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Sample records for psychosocial job stressors

  1. Investigating the relationship between psychosocial work stressors, organizational structure and job satisfaction among bank tellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chahardoli

    2015-12-01

      Conclusion: Considering the effect of organizational structure and work-related psychosocial stressors on job satisfaction, it can be stated that organizational restructuring to achieve organic structures and paying more attention to psychosocial stressors in the workplace, can play an effective role in the efficiency and productivity of the organization.

  2. Psychosocial job stressors and suicidality: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

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    Milner, Allison; Witt, Katrina; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2017-08-29

    Job stressors are known determinants of common mental disorders. Over the past 10 years, there has been evidence that job stressors may also be risk factors for suicidality. The current paper sought to examine this topic through the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to date. We used a three-tier search strategy of seven electronic databases. Studies were included if they reported on a job stressor or job-related stress as an exposure and suicide ideation, self-harm, suicide attempt or suicide as an outcome. Two researchers independently screened articles. All extracted effect estimates were converted to log-transformed ORs. There were 22 studies that were included in meta-analysis. Overall, exposure to job stressors was associated with elevated risk of suicide ideation and behaviours. The OR for suicide ideation (14 studies) ranged from 1.29 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.44) for poor supervisor and colleague support to 1.96 (95% CI 1.33 to 2.90) for job insecurity. For suicide (six studies), exposure to lower supervisor and collegial support produced an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.42), while low job control resulted in an OR of 1.30 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.53). There were only two studies that examined suicide attempt, both of which suggested an adverse effect of exposure to job stressors. This study provides some evidence that job stressors may be related to suicidal outcomes. However, as most studies in the area were cross-sectional and observational in design, there is a need for longitudinal research to assess the robustness of observed associations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Validity of a Job-Exposure Matrix for Psychosocial Job Stressors: Results from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey.

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    A Milner

    Full Text Available A Job Exposure Matrix (JEM for psychosocial job stressors allows assessment of these exposures at a population level. JEMs are particularly useful in situations when information on psychosocial job stressors were not collected individually and can help eliminate the biases that may be present in individual self-report accounts. This research paper describes the development of a JEM in the Australian context.The Household Income Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA survey was used to construct a JEM for job control, job demands and complexity, job insecurity, and fairness of pay. Population median values of these variables for all employed people (n = 20,428 were used to define individual exposures across the period 2001 to 2012. The JEM was calculated for the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (ANZSCO at the four-digit level, which represents 358 occupations. Both continuous and binary exposures to job stressors were calculated at the 4-digit level. We assessed concordance between the JEM-assigned and individually-reported exposures using the Kappa statistic, sensitivity and specificity assessments. We conducted regression analysis using mental health as an outcome measure.Kappa statistics indicate good agreement between individually-reported and JEM-assigned dichotomous measures for job demands and control, and moderate agreement for job insecurity and fairness of pay. Job control, job demands and security had the highest sensitivity, while specificity was relatively high for the four exposures. Regression analysis shows that most individually reported and JEM measures were significantly associated with mental health, and individually-reported exposures produced much stronger effects on mental health than the JEM-assigned exposures.These JEM-based estimates of stressors exposure provide a conservative proxy for individual-level data, and can be applied to a range of health and organisational outcomes.

  4. Evaluación de la inestabilidad laboral como estresor psicosocial en el trabajo Assessment Of Job Instability As A Psychosocial Stressor In Work Contexts

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    Nora Leibovich de Figueroa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se presenta como un estresor psicosocial en los contextos laborales y se hace imprescindible evaluar su impacto en los trabajadores. Se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis factorial exploratorio del Inventario de Malestar Percibido en la Inestabilidad Laboral (IMPIL. Se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio (método de componentes principales, rotación promax para examinar cómo se agrupaban los ítems. Se comenzó con una solución forzada de ocho factores para ver si se mantenía la agrupación conceptual original del inventario. Se descartaron los ítems con cargas inferiores a .40 y con doble pesaje. Esto dejó un total de 44 ítems, con los que se llegó a una solución forzada de ocho factores que describen el 64.11% de la varianza de las puntuaciones. Los ítems agrupados en los 8 factores reproducen pensamientos positivos y negativos del trabajador y su relación con el contexto laboral.Job Instability appears as a psychosocial stressor in work contexts and it is imperative to assess its impact among workers. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the Inventory of Perceived Uneasiness in an Unstable Work Setting (IMPIL are presented. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted (method of principal components, promax rotation, to discuss how the items were grouped. To see if original grouping maintained, an eight factors solution was forced. Items with loads less than .40 and dual weighing were discarded. This left a total of 44 items, and we arrived at a forced eight factors solution that describes the 64.11% of the variance. The items grouped in the eight factors reproduced positive and negative thoughts of the workers and their relationship to the employment context.

  5. Psychosocial risks and job performance

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    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  6. A cohort study of psychosocial work stressors on work ability among Brazilian hospital workers.

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    Martinez, Maria Carmen; do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2015-07-01

    Hospital work is characterized by stressors that can influence work ability. The present study aims to assess the association between psychosocial work stressors and changes in work ability in a group of Brazilian hospital employees. From 1,022 workers included in a 3-year cohort started in 2009, 423 (41.4%) returned the applied questionnaires in 2012. Changes in work ability were considered as the dependent variable and the investigated psychosocial work stressors as independent variables. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential con-founders (demographic, occupational features, social support, overcommitment, and situations liable to cause pain/injury). High levels of exposure to psychosocial work stressors were significantly associated with decreased work ability: job strain (OR = 2.81), effort-reward imbalance (OR = 3.21). Strategies to reduce psychosocial work stressors should be considered to maintain hospital employees' work ability. Such strategies have implications for institutional and social policies and might be included in quality management programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

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    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  8. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

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    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  9. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

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    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychosocial stressors in the lives of great jazz musicians.

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    Patalano, F

    1997-02-01

    Brief biographical information on four great jazz tenor saxophone players of the past is presented to illustrate the similar psychosocial stressors these men seemed to experience, namely, severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of their art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style. Ages at death of 80 great jazz musicians may indicate that the stressful life style of jazz musicians may be reflected in a shortened life span, but a control group is needed.

  11. Psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping in adolescent suicide attempters

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    Anju Mathew

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Different risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts have been identified including those of socio-demographic and clinical variables. Relatively, little research has been done in the area of their stressors and coping patterns. Aims: To study the recent psychosocial stressors and patterns of coping associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Settings and Design: Tertiary care hospital, case-control study. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive cases of adolescent attempted suicide admitted to the hospital and an equal number of controls, matched individually for age and sex, from the relatives and friends of other patients in the ward, were studied. Assessment included details regarding socio-demographic data, psychiatric and physical morbidity, their recent stressors, and patterns of coping. Stressors were assessed using Presumptive Stressful Life Event Scale and coping strategies by Ways of Coping Questionnaire (revised. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The number of stressful life events and mean stress scores in the preceding 1 month and certain coping strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance were found to be significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts. Strategies such as self-control, seeking social support, accepting responsibilities, problem solving, and positive appraisal act as protective factors. Conclusions: Recent stressors and strategies such as confronting, distancing, and escape-avoidance are significant risk factors associated with adolescent suicide attempts, whereas certain coping strategies act as protective factors. Teaching adolescents these protective coping patterns may be a promising strategy for prevention of adolescent suicide attempts.

  12. Predictors of occupational burnout among nurses: a dominance analysis of job stressors.

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    Sun, Ji-Wei; Bai, Hua-Yu; Li, Jia-Huan; Lin, Ping-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-02-08

    To quantitatively compare dimensions of job stressors' effects on nurses' burnout. Nurses, a key group of health service providers, often experience stressors at work. Extensive research has examined the relationship between job stressors and burnout; however, less has specifically compared the effects of job stressor domains on nurses' burnout. A quantitative cross-sectional survey examined three general hospitals in Jinan, China. Participants were 602 nurses. We compared five potential stressors' ability to predict nurses' burnout using dominance analysis and assuming that each stressor was intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were found between all five job stressors and burnout. Interpersonal relationships and management issues most strongly predicted participants' burnout (11·3% of average variance). Job stressors, and particularly interpersonal relationships and management issues, significantly predict nurses' job burnout. Understanding the relative effect of job stressors may help identify fruitful areas for intervention and improve nurse recruitment and retention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Migrant-related Stressors, Psychosocial Outcomes and HIV Risk Behavior among Truck Drivers in Zambia

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    Ncube, Nomagugu; Simona, Simona J.; Kansankala, Brian; Sinkala, Emmanuel; Raidoo, Jasmin

    2017-01-01

    Truck drivers are part of mobile populations which have been noted as a key population at risk of HIV in Zambia. This study was aimed at 1) determining Potentially Traumatic Events (PTEs), labor migrant-related stressors, psychosocial problems and HIV risk behaviors among truck drivers in Zambia and 2) examining the relationship between PTEs, migrant-related stressors, psychosocial outcomes and HIV sexual risk behavior among truck drivers in Zambia. We conducted fifteen semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled male truck drivers at trucking companies in Lusaka, Zambia. Findings indicate that truck drivers experience multiple stressors and potentially traumatic incidences, including delays and long waiting hours at borders, exposure to crime and violence, poverty, stress related to resisting temptation of sexual interactions with sex workers or migrant women, and job-related safety concerns. Multiple psychosocial problems such as intimate partner violence, loneliness, anxiety and depression-like symptoms were noted. Transactional sex, coupled with inconsistent condom use were identified as HIV sexual risk behaviors. Findings suggest the critical need to develop HIV prevention interventions which account for mobility, potentially traumatic events, psychosocial problems, and the extreme fear of HIV testing among this key population. PMID:27681145

  14. Differential challenge stressor-hindrance stressor relationships with job attitudes, turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior: a meta-analysis.

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    Podsakoff, Nathan P; LePine, Jeffery A; LePine, Marcie A

    2007-03-01

    In this article, a 2-dimensional work stressor framework is used to explain inconsistencies in past research with respect to stressor relationships with retention-related criteria. Results of meta-analyses of 183 independent samples indicated that whereas hindrance stressors had dysfunctional relationships with these criteria (negative relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive relationships with turnover intentions, turnover, and withdrawal behavior), relationships with challenge stressors were generally the opposite (positive relationships with job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negative relationships with turnover intentions and turnover). Results also suggested that the differential relationships between challenge stressors and hindrance stressors and the more distal criteria (withdrawal behavior and turnover) were due, in part, to the mediating effects of job attitudes. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Differential Reactivity and the Within-person Job Stressor-Satisfaction Relationship.

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    Rudolph, Cort W; Clark, Malissa A; Jundt, Dustin K; Baltes, Boris B

    2016-12-01

    An experience sampling methodology was used to study the direct and conditional within-person relationship between job stressors and job satisfaction. One hundred and one full-time administrative staff completed momentary measures of job stressors and job satisfaction three times a day on six different workdays over a 3-week period (N = 1818 observations). Multilevel random coefficients models were specified, and the results suggest that within-person stressors are negatively related to within-person job satisfaction. These results stand when controlling for the effects of time, demographics, work characteristics, baseline levels of job stressors and satisfaction, and between-person effects of job stressors. Furthermore, consistent with the differential reactivity model, the results suggest that the observed within-person stressors-satisfaction relationship is conditional upon locus of control and positive affect. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Emotion work and job stressors and their effects on burnout.

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    Zapf, D; Seifert, C; Schmutte, B; Mertini, H; Holz, M

    2001-09-01

    Abstract This article reports research on emotion work, organizational as well as social variables as predictors of job burnout. In burnout research, high emotional demands resulting from interactions with clients are seen as a core characteristic of service jobs. However, these emotional demands were seldom measured in a direct manner. It was only recently that emotional demands were included in studies on burnout referring to the concept of emotion work (emotional labor). Emotion work is defined as the requirement to display organizationally desired emotions. A multi-dimensional concept of emotion work was used to analyze the relations of emotion work variables with organizational and social variables and their joint effect on burnout in five samples including employees working in children's homes, kindergartens, hotels, banks and call centers. Emotion work variables correlated with organizational stressors and resources. However, hierarchical multiple regression showed a unique contribution of emotion work variables in the prediction of burnout. Moreover, the analysis of interaction effects of emotional dissonance and organizational and social stressors showed that for service professionals, the coincidence of these stressors led to exaggerated levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.

  17. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruf, Esther; Baumert, Jens; Meisinger, Christa; Döring, Angela; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    .... As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality...

  18. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

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    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  19. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety outcomes within the iron ore mining environment

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    Nicolaas W.H. Smit

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study of work stressors, job insecurity and union support creates opportunity for iron ore mining organisations to manage job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour more effectively. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour of a sample of iron ore mine workers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The mining industry in general is often faced with hazardous and physically demanding working environments, where employees work under constant pressure. Work stressors, job insecurity, union support and job satisfaction are considered key variables when investigating effective means of managing safety.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect the data. A convenience sample of employees in the iron ore mining industry of South Africa (N = 260 were included. Structural equation modelling and bootstrapping resampling analysis were used to analyse the data.Main findings: Work stressors and job insecurity were found to be negatively associated with job satisfaction. Conversely, perceived union support was positively associated with job satisfaction and safety motivation and behaviour. Furthermore, job satisfaction mediated the relationship between union support and safety motivation and behaviour.Practical/managerial implications: Mining organisations can, by placing the focus on reducing work stressors, and promoting job security and union support, achieve higher levels of safety motivation and behaviour through job satisfaction.Contribution/value-add: A great deal of independent research on work stressors, job insecurity, union support, job satisfaction as well as safety motivation and behaviour has already been done. To date, very little empirical research exists that simultaneously considers all these constructs. This study

  20. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

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    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  1. Role stressors and job attitudes: a mediated model of leader-member exchange.

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    Zhang, Rui-Ping; Tsingan, Li; Zhang, Long-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Workers with high levels of role stressors have been known to report low job satisfaction and high turnover intention. However, how the role stressors-job attitudes relationship is influenced by leader-member exchange has hardly been studied. This study examined the effect of leader-member exchange (leader support) on the relationship between chronic role stressors (i.e., role ambiguity and role conflict) and job attitudes (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intention). Employees (N = 162) who enrolled in weekend psychology courses were investigated. The results showed that leader-member exchange mediated the effects of role stressors on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Implications of these results are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  2. Examining the mediating effect of work-to-family conflict on the associations between job stressors and employee psychological distress: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-08-03

    The mediating effect of work-to-family conflict (WFC) on the associations between eight types of job stressors (measured based on the job demands-control, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice models) and psychological distress in employees was examined. This study employed a prospective design. An occupational cohort study in Japan (Japanese Study of Health, Occupation, and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity; J-HOPE). 5859 men and 1560 women who were working for 11 firms and participated at three consecutive waves of J-HOPE, at 1-year intervals, from 2010 to 2013. Psychological distress, as measured by Kessler 6 scores. Mediation analysis using data on job stressors at baseline, WFC at 1-year follow-up and psychological distress at 2-year follow-up showed that WFC mediated 39.1% (95% CI 29.1% to 49.1%) and 44.5% (95% CI 31.4% to 51.7%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively, for men. The mediating effect of WFC was smaller for job stressors indicating reduced job resources, compared with job demands and effort. The mediating effect of WFC was somewhat larger for women than it was for men, with WFC mediating 47.5% (95% CI 22.5% to 72.6%) and 64.0% (95% CI 24.3% to 100.0%) of the associations of psychological distress with job demands and effort, respectively. WFC was a key mediator in the associations between most job stressors and employee psychological distress. Results suggest that policy measures and support from supervisors, to prevent job stressors from adding to WFC, are needed to reduce employee psychological distress. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

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    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  4. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Fuchs, Eberhard

    2017-02-01

    Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS). Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the predictive validity

  5. Organisational change stressors and nursing job satisfaction: the mediating effect of coping strategies.

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    Teo, Stephen T T; Pick, David; Newton, Cameron J; Yeung, Melissa E; Chang, Esther

    2013-09-01

    To examine the mediating effect of coping strategies on the consequences of nursing and non-nursing (administrative) stressors on the job satisfaction of nurses during change management. Organisational change can result in an increase in nursing and non-nursing-related stressors, which can have a negative impact on the job satisfaction of nurses employed in health-care organisations. Matched data were collected in 2009 via an online survey at two time-points (six months apart). Partial least squares path analysis revealed a significant causal relationship between Time 1 administrative and role stressors and an increase in nursing-specific stressors in Time 2. A significant relationship was also identified between job-specific nursing stressors and the adoption of effective coping strategies to deal with increased levels of change-induced stress and strain and the likelihood of reporting higher levels of job satisfaction in Time 2. The effectiveness of coping strategies is critical in helping nurses to deal with the negative consequences of organisational change. This study shows that there is a causal relationship between change, non-nursing stressors and job satisfaction. Senior management should implement strategies aimed at reducing nursing and non-nursing stress during change in order to enhance the job satisfaction of nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Intention retrieval and deactivation following an acute psychosocial stressor.

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    Moritz Walser

    Full Text Available We often form intentions but have to postpone them until the appropriate situation for retrieval and execution has come, an ability also referred to as event-based prospective memory. After intention completion, our cognitive system has to deactivate no-more-relevant intention representations from memory to avoid interference with subsequent tasks. In everyday life, we frequently rely on these abilities also in stressful situations. Surprisingly, little is known about potential stress effects on these functions. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the reliability of event-based prospective memory and of intention deactivation in conditions of acute psychosocial stress. To this aim, eighty-two participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test, a standardized stress protocol, or a standardized control situation. Following this treatment, participants performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task with non-salient and focal prospective memory cues in order to assess prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions. Although the stress group showed elevated levels of salivary cortisol as marker of a stress-related increase in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity throughout the cognitive testing period compared to the no-stress group, prospective memory performance and deactivation of completed intentions did not differ between groups. Findings indicate that cognitive control processes subserving intention retrieval and deactivation after completion may be mostly preserved even under conditions of acute stress.

  7. Physical discomfort and psychosocial job stress among male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan.

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    Lin, Yen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yong; Lu, Shih-Yi

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of job stress, distributions of major job stressors, and associations between perceived job stress levels and multiple physical discomforts are assessed via a cross-sectional study of 1023 male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan. Cases of discomfort are identified via questionnaire surveys requiring respondents to self-reported symptoms of discomfort. Information is obtained on demographics, health status, perceived job stress levels, major job stressors and psychosocial job characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression models are developed to predict physical discomfort in nine body areas. 'Eye strain', 'hoarse or painful throat' and 'musculoskeletal discomfort' are the most pronounced and prevalent complaints after prolonged work time at call centers. Female operators had higher prevalence of physical discomfort than male operators for all body areas. 'Encountering difficult customers' ranked as the most important job stress factor among both male and female operators. Working in a call center for more than 4 years is strongly associated with discomfort in all body areas (odds ratio ranges from 1.65 to 2.15). Analysis of risk factors vs. physical discomfort reveals that operators who perceive higher job stress have significantly increased risk of several health complaints, including eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or painful throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, frequent urination and musculoskeletal discomfort.

  8. Physiological and psychosocial stressors among hemodialysis patients in educational hospitals of northern Iran

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    Mohammad Ali Heidari Gorji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The hemodialysis (HD patients are experiencing high biopsychosocial stress on all levels. Therefore, this study was designed to survey on physiologic and psychosocial stressors among HD patients in two educational hospitals of Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 80 HD patients who were referred to Khomeini and Fatemeh Zahra hospitals in Mazandaran (Northern Iran during the year 2011. Data were collected using a demographic information record sheet and Baldree Hemodialysis Stress Scale. Finding: The following physiologic stressors were noted: Fatigue (51.25%, limited time and places for enjoyment (46.25%, and physical activation limitation (32.5%. Similarly the following psychosocial stressors were observed: Fistula (58.75%, limitation of drinking water (47.5%, low quality of life (47.5%, travelling difficulties to the dialysis center (45%, treatment cost (41.5%, and low life expectancy. The stress level was high in women who were married, younger, less dialysis vintage, and belonged to a low education level. Conclusion: This study reports that HD patients have with significant physical and psychosocial problems and they need education, family, and social supports.

  9. Organizational stressors associated with job stress and burnout in correctional officers: a systematic review

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    Finney Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In adult correctional facilities, correctional officers (COs are responsible for the safety and security of the facility in addition to aiding in offender rehabilitation and preventing recidivism. COs experience higher rates of job stress and burnout that stem from organizational stressors, leading to negative outcomes for not only the CO but the organization as well. Effective interventions could aim at targeting organizational stressors in order to reduce these negative outcomes as well as COs’ job stress and burnout. This paper fills a gap in the organizational stress literature among COs by systematically reviewing the relationship between organizational stressors and CO stress and burnout in adult correctional facilities. In doing so, the present review identifies areas that organizational interventions can target in order to reduce CO job stress and burnout. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline, PsycINFO, Criminal Justice Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts. All retrieved articles were independently screened based on criteria developed a priori. All included articles underwent quality assessment. Organizational stressors were categorized according to Cooper and Marshall’s (1976 model of job stress. Results The systematic review yielded 8 studies that met all inclusion and quality assessment criteria. The five categories of organizational stressors among correctional officers are: stressors intrinsic to the job, role in the organization, rewards at work, supervisory relationships at work and the organizational structure and climate. The organizational structure and climate was demonstrated to have the most consistent relationship with CO job stress and burnout. Conclusions The results of this review indicate that the organizational structure and climate of correctional institutions has the most consistent relationship with COs’ job stress and burnout. Limitations of the

  10. Instructional Coach Job Satisfaction: An Exploration of Role Stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debacker, Jeffrey Paul

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods dissertation examines the relationships between role conflict and job satisfaction, role ambiguity and job satisfaction, and role conflict and job satisfaction within a convenience sample of American instructional coaches (n = 46). Theoretically, this analysis is formed by Merton's idea of role-sets and how instructional…

  11. Psychosocial stressors and depression at a Swedish primary health care centre. A gender perspective study

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    Strömberg Ranja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress may account for the higher prevalence of depression in women and in individuals with a low educational background. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between depression and socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and lifestyle circumstances from a gender perspective in a relatively affluent primary care setting. Methods Patients, aged 18- 75 years, visiting a drop-in clinic at a primary care health centre were screened with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. The physicians used also targeted screening with BDI. A questionnaire on socio-demographic data, psychosocial stressors and use of alcohol and tobacco was distributed. Among patients, who scored BDI ≥10, DSM-IV-criteria were used to diagnose depression. Of the 404 participants, 48 men and 76 women were diagnosed with depression. The reference group consisted of patients with BDI score Results The same three psychosocial stressors: feeling very stressed, perceived poor physical health and being dissatisfied with one's family situation were associated with depression equally in men and women. The negative predictive values of the main effect models in men and women were 90.7% and 76.5%, respectively. Being dissatisfied with one's work situation had high ORs in both men and women. Unemployment and smoking were associated with depression in men only. Conclusions Three questions, frequently asked by physicians, which involve patient's family and working situation as well as perceived stress and physical health, could be used as depression indicators in early detection of depression in men and women in primary health care.

  12. Job-Related Stressors of Classical Instrumental Musicians: A Systematic Qualitative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervainioti, A; Alexopoulos, E C

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies among performing artists have found elevated stress levels and health effects, but scarcely the full range of stressors has been reported. We review here the existing literature on job-related stressors of classical instrumental musicians (orchestra musicians). PubMed, Google Scholar and JSTOR databases were screened for relevant papers indexed up to August 2012. A total of 122 papers was initially identified which, after exclusion of duplicates and those not meeting eligibility criteria, yielded 67 articles for final analysis. We identified seven categories of stressors affecting musicians in their everyday working lives: public exposure, personal hazards, repertoire, competition, job context, injury/illness, and criticism, but with interrelated assigned factors. The proposed categories provide a framework for future comprehensive research on the impact and management of musician stressors.

