protective role social support plays in typical adolescent development. However, current gaps in the literature are found in regard to potential protective factors for homeless youth, showing a need for further research to examine such possible…

  9. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  10. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  11. Psychological Support, Puberty Suppression, and Psychosocial Functioning in Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rosalia; Dunsford, Michael; Skagerberg, Elin; Holt, Victoria; Carmichael, Polly; Colizzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Puberty suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) is prescribed to relieve the distress associated with pubertal development in adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD) and thereby to provide space for further exploration. However, there are limited longitudinal studies on puberty suppression outcome in GD. Also, studies on the effects of psychological support on its own on GD adolescents' well-being have not been reported.AIM: This study aimed to assess GD ado...

  12. Psychosocial encounters correlates with higher patient-reported functional quality of life in gynecological cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Penny; Tan, Kay See; Grover, Surbhi; McFadien, Mary K; Troxel, Andrea B; Lin, Lilie

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to assess longitudinal health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients treated with radiotherapy for gynecologic malignancy and assess the relationship of psychosocial encounters on HRQoL. Women with gynecologic malignancy were prospectively enrolled and HRQoL assessed before, during, and after radiotherapy treatment using validated measures. Treatment and demographic information were reviewed. Mixed-effects models were used to assess changes in quality of life (QoL) over time and association of psychologist and social worker encounters with overall QoL as well as subdomains of QoL. Fifty-two women were enrolled and 41 completed at least one assessment. Fatigue (p = 0.008), nausea (p = 0.001), feeling ill (p = 0.007), and being bothered by side effects (p < 0.001) worsened on treatment with subsequent improvement. By follow-up, patients reported increased functional well-being (FWB) with significant decrease in worry (p = 0.003), increase in enjoyment of things usually done for fun (p = 0.003) and increase in contentment (p = 0.047). Twenty-three patients had at least one interaction with a social worker or psychologist during treatment. Each additional interaction was associated with a 2.12 increase in FWB score from before to after treatment (p = 0.002), and 1.74 increase from on to after treatment (p = 0.011). Additional interactions were not significantly associated with changes in overall FACT score (p = 0.056) or SWB (p = 0.305). Patient-reported HRQoL significantly worsened during radiotherapy treatment with subsequent improvement, affirming transiency of treatment-induced toxicities. Our preliminary study suggests that clinically-recommended psychological and social work interventions have potential value with respect to improving patient QoL during radiotherapy. Larger studies are needed to validate our findings

  13. Exploration Life Support Technology Development for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Barta, Daniel J.; McQuillan, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Exploration Life Support (ELS) is one of NASA's Exploration Technology Development Projects. ELS plans, coordinates and implements the development of new life support technologies for human exploration missions as outlined in NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. ELS technology development currently supports three major projects of the Constellation Program - the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Altair Lunar Lander and Lunar Surface Systems. ELS content includes Air Revitalization Systems (ARS), Water Recovery Systems (WRS), Waste Management Systems (WMS), Habitation Engineering, Systems Integration, Modeling and Analysis (SIMA), and Validation and Testing. The primary goal of the ELS project is to provide different technology options to Constellation which fill gaps or provide substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art in life support systems. Since the Constellation missions are so challenging, mass, power, and volume must be reduced from Space Shuttle and Space Station technologies. Systems engineering analysis also optimizes the overall architecture by considering all interfaces with the life support system and potential for reduction or reuse of resources. For long duration missions, technologies which aid in closure of air and water loops with increased reliability are essential as well as techniques to minimize or deal with waste. The ELS project utilizes in-house efforts at five NASA centers, aerospace industry contracts, Small Business Innovative Research contracts and other means to develop advanced life support technologies. Testing, analysis and reduced gravity flight experiments are also conducted at the NASA field centers. This paper gives a current status of technologies under development by ELS and relates them to the Constellation customers who will eventually use them.

  14. Crop candidates for the bioregenerative life support systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunxiao, Xu; Hong, Liu

    The use of plants for life support applications in space is appealing because of the multiple life support functions by the plants. Research on crops that were grown in the life support system to provide food and oxygen, remove carbon dioxide was begun from 1960. To select possible crops for research on the bioregenerative life support systems in China, criteria for the selection of potential crops were made, and selection of crops was carried out based on these criteria. The results showed that 14 crops including 4 food crops (wheat, rice, soybean and peanut) and 7 vegetables (Chinese cabbage, lettuce, radish, carrot, tomato, squash and pepper) won higher scores. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), soybean ( Glycine max L.) and peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) are main food crops in China. Chinese cabbage ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis), lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. longifolia Lam.), radish ( Raphanus sativus L.), carrot ( Daucus carota L. var. sativa DC.), tomato ( Lycopersicon escalentum L.), squash ( Cucurbita moschata Duch.) and pepper ( Capsicum frutescens L. var. longum Bailey) are 7 vegetables preferred by Chinese. Furthermore, coriander ( Coriandum sativum L.), welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L. var. giganteum Makino) and garlic ( Allium sativum L.) were selected as condiments to improve the taste of space crew. To each crop species, several cultivars were selected for further research according to their agronomic characteristics.

  15. Altair Lander Life Support: Design Analysis Cycles 4 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Curley, Su; Rotter, Henry; Stambaugh, Imelda; Yagoda, Evan

    2011-01-01

    Life support systems are a critical part of human exploration beyond low earth orbit. NASA s Altair Lunar Lander team is pursuing efficient solutions to the technical challenges of human spaceflight. Life support design efforts up through Design Analysis Cycle (DAC) 4 focused on finding lightweight and reliable solutions for the Sortie and Outpost missions within the Constellation Program. In DAC-4 and later follow on work, changes were made to add functionality for new requirements accepted by the Altair project, and to update the design as knowledge about certain issues or hardware matured. In DAC-5, the Altair project began to consider mission architectures outside the Constellation baseline. Selecting the optimal life support system design is very sensitive to mission duration. When the mission goals and architecture change several trade studies must be conducted to determine the appropriate design. Finally, several areas of work developed through the Altair project may be applicable to other vehicle concepts for microgravity missions. Maturing the Altair life support system related analysis, design, and requirements can provide important information for developers of a wide range of other human vehicles.

  16. Religiosity, Social Support, and Life Satisfaction among Elderly Korean Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jisung; Roh, Soonhee; Yeo, Younsook

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The present study tested Smith's (2003. Theorizing religious effects among American adolescents. "Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 42", 17-30. doi:10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00158) theory of religious effects to explore the relationship of religiosity, social support, and life satisfaction among elderly Korean…

  17. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  18. Source apportionment of social support and quality of life index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Source apportionment of social support and quality of life index among drug abuse inmates using multiple linear regression. ... The data from 12 prisons selected in Peninsular Malaysia was collected during the period April and June 2015. The 1753 respondents were selected using simple random sampling. The method of ...

  19. EPIC: Helping School Life and Family Support Each Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, David

    1992-01-01

    Born out of a 1981 murder, Buffalo (New York) Public Schools' EPIC (Effective Parenting Information for Children) program successfully combines parenting, effective teaching, and community programs to help family and school life support each other. Under EPIC, teachers are advised to help students acquire 23 skills involving self-esteem, rules,…

  20. European top managers’ support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Wike M.; van der Lippe, Tanja; den Dulk, Laura; Das Dores Horta Guerreiro, Maria; Kanjuo Mrčela, Aleksandra; Niemistö, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    Top managers—defined as CEOs, CFOs and members of boards of directors—decide to what degree their organization offers employees work-life arrangements. This study focuses on the conditions under which they support such arrangements. A factorial survey of 202 top managers in five European countries

  1. FileNet's BPM life-cycle support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netjes, M.; Reijers, H.A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Business Process Management (BPM) systems provide a broad range of facilities to enact and manage operational business processes. Ideally, these systems should provide support for the complete BPM life-cycle: (re)design, configuration, execution, control, and diagnosis of processes. In the research

  2. Is a perceived supportive physical environment important for self-reported leisure time physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged women with poor psychosocial characteristics? An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity J; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2013-03-27

    Over the past decade, studies and public health interventions that target the physical environment as an avenue for promoting physical activity have increased in number. While it appears that a supportive physical environment has a role to play in promoting physical activity, social-ecological models emphasise the importance of considering other multiple levels of influence on behaviour, including individual (e.g. self-efficacy, intentions, enjoyment) and social (e.g. social support, access to childcare) factors (psychosocial factors). However, not everyone has these physical activity-promoting psychosocial characteristics; it remains unclear what contribution the environment makes to physical activity among these groups. This study aimed to examine the association between the perceived physical environment and self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas demonstrating different psychosocial characteristics. In 2007-8, 3765 women (18-45 years) randomly selected from low socioeconomic areas in Victoria, Australia, self-reported LTPA, and individual, social and physical environmental factors hypothesised within a social-ecological framework to influence LTPA. Psychosocial and environment scores were created. Associations between environment scores and categories of LTPA (overall and stratified by thirds of perceived environment scores) were examined using generalised ordered logistic regression. Women with medium and high perceived environment scores had 20-38% and 44-70% greater odds respectively of achieving higher levels of LTPA than women with low environment scores. When stratified by thirds of psychosocial factor scores, these associations were largely attenuated and mostly became non-significant. However, women with the lowest psychosocial scores but medium or high environment scores had 76% and 58% higher odds respectively of achieving ≥120 minutes/week (vs. <120 minutes/week) LTPA

  3. Life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohafza, Hamidreza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Daghaghzadeh, Hamed; Afshar, Hamid; Erfani, Zahra; Adibi, Peyman

    2016-01-01

    The frequency and the perceived intensity of life stressors, coping strategies, and social supports are very important in everybody's well-being. This study intended to estimate the relation of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and these factors. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Isfahan on 2013. Data were extracted from the framework of the study on the epidemiology of psychological, alimentary health, and nutrition. Symptoms of IBS were evaluated by Talley bowel disease questionnaire. Stressful life event, modified COPE scale, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were also used. About 4763 subjects were completed questionnaires. Analyzing data were done by t -test and multivariate logistic regression. Of all returned questionnaire, 1024 (21.5%) were diagnosed with IBS. IBS and clinically-significant IBS (IBS-S) groups have significantly experienced a higher level of perceived intensity of stressors and had a higher frequency of stressors. The mean score of social supports and the mean scores of three coping strategies (problem engagement, support seeking, and positive reinterpretation and growth) were significantly lower in subjects with either IBS-S or IBS than in those with no IBS. Multivariate logistic regression revealed a significant association between frequency of stressors and perceived intensity of stressors with IBS (odds ratio [OR] =1.09 and OR = 1.02, respectively) or IBS-S (OR = 1.09 and OR = 1.03, respectively). People with IBS had higher numbers of stressors, higher perception of the intensity of stressors, less adaptive coping strategies, and less social supports which should be focused in psychosocial interventions.

  4. Group of experience with the elderly: psychosocial support in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudicéia Noronha Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of the elderly on the importance of a group of experience. Methods: iIt is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative approach, developed at a Basic Health Unit in a county of the Brazilian northeast, with 13 elderly people attending the Group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis by the thematic analysis technique. Results: three empirical categories were identified: motivation to seek the group of experience, perspective concerning this group and changes perceived through participation. Conclusion: the group of experience can represent a therapeutic moment for the elderly, serving as support and strengthening the elderly in the social context, making the improvement and development of abilities as well as the obtaining more knowledge for health promotion possible.

  5. HIV+ and HIV- youth living in group homes in South Africa need more psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestadt, D F; Alicea, S; Petersen, I; John, S; Myeza, N P; Nicholas, S W; Cohen, L G; Holst, H; Bhana, A; McKay, M M; Abrams, E J; Mellins, C A

    2013-07-01

    Orphans and vulnerable youth who live in group homes are at risk of poor mental health and sexual and drug-using behaviors that increase the risk of HIV transmission. This study explores factors related to this risk among youth living in group homes ("children's homes") for orphans and vulnerable children in South Africa, a country afflicted by high levels of parental loss due to HIV. The study explores 1) knowledge and attitudes about HIV, 2) social support, 3) communication with group home caregivers, and 4) the relevance of an existing evidence-based HIV prevention and mental health promotion program to situations where sexual and drug risk behaviors can occur. In-depth qualitative individual interviews were conducted with 20 youth (age 10 to 16 years) residing in two children's homes in Durban, South Africa. Content analysis focused on critical themes related to coping and prevention of risk activities. Respondents exhibited inconsistent and incomplete knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention. They displayed positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, but reported experiencing or witnessing HIV-related stigma. Participants witnessed substance use and romantic/sexual relationships among their peers; few admitted to their own involvement. While relationships with childcare workers were central to their lives, youth reported communication barriers related to substance use, sex, HIV, and personal history (including parental loss, abuse, and other trauma). In conclusion, these qualitative data suggest that evidence-based HIV prevention programs that bring caregivers and youth together to improve communication, HIV knowledge, social support, youth self-esteem, and health care, reduce sexual and drug risk behaviors, and strengthen skills related to negotiating situations of sexual and substance use possibility could benefit youth and childcare workers in children's homes.

  6. Bio-psychosocial determinants of time lost from work following non life threatening acute orthopaedic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Fiona J; Newstead, Stuart V; Watson, Wendy L; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; McClure, Roderick J

    2010-01-05

    To determine factors predicting the duration of time away from work following acute orthopaedic non life threatening trauma Prospective cohort study conducted at four hospitals in Victoria, Australia. The cohort comprised 168 patients aged 18-64 years who were working prior to the injury and sustained a range of acute unintentional orthopaedic injuries resulting in hospitalization. Baseline data was obtained by survey and medical record review. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association between potential predictors and the duration of time away from work during the six month study. The study achieved 89% follow-up. Of the 168 participants recruited to the study, 68% returned to work during the six month study. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified that blue collar work, negative pain attitudes with respect to work, high initial pain intensity, injury severity, older age, initial need for surgery, the presence of co-morbid health conditions at study entry and an orthopaedic injury to more than one region were associated with extended duration away from work following the injury. Participants in receipt of compensation who reported high social functioning at two weeks were 2.58 times more likely to have returned to work than similar participants reporting low social functioning. When only those who had returned to work were considered, the participant reported reason for return to work " to fill the day" was a significant predictor of earlier RTW [RR 2.41 (95% C.I 1.35-4.30)] whereas "financial security" and "because they felt able to" did not achieve significance. Many injury-related and psycho social factors affect the duration of time away from work following orthopaedic injury. Some of these are potentially modifiable and may be amenable to intervention. Further consideration of the reasons provided by participants for returning to work may provide important opportunities for social

  7. Considering Intermittent Dormancy in an Advanced Life Support Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.

  8. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  9. Psychosocial factors of antenatal anxiety and depression in Pakistan: is social support a mediator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Waqas

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is generally viewed as a time of fulfillment and joy; however, for many women it can be a stressful event. In South Asia it is associated with cultural stigmas revolving around gender discrimination, abnormal births and genetic abnormalities.This cross-sectional study was done at four teaching hospitals in Lahore from February, 2014 to June, 2014. A total of 500 pregnant women seen at hospital obstetrics and gynecology departments were interviewed with a questionnaire consisting of three sections: demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Social Provisions Scale (SPS. Pearson's chi-squared test, bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression were used to analyze associations between the independent variables and scores on the HADS and SPS.Mean age among the 500 respondents was 27.41 years (5.65. Anxiety levels in participants were categorized as normal (145 women, 29%, borderline (110, 22% or anxious (245, 49%. Depression levels were categorized as normal (218 women, 43.6%, borderline (123, 24.6% or depressed (159, 31.8%. Inferential analysis revealed that higher HADS scores were significantly associated with lower scores on the SPS, rural background, history of harassment, abortion, cesarean delivery and unplanned pregnancies (P < .05. Social support (SPS score mediated the relationship between the total number of children, gender of previous children and HADS score. Women with more daughters were significantly more likely to score higher on the HADS and lower on the SPS, whereas higher numbers of sons were associated with the opposite trends in the scores (P < .05.Because of the predominantly patriarchal sociocultural context in Pakistan, the predictors of antenatal anxiety and depression may differ from those in developed countries. We therefore suggest that interventions designed and implemented to reduce antenatal anxiety and depression should take into account these unique factors.