  13. Job Stressors, Personality and Burnout in Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation. Burnout is a negative affective response occurring as a result of chronic work stress. While the early theories of burnout focused exclusively on work-related stressors, recent research adopts a more integrative approach where both environmental and individual factors are studied.…

  14. The relationship between psychosocial job stress and burnout in emergency departments: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Ríos-Rísquez, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship and predictive power of various psychosocial job stressors for the 3 dimensions of burnout in emergency departments. This study was structured as a cross-sectional design, with a questionnaire as the tool. The data were gathered using an anonymous questionnaire in 3 hospitals in Spain. The sample consisted of 191 emergency departments. Burnout was evaluated by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the job stressors by the Nursing Stress Scale. The Burnout Model in this study consisted of 3 dimensions: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced professional efficacy. The model that predicted the emotional exhaustion dimension was formed by 2 variables: Excessive workload and lack of emotional support. These 2 variables explained 19.4% of variance in emotional exhaustion. Cynicism had 4 predictors that explained 25.8% of variance: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, excessive workload, and type of contract. Finally, variability in reduced professional efficacy was predicted by 3 variables: Interpersonal conflicts, lack of social support, and the type of shift worked, which explained 10.4% of variance. From the point of view of nurse leaders, organizational interventions, and the management of human resources, this analysis of the principal causes of burnout is particularly useful to select, prioritize, and implement preventive measures that will improve the quality of care offered to patients and the well-being of personnel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 338 Stressors and their Influence on Job Performance of Career ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Technology (ICT), University autonomy, the consolidation of the tertiary and university education .... information on the influence of stress on career administrative staff job .... McGowan B. (2001) Self-reported stress and its effects on nurses.

  16. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2016-11-09

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients.

  17. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  18. Work stressors, Chinese coping strategies, and job performance in Greater China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo; Kao, Shu-Fang; Siu, Oi-Ling; Lu, Chang-Qin

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this research was to jointly test effects of work stressors and coping strategies on job performance among employees in the Greater China region. A self-administered survey was conducted to collect data from three major cities in the region, namely Beijing, Hong Kong, and Taipei (N = 380). Four important work stressors were assessed: heavy workload, organizational constraints, lack of work autonomy, and interpersonal conflict. We used a four-factor model of Chinese coping strategies composed of hobbies/relaxation, active action, seeking social support, and passive adaptation. Job performance was indicated by both task performance (quantity of work, quality of work, job knowledge) and contextual performance (attendance, getting along with others). We found that: (1) work stressors were related to job performance. Specifically, workload had a positive relation with quantity of work, whereas organizational constraints had negative relations with quantity of work and attendance. In addition, interpersonal conflict had a negative relation with getting along with others. (2) Chinese positive coping strategies were positively related to job performance. Specifically, seeking social support had positive relations with quantity of work and getting along with others, whereas active action had positive relations with attendance and job knowledge. (3) Chinese passive adaptation coping behaviors were negatively related to job performance. Specifically, passive adaptation had negative relations with quantity of work, quality of work, and getting along with others. The present study thus found joint effects of work stressors and coping behaviors among Chinese employees in the Greater China region, encompassing three sub-societies of mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. Differential effects of Chinese positive and passive coping strategies were also noted. Most importantly, all these effects were demonstrated on multiple indicators of job performance, a rarely studied

  19. Senior management leadership, social support, job design and stressor-to-strain relationships in hospital practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; West, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the quality of senior management leadership on social support and job design, whose main effects on strains, and moderating effects on work stressors-to-strains relationships were assessed. A survey involving distribution of questionnaires was carried out on a random sample of health care employees in acute hospital practice in the UK. The sample comprised 65,142 respondents. The work stressors tested were quantitative overload and hostile environment, whereas strains were measured through job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Structural equation modelling and moderated regression analyses were used in the analysis. Quality of senior management leadership explained 75 per cent and 94 per cent of the variance of social support and job design respectively, whereas work stressors explained 51 per cent of the variance of strains. Social support and job design predicted job satisfaction and turnover intentions, as well as moderated significantly the relationships between quantitative workload/hostility and job satisfaction/turnover intentions. The findings are useful to management and to health employees working in acute/specialist hospitals. Further research could be done in other counties to take into account cultural differences and variations in health systems. The limitations included self-reported data and percept-percept bias due to same source data collection. The quality of senior management leaders in hospitals has an impact on the social environment, the support given to health employees, their job design, as well as work stressors and strains perceived. The study argues in favour of effective senior management leadership of hospitals, as well as ensuring adequate support structures and job design. The findings may be useful to health policy makers and human resources managers.

  20. Recovery experiences during vacation and their association with job stressors and health

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    Diana Pereira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Vacations offer opportunities for recovery from work-related stress. However, little is known about the impact of job stressors on recovery experiences during vacation, such as psychological detachment and relaxation. This study investigated detachment and relaxation to mediate the influence of job stressors prior to vacation on recovery during vacation. A total of 136 employees from various occupations completed a questionnaire on their ability to relax and mentally detach from work during a recent vacation. Participants rated perceived time pressure and social exclusion at work prior to their vacation as well as any psychosomatic health complaints or sleep problems during vacation. The results of bootstrap mediation analysis confirmed the mediating role of recovery experiences. The association between job stressors and sleep problems was fully mediated by detachment and relaxation, whereas the association between social exclusion and psychosomatic complaints was fully mediated by relaxation. Furthermore, relaxation partially mediated the association between time pressure and psychosomatic complaints. Not only should the ability of employees to relax and mentally detach be fostered, but job stressors should be reduced in order to allow employees to reach optimal recovery during vacation.

  1. Job Stressors and Coping Strategies amongst Nigerian Ophthalmologists: an Exploratory Study

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    Oluwole C Omolase

    2014-02-01

    CONCLUSION: The leading job stressor was no time for leisure followed by overwork and financial constraint. Most respondents drew inspiration from religious belief to cope with stress. There is need for creation of recreational facilities in the hospitals and improvement in the welfare package of medical practitioners [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 13-18

  2. Job-Occupation Misfit as an Occupational Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from theory on met expectations, person-environment fit, and social information processing, misfit between the pressure and autonomy experienced by workers and that which would be expected given their occupational roles was examined as a predictor of job satisfaction, perceived support, and depression. Results from a nationally (U.S.)…

  3. Physical and Organizational Job Stressors in Pregnancy and Associations With Primary Cesarean Deliveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Hosang, Nap; MacDonald, Leslie A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to physical and organizational job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery. We sampled 580 employed women in California who participated in a nested population-based case-control study of birth outcomes. Adjusted multivariate regression analyses estimated associations between heavy lifting, frequent bending, high noise, extreme temperature, prolonged standing and organizational stressors (shift work, inflexible schedules, effort-reward ratio), and primary cesarean (vs vaginal) delivery, controlling for covariates. Women occupationally exposed had higher odds of cesarean. Those exposed to daily manual lifting more than 15 pounds [adjusted odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21 to 5.32] and at least four physical job stressors (adjusted odds ratio = 3.49; 95% CI 1.21 to 10.09) had significantly elevated odds of cesarean delivery. Exposed morbid women experienced greater risk; risk was lower among those with schedule flexibility. Associations were found between modifiable exposure to physical job stressors during pregnancy and cesarean delivery.

  4. Development and validation of a physical and psychosocial job-exposure matrix among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, K.J.; Pas, S. van der; Geuskens, G.A.; Cozijnsen, R.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We developed a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM), including physical and psychosocial demands as well as psychosocial resources, applicable to older and retired workers and evaluated its validity by examining associations with health. Methods Physical and psychosocial work ex

  5. Psychosocial job quality, mental health, and subjective wellbeing: a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline wave of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health

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    Anthony D. LaMontagne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Employment status and working conditions are strong determinants of male health, and are therefore an important focus in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men. In this paper, we describe key work variables included in Ten to Men, and present analyses relating psychosocial job quality to mental health and subjective wellbeing at baseline. Methods A national sample of males aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings was drawn using a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design. Data were collected between October 2013 and July 2014 for a cohort of 15,988 males, representing a response fraction of 35 %. This analysis was restricted to 18–55 year old working age participants (n = 13,456. Work-related measures included employment status, and, for those who were employed, a number of working conditions including an ordinal scale of psychosocial job quality (presence of low job control, high demand and complexity, high job insecurity, and low fairness of pay, and working time-related stressors such as long working hours and night shift work. Associations between psychosocial job quality and two outcome measures, mental ill-health and subjective wellbeing, were assessed using multiple linear regression. Results The majority of participants aged 18–55 years were employed at baseline (85.6 %, with 8.4 % unemployed and looking for work, and 6.1 % not in the labour force. Among employed participants, there was a high prevalence of long working hours (49.9 % reported working more than 40 h/week and night shift work (23.4 %. Psychosocial job quality (exposure to 0/1/2/3+ job stressors prevalence was 36 %/ 37 %/ 20 %/ and 7 % of the working respondents. There was a dose–response relationship between psychosocial job quality and each of the two outcome measures of mental health and subjective wellbeing after adjusting for potential confounders, with higher magnitude associations

  6. Error consciousness predicts physiological response to an acute psychosocial stressor in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianhui; Sun, Xiaofang; Wang, Li; Zhang, Liang; Fernández, Guillén; Yao, Zhuxi

    2017-09-01

    There are substantial individual differences in the response towards acute stressor. The aim of the current study was to examine how the neural activity after an error response during a non-stressful state, prospectively predicts the magnitude of physiological stress response (e.g., cortisol response and heart rate) and negative affect elicited by a laboratory stress induction procedure in nonclinical participants. Thirty-seven healthy young male adults came to the laboratory for the baseline neurocognitive measurement on the first day during which they performed a Go/Nogo task with their electroencephalogram recorded. On the second day, they came again to be tested on their stress response using an acute psychosocial stress procedure (i.e., the Trier Social Stress Test, the TSST). Results showed that the amplitude of error positivity (Pe) significantly predicted both the heart rate and cortisol response towards the TSST. Our results suggested that baseline cognitive neural activity reflecting error consciousness could be used as a biological predictor of physiological response to an acute psychological stressor in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Personality Characteristics, Job Stressors, and Job Satisfaction: Main and Interaction Effects on Psychological and Physical Health Conditions of Italian Schoolteachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Maria Clelia; Pes, Daniela; Capasso, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The study proposed an application of the transactional model of stress in teaching elaborated by Travers and Cooper in 1996, and aimed to investigate the influence of personality characteristics (coping strategies, type A behaviors), situational characteristics (sources of pressure), and perceived job satisfaction in the prediction of teachers' psychophysical health conditions. The Italian version of the Teacher Stress Questionnaire was administered to 621 teachers. Logistic regression was used to evaluate significant main and interaction effects of personality characteristics, situational characteristics, and perceived job satisfaction on teachers' self-reported psychophysical health conditions. The findings highlighted specific coping strategies (focused on the problem, on innovation, and on hobbies and pastimes) and dimensions of job satisfaction (related to intrinsic aspects of job and to employee relations) buffering the negative effects of several job stressors. Type A behaviors and coping strategies focused on mobilized social support, suppression of stress, and not confronting the situation had main and interactions with negative effects on psychophysical health. Findings confirmed the necessity to run multi-factor research to analyze the different combinations of individual and situational variables implicated in negative health outcomes and to highlight the most significant buffering or increasing associations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. An empirical investigation of job and family stressors amongst firefighters in the South African context

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    R M Oosthuizen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the research was to theoretically and empirically study and evaluate job and family stressors amongst firefighters in the South African context. This also included an empirical evaluation of the stress symptoms of firefighters. The research was quantitative, consisting of a survey design. Three measuring instruments were used, namely the Experience of Work and Life Circumstances questionnaire, the Stress questionnaire as well as a biographical questionnaire. Task characteristics, organisational functioning, physical working conditions and job equipment, career and social matters, remuneration, fringe benefits and personnel policy were identified as causes of job stress originating within the work situation. Marital dysfunction and divorce, limited time with the family, problems with children, alcohol and drug abuse, lack of exercise, suicide, anger aimed at family members, physical and emotional exhaustion, lonely marital partners, unavailability to help the family when needed and depression were identified as causes of family stress arising outside the work situation.

  9. Understanding Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Stressors on Twitter: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hilary; Cheney, Tyler; Stoddard, Greg; Coppersmith, Glen; Bryan, Craig; Conway, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Background With a lifetime prevalence of 16.2%, major depressive disorder is the fifth biggest contributor to the disease burden in the United States. Objective The aim of this study, building on previous work qualitatively analyzing depression-related Twitter data, was to describe the development of a comprehensive annotation scheme (ie, coding scheme) for manually annotating Twitter data with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition 5 (DSM 5) major depressive symptoms (eg, depressed mood, weight change, psychomotor agitation, or retardation) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Edition IV (DSM-IV) psychosocial stressors (eg, educational problems, problems with primary support group, housing problems). Methods Using this annotation scheme, we developed an annotated corpus, Depressive Symptom and Psychosocial Stressors Acquired Depression, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly sampled from the Twitter application programming interface (API) using depression-related keywords (eg, depressed, gloomy, grief). An analysis of our annotated corpus yielded several key results. Results First, 72.09% (6829/9473) of tweets containing relevant keywords were nonindicative of depressive symptoms (eg, “we’re in for a new economic depression”). Second, the most prevalent symptoms in our dataset were depressed mood and fatigue or loss of energy. Third, less than 2% of tweets contained more than one depression related category (eg, diminished ability to think or concentrate, depressed mood). Finally, we found very high positive correlations between some depression-related symptoms in our annotated dataset (eg, fatigue or loss of energy and educational problems; educational problems and diminished ability to think). Conclusions We successfully developed an annotation scheme and an annotated corpus, the SAD corpus, consisting of 9300 tweets randomly-selected from the Twitter application programming interface using

  10. Job stressors and other risk factors related to the risk of hypertension among selected employees in Jakarta

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    Feni Krisnawati

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost everyone, including employees, may develop hypertension. Several risk factors, including stresses in the work environment, are related to hypertension. The aim of this study is to identify these work-related risk factors in hypertension. A nested case-control study was conducted among office employees in Jakarta during May 2004. Employees with stage 1 or stage 2 hypertension (based on the United States of America Joint National Committee on high blood pressure 2003, or those taking antihypertensive drugs were designated as cases. As controls were employees with no history of hypertension. One case was randomly matched by gender with two controls. All risk factors for cases and controls were counted as of the reference date of diagnosis for cases. There were 70 cases and 140 controls aged 25 to 65 years. Hypertension was found to be related to the qualitative and quantitative increase in the workload, career development, age, obesity, current and past smoking habits, and a family history of hypertension. However, it was noted that role of ambiguity, role of conflict, and personal responsibility did not increase the risk of hypertension. Compared to those with low qualitative job stressor, those who had moderate or high qualitative job stressor had a seven-fold risk to be hypertensive [adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 7.47; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.40-39.76]. In addition, relative to those who had low quantitative job stressor, those with moderate or high stressors were four times at risk to be hypertensive (ORa = 4.10; 95% CI = 1.06-15.90. In conclusion moderate or high qualitative and quantitative job stressors as well as career development increased risk hypertension. Therefore these stressors need to be prevented. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:177-84 Keywords: hypertension, qualitative job stressor, quantitative job stressor, career development

  11. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom J; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor. Low ability to voluntarily control attention has previously been associated with anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Attentional control was assessed using the Emotional Attentional Control Scale. In students who were preparing for academic examination, salivary cortisol was assessed before (time 1) and after (time 2) examination. Results showed that lower levels of self-reported emotional attentional control at time 1 (N=90) predicted higher absolute diurnal cortisol secretion and a slower decline in cortisol throughout the day at time 2 (N=71). Difficulty controlling attention during emotional experiences may lead to chronic HPA-axis hyperactivity after prolonged exposure to stress. These results indicate that screening for individual differences may foster prediction of HPA-axis disturbances, paving the way for targeted disorder prevention.

  12. Effect of alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors on preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in HIV-infected women in South Africa: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sania, Ayesha; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; Zerbe, Allison; Ronan, Agnes; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Psychosocial stressors such as depression and stress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have been linked to preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in general populations. The prevalence of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse is high in many HIV-infected (HIV+) populations. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse on birth outcomes in HIV-infected women. Methods Antenatal depression and non-specific psychological distress, periconception IPV and alcohol consumption were measured during the second trimester among HIV+ women initiating antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz + emtricitibine + tenofovir in Cape Town, South Africa. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs of the effects of psychosocial stressors and periconception alcohol consumption on birth outcomes: SGA (birth weight child health programmes to improve the long-term health of HIV-exposed children. Trial registration number NCT01933477; Pre-results. PMID:28320796

  13. A study on impact of Job role stressors on Frontline employee role performance towards the customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Naik

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in the Indian Economy post-liberalization in 1991 have prompted institutions like the World Bank to forecast that India would be the fourth largest economy in the world by 2020 (Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009. Following globalization this has attracted a large numbers of foreign investors and companies to India. HRM in India has evolved as a specialised function (Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009. According to Budhwar and Bhatnagar, 2009 India had a long history of labour legislation and industrial relations and there are many challenges to the HRM systems in India, due to the diverse nature of India’s society which is marked by regional, sectoral, socio-cultural and political variation. In such a climate it is extremely difficult to have a uniform HR system. According to Wheatherly and Tansik (1993 employees have to deal with the demands from superiors as well as the needs and wishes of customers. Because of such a boundary spanning role, the retail frontline employees are in dilemma whether to customize the retail services as per customers needs or to obey the organizational guidelines and procedures (Bitner, 1990. This dilemma often leads to job role stress. There are different types of job role stress (Pareek, 1993 of these the research under study deals with the two job role stressors prominent in retail industry job role conflict and job role ambiguity ( Kahn et.al, 1964. According to Heskett et al. (2003 front line employee’s behavior and perception affects the customer satisfaction and intent of buying behavior which in turn have impact on service productivity. There have been many studies conducted on job role stress and its impact on employee job performance but hardly any with respect to organized Indian retail sector.In the prior research studies it can be noted that employee point of view is hardly taken into consideration. Hence as an attempt to fill in this gap the research focuses on understanding how job role

  14. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

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    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  15. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus, the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N 1 = 8657 and N 2 = 9536) were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1) the prevention of extensive job demands, (2) the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3) the strengthening of resources.

  16. The Role of Personal and Job Resources in the Relationship between Psychosocial Job Demands, Mental Strain, and Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Mayerl

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research highlights the importance of both job resources and personal resources in the job demands-resources model. However, the results of previous studies on how these resources are related to each other and how they operate in relation to the health-impairment process of the job demands-resources model are ambiguous. Thus the authors tested an alternative model, considering job and personal resources to be domains of the same underlying factor and linking this factor to the health-impairment process. Survey data of two Austrian occupational samples (N1=8,657 and N2=9,536 were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The results revealed that job and personal resources can be considered as indicators of a single resources factor which was negatively related to psychosocial job demands, mental strain, and health problems. Confirming previous studies, we further found that mental strain mediated the relationship between psychosocial job demands and health problems. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at maintaining health in the context of work may take action on three levels: (1 the prevention of extensive job demands, (2 the reduction of work-related mental strain, and (3 the strengthening of resources.

  17. Reciprocal relations between recovery and work engagement: the moderating role of job stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Mojza, Eva J; Demerouti, Evangelia; Bakker, Arnold B

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we examined the within-person relations between morning recovery level (i.e., feeling refreshed and replenished) and work engagement throughout the day, and between work engagement throughout the day and the subsequent recovery level at the end of the workday. We hypothesized that job stressors (situational constraints, job demands) moderate these relations. A diary study over 1 workweek with 2 measurement occasions per day (N = 111 persons) provided support for most of the hypotheses: Morning recovery level predicted work engagement, and work engagement predicted subsequent recovery level at the end of the workday after controlling for morning recovery level. As predicted, situational constraints attenuated these relations, but job demands did not. The results suggest that recovery translates into employee work engagement, and work engagement, in turn, prevents a loss in recovery level throughout the day, particularly when situational constraints are low. Situational constraints seem to interrupt the reciprocal processes between recovery level and work engagement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Job Stressors, Emotional Exhaustion, and Need for Recovery: A Multi-Source Study on the Benefits of Psychological Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kuttler, Iris; Fritz, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines psychological detachment (i.e., mentally "switching off") from work during non-work time as a partial mediator between job stressors and low work-home boundaries on the one hand and strain reactions (emotional exhaustion, need for recovery) on the other hand. Survey data were collected from a sample of protestant pastors (N =…

  19. Classroom-based Interventions and Teachers' Perceived Job Stressors and Confidence: Evidence from a Randomized Trial in Head Start Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C Cybele; Li-Grining, Christine

    2011-09-01

    Preschool teachers' job stressors have received increasing attention but have been understudied in the literature. We investigated the impacts of a classroom-based intervention, the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), on teachers' perceived job stressors and confidence, as indexed by their perceptions of job control, job resources, job demands, and confidence in behavior management. Using a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, the CSRP provided multifaceted services to the treatment group, including teacher training and mental health consultation, which were accompanied by stress-reduction services and workshops. Overall, 90 teachers in 35 classrooms at 18 Head Start sites participated in the study. After adjusting for teacher and classroom factors and site fixed effects, we found that the CSRP had significant effects on the improvement of teachers' perceived job control and work-related resources. We also found that the CSRP decreased teachers' confidence in behavior management and had no statistically significant effects on job demands. Overall, we did not find significant moderation effects of teacher race/ethnicity, education, teaching experience, or teacher type. The implications for research and policy are discussed.

  20. Psychosocial safety climate moderates the job demand-resource interaction in predicting workgroup distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) arises from workplace policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety that are largely driven by management. Many work stress theories are based on the fundamental interaction hypothesis - that a high level of job demands (D) will lead to psychological distress and that this relationship will be offset when there are high job resources (R). However we proposed that this interaction really depends on the organizational context; in particular high levels of psychosocial safety climate will enable the safe utilization of resources to reduce demands. The study sample consisted of police constables from 23 police units (stations) with longitudinal survey responses at two time points separated by 14 months (Time 1, N=319, Time 2, N=139). We used hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effect of the proposed three-way interaction term (PSC×D×R) on change in workgroup distress variance over time. Specifically we confirmed the interaction between emotional demands and emotional resources (assessed at the individual level), in the context of unit psychosocial safety climate (aggregated individual data). As predicted, high emotional resources moderated the positive relationship between emotional demands and change in workgroup distress but only when there were high levels of unit psychosocial safety climate. Results were confirmed using a split-sample analysis. Results support psychosocial safety climate as a property of the organization and a target for higher order controls for reducing work stress. The 'right' climate enables resources to do their job.

  1. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  2. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes--design and methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Obel, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated...

  3. How do employment types and job stressors relate to occupational injury? A cross-sectional investigation of employees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K; Nakata, A; Ikeda, T; Otsuka, Y; Kawahito, J

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether 1) the risk of occupational injury differs among permanent employees and specific types of temporary workers, 2) the risk of occupational injury differs across different employment types depending on the degree of job stressors. A cross-sectional study design based on self-report survey data. A total of 36,688 full-time workers (28,868 men and 7820 women; average age = 35.4) were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Employment types consisted of permanent employment and two forms of temporary employment: direct-hire and temporary work agent (TWA). Job characteristics including job demands, job control, and social support at work were measured. Occupational injury was measured by asking whether the participant had an injury on the job in the past 12 months that required a medical treatment. To investigate the relationships between employment types, job stressors, and occupational injury, hierarchical moderated logistic regression tests were conducted. High job demands (OR = 1.44) and low job control (OR = 1.21) were significantly associated with an increased risk of occupational injury, while controlling for demographic, life style, health, and occupational factors. In addition, direct-hires (OR = 1.85) and temporary agent workers (OR = 3.26) had a higher risk of occupational injury compared with permanent employees. However, the relationship between employment types and the risk of occupational injury depended on the levels of job demands and job control. Specifically, the magnitude of the relationship between job demands and the risk of occupational injury was substantially greater for temporary work agents than for permanent employees when they reported low levels of job control. Such an interaction effect between job demands and job control on the risk of occupational injury was not observed between permanent employees and direct-hire temporary workers. The current study indicated that temporary workers might be

  4. Psychosocial Work Stressors, Work Fatigue, and Musculoskeletal Disorders: Comparison between Emergency and Critical Care Nurses in Brunei Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Rahman, Hanif; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Little evidence estimated the exposure of psychosocial work stressors, work-related fatigue, and musculoskeletal disorders for nurses working in South-East Asian region, and research on this subject is almost nonexistent in Brunei. The main aim of our study was to provide a comprehensive exploration and estimate exposure of the study variables amongst emergency (ER) and critical care (CC) nurses in Brunei. The study also aims to compare whether experiences of ER nurses differ from those of CC nurses. This cross-sectional study was implemented in the ER and CC departments across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016 by using Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II, Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery scale, and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire. In total, 201 ER and CC nurses (82.0% response rate) participated in the study. Quantitative demands of CC nurses were significantly higher than ER nurses. Even so, ER nurses were 4.0 times more likely [95% confidence interval (2.21, 7.35)] to experience threats of violence, and 2.8 times more likely [95% confidence interval: (1.50, 5.29)] to experience chronic fatigue. The results revealed that nurses experienced high quantitative demands, work pace, stress, and burnout. High prevalence of chronic and persistent fatigue, threats of violence and bullying, and musculoskeletal pain at the neck, shoulder, upper and lower back, and foot region, was also reported. This study has provided good estimates for the exposure rate of psychosocial work stressors, work-related fatigue, and musculoskeletal disorders among nurses in Brunei. It provided important initial insight for nursing management and policymakers to make informed decisions on current and future planning to provide nurses with a conducive work environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  6. Development of mental disorders one year after exposure to psychosocial stressors; a cohort study in primary care patients with a physical complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Lilli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders, common in primary care, are often associated with physical complaints. While exposure to psychosocial stressors and development or presence of principal mental disorders (i.e. depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders defined as multisomatoforme disorders is commonly correlated, temporal association remains unproven. The study explores the onset of such disorders after exposure to psychosocial stressors in a cohort of primary care patients with at least one physical symptom. Method The cohort study SODA (SOmatization, Depression and Anxiety was conducted by 21 private-practice GPs and three fellow physicians in a Swiss academic primary care centre. GPs included patients via randomized daily identifiers. Depression, anxiety or somatoform disorders were identified by the full Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, a validated procedure to identify mental disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. The PHQ was also used to investigate exposure to psychosocial stressors (before the index consultation and during follow up and the onset of principal mental disorders after one year of follow up. Results From November 2004 to July 2005, 1020 patients were screened for inclusion. 627 were eligible and 482 completed the PHQ one year later and were included in the analysis (77%. At one year, prevalence of principal mental disorders was 30/153 (19.6% CI95% 13.6; 26.8 for those initially exposed to a major psychosocial stressor and 26/329 (7.9% CI95% 5.2; 11.4 for those not. Stronger association exists between psychosocial stressors and depression (RR = 2.4 or anxiety (RR = 3.5 than multisomatoforme disorders (RR = 1.8. Patients who are “bothered a lot” (subjective distress by a stressor are therefore 2.5 times (CI95% 1.5; 4.0 more likely to experience a mental disorder at one year. A history of psychiatric comorbidities or psychological treatment was not a confounding factor for developing a principal mental

  7. Does aging make employees more resilient to job stress? Age as a moderator in the job stressor-well-being relationship in three Finnish occupational samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Ruokolainen, Mervi; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether an employee's age moderates the relationships between job stressors (i.e. job insecurity, workload, work-family conflict) and self-rated well-being (i.e. work-family enrichment, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, vigor at work). Analysis of covariance and moderated hierarchical regression analysis were used to examine the cross-sectional Finnish data collected among service sector employees (N = 1037), nurses (N = 1719), and academic employees (N = 945). In a situation of high job insecurity, the younger nurses reported higher work-family enrichment, job satisfaction, and vigor compared to their older colleagues. A similar result was also found among the service sector workers in relation to vigor at work. Thus, young age buffered against negative outcomes related to job insecurity. Moreover, older age buffered against the negative effect of high workload on job satisfaction among the service sector and against high work-family conflict on life satisfaction among the academic employees. More attention should be paid to the ability of younger employees to manage problems related to work-family imbalance and high workload, and to older employees' ability to cope with job insecurity. The findings of this study recommend different stress management interventions for older and younger employees.

  8. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P Racial (β = 0.04) and non-racial (β = 0.05) everyday discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P Racial/ethnic differences in sleep duration and difficulties were not significant after adjustment for discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  9. Antecedents of Day-Level Proactive Behavior : a Look at Job Stressors and Positive Affect During the Workday

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Charlotte; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    This study extends research on proactive behavior at work by examining the extent to which job stressors (time pressure and situational constraints) and affective experiences during the workday are associated with proactive behaviors on the same and the following workday. Results from civil service employees who filled in surveys over 4 consecutive workdays indicated that situational constraints were positively associated with proactive behavior on the same workday. In addition, positive mood...

  10. Psychosocial job strain and risk of adverse birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Hannerz, Harald; Juhl, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A number of studies examined the effects of prenatal stress on birth outcomes with diverging and inconclusive results. We aimed to examine if working with high job strain during pregnancy measured in week 16 was associated with risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small....../large for gestational age (SGA/LGA), and second, if social support affected any associations. DESIGN: Study population was 48 890 pregnancies from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Multinomial logistic regression estimated ORs. Covariates included: maternal age, BMI, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol and coffee...... consumption, manual work, serious maternal disease, parental height and gestational age at interview. In accordance with Good Epidemiological Practice, a protocol outlined the study design before analyses were initiated. RESULTS: High job strain was associated with significantly lower odds of being born LGA...

  11. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial str...

  12. Narcissism Predicts Heightened Cortisol Reactivity to a Psychosocial Stressor in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Robin S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2010-01-01

    Narcissists' sensitivity to social evaluation should increase their physiological reactivity to evaluative stressors. However, very few studies have assessed the physiological correlates of narcissism. In this study, participants completed an evaluative laboratory stressor or a non-evaluative control task. Cortisol reactivity—a marker of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response—and negative affect (NA) were higher in the stress versus control condition. However, men showed larger cortisol responses and, among men, higher narcissism scores predicted greater cortisol reactivity and larger increases in NA. Narcissism was unrelated to cortisol reactivity and NA among women and in the control condition. These findings highlight the influence of defensive personality traits on HPA reactivity and suggest a pathway through which narcissistic traits might influence long-term health outcomes. PMID:21076653

  13. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  14. Investigating the effect of acute sleep deprivation on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor

    2017-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been previously identified as one potential mechanism that may explain the link between sleep deprivation and negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the direct association between sleep deprivation and HPA-axis functioning, particularly in the context of stress. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between acute sleep deprivation and HPA-axis reactivity to a psychosocial stressor. Participants included 40 healthy, young adults between the ages of 18-29. The current protocol included spending two nights in the laboratory. After an adaptation night (night 1), participants were randomized into either a sleep deprivation condition (29 consecutive hours awake) or a control condition (night 2). Following the second night, all participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Salivary cortisol was collected before, during, and after the TSST. Results indicated that there were significant group differences in cortisol stress reactivity. Specifically, compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the sleep deprivation condition had greater baseline (i.e., pre-stress) cortisol, yet a blunted cortisol response to the TSST. Taken together, a combination of elevated baseline cortisol (and its subsequent effect on HPA-axis regulatory processes) and a relative 'ceiling' on the amount of cortisol a laboratory stressor can produce may explain why participants in the sleep deprivation condition demonstrated blunted cortisol responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues......This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four......, and whether work gets the individual down....

  16. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four...... Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues...

  17. Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R

    2013-01-01

    , with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant...... change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence for an effect......PURPOSE: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief...

  18. Does work stress make you shorter? An ambulatory field study of daily work stressors, job control, and spinal shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igic, Ivana; Ryser, Samuel; Elfering, Achim

    2013-10-01

    Body height decreases throughout the day due to fluid loss from the intervertebral disk. This study investigated whether spinal shrinkage was greater during workdays compared with nonwork days, whether daily work stressors were positively related to spinal shrinkage, and whether job control was negatively related to spinal shrinkage. In a consecutive 2-week ambulatory field study, including 39 office employees and 512 days of observation, spinal shrinkage was measured by a stadiometer, and calculated as body height in the morning minus body height in the evening. Physical activity was monitored throughout the 14 days by accelerometry. Daily work stressors, daily job control, biomechanical workload, and recreational activities after work were measured with daily surveys. Multilevel regression analyses showed that spinal disks shrank more during workdays than during nonwork days. After adjustment for sex, age, body weight, smoking status, biomechanical work strain, and time spent on physical and low-effort activities during the day, lower levels of daily job control significantly predicted increased spinal shrinkage. Findings add to knowledge on how work redesign that increases job control may possibly contribute to preserving intervertebral disk function and preventing occupational back pain.

  19. Menstrual cycle effects on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval following a psychosocial stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Pauline M.; Mordecai, Kristen L.; Rubin, Leah H.; Sundermann, Erin; Savarese, Antonia; Eatough, Erin; Drogos, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-induced stress produces elevations in cortisol and deficits in memory, especially when stress is induced immediately before retrieval of emotionally valent stimuli. Sex and sex steroids appear to influence these stress-induced outcomes, though no study has directly compared the effects of laboratory-induced stress on cortisol and emotional retrieval across the menstrual cycle. We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval in women te...

  20. [Effect of psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Artazcoz, Lucía; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of burnout syndrome according to medical specialty and to examine the impact of work psychosocial risk factors, job satisfaction and professional characteristics on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians throughout Spain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 1,021 Spanish physicians. The outcome variables were the 3 dimensions of burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal accomplishment. The explanatory variables were work psychosocial risk factors and job satisfaction evaluated by a stress scale specifically designed for physicians. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated by logistic regression. The probability of high emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were greater in physicians exposed to a high level of contact with suffering and death and to a negative impact of work on home life. The probability of high emotional exhaustion was greater among physicians with a high work overload. The risk of low personal accomplishment was higher among physicians with low professional satisfaction and those without training activities. Dissatisfaction with relationships with patients and relatives had a negative effect on the 3 dimensions of burnout. Psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction have a negative effect on burnout syndrome, especially on emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.

  1. Psychosocial safety climate buffers effects of job demands on depression and positive organizational behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Garry B; Dollard, Maureen F; Winefield, Anthony H; Dormann, Christian; Bakker, Arnold B

    2013-01-01

    In a general population sample of 2343 Australian workers from a wide ranging employment demographic, we extended research testing the buffering role of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a macro-level resource within the health impairment process of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model. Moderated structural equation modeling was used to test PSC as a moderator between emotional and psychological job demands and worker depression compared with control and social support as alternative moderators. We also tested PSC as a moderator between depression and positive organizational behaviors (POB; engagement and job satisfaction) compared with control and social support as moderators. As expected we found PSC moderated the effects of job demands on depression and further moderated the effects of depression on POB with fit to the data that was as good as control and social support as moderators. This study has shown that PSC is a macro-level resource and safety signal for workers acting to reduce demand-induced depression. We conclude that organizations need to focus on the development of a robust PSC that will operate to buffer the effects of workplace psychosocial hazards and to build environments conducive to worker psychological health and positive organizational behaviors.

  2. Gender differences in self-reported physical and psychosocial exposures in jobs with both female and male workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on e

  3. The Composite Strain Index (COSI) and Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI): methodologies for quantifying biomechanical stressors for complex tasks and job rotation using the Revised Strain Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Arun; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay M

    2016-11-04

    The Composite Strain Index (COSI) quantifies biomechanical stressors for complex tasks consisting of exertions at different force levels and/or with different exertion times. The Cumulative Strain Index (CUSI) further integrates biomechanical stressors from different tasks to quantify exposure for the entire work shift. The paper provides methodologies to compute COSI and CUSI along with examples. Complex task simulation produced 169,214 distinct tasks. Use of average, time-weighted average (TWA) and peak force and COSI classified 66.9, 28.2, 100 and 38.9% of tasks as hazardous, respectively. For job rotation the simulation produced 10,920 distinct jobs. TWA COSI, peak task COSI and CUSI classified 36.5, 78.1 and 66.6% jobs as hazardous, respectively. The results suggest that the TWA approach systematically underestimates the biomechanical stressors and peak approach overestimates biomechanical stressors, both at the task and job level. It is believed that the COSI and CUSI partially address these underestimations and overestimations of biomechanical stressors. Practitioner Summary: COSI quantifies exposure when applied hand force and/or duration of that force changes during a task cycle. CUSI integrates physical exposures from job rotation. These should be valuable tools for designing and analysing tasks and job rotation to determine risk of musculoskeletal injuries.

  4. Menstrual cycle effects on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval following a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M; Mordecai, Kristen L; Rubin, Leah H; Sundermann, Erin; Savarese, Antonia; Eatough, Erin; Drogos, Lauren

    2015-08-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Laboratory-induced stress produces elevations in cortisol and deficits in memory, especially when stress is induced immediately before retrieval of emotionally valent stimuli. Sex and sex steroids appear to influence these stress-induced outcomes, though no study has directly compared the effects of laboratory-induced stress on cortisol and emotional retrieval across the menstrual cycle. We examined the effect of psychosocial stress on cortisol responsivity and emotional retrieval in women tested during either the follicular phase (low estradiol and progesterone) or the luteal phase (higher estradiol and progesterone). Forty women (50% White; age 18-40 years) participated in the study; 20 completed the task during the luteal phase and 20 during the follicular phase. Psychosocial stress was induced with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). On the day before the TSST, participants learned two lists of word pairs to 100% criterion. The next day, participants recalled one list after the control condition and the other after the TSST. Women in the follicular phase, but not the luteal phase, demonstrated a significant cortisol response to the TSST. There was a stress-induced decrease in emotional retrieval following the TSST, but this effect was not modified by menstrual phase. However, regression and correlational analyses showed that individual differences in stress-induced cortisol levels were associated with impaired emotional retrieval in the follicular phase only. The present findings indicate that cortisol responsivity and the impairing effects of cortisol on emotional memory are lower when levels of estradiol and progesterone are high compared to when levels are low.

  5. Predicting Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Workplace Counselors: The Influence of Role Stressors, Job Challenge, and Organizational Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Brown, Andrea; Wallace, Debra

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the antecedents of burnout and job satisfaction among counselors employed in workplace settings. Workplace counselors face the unique demands of managing dual client relationships (individual and organization) within the counseling setting. Antecedents of the job-related outcomes of burnout and satisfaction are likely to…

  6. Predicting Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Workplace Counselors: The Influence of Role Stressors, Job Challenge, and Organizational Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Brown, Andrea; Wallace, Debra

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the antecedents of burnout and job satisfaction among counselors employed in workplace settings. Workplace counselors face the unique demands of managing dual client relationships (individual and organization) within the counseling setting. Antecedents of the job-related outcomes of burnout and satisfaction are likely to…

  7. STUDY ON PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS AND PSYCHIATRY MORBIDITY IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: A QUANTITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ilyas Rahamathulla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Numerous biological, environmental, behavioural, and sociocultural variables interact in its aetiology and pathogenesis of Coronary Heart Disease. It can be seen as a disorder of lifestyle and many of its aetiologic agents are potentially modifiable particularly life stressors. AIM We aimed 1. To compare the occurrence of stressful life events among myocardial infarction patients with non-myocardial infarction patients with diabetes mellitus as control group who are with same age and sex. 2. To assess the level of psychiatric morbidity in the post myocardial infarction period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the intermediate care unit, Department of Cardiology, of tertiary care hospital. Thirty consecutive patients admitted who satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Thirty randomly selected patients were taken as controls. Both the patients and controls were administered the following tools: Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale (PSLES, Socio-Economic Status scale (SES, Hospital anxiety and depression scale and ICD 10 criteria for depressive episode. RESULTS The clinical variable, blood pressure, and blood glucose level showed statistically significant level in myocardial infarction group. Alcohol drinking and smoking did not have any statistical significance. Presumptive stressful life events in the past 12 months are statistically significant. CONCLUSION Patients who developed myocardial infarction have more stressful life events in the preceding 12 months. Both depression and anxiety were significantly more in myocardial infarction than the controls. Further research requires samples representing all socioeconomic status to have a clear picture of the association of the biological and socioeconomic risk factors in coronary heart disease.

  8. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part II – The relationship between self-esteem and demographic factors and psychosocial stressors in psychiatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Salsali, Mahnaz; Silverstone, Peter H

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to identify the effects and relative importance of demographic factors and psychosocial stressors on self-esteem of psychiatric patients. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, patients and controls completed two self-esteem questi...

  9. How changes in psychosocial job characteristics impact burnout in nurses: a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pisanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this longitudinal study was to test the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS model and to analyze whether changes in psychosocial job characteristics are related to (changes in burnout. Previous studies on the effects of JDCS variables on burnout dimensions have indicated that the iso strain hypothesis (i.e., high job demands, low control and low support additively predict high stress reactions and the buffer hypotheses (i.e., high job control and/or social support is expected to moderate the negative impact of high demands on stress reactions have hardly been examined concurrently in a longitudinal design; and that the effects of changes of psychosocial job variables on burnout dimensions have hardly been analysed. This two wave study was carried out over a period of 14 months in a sample of 217 Italian nurses.Method: Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the cross lagged main and interactive effects of JDCS variables, and to analyse the across-time effects of changes in JDCS dimensions on burnout variables.The Time 1 job characteristics explained 2 to 8% of the variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions, but no support for the additive or the buffer hypothesis of the JDCS model was found. Changes in job characteristics explained an additional 3 to 20% of variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions. Specifically, high levels of emotional exhaustion at Time 2 were explained by high levels of social support at Time 1, and unfavourable changes in demands, control and support over time; high depersonalisation at Time 2 was explained by high social support at time 1 and by an increase in demands over time; and high personal accomplishment at Time 2 was predicted by high demands, high control, interactive effect demands X control X social support, at Time 1, and by a decrease in demands over time. No reversed effects of burnout on work characteristics have been found.Our findings suggest that the work environment is subject to

  10. Organizational Stressors and Job Stress Among Malaysian Managers: The Moderating Role of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaresan V. Sathasivam; Mohd Dahlan Hj. A. Malek; Ahmad Faris Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Job stress is vastly present in today¡¯s organizations, and the costs of these phenomena cut across all levels of society. In recent years, researchers considering job stress in the workplace have made great strides in understanding several aspects of the stress phenomenon in the field of organizational behavior. Thus, it becomes more important that the individual variables of these job stresses are well explored and directly linked to individuals experiencing this situation, in order to ensu...

  11. Psychosocial job strain and risk of congenital malformations in offspring--a Danish National cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A D; Hannerz, H; Thulstrup, A M

    2014-01-01

    (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85-1.15). Supplementary analyses including restriction to first-borns and a stratified analysis with respect to manual and nonmanual work did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Association between exposure to high job strain during pregnancy and elevated risk of circulatory......OBJECTIVE: To investigate if maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain at work (high demands and low control) measured by questionnaire early in pregnancy (median week 15) is associated with malformations in the offspring. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth...... strain with adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, parity, smoking, alcohol use, manual versus nonmanual work, maternal serious disease and gestational age at interview. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Circulatory malformation, musculoskeletal malformation or any malformation. RESULTS: Logistic regression...

  12. Testing the association between psychosocial job strain and adverse birth outcomes - design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulstrup Ane M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies have examined the effects of prenatal exposure to stress on birth outcomes but few have specifically focused on psychosocial job strain. In the present protocol, we aim to examine if work characterised by high demands and low control, during pregnancy, is associated with the risk of giving birth to a child born preterm or small for gestational age. Methods and design We will use the Danish National Birth Cohort where 100.000 children are included at baseline. In the present study 49,340 pregnancies will be included. Multinomial logistic regression will be applied to estimate odds ratios for the outcomes: preterm; full term but small for gestational age; full term but large for gestational age, as a function of job-strain (high strain, active and passive versus low strain. In the analysis we control for maternal age, Body Mass Index, parity, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, coffee consumption, type of work (manual versus non-manual, maternal serious disease and parents' heights as well as gestational age at interview. Discussion The prospective nature of the design and the high number of participants strengthen the study. The large statistical power allows for interpretable results regardless of whether or not the hypotheses are confirmed. This is, however, not a controlled study since all kinds of 'natural' interventions takes place throughout pregnancy (e.g. work absence, medical treatment and job-redesign. The analysis will be performed from a public health perspective. From this perspective, we are not primarily interested in the effect of job strain per se but if there is residual effect of job strain after naturally occurring preventive measures have been taken.

  13. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  14. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  15. APPROACHING THE DISCRIMINATORY WORK ENVIRONMENT AS STRESSOR: THE PROTECTIVE ROLE OF JOB SATISFACTION ON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Di Marco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organisational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organisational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyse the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male= 826, female= 764, employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R²= .17. This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognise and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g. through training, diversity policies, etc.. On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g. providing mechanisms of voice might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.Keywords: Discriminatory work environment, Job satisfaction, Employees’ health, Human Resource Management, Italian workers, Workplace, Work-related stress

  16. Technology-Induced Stressors, Job Satisfaction and Workplace Exhaustion Among Journalism and Mass Communication Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Randal A.; Kim, Eunseong; Voakes, Paul S.

    2003-01-01

    Contends that teaching journalism and mass communication has become a technology-intensive occupation. Reports on results of a national study of the use of technology in journalism and mass communication programs. Examines how technology-induced stress affects two aspects of work-life quality: job satisfaction and work-related exhaustion. (PM)

  17. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees’ health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees’ health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R2 = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers’ health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment. PMID:27625625

  18. Approaching the Discriminatory Work Environment as Stressor: The Protective Role of Job Satisfaction on Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Donatella; López-Cabrera, Rocio; Arenas, Alicia; Giorgi, Gabriele; Arcangeli, Giulio; Mucci, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a complex phenomenon with adverse consequences at personal and organizational levels. Past studies have demonstrated that workers who are victims of discrimination might show less job satisfaction, less organizational commitment and worse levels of health and productivity. Although most research has focused on the effects of discrimination on victims, less is known about the extent to which discrimination produces consequences on workers who perceive the existence of a discriminatory work environment. The goal of this article is to analyze the consequences of the perception of a discriminatory work environment on employees' health. The importance of this relationship is studied taking into account the mediating effect of job satisfaction. In order to reach this goal a cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1633 Italian workers (male = 826, female = 764), employed in private and public sectors, and in different hierarchical positions. Results suggest that the perception of a discriminatory work environment is negatively associated with employees' health. This relationship is partially mediated by job satisfaction (R (2) = 0.17). This study demonstrates that perceiving a discriminatory work environment might have a negative impact on workers' health. A higher level of job satisfaction might buffer this effect. These findings have several practical implications. On the one hand, Human Resource Managers need to intervene in order to recognize and diminish implicit biases, creating a healthy and inclusive environment (e.g., through training, diversity policies, etc.). On the other hand, promoting job satisfaction (e.g., providing mechanisms of voice) might help workers to preserve their well-being, coping with the negative effects of a discriminatory work environment.