  10. The Effect of Providing Life Support on Nurses' Decision Making Regarding Life Support for Themselves and Family Members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaku, Fumio; Tsutsumi, Madoka

    2016-12-01

    Decision making in terminal illness has recently received increased attention. In Japan, patients and their families typically make decisions without understanding either the severity of illness or the efficacy of life-supporting treatments at the end of life. Japanese culture traditionally directs the family to make decisions for the patient. This descriptive study examined the influence of the experiences of 391 Japanese nurses caring for dying patients and family members and how that experience changed their decision making for themselves and their family members. The results were mixed but generally supported the idea that the more experience nurses have in caring for the dying, the less likely they would choose to institute lifesupport measures for themselves and family members. The results have implications for discussions on end-of-life care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  12. An examination of psychosocial variables moderating the relationship between life stress and injury time-loss among athletes of a high standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, I W; Eklund, R C; Gordon, S

    2000-05-01

    Based on Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury, six psychosocial variables were assessed as possible moderators of the relationship between life stress and injury among 121 athletes (65 males, 56 females) competing in a variety of sports at state, national or international level. No significant effects of the sex of the participants were evident. Correlational analyses revealed moderator effects of several variables. Specifically, dispositional optimism and hardiness were related to decreased injury time-loss in athletes when positive life change increased, and global self-esteem was associated with decreased injury time-loss when both negative life change and total life change increased. The results indicate that athletes with more optimism, hardiness or global self-esteem may cope more effectively with life change stress, resulting in reduced injury vulnerability and recovery rates.

  13. Individuals' quality of life linked to major life events, perceived social support, and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocnet, Cornelia; Antonietti, Jean-Philippe; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Glaus, Jennifer; Preisig, Martin; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between major recent life events that occurred during the last 5 years, social and personal resources, and subjective quality of life (QoL). A total of 1801 participants from the general population (CoLaus/PsyCoLaus study) completed the Life Events Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the NEO Five-Factor Inventory Revised, and the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life. Major life events were modestly associated with the QoL (about 5 % of the explained variance). However, QoL was significantly related to perceived social support and personality traits (about 37 % of the explained variance). Particularly, perceived social support, extraversion and conscientiousness personality dimensions were positively linked to life satisfaction, whereas a high level of neuroticism was negatively associated with QoL. This study highlights the negative but temporary association between critical events and QoL. However, a combination of high conscientiousness and extraversion, and positive social support may explain better variances for a high-perceived QoL.

  14. Marital context and post-infarction quality of life: is it social support or something more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, M

    1986-01-01

    The development of a theory of quality of life following serious illness is currently an important field of endeavour in rehabilitation research. The interpersonal relationships of people and elements of the self-concept appear to be salient factors in causal models of subjective well-being. One such model developed to explain characteristic levels of well-being was used in a longitudinal study of adaptation to a first myocardial infarction. Data were collected from a national sample of male cardiac patients and their spouses on the illness and marital situation as predictors of long-term well-being or ill-being. Analyses of data from the first three waves of the study, which is to extend over 5 years after the onset of illness, are to be discussed in the paper. Marital status, the emotional quality of the spouse relationship and long-standing marital stressors were found to have direct and indirect effects on the two dimensions of the Bradburn Affect Balance Scale. The same is true of continuing problems associated with the heart attack relative to perceptions of having coped effectively with the after effects of illness. Differences in self-esteem and personal competence were suggested as mediators of socio-environmental and illness-related influences. The two-factor conception of well-being developed was found to be a useful framework for investigating positive and negative aspects of psychosocial rehabilitation. The same factors that explain differences between happy and unhappy people in social indicators research also appeared to be determinants of different trajectories of adaptation in the wake of a life-threatening illness. Previous research using theoretical models from stress research has overemphasized psychosocial morbidity and stress management and neglected positive processes of adaptation. The identification of love resources related to positive feeling states and life satisfaction has, therefore, not received the attention it deserves. This is

  15. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  16. Mobilising identity through social media: psychosocial support for young people with life-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, George; Smith, Joanna; Rodriguez, Alison

    2018-07-01

    EBN engages readers through a range of Online social media activities to debate issues important to nurses and nursing. EBN Opinion papers highlight and expand on these debates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-10-28

    Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Parents of children aged 5 to 12 with borderline (IQ 70 to 85) or mild (IQ 70 to 50) ID and psychosocial problems were invited. Psychosocial problems were identified using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent report (≥14). Measurements were assessed before the intervention (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1) and after a follow-up of six months (T2). SSTP takes 8 to 10 individual sessions of 40-90 minutes, provided over 10 to 12 weeks. CAU concerned any service, except SSTP. Primary outcomes were the child's psychosocial problems (SDQ parent and teacher forms and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, ECBI). Secondary outcomes were parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index, PSI) and parenting skills (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ). In total 209 parents of children aged 5 to 12 with BMID were allocated blindly to either SSTP (n =111) or CAU (n =98). In the intention to treat analyses, SSTP achieved no significantly better effect than CAU for the SDQ parent report, the ECBI and the APQ on the short- and long- term. In the short term, SSTP was significantly more effective than CAU for the SDQ teacher report (B = -2.25, 95% CI -3.79 to -0.71) and the PSI (B = -7.06, 95% CI -12.11 to -2.01). For both SDQ teacher report and PSI, there was no statistically significant effect in the long term. Dropout from SSTP was considerable (49%), with the effects being

  18. Clinical and psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in alcohol-dependent men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovsky, Alexander M

    2008-10-01

    Men with alcohol dependence (AD) commonly suffer from alcohol-induced sexual (erectile) dysfunction (ED) and have poor quality of life (Qol). Knowledge about the factors associated with Qol in such patients is lacking. To identify in men who sought medical help for both AD and ED the variables that best predicted feelings of satisfaction with life and with specific life domains. The Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Secondary study measures were the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Rosenberg's General Self-Esteem Scale (RGSES), and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Within an open-label sildenafil trial, 101 men aged 18-50 years with an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition diagnosis of AD and concomitant ED were interviewed and completed the questionnaires. Multivariate analyses were applied to establish predictors of life satisfaction and factors mediating the relation between ED and life satisfaction. ED and self-rated depressive symptoms, emotional distress, self-esteem, and perceived social support were found to be significantly associated with Qol and its component domains. Altogether they explained 18-38% of the variance in the Qol ratings. Depressive symptomatology, distress, and self-esteem, individually, demonstrated a mediating effect on the relation between ED and Qol. Finally, self-esteem was shown to be the primary mediator in this relationship. The results of the study show that self-esteem is the primary factor, and depressive symptoms and severe emotional distress are secondary factors mediating the effects of ED on Qol in male patients seeking medical help for both AD and ED. An integrated pharmacopsychosocial approach targeting the underlying ED as well as the mediating emotional conditions could improve Qol of these patients and thus help them to stop using alcohol.

  19. QL-09TRAJECTORY OF QUALITY OF LIFE AT END OF LIFE IN MALIGNANT GLIOMA: SUPPORT FOR THE TERMINAL DROP THEORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Elana; Sheehan, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about quality of life (QOL) at end-of-life (EOL) in malignant brain tumor patients, which limits clinicians ability to best to help patients at this stage. The QOL trajectory at EOL has commonly been hypothesized to be "terminal decline," a linear relationship to time before death with a relatively gradual decline. Alternately, QOL at EOL could be hypothesized to be analogous to the "terminal drop" theory of cognitive aging, wherein the patient QOL has a curvilinear relationship to time before death; a relatively flat curve with a rapid decline a short time before death. 89 patients with malignant glioma were enrolled in this NCI funded study of QOL and neurocognition. Patients completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 at three month intervals until death. Mean length of follow-up was 224 days (median 155 days). Mean age of patients was 52 years (range 18-80). The gender ratio was 49% men and 51% women. One patient was Latino (so 97% Non-Hispanic), 69 participants were Caucasian, one was African American, and one was Native American. The mean educational level was 13 years (range 8-20). Twenty-eight patients had glioblastoma (grade IV), nine had a grade III oligodendroglioma, and six had a grade III oligoastrocytoma. Data were plotted over time to determine if the shape of the curve resembles terminal decline or terminal drop. Interestingly, as can be seen from the graph, Global QOL slightly improved over time. Growth Curve Analysis confirms this finding. Results of this study may supporting the terminal drop theory but may also illustrate response shift, a conundrum for QOL researchers in which patients' perspective changes and thus they report improved QOL. Longer follow-up is necessary to delineate this pattern. A better understanding of QOL at EOL will improve medical and psychosocial palliative care.

  20. Constitutional and legal protection for life support limitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Mani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate treatment limitations towards the end of life to reduce unwanted burdens require ethical clarity that is supported by appropriate legislation. The lack of knowledge of enabling legal provisions, physicians feel vulnerable to legal misinterpretation of treatment limiting decisions. In India the lack of societal awareness, inadequate exploration of the gray areas of bio-ethics and unambiguous legal position relating to terminal illness have resulted in poor quality end of life care. Much of the perceived vulnerability by the physician is attributable to insufficient knowledge and understanding of existing constitutional and legal position in India. While we await informed legal and legislative opinion, this paper highlights possible legal liabilities arising from treatment limitation decisions with available defense. It is hoped that such clarity would lead to more confident ethical decisions and improved end of life care for patients.

  1. Effect of ionizing radiation on advanced life support medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.J.; Hubbard, L.B.; Broadbent, M.V.; Stewart, P.; Jaeger, M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced life support medications stored in emergency department stretcher areas, diagnostic radiology rooms, and radiotherapy suites are exposed to ionizing radiation. We hypothesized that radiation may decrease the potency and thus the shelf life of medications stored in these areas. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were exposed to a wide range of ionizing radiation. The potency of the four drugs was unaffected by levels of radiation found in ED stretcher areas and high-volume diagnostic radiograph rooms (eg, chest radiograph, computed tomography, fluoroscopy). The potency of atropine may be reduced by gamma radiation in high-use radiotherapy suites. However, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol were unaffected by high doses of gamma radiation. Atropine, dopamine, epinephrine, and isoproterenol may be safely kept in ED stretcher areas and diagnostic radiology rooms without loss of potency over the shelf life of the drugs

  2. ADULT BASIC LIFE SUPPORT ON NEAR DROWNING AT THE SCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gd. Harry Kurnia Prawedana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a popular tourist destination which has potential for drowning cases. Therefore, required knowledge of adult basic life support to be able to deal with such cases in the field. Basic life support in an act to maintain airway and assist breathing and circulation without the use of tools other than simple breathing aids. The most important factor that determines the outcome of drowning event is the duration and severity of hypoxia induced. The management of near drowning at the scene include the rescue of victim from the water, rescue breathing, chest compression, cleaning the vomit substances which allowing blockage of the airway, prevent loss of body heat, and transport the victim to nearest emergency department for evaluation and monitoring.

  3. Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Fisher, John W. (Editor); Joshi, Jitendra A. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop" was held in Houston, Texas on April 27-29, 2005 to facilitate the development of planetary protection guidelines for future human Mars exploration missions and to identify the potential effects of these guidelines on the design and selection of related human life support, extravehicular activity and monitoring and control systems. This report provides a summary of the workshop organization, starting assumptions, working group results and recommendations. Specific result topics include the identification of research and technology development gaps, potential forward and back contaminants and pathways, mitigation alternatives, and planetary protection requirements definition needs. Participants concluded that planetary protection and science-based requirements potentially affect system design, technology trade options, development costs and mission architecture. Therefore early and regular coordination between the planetary protection, scientific, planning, engineering, operations and medical communities is needed to develop workable and effective designs for human exploration of Mars.

  4. Age-Related Patterns in Cancer Pain and Its Psychosocial Impact: Investigating the Role of Variability in Physical and Mental Health Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Lynn R; Dworkin, Robert H; Warr, David; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Macpherson, Alison K; Rodin, Gary; Zimmermann, Camilla; Lawrence Librach, S; Moore, Malcolm; Shepherd, Frances A; Gagliese, Lucia

    2017-03-03

    Age-related patterns in cancer pain remain equivocal. Most studies ignore heterogeneity across multiple domains of well-being, and the potential role of physical (PH) and mental health (MH) quality of life (QOL) in these age-related patterns is unknown. We investigated the relationships between age and cancer pain intensity, qualities, and interference, and physical and psychosocial adaptation and the interaction between age and PH and MH QOL on pain and adaptation to cancer pain. In this cross-sectional study, 244 patients with advanced cancer and pain completed measures of pain, QOL, physical function, and psychosocial well-being. Pearson's correlations and ANOVAs assessed relationships between age and demographic and clinical factors, pain, and physical and psychosocial measures. Regression models tested the role of age and its interaction with PH and MH QOL on pain and physical and psychosocial adaptation. Older age was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving an opioid prescription, greater likelihood of having comorbidities, and worse functional status. When we did not account for these factors, age was not associated with pain and most adaptation indices. When we did account for these factors and PH QOL, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic and neuropathic pain and several indices of psychosocial adaptation. Most interestingly, older age was associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, MH QOL. This study addresses knowledge gaps about factors underlying age-related patterns in cancer pain. Impaired MH QOL may be a proxy for age-related patterns in cancer pain. This study investigated age-related patterns in the experience of cancer pain and the role of quality of life in resilience and vulnerability to pain and adaptation to pain. Older age is associated with lower non-neuropathic pain among those with high, but not low, mental health quality of life, suggesting that impaired mental health quality of

  5. Project Orion, Environmental Control and Life Support System Integrated Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James F.; Lewis, John F.

    2008-01-01

    Orion is the next vehicle for human space travel. Humans will be sustained in space by the Orion subystem, environmental control and life support (ECLS). The ECLS concept at the subsystem level is outlined by function and technology. In the past two years, the interface definition with other subsystems has increased through different integrated studies. The paper presents the key requirements and discusses three recent studies (e.g., unpressurized cargo) along with the respective impacts on the ECLS design moving forward.

  6. Controlled Ecological Life Support System Breadboard Project - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989-1993 are listed. The biomass production chamber to be used by the project is described.

  7. Controlled ecological life support system breadboard project, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Breadboard Project, NASA's effort to develop the technology required to produce a functioning bioregenerative system, is discussed. The different phases of the project and its current status are described. The relationship between the project components are shown, and major project activities for fiscal years 1989 to 1993 are listed. The Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) became operational and tests of wheat as a single crop are nearing completion.

  8. Role of traditional healers in psychosocial support in caring for the orphans:a case of Dar es Salaam city,Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Kayombo, J.Edmund; Mbwambo, H.Zakaria; Massila, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    Orphans are an increasing problem in developing countries particularly in Africa; due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic; and needs collective effort in intervention processes by including all stakeholders right from the grass roots level. This paper attempts to present the role of traditional healers in psychosocial support for orphan children in Dar-es-Salaam City with special focus on those whose parents have died because of HIV/AIDS. Six traditional healers who were in...

  9. Valores, suporte psicossocial e impacto do treinamento no trabalho Values, psychosocial support and training impact at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Júlia Pantoja

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar valores individuais e percepções de suporte organizacional à transferência de treinamento como preditores do impacto do treinamento no trabalho. A amostra consistiu de 79 profissionais, de nível superior, de uma instituição hospitalar na área de reabilitação do aparelho locomotor e de 85 profissionais de uma autarquia federal ligada ao sistema financeiro nacional. Os pesquisados haviam concluído os cursos de capacitação que foram objeto de avaliação neste estudo, há aproximadamente três meses. Responderam, no local de trabalho, questionários que continham escalas previamente validadas. Foram realizadas análises de regressão múltipla hierárquica. Os resultados apontaram suporte psicossocial e o tipo motivacional conservadorismo/coletivismo como importantes preditores do impacto do treinamento no trabalho (R² = 0,35; p The purpose of this work was to investigate individual values and perceptions of the organizational support to training's transfer as predictors of the impact in work training. Seventy nine university graduated degree professionals, working at a hospital specialized in orthopedics' rehabilitation plus eighty five professionals, working for an state government institution, connected to the national financial system, constituted the sample of this research. All of them had finished the training event which was evaluated in this paper approximately three months ago. While at work they responded to the questionnaire, which had scales previously validated. Multiple regression hierarchical analyses were made. The data shows psychosocial support and the motivational type conservationismcollectivism as an important predictor of the impact of the training at work (R² = 0.35; p < 0.001. It also suggests that people who value conservationism, i.e., that look for respect, compromise, safety, harmony and welcoming of culture habits and ideas got more from the impact of the

  10. Closed ecological life-support systems and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, Josef I.

    The advent of man-made closed ecosystems (CES) is a solution of the fundamental problem-egress of humans beyond the Earth's biosphere, providing biological basis for exploitation of Space and celestial bodies. Yet, before proceeding to these ambitious project elements of closed life-support biotechnologies, there can be found diverse applications on Earth in human settlements providing for high quality of life under extreme environment conditions: high latitudes, deserts, mountains and industrially polluted areas. This presentation considers these variations of terrestrial applications of CELSS technologies. The version of CES under development is based on making direct use of the light energy in plant photosynthesis. In this case life support of one man on the Earth orbit requires solar light collected from 5-10m2. Among terrestrial applications of prime importance is the development of an ecohome designed to provide people with a high quality of life in Arctic and Antarctic territories. The developed technology of cascade employment of energy makes possible (expending 10-15 kw of installed power per a house-3-5 member family) to provide for: permanent supply of fresh vitamin-full vegetables, absorption and processing oaf excreta, purification of water and air in the living quarters, habitual colour and light conditions in the premises in winter making up to sensorial deprivation and, finally, psychological comfort of close contact with the plants during the long polar night. Ecohabitat based on the technology described in realistic today and depends only on the energy available and the resolution and readiness (sagacity) of the decision-makers to be committed with ecohome assigning. The ecological and economical significance of construction of ecohabitats for the northern territories of Canada, Alaska and Russia is apparent. This principle can be used (with considerable economy of energy and construction costs) to maintain normal partial pressure of oxygen inside

  11. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  12. Determinants and implications of cancer patients' psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstmann, N; Neumann, M; Ommen, O; Galushko, M; Wirtz, M; Voltz, R; Hallek, M; Pfaff, H

    2009-11-01

    Cancer patients often experience distress. However, the majority of newly diagnosed patients gradually adapt to the crisis. When symptoms of distress and anxiety persist over months, patients require psychosocial support. The aim of the present study was to determine the proportion of cancer patients who indicate the need for psychosocial support and to identify sociodemographic, psychological and illness-related factors predicting the need for psychosocial support in a German sample. The cross-sectional retrospective study was administered to 710 cancer patients who had been inpatients at the University Hospital of Cologne. The response rate was 49.5%. Patients suffering from bronchial, oesophageal, colorectal, breast, prostate and skin cancer participated in the study. The severity of depressive symptoms was assessed using the German version of the Major Depression Inventory. The level of anxiety was assessed with the state subscale of the German version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. To measure the functional aspects of health-related quality of life, the scales "physical functioning", "role functioning", "emotional functioning", "cognitive functioning" and "role functioning" of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used. Of the cancer patients, 18.9% indicate an unmet need for psychosocial support and 9.5% are actually using psychosocial services. In a multiple logistic regression, significant indicators of the need for psychosocial support are gender [p = 0.014; standardised effect coefficient (sc) = 1.615] and emotional functioning (p Emotional functioning is a central predictor of the requirement for psychosocial support. Women are emotionally more affected than men and need more psychosocial support. The prognostic validity of the severity of depression and anxiety is limited.

  13. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support programs in humanitarian settings: a scoping review of terminology and focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinavicius, Jura L; Greene, M Claire; Lakin, Daniel P; Tol, Wietse A

    2018-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs is critical to facilitating learning and providing accountability to stakeholders. As part of an inter-agency effort to develop recommendations on MHPSS monitoring and evaluation, this scoping review aimed to identify the terminology and focus of monitoring and evaluation frameworks in this field. We collected program documents (logical frameworks (logframes) and theories of change) from members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on MHPSS, and systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature across five databases. We included program documents and academic articles that reported on monitoring and evaluation of MHPSS in low- and middle-income countries describing original data. Inclusion and data extraction were conducted in parallel by independent reviewers. Thematic analysis was used to identify common language in the description of practices and the focus of each monitoring and evaluation framework. Logframe outcomes were mapped to MHPSS activity categories. We identified 38 program documents and 89 peer-reviewed articles, describing monitoring and evaluation of a wide range of MHPSS activities. In both program documents and peer-reviewed literature there was a lack of specificity and overlap in language used for goals and outcomes. Well-validated, reliable instruments were reported in the academic literature, but rarely used in monitoring and evaluation practices. We identified six themes in the terminology used to describe goals and outcomes. Logframe outcomes were more commonly mapped to generic program implementation activities (e.g. "capacity building") and those related to family and community support, while outcomes from academic articles were most frequently mapped to specialized psychological treatments. Inconsistencies between the language used in research and practice and discrepancies in measurement have broader implications for monitoring and

  15. NASA Advanced Explorations Systems: Advancements in Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah A.; Schneider, Walter F.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems (LSS) project strives to develop reliable, energy-efficient, and low-mass spacecraft systems to provide environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) critical to enabling long duration human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Highly reliable, closed-loop life support systems are among the capabilities required for the longer duration human space exploration missions assessed by NASA's Habitability Architecture Team (HAT). The LSS project is focused on four areas: architecture and systems engineering for life support systems, environmental monitoring, air revitalization, and wastewater processing and water management. Starting with the international space station (ISS) LSS systems as a point of departure (where applicable), the mission of the LSS project is three-fold: 1. Address discrete LSS technology gaps 2. Improve the reliability of LSS systems 3. Advance LSS systems towards integrated testing on the ISS. This paper summarized the work being done in the four areas listed above to meet these objectives. Details will be given on the following focus areas: Systems Engineering and Architecture- With so many complex systems comprising life support in space, it is important to understand the overall system requirements to define life support system architectures for different space mission classes, ensure that all the components integrate well together and verify that testing is as representative of destination environments as possible. Environmental Monitoring- In an enclosed spacecraft that is constantly operating complex machinery for its own basic functionality as well as science experiments and technology demonstrations, it's possible for the environment to become compromised. While current environmental monitors aboard the ISS will alert crew members and mission control if there is an emergency, long-duration environmental monitoring cannot be done in-orbit as current methodologies

  16. Giving and Receiving Emotional Support Online: Communication Competence as a Moderator of Psychosocial Benefits for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Woohyun; Namkoong, Kang; Choi, Mina; Shah, Dhavan V.; Tsang, Stephanie; Hong, Yangsun; Aguilar, Michael; Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the moderating role of emotional communication competence in the relationship between computer-mediated social support (CMSS) group participation, specifically giving and receiving emotional support, and psychological health outcomes. Data were collected as part of randomized clinical trials for women diagnosed with breast cancer within the last 2 months. Expression and reception of emotional support was assessed by tracking and coding the 18,064 messages that 236 patients posted and read in CMSS groups. The final data used in the analysis was created by merging (a) computer-aided content analysis of discussion posts, (b) action log data analysis of system usage, and (c) baseline and six-month surveys collected to assess change. Results of this study demonstrate that emotional communication competence moderates the effects of expression and reception of emotional support on psychological quality of life and breast cancer-related concerns in both desired and undesired ways. Giving and receiving emotional support in CMSS groups has positive effects on emotional well-being for breast cancer patients with higher emotional communication, while the same exchanges have detrimental impacts on emotional well-being for those with lower emotional communication competence. The theoretical and practical implications for future research are discussed. PMID:24058261

  17. Effectiveness of Basic Life Support Training for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloush, Sami; Tubaishat, Ahmad; ALBashtawy, Mohammed; Suliman, Mohammad; Alrimawi, Intima; Al Sabah, Ashraf; Banikhaled, Yousef

    2018-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a basic life support (BLS) educational course given to 110 middle school children, using a pretest posttest design. In the pretest, students were asked to demonstrate BLS on a manikin to simulate a real-life scenario. After the pretest, a BLS training course of two sessions was provided, followed by posttest on the same manikin. Students were assessed using an observational sheet based on the American Heart Association's BLS guidelines. In the pretest, students showed significant weakness in the majority of guidelines. In the posttest, they demonstrated significant improvement in their BLS skills. BLS training in the middle school was effective, considering the lack of previous skills. It is recommended that BLS education be compulsory in the school setting.

  18. A new chart to assist with advanced trauma life support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I P; Baskett, P J; McCabe, S E

    1992-10-01

    Many studies have drawn attention to deficiencies in the management of major trauma, both in the UK and elsewhere. One area that has received little attention is the documentation of such cases in the Emergency Room. When outcome may be sub-optimal, documentation assumes greater importance if advances are to be made in the organisation of trauma care. Based upon the American College of Surgeons Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) protocols, the authors have designed a document that records dynamically what happens to the multiply injured victim on arrival in the Emergency Room. It unifies the recording of vital signs, whilst acting as an assessment and resuscitation template. By ensuring no life-threatening illness is missed it is likely to improve patient survival. The document can act as a basis for teaching and a medico-legal record, whilst providing the necessary data for quality assurance and outcome audit.

  19. Satisfacción vital y su relación con otras variables psicosociales en población española residente en Alemania (Life satisfaction and its connection with other psycho-social variables in Spanish residents in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Vallejo-Martín

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the psychosocial variables related to life satisfaction in a population of Spanish residents in Germany. The psychosocial variables were as follows: social support, self-esteem, job satisfaction, and attachment to and identification with the place of residence. Sociodemographic factors were also considered: job position, level of ability in the German language, monthly income, and perceived social class. The sample comprised 206 participants. The results showed that the participants had medium or medium-high scores on all the psychosocial variables and that there were significant correlations between them.Regarding the sociodemographic factors, although no significant association was found between life satisfaction and having a job, significant associations were found between life satisfaction and the other factors. Of these factors, perceived social class had the biggest effect. The results also showed that intrinsic job satisfaction, perceived social class, attachment to the place of residence, and self-esteem predicted life satisfaction (explaining 55.5% of variance. These results are in contrast with other studies on life satisfaction in immigrant populations.

  20. Enrolment of children and adolescents in psychosocial care : more likely with low family social support and poor parenting skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Jansen, Danielle E M C; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about determinants of child and adolescent enrolment in psychosocial care concerns only single types of care and usually only socio-demographic factors. The social environment is also a likely key determinant but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the associations

  1. Psychosocial Care Needs of Melanoma Survivors: Are They Being Met?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Fischbeck

    Full Text Available Patients who have survived malignant melanoma for more than five years may lack the opportunity to talk about their burden. As a consequence their psychosocial care needs remain undetected and available supportive interventions may not be utilised. Therefore, the psychosocial burden of this patient group needs to be assessed using specific screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial burden of long-term melanoma survivors, their psychosocial care needs and the determinants of these needs. We wanted to find out if the use of professional support corresponds to the care needs defined by experts. Using the cancer registry of Rhineland-Palatinate, melanoma patients diagnosed at least 5 years before the survey were contacted by physicians. N = 689 former patients completed the Hornheide Questionnaire (short form HQ-S to identify psychosocial support need (scale cut off ≥ 16 or item-based cut-off score and the potential psychosocial determinants of these needs. Additionally, they were asked about their utilisation of the professional support system. More than one third (36% of them was in need for professional psychosocial support. The highest burden scores concerned worry about tumour progression. Younger age (< 50, higher general fatigue, higher symptom burden, lower general health, negative social interactions and unfulfilled information needs were significant predictors of the need for psychosocial intervention. Related to the percentage of survivors identified as 'in need', the professional support system was underused. Further studies should investigate whether using the HQ-S to routinely identify burdened melanoma patients could lead to better fulfilment of their intervention needs, ultimately enhancing health-related quality of life.

  2. Factors influencing childhood cancer patients to participate in a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program : Quality of Life in Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Huisman, Jaap; Kaspers, Gertjan Jl; Takken, Tim; Veening, Margreet A.; Bierings, MB; Merks, Hans; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Eibrink, Marry; Streng, Isabelle C.; Van Dulmen-Den Broeder, Eline

    Background For a multi-center randomized trial investigating the effects of a 12-week physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, we invited 174 patients (8-18 years old) on treatment or within 1 year after treatment; about 40% participated. Reasons for non-participation

  3. Ultra Reliable Closed Loop Life Support for Long Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Spacecraft human life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by providing sufficient spares to replace all failed components. The additional mass of spares for ultra reliability is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided that the original system reliability is not too low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the Space Shuttle and Space Station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units. However, on-demand maintenance and repair requires a logistics supply chain in place to provide the needed spares. In contrast, a Mars or other long space mission must take along all the needed spares, since resupply is not possible. Long missions must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since they will take years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, distant missions have a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than near-Earth missions. Achieving ultra reliable spacecraft life support systems with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must determine the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Ultra reliability requires reducing the intrinsic failure causes, providing spares to replace failed components and having "graceful" failure modes. Technologies, components, and materials must be selected and designed for high reliability. Long duration testing is needed to confirm very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The system must be designed, developed, integrated, and tested with system reliability in mind. Maintenance and reparability of failed units must not add to the probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass should start soon since it must be a long term effort.

  4. Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS): A Feasibility Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borron, S. W.; Walter, F. G.

    2007-01-01

    A prospective, descriptive, feasibility study aimed to determine whether an interdisciplinary group of health care experts could design and successfully deliver an international, life support, continuing education program that teaches the medical management of hazardous materials (hazmat) patients. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Emergency Medicine Research Center partnered on July 1, 1998 to develop a two-day Advanced Hazmat Life Support (AHLS) Provider Course. Interdisciplinary expert clinicians designed and then delivered the first AHLS Provider Course in 1999. Prior to this, other courses focused on the management of hazmat incidents and almost exclusively on the prehospital care of hazmat victims by firefighters, hazardous materials technicians, and emergency medical technicians (EMTs), not on the medical management of patients from these incidents. Therefore, AHLS was developed for a broader interdisciplinary group of health care professionals, including both prehospital health care professionals and hospital-based, poison center-based, clinic-based, public health care-based, and other health care professionals. From 1999 through 2006, the AHLS Provider Course has trained 7,142 health care professionals from 48 countries. Of the 7,142 health care professionals worldwide, 43% are paramedics, 24% are physicians, 21% are nurses, 2% are pharmacists, 1% are physician assistants, and 9% are other professionals. Of the professionals trained, 88% are from the United States, 5% from Hong Kong, 2% from Canada, 2% from Australia, 1% from Mexico, and the remainder come from 43 other countries. The Advanced Hazmat Life Support Program is feasible and meets the continuing education needs of health care professionals around the world.(author)

  5. Developing Ultra Reliable Life Support for the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Recycling life support systems can achieve ultra reliability by using spares to replace failed components. The added mass for spares is approximately equal to the original system mass, provided the original system reliability is not very low. Acceptable reliability can be achieved for the space shuttle and space station by preventive maintenance and by replacing failed units, However, this maintenance and repair depends on a logistics supply chain that provides the needed spares. The Mars mission must take all the needed spares at launch. The Mars mission also must achieve ultra reliability, a very low failure rate per hour, since it requires years rather than weeks and cannot be cut short if a failure occurs. Also, the Mars mission has a much higher mass launch cost per kilogram than shuttle or station. Achieving ultra reliable space life support with acceptable mass will require a well-planned and extensive development effort. Analysis must define the reliability requirement and allocate it to subsystems and components. Technologies, components, and materials must be designed and selected for high reliability. Extensive testing is needed to ascertain very low failure rates. Systems design should segregate the failure causes in the smallest, most easily replaceable parts. The systems must be designed, produced, integrated, and tested without impairing system reliability. Maintenance and failed unit replacement should not introduce any additional probability of failure. The overall system must be tested sufficiently to identify any design errors. A program to develop ultra reliable space life support systems with acceptable mass must start soon if it is to produce timely results for the moon and Mars.

  6. Sensemaking in the formation of basic life support teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Peter; Lauridsen, Johnny; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    well known in organizational studies. It refers to the collaborative effort among members in a dialogue to create meaning in an ambiguous situation, often by using subtle variations in the sentences in the dialogue. Sentences with high degrees of "sensemaking" activity can be thematized as "co......-orientation", "re-presentation" and/or "subordination" (among others). We sought to establish if elements of "sensemaking" occur in the formation of in-hospital cardiac arrest teams. METHODS: Videos of ten simulations of unannounced in-hospital cardiac arrests treated by basic life support (BLS) providers. We...

  7. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  8. Advanced life support for cardiac arrest beyond the algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Isbye, Dan Lou; Pfeiffer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    In an advanced emergency medical service all parts of the advanced life support (ALS) algorithm can be provided. This evidence-based algorithm outlines resuscitative efforts for the first 10-15 minutes after cardiac arrest, whereafter the algorithm repeats itself. Restoration of spontaneous...... circulation fails in most cases, but in some circumstances the patient may benefit from additional interventional approaches, in which case transport to hospital with ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation is indicated. This paper has summarized treatments outside the ALS algorithm, which may be beneficial...

  9. Bioregenerative life support system for a lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Wang, J.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.

    We have studied a modular approach to construction of bioregenerative life support system BLSS for a lunar base using soil-like substrate SLS for plant cultivation Calculations of massflow rates in BLSS were based mostly on a vegetarian diet and biological conversion of plant residues in SLS Plant candidate list for lunar BLSS includes the following basic species rice Oryza sativa soy Glycine max sweet potato Ipomoea batatas and wheat Triticum aestivum To reduce the time necessary for transition of the system to steady state we suggest that the first seeding and sprouting could be made on Earth

  10. Functional Interface Considerations within an Exploration Life Support System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Toomarian, Nikzad

    2016-01-01

    As notional life support system (LSS) architectures are developed and evaluated, myriad options must be considered pertaining to process technologies, components, and equipment assemblies. Each option must be evaluated relative to its impact on key functional interfaces within the LSS architecture. A leading notional architecture has been developed to guide the path toward realizing future crewed space exploration goals. This architecture includes atmosphere revitalization, water recovery and management, and environmental monitoring subsystems. Guiding requirements for developing this architecture are summarized and important interfaces within the architecture are discussed. The role of environmental monitoring within the architecture is described.