  19. Stressors, supports and the social ecology of displacement: psychosocial dimensions of an emergency education program for Chechen adolescents displaced in Ingushetia, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa Stichick

    2005-09-01

    This study explored the psychosocial benefits of an emergency education intervention serving adolescents displaced by the war in Chechnya. It set out to describe key stressors and sources of social support available to youth served by the International Rescue Committee's (IRC) emergency education program. Interviews were conducted with 57 Chechen adolescents living in spontaneous settlements in Ingushetia, Russia in the fall of 2000. Of particular interest was the degree to which the education program addressed specified psychosocial goals. Findings indicated that young people and their families faced a number of physical and emotional stressors. The data indicated that the emergency education program provided benefits by enriching sources of social support, providing meaningful activity and a sense of hope for the future, and creating a space for young people to spend time and connect to others. However, the contrast between the desire of adolescents "to live like other kids" and the options available to them presented a dilemma for the emergency education program: adolescents craved normalcy, but for any intervention to be delivered, it had to first begin with creative and adaptive strategies that were by no means a complete replacement for formal, mainstream education. The programmatic and policy implications of these findings are presented here.

  20. Occupational coping self-efficacy explains distress and well-being in nurses beyond psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato ePisanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Questionnaire data from 1479 nurses (65% response were analyzed. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the direct and moderating role of OCSE in conjunction with job demands (i.e., time pressure, and two job resources: job control (i.e., decision latitude and skill discretion and social support (i.e., supervisor support and coworker support in predicting psychological distress and well-being.Results: Our findings indicated that high demands, low job control and low social support additively predicted the distress/well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, psychological distress, and somatic complaints. Beyond the main effects, no significant interactive effects of demands, control, and support were found. Occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE accounted for an additional 1% to 4% of the variance in the outcomes, after controlling for the JDCS variables. In addition, the results indicate that occupational coping self-efficacy buffers the association between low job control and the distress dimensions emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. Low control was detrimental only for nurses with low occupational coping self-efficacy.Conclusion: Our results suggest expanding the JDCS model incorporating individual characteristics such as occupational coping self-efficacy beliefs, for predicting psychological distress and well-being. Limitations of the study and practical implications

  1. The correlations between job stressors,job burnout and professional identity of nurses%护士职业认同水平与其工作压力、职业倦怠的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲; 张雅丽; 刘晓虹

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨临床护士的职业认同水平与其工作压力、职业倦怠之间的关系.方法 采用护士职业认同问卷、护士工作压力源量表及护士职业倦怠量表对上海市9所医院的524名临床护士实施问卷调查.结果 护士的职业认同处于中等水平,工作量及时间分配位居其工作压力源之首,存在一定程度的工作倦怠;护士的职业认同水平与其工作压力及职业倦怠程度呈负相关,即护士的职业认同水平越高,其感知的工作压力及职业倦怠程度越轻.结论 提升护士的职业认同水平,有望缓解护士的工作压力及职业倦怠,也为护理人力资源管理寻求有效干预策略拓展新视角.%Objective To determine the relationships among job stressors,job burnout and professional identity of nurses. Methods A total of 524 nurses worked in 9 hospitals in Shanghai were recruited and investigated with Nursing Professional Identity Scale, Nurse Job Stressors Questionnaire and Job Burnout Inventory. Results Nurses' professional identity was in the moderate level. The primary job stressor was workload and time distribution and the nurses showed some degree of job burnout. The professional identity was negatively correlated to job stressors and job burnout. Conclusion It is suggested to enhance nurses' professional i-dentity and thereby to relieve their job stress and job burnout,which provide a new perspective for the management of nursing human resources.

  2. Correlation between job satisfaction and job stressors of coronary care unit nurses%冠心病监护单元护士工作满意度与工作压力源的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤红; 周秋敏; 吴海珍; 陈咏梅; 卢钱娣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨冠心病监护单元(CCU)护士工作满意度与工作压力源的关系.方法 采用明尼苏达满意度问卷、护士工作压力源量表对122名CCU护士进行问卷调查.结果 CCU护士总体工作满意度平均得分(56.42±9.13).工作压力源5个方面中时间分配及工作量方面(压力Ⅱ)得分最高、工作环境及仪器设备方面(压力Ⅲ)得分最低,护理专业及工作方面(压力Ⅰ)、压力Ⅱ、患者护理方面(压力Ⅳ)、管理及人际关系方面(压力Ⅴ)均与满意度呈负相关(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析显示CCU护士内在满意度的影响因素为压力Ⅱ和压力Ⅰ(t=-8.49,P<0.05;t=-0.26,P<0.05),外在满意度的影响因素为压力Ⅴ和压力Ⅰ(t=-7.03,P<0.05;t=-3.83,P<0.05).结论 CCU护理工作自身的特点和管理方面的压力与护士的工作满意度关系密切,是影响满意度的主要因素.%Objective To study the correlation between job satisfaction and job stressors of coronary care unit (CCU) nurses.Methods A survey was conducted by means of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and Nurse Job Stressors Scale in 122 CCU nurses.Results The mean score of total job satisfaction of the CCU nurses was (56.42±9.13). In the five aspects of stressors, time allocation and work load (stressor Ⅱ) scored the highest, while work environment and facilities (stressor Ⅲ) scored the lowest. Job satisfaction was negatively correlated with job stressor Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅳ and Ⅴ (P<0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that internal job satisfaction was influenced by stressor Ⅱ and Ⅰ(t=-8.49,P<0.05;t=-0.26,P<0.05), and external job satisfaction was influenced by stressor Ⅴ and Ⅰ(t=-7.03,P<0.05;t=-3.83,P<0.05).Conclusions The features of job and management in CCU are the major influencing factors of the job satisfaction.

  3. Psychosocial stressor effects on cortisol and ghrelin in emotional and non-emotional eaters: influence of anger and shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2010-09-01

    Food consumption in stressful situations vary as a function of individual difference factors (e.g., emotional vs. non-emotional eating), and may be related to hormonal responses elicited by the stressful event. These hormonal responses may be tied to specific emotions elicited by the stressful event. The present investigation examined the emotional and hormonal (cortisol, ghrelin) responses of high and low emotional eaters following a laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST). Women (n=48) either high or low in emotional eating status were tested in a TSST or served as controls during which blood samples were taken for analysis of cortisol and ghrelin, both of which have been implicated in eating and in response to stressors. The TSST promoted elevated cortisol levels, being somewhat more pronounced in emotional than in non-emotional eaters. Both shame and anger were provoked by the TSST, and although both these emotions were correlated with cortisol levels, only anger significantly mediated the relationship between the stressor and cortisol levels. As well, baseline ghrelin levels in low emotional eaters exceeded that of high emotional eaters, and increased moderately in response to the stressor situation, irrespective of emotional eating status. Interestingly, when provided with food, ghrelin levels declined in the non-emotional eaters, but not in emotional eaters. The possibility is offered that the lack of a decline of ghrelin in emotional eaters may sustain eating in these individuals.

  4. Does psychosocial competency training for junior physicians working in pediatric medicine improve individual skills and perceived job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Monika; Baresi, Lisa; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Pediatricians' job performance, work engagement, and job satisfaction are essential for both the individual physician and quality of care for their little patients and parents. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly augment pediatricians' individual and professional competencies. In this study, we developed and implemented a psychosocial competency training (PCT) teaching different psychosocial competencies and stress coping techniques. We investigated (1) the influence of the PCT on work-related characteristics: stress perception, work engagement, job satisfaction and (2) explored pediatricians' outcomes and satisfaction with PCT. Fifty-four junior physicians working in pediatric hospital departments participated in the training and were randomized in an intervention (n = 26) or a control group (n = 28). In the beginning, at follow-up 1 and 2, both groups answered a self-rated questionnaire on perceived training outcomes and work-related factors. The intervention group showed that their job satisfaction significantly increased while perceived stress scores decreased after taking part in the PCT. No substantial changes were observed with regard to pediatricians' work engagement. Participating physicians evaluated PCT with high scores for training design, content, received outcome, and overall satisfaction with the training.

  5. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions.

  6. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  7. Interaction between DRD2 C957T polymorphism and an acute psychosocial stressor on reward-related behavioral impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Melanie J; Lawford, Bruce R; Morris, C Phillip; Young, Ross McD

    2009-05-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism CC genotype is associated with decreased striatal binding of DRD2 and executive function and working memory impairments in healthy adults. We investigated the relationships between C957T and acute stress with behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity in 72 young adults randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Homozygotes for 957C showed increased reward responsiveness after stress induction. They were also quicker when making immediate choices on the delay discounting task when stressed, compared with homozygotes who were not stressed. No effects were found for response inhibition, a dimension of impulsivity not related to extrinsic rewards. These data suggest that C957T is associated with a reward-related impulsivity endophenotype in response to acute psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine whether the greater sensitivity of 957C homozygotes to the effects of stress is mediated through dopamine release.

  8. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  9. 精神科护士工作倦怠与应对方式及工作压力源的研究%STUDY ON THE RELATIONS AMONG JOB BURNOUT, COPING STYLE AND JOB STRESSORS OF PSYCHIATRIC NURSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟勇; 曹健

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To study the potential notable differences of job burnout levels among the nurses in the psychiatric and non- psychiatric departments through a comparative study. By exploring the relationship among job bumout, coping style and job stressors, to provide more theoretical foundation for promoting mental health of psychiatric nurses. [Methods] Investigated 143 psychiatric clinical nurses in the manner of Chinese Maslach burnout inventory, scale form on job stressors of nurses and simple coping style questionnaire. The database was set up in Foxpor 6.0 and the data were processed in SPSS 15.0. [Results] The five aspects of job stressors had a close relation with job bumout and also were major variables in the study of e-motional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Active coping style had a significant negative re-lation with the three dimensions of job burnout (P< 0.01), while passive coping style was positively related to it (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that active coping and passive coping styles were two major affecting factors of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping style suggested in this paper as moderator and intervening variables had been partly tested. [Conclusion] The present job burnout of psychiatric nurses is quite serious, job stressors and coping style of psychiatric nurses are the significant influence factors of job burnout. The coping style has the remarkable moderator and intervening function in the job bumout and job stressors.%[目的]了解精神科护士工作倦怠、工作压力源及应对方式的现状,探讨三者之间的关系.[方法]采用中武工作倦怠问卷、护士工作压力源量表以及简易应对方式量表对143名精神科临床护士进行调查.用SPSS15.0进行数据处理.[结果]工作压力源的5个方面均与工作倦怠密切相关(P<0.01),且是影响精神科护士情感耗竭、人格解体及成

  10. Overload, and Cutbacks, and Freezes, Oh My! The Relative Effects of the Recession-Related Stressors on Employee Strain and Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Morgan D; Sliter, Michael; Sinclair, Robert R

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe, economic fluctuations have taken their toll on both organizations and employees, particularly during sustained recessions. Surprisingly, little research, however, has directly investigated the effects of recessions on employees. As such, the goal of the current study was to investigate the effects of specific recession-related stressors on employee outcomes (strain and satisfaction). We investigated an archival data set of 7666 individuals collected as part of the Workplace Employment Relations Study for relations among recession-related stressors with strain and job satisfaction variables. We found that recession-related stressors were significantly related to both strain and satisfaction. More specifically, certain recession-related stressors (e.g. increased workload and reorganization of work) were more strongly related to strain and satisfaction than others. These results imply the need for greater attention to stress management strategies aimed at helping both employees and their organizations cope with the human costs of economic recessions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. IS WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT A MULTILEVEL STRESSOR LINKING JOB CONDITIONS TO MENTAL HEALTH? EVIDENCE FROM THE WORK, FAMILY AND HEALTH NETWORK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kaduk, Anne; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Hammer, Leslie; Buxton, Orfeu M; O'Donnell, Emily; Almeida, David; Fox, Kimberly; Tranby, Eric; Oakes, J Michael; Casper, Lynne

    Most research on the work conditions and family responsibilities associated with work-family conflict and other measures of mental health uses the individual employee as the unit of analysis. We argue that work conditions are both individual psychosocial assessments and objective characteristics of the proximal work environment, necessitating multilevel analyses of both individual- and team-level work conditions on mental health. This study uses multilevel data on 748 high-tech professionals in 120 teams to investigate relationships between team- and individual-level job conditions, work-family conflict, and four mental health outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, perceived stress, and psychological distress). We find that work-to-family conflict is socially patterned across teams, as are job satisfaction and emotional exhaustion. Team-level job conditions predict team-level outcomes, while individuals' perceptions of their job conditions are better predictors of individuals' work-to-family conflict and mental health. Work-to-family conflict operates as a partial mediator between job demands and mental health outcomes. Our findings suggest that organizational leaders concerned about presenteeism, sickness absences, and productivity would do well to focus on changing job conditions in ways that reduce job demands and work-to-family conflict in order to promote employees' mental health. We show that both work-to-family conflict and job conditions can be fruitfully framed as team characteristics, shared appraisals held in common by team members. This challenges the framing of work-to-family conflict as a "private trouble" and provides support for work-to-family conflict as a structural mismatch grounded in the social and temporal organization of work.

  12. Glucose metabolic changes in the prefrontal cortex are associated with HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Simone; Oakes, Terrence R; Stone, Charles K; McAuliff, Emelia M; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Davidson, Richard J

    2008-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been well known for its role in higher order cognition, affect regulation and social reasoning. Although the precise underpinnings have not been sufficiently described, increasing evidence also supports a prefrontal involvement in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Here we investigate the PFC's role in HPA axis regulation during a psychosocial stress exposure in 14 healthy humans. Regional brain metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography (PET) and injection of fluoro-18-deoxyglucose (FDG). Depending on the exact location within the PFC, increased glucose metabolic rate was associated with lower or higher salivary cortisol concentration in response to a psychosocial stress condition. Metabolic glucose rate in the rostral medial PFC (mPFC) (Brodman area (BA) 9 and BA 10) was negatively associated with stress-induced salivary cortisol increases. Furthermore, metabolic glucose rate in these regions was inversely coupled with changes in glucose metabolic rate in other areas, known to be involved in HPA axis regulation such as the amygdala/hippocampal region. In contrast, metabolic glucose rate in areas more lateral to the mPFC was positively associated with saliva cortisol. Subjective ratings on task stressfulness, task controllability and self-reported dispositional mood states also showed positive and negative associations with the glucose metabolic rate in prefrontal regions. These findings suggest that in humans, the PFC is activated in response to psychosocial stress and distinct prefrontal metabolic glucose patterns are linked to endocrine stress measures as well as subjective ratings on task stressfulness, controllability as well as dispositional mood states.

  13. The influence of job stressors on job satisfaction of community nurses in Xi ’an%西安市社区护士工作压力源对工作满意度的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭妍; 蒋文慧; 李小妹; 李津; 施齐芳; 吕爱莉; 鱼星峰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the status of job stressors and satisfaction of community nurses and their relationship in Xi’an. Methods Totally, 302 community nurses from 24 community health service centers in Xi’an were investigated by using general information questionnaire,job stressor scale of com-munity health nurses and job satisfaction scale. Results The total score of community nurses job stressors was(71. 55 ± 25. 41). And the total score of commu-nity nurses’ job satisfaction was(139. 88 ± 19. 33). Multiple linear stepwise regression showed that the professional and technical titles,the monthly income,the problems from intrinsic job features,work overload and time pressures,management dynamics and interpersonal relations were the influencing factor of nurses’job satisfaction. Conclusion The community nursing managers should take actions to improve the working facilities,increase nurses’satisfaction with pay,and create more chances to promote,so as to increase the satisfaction of community nurses.%目的:了解西安市社区护士工作压力源、工作满意度现状并探讨二者之间的关系。方法采用一般资料调查表、社区护士工作压力源量表、社区护士工作满意度量表对西安市24个社区卫生服务中心的302名社区护士进行问卷调查。结果社区护士工作压力源总分为(71.55±25.41)分,工作满意度总分为(139.88±19.33)分。职称、个人月收入、护理专业及工作方面的问题、工作量及时间分配方面的问题、管理及人际关系方面的问题是社区护士工作满意度的主要影响因素。结论管理者要注重改善社区护士工作环境、提高待遇、注重其个人发展,提高社区护士工作满意度。

  14. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  15. Jobs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple.......Review of the movie Jobs (Joshua Michael Stern, 2013), a drama about Steve Jobs, the founder of Apple....

  16. Psychosocial safety climate as a lead indicator of workplace bullying and harassment, job resources, psychological health and employee engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Dormann, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Psychosocial safety climate (PSC) is defined as shared perceptions of organizational policies, practices and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety, that stem largely from management practices. PSC theory extends the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) framework and proposes that organizational level PSC determines work conditions and subsequently, psychological health problems and work engagement. Our sample was derived from the Australian Workplace Barometer project and comprised 30 organizations, and 220 employees. As expected, hierarchical linear modeling showed that organizational PSC was negatively associated with workplace bullying and harassment (demands) and in turn psychological health problems (health impairment path). PSC was also positively associated with work rewards (resources) and in turn work engagement (motivational path). Accordingly, we found that PSC triggered both the health impairment and motivational pathways, thus justifying extending the JD-R model in a multilevel way. Further we found that PSC, as an organization-based resource, moderated the positive relationship between bullying/harassment and psychological health problems, and the negative relationship between bullying/harassment and engagement. The findings provide evidence for a multilevel model of PSC as a lead indicator of workplace psychosocial hazards (high demands, low resources), psychological health and employee engagement, and as a potential moderator of psychosocial hazard effects. PSC is therefore an efficient target for primary and secondary intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying the revised Chinese Job Content Questionnaire to assess psychosocial work conditions among Taiwan's hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For hospital accreditation and health promotion reasons, we examined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could be applied to evaluate job strain of individual hospital employees and to determine the number of factors extracted from JCQ. Additionally, we developed an Excel module of self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation with experts. Methods To develop an Excel-based self-evaluation diagnostic system for consultation to experts to make job strain assessment easier and quicker than ever, Rasch rating scale model was used to analyze data from 1,644 hospital employees who enrolled in 2008 for a job strain survey. We determined whether the 22-item Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ could evaluate job strain of individual employees in work sites. The respective item responding to specific groups' occupational hazards causing job stress was investigated by using skewness coefficient with its 95% CI through item-by-item analyses. Results Each of those 22 items on the questionnaire was examined to have five factors. The prevalence rate of Chinese hospital workers with high job strain was 16.5%. Conclusions Graphical representations of four quadrants, item-by-item bar chart plots and skewness 95% CI comparison generated in Excel can help employers and consultants of an organization focusing on a small number of key areas of concern for each worker in job strain.

  18. Qualitative research on job stressors of new head nurses%新护士长工作压力源的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓慧; 陈漂漂; 胡皎; 张丽萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解新护士长在职业角色变更后工作中的压力源,为其尽快适应管理职能提供依据。方法采用质性研究中的现象学研究法,以面对面、半结构式深度访谈的方式收集资料,运用Colaizzi 7步分析法及压力的二维结构理论进行资料的整理分析。结果新护士长面临的主要的挑战性压力源有护理安全管理、管理能力、时间管理、人际关系及自身素养要求5个方面;阻碍性压力源主要有角色适应不良及培训缺失两方面。结论高层护理管理者应针对新护士长进行上岗前培训及不定期的指导教育,激发挑战性压力源对新护士长的提升作用,消除阻碍性压力源的消极作用,促进新护士长尽早适应护士长岗位。%Objective To explore the pressure sources of new head nurses , so as to provide them the adapting interventions .Methods Face-to-face and semi-structured interviews of phenomenological method were carried out to collect data .Then, 7-step Colaizzi method and the theory of two-dimensional structure of pressure were used to analyze the data .Results The main challenge stressors of new head nurses were safety control of nursing, management ability, time management, interpersonal relationship and self-improvement.The main hindrance stressors were role maladjustment and lack of pre-job training.Conclusions Executives of head nurses should conduct pre-job training and give some guidance for new head nurses , so as to stimulate the promotion function of challenge stressors and eliminate the obstructive role of the hindrance stressors , in order to help them to adapt to the job as soon as possible .

  19. Self-Efficacy, School Resources, Job Stressors and Burnout among Spanish Primary and Secondary School Teachers: A Structural Equation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betoret, Fernando Domenech

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between school resources, teacher self-efficacy, potential multi-level stressors and teacher burnout using structural equation modelling. The causal structure for primary and secondary school teachers was also examined. The sample was composed of 724 primary and secondary Spanish school teachers. The changes…

  20. [Association between demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors of job stress in a sample of health care workers employed in two Italian hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, C G; Gerbaudo, Laura; Benso, P G; Violante, B

    2009-01-01

    Job stress has negative effects on both health care work ers' (HCW) health and on work organization. To assess whether the presence of stressful conditions, individually considered, or combined in the iso-strain model, is significantly associated with specific socio-demographic characteristics, also with the aim of providing organizational tools for management to reduce stress in the working environment according to Italian law 81/2008. The extended version of the Job Content Questionnaire was administered to 265 healthy HCW in seven paired wards of two hospitals. The five psychosocial scales Job Demand (JD), Job Control (JC), Social Support (SS), Skill Underutilization (SuS), and Job Insecurity (JI) were calculated. The factors JD, JC, and SS were combined together to separate a group of 33 HCW in iso-strain conditions from another group of 232 HCW not in iso-strain conditions. Several socio-demographic variables were collected. Statistically significant associations were found between socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors, whereas the iso-strain conditions were not related to any socio-demographic parameter. Data suggest the need for alternative policies to reduce job stress: for example, actions addressed to operative units or HCW with specific socio-demographic characteristics could be effective in improving individual psychosocial factors; however, integrated actions aimed at reorganizing the working environment as a whole should be implemented to correct iso-strain conditions.

  1. Current issues relating to psychosocial job strain and cardiovascular disease research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A

    1996-01-01

    The authors comment on recent reviews of cardiovascular job strain research by P. L. Schnall and P. A. Landsbergis (1994), and by T. S. Kristensen (1995), which conclude that job strain as defined by the demand-control model (the combination of contributions of low job decision latitudes and high psychological job demands) is confirmed as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in a large majority of studies. Lack of social support at work appears to further increase risk. Several still-unresolved research questions are examined in light of recent studies: (a) methodological issues related to use of occupational aggregate estimations and occupational career aggregate assessments, use of standard scales for job analysis and recall bias issues in self-reporting; (b) confounding factors and differential strengths of association by subgroups in job strain-cardiovascular disease analyses with respect to social class, gender, and working hours; and (c) review of results of monitoring job strain-blood pressure associations and associated methodological issues.

  2. Psychosocial Job Strain and Sleep Quality Interaction Leading to Insufficient Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif W. Rydstedt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of job strain and sleep quality on the diurnal pattern of cortisol reactivity, measured by awakening and evening (10 PM saliva cortisol. The sample consisted of 76 British white-collar workers (24 women, 52 men; mean age 45.8 years. Sleep quality and job strain were assessed in a survey distributed just before the cortisol sampling. Both input variables were dichotomized about the median and factorial ANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Low sleep quality was significantly associated with lower morning cortisol secretion. While job strain had no main effects on the cortisol reactivity there was a significant interaction effect between the input variables on morning cortisol secretion. These findings tentatively support the hypothesis that lack of sleep for workers with high job strain may result in a flattened diurnal cortisol reactivity.