  11. Architecture and life support systems for a rotating space habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav

    Life Support Systems are critical to sustain human habitation of space over long time periods. As orbiting space habitats become operational in the future, support systems such as atmo-sphere, food, water etc. will play a very pivotal role in sustaining life. To design a long-duration space habitat, it's important to consider the full gamut of human experience of the environment. Long-term viability depends on much more than just the structural or life support efficiency. A space habitat isn't just a machine; it's a life experience. To be viable, it needs to keep the inhabitants satisfied with their condition. This paper provides conceptual research on several key factors that influence the growth and sustainability of humans in a space habitat. Apart from the main life support system parameters, the architecture (both interior and exterior) of the habitat will play a crucial role in influencing the liveability in the space habitat. In order to ensure the best possible liveability for the inhabitants, a truncated (half cut) torus is proposed as the shape of the habitat. This structure rotating at an optimum rpm will en-sure 1g pseudo gravity to the inhabitants. The truncated torus design has several advantages over other proposed shapes such as a cylinder or a sphere. The design provides minimal grav-ity variation (delta g) in the living area, since its flat outer pole ensures a constant gravity. The design is superior in economy of structural and atmospheric mass. Interior architecture of the habitat addresses the total built environment, drawing from diverse disciplines includ-ing physiology, psychology, and sociology. Furthermore, factors such as line of sight, natural sunlight and overhead clearance have been discussed in the interior architecture. Substantial radiation shielding is also required in order to prevent harmful cosmic radiations and solar flares from causing damage to inhabitants. Regolith shielding of 10 tons per meter square is proposed for the

  12. Confronting Uncertainty in Life Cycle Assessment Used for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Sohn, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    the decision maker (DM) in making the best possible choice for the environment. At present, some DMs do not trust the LCA to be a reliable decisionsupport tool—often because DMs consider the uncertainty of an LCA to be too large. The standard evaluation of uncertainty in LCAs is an ex-post approach that can...... regarding which type of LCA study to employ for the decision context at hand. This taxonomy enables the derivation of an LCA classification matrix to clearly identify and communicate the type of a given LCA. By relating the LCA classification matrix to statistical principles, we can also rank the different......The aim of this article is to help confront uncertainty in life cycle assessments (LCAs) used for decision support. LCAs offer a quantitative approach to assess environmental effects of products, technologies, and services and are conducted by an LCA practitioner or analyst (AN) to support...

  13. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.; Hezoucky, F.; Clark, R. C.; )

    2007-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  14. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  15. Life support and euthanasia, a perspective on Shaw's new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Jacob; Rodogno, Raffaele

    2011-02-01

    It has recently been suggested by Shaw (2007) that the distinction between voluntary active euthanasia, such as giving a patient a lethal overdose with the intention of ending that patient's life, and voluntary passive euthanasia, such as removing a patient from a ventilator, is much less obvious than is commonly acknowledged in the literature. This is argued by suggesting a new perspective that more accurately reflects the moral features of end-of-life situations. The argument is simply that if we consider the body of a mentally competent patient who wants to die, a kind of 'unwarranted' life support, then the distinction collapses. We argue that all Shaw has provided is a perspective that makes the conclusion that there is little distinction between voluntary active euthanasia and voluntary passive euthanasia only seemingly more palatable. In doing so he has yet to convince us that this perspective is superior to other perspectives and thus more accurately reflects the moral features of the situations pertaining to this issue.

  16. Evolution of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course: enhanced learning with a new debriefing tool and Web-based module for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Adam; Rodgers, David L; van der Jagt, Élise; Eppich, Walter; O'Donnell, John

    2012-09-01

    To describe the history of the Pediatric Advanced Life Support course and outline the new developments in instructor training that will impact the way debriefing is conducted during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses. The Pediatric Advanced Life Support course, first released by the American Heart Association in 1988, has seen substantial growth and change over the past few decades. Over that time, Pediatric Advanced Life Support has become the standard for resuscitation training for pediatric healthcare providers in North America. The incorporation of high-fidelity simulation-based learning into the most recent version of Pediatric Advanced Life Support has helped to enhance the realism of scenarios and cases, but has also placed more emphasis on the importance of post scenario debriefing. We developed two new resources: an online debriefing module designed to introduce a new model of debriefing and a debriefing tool for real-time use during Pediatric Advanced Life Support courses, to enhance and standardize the quality of debriefing by Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. In this article, we review the history of Pediatric Advanced Life Support and Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor training and discuss the development and implementation of the new debriefing module and debriefing tool for Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors. The incorporation of the debriefing module and debriefing tool into the 2011 Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructor materials will help both new and existing Pediatric Advanced Life Support instructors develop and enhance their debriefing skills with the intention of improving the acquisition of knowledge and skills for Pediatric Advanced Life Support students.

  17. Light, plants, and power for life support on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Alling, A.; Bubenheim, D.; Nelson, M.; Silverstone, S.

    2002-01-01

    Regardless of how well other growing conditions are optimized, crop yields will be limited by the available light up to saturation irradiances. Considering the various factors of clouds on Earth, dust storms on Mars, thickness of atmosphere, and relative orbits, there is roughly 2/3 as much light averaged annually on Mars as on Earth. On Mars, however, crops must be grown under controlled conditions (greenhouse or growth rooms). Because there presently exists no material that can safely be pressurized, insulated, and resist hazards of puncture and deterioration to create life support systems on Mars while allowing for sufficient natural light penetration as well, artificial light will have to be supplied. If high irradiance is provided for long daily photoperiods, the growing area can be reduced by a factor of 3-4 relative to the most efficient irradiance for cereal crops such as wheat and rice, and perhaps for some other crops. Only a small penalty in required energy will be incurred by such optimization. To obtain maximum yields, crops must be chosen that can utilize high irradiances. Factors that increase ability to convert high light into increased productivity include canopy architecture, high-yield index (harvest index), and long-day or day-neutral flowering and tuberization responses. Prototype life support systems such as Bios-3 in Siberia or the Mars on Earth Project need to be undertaken to test and further refine systems and parameters.

  18. Life Support Filtration System Trade Study for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) technical developments for highly reliable life support systems aim to maximize the viability of long duration deep space missions. Among the life support system functions, airborne particulate matter filtration is a significant driver of launch mass because of the large geometry required to provide adequate filtration performance and because of the number of replacement filters needed to a sustain a mission. A trade analysis incorporating various launch, operational and maintenance parameters was conducted to investigate the trade-offs between the various particulate matter filtration configurations. In addition to typical launch parameters such as mass, volume and power, the amount of crew time dedicated to system maintenance becomes an increasingly crucial factor for long duration missions. The trade analysis evaluated these parameters for conventional particulate matter filtration technologies and a new multi-stage particulate matter filtration system under development by NASAs Glenn Research Center. The multi-stage filtration system features modular components that allow for physical configuration flexibility. Specifically, the filtration system components can be configured in distributed, centralized, and hybrid physical layouts that can result in considerable mass savings compared to conventional particulate matter filtration technologies. The trade analysis results are presented and implications for future transit and surface missions are discussed.

  19. Advanced Technologies to Improve Closure of Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    As NASA looks beyond the International Space Station toward long-duration, deep space missions away from Earth, the current practice of supplying consumables and spares will not be practical nor affordable. New approaches are sought for life support and habitation systems that will reduce dependency on Earth and increase mission sustainability. To reduce launch mass, further closure of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) beyond the current capability of the ISS will be required. Areas of particular interest include achieving higher degrees of recycling within Atmosphere Revitalization, Water Recovery and Waste Management Systems. NASA is currently investigating advanced carbon dioxide reduction processes that surpass the level of oxygen recovery available from the Sabatier Carbon Dioxide Reduction Assembly (CRA) on the ISS. Candidate technologies will potentially improve the recovery of oxygen from about 50% (for the CRA) to as much as 100% for technologies who's end product is solid carbon. Improving the efficiency of water recycling and recovery can be achieved by the addition of advanced technologies to recover water from brines and solid wastes. Bioregenerative technologies may be utilized for water reclaimation and also for the production of food. Use of higher plants will simultaneously benefit atmosphere revitalization and water recovery through photosynthesis and transpiration. The level at which bioregenerative technologies are utilized will depend on their comparative requirements for spacecraft resources including mass, power, volume, heat rejection, crew time and reliability. Planetary protection requirements will need to be considered for missions to other solar system bodies.

  20. System Engineering and Integration of Controls for Advanced Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, David; Hoo, Karlene; Ciskowski, Marvin

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) project at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) was chartered to study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions. One of the first issues identified was an inability to conduct trade studies on control system architectures due to the absence of mature evaluation criteria. Such architectures are necessary to enable integration of regenerative life support systems. A team was formed to address issues concerning software and hardware architectures and system controls.. The team has investigated what is required to integrate controls for the types of non-linear dynamic systems encountered in advanced life support. To this end, a water processing bioreactor testbed is being developed which will enable prototyping and testing of integration strategies and technologies. Although systems such as the water bioreactors exhibit the complexities of interactions between control schemes most vividly, it is apparent that this behavior and its attendant risks will manifest itself among any set of interdependent autonomous control systems. A methodology for developing integration requirements for interdependent and autonomous systems is a goal of this team and this testbed. This paper is a high-level summary of the current status of the investigation, the issues encountered, some tentative conclusions, and the direction expected for further research.

  1. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  2. The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Santoro, N F; McGinn, A P; Wildman, R P; Derby, C A; Polotsky, A J; Weiss, G

    2010-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that psychosocial symptomatology differs by country of origin and acculturation among Hispanic women, we examined 419 women, aged 42-52 years at baseline, enrolled in the New Jersey site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Women were categorized into six groups: Central (CA, n = 29) or South American (SA, n = 106), Puerto Rican (PR, n = 56), Dominican (D, n = 42), Cuban (Cu, n = 44) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC, n = 142). Acculturation, depressive symptoms, hostility/cynicism, mistreatment/discrimination, sleep quality, social support, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline. Physical functioning, trait anxiety and anger were assessed at the fourth annual follow-up. Comparisons between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasians used χ², t test or non-parametric alternatives; ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing examined differences among the five Hispanic sub-groups. Multivariable regression models used PR women as the reference group. Hispanic women were overall less educated, less acculturated (p stress, and less mistreatment/discrimination than NHCs. Along with D women, PR women reported worse sleep than Cu women (p acculturated (21.4% highly acculturated vs. CA (0.0%), D (4.8%), SA (4.8%) and Cu (2.3%) women; p acculturation was associated with more favorable psychosocial status, but PR ethnicity was negatively related to psychosocial status. Psychosocial symptomatology among Hispanic women differs by country of origin and the relatively adverse profile of Puerto Rican women is not explained by acculturation.

  3. Psychosocial work environment and health in U.S. metropolitan areas: a test of the demand-control and demand-control-support models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Schoenbach, C

    1994-01-01

    The authors use confirmatory factor analysis to investigate the psychosocial dimensions of work environments relevant to health outcomes, in a representative sample of five U.S. metropolitan areas. Through an aggregated inference system, scales from Schwartz and associates' job scoring system and from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) were employed to examine two alternative models: the demand-control model of Karasek and Theorell and Johnson's demand-control-support model. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the two models. The two multidimensional models yielded better fits than an unstructured model. After allowing for the measurement error variance due to the method of assessment (Schwartz and associates' system or DOT), both models yielded acceptable goodness-of-fit indices, but the fit of the demand-control-support model was significantly better. Overall these results indicate that the dimensions of Control (substantive complexity of work, skill discretion, decision authority), Demands (physical exertion, physical demands and hazards), and Social Support (coworker and supervisor social supports) provide an acceptable account of the psychosocial dimensions of work associated with health outcomes.

  4. Working conditions and psychosocial risk factors of employees in French electricity and gas company customer support departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite the initial choice; high level of psychosocial risk factors.

  5. Relevance of psychosocial factors to quality of life in oral cancer and oral lichen planus: a prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Madiha; Kanatas, Anastasios; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rana, Majeed

    2015-09-01

    We can improve our understanding of how patients cope with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) by making a comparison with their processes of coping and those used in other conditions. We have therefore compared quality of life (QoL), severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and factors that influence coping between patients with oral SCC and those with oral lichen planus. We asked 104 patients with oral SCC and 51 with oral lichen planus to complete questionnaires about their coping strategies, social support, locus of control, spirituality, QoL, and severity of symptoms. The outcome was that patients with oral SCC were far more likely to resort to coping strategies such as depressive coping, distraction, and self-motivation. The groups also differed regarding QoL and severity of symptoms. Patients with oral SCC had a poorer QoL and higher depression scores, whereas patients with oral lichen planus had better scores in the social support and spirituality categories. Patients with oral SCC generally had more distress than those with oral lichen planus. Not only did the former resort to depressive coping strategies, but they also had poorer QoL and higher values for depression. For the patients with oral lichen planus, social support and spirituality were protective, whereas they were associated with distress by patients with oral SCC. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sustainable life support on Mars - the potential roles of cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Baqué, Mickael; Lehto, Kirsi; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Billi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Even though technological advances could allow humans to reach Mars in the coming decades, launch costs prohibit the establishment of permanent manned outposts for which most consumables would be sent from Earth. This issue can be addressed by in situ resource utilization: producing part or all of these consumables on Mars, from local resources. Biological components are needed, among other reasons because various resources could be efficiently produced only by the use of biological systems. But most plants and microorganisms are unable to exploit Martian resources, and sending substrates from Earth to support their metabolism would strongly limit the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of their cultivation. However, resources needed to grow specific cyanobacteria are available on Mars due to their photosynthetic abilities, nitrogen-fixing activities and lithotrophic lifestyles. They could be used directly for various applications, including the production of food, fuel and oxygen, but also indirectly: products from their culture could support the growth of other organisms, opening the way to a wide range of life-support biological processes based on Martian resources. Here we give insights into how and why cyanobacteria could play a role in the development of self-sustainable manned outposts on Mars.

  7. Development of Adaptive Coping From Mid to Late Life: A 70-Year Longitudinal Study of Defense Maturity and Its Psychosocial Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Joy, John S; Malone, Johanna C; Cui, Xing-Jia; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Hill, Kevin P; Rahman, M Omar; Waldinger, Robert J; Vaillant, George E

    2017-09-01

    The present study examines changes in defense maturity from mid to late life using data from an over 70-year longitudinal study. A sample of 72 men was followed beginning in late adolescence. Participants' childhoods were coded for emotional warmth. Defense mechanisms were coded by independent raters using the Q-Sort of Defenses (, Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers 217-233) based on interview data gathered at approximately ages 52 and 75. We examined psychosocial correlates of defenses at midlife, late life, and changes in defense from mid to late life. Overall, defenses grew more adaptive from midlife to late life. However, results differed on the basis of the emotional warmth experienced in the participants' childhoods. In midlife, men who experienced warm childhoods used more adaptive (mature) defenses; yet by late life, this difference in defensive maturity had disappeared. Men who experienced less childhood warmth were more likely to show an increase in adaptive defenses during the period from mid to late life.

  8. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB Care in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeepa Khanal

    Full Text Available Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25% and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB. While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68, four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011 framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  9. Students' satisfaction to hybrid problem-based learning format for basic life support/advanced cardiac life support teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilkoti, Geetanjali; Mohta, Medha; Wadhwa, Rachna; Saxena, Ashok Kumar; Sharma, Chhavi Sarabpreet; Shankar, Neelima

    2016-11-01

    Students are exposed to basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) training in the first semester in some medical colleges. The aim of this study was to compare students' satisfaction between lecture-based traditional method and hybrid problem-based learning (PBL) in BLS/ACLS teaching to undergraduate medical students. We conducted a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey among 118 1 st -year medical students from a university medical college in the city of New Delhi, India. We aimed to assess the students' satisfaction between lecture-based and hybrid-PBL method in BLS/ACLS teaching. Likert 5-point scale was used to assess students' satisfaction levels between the two teaching methods. Data were collected and scores regarding the students' satisfaction levels between these two teaching methods were analysed using a two-sided paired t -test. Most students preferred hybrid-PBL format over traditional lecture-based method in the following four aspects; learning and understanding, interest and motivation, training of personal abilities and being confident and satisfied with the teaching method ( P < 0.05). Implementation of hybrid-PBL format along with the lecture-based method in BLS/ACLS teaching provided high satisfaction among undergraduate medical students.

  10. Influence of physical and psychosocial work environment throughout life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    position, chronic disease and long-term sickness absence prior to baseline. DISCUSSION: The project will generate new knowledge on risk factors for loss of labor market attachment. The results will potentially contribute in identifying factors that could be targeted in future interventions for maintaining......BACKGROUND: As average life span increases, elderly will account for an increasing proportion of the total population in most parts of the world. Thus, initiatives to retain older workers at the labor market are becoming increasingly important. This study will investigate the influence of physical...... and psychosocial work environment throughout working life and physical and cognitive capacity in midlife on labor market attachment among older workers. METHODS/DESIGN: Approximately 5000 participants (aged 50-60 years) from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) will be followed prospectively...

  11. The relationship between social support and the level of anxiety, depression, and quality of life of Turkish women with gynecologic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Gul; Okdem, Seyda; Buyukgonenc, Lale; Ayhan, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are among the most common psychosocial problems with gynecologic cancer patients. In this respect, "social support" has become a key tool in the patients' coping with the aforementioned risk factors as an important contributor to their well-being. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between social support and the level of anxiety, depression, and quality of life of Turkish women with gynecologic cancer. In a hospital in Turkey, 187 women with a diagnosis of gynecologic cancer comprised a convenience sample and completed 4 study instruments in a cross-sectional design. Statistically significant correlations among type of perceived social support, quality of life, anxiety, and depression (P social support was associated with increased quality of life, it was also associated with reduced anxiety and depression rates. Our study showed that the type of perceived social support by the patients with cancer had significant effect on depression, anxiety, and quality of life. Social support is a powerful tool that can mediate the effects of difficult life stressors and decrease the incidence of mood disorders, and, therefore, greater importance should be attached to it in the realm of cancer treatment. Supported by the collaborative efforts of family members and healthcare professionals, cancer patients will more easily cope with the drawbacks of their state.

  12. Continuing psychosocial care needs in children with new-onset epilepsy and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Cheryl P; Buelow, Janice M; Austin, Joan K; Johnson, Cynthia S

    2009-10-01

    Children with new-onset epilepsy and their parents have many psychosocial care needs, including concerns and fears and needs for information and support. No prospective studies address psychosocial care needs at 12 and 24 months after seizure onset. It is unknown if psychosocial care needs are associated with children's attitudes toward having epilepsy or with parental responses to their child's epilepsy. Our study addresses this knowledge gap. Members of 143 families took part in the study. Children were 8 to 14 years old and had at least two seizures. Parents and children completed Psychosocial Care Need Scales at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the first seizure. Children also completed the Child Attitude Toward Illness Scale, and parents completed the Parent Response to Child Illness scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. Although psychosocial care needs were highest at the 3-month data collection for both parents and children, some worries and concerns and needs for information and support persisted for 24 months. In children, more psychosocial care needs were associated with more negative attitudes toward having epilepsy. In parents, high psychosocial care needs were associated with a more negative impact on family life. A substantial number of parents and children have unmet psychosocial care needs that are associated with more negative child attitudes and a negative impact on family life, even 24 months after the onset of seizures. Nurses should assess both children and parents for these needs at every encounter with the healthcare system to address their needs.

  13. Mass balances for a biological life support system simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Tyler; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Design decisions to aid the development of future space based biological life support systems (BLSS) can be made with simulation models. The biochemistry stoichiometry was developed for: (1) protein, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and lignin production in the edible and inedible parts of plants; (2) food consumption and production of organic solids in urine, feces, and wash water by the humans; and (3) operation of the waste processor. Flux values for all components are derived for a steady state system with wheat as the sole food source. The large scale dynamics of a materially closed (BLSS) computer model is described in a companion paper. An extension of this methodology can explore multifood systems and more complex biochemical dynamics while maintaining whole system closure as a focus.

  14. Reproducible analyses of microbial food for advanced life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gene R.

    1988-01-01

    The use of yeasts in controlled ecological life support systems (CELSS) for microbial food regeneration in space required the accurate and reproducible analysis of intracellular carbohydrate and protein levels. The reproducible analysis of glycogen was a key element in estimating overall content of edibles in candidate yeast strains. Typical analytical methods for estimating glycogen in Saccharomyces were not found to be entirely aplicable to other candidate strains. Rigorous cell lysis coupled with acid/base fractionation followed by specific enzymatic glycogen analyses were required to obtain accurate results in two strains of Candida. A profile of edible fractions of these strains was then determined. The suitability of yeasts as food sources in CELSS food production processes is discussed.

  15. Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support System (ASCLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Roger F.

    1987-01-01

    The Automated Subsystem Control for Life Support Systems (ASCLSS) program has successfully developed and demonstrated a generic approach to the automation and control of space station subsystems. The automation system features a hierarchical and distributed real-time control architecture which places maximum controls authority at the lowest or process control level which enhances system autonomy. The ASCLSS demonstration system pioneered many automation and control concepts currently being considered in the space station data management system (DMS). Heavy emphasis is placed on controls hardware and software commonality implemented in accepted standards. The approach demonstrates successfully the application of real-time process and accountability with the subsystem or process developer. The ASCLSS system completely automates a space station subsystem (air revitalization group of the ASCLSS) which moves the crew/operator into a role of supervisory control authority. The ASCLSS program developed over 50 lessons learned which will aide future space station developers in the area of automation and controls..

  16. Certified Basic Life Support Instructors Assess Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills Poorly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla; Rasmussen, Stinne E; Kristensen, Mette Amalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from cardiac arrest. During basic life support (BLS) training, instructors assess CPR skills to enhance learning outcome. Emergency department staff and senior residents have been shown to assess chest compression...... quality poorly. Currently no studies have evaluated CPR assessment among certified BLS instructors. The aim of this study was to investigate certified BLS instructors’ assessment of chest compressions and rescue breathing.Methods: Data were collected at BLS courses for medical students at Aarhus...... of CPR skills may be beneficial to ensure high-quality learning outcome.Author Disclosures: C. Hansen: None. S.E. Rasmussen: None. M.A. Nebsbjerg: None. M. Stærk: None. B. Løfgren: None....

  17. Microbiological characterization of a regenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. W.; Bruce, R. J.; Mishra, S. K.; Barta, D. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A Variable Pressure Plant Growth Chamber (VPGC), at the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) ground based Regenerative Life Support Systems (RLSS) test bed, was used to produce crops of soil-grown lettuce. The crops and chamber were analyzed for microbiological diversity during lettuce growth and after harvest. Bacterial counts for the rhizosphere, spent nutrient medium, heat exchanger condensate, and atmosphere were approximately 10(exp 11) Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g, 10(exp 5) CFU/ml, 10(exp 5)CFU/ml, and 600 CFU/m sq, repectively. Pseudomonas was the predominant bacterial genus. Numbers of fungi were about 10(exp 5) CFU/g in the rhizosphere, 4-200 CFU/ml in the spent nutient medium, 110 CFU/ml in the heat exchanger condensate, and 3 CFU/cu m in the atmosphere. Fusarium and Trichoderma were the predominant fungal genera.

  18. EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND BASIC LIFE SUPPORT FOR PNEUMOTHORAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Ade Punarbawa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chest injury is one injury that often occurs and need immediate and precise handling that prevent people from death. Chest trauma 1/4 of the trauma that caused the death and 1/3 of those deaths occur in hospitals. One chest injury that often we get to the health center is pneumothorax. WHO declared in 2020 the level of morbidity and mortality from chest injuries will increase, to become the second leading cause of death in the world. From this data that need to know the signs and symptoms of peneumotoraks, identify the signs and symptoms so we can provide basic life support to the patient before the patient was referred to a medical center nearby so as to reduce the morbidity and mortality in patients with pneumothorax.

  19. Reputation Life Cycle of The SM Foundation and Customers’ Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Alishahdani Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Reputation is a key construct in organizational sciences since reputation signals its past behavior and its prospect in the future. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and influence of both personal and organizational reputation and its impact to customer support. The organiza-tion life cycle theory is applied to the “SM” foundation, one of Indonesian largest Islamic social enterprise which experienced fast growth and decline due to the decline of its leader reputation. The case shows that personal reputation of leader is very important in the start-up and early development phase of the organization but it may threaten the organizational sustainability at a later stage when the leader’s personal reputation is conveyed into the organization reputation.

  20. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  1. Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) conceptual design option study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Melvin; Olson, Richard L.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of a study to explore options for the development of a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) for a future Space Station. In addition, study results will benefit the design of other facilities such as the Life Sciences Research Facility, a ground-based CELSS demonstrator, and will be useful in planning longer range missions such as a lunar base or manned Mars mission. The objectives were to develop weight and cost estimates for one CELSS module selected from a set of preliminary plant growth unit (PGU) design options. Eleven Space Station CELSS module conceptual PGU designs were reviewed, components and subsystems identified and a sensitivity analysis performed. Areas where insufficient data is available were identified and divided into the categories of biological research, engineering research, and technology development. Topics which receive significant attention are lighting systems for the PGU, the use of automation within the CELSS system, and electric power requirements. Other areas examined include plant harvesting and processing, crop mix analysis, air circulation and atmosphere contaminant flow subsystems, thermal control considerations, utility routing including accessibility and maintenance, and nutrient subsystem design.

  2. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  3. Comparison of Online and Traditional Basic Life Support Renewal Training Methods for Registered Professional Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M

    2015-01-01

    Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants.

  4. Prehospital interventions for penetrating trauma victims: a prospective comparison between Advanced Life Support and Basic Life Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Mark J; Doane, Stephen M; Gaughan, John P; Kulp, Heather; D'Andrea, Anthony P; Pathak, Abhijit S; Santora, Thomas A; Goldberg, Amy J; Wydro, Gerald C

    2013-05-01

    Advanced Life Support (ALS) providers may perform more invasive prehospital procedures, while Basic Life Support (BLS) providers offer stabilisation care and often "scoop and run". We hypothesised that prehospital interventions by urban ALS providers prolong prehospital time and decrease survival in penetrating trauma victims. We prospectively analysed 236 consecutive ambulance-transported, penetrating trauma patients an our urban Level-1 trauma centre (6/2008-12/2009). Inclusion criteria included ICU admission, length of stay >/=2 days, or in-hospital death. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between ALS and BLS patients. Single and multiple variable logistic regression analysis determined predictors of hospital survival. Of 236 patients, 71% were transported by ALS and 29% by BLS. When ALS and BLS patients were compared, no differences in age, penetrating mechanism, scene GCS score, Injury Severity Score, or need for emergency surgery were detected (p>0.05). Patients transported by ALS units more often underwent prehospital interventions (97% vs. 17%; p<0.01), including endotracheal intubation, needle thoracostomy, cervical collar, IV placement, and crystalloid resuscitation. While ALS ambulance on-scene time was significantly longer than that of BLS (p<0.01), total prehospital time was not (p=0.98) despite these prehospital interventions (1.8 ± 1.0 per ALS patient vs. 0.2 ± 0.5 per BLS patient; p<0.01). Overall, 69.5% ALS patients and 88.4% of BLS patients (p<0.01) survived to hospital discharge. Prehospital resuscitative interventions by ALS units performed on penetrating trauma patients may lengthen on-scene time but do not significantly increase total prehospital time. Regardless, these interventions did not appear to benefit our rapidly transported, urban penetrating trauma patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stressors, supports and the social ecology of displacement: psychosocial dimensions of an emergency education program for Chechen adolescents displaced in Ingushetia, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick

    2005-09-01

    This study explored the psychosocial benefits of an emergency education intervention serving adolescents displaced by the war in Chechnya. It set out to describe key stressors and sources of social support available to youth served by the International Rescue Committee's (IRC) emergency education program. Interviews were conducted with 57 Chechen adolescents living in spontaneous settlements in Ingushetia, Russia in the fall of 2000. Of particular interest was the degree to which the education program addressed specified psychosocial goals. Findings indicated that young people and their families faced a number of physical and emotional stressors. The data indicated that the emergency education program provided benefits by enriching sources of social support, providing meaningful activity and a sense of hope for the future, and creating a space for young people to spend time and connect to others. However, the contrast between the desire of adolescents "to live like other kids" and the options available to them presented a dilemma for the emergency education program: adolescents craved normalcy, but for any intervention to be delivered, it had to first begin with creative and adaptive strategies that were by no means a complete replacement for formal, mainstream education. The programmatic and policy implications of these findings are presented here.

  6. Closed bioregenerative life support systems: Applicability to hot deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V.

    2010-09-01

    Water scarcity in hot deserts, which cover about one-fifth of the Earth's land area, along with rapid expansion of hot deserts into arable lands is one of the key global environmental problems. As hot deserts are extreme habitats characterized by the availability of solar energy with a nearly complete absence of organic life and water, space technology achievements in designing closed ecological systems may be applicable to the design of sustainable settlements in the deserts. This review discusses the key space technology findings for closed biogenerative life support systems (CBLSS), which can simultaneously produce food, water, nutrients, fertilizers, process wastes, and revitalize air, that can be applied to hot deserts. Among them are the closed cycle of water and the acceleration of the cycling times of carbon, biogenic compounds, and nutrients by adjusting the levels of light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide, and air velocity over plant canopies. Enhanced growth of algae and duckweed at higher levels of carbon dioxide and light intensity can be important to provide complete water recycling and augment biomass production. The production of fertilizers and nutrients can be enhanced by applying the subsurface flow wetland technology and hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacteria for treating liquid and solid wastes. The mathematical models, optimization techniques, and non-invasive measuring techniques developed for CBLSS make it possible to monitor and optimize the performance of such closed ecological systems. The results of long-duration experiments performed in BIOS-3, Biosphere 2, Laboratory Biosphere, and other ground-based closed test facilities suggest that closed water cycle can be achieved in hot-desert bioregenerative systems using the pathways of evapotranspiration, condensation, and biological wastewater treatment technologies. We suggest that the state of the art in the CBLSS design along with the possibility of using direct sunlight for

  7. Don't Trust a Management Metric, Especially in Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2014-01-01

    Goodhart's law states that metrics do not work. Metrics become distorted when used and they deflect effort away from more important goals. These well-known and unavoidable problems occurred when the closure and system mass metrics were used to manage life support research. The intent of life support research should be to develop flyable, operable, reliable systems, not merely to increase life support system closure or to reduce its total mass. It would be better to design life support systems to meet the anticipated mission requirements and user needs. Substituting the metrics of closure and total mass for these goals seems to have led life support research to solve the wrong problems.