  3. 军队医院护士工作压力源的调查分析与对策%Analysis of job stressors of nurses in military hospitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史瑞洁; 朱霞

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate job stressors in military hospitals. Methods: A total of 262 nurses were recruited and investigated with the Job Stressors Scale. Results:The first and foremost job stressor of nurses in military hospitals was professional and career,the other stressors in descending order were workload and time pressure,patient care. Different department had different job stressors. Conclusions:Job stress of nurses was very important problem,we should strengthen psychology training,improve the work environment, equip reasonable human resource,alleviate job stress of nurses,promote their health.%目的:探讨军队医院护士的工作压力源情况.方法:采用护士工作压力源量表,对262名军队医院护士的工作压力源进行调查.结果:军队医院护士工作压力源前三位为护士专业及工作方面、工作量及时间分配、患者护理方面的问题.不同科室护士工作压力源不同.结论:护士的心理压力状况不容忽视,应加强护士的心理素质培训,改善工作环境,配备合理的人力资源,减少护士工作压力,促进其身心健康.

  4. Investigation and analysis of the job stressors and burnout of nurses in the county-level hospitals%县级医院护士工作压力源及工作疲溃感调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙玉娥

    2012-01-01

    To investigate and analyze; the; job stre;ssors and burnout of nurses in the county - level hospitals. Methods :The questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 300 nurses who were working in 3 class A hospitals at the second level in Weifang municipality on the situation of their job stressors and burnout. Results:The main job stressors of nurses in the county - level hospitals were that they had less opportunity to take; up advanced studies and get promotion and they had low salary and welfare. No sense of working a-chievement in nurses was common and the situation was above; the moderate degree and the severe degree accounted for 37. 50%. Some; aspects of job stressors were positively correlated with job burnout ( P <0. 05, P <().()1 ). Conclusion: The; job stressors of nurses an; positively correlated with job burnout and have; the; different characteristics compared with those; in the; hospitals at the; third level. Therefore the; administrators should take; appropriate; measures to reduce job stress and job burnout of the; nurses.%目的:调查并分析县级医院护士的工作压力源及工作疲溃感.方法:在潍坊地区三家二级甲等医院共300名护士中发放问卷,调查护士工作压力源和工作疲溃感情况.结果:县级医院护士工作压力源主要有继续深造的机会少、工资福利待遇低、晋升的机会太少、上班的护士数量少等;县级医院护士的"工作无成就感"在中度以上,高度"工作无成就感"占37.50%;护理工作压力源某些方面与疲溃感呈正相关(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:县级医院护士工作压力源和工作疲溃感有相关性,并有其与三级医院不同的特点,护理管理者应根据县级医院的实际情况采取措施,可降低护士的工作压力及工作疲溃感.

  5. Exposure to psychosocial job strain during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis among 7-year old children - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Schlünssen, Vivi; Christensen, Berit Hvass;

    2014-01-01

    during pregnancy and asthma as well as AD among 7-year-old children. METHODS: The study is based on the Danish National Birth Cohort and includes prospective data from 32 104 pregnancies. Job strain was assessed early in pregnancy by use of two questions on demands and control. We categorized...... participants into four job strain categories: low strain (low demands, high control), active (high demands, high control), passive (low demands, low control), and high strain (high demands, low control). Information on asthma and AD until age seven was collected using maternal self-report. Multinomial logistic......OBJECTIVES: Few epidemiological studies have studied maternal stress exposure during pregnancy and odds of asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) among offspring, and none have extended the focus to psychosocial job strain. The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal job strain...

  6. 新建医院护士工作压力源调查与分析%Investigation on job stressors among new hospital nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟宇芳; 骆春朵; 唐春苑; 王饶萍; 许红璐

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨新建医院护士工作压力源及其原因分析。方法采用问卷调查法,调查了某新建三级甲等综合医院的154名护士的工作压力源及其影响因素。结果护士的工作压力为中度水平,影响护士工作压力的前五位因素包括:培训、会议多,担心护理工作中出现差错事故,工资福利低,社会地位不认可,护士人力不足等。非术科明显低于术科(t=4.33,P<0.01),压力值分别为(89.00±6.26)、(143.48±9.14),差异有统计学意义;本科学历与大专及以下学历压力值分别为(130.48±11.45)、(224.93±16.58),学历高者压力低于学历低者(t=4.82,P<0.01),差异有统计学意义。结论新建医院护士存在较大压力,并受多因素的影响;建议根据护士人员现状及临床需要特点,进行针对性、多样化的培训,根据工作状况合理配备护理人员编制;增加病区辅助人员;多关注低学历护士,并进一步探讨其压力的形成原因,采取相应的干预措施保护其身心健康。%Objective To explore factors of job stressor among new hospital nurses. Methods Investigations were conducted on stres-sors and its influencing factors for 154 nurses of a new Grade-III A hospital. Results The nurses work pressure is on a middle level and the first five factors that influence nurse' job stressor are training and meeting, worrying about the nursing errors, low income, with-out the social recognition and manpower shortage. Non-operation room nurses' work pressure was lower than operation room nurse's(t=4.33,P<0.01), 89.00±6.26 and 143.48±9.14 respectively, and the difference between them was of statistical significance. Work pressure of nurses with bachelor and college degree were 130.48±11.45 and 224.93±16.58 respectively. Highly-educated nurses' stress was lower than ill-educated(t=4.82,P<0.01), and the difference between them was of statistical

  7. 急诊护士工作压力源及应对技巧的研究%Study on the job stressors of emergency nurses and coping skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常佃沙; 曹允芳; 王令花; 谭峰

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨急诊护士主要工作压力源及应对技巧.方法:采用问卷调查法,对济南市4 所临床教学医院的184名临床急诊护士进行调查.结果:临床急诊护士的工作压力源依次为:患者护理、工作量及福利待遇、护理专业及工作、工作环境及仪器设备、管理及人际关系,且各压力源与急诊护士改行、工作满意度相关(P<0.05,P<0.01);急诊护士面对压力时一般采取较为积极地应对技巧.结论:急诊护士压力较大,建议从管理角度、加强心理培训、提高工资待遇等方面减少或消除急诊护士工作压力源.%Objective:To explore the job stressors of emergent;)' nurses and coping skills. Methods:A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate 184 clinical emergency nurses of 4 clinical teaching hospitals in Ji'nan city. Results:The job stressors were patient care, workload, welfare remuneration, nursing speciality and working, working environment and equipment, management and interpersonal relationship in proper order. Each stressor had correlation with change of job of nurses and with their satisfaction at profession ( P <0. 05 ,P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion:The clinical emergency nurses bear more work pressure and measures should be taken to reduce or eliminate job stressors, such as strengthening psychological training and increasing wage.

  8. A national standard for psychosocial safety climate (PSC): PSC 41 as the benchmark for low risk of job strain and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tessa S; Dollard, Maureen F; Richards, Penny A M

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research from around the world now permeating occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and guidelines, there remains a lack of tools to guide practice. Our main goal was to establish benchmark levels of psychosocial safety climate (PSC) that would signify risk of job strain (jobs with high demands and low control) and depression in organizations. First, to justify our focus on PSC, using interview data from Australian employees matched at 2 time points 12 months apart (n = 1081), we verified PSC as a significant leading predictor of job strain and in turn depression. Next, using 2 additional data sets (n = 2097 and n = 1043) we determined benchmarks of organizational PSC (range 12-60) for low-risk (PSC at 41 or above) and high-risk (PSC at 37 or below) of employee job strain and depressive symptoms. Finally, using the newly created benchmarks we estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) and found that improving PSC in organizations to above 37 could reduce 14% of job strain and 16% of depressive symptoms in the working population. The results provide national standards that organizations and regulatory agencies can utilize to promote safer working environments and lower the risk of harm to employee mental health.

  9. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia N Hocine

    Full Text Available We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention.

  10. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K

    2013-01-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job.......Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job....

  11. Task design, psycho-social work climate and upper extremity pain disorders--effects of an organisational redesign on manual repetitive assembly jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmansson, M; Fridén, J; Sollerman, C

    1999-10-01

    A company redesign was carried out to improve production efficiency and minimise the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and sick leave. The redesign was evaluated on the basis of studies of assembly workers before (17 workers) and after (12 workers) the redesign. The redesign resulted in more varied, less repetitive, and more autonomous assembly jobs. The psycho-social work climate was both improved and impaired. A medical examination showed that eight of 17 workers before and nine of 12 workers after the redesign suffered from upper extremity pain disorders. Neither the production goals nor the goals of the redesign were fulfilled. Our conclusion was that the increased task variation and impaired psycho-social work climate, combined with a lack of skill and competence, actually increased the physical stress, risk for disorders and difficulties in fulfilling the production goals.

  12. Psychosocial Work Environment and Myocardial Infarction: Improving Risk Estimation by Combining Two Complementary Job Stress Models in the SHEEP Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. Peter; J. Siegrist; J. Hallqvist; C. Reuterwall; T. Theorell; The SHEEP Study Group

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Associations between two alternative formulations of job stress derived from the effort-reward imbalance and the job strain model and first non-fatal acute myocardial infarction were studied...

  13. Psychosocial Hazard Analysis in a Heterogeneous Workforce: Determinants of Work Stress in Blue- and White-Collar Workers of the European Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Yannick Arnold; Bellingrath, Silja

    2017-01-01

    The European steel industry's workforce is highly heterogeneous and consists of various occupational groups, presumably facing different psychosocial stressors. The few existing studies on the subject mainly focused on physical constraints of blue-collar workers, whereas the supposable psychosocial workload received only little research attention. This is remarkable considering the challenges associated with statutory required risk assessment of psychosocial hazards. Valid measures of hazard analysis must account for various stressors and reliably identify them, also between occupational groups. The present study, based on a sample of blue- and white-collar workers (N = 124) from the European steel industry, aims to provide a first insight into psychosocial stressors and strain at work in this rarely researched industrial sector. Furthermore, two well-known theoretical roadmaps in job analysis are examined regarding their utility for risk assessment in heterogeneous workforces: the German standard version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and the short version of the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the COPSOQ was better suited to predict various strain indices in the present sample. Especially stressors relating to socioemotional aspects, such as work-privacy conflict, revealed a reasonable impact, indicating the need for comprehensive solutions at the organizational level instead of solutions focusing on single workplaces. To conclude, a broadly diversified and validated approach in psychosocial risk assessment is needed to adequately assess the variety of psychosocial factors at work and in different occupational groups.

  14. Research on the influence of professional identity and job stressors on job burnout among community nurses in Shenzhen%深圳市社区护士职业认同及工作压力对职业倦怠的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚满英; 黄远泉; 李先荣

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查深圳市社区护士职业倦怠、职业认同及工作压力现状,并分析职业认同及工作压力对职业倦怠的影响.方法 采用职业倦怠量表、护士职业认同评定量表和护士工作压力源量表,对深圳市50个社区健康服务中心的298名社区护士进行问卷调查.结果 深圳市社区护士职业倦怠程度高于常模(P<0.01);179名(60.07%)社区护士职业认同偏低;职业认同、工作压力对职业倦怠的3个维度均有显著预测效果(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 深圳市社区护士职业倦怠现象不容忽视,提高社区护士职业认同等内在动力是预防职业倦怠发生的重要措施.%Objective To investigate the present situation of job burnout, professional identity and job stressors of community nurses in Shenzhen, to analyze the influence of professional identity and job stressors on job burnout. Methods Maslach's Burnout Inventory,Nurse Professional Identity Assessment Scale and Nurses Job Stressors Scale were used to investigate 298 community nurses from 50 community health centres in Shenzhen. Results The degree of job bum-out of community nurses in Shenzhen was higher than norm (P <0.01 ). In 298 community nurses,there were 179(60.07% ) persons with low scores on the test of professional identity. Professional identity and job stressors had significantly effect on the three dimensions of job bumout ( P < 0. 01 or P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The present situation of job burnout is severe among community nurses in Shenzhen. Improving the level of professional identity is an important method to prevent job bumout.

  15. 保定市临床护士工作压力源与健康状况的调查%Investigation on job stressors and health status of clinical nurses in Baoding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铮; 张瑞丽

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate job stressors and health status of clinical nurses in Baoding city, and explore the relationship between them and identify the influential factors related to working stress. Methods Chinese nurse's stressor scale and cornell health questionmaire were administered to assess participants' job stressors and health status. Results Workload and time allocation were the main job stressors, followed by patient nursing. Health status of clinical nurses in Baoding city were normal, they often felt fatigue, easy to anger, depression and tension.All factors of Chinese nurses stressor scale were positively related to health status. Marital status, professional title and department of job were influential factors of working stress. Conclusions Intervention measures should be taken to reduce clinical nurses' work stress and improve quality of nursing.%目的 了解保定市临床护士的工作压力源和健康状况,探讨二者之间的关系,识别工作压力的影响因素.方法 应用中国护士工作压力源量表、康奈尔健康问卷对保定市临床护士进行问卷调查.结果 主要工作压力来源是工作量及时间分配方面(2.45±0.67)分,其次是患者护理方面(2.38±0.68)分.保定市临床护士的健康状况一般,护士群体常感到疲劳、容易愤怒、抑郁和紧张.工作压力源各因子与健康水平之间呈正相关,相关系数最大的是工作量及时间分配和患者护理方面.婚姻状况、职称和科室是工作压力的影响因素(P<0.05).结论 建议相关部门采取干预措施,减轻护士工作压力,以提高护理质量.

  16. Prediction of adaptation difficulties by country of origin, cumulate psychosocial stressors and attitude toward integrating: A Swedish study of first-generation immigrants from Somalia, Vietnam and China

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsson, Ewa; Zolkowska, Krystyna; McNeil, Thomas F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different types of accumulated stress have been found to have negative consequences for immigrants’ capacity to adapt to the new environment. It remains unclear which factors have the greatest influence. Aims: The study investigated whether immigrants’ experience of great difficulty in adapting to a new country could best be explained by (1) country of origin, (2) exposure to accumulated stressors before arrival or (3) after arrival in the new country and/or (4) reserved attitude ...

  17. The job stressors and correlative factors of nurses in infectious disease department%感染疾病科护士工作压力源及相关因素调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汲燕波; 李晓光; 胥婕; 魏洁; 王松; 张岩

    2009-01-01

    目的 了解感染疾病科护士的工作压力水平、压力源及相关因素.方法 采用工作压力源量表对49名感染疾病科护士进行调查.结果 本组护士工作压力的平均水平为(72.86±20.81)分,属于重度压力水平;工资及待遇低、社会地位低、继续深造和晋升机会少、经常倒班、担心工作出差错、缺乏其他医务人员的理解及尊重、上班护士数量少是主要的工作压力源;不同年龄、职称、工作年限的护士其压力得分差异没有统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 各级护理管理者应该重视感染疾病科护士的工作压力问题,并采取各种措施进行减压.%Objective To investigates the job stressors and correlative factor analysis of nurses in infectious disease department. Methods Job stressors were investigated in 49 nurses of infectious disease department with Nurse Job Stressors Questionnaire. Results The total score among the subjects was 72.86± 20.81, which was in high degree. The main job stressors were the low salary and social status of nursing specialty, the little chance of further study and promotion, the worry of making mistake in working, high frequency work in shifts, absence understanding by other medical staffs. There were no distinct difference in different age, length of service and professional title (P > 0.05). Conclusions The job stress was more stressful in nurses of infectious disease department. It should be attached importance to nursing manager, taking effective steps to prevent stress with particular condition.

  18. 挑战-阻碍性压力源与工作投入和满意度的关系%Relationships between Challenge-hindrance Stressor,Employees' Work Engagement and Job Satisfaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘得格; 时勘; 王永丽; 龚会

    2011-01-01

    工作压力一直受到实践者和研究者关注,是组织行为和人力资源管理等学科研究的重要问题.以中国企业员工为样本,采用探索性和验证性因子分析法对挑战性压力源和阻碍性压力源的二维结构观点进行检验,运用层级回归分析方法分析这两类压力源与员工工作投入和整体工作满意度的关系.研究结果表明,压力源的二维结构同样适合于中国企业员工样本,并不是所有的压力源都会带来消极影响,挑战性压力源与员工的工作投入和整体工作满意度显著正相关,而阻碍性压力源与员工工作投入和整体满意度显著负相关.最后对研究结果和未来研究方向进行讨论和说明,该结果不仅在一定程度上丰富了压力管理研究内容,也为企业的管理实践提供指导思想.%Work stress has always been concerned by the practitioners and researchers, and is an important issue in organizational behavior and human resource management research. Firstly, this paper confirmed the validity of two-dimensional model of challeage-hindrance stressor based on the data from Chinese samples using EFA and CFA analyses. Then, this paper analyzed the relationship between challenge-hindrance stressor, employees' work engagement and general job satisfaction using hierarchical regression analyses. The results indicate that not all stressors will bring about negative impact, challenge stressor is positively related to work engagement and job satisfaction, however, hindrance stressor is negatively related to work engagement and job satisfaction. Discussion and future research direction are provided in the end. The results of this study not only enrich the content of stress management, but aisc provide guiding ideas for companies' management practice.

  19. 医院合同制护士工作满意度及压力源的调查分析%Investigation on Job Satisfaction and Stressor of Contract Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓秋; 皮治兵; 蔡志翔; 叶笑梅; 应雪琼; 王晶晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the job satisfaction and stressor of contract nurses so as to provide evidence for standardizing the management of contract nurses, stabilizing the staff of contract nurses and elevating nursing quality.Methods A questionnaire survey was conducted about general state,job satisfaction and stressors of 204 contract nurses in two Class Ⅲ Level B hospitals in Wenzhou.Results The mean score of job satisfaction of the contract nurses was 2.74t±0.15.The whole job satisfaction was comparatively low and the lowest score was in the items of treatment and development opportunity in their specilities.The mean score of job stressors was 2.27 ± 0.58.The main job stressors of contract nurses were the issues in their nursing specialties and job, nursing for patients and workload and time allocation.Conclusion The effective way for reducing resignation and stabilizing the staff of contract nurses is to raise the welfare benefits, provide more development opportunity in specialties and alleviate job stress.%目的 了解医院合同制护士的工作满意度及压力源,为规范合同制护士管理、稳定合同制护士队伍、提高护理质量提供科学依据.方法 采用问卷调查法,调查温州市某两所三级乙等医院204名合同制护士的一般情况、工作满意度、工作压力源的现状及其相关因素.结果 合同制护士工作满意度平均得分为(2.74±0.15)分,总体满意度较低,满意度最低的项目是福利待遇和专业发展机会;工作压力源平均得分为(2.27±0.58)分,合同制护士的护理专业和工作方面的问题、对患者护理方面的问题以及工作量与时间分配的问题为压力的主要来源.结论 提高福利待遇、创造职业发展机会,减轻工作压力是减少离职、稳定和发展合同制护士队伍的有效途径.

  20. Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Cynthia V; Boekelheide, Kim; Catlin, Natasha; Gordon, Christopher J; Morata, Thais; Selgrade, Maryjane K; Sexton, Kenneth; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and "doses" of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled "Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors" held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.

  1. Comparative analysis on job stressors between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses%非现役文职护士和合同护士压力源对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较非现役文职护士和合同护士的工作压力源和应对方式.方法:采用工作压力源量表和简易应对方式量表,对30名非现役文职护士和30名合同护士进行问卷调查.结果:非现役文职护士与合同护士在专业及社会地位、工作量方面的工作压力源比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但在工作环境和资源、病人护理、管理及人际关系方面的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).相同条目得分比较,担心工作出现差错事故、工资及其他福利待遇低和地位低三个条目差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).应对方式得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:非现役文职护士和合同护士工作压力源不同,护理管理者应采取有针对性的减压措施.%ObjectiveiTo compare the job stressors and coping style between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Methods: Thirty non- active civil servant nurses and thirty contracted nurses were recruited and investigated with Job Stressor Scale and Simplified Coping Style ' Questionnaire. Results .-There was significant difference in professional development and social status as well as workload (P0. 05). In comparison of identical items, there was significant diffierence in worry over nursing error and mistake, low wages and material benefits as well as low status (P0. 05). Conclusions:There are different job stressors between non -active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Nursing administrators should take corresponding measures to relieve nurses'job stress.

  2. Comparative analysis on job stressors between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses%非现役文职护士和合同护士压力源对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the job stressors and coping style between non —active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Methods: Thirty non—active civil servant nurses and thirty contracted nurses were recruited and investigated with Job Stressor Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. ResultS:There was significant difference in professional development and social status as well as workload (P0. 05). In comparison of identical itemsi there was significant difference in worry over nursing error and mistake, low wages and material benefits as well as low status (P0. 05). Conclusions: There are different job stressors between non—active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Nursing administrators should take corresponding measures to relieve nurses'job stress.%目的:比较非现役文职护士和合同护士的工作压力源和应对方式.方法:采用工作压力源量表和简易应对方式量表,对30名非现役文职护士和30名合同护士进行同卷调查.结果:非现役文职护士与合同护士在专业及社会地位、工作量方面的工作压力源比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但在工作环境和资源、病人护理、管理及人际关系方面的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).相同条目得分比较,担心工作出现差错事故、工资及其他福利待遇低和地位低三个条目差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).应对方式得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:非现役文职护士和合同护士工作压力源不同,护理管理者应采取有针对性的减压措施.

  3. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Helena; Gore, Rebecca J; Boyer, Jon; Nobrega, Suzanne; Punnett, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  4. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. Methods. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Results. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational, such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Conclusions. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  5. Correlationship between Job Burnout and Job Stressors,Professional Identity of Nurses in Binzhou of Shandong Province%山东滨州地区三级综合性医院护士职业倦怠与工作压力、职业认同的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑豪; 郝玉玲; 杨旭; 赵丹丹

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the impact of job stressor and professional identity on job burnout of nur-ses from the Class III general hospitals in Binzhou of Shandong Province,and provide scientific evidence for nursing managers to take intervention measures.Methods By convenience sampling,262 nurses were se-lected and investigated with job burnout inventory,nurse job stressors questionnaire and nursing profes-sional identity scale.Results Nurses’emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in job burnout were on serious degree.Nurses’professional identity was in the moderate level.The primary j ob stressors were workload and time distribution.Job burnout was positively correlated to “management and personal relations”in job stressors(r=0.49,P<0.01),which also was negatively correlated to “professional identity evaluation”and “dealing with professional frustration”in professional identity(r=-0.55,P<0.01).Con-clusion It is suggested to enhance nurses’professional identity and relieve nurses’j ob stress,and thereby to reduce nurses’job burnout and stabilize nursing staff team.%目的:探讨山东滨州地区三级综合性医院护士工作压力、职业认同对职业倦怠的影响,为护理管理者采取干预措施提供科学依据.方法便利抽样选取山东宾州地区2所三级综合性医院在职护士262名,采用护士职业倦怠量表、工作压力源量表及职业认同量表对其进行问卷调查.结果护士职业倦怠中的情感衰竭、个人成就感程度较为严重,职业认同处于中等水平,工作量及时间分配为主要压力源;护士的职业倦怠与工作压力源中的维度“管理及人际关系”呈中度正相关(r=0.49, P<0.01),与职业认同中的维度“职业认知评价”、“职业挫折应对”呈中度负相关(r=-0.55,P<0.01).结论减轻护士的工作压力、提高护士的职业认同感可降低护士的职业倦怠,促进护理队伍稳定.