  8. Use of Intranasal Naloxone by Basic Life Support Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Mitchell, Patricia M; Temin, Elizabeth S; Langlois, Breanne K; Dyer, K Sophia

    2017-01-01

    Intranasal delivery of naloxone to reverse the effects of opioid overdose by Advanced Life Support (ALS) providers has been studied in several prehospital settings. In 2006, in response to the increase in opioid-related overdoses, a special waiver from the state allowed administration of intranasal naloxone by Basic Life Support (BLS) providers in our city. This study aimed to determine: 1) if patients who received a 2-mg dose of nasal naloxone administered by BLS required repeat dosing while in the emergency department (ED), and 2) the disposition of these patients. This was a retrospective review of patients transported by an inner-city municipal ambulance service to one of three academic medical centers. We included patients aged 18 and older that were transported by ambulance between 1/1/2006 and 12/12/2012 and who received intranasal naloxone by BLS providers as per a state approved protocol. Site investigators matched EMS run data to patients from each hospital's EMR and performed a chart review to confirm that the patient was correctly identified and to record the outcomes of interest. Descriptive statistics were then generated. A total of 793 patients received nasal naloxone by BLS and were transported to three hospitals. ALS intervened and transported 116 (14.6%) patients, and 11 (1.4%) were intubated in the field. There were 724 (91.3%) patients successfully matched to an ED chart. Hospital A received 336 (46.4%) patients, Hospital B received 210 (29.0%) patients, and Hospital C received 178 (24.6%) patients. Mean age was 36.2 (SD 10.5) years and 522 (72.1%) were male; 702 (97.1%) were reported to have abused heroin while 21 (2.9%) used other opioids. Nasal naloxone had an effect per the prehospital record in 689 (95.2%) patients. An additional naloxone dose was given in the ED to 64 (8.8%) patients. ED dispositions were: 507 (70.0%) discharged, 105 (14.5%) admitted, and 112 (15.5%) other (e.g., left against medical advice, left without being seen, or

  9. Application of NASA's Advanced Life Support Technologies in Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The problems of obtaining adequate pure drinking water and disposing of liquid and solid waste in the U.S Arctic, a region where virtually all water is frozen solid for much of the year, has led to unsanitary solutions. Sanitation and a safe water supply are particularly problems in rural villages. These villages are without running water and use plastic buckets for toilets. The outbreak of diseases is believed to be partially attributable to exposure to human waste and lack of sanitation. Villages with the most frequent outbreaks of disease are those in which running water is difficult to obtain. Waste is emptied into open lagoons, rivers, or onto the sea coast. It does not degrade rapidly and in addition to affecting human health, can be harmful to the fragile ecology of the Arctic and the indigenous wildlife and fish populations. Current practices for waste management and sanitation pose serious human hazards as well as threaten the environment. NASA's unique knowledge of water/wastewater treatment systems for extreme environments, identified in the Congressional Office of Technology Assessment report entitled An Alaskan Challenge: Native Villagt Sanitation, may offer practical solutions addressing the issues of safe drinking water and effective sanitation practices in rural villages. NASA's advanced life support technologies are being combined with Arctic science and engineering knowledge to address the unique needs of the remote communities of Alaska through the Advanced Life Systems for Extreme Environments (ALSEE) project. ALSEE is a collaborative effort involving the NASA, the State of Alaska, the University of Alaska, the North Slope Borough of Alaska, Ilisagvik College in Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF). The focus is a major issue in the State of Alaska and other areas of the Circumpolar North; the health and welfare of its people, their lives and the subsistence lifestyle in remote communities, economic opportunity, and care for the

  10. The protective functions of relationships, social support and self-esteem in the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chang, Yingli; He, Xuesong; Wu, Qiaobing

    2010-03-01

    At present, China has approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children accompanying their parents in relocating to the cities. However, very little is known about them. Using a resilience framework, the present study attempted to examine the psychosocial factors affecting their life satisfaction in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 migrant children were recruited from 10 schools in Shanghai through a cross-sectional survey design using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The questionnaire included measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, social support, relationships at school and the parent-child and peer relationships. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the relative effects of different relationship domains, self-esteem and social support on the life satisfaction of migrant children. The results suggested that parent-child and peer relationships significantly influenced the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers. Relationships in school did not exert such effect. Both social support and self-esteem had significant effects on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Relationship factors, social support and self-esteem are critical factors affecting the life satisfaction of migrant children. The findings and implications were discussed in relation to developmental and migration-related issues and the social contexts of the lives of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

  11. Subjective Quality of Life and Perceived Adequacy of Social Support ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    psychological processes, socio-demographic factors and subjective quality of life have often .... function of religious involvement, spirituality and personal meaning in life ...... Unpublished MA Thesis: Department of Psychology, AAU. Baarsen ...

  12. Psychosocial support and resilience building among health workers in Sierra Leone: interrelations between coping skills, stress levels, and interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Linda; Waller, Kathryn; Dowden, Justine; Fotso, Jean Christophe

    2015-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, a shortage of properly trained, supervised, motivated and equitably distributed health workers often hinder the delivery of lifesaving interventions. Various health workforce bottlenecks can be addressed by tackling well-being and interpersonal relationships of health workers with their colleagues and clients. This paper uses data from the Helping Health Workers Cope (HHWC) project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we describe the effect of counseling and psychosocial training on coping skills, stress levels, and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Second, we examine whether a change in coping skills is associated with a change in relationships. Finally, we qualitatively identify key ways through which the uptake of coping skills is linked to a change in relationships. The HHWC project was implemented from February 2012 to June 2013 in Kono district in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone, with the neighboring district of Tonkolili selected as the control site. The evaluation followed a mixed-methods approach, which included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and clients. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in coping skills, stress levels, and changes in relationships. Overall, the results demonstrate that the HHWC intervention had a positive effect on coping skills, stress levels and provider-provider and provider-client relationships. Furthermore, associations were observed between changes in coping skills and changes in relationships as well as changes in stress management skills and changes in relationships. Psychosocial education can have major impacts on health worker well-being and the quality of health care delivery. Integrating psychosocial counseling and training interventions into health worker pre-service and

  13. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of Life Support Recycling and Resupply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Brief human space missions supply all the crew's water and oxygen from Earth. The multiyear International Space Station (ISS) program instead uses physicochemical life support systems to recycle water and oxygen. This paper compares the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) of recycling to the LCC of resupply for potential future long duration human space missions. Recycling systems have high initial development costs but relatively low durationdependent support costs. This means that recycling is more cost effective for longer missions. Resupplying all the water and oxygen requires little initial development cost but has a much higher launch mass and launch cost. The cost of resupply increases as the mission duration increases. Resupply is therefore more cost effective than recycling for shorter missions. A recycling system pays for itself when the resupply LCC grows greater over time than the recycling LCC. The time when this occurs is called the recycling breakeven date. Recycling will cost very much less than resupply for long duration missions within the Earth-Moon system, such as a future space station or Moon base. But recycling would cost about the same as resupply for long duration deep space missions, such as a Mars trip. Because it is not possible to provide emergency supplies or quick return options on the way to Mars, more expensive redundant recycling systems will be needed.

  14. STUDENT ACADEMIC SUPPORT AS A PREDICTOR OF LIFE SATISFACTION IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Akýn; Serhat Arslan; Eyüp Çelik; Çýnar Kaya; Nihan Arslan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between Academic Support and Life Satisfaction. Participants were 458 university students who voluntarily filled out a package of self-report instruments. Student Academic Support Scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale were used as measures. The relationships between student academic support and life satisfaction were examined using correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis. Life satisfaction was predicted positively by info...

  15. Awareness of basic life support among dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baduni, Neha; Prakash, Prem; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Sanwal, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Bijender Pal

    2014-01-01

    It is important that every member of our community should be trained in effective BLS technique to save lives. At least doctors including dental practitioners, and medical and paramedical staff should be trained in high quality CPR, as it is a basic medical skill which can save many lives if implemented timely. Our aim was to study the awareness of Basic Life Support (BLS) among dental students and practitioners in New Delhi. This cross sectional study was conducted by assessing responses to 20 selected questions pertaining to BLS among dental students, resident doctors/tutors, faculty members and private practitioners in New Delhi. All participants were given a printed questionnaire where they had to mention their qualifications and clinical experience, apart from answering 20 questions. Data was collected and evaluated using commercially available statistical package for social sciences (SPSS version 12). One hundred and four responders were included. Sadly, none of our responders had complete knowledge about BLS. The maximum mean score (9.19 ± 1.23) was obtained by dentists with clinical experience between 1-5 years. To ensure better and safer healthcare, it is essential for all dental practitioners to be well versed with BLS.

  16. Reversible Ammonia Sorption for the Primary Life Support System (PLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Marek A.; Cosgrove, Joseph E.; Serio, Michael A.; Jennings, Mallory A.

    2012-01-01

    Results are presented on the development of regenerable trace-contaminant (TC) sorbent for use in Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), and more specifically in the Primary Life Support System (PLSS). Since ammonia is the most important TC to be captured, data presented in this paper are limited to ammonia sorption, with results relevant to other TCs to be reported at a later time. The currently available TC-control technology involves the use of a packed bed of acid-impregnated granular charcoal. The sorbent is non-regenerable, and its use is associated with appreciable pressure drop, i.e. power consumption. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using vacuum-regenerable sorbents for PLSS application. In this study, several carbon sorbent monoliths were fabricated and tested. Multiple adsorption/vacuum-regeneration cycles were demonstrated at room temperature, as well as carbon surface conditioning that enhances ammonia sorption without impairing sorbent regeneration. Depending on sorbent monolith geometry, the reduction in pressure drop with respect to granular sorbent was found to be between 50% and two orders of magnitude. Resistive heating of the carbon sorbent monolith was demonstrated by applying voltage to the opposite ends of the monolith.

  17. Life cycle assessment in support of sustainable transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2013-06-01

    In our rapidly urbanizing world, sustainable transportation presents a major challenge. Transportation decisions have considerable direct impacts on urban society, both positive and negative, for example through changes in transit times and economic productivity, urban connectivity, tailpipe emissions and attendant air quality concerns, traffic accidents, and noise pollution. Much research has been dedicated to quantifying these direct impacts for various transportation modes. Transportation planning decisions also result in a variety of indirect environmental and human health impacts, a portion of which can accrue outside of the transit service area and so outside of the local decision-making process. Integrated modeling of direct and indirect impacts over the life cycle of different transportation modes provides decision support that is more comprehensive and less prone to triggering unintended consequences than a sole focus on direct tailpipe emissions. The recent work of Chester et al (2013) in this journal makes important contributions to this research by examining the environmental implications of introducing bus rapid transit and light rail in Los Angeles using life cycle assessment (LCA). Transport in the LA region is dominated by automobile trips, and the authors show that potential shifts to either bus or train modes would reduce energy use and emissions of criteria air pollutants, on an average passenger mile travelled basis. This work compares not just the use of each vehicle, but also upstream impacts from its manufacturing and maintenance, as well as the construction and maintenance of the entire infrastructure required for each mode. Previous work by the lead author (Chester and Horvath 2009), has shown that these non-operational sources and largely non-local can dominate life cycle impacts from transportation, again on an average (or attributional) basis, for example increasing rail-related GHG emissions by >150% over just operational emissions

  18. Socioeconomic status and quality of life among Chinese American breast cancer survivors: The mediating roles of social support and social constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jin; Wang, Carol; Yeung, Nelson Chun Yiu; Lu, Qian

    2018-03-30

    Literature has well noted ethnic/racial disparities in cancer survival and cancer care. However, socioeconomic disparities in psychosocial adjustment to breast cancer have garnered little attention. This study addresses the research gap by investigating the associations between socioeconomic indicators (ie, education, annual personal, and household income) and quality of life (QOL) and the mediating roles of social support and social constraints (objective and subjective conditions that constrain individuals from disclosing cancer concerns) in these associations among Chinese American breast cancer survivors (CABCS). Ninety-six CABCS completed questionnaires assessing these variables. After controlling for stage of cancer, annual personal and household income had indirect effects on QOL through social support, and education showed indirect effect on QOL through social support and social constraints. Subscale analyses indicated that controlling for years of immigration, annual personal and household income showed indirect effect on functional well-being through social support. When controlling for stage of cancer and income, education showed indirect effects on physical well-being through social support and social constraints and showed both direct and indirect effects on breast cancer concerns through social constraints. This study suggested that socioeconomic indicators, education, and income could be associated with different aspects of QOL through unique interpersonal mechanisms among CABCS. Our findings implied that increasing social support and reducing social constraints when implementing psychosocial interventions for CABCS may help to address the SES-related health disparities. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Effect of chest compressions only during experimental basic life support on alveolar collapse and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markstaller, Klaus; Rudolph, Annette; Karmrodt, Jens; Gervais, Hendrik W; Goetz, Rolf; Becher, Anja; David, Matthias; Kempski, Oliver S; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Dick, Wolfgang F; Eberle, Balthasar

    2008-10-01

    The importance of ventilatory support during cardiac arrest and basic life support is controversial. This experimental study used dynamic computed tomography (CT) to assess the effects of chest compressions only during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCO-CPR) on alveolar recruitment and haemodynamic parameters in porcine model of ventricular fibrillation. Twelve anaesthetized pigs (26+/-1 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) both during basic life support and advanced cardiac life support, or (2) CCO during basic life support and IPPV during advanced cardiac life support. Measurements were acquired at baseline prior to cardiac arrest, during basic life support, during advanced life support, and after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), as follows: dynamic CT series, arterial and central venous pressures, blood gases, and regional organ blood flow. The ventilated and atelectatic lung area was quantified from dynamic CT images. Differences between groups were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and a pbasic life support in the CCO-CPR group remained clinically relevant throughout the subsequent advanced cardiac life support period and following ROSC, and was associated with prolonged impaired haemodynamics. No inter-group differences in myocardial and cerebral blood flow were observed. A lack of ventilation during basic life support is associated with excessive atelectasis, arterial hypoxaemia and compromised CPR haemodynamics. Moreover, these detrimental effects remain evident even after restoration of IPPV.

  20. The relationships of coping, negative thinking, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics with anxiety of young adult college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Jihan S R; Staten, Ruth Topsy; Lennie, Terry A; Hall, Lynne A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding young adults' anxiety requires applying a multidimensional approach to assess the psychosocial, behavioral, and cognitive aspects of this phenomenon. A hypothesized model of the relationships among coping style, thinking style, life satisfaction, social support, and selected demographics and anxiety among college students was tested using path analysis. A total of 257 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed an online survey. The independent variables were measured using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Brief Students' Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale, the Brief COPE Inventory, the Positive Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Cognition Checklist-Anxiety. The outcome, anxiety, was measured using the Anxiety subscale of the 21-item Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. Only negative thinking and maladaptive coping had a direct relationship with anxiety. Negative thinking was the strongest predictor of both maladaptive coping and anxiety. These findings suggest that helping undergraduates manage their anxiety by reducing their negative thinking is critical. Designing and testing interventions to decrease negative thinking in college students is recommended for future research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Teaching school children basic life support improves teaching and basic life support skills of medical students: A randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie; Meier-Klages, Vivian; Michaelis, Maria; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid; Zöllner, Christian; Kubitz, Jens Christian

    2016-11-01

    The "kids save lives" joint-statement highlights the effectiveness of training all school children worldwide in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to improve survival after cardiac arrest. The personnel requirement to implement this statement is high. Until now, no randomised controlled trial investigated if medical students benefit from their engagement in the BLS-education of school children regarding their later roles as physicians. The objective of the present study is to evaluate if medical students improve their teaching behaviour and CPR-skills by teaching school children in basic life support. The study is a randomised, single blind, controlled trial carried out with medical students during their final year. In total, 80 participants were allocated alternately to either the intervention or the control group. The intervention group participated in a CPR-instructor-course consisting of a 4h-preparatory seminar and a teaching-session in BLS for school children. The primary endpoints were effectiveness of teaching in an objective teaching examination and pass-rates in a simulated BLS-scenario. The 28 students who completed the CPR-instructor-course had significantly higher scores for effective teaching in five of eight dimensions and passed the BLS-assessment significantly more often than the 25 students of the control group (Odds Ratio (OR): 10.0; 95%-CI: 1.9-54.0; p=0.007). Active teaching of BLS improves teaching behaviour and resuscitation skills of students. Teaching school children in BLS may prepare medical students for their future role as a clinical teacher and support the implementation of the "kids save lives" statement on training all school children worldwide in BLS at the same time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatigue, psychosocial adaptation and quality of life one year after traumatic brain injury and suspected traumatic axonal injury; evaluations of patients and relatives: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson, Eva; Skoglund, Thomas; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2013-09-01

    To describe fatigue and its relationship to cognition, psychosocial adjustment, quality of life (QoL), work status and relative's experiences 12 months after suspected traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Eighteen patients were assessed with the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), the European Questionnaire 5 Dimensions health-related quality of life, the Glasgow Coma Outcome Scale Extended, and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) (patient and relative). Return to work was registered. At 1 year, fatigue still caused great problems in daily life. Although fatigue and cognition (BNIS) did not correlate, the more fatigued patients subjectively experienced significantly more cognitive dysfunction. Although D-FIS and QoL did not correlate, most patients reported that feelings of tiredness and dullness related to having lower QoL. However, lower QoL was associated with cognitive and attention disability (BNIS), subjective perception of executive dysfunction, lack of motivation, and mood disturbances (EBIQ). Neither fatigue nor cognition associated with return to work. The general consequences of TAI showed good agreement between patients' and relatives' experiences. The patient's subjective experience of the impact of TAI seems to be most essential, as it is the objective reality that the patient responds to, and this should therefore be assessed and treated.

  3. Robotics in a controlled, ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Gaines E.; Krom, Kimberly J.

    1993-01-01

    Controlled, Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) that utilize plants to provide food, water and oxygen could consume considerable amounts of labor unless crop production, recovery and processing are automated. Robotic manipulators equipped with special end-effectors and programmed to perform the sensing and materials handling tasks would minimize the amount of astronaut labor required. The Human Rated Test Facility (HRTF) planned for Johnson Space Center could discover and demonstrate techniques of crop production which can be reliably integrated with machinery to minimize labor requirements. Before the physical components (shelves, lighting fixtures, etc.) can be selected, a systems analysis must be performed to determine which alternative processes should be followed and how the materials handling tasks should be automated. Given that the current procedures used to grow crops in a CELSS may not be the best methods to automate, then what are the alternatives? How may plants be grown, harvested, processed for food, and the inedible components recycled? What commercial technologies current exist? What research efforts are underway to develop new technologies which might satisfy the need for automation in a CELSS? The answers to these questions should prove enlightening and provide some of the information necessary to perform the systems analysis. The planting, culturing, gathering, threshing and separation, food processing, and recovery of inedible portions of wheat were studied. The basic biological and materials handling processes of each task are defined and discussed. Current practices at Johnson Space Center and other NASA centers are described and compared to common production practices in the plant production industry. Technologies currently being researched which might be applicable are identified and illustrated. Finally, based on this knowledge, several scenarios are proposed for automating the tasks for wheat.