  6. Relationship among psychological empower, role stressors and job burnout in doctors%医生心理授权、角色压力源与职业倦怠的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 王胜男; 邹敏; 孙宏伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship among psychological empower,role stressors and job burnout in doctors.Methods According to convenience sampling principle,350 doctors were selected and assessed with the job burnout scale (MBI-GS),the psychological empower scale and role stressors scale.Results The scores of meaning(10.80±3.12) and self-determination (9.33 ± 3.19) were negatively correlated with the scores of job burnout (r value was from-0.28 to-0.47,P<0.01),the scores of self-efficacy(11.42±2.67)were negatively correlated with the scores of cynicism (1.61 ± 1.21)and reduced personal accomplishment (3.62±1.51)(r=-0.23,-0.51,P<0.01),and the scores of impact(8.04±3.18) were negatively corrclated with the scores of emotional exhaustion(1.89±1.19) and cynicism(r=-0.17,-0.25,P<0.01).The scores of role stressors were positively correlated with the scores of emotional exhaustion and cynicism(r=0.15-0.45,P<0.01),and the scores of role ambiguity(19.09±3.76) were positively correlated with the scores of reduced personal accomplishment (r=0.42,P<0.01).The self-efficacy and self-determination can negatively predict job burnout(P<0.01) ;the role overload(15.24±4.62) and role ambiguity can positively predict job burnout(P<0.01).Conclusion Psychological empower and role stressors are closely related with job burnout,and have significantly predictive effects on job bumout.%目的 探索医生心理授权、角色压力源与职业倦怠的关系.方法 采用方便取样的方法,用职业倦怠量表(MBI-GS)、心理授权量表和角色压力源量表对山东省潍坊市350名医生进行调查.结果 心理授权中的工作意义[(10.80±3.12)分]与自主性[(9.33±3.19)分]均与职业倦怠的3个维度呈显著负相关(r=-0.28-0.47,P<0.01),自我效能[(11.42±2.67)分]与玩世不恭[(1.61±1.21)分]、成就感低落[(3.62±1.51)分]呈显著负相关(r=-0.23,-0.51,P<0.01),工作影响[(8.04±3.18)分]与情绪衰竭[(1.89±1.19)分]、

  7. 生产线工人工作应激源、工作倦怠、工作能力关系的路径分析%Path Analysis on Relationship Among Job Stressor, Job Burnout and Work Ability of Workers on Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏展; 唐建军; 张新生; 陈小良

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship among job stressor,job burnout and work ability of workers on production line,so as to validate the multiply causality of job stressor,job burnout and work ability.Methods Totally,787 manufacturing workers on production line were recruited by systematic sampling method and tested with psychological questionnaires which included Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) of Occupational Stress Inventory Reversed Edutuib (OSI-R),Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS) and Work Ability Index (WAI).The data of relationship among job stress,job burnout and work ability were analyzed using path analysis by Amos17.0.Results The path analysis showed that occupational role influenced emotional exhaustion dimension(standardized β =0.421,P < 0.001),cynicism dimension(standardized β=0.434,P < 0.001),reduced personal accomplishment dimension (standardizedβ =0.064,P =0.074) of job burnout.Theemotional exhaustion dimension (standardizedβ =-0.089,P =0.035),cynicism dimension (standardizedβ =-0.123,P =0.004) and reduced personal accomplishment dimension(standardizedβ =-0.099,P =0.003) influenced work ability index.The direct effects that occupational role influenced work ability index were-0.216 and the indirect effects were-0.097.Conclusions Job stressor mainly influences the emotional exhaustion and cynicism dimension of job burnout.The three dimensions of job burnout all influence work ability.The influence of job stressor on work ability is mainly direct effect.Besides,subsidiary indirect influence is mediated by job burnout.%目的 探讨生产线工人工作倦怠与工作应激源、工作能力的关系,验证工作应激源、工作倦怠、工作能力的多重因果效应.方法 针对系统抽样抽取的787名制造业生产线上工人样本,使用职业应激量表(Occupational Stress Inventory Reversed Edition,OSI-R)中的职业任务问卷(Occupational Role Questionnaire,ORQ)、工作倦怠量表(Maslaeh Burnout

  8. Why does interactional justice promote organizational loyalty, job performance, and prevent mental impairment? The role of social support and social stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior.

  9. 对员工压力管理中积极压力源的分析%Analysis of Positive Stressors in Job Stress Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵锐; 李磊

    2008-01-01

    压力管理是人力资源管理的重要部分,然而现有的压力管理研究主要关注的是员工工作压力所产生的消极影响.文章以探索能够产生积极影响的压力源为目的,以"哥本哈根社会心理学问卷(Copenhag-en Psychosocial Questionnaire,COPSOQ)"为研究工具,通过对数据的分析,结合现有理论,对工作压力的积极影响进行了探索研究.结果表明,现实工作中是存在积极压力源的,通过对积极压力源的控制可以使员工的身心处于积极、健康的状态.

  10. Development of short questionnaire to measure an extended set of role expectation conflict, coworker support and work-life balance: The new job stress scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Shukla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of a new version of job stress scale, which measures the extended set of psychosocial stressors by adding new scales to the current version of the job stress scale. Additional scales were extensively collected from theoretical job stress models and similar questionnaire from different countries. Items were tested in workplace and refined through a pilot survey (n = 400 to examine the reliability and construct validity. Most scales showed acceptable levels of internal consistency, intra-class reliability, and test–retest reliability. Factor analysis and correlation analysis showed that these scales fit the theoretical expectations. These findings provided enough evidences that the new job stress scale is reliable and valid. Although confirmatory analysis should be examined in future studies. The new job stress scale is a useful instrument for organization and academicians to evaluate job stress in modern Indian workplace.

  11. Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagami, Makiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2010-01-01

    We examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire in 2008; job performance was evaluated using the item from the World Mental Health Survey Instrument in 2008 and 2009. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance in 2008. Job control and coworker support in 2008 were positively related to job performance in 2009. Stratified analyses revealed that job control for staff and coworker support for managers were positively related to job performance in 2009. These associations were prominent among men; however, supervisor support in 2008 was negatively related to job performance in 2009 among men. Job demand was not significantly related to job performance. Our findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.

  12. A path analysis of psychosocial factors on job burnout in first aid medical staff%医疗急救人员工作倦怠社会心理因素的路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁先灵; 万杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the psychosocial influential factors on job burnout and their interaction models in first aid medical staff.Method A survey was carried out concerning job burnout status,job stress,job overload,work-family conflict,overall job satisfaction,coping styles and social support in 504 first aid medical staffs,by which to seek the psychosocial influential factors of job burnout status and explore their interaction models using stepwise multivariable regression and path analysis.Result (1) The stepwise multivariable regression on the job burnout showed that job overload,work stress,work-family conflict,overall work satisfaction and negative coping style were the key social-psychological influential factors in job burnout(F =90.562,P =0.001).(2) The path analysis showed that the job overload was the major event caused the work stress,and work stress played a direct and indirect roles in the level of job burnout in first aid medical staff,and the work-family conflict and overall work satisfaction was disposition factors of job burnout with direct actions and indirect actions.The negative coping style was an intermedium link between work stress and job burnout.Conclusion Decrease of work intensity and change of bad coping styles can be effective on job burnout in first aid medical staff.%目的 探讨医疗急救人员职业倦怠的影响因素及其相互作用.方法 通过504例医疗急救人员职业倦怠状况及相关社会心理因素的调查,采用多因素逐步分析和通径分析的方法研究社会心理影响因素的作用方式和途径.结果 (1)多因素逐步回归分析结果表明,工作超负荷、工作应激、工作-家庭冲突、工作满意度和消极应付方式先后进入回归方程(F=90.562,P=0.001);(2)路径分析结果表明,工作超负荷是医疗急救人员工作应激的主要来源,工作应激可以直接和通过间接作用影响医疗急救人员的职业倦怠;工作-家庭冲突、工作满意度

  13. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  14. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  15. [Appraisal of occupational stressor in petrochemical industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-ping; Tian, Hong-er; Huang, Tong; Li, Zhi-yuan; Hu, Ke-ming; Ge, Xi-yong; Jin, Lei; Gao, Qi; Zhang, Jing-jing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wen-he

    2009-12-01

    To discuss the origin of occupational stress among petrochemical industry workers and to access the main occupational stressors that impact job satisfaction and mental health of petrochemical industry workers. A survey on occupational stressor was carried out by Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI) in 532 petrochemical industry workers (345 chemical and 187 logistic workers). The environment in workplace of chemical group was worse than that of contrast. The chemical workers had less control over job and they experienced more hazards, monotonous as well as role stressors than the logistic group. The scores of job satisfaction and mental health of chemical group (36.867 +/- 0.656, 43.734 +/- 0.542, respectively) were higher than that of contrast (40.321 +/- 0.901, 46.714 +/- 0.745, respectively) (P occupational stressors exist in chemical workers which affect chemical workers' job satisfaction and mental health with different levels.

  16. Relação entre satisfação com aspectos psicossociais e saúde dos trabalhadores Relationship between psychosocial job satisfaction and health in white collar workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Martinez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar se satisfação com aspectos psicossociais no trabalho está associada à saúde dos trabalhadores e verificar se essas associações são influenciadas por características sociodemográficas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 224 empregados de uma empresa de auto-gestão de planos de previdência privada e de saúde na cidade de São Paulo. Foram administrados quatro questionários auto-aplicados referentes a aspectos sociodemográficos, satisfação no trabalho e saúde (física, mental e capacidade para o trabalho. As associações entre variáveis foram analisadas por meio dos testes t-Student, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, coeficiente de correlação de Spearman e da análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Satisfação no trabalho apareceu associada ao tempo na empresa (pOBJECTIVE: To identify whether psychosocial satisfaction at work is associated with workers' health and to verify if sociodemographic characteristics have an impact on these associations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 224 employees of a private managed care and retirement savings company in São Paulo, Brazil. Four self-administered questionnaires on sociodemographic features, job satisfaction, and health (physical, mental, and work ability were applied. Variables associations were analyzed using t-Student, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, Spearman correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Job satisfaction was associated with duration in the company (p <0.001 and job position (p=0.003, where greater satisfaction was observed among workers with shorter duration in the company and those in managing positions. Job satisfaction was associated with mental health and work ability (vitality: p<0.001; social aspects: p=0.055; emotional aspect: p=0.074; mental health: p<0.001; and work capacity: p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Job satisfaction is associated with workers' health regarding

  17. Does office space occupation matter? The role of the number of persons per enclosed office space, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction in the physical and mental health of employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbig, B; Schneider, A; Nowak, D

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effects of office space occupation, psychosocial work characteristics, and environmental satisfaction on physical and mental health of office workers in small-sized and open-plan offices as well as possible underlying mechanisms. Office space occupation was characterized as number of persons per one enclosed office space. A total of 207 office employees with similar jobs in offices with different space occupation were surveyed regarding their work situation (psychosocial work characteristics, satisfaction with privacy, acoustics, and control) and health (psychosomatic complaints, irritation, mental well-being, and work ability). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses as well as bootstrapped mediation analyses were used to determine associations and underlying mechanisms. Employee health was significantly associated with all work characteristics. Psychosocial work stressors had the strongest relation to physical and mental health (OR range: 1.66-3.72). The effect of office space occupation on employee health was mediated by stressors and environmental satisfaction, but not by psychosocial work resources. As assumed by sociotechnical approaches, a higher number of persons per enclosed office space was associated with adverse health effects. However, the strongest associations were found with psychosocial work stressors. When revising office design, a holistic approach to work (re)design is needed.

  18. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  19. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  20. [Stressors as the cause of gerontopsychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterreich, K

    1984-01-01

    It is permitted to apply concepts of stress theory to clinical geropsychiatry. Biographical factors, health, illness, organic and psychosocial factors of immediate and indirect kind are very important on development and course of geropsychiatric disease. Special significance has the influence of aging. Quantity and quality of stressors must be judged as non-specificial causal factors. Treatment depends on ascertained factors. The interpretation is explained on examples of depression, dementia, and institutionalism syndrome.

  1. Toward a Better Understanding of the Effects of Hindrance and Challenge Stressors on Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jennica R.; Beehr, Terry A.; Christiansen, Neil D.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the processes whereby hindrance and challenge stressors may affect work behavior. Three mechanisms were examined to explain the differential effects these stressors have demonstrated: job satisfaction, strains, and work self-efficacy. A model is proposed in which both types of stressors will result in increases in strains,…

  2. Job stress, mental health, and accidents among offshore workers in the oil and gas extraction industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C L; Sutherland, V J

    1987-02-01

    Psychosocial and occupational stressors among 194 male employees on drilling rig and production platform installations in the United Kingdom and Dutch sectors of the North Sea were studied. Mental well-being and job satisfaction were also assessed, with attention to the incidence of accidents offshore. This occupational group were found to be much less satisfied with their jobs than their onshore counterparts. Although overall mental well-being compared favorably with that of the general population, levels of anxiety were significantly higher. Multivariate analysis showed "relationships at work and at home" to be a strong predictor of both job dissatisfaction and mental ill-health. Type A coronary-prone behavior was also found to be a significant predictor of reduced mental well-being and increased accident rates offshore.

  3. Psychosocial Stress at Work Doubles the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Women Evidence from the Whitehall II Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heraclides, A.; Chandola, T.; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To investigate the effect of psychosocial stress at work on risk of type 2 diabetes, adjusting for conventional risk factors, among a sample of British, white-collar, middle-aged men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - This was a prospective analysis (19912004) from the Whitehall...... phases. The job strain and iso-strain models were used to assess psychosocial work stress. RESULTS - iso-strain in the workplace was associated with a twofold higher risk of type 2 diabetes in age-adjusted analysis in women but not in men (hazard ratio 1.94 [95% CI 1.17-3.21]). This effect remained...... robust to adjustment for socioeconomic position and outside work stressors and was only attenuated by 20% after adjustment for health behaviors, obesity, and other type 2 diabetes risk factors. CONCLUSIONS - Psychosocial work stress was an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes among women after a 15...

  4. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals : An application of the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work en

  5. Work-related psychosocial hazards among emergency medical responders (EMRS in Mansoura city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Omar Khashaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research was done to assess levels of psychosocial stress and related hazards [(burnout, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD] among emergency medical responders (EMRs. Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted upon (140 EMRs and a comparative group composed of (140 nonemergency workers. The groups studied were subjected to semistructured questionnaire including demographic data, survey for job stressors, Maslach burn out inventory (MBI, Beck depression inventory (BDI, and Davidson Trauma scale for PTSD. Results: The most severe acute stressors among EMRs were dealing with traumatic events (88.57%, followed by dealing with serious accidents (87.8% and young victims (87.14%. Chronic stressors were more commonly reported among EMRs with statistically significant differences (P 0.05. There was increased risk of PTSD for those who had higher stress levels from death of colleagues [odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval (CI] = 2.2 (0.7-7.6, exposure to verbal or physical assault OR (95% CI = 1.6 (0.5-4.4 and dealing with psychiatric OR (95% CI 1.4 (0.53.7 (P > 0.05 Conclusion: EMRs group had more frequent exposure to both acute and chronic work-related stressors than comparative group. Also, EMRs had higher levels of EE, DP, and PTSD compared with comparative group. EMRs are in need for stress management program for prevention these of stress related hazards on health and work performance.

  6. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, B.C.; Bruin, de M.; Schreurs, H.; Ameijden, van E.J.C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single) stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioecono

  7. The interactive effect of job task and psychosocial factors on work-related musculoskeletal disorders%心理因素及物理负荷对职业性肌肉骨骼疾患的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹磊; 徐岩; 杜薇薇; 王生; 杨馨宁; 何丽华; 董雪梅; 卢厚汉; 陈松根; 曹晓鸥

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨心理因素与物理负荷的交互作用及其对职业性肌肉骨骼疾患(WMSDs)的影响.方法 选取653名来源于电子行业流水线作业、缝纫行业、制造行业的工人及行政管理人员作为调查对象.采用改良的北欧国家肌肉骨骼疾患标准调查表调查肌肉骨骼疾患情况,心理社会状况调查采用工作内容量表(JCQ),进行流行病学横断面调查,并应用快速暴露检查法(QEC)问卷对其进行工效学的物理负荷评价.结果 不同暴露等级下,肩部、上背、下背、手/腕的肌肉骨骼疾患的年患病率的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01),同时暴露在高的物理和心理负荷时,工作人员各部位的年患病率明显高于暴露在其他等级时的肌肉骨骼疾患的患病率.调整工龄、年龄、性别后,用logistics回归分析结果表明,在肩部、上背、下背和手/腕部的WMSDs影响中可能存在物理负荷和心理负荷的交互作用(P<0.05).结论 高物理负荷下,不良心理因素对工人WMSDs的发生造成的影响远大于工人处于低物理负荷工作时,实施工效学干预不仅要从过度负荷,不良姿势,静态负荷等物理因素方面进行干预来降低WMSD的发生,也要关注心理因素方面的干预.%Objective To investigate the interactive effect of job task and psychosocial factors on the outcomes of musculoskeletal disorders. Methods 653 workers from different type of manufacturing industries and administration office recruited in a cross-sectional epidemiological survey. The Quick Exposure Check (QEC) was applied to assess the ergonomic load of job task, Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) for identifying psychological characteristics, and Nordic Standardized Questionnaire for investigating outcomes of WMSDs.Results The prevalence of WMSD in shoulder, upper back, lower back and hand/wrist were significantly different under a variety of combined job task and psychosocial characteristics (P<0

  8. Job Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radecka Appiah-Padi PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By 2016, U.S. higher education institutions will face significant turnover among senior leaders. About 50% of university presidents are expected to retire. Historically, the chief academic officer (CAO has been next in line for the presidency. New evidence suggests that fewer CAOs are interested in this position. Using Job Choice Theory, this article examines the reasons given by CAOs for opting out of pursuing the presidency. Data analysis shows that subjective (psycho-social factors rather than objective (economic factors are making the role of president undesirable to CAOs.

  9. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population.......Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population....

  10. Self-perceived stress reactivity is an indicator of psychosocial impairment at the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nater Urs M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work related stress is associated with a range of debilitating health outcomes. However, no unanimously accepted assessment tool exists for the early identification of individuals suffering from chronic job stress. The psychological concept of self-perceived stress reactivity refers to the individual disposition of a person to answer stressors with immediate as well as long lasting stress reactions, and it could be a valid indicator of current as well as prospective adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived stress reactivity correlates with various parameters of psychosocial health, cardiovascular risk factors, and parameters of chronic stress and job stress in a sample of middle-aged industrial employees in a so-called "sandwich-position". Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 174 industrial employees were assessed for psychosocial and biological stress parameters. Differences between groups with high and low stress reactivity were analysed. Logistic regression models were applied to identify which parameters allow to predict perceived high versus low stress reactivity. Results In our sample various parameters of psychosocial stress like chronic stress and effort-reward imbalance were significantly increased in comparison to the normal population. Compared to employees with perceived low stress reactivity, those with perceived high stress reactivity showed poorer results in health-related complaints, depression, anxiety, sports behaviour, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance. The educational status of employees with perceived low stress reactivity is higher. Education, cardiovascular complaints, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance were moderate predictors for perceived stress reactivity. However, no relationship was found between stress reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in our sample. Conclusions Job stress is a major burden in a relevant

  11. Self-perceived stress reactivity is an indicator of psychosocial impairment at the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Work related stress is associated with a range of debilitating health outcomes. However, no unanimously accepted assessment tool exists for the early identification of individuals suffering from chronic job stress. The psychological concept of self-perceived stress reactivity refers to the individual disposition of a person to answer stressors with immediate as well as long lasting stress reactions, and it could be a valid indicator of current as well as prospective adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which perceived stress reactivity correlates with various parameters of psychosocial health, cardiovascular risk factors, and parameters of chronic stress and job stress in a sample of middle-aged industrial employees in a so-called "sandwich-position". Methods In this cross-sectional study, a total of 174 industrial employees were assessed for psychosocial and biological stress parameters. Differences between groups with high and low stress reactivity were analysed. Logistic regression models were applied to identify which parameters allow to predict perceived high versus low stress reactivity. Results In our sample various parameters of psychosocial stress like chronic stress and effort-reward imbalance were significantly increased in comparison to the normal population. Compared to employees with perceived low stress reactivity, those with perceived high stress reactivity showed poorer results in health-related complaints, depression, anxiety, sports behaviour, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance. The educational status of employees with perceived low stress reactivity is higher. Education, cardiovascular complaints, chronic stress, and effort-reward imbalance were moderate predictors for perceived stress reactivity. However, no relationship was found between stress reactivity and cardiovascular risk factors in our sample. Conclusions Job stress is a major burden in a relevant subgroup of industrial

  12. The association between prenatal psychosocial stress and blood pressure in the child at age 5-7 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimée E van Dijk

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Prenatal maternal stress could have permanent effects on the offspring's tissue structure and function, which may predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We investigated whether maternal psychosocial stress is a prenatal factor affecting the blood pressure (BP of offspring. STUDY DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study, around gestational week 16, depressive symptoms, state-anxiety, pregnancy-related anxiety, parenting daily hassles and job strain were recorded by questionnaire. A cumulative stress score was also calculated (based on 80(th percentiles. Systolic and diastolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP were measured in the offspring at age 5-7 years. Inclusion criteria were: no use of antihypertensive medication during pregnancy; singleton birth; no reported cardiovascular problems in the child (N = 2968 included. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, the single stress scales were not associated with systolic and diastolic BP, MAP and hypertension (p>0.05. The presence of 3-4 psychosocial stressors prenatally (4% was associated with 1.5 mmHg higher systolic and diastolic BP (p = 0.046; p = 0.04 and 1.5 mmHg higher MAP in the offspring (p = 0.02 compared to no stressors (46%. The presence of 3-4 stressors did not significantly increase the risk for hypertension (OR 1.8; 95% CI 0.93.4. Associations did not differ between sexes. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing rendered all associations non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of multiple psychosocial stressors during pregnancy was associated with higher systolic and diastolic BP and MAP in the child at age 5-7. Further investigation of maternal prenatal stress may be valuable for later life cardiovascular health.

  13. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and differential relations. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Job insecurity as a work-related stressor is well established through three ...

  14. Coping proactively with economic stress: career adaptability in the face of job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Zikic, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Koen, J.; Buyken, M.; Perrewé, P.L; Halbesleben, J.R.B.; Rosen, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Economic stressors such as job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment cause severe difficulties for the workers affected, their families, organizations, and societies overall. Consequently, most past research has taken a thoroughly negative perspective on economic stress, addressing

  15. Stress and stressors in the clinical environment: a comparative study of fourth-year student nurses and newly qualified general nurses in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Suresh, Patricia

    2013-03-01

    To measure and compare the perceived levels of job-related stress and stressors of newly qualified nurses and fourth-year student nurses in the clinical environment and to explore the participants\\' views on stress and stressors.