  4. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  5. Extracorporeal life support in the treatment of colchicine poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé-Helms, Julie; Rahmani, Hassène; Stiel, Laure; Tournoud, Christine; Sauder, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Ingestions of Colchicum autumnale may lead to severe poisoning. It begins with gastrointestinal symptoms and leukocytosis, followed by multi-organ failure with shock and a possible late recovery phase. Mortality is highly dependent on the ingested dose. We report a case of accidental C. autumnale poisoning with refractory cardiogenic shock and eventual survival after extracorporeal life support (ECLS). A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) on day 3 after ingestion of C. autumnale in a meal. She first suffered from nausea and vomiting leading to severe dehydration. She then developed multi-organ failure and refractory cardiogenic shock, with a mean arterial pressure nadir of 50 mmHg despite high doses of catecholamines and a left ventricular ejection fraction at 5-10%. Venous-arterial ECLS was therefore started at an initial rate of 3.5 L/min and 3,800 rev/min. Her symptoms also included pancytopenia on day 4 with diffuse bleeding requiring iterative blood product transfusion. Platelet and leukocyte count nadirs were 13 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 150-400 × 10(9)/L) and 0.77 × 10(9)/L (normal range: 4.2-10.7 × 10(9)/L), respectively. ECLS allowed good cardiac contractility recovery within a few days, with complications including bleeding made controllable. Indeed, because of hemostasis disorders, the patient presented hemoptysis and hematuria. She was treated with tranexamic acid and transfused with blood products. She received 15 erythrocyte concentrates, 13 platelet concentrates, and 7 fresh frozen plasma. ECLS was removed by day 10, with subsequent weaning from mechanical ventilation as well as from hemodialysis in the following days. This patient survives after the use of ECLS in Colchicum poisoning, with controllable complications. Thus, ECLS might be indicated to overcome the potentially refractory cardiogenic shock phase.

  6. Evaluation of a newly developed media-supported 4-step approach for basic life support training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopka Saša

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The quality of external chest compressions (ECC is of primary importance within basic life support (BLS. Recent guidelines delineate the so-called 4“-step approach” for teaching practical skills within resuscitation training guided by a certified instructor. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a “media-supported 4-step approach” for BLS training leads to equal practical performance compared to the standard 4-step approach. Materials and methods After baseline testing, 220 laypersons were either trained using the widely accepted method for resuscitation training (4-step approach or using a newly created “media-supported 4-step approach”, both of equal duration. In this approach, steps 1 and 2 were ensured via a standardised self-produced podcast, which included all of the information regarding the BLS algorithm and resuscitation skills. Participants were tested on manikins in the same mock cardiac arrest single-rescuer scenario prior to intervention, after one week and after six months with respect to ECC-performance, and participants were surveyed about the approach. Results Participants (age 23 ± 11, 69% female reached comparable practical ECC performances in both groups, with no statistical difference. Even after six months, there was no difference detected in the quality of the initial assessment algorithm or delay concerning initiation of CPR. Overall, at least 99% of the intervention group (n = 99; mean 1.5 ± 0.8; 6-point Likert scale: 1 = completely agree, 6 = completely disagree agreed that the video provided an adequate introduction to BLS skills. Conclusions The “media-supported 4-step approach” leads to comparable practical ECC-performance compared to standard teaching, even with respect to retention of skills. Therefore, this approach could be useful in special educational settings where, for example, instructors’ resources are sparse or large-group sessions

  7. Life-sustaining support: ethical, cultural, and spiritual conflicts part I: Family support--a neonatal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutts, Amy; Schloemann, Johanna

    2002-04-01

    As medical knowledge and technology continue to increase, so will types of life-sustaining support as well as the public's expectations for use of this support with positive outcomes. Health care professionals will continue to be challenged by the issues surrounding the appropriate use of life-sustaining support and the issues it raises. This is especially apparent in the NICU. When parents' belief systems challenge the health care team's ethical commitment to beneficence and nonmaleficence, a shared decision-making model based on mutual understanding of and respect for different viewpoints can redirect the focus onto the baby's best interest. This article addresses three questions: 1. How do nonmaleficence, beneficence, and concern about quality of life guide the use of life-sustaining support? 2. To what extent should parental autonomy and spirituality influence treatment decisions? 3. What efforts can the health care team make to support the family?

  8. Precursor life science experiments and closed life support systems on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, A.; Paille, C.; Rebeyre, P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, C.

    Nowadays the Moon is not only a scientific exploration target but also potentially also a launch pad for deeper space exploration. Establishing an extended human presence on the Moon could reduce the cost of further space exploration, and gather the technical and scientific experience that would make possible the next steps of space exploration, namely manned-missions to Mars. To enable the establishment of such a Moon base, a reliable and regenerative life support system (LSS) is required: without any recycling of metabolic consumables (oxygen, water and food), a 6-person crew during the course of one year would require a supply of 12t from Earth (not including water for hygiene purposes), with a prohibitive associated cost! The recycling of consumables is therefore mandatory for a combination of economic, logistical and also safety reasons. Currently the main regenerative technologies used, namely water recycling in the ISS, are physical-chemical but they do not solve the issue of food production. In the European Space Agency, for the last 15 years, studies are being performed on several life support topics, namely in air revitalisation, food, water and waste management, contaminants, monitoring and control. Ground demonstration, namely the MELiSSA Pilot Plant and Concordia Station, and simulation studies demonstrated the studies feasibility and the recycling levels are promising. To be able to build LSS in a Moon base, the temperature amplitude, the dust and its 14-day night, which limits solar power supply, should be regarded. To reduce these technical difficulties, a landing site should be carefully chosen. Considering the requirements of a mission to the Moon and within the Aurora programme phase I, a preliminary configuration for a regenerative LSS can be proposed as an experiment for a precursor mission to the Moon. An overview of the necessary LSS to a Moon base will be presented, identifying Moon?s specific requirements and showing preliminary

  9. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, T; Schaub, R; Hiestermann, A; Kirschner, W; Robra, B P

    2000-08-01

    To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems. Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted. East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991. Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%). Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Or(age adjusted)= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin. For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health.

  10. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Partnered Development of Cryogenic Life Support Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cryogenic life support technology, used by NASA to protect crews working around hazardous gases soon could be called on for a number of life-saving applications as...

  11. Influences on Employee Perceptions of Organizational Work-Life Support: Signals and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcour, Monique; Ollier-Malaterre, Ariane; Matz-Costa, Christina; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie; Brown, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined predictors of employee perceptions of organizational work-life support. Using organizational support theory and conservation of resources theory, we reasoned that workplace demands and resources shape employees' perceptions of work-life support through two mechanisms: signaling that the organization cares about their work-life…

  12. Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren with Disabilities: Sources of Support and Family Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, Karen E.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Kelley, Susan J.

    2014-01-01

    Sources of support and quality of life of 50 grandmother-headed families raising grandchildren with and without disabilities were examined. Comparative analyses revealed significant differences between grandmothers raising grandchildren with and without disabilities in regard to sources of support and family quality of life. Informal support was…

  13. Disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy. Effect on psychosocial support requirement; Krankheitsspezifische Belastungen von Tumorpatienten zu Beginn einer Strahlentherapie. Auswirkungen auf den psychosozialen Betreuungsbedarf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlen, S.; Hollenhorst, H.; Schymura, B.; Firsching, M.; Duehmke, E. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Aydemir, U. [Inst. fuer Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany); Herschbach, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Psychosomatische Medizin, Psychotherapie und medizinische Psychologie

    2001-10-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy brings a tumor patient into a special life situation in which different variables play a role of often unknown importance. The goal of this study was to investigate disease specific stress of tumor patients at the beginning of radiotherapy with established psychodiagnostic questionnaires and to evaluate the effect on psychosocial support requirement in order to reduce stress and to improve quality of life and compliance during radiotherapeutical treatment. Patients and Methods: 732 patients were screened, of whom 446 (60.9%) fulfilled the criteria for inclusion (refusals 21.0%, low Karnofsky performance status 6.6%, management problems 3.4%, language barriers 3.0%, cognitive restrictions 2.6%, death 2.5%). Disease specific aspects of stress in the questionnaire (Fragebogen zur Belastung von Krebspatienten, FBK), life situation (LS) and self-defined care requirements (BB) were self-rated by patients with different tumor types before radiotherapy. Medical and sociodemographic data were also documented. We investigated 446 patients (262 male, 184 female; median age 60.0 years) with different diagnoses. Results: Stress was observed mainly due to reduction of efficiency, anxiety and pain on the subscales. Women had a significant higher stress on subscales of pain (p=0.016) and anxiety (p=0.009), patients younger than 45 years in the subscale information (p=0.002) and patients older than 45 and younger than 60 years in the subscale anxiety (p=0.002) and the total score (p=0.003). Patients with mamma carcinoma had the highest stress. The maximum percentages of patients under high stress were found for the subscales of efficiency (43%) and anxiety (40%). The support requirement was characterized by the need of more medical information and dialogue with the doctor. We saw a significant correlation of high stress and high care requirement. Conclusions: Psychosocial support should be founded on psychosocial stress diagnostic and self-defined care

  14. Breastfeeding Support in the Workplace: The Relationships Among Breastfeeding Support, Work-Life Balance, and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzer, Amanda M; Anderson, Jenn; Kuehl, Rebecca A

    2018-05-01

    Women are increasingly faced with decisions about how to combine breastfeeding with work, but few researchers have directly measured how breastfeeding relates to the work-life interface. Research aim: The authors examined how perceptions of work enhancement of personal life and work interference with personal life were influenced by workplace breastfeeding support, including organizational, manager, and coworker support, as well as adequate time to express human milk. Then, we examined how workplace breastfeeding support predicted work-life variables and job satisfaction. Using a self-report, survey design, the authors analyzed online surveys from 87 women in a rural, community sample who indicated that they had pumped at work or anticipated needing to pump in the future. According to regression results, provision of workplace breastfeeding support, particularly providing adequate time for human milk expression, predicted work enhancement of personal life. Conversely, we found that as workplace support diminished, employees perceived greater work interference with personal life. Results of path analysis further suggested that providing time for expressing milk improved job satisfaction via a partially mediated relationship where work enhancement of personal life acted as a mediator. These results suggest that employers can enhance the lives of their breastfeeding employees both at work and at home by providing workplace breastfeeding support, especially through providing time for expressing human milk in the workplace.

  15. Supporting Sustainable Markets Through Life Cycle Assessment: Evaluating emerging technologies, incorporating uncertainty and the consumer perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merugula, Laura

    As civilization's collective knowledge grows, we are met with the realization that human-induced physical and biological transformations influenced by exogenous psychosocial and economic factors affect virtually every ecosystem on the planet. Despite improvements in energy generation and efficiencies, demand of material goods and energy services increases with no sign of a slowing pace. Sustainable development requires a multi-prong approach that involves reshaping demand, consumer education, sustainability-oriented policy, and supply chain management that does not serve the expansionist mentality. Thus, decision support tools are needed that inform developers, consumers, and policy-makers for short-term and long-term planning. These tools should incorporate uncertainty through quantitative methods as well as qualitatively informing the nature of the model as imperfect but necessary and adequate. A case study is presented of the manufacture and deployment of utility-scale wind turbines evaluated for a proposed change in blade manufacturing. It provides the first life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluating impact of carbon nanofibers, an emerging material, proposed for integration to wind power generation systems as blade reinforcement. Few LCAs of nanoproducts are available in scientific literature due to research and development (R&D) for applications that continues to outpace R&D for environmental, health, and safety (EHS) and life cycle impacts. LCAs of emerging technologies are crucial for informing developers of potential impacts, especially where market growth is swift and dissipative. A second case study is presented that evaluates consumer choice between disposable and reusable beverage cups. While there are a few studies that attempt to make the comparison using LCA, none adequately address uncertainty, nor are they representative for the typical American consumer. By disaggregating U.S. power generation into 26 subregional grid production mixes and evaluating

  16. Judocas olímpicos Brasileiros: fatores de apoio psicossocial para o desenvolvimento do talento esportivo Olympic judo athletes: psychosocial support elements to sports talent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Massa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o judô possua tradição olímpica, pouco se conhece sobre os aspectos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do talento no cenário nacional. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os fatores de apoio psicossocial presentes no desenvolvimento de judocas brasileiros talentosos do sexo masculino. Para tanto, se utilizou uma amostra de seis judocas, pertencentes à seleção brasileira nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas, 2004. A pesquisa foi constituída através de um delineamento qualitativo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista composta por três perguntas abertas. Para a análise dos resultados foi utilizado o "Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo". Os discursos indicaram a importância dos fatores relacionados : a ao apoio da família; b ao prazer pela prática; e c a determinação dos judocas, corroborando com a literatura internacional no que tange a relevância dos fatores psicossociais para o desenvolvimento do talento em diferentes domínios do conhecimento.Although judo is a traditional Olympic Sport in Brazil, little is known regarding the key aspects to develop talents at the national scenario. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychosocial supporting factors that are seen in the development of talented male Brazilian Judo athletes. A sample of 6 athletes that were in the Athens Olympic Games of 2004 was studied. Research was designed on qualitative basis and used a three open questions interview as investigative tool. Results were analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject. Discourses indicated as important, factors related to: a family support; b pleasure in practice; and c athletes determination, reinforcing the international scientific literature regarding the importance of psychosocial factors to talent development in several knowledge domains.

  17. Is Vitamin E Life Supporter for Gamma Irradiated Galleria Mollenella?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted to determine the effect of vitamin E separate or combined with gamma ray in semi artificial diets on some biological aspects of the Greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Pyralidae : Lepidoptera). The increase in the average number of eggs per mated female for more than 70 % of the control in both treated male and female. Also, through the F1 generation (descendant of P1 progeny fed on artificial diet plus vitamin E) in either irradiated male or female at 100 and 300 Gy dose levels. The life supporter of vitamin E clearly demonstrates throughout F1 whose offspring fed on artificial diet plus Vitamin E, also more pronounced during the first generation treated with gamma irradiation (100 and 300 Gray) which descendant from the offspring were fed on the artificial diet containing Vitamin E (0.02%) than that treatments which treated with gamma irradiation only. The average weight of larvae and pupae significantly increase by using petroleum ether only or this may be abnormal. The average weight of larvae and pupae at the concentration 0.02% was 105.07 and 121.87 % from the control treatment, respectively then decreased to 67.86 and 75.12%, respectively from the control treatment at the concentration 0.04% and then increase at the two concentrations 0.06 and 0.08 %. The increase in weight gain in the case combined ( 100 Gy or 300 Gy with Vitamin E) more than in case using a single dose of gamma irradiation , the increase in case 300 Gy only or combined with Vitamin E more than the control treatment. The best result in case of Vitamin (E) only then when treated the pest with gamma radiation after Vitamin (E) and the effect at 100 Gy better than in case 300 Gy. The combined effect of sub sterilizing dose (300 Gy) and sterilizing doses (400 and 500 Gy) of gamma radiation and vitamin E on the mating competitiveness of F1 males G. Mellenella shows that the competitiveness values more than 1.0 at the combined VE and the two dose levels 400 and 500 Gy

  18. The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Polonskaya, Janna

    The perspective crops for the bioregenerative human life support systems V.I. Polonskiy, J.E. Polonskaya aKrasnoyarsk State Agrarian University, 660049, Krasnoyarsk, Russia In the nearest future the space missions will be too long. In this case it is necessary to provide the crew by vitamins, antioxidants, and water-soluble dietary fibers. These compounds will be produced by higher plants. There was not enough attention at present to increasing content of micronutrients in edible parts of crops candidates for CELSS. We suggested to add the new crops to this list. 1. Barley -is the best crop for including to food crops (wheat, rice, soybean). Many of the health effects of barley are connected to dietary fibers beta-glucan of barley grains. Bar-ley is the only seed from cereals including wheat with content of all eight tocopherols (vitamin E, important antioxidant). Barley grains contain much greater amounts of phenolic compounds (potential antioxidant activities) than other cereal grains. Considerable focus is on supplement-ing wheat-based breads with barley to introduce the inherent nutritional advantages of barley flour, currently only 20We have selected and tested during 5 generations two high productive barley lines -1-K-O and 25-K-O. Our investigations (special breeding program for improving grain quality of barley) are in progress. 2. Volatile crops. Young leaves and shoots of these crops are edible and have a piquant taste. A lot of organic volatile compounds, oils, vitamins, antioxidants are in their biomass. These micronutrients are useful for good appetite and health of the crew. We have investigated 11 species: basil (Ocimum basilicum), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), marjoram (Origanum majorana), sweet-Mary (Melissa officinalis), common thyme (Thymus vulgaris), creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), catnip (Nepeta cataria), rue (Ruta graveolens), coriander (Coriandrum Ativum), sulfurwort (Levisticum officinale). These

  19. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  20. (abstract) Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support systems and process technology options for a Lunar Base and a Mars Exploration Mission.