  16. Efecto del ambiente psicosocial y de la satisfacción laboral en el síndrome de burnout en médicos especialistas Effect of psychosocial work environment and job satisfaction on burnout syndrome among specialist physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicenta Escribà-Agüir

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la prevalencia de síndrome de burnout según el tipo de especialidad médica, así como valorar el impacto de los factores de riesgo psicosocial, la satisfacción laboral y las características profesionales sobre el síndrome de desgaste profesional en el personal médico especialista en todo el Estado español. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado sobre una muestra de 1.021 médicos especialistas. Las variables respuesta son las 3 dimensiones del síndrome de burnout: cansancio emocional, despersonalización y logros personales. Las variables explicativas son los factores de riesgo psicosocial y las fuentes de satisfacción laboral, valorados por una escala específica diseñada para médicos. Se han calculado las odds ratio ajustadas y sus intervalos de confianza del 95% por regresión logística. Resultados: La probabilidad de presentar un elevado cansancio emocional y despersonalización es mayor en los profesionales expuestos a un alto nivel de contacto con el sufrimiento y la muerte, y conlleva un impacto negativo del trabajo en la vida familiar. La probabilidad de presentar un elevado cansancio emocional es mayor en los que tienen una alta sobrecarga de trabajo. El riesgo de obtener bajos logros personales es mayor en las personas que presentan una baja satisfacción con respecto a las recompensas profesionales y en las que no realizan actividades de docencia. La insatisfacción con la calidad de las relaciones con los pacientes y sus familiares influye negativamente en las 3 dimensiones del burnout. Conclusiones: El ambiente psicosocial y la satisfacción laboral influyen negativamente en el síndrome de burnout, y afectan a las dimensiones de cansancio emocional y despersonalización.Objectives: To describe the prevalence of burnout syndrome according to medical specialty and to examine the impact of work psychosocial risk factors, job satisfaction and professional characteristics on burnout syndrome among

  17. Job burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, C; Schaufeli, W B; Leiter, M P

    2001-01-01

    Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.

  18. Psychosocial antecedents and consequences of workplace aggression for hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Defne; Rodwell, John

    2012-12-01

    To test a full model of the antecedents to and consequences of various forms of workplace aggression, considering psychosocial factors, for hospital nursing staff. Cross-sectional survey design. Two hundred and seven nurses and midwives working across wards within a medium to large Australian hospital completed the survey. The survey response rate was 26.9%. High frequencies of nurses reported exposure to workplace bullying and internal and external emotional abuse violence types. In terms of antecedents, bullying was linked to high negative affectivity (NA), as well as low supervisor support and coworker support. Internal emotional abuse was associated with low levels of these support variables, as well as high outside work support and low job control. External threat of assault was related to high job demands and NA. In terms of consequences, bullying and verbal sexual harassment were linked to increased psychological distress levels. Bullying and internal emotional abuse were related to lowered organizational commitment. Changes in job satisfaction were not found for any of the workplace aggression types. NA was a significant covariate for all analyses examining consequences of aggression. Different combinations of work conditions (job demands-resources) and individual levels of NA predicted certain types of aggression. Further, nurse perceptions of psychological distress and organizational commitment were affected by exposure to several types of aggression, even after controlling for NA as a potential perceptual bias. This study therefore extends previous research on workplace bullying as a stressor to other types of workplace aggression for nurses. The findings highlight factors that are important in considering effective prevention and intervention of workplace aggression among nursing staff, particularly those working in hospital settings. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Understanding marital stressors. The importance of coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-06-01

    Previous survey work with 1591 married Chicago adults has demonstrated a close connection between symptoms of depression and current marital stressors (nonfulfillment of basic role expectations, lack of reciprocity between partners, and nonacceptance by spouse). The pertinent question now becomes which factors predispose toward marital stressors. We address this issue here by examining a broad array of variables to see which are most predictive of marital stressors by employing multiple regression analysis on data from the survey sample. A descending order of explanatory power of marital stressors occurs for the following categories of variables: respondent's style of coping with marital problems, behavior patterns within the marriage, personality factors of the respondent, other current social stressors, demographic variables, and marital circumstances. One coping style in particular, that of optimistic action, is more predictive of low marital stressors than any other single variable studied. The findings contradict several common beliefs about marital stressors: the presence of background differences between the spouses, a lack of consensus between the partners, and the presence of other social stressors (job, parenting, finances) are relatively poor predictors of marital discord.

  20. [Application of job demands-resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Waszkowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model in the explanation of these phenomena. The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p job resources and job demands [F(1.474) = 4.004; F(1.474) = 4.166; p job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474) = 2.748; p job demands and personal resources [F(3.474) = 3.021; p job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1) in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001) or low (p = 0.0157); 2) when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001). The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees.

  1. Job Dissatisfaction and Coronary Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Based on the psychosocial factor that life dissatisfactions may be associated with physical illnesses, this research examines the relationship between job dissatisfaction and its causal link to premature death from heart disease. (Author/RK)

  2. Marriage and other psychological stressors in the causation of psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the specific psychiatric diagnosis, frequency, and types of stressors, and the level of awareness about marriage law between married (cases; n=80 and unmarried girls (control; n=80 with one or more psychiatric disorders below the age of 18 years. The psychiatric diseases were diagnosed according to Axis One of ICD-10 clinical diagnoses of multi-axial classification of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Psychosocial stressors were considered on the basis of Axis Five of this classification. Of the cases, major depressive disorder was the highest (n=47 and next was a dissociative (conversion disorder (n=24. Among the controls, generalized anxiety disorder (n=31 was the most prevalent followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder (n=17. The difference was highly significant (p>0.001. The cases reported a significant excess of psychosocial stressors than that of the controls to the onset of the psychiatric disorder. All the cases had associated stressors. In contrast, 77 out of 80 control patients had stressors. Marriage itself played as a stressor in the 78 cases. Beside this, other highly frequent stressors were marital discord followed by drop out from study and trouble with in-laws. Among the controls, the highest reported stressor was increased academic workload and next two commonest stressors were poor academic performance and discord with peers. Interestingly, 52.5% of the cases were having knowledge about the law on the age of marriage and that was 32.5% among the controls. It was significant that most of the girls breached their continuity of education after marriage (p>0.001. In conclusion, psychosocial stressors including marriage have a causal relationship with depressive and conversion disorder. 

  3. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd A. Idris; Dollard, Maureen F.; Winefield, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC) as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout) and moti...

  4. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: A nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekeberg Øivind

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences Methods A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180 in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Results Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p p p p p Conclusion Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  5. Occupational stressors and its organizational and individual correlates: a nationwide study of Norwegian ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterud, Tom; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Oivind; Lau, Bjørn

    2008-12-02

    High levels of stress among ambulance personnel have been attributed to the conditions of ambulance work. However, there is little research to support this notion, and it has been questioned whether ambulance work is inherently stressful. We compared the severity and frequency level of organizational and ambulance-specific stressors, and studied their relationship to organizational conditions and individual differences A comprehensive nationwide questionnaire survey of ambulance personnel (n = 1180) in operational duty. The questionnaire included the Job Stress Survey, the Norwegian Ambulance Stress Survey, the Basic Character Inventory, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and questions addressing organizational conditions. Serious operational tasks and physical demands were identified as the two most severe stressors. Lack of support from co-workers was the most severe and frequent organizational stressor. Higher frequency of stressors was most strongly associated with size of service districts (beta ranging between .18 and .30, p exposure to critical event (beta ranging from .11 to .24, p organizational conditions. Ambulance-specific stressors were reported as both more severe and more frequently occurring stressors than were organizational stressors. Organizational working conditions were more strongly related to frequency of job stressors than were individual differences. In general, the relationship between occupational stressors and individual differences was weak.

  6. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    . We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement. Results The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low......, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues. Conclusion Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer...... influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace...

  7. Correlational study on sleep quality and job stressors in nurses from gerontology department of one grade 3 and first-class hospital in Shanghai%上海市某三级甲等医院老年科护士睡眠质量与工作压力源的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵萍莉; 张彩华; 刘素贞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between sleep quality and job stressors.Methods The research population was comprised of nurses in the department of gerontology from one grade 3 and first-class hospital in Shanghai and the research was conducted with a total of 95 nurses between January and April in 2012.Job Stressor Questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used for data collection in the research.Results The analysis shows that the average PSQI score of 95 subject nurses was (6.92 ± 3.37),48 of them (50.53%) suffered sleep disorders (PSQI ≥ 7).Their sleep quality was poorer than normal adults',their scores of all seven items were higher than normal adults' and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01).Among all of scores,the score on patient nursing was the highest.Classified by different conditions of subjects,the incidence of sleep disorder of different shift nurses was statistically significant (F =5.11,P < 0.05).The top ten job stressors of the nurses in the department of gerontology ranked by correlation coefficients between the stressors and sleep disorders (PSQI≥7)were:noncorporation of patients (0.303),less understanding and support of nursing management team (0.300),lacking of enough knowledge (0.298),unfriendly work atmosphere (0.285),unclear job descriptions (0.276),less nurses on duty (0.270),impolite patients (0.268),frequent shift work (0.266),lower income and less welfare (0.266),over demanding patients(0.261),much more non professional work(0.254).Conclusions The poor sleep quality of nurses in the department of gerontology is closely correlated with work characteristics.Appropriate measures should be taken to reduce job stress and improve the sleep quality of nurses in the department of gerontology.%目的 探讨老年科护士的睡眠质量与工作压力源之间的关系.方法 2012年1-4月采用匹兹堡睡眠质量调查表(PSQI)、护士工作压力源量

  8. ICU护士工作压力源、疲倦感及血压、血糖和血脂的变化特点%Characteristics of Job Stressors, Fatigue and Change of Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose and Lipid among ICU Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 黄津芳; 汤黎黎; 王剑; 贾红春

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨ICU护士工作压力源、疲倦感及血压、血糖和血脂的变化特点.方法 选择参加2011年春季体检的沈阳军区总医院和解放军第463医院的临床护理人员84名为研究对象,其中ICU护士42名,门诊护士42名.采用现场1∶1配对方法(配对条件为:相同年龄、护龄、目前岗位工作时间、性别、职称及文化程度),比较两组护士护士工作压力源评分、Maslach工作疲倦感量表(Maslach burnout inventory,MBI)评分情况,并分析其血压、血糖、血脂等项体检结果.结果 ICU护士“护士工作压力源”量表各子条目评分及总分均明显高于门诊护士(P<0.01或P<0.05).ICU护士的情绪枯竭、去人格化倾向等维度评分均明显高于门诊护士,而个人工作成就感维度分则显著低于后者(P<0.01).ICU组护士的收缩压和舒张压均值均明显高于门诊护士(P<0.05).且其空腹血糖(fasting plasma glucose,FPG)、餐后2h血糖(2 h postprudial plasma glucose,2hPG)和三酰甘油(triglyceride,TG)水平均明显高于门诊护士,而血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(high-density lipoprotein cholesterol,HDL-C)水平则低于后者(P<0.05).结论 门诊护理工作人员护理工作量及劳动强度相对较小,而大医院ICU从业护士工作压力源较大,疲倦感表现突出,存在着血压、血糖和血脂增高的趋向.%Objective To analyze the characteristics of job stressors and fatigue and its influence on blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid among ICU nurses. Methods Eighty-four clinical nurses who participated in the physical examination of the two hospitals in the spring of 2011 were enrolled in the research,including 42 ICU nurses and 42 outpatient nurses. Using on-site 1:1 pairing method (depending on the same age,nurse-job seniority, working time in current position,sex,professional title,and educational level) ,the scores of nurse job stressors questionnaire and Maslach burnout inventory (MBI) were

  9. A cross-sectional study of the relationship between job demand-control, effort-reward imbalance and cardiovascular heart disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderberg Mia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This cross-sectional study explored relationships between psychosocial work environment, captured by job demand-control (JDC and effort-reward imbalance (ERI, and seven cardiovascular heart disease (CHD risk factors in a general population. Method The sampled consists of randomly-selected men and women from Gothenburg, Sweden and the city’s surrounding metropolitan areas. Associations between psychosocial variables and biomarkers were analysed with multiple linear regression adjusted for age, smoking, education and occupational status. Results The study included 638 men and 668 women aged 24–71. Analysis between JDC and CHD risk factors illustrated that, for men, JDC was associated with impaired scores in several biomarkers, especially among those in high strain jobs. For women, there were no relationships between JDC and biomarkers. In the analysis of links between ERI and CHD risk factors, most associations tested null. The only findings were raised triglycerides and BMI among men in the fourth quartile of the ERI-ratio distribution, and lowered LDL-cholesterol for women. An complementary ERI analysis, combining high/low effort and reward into categories, illustrated lowered triglycerides and elevated HDL-cholesterol values among women reporting high efforts and high rewards, compared to women experiencing low effort and high reward. Conclusions There were some associations between psychosocial stressors and CHD risk factors. The cross-sectional design did not allow conclusions about causality but some results indicated gender differences regarding sensitivity to work stressors and also how the models might capture different psychosocial dimensions.

  10. Burnout, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Southern Correctional Officers: Perceptions and Causal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Charles A.; Whitehead, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Surveyed perceptions of burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction among a representative sample (N=241) of Alabama correctional officers. Examination of predictor variables revealed that social support; marital status; role conflict; age; correctional seniority; and extrinsic, organizational, and overload stressors significantly influenced…

  11. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  12. The relative impact of workplace bullying as a social stressor at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, Lars Johan; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2010-10-01

    Exposure to workplace bullying has been argued to be a severe social stressor and a more crippling and devastating problem for affected individuals than the effects of all other work-related stressors put together. However, few studies have explicitly investigated this assumption. In a representative sample of the Norwegian working population, the present study investigated the relative contribution of workplace bullying as a predictor of individual and organizational related outcomes after controlling for the well-documented job stressors of job demands, decision authority, role ambiguity and role conflict. Bullying was found to be a significant predictor of all the outcomes included, showing a substantial relative contribution in relation to anxiety and depression, while for job satisfaction, turnover intention and absenteeism, more modest relative contributions were identified. Workplace bullying is indeed a potent social stressor with consequences similar to, or even more severe than, the effects of other stressors frequently encountered within organizations. Thus, the finding that bullying has a considerable effect on exposed individuals also when controlling for the effects of other job stressors demonstrates bullying as a serious problem at workplaces that needs to be actively prevented and managed in its own right. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  13. What Differentiates Employees' Job Performance Under Stressful Situations: The Role of General Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-Qin; Du, Dan-Yang; Xu, Xiao-Min

    2016-10-02

    The aim of this research is to verify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework in the Chinese context, and investigate the moderating effect of general self-efficacy in the stress process. Data were collected from 164 Chinese employee-supervisor dyads. The results demonstrated that challenge stressors were positively related to job performance while hindrance stressors were negatively related to job performance. Furthermore, general self-efficacy strengthened the positive relationship between challenge stressors and job performance, whereas the attenuating effect of general self-efficacy on the negative relationship between hindrance stressors and job performance was nonsignificant. These findings qualify the two-dimensional challenge-hindrance stressor framework, and support the notion that employees with high self-efficacy benefit more from the positive effect of challenge stressors in the workplace. By investigating the role of an individual difference variable in the challenge-hindrance stressor framework, this research provides a more accurate picture of the nature of job stress, and enhances our understanding of the job stressor-job performance relationship.

  14. Job stress, ill health and job satisfaction among health service employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, D W; Cooper, C L

    1994-11-01

    The study examined the effects of occupational stressors, perceived locus of control, Type A behaviour pattern and use of coping strategies on well-being and job satisfaction of 1,176 health service employees. Several stressors were identified as having a negative impact on health and job satisfaction although these differed between the various occupational groups included in the study. The interactionist model of stress used in the study, and the diagnostic tool used (the Occupational Stress Indicator) proved to be useful in suggesting means of intervening to reduce ill health and increase job satisfaction among health service employees.

  15. Longitudinal associations between stressors and work ability in hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmen Martinez, Maria; da Silva Alexandre, Tiago; Dias de Oliveira Latorre, Maria do Rosario; Marina Fischer, Frida

    This study sought to assess associations between work stressors and work ability in a cohort (2009-2012) of 498 hospital workers. Time-dependent variables associated with the Work Ability Index (WAI) were evaluated using general linear mixed models. Analyses included effects of individual and work characteristics. Except for work demands, the work stressors (job control, social support, effort-reward imbalance, overcommitment and work-related activities that cause pain/injury) were associated with WAI (p < 0.050) at intercept and in the time interaction. Daytime work and morning shift work were associated with decreased WAI (p < 0.010). Work stressors negatively affected work ability over time independently of other variables.

  16. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    OpenAIRE

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  18. Psychosocial challenges before and after organ transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz KH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Heinz Schulz,1,2 Sylvia Kroencke,1,2 1Department of Medical Psychology, 2University Transplant Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany Abstract: This review addresses psychosocial challenges before and after solid organ transplantation. Stressors, corresponding psychosocial changes of the recipient, and psychological interventions in the different phases of the transplant process are described. Furthermore, important aspects of the preoperative psychosocial evaluation are presented with a special focus on living donors and patients with alcoholic liver disease. For the postoperative period, adherence, quality of life, and return to work are highlighted. Finally, research and clinical implications are presented. Keywords: adherence, alcoholic liver disease, evaluation, living donation, quality of life, return to work

  19. Application of Job Demands-Resources model in research on relationships between job satisfaction, job resources, individual resources and job demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Potocka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between job demands, job resourses, personal resourses and job satisfaction and to assess the usefulness of the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R model in the explanation of these phenomena. Materials and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers. The "Psychosocial Factors" and "Job satisfaction" questionnaires were used to test the hypothesis. Results: The results showed that job satisfaction increased with increasing job accessibility and personal resources (r = 0.44; r = 0.31; p < 0.05. The analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated that job resources and job demands [F(1.474 = 4.004; F(1.474 = 4.166; p < 0.05] were statistically significant sources of variation in job satisfaction. Moreover, interactions between job demands and job resources [F(3,474 = 2.748; p < 0.05], as well as between job demands and personal resources [F(3.474 = 3.021; p < 0.05] had a significant impact on job satisfaction. The post hoc tests showed that 1 in low job demands, but high job resources employees declared higher job satisfaction, than those who perceived them as medium (p = 0.0001 or low (p = 0.0157; 2 when the level of job demands was perceived as medium, employees with high personal resources declared significantly higher job satisfaction than those with low personal resources (p = 0.0001. Conclusion: The JD-R model can be used to investigate job satisfaction. Taking into account fundamental factors of this model, in organizational management there are possibilities of shaping job satisfaction among employees. Med Pr 2013;64(2:217–225

  20. The nonlinear effects of job complexity and autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yan, Greg A

    2010-07-01

    This study examines the interactive relationship between job complexity and job autonomy on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and psychological well-being. It was hypothesized that the positive or motivating effects of job complexity are only realized when workers are given enough autonomy to effectively meet the challenges of complex jobs. Results show that not only do job complexity and job autonomy interact, but that the relationships to the outcome variables are curvilinear in form. Job complexity is shown to be both a motivator and a stressor when job autonomy is low. However, the most beneficial effects of job complexity occur when it is matched by a high level of job autonomy. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  2. Identifying Perceived Neighborhood Stressors Across Diverse Communities in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmool, Jessie L C; Yonas, Michael A; Newman, Ogonnaya Dotson; Kubzansky, Laura D; Joseph, Evelyn; Parks, Ana; Callaway, Charles; Chubb, Lauren G; Shepard, Peggy; Clougherty, Jane E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing interest in the role of psychosocial stress in health disparities. Identifying which social stressors are most important to community residents is critical for accurately incorporating stressor exposures into health research. Using a community-academic partnered approach, we designed a multi-community study across the five boroughs of New York City to characterize resident perceptions of key neighborhood stressors. We conducted 14 community focus groups; two to three in each borough, with one adolescent group and one Spanish-speaking group per borough. We then used systematic content analysis and participant ranking data to describe prominent neighborhood stressors and identify dominant themes. Three inter-related themes regarding the social and structural sources of stressful experiences were most commonly identified across neighborhoods: (1) physical disorder and perceived neglect, (2) harassment by police and perceived safety and (3) gentrification and racial discrimination. Our findings suggest that multiple sources of distress, including social, political, physical and economic factors, should be considered when investigating health effects of community stressor exposures and psychological distress. Community expertise is essential for comprehensively characterizing the range of neighborhood stressors that may be implicated in psychosocial exposure pathways.

  3. Job Stress and Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Workers of Endoscopy Units in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Seung-Joo; Chun, Hoon Jai; Moon, Jeong Seop; Park, Sung Chul; Hwang, Young-Jae; Yoo, In Kyung; Lee, Jae Min; Kim, Seung Han; Choi, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Kim, Chang Duck

    2016-05-01

    The management of job-related stress among health-care workers is critical for the improvement of healthcare services; however, there is no existing research on endoscopy unit workers as a team. Korea has a unique health-care system for endoscopy unit workers. In this study, we aimed to estimate job stress and job satisfaction among health-care providers in endoscopy units in Korea. We performed a cross-sectional survey of health-care providers in the endoscopy units of three university-affiliated hospitals in Korea. We analyzed the job stress levels by using the Korean occupational stress scale, contributing factors, and job satisfaction. Fifty-nine workers completed the self-administered questionnaires. The job stress scores for the endoscopy unit workers (46.39±7.81) were relatively lower compared to those of the national sample of Korean workers (51.23±8.83). Job stress differed across job positions, with nurses showing significantly higher levels of stress (48.92±7.97) compared to doctors (42.59±6.37). Job stress and job satisfaction were negatively correlated with each other (R (2) =0.340, pstress and job satisfaction significantly differ according to job positions. Job demand, insufficient job control, and job insecurity are the most important stressors in the endoscopy unit.

  4. Beyond the job demand control (-support) model : explaining stress reactions in nurses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisanti, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Nurses have been identified as having a risk of experiencing stress and burnout. The nature and organization of the job make nursing inherently difficult. Research highlights that occupational stress is largely dependent on psychosocial job characteristics, such as job demands and job resources. The

  5. Workplace Stressors and Coping Strategies Among Public Hospital Nurses in Medan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing is considered as a stressful job when compared with other jobs. Prolonged stress without effective coping strategies affects not only nurses’ occupational life but also their nursing competencies. Medan is the biggest city in Sumatera Island of Indonesia. Two tertiary public hospital nurses in this city hold the responsibility in providing excellent care to their patients. Objective: To investigate the relationships between the nurse’s workplace stressors and the coping strategies used. Method: The descriptive correlational study was conducted to examine the relationships between workplace stressors and the coping strategies used in nurses of two public hospitals in Medan. The sample size of 126 nurses was drawn from selected in-patient units. Data were collected by using self-report questionnaires and focus group interview. The majority of subjects experienced low workplace stressors, where death/dying was the most commonly reported workplace stressor followed by workload. Religion was the most commonly used coping strategy. Result: Significant correlations were found between subscales of workplace stressors and coping strategies. Most of subjects used emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Conclusion: The nurse administrators in the hospitals need to advocate their in order to use problem-focused coping strategies more frequent than emotion-focused and dysfunctional coping strategies when dealing with workplace stressors. Keywords: workplace stressor, coping strategy, public hospital nurses

  6. Abiotic stressors and stress responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Organisms are regularly subjected to abiotic stressors related to increasing anthropogenic activities, including chemicals and climatic changes that induce major stresses. Based on various key taxa involved in ecosystem functioning (photosynthetic microorganisms, plants, invertebrates), ...

  7. Double Exposure to Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and High Family Responsibilities as Related to Ambulatory Blood Pressure at Work: A 5-Year Prospective Study in Women With White-Collar Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert-Ouimet, Mahée; Brisson, Chantal; Milot, Alain; Vézina, Michel

    2017-06-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that psychosocial work factors of the demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models may contribute to increase blood pressure (BP). Women are more likely to be exposed to these psychosocial factors than men. Moreover, women spend twice as much time per week performing family responsibilities than men. This study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association of the double exposure to psychosocial work factors and high family responsibilities in women with BP for a 5-year follow-up. At baseline, the study sample was composed of 1215 working women. Psychosocial work factors were measured using validated scales. Family responsibilities were measured using items related to "the number of children and their age" and "housework and children care." Ambulatory BP measures were taken every 15 minutes during a working day. Associations between psychosocial measures and BP were examined using analyses of covariance. Women with a double exposure to effort-reward imbalance and high family responsibilities had significantly higher BP means than women not exposed to these factors at baseline (diastolic: +2.75 mm Hg), at 3-year follow-up (systolic: +2.22 mm Hg and diastolic: +2.55 mm Hg), and at 5-year follow-up (systolic: +2.94 mm Hg and diastolic: + 3.10 mm Hg). No adverse effect on BP was observed for the double exposure to the psychosocial work factors of the demand-control model and high family responsibilities. A double exposure to effort-reward imbalance at work and high family responsibilities might contribute to elevated ambulatory BP at work among women. BP elevations related to this double exposure may persist for several years.

  8. Study on the Relationship among Personality Traits, Job Stressors and Coping Style of Nurses from Emergency Room%急诊护士不同人格特质与工作压力及应对方式的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏燕; 韶红; 曾彩云

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨急诊护士人格特质与工作压力及应对方式之间的关系,为急诊护士选拔和工作压力干预提供依据.方法 采用中国护士工作压力源量表、简易应对方式问卷、艾森克人格问卷,对深圳市某区14家医院228名急诊护士进行调查,采用描述性统计和多元逐步回归分析法进行数据分析.结果 (1)本组工作压力得分(1.72±0.54)分,属中度水平;(2)本组常采取积极应对方式,分值为(1.93±0.44)分;(3)精神质分量表结果中,56.1%处于中间型,27.6%倾向低型及以下;神经质分量表结果中,中间型与倾向低型及以下、倾向高型及以上3种分型比例差别不大,分别为38.2%,31.1%,30.7%;内外向分量表结果中,46.5%为外向型,45.6%为中间型,7.9%为内向型;(4)内外向得分、学历、职称是积极应对方式的影响因素;压力感受、宗教信仰、精神质与神经质得分是消极应对方式的影响因素;子女情况、精神质得分、学历、神经质得分、急诊工作年资是护士工作压力的影响因素.结论 大部分急诊护士是中低精神质、中等神经质的偏外向型人格特质者,其感受到中度工作压力,常采取积极应对方式;急诊护士人格特质中高精神质与神经质者其压力感受严重;外向型性格的急诊护士倾向于使用积极应对方式,而高精神质与神经质者多采用消极应对方式.建议护理管理者将人格特质纳入急诊护士的选拔条件,避免将高精神质与神经质的护士安排在急诊科;引导和教育护士加强自身修养,提高其情绪的稳定性,以有效地应对工作压力.%Objective To explore the relationship among personality, job stress and coping style of nurses from emergency room.Methods 228 emergency room's nurses were surveyed with Chinese Nurse Job Stressors Questionnaire, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Simple Coping Style Questionnaire.Data collected were analyzed by descriptive

  9. Job insecurity: assessment, causes and consequences in a South African gold mining group

    OpenAIRE

    jacobs, Melissa, 1968-

    2012-01-01

    Job insecurity in the workplace has become an increasingly important trend in organisational research. The appraisal of job insecurity by individuals plays a significant part in how reactions manifest in the experiences of workplace stressors, job satisfaction, positive and negative work attributes and social support. However, there is a lack of research regarding specific workplace stressors at work leading to certain outcomes like safety behaviour, turnover intention and mental health, espe...

  10. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups versus established firms by considering the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define education-specific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these measures to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation”, defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002–2007 that identify the start-ups and that cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than in previous studies. Our findings show that although start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than one-third of net job creation...

  11. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    We extend earlier analyses of the job creation of start-ups vs. established firms by taking into consideration the educational content of the jobs created and destroyed. We define educationspecific measures of job creation and job destruction at the firm level, and we use these to construct...... a measure of “surplus job creation” defined as jobs created on top of any simultaneous destruction of similar jobs in incumbent firms in the same region and industry. Using Danish employer-employee data from 2002-7, which identify the start-ups and which cover almost the entire private sector......, these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...

  12. Investigation of the evaluation of job self-confidence and the survey and analysis of stressors and training demands in new graduate nurses%新毕业护士上岗自信评价与压力源及培训需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯锦屏; 黎月英; 王文兰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the job self-confidence,stressors and training demands in new graduate nurses and to provide evidence for targeted pre-job training and standardized training.Methods Using the methods of questionnaire investigation,72 graduate nurses were divided into two groups:undergraduate students group and junior college students group.The survey content included the evaluation of job self-confidence and work stressors and training demands.Results On the evaluation of job self-confidence,there were 6 nurses (24.00%) in undergraduate students and 2 nurses (4.26%) in junior college students with ‘ competent' on nursing work,15 nurses (60.00%) in undergraduate students and 38 nurses (80.85%) in junior college students with ‘basically competent' on nursing work,and 3 nurses (12.00%) in undergraduate students with ‘ incapable' on nursing work,these differences were statistically significant between the two groups (x2 =8.67 ; P < 0.05).The score of ‘ difficult to achieve personal values' in undergraduate students was (4.20 ±0.96),and higher that in junior college students of (3.47 ± 1.0),the score of ‘ be afraid of making mistakes on unskilled professional skill' in undergraduate students was (3.72 ± 1.02),and higher that in junior college students of (3.13 ± 1.17),and these differences were statistically significant between the two groups (t =2.94,2.13;P <0.05).The degree of recognition on 10 training content was at high level in all nurses,comparing the level of demand between the two groups,we found that differences of eight item were statistically significant between the two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusions There are obvious work and psychological stress in the two groups of nurses.The level of demand for expertise training is different in the two groups of nurses,who should be given targeted training and guidance.%目的 了解新毕业护士上岗自信心、压力源及培训知识的需求,为制定有针对性的岗前培

  13. Psychosocial stress and inflammation in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, N D; Tarr, A J; Sheridan, J F

    2013-03-01

    Stress-induced immune dysregulation results in significant health consequences for immune related disorders including viral infections, chronic autoimmune disease, and tumor growth and metastasis. In this mini-review we discuss the sympathetic, neuroendocrine and immunologic mechanisms by which psychosocial stress can impact cancer biology. Both human and animal studies have shown the sympathetic and neuroendocrine responses to psychosocial stress significantly impacts cancer, in part, through regulation of inflammatory mediators. Psychosocial stressors stimulate neuroendocrine, sympathetic, and immune responses that result in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, sympathetic nervous system (SNS), and the subsequent regulation of inflammatory responses by immune cells. Social disruption (SDR) stress, a murine model of psychosocial stress and repeated social defeat, provides a novel and powerful tool to probe the mechanisms leading to stress-induced alterations in inflammation, tumor growth, progression, and metastasis. In this review, we will focus on SDR as an important model of psychosocial stress in understanding neural-immune mechanisms in cancer.

  14. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  15. Family Stressors as the Cause of Rehospitalization in Psychotic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Omranifard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to describe attributors of family stressors which cause rehospitalizations in patients with psychotic disorders.Materials and methods: In a cross sectional study (during 2006-7 203 randomly selected psychiatric readmitted patients with psychotic diagnosis and registered demographic and psychiatric clinical data were included. Family stressors as the possible cause of readmission were asked through a structured interview by the psychiatrist.Results: Family factors were reported as a cause in 132 (60.6% cases. Poor family support (n=88; 43.3% and family conflict (n=58; 28.6% were the two most prevalent family stressors, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that admission due to family issues was different among men and women (79.1% vs. 38.7%, respectively p<0.001 and according to job situation (p<0.001, and literacy (p=0.036. According to logistic regression, gender (men was the only predictor of admission due to family issues (OR=5.989, CI=3.220-11.141, p<0.001.Conclusion: Family factors are prevalent causes of return to hospital in patients with psychotic disorders, and this is more prevalent in men. An approach to decrease the marital stressors is needed in patients with psychotic disorders. In this approach, increasing family support and decreasing family conflict are essential.

  16. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TEFL in China Certificate Training Program,With Job Placement ChinaJob.com (CAIEP) with the Center for Teaching & Learning in China, USA (CTLC) Date: August 22-29, 2007 Location: Beijing and Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province

  17. Jobs API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Jobs API returns job openings across the federal government and includes all current openings posted on USAJobs.gov that are open to the public and located in...

  18. Understanding Job Stress among Healthcare Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dola Saha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Job life is an important part of a person’s daily life. There are many aspects of a job. A person may be satisfied with one or more aspects of his/her job but at the same time may be unhappy with other things related to the job. Objective: To evaluate the sources of job stress (stressful aspects of work among the staff of a super specialty hospital & to suggest measures to decrease level of job stress. Methodology: Descriptive study employing 381 staff members of a super specialty hospital using a structured personal interview questionnaire consisting of 21 sources of stress. The hospital staff was asked to rate each item according to the extent to which it had contributed to their stress as experienced in their jobs in the past few months on a scale of 0 (not at all,1(a little, 2(quite a bit, 3 (a lot. A global rating of stress was also obtained. Result: The prime sources of stress were found to be underpayment (76%, excessive workload (70.3%, inadequate staff (48.6, & being involved in the emotional distress of patients (46.7%. Conclusion: The staffs of the hospital were in moderate stress due to the prime stressors so adequate measures should be taken to alleviate these stressors. This could be achieved through workload management, job redesign, & by offering occupational health education.

  19. Job Creation and Job Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    , these measures allow us to provide a more nuanced assessment of the role of entrepreneurial firms in the job-creation process than previous studies. Our findings show that while start-ups are responsible for the entire overall net job creation, incumbents account for more than a third of net job creation within...... high-skilled jobs. Moreover, start-ups “only” create around half of the surplus jobs, and even less of the high-skilled surplus jobs. Finally, our approach allows us to characterize and identify differences across industries, educational groups and regions....

  20. The contribution of work and non-work stressors to common mental disorders in the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C; Pike, C; McManus, S; Harris, J; Bebbington, P; Brugha, T; Jenkins, R; Meltzer, H; Weich, S; Stansfeld, S

    2012-04-01

    Evidence for an effect of work stressors on common mental disorders (CMD) has increased over the past decade. However, studies have not considered whether the effects of work stressors on CMD remain after taking co-occurring non-work stressors into account. Data were from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, a national population survey of participants 6 years living in private households in England. This paper analyses data from employed working age participants (N=3383: 1804 males; 1579 females). ICD-10 diagnoses for depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, panic or mixed anxiety and depression in the past week were derived using a structured diagnostic interview. Questionnaires assessed self-reported work stressors and non-work stressors. The effects of work stressors on CMD were not explained by co-existing non-work stressors. We found independent effects of work and non-work stressors on CMD. Job stress, whether conceptualized as job strain or effort-reward imbalance, together with lower levels of social support at work, recent stressful life events, domestic violence, caring responsibilities, lower levels of non-work social support, debt and poor housing quality were all independently associated with CMD. Social support at home and debt did not influence the effect of work stressors on CMD. Non-work stressors do not appear to make people more susceptible to work stressors; both contribute to CMD. Tackling workplace stress is likely to benefit employee psychological health even if the employee's home life is stressful but interventions incorporating non-work stressors may also be effective.

  1. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    1. Questionnaire By Beijing Review and Chinajob.com Thanks for your close attention to our column. We very much appreciate your feedback, on which we depend to offer you the information you need and make this page valuable reading! 1. What are your usual channels for seeking jobs in China? 2. Do you prefer a full-time job or part-time job? 3. What is your preferred job: language teacher, professional in a company or manager?

  2. Job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Podroužková, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with job satisfaction. It is often given to a context with the attitude to work which is very much connected to job satisfaction. Thesis summarises all the pieces of information about job satisfacion, factors that affect it negatively and positively, interconnection of work satisfaction and work motivation, work behaviour and performance of workers, relationship of a man and work and at last general job satisfaction and its individual aspects. In the thesis I shortly pay...

  3. Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnentag, S.E.; Ganster, D.C.; Perrewe, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    For decades, researchers have examined the job stressors and their outcomes for individuals and organizations. However, until now we know only little about the processes that reduce and reverse the effects of the stress process. This volume aims at filling this gap in the literature by focusing on p

  4. Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnentag, S.E.; Ganster, D.C.; Perrewe, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    For decades, researchers have examined the job stressors and their outcomes for individuals and organizations. However, until now we know only little about the processes that reduce and reverse the effects of the stress process. This volume aims at filling this gap in the literature by focusing on

  5. Perinatal distress and depression in Malawi: an exploratory qualitative study of stressors, supports and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert C; Umar, Eric; Gleadow-Ware, Selena; Creed, Francis; Bristow, Katie

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative studies have demonstrated that depression and anxiety in the perinatal period are common amongst women in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with a range of psychosocial and health-related stressors. In this exploratory qualitative study conducted in southern Malawi, we investigated the thoughts and emotions experienced by women in pregnancy and the postnatal period, their expectations of support from husband and others, problems and difficulties faced and the impact of these on psychological wellbeing. We conducted 11 focus group discussions with a total of 98 parous women. A thematic analysis approach was used. Three major themes were identified: pregnancy as a time of uncertainty, the husband (and others) as support and stressor, and the impact of stressors on mental health. Pregnancy was seen as bringing uncertainty about the survival and wellbeing of both mother and unborn child. Poverty, lack of support, HIV, witchcraft and child illness were identified as causes of worry in the perinatal period. Husbands were expected to provide emotional, financial and practical support, with wider family and friends having a lesser role. Infidelity, abuse and abandonment were seen as key stressors in the perinatal period. Exposure to stressors was understood to lead to altered mental states, the symptoms of which are consistent with the concept of common perinatal mental disorder. This study confirms and expands on evidence from quantitative studies and provides formative data for the development of a psychosocial intervention for common perinatal mental disorder in Malawi.

  6. Chemical and natural stressors combined:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gergs, André; Zenker, Armin; Grimm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    In addition to natural stressors, populations are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants released into the environment. We experimentally demonstrate the loss of resilience for Daphnia magna populations that are exposed to a combination of natural and chemical stressors even though effects...... on population size of a single stressor were cryptic, i.e. hard to detect statistically. Data on Daphnia population demography and along with model-based exploration of our predator-prey system revealed that direct trophic interactions changed the population size-structure and thereby increased population...... vulnerability to the toxicant which acts in a size selective manner. Moreover, population vulnerability to the toxicant increases with predator size and predation intensity whereas indirect trait-mediated interactions via predator kairomones may buffer chemical effects to a certain extent. Our study...

  7. The Relationship of Stressors and Stress on Injury Incident of Construction Workers in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhd Ali Khairul Ammar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction Workers (CWs are the main source of manpower that is necessary to every construction project. Non conducive and hazardous working environment at construction site will affect the physiological health of the construction labour. This study is conducted to explore the impact of job stress and emotional stress to the CWs that potentially lead to injuries incident in Penang. Twelve stressors were identified through factor analysis. Then, the stressors are classified into five main categories. Questionnaires were developed according to the stressstressor relationship. The correlation between factors of injury incident (stressor and stress shows that lack of autonomy and inappropriate safety equipment lead to the emotional stress among the CWs with 0.287 and 0.204 respectively. In addition, poor physical environment causes the job stress among CWs with the correlation of 0.270.

  8. Psychosocial stress of the building construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tiwary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry plays a vital role in development of infrastructure of a country. About 50% of the subjects of unorganised sector belonged to construction industry in our country. The questionnaire based cross sectional prospective study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status and the psychosocial stress & strain faced by the workers due to occupational exposure. The average age of the workers was 30.6±10.9 years. Majority of them (79.2% were literates and earned below Rs 5000/-. About 59% were smokers and 37% consumed alcohol. The mean duration of present occupational exposure was 8.6±8.0 years. The workers were victim of different health impairment like occupational health hazards, psychosocial stress & strain etc. The psychosocial stress & strain were due to long working hours (73.3%, lower wages (60.4%, job uncertainty (56.9%, poor communication among workers with supervisors (22.7%. Exploitation by labour contractor, gender discrimination, sexual harassment was observed. Low job satisfaction (42.4%, injuries & accidents (47% were also reported. About 94.6% of the workers were not aware of the different social security schemes. This occupationally exposed group of workers were victims of different psychosocial stresses & strains and other health impairments.

  9. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  10. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David

    2012-01-01

    Published work assessing psychosocial stress (job strain) as a risk factor for coronary heart disease is inconsistent and subject to publication bias and reverse causation bias. We analysed the relation between job strain and coronary heart disease with a meta-analysis of published and unpublished...

  11. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ameijden Erik JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health or mortality. This study examined: 1 whether the presence of stressors and the absence of resources can be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occur among those with lower education, 2 whether stressors and resources mediated the relation between education and health behaviours, and 3 addressed the question whether an aggregate measure of stressors and resources has an added effect over the use of individual measures. Methods Questionnaire data on sociodemographic variables, stressors, resources, and health behaviours were collected cross-sectionally among inhabitants (n = 3050 of a medium-sized Dutch city (Utrecht. Descriptive statistics and bootstrap analyses for multiple-mediator effects were used to examine the role of stressors and resources in mediating educational associations with health behaviours. Results Higher levels of stressors and lower levels of resources could be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occurred among those with lower educational levels. Stressors and resources partially mediated the relationship between education and four health- behaviours (exercise, breakfast frequency, vegetable consumption and smoking. Financial stress and poor perceived health status were mediating stressors, and social support a strong mediating resource. An aggregate measure of the stressors and resources showed similar associations with health behaviours compared to the summed individual measures. Conclusions Lower educated groups are simultaneously affected by the presence of various stressors and absence of multiple resources, which partially explain socioeconomic differences in health

  12. Contingent self-esteem, stressors and burnout in working women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    A high work involvement is considered central in the burnout process. Yet, research investigating how high work involvement and psychosocial stressors relate to burnout is scarce. High involvement in terms of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) refers to individuals' strivings to validate self-worth by achievements, a disposition linked to poor health. The aim of the present study was to examine longitudinally PBSE in relation to burnout while also taking into account work- and private life stressors. The sample consisted of 2121 working women and men. Main- and mediation effects were investigated using hierarchical regression analysis. The results showed performance-based self-esteem mediated partially between the stressors and burnout. Performance-based self-esteem was the strongest predictor of burnout over time, followed by private life stressors. Women experienced more work stress than did men. Men had stronger associations between work stressors and burnout, while women had stronger associations between performance-based self-esteem and burnout. Individual characteristics along with both private life and work stressors are important predictors of burnout. Factors associated with burnout differ somewhat between women and men.

  13. Exploring the Stressors of New Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrivee, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the different stressors and anxieties facing new librarians. It also addresses the various ways that new librarians can cope with location, emotional, and work-related stressors. The article is broken into four different categories of stress; some stressors have been more explored than others. The research is based on an…

  14. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  15. Family stressors and child obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasky, Steven a; Stewart, Susan D; Gundersen, Craig; Lohman, Brenda J; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2009-12-01

    Child obesity is a public health priority with numerous and complex causes. This study focuses on factors within the family, namely stressful experiences, which may be associated with child obesity. We examine data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for children in two age groups: 5-11 and 12-17 years old. Results from an ordered probit regression model of child weight categorizations (healthy weight, overweight, obese) indicate positive associations between a range of family stressors (lack of cognitive stimulation and emotional support in the household among younger children, and mental and physical health problems and financial strain in the household among older children) and child overweight and obesity. We discuss how public policies that reduce family stressors may, in turn, help reduce child obesity.

  16. Hunting Jobs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jishan

    2006-01-01

    @@ 4.13 million college graduates areexpected to join the job-hunting army,putting additional pressure on China'sclimbing jobless rate. Some peoplemight blame the difficulties graduatesface in finding jobs on the expandedenrolment policy, which was introducedin 1999.

  17. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TEFL in China Certificate Training Program,With Job Placement ChinaJob.com(CAIEP)with the Center for Teaching & Learning in China,USA(CTLC) Date:August22-29,2007 Location:Beijing and Shenzhen City,Guangdong Province Program tuition:4,000 yuan(or $ equivalent)

  18. Jobs Bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre.......Indledningen sætter Jobs Bog ind i den bibelske kontekst og redegør for hovedindhold og genre....

  19. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, With Job Placement ChinaJob.com (CAIEP) with the Center for Teaching & Learning in China, USA (CTLC) Date: August 22-29, 2007 Location: Beijing and Shenzhen City, Guangdong Province Program tuition: 4,000 yuan

  20. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TEFL in China Certificate Training Program,with Job Placement China Job.corn(CAIEP) with the Center for Teaching & Learning in China,U.S.A.(CTLC) Date:August 22-29,2007 Location:Beijing and Shenzhen City,Guangdong Province Program tuition:4,000 yuan (or $ equivalent).

  1. Personality and stressor-related affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Kate A; Charles, Susan T; Turiano, Nicholas A; Almeida, David M

    2016-12-01

    Greater increases in negative affect and greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur portend poorer mental and physical health years later. Although personality traits influence stressor-related affect, only neuroticism and extraversion among the Big Five personality traits have been examined in any detail. Moreover, personality traits may shape how people appraise daily stressors, yet few studies have examined how stressor-related appraisals may account for associations between personality and stressor-related affect. Two studies used participants (N = 2,022; age range: 30-84) from the National Study of Daily Experiences II to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and stressor-related affect and how appraisals may account for these relationships. Results from Study 1 indicate that higher levels of extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and lower levels of neuroticism are related to less stressor-related negative affect. Only agreeableness was associated with stressor-related positive affect, such that higher levels were related to greater decreases in positive affect on days stressors occur. The second study found that stressor-related appraisals partially accounted for the significant associations between stressor-related negative affect and personality. Implications for these findings in relation to how personality may influence physical and emotional health are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  3. Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Job-Related Stress in Japanese Psychiatric Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stress and examined the specificity of the related stressors using the job stressor scale of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ. The stressor scale of the BJSQ was administered to 296 nurses and assistant nurses. Answers were examined statistically. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factor structures; two factors (overload and job environment were valid. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the two-factor structure and found 11 items with factor loadings of >0.40 (model 1, 13 items with factor loadings from 0.30 to <0.40 (model 2, and 17 items with factor loadings from 0.20 to <0.30 (model 3 for one factor; model 1 demonstrated the highest goodness of fit. Then, we observed that the two-factor structure (model 1 showed a higher goodness of fit than the original six-factor structure. This differed from subscales based on general workers’ job-related stressors, suggesting that the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stressors is specific. Further steps may be necessary to reduce job-related stress specifically related to overload including attention to many needs of patients and job environment including complex ethical dilemmas in psychiatric nursing.

  4. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  5. Post-learning psychosocial stress enhances consolidation of neutral stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Diana; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-10-01

    Post-learning stress has been reported to enhance memory consolidation in humans. This effect was observed in studies using physical stressors or an anticipatory speech task. In the present study 58 participants (28 females and 30 males) were exposed to a psychosocial stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition following the presentation of neutral and emotionally arousing positive and negative pictures, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. The stressor induced a significant neuroendocrine stress response in men and women. In a 24h delayed free recall test the stress group showed an enhanced memory for neutral but not for emotionally arousing positive and negative items. Additionally, a significant correlation between the cortisol stress response and memory for neutral items was evident. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, post-learning stress primarily enhanced consolidation of neutral material. Several theoretical and methodological explanations for the observed effects are discussed.

  6. Relation between job strain and myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, B; Nielsen, F E; Kristensen, T S;

    1999-01-01

    to hospital who were residents of the same county were used. Both groups were interviewed with an extensive questionnaire on job related conditions. Several indices on job related psychosocial factors