  1. Psychosocial predictors of coronary artery calcification progression in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Matthews, Karen A; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been associated with psychosocial factors in some but not all cross-sectional analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether positive and negative psychosocial factors prospectively predict CAC progression in postmenopausal women. Participants from the Healthy Women Study who also participated in the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center protocol (n = 149) completed self-report psychosocial measures before two electron beam computed tomographic scans of CAC separated by an average of 3.3 years. Results of exploratory factor analysis were used to create aggregate psychosocial indices: psychological risk (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, cynicism, and anger-in) and psychosocial resources (optimism, purpose in life, mastery, self-esteem, and social support). The psychological risk index predicted significantly greater CAC progression over 3 years (β = 0.16, p = .035, ΔR(2) = 0.03), whereas the psychosocial resources index was not predictive of CAC progression (β = -0.08, p = .30, ΔR(2) = 0.01). On individual scales, higher scores on cynicism emerged as a significant predictor of CAC progression, along with a trend linking anger-in to atherosclerosis progression. A post hoc analysis showed a significant interaction between cynicism and anger-in (β = 0.20, p = .01, ΔR(2) = 0.03), such that women reporting high levels of both cynicism and anger suppression exhibited the most CAC progression. These findings highlight psychosocial risk factors that may accelerate the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis in older women, suggest the potential importance of examining combinations of psychosocial risk factors, and identify potential targets for psychological interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  2. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is evaluating Dutyion™, a phase change permeation membrane technology developed by Design Technology and Irrigation (DTI), for use in future advanced life...

  3. Nanostructured Humidity Sensor for Spacecraft Life Support Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Humidity is a critical variable for monitoring and control on extended duration missions because it can affect the operation and efficiency of closed loop life...

  4. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  5. Generic Modeling of a Life Support System for Process Technology Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, J. F.; Seshan, P. K.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ganapathi, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simulation model called the Life Support Systems Analysis Simulation Tool (LiSSA-ST), the spreadsheet program called the Life Support Systems Analysis Trade Tool (LiSSA-TT), and the Generic Modular Flow Schematic (GMFS) modeling technique. Results of using the LiSSA-ST and the LiSSA-TT will be presented for comparing life support system and process technology options for a Lunar Base with a crew size of 4 and mission lengths of 90 and 600 days. System configurations to minimize the life support system weight and power are explored.

  6. Pengaruh Persepsi Dukungan Organisasi Terhadap Work-Life Balance (The Influence of Perceived Organizational Support toward Work-Life Balance)

    OpenAIRE

    Sianturi, Elisabet Damayanti

    2017-01-01

    121301107 Work-life balance merupakan suatu keadaan dimana individu merasa terikat dan puas terhadap kehidupan pekerjaan dan kehidupan keluarganya. Salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi work-life balance adalah organizational support (dukungan organisasi). Dalam hal ini, dukungan organisasi sangat penting karena ketersediaan dukungan terhadap karyawan dalam menjalankan perannya di tempat kerja dan keluarga akan membuat karyawan merasa bahwa organisasi memperhatikan kesejaht...

  7. Adverse Psychosocial, socioeconomic, and developmental processes and risk of inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

    Introduction: Identifying risk factors for inflammation and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different times over life could help to inform on prevention strategies aimed at reducing the later monetary and human cost associated with T2DM and inflammatory mediated diseases. Aim: The overall......, the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Women’s Health Initiative-Observational Study. All three of the data sets included comprehensive life style, socioeconomic and health status measurements and a clinical examination. The two main statistical methods employed in this thesis are path analysis...... and multivariable logistic regression. Results: In study I, maternal pre-pregnancy-BMI was associated with offspring inflammation through its effect on offspring body weight in adult life. Higher body weight at birth was protective against later inflammation independently of adult body size however increases...

  8. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support: the quality of life of maternal caregivers of children with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar B. Thorsteinsson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To examine maternal functioning and wellbeing as important aspects of a family’s adaptation to chronic paediatric conditions, in particular, children with diabetes. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the difference between the perceived quality of life of mothers of children with diabetes (n = 63 and mothers of children without diabetes (n = 114. The study also examined the role of self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, number of social support providers, and satisfaction with social support in predicting quality of life. Results Mothers who had a child with diabetes had lower quality of life measured by general health, vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, and mental health than mothers that did not have a child with diabetes. Self-efficacy, relationship satisfaction, and social support were significant predictors of quality of life (mental health domain. Conclusion In order to enhance their psychological wellbeing, mothers of children with diabetes require adequate psychosocial support. Other implications for research and potential interventions are discussed.

  9. Time, Interaction, and Design in Support of a Good Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froes, Isabel Cristina G.; Laaksolahti, Jarmo Matti; Witzner Hansen, Dan

    development. Our ongoing investigation of Interaction Design for a Good Life (http://itu.dk/IxDLab/) has uncovered a broad diversity of perspectives on how to unpack ‘a good life’ through research and design, and indeed what constitutes a good life to begin with. Through our investigations, time has surfaced...... as pivotal to our budding understanding of elements of a good life and a useful framing for future investigations. Time is also an important topic for interaction design, because it is at the core of interaction, the practice of design, and, in many ways, our use and relationships with technological......This position paper outlines a research program for the IxD Research Group at the IT University of Copenhagen. As such, it presents a range of questions addressing different corners of the question of time in IxD from the point of view of HCI, social interaction, material expressions, and software...

  10. Hydroponic cultivation of soybean for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSSs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascale, Stefania; De Micco, Veronica; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta

    For long time our research group has been involved in experiments aiming to evaluate the possibility to cultivate plants in Space to regenerate resources and produce food. Apart from investigating the response of specific growth processes (at morpho-functional levels) to space factors (namely microgravity and ionising radiation), wide attention has been dedicated to agro-technologies applied to ecologically closed systems. Based on technical and human dietary requirements, soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is studied as one of the candidate species for hydroponic (soilless) cultivation in the research program MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) of the European Space Agency (ESA). Soybean seeds show high nutritional value, due to the relevant content of protein, lipids, dietary fiber and biologically active substances such as isoflavones. They can produce fresh sprouts or be transformed in several edible products (soymilk and okara or soy pulp). Soybean is traditionally grown in open field where specific interactions with soil microrganisms occur. Most available information on plant growth, seed productivity and nutrient composition relate to cultivated varieties (cultivars) selected for soil cultivation. However, in a space outpost, plant cultivation would rely on soilless systems. Given that plant growth, seed yield and quality strictly depend on the environmental conditions, to make successful the cultivation of soybean in space, it was necessary to screen all agronomic information according to space constraints. Indeed, selected cultivars have to comply with the space growth environment while providing a suitable nutritional quality to fulfill the astronauts needs. We proposed an objective criterion for the preliminary theoretical selection of the most suitable cultivars for seed production, which were subsequently evaluated in bench tests in hydroponics. Several Space-oriented experiments were carried out in a closed growth chamber to

  11. Modeling snail breeding in Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Nickolay Manukovsky, D..

    It is known that snail meat is a high quality food that is rich in protein. Hence, heliciculture or land snail farming spreads worldwide because it is a profitable business. The possibility to use the snails of Helix pomatia in Biological Life Support System (BLSS) was studied by Japanese Researches. In that study land snails were considered to be producers of animal protein. Also, snail breeding was an important part of waste processing, because snails were capable to eat the inedible plant biomass. As opposed to the agricultural snail farming, heliciculture in BLSS should be more carefully planned. The purpose of our work was to develop a model for snail breeding in BLSS that can predict mass flow rates in and out of snail facility. There are three linked parts in the model called “Stoichiometry”, “Population” and “Mass balance”, which are used in turn. Snail population is divided into 12 age groups from oviposition to one year. In the submodel “Stoichiometry” the individual snail growth and metabolism in each of 12 age groups are described with stoichiometry equations. Reactants are written on the left side of the equations, while products are written on the right side. Stoichiometry formulas of reactants and products consist of four chemical elements: C, H, O, N. The reactants are feed and oxygen, products are carbon dioxide, metabolic water, snail meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs. If formulas of substances in the stoichiometry equations are substituted with their molar masses, then stoichiometry equations are transformed to the equations of molar mass balance. To get the real mass balance of individual snail growth and metabolism one should multiply the value of each molar mass in the equations on the scale parameter, which is the ratio between mass of monthly consumed feed and molar mass of feed. Mass of monthly consumed feed and stoichiometry coefficients of formulas of meat, shell, feces, slime and eggs should be determined experimentally

  12. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  13. Developmental Language Disorders--A Follow-Up in Later Adult Life. Cognitive, Language and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, J.; Hollis, C.; Mawhood, L.; Rutter, M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the adult outcome and longitudinal trajectory of childhood developmental language disorders (DLD) and on the prognostic predictors. Method: Seventeen men with a severe receptive DLD in childhood, reassessed in middle childhood and early adult life, were studied again in their mid-thirties with tests of intelligence…

  14. The relationship between social support and health-related quality of life in patients with antiphospholipid (hughes) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Sofia; Efraimidou, Sofia; MacLennan, Sara Jane; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Cox, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS) is recognised as a systemic autoimmune disease defined by recurrent thromboembolic events and/or pregnancy morbidity. Little is known about the psychological burden of this long-term condition. This study aims to explore the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with APS. A total of 270 patients with a clinical diagnosis of APS participated in a cross-sectional online questionnaire survey. Data included demographics, disease-related information, social support and HRQoL. Both perceived and ideal social support were associated with HRQoL in APS. Patients reported receiving insufficient social support. Perceived emotional support was related to physical functioning (B = 7.77, p = .006, 95% CI: 2.25, 13.29); perceived instrumental support was associated with bodily pain (B = 17.52, p support with physical and social functioning (B = -6.30, p = .05, 95% CI: -12.52, -0.08; B = 8.06, p = .02, 95% CI: 1.17, 14.94). Ideal emotional support was related to physical and social functioning (B = 5.80, p = .04, 95% CI: 0.26, 11.34; B = 7.53, p = .04, 95% CI: 0.55, 14.51); ideal instrumental support was associated with mental health (B = 4.73, p = .03, 95% CI: 0.38, 9.07) and ideal informational support with vitality (B = 5.85, p = .01, 95% CI: 1.23, 10.46). Social support was linked to HRQoL in patients with APS. Insufficient social support was associated with limitations in various HRQoL domains. Increasing social support especially through provision of disease-specific education might contribute to improving HRQoL in patients with APS. Patient-tailored interventions addressing psychosocial aspects of living with APS are needed to improve patients' psychological and physical status.

  15. Successful outsourcing: improving quality of life through integrated support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason; Sharratt, Martin; King, John

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the way that non-clinical support services are provided in healthcare settings through outsourcing partnerships. The integrated support services model and benefits to patient experience and safety as well as organizational efficiency and effectiveness are explored through an examination of services at a busy urban community hospital.

  16. European top managers' support for work-life arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, W.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357424662

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, work-life arrangements increasingly became an integral part of the organization of work. Arrangements such as telecommuting, flextime, part-time hours, and various types of leave arrangements are available to employees in many organizations. Top managers, such as CEOs, CFOs and

  17. Effect of 16 Weeks Walking With Different Dosages on Psychosocial Function Related Quality of Life Among 60 to 75 Years Old Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Karimi Torghabeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of current semi-experimental study was a survey on effect Abstract  of 16 week walking on psychosocial functioning related to quality of life among 60 to 75 years old men. Methods & Materials: For this reason, short form of health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36 and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS had been distributed to the subjects at 2 times of pre-test and posttest. Statistical sample of current study was 60 to 75 years old men who placed at Kahrizak house and assessed by considering physically and medical background. Also factors of entrance to the intervention like age range, satisfaction and intention to participate in walking program, no history of diabetic, cardiovascular, Parkinsonism diseases and postural, neurological, musculoskeletal disorders, lack of having clinical background like visual disorders or disordering on equilibrium system, lack of motor limitation, foot print disorders, having surgery and mental health had been determined and assessed. Finally after primary studies, 80 person selected and categorized accidentally to the 3 experimental group (1, 2, 3 sessions per week, 30 min walking with moderate intension at every sessions and one control group (without physical activity in period of 16 week. Data analyzed by employing ANOVA, Pearson coefficient and scheffe post-hoc tests at the significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: On the basis of results, we can say that doing regular walking with efficient and standard dosage for elderly people, can increase their quality of life. Furthermore designing and action operating regular walking program for elderly men on the basis of special, logical and systematic pattern under the supervision of aware coaches have been recommended on the basis of results.

  18. Social support in later life: family, friends and community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Josefina Arias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to carry out an analysis of the importance of social support and participation in old age. Contributions are presented first that various international agencies concerned with old age and aging have been made to strengthen this support and increased participation of older people. Different sources of social support are described: formal and informal interventions that can be made with varied promotion and preventive-wellness-care objectives and action at various levels-individual, group, family, organizational and community-and is made an analysis of the impact on the well-being have the resources of social support available to older people. Finally we reflect on Certain negative assumptions about the availability of support and social participation of older people in relation to recent research findings on the subject. Problematize the importance of these negative stereotypes about aging in general and on the participation and the availability of social support in particular in order to achieve more supportive environments that promote the development of the potential of older persons is concluded.

  19. Wealth and happiness across the world: material prosperity predicts life evaluation, whereas psychosocial prosperity predicts positive feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, Ed; Ng, Weiting; Harter, James; Arora, Raksha

    2010-07-01

    The Gallup World Poll, the first representative sample of planet Earth, was used to explore the reasons why happiness is associated with higher income, including the meeting of basic needs, fulfillment of psychological needs, increasing satisfaction with one's standard of living, and public goods. Across the globe, the association of log income with subjective well-being was linear but convex with raw income, indicating the declining marginal effects of income on subjective well-being. Income was a moderately strong predictor of life evaluation but a much weaker predictor of positive and negative feelings. Possessing luxury conveniences and satisfaction with standard of living were also strong predictors of life evaluation. Although the meeting of basic and psychological needs mediated the effects of income on life evaluation to some degree, the strongest mediation was provided by standard of living and ownership of conveniences. In contrast, feelings were most associated with the fulfillment of psychological needs: learning, autonomy, using one's skills, respect, and the ability to count on others in an emergency. Thus, two separate types of prosperity-economic and social psychological-best predict different types of well-being.

  20. Psychosocial impact of dysthymia: a study among married patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subodh, B N; Avasthi, A; Chakrabarti, S

    2008-07-01

    Unlike major depression, the psychosocial impact of dysthymia has received far less research attention. This study attempted to assess the psychosocial consequences of dysthymia. The sample consisted of 30 married patients with DSM-IV dysthymic disorder and a matched control group of 30 married patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (RDD), diagnosed using structured interviews. Apart from ratings of severity of depression, assessments of psychosocial impact included quality of life (QOL), disability, perceived social support and marital adjustment. Psychosocial parameters were evaluated using vernacular versions of well-validated scales previously used in similar populations. Matched normal/medically ill controls were derived from Indian studies which had assessed the same parameters using the same instruments. Patients with dysthymia were significantly impaired on measures of QOL, disability, social support and marital adjustment compared to normal/medically ill controls. On the other hand, the two groups of dysthymia and RDD were comparable on these measures apart from significantly lower social support among patients with dysthymia. Duration of illness and severity of depression emerged as the most important correlates, particularly of impaired QOL and disability levels. Small hospital-based sample, normal/medically ill controls derived from other studies and cross-sectional assessments were the major limitations. Dysthymia had considerable adverse psychosocial impact in terms of QOL, functioning (disability), social support and marital adjustment. Severity and chronicity appeared to be important mediators of this negative psychosocial impact. Increased awareness, improved recognition and adequate treatment might help negate some of the untoward social consequences of this condition.

  1. First aid and basic life support of junior doctors: A prospective study in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Severien, I.; Metz, J.C.; Berden, H.J.J.M.; Biert, J.

    2006-01-01

    According to the Dutch medical education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to perform first aid and basic life support. A prospective study was undertaken to assess the level of first aid and basic life support (BLS) competence of junior doctors at the Radboud University Nijmegen

  2. [The level of first aid and basic life support for the next generation of physicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severien, I.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Metz, J.C.; Biert, J.; Berden, H.J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    According to Dutch medical-education guidelines junior doctors are expected to be able to carry out first aid and basic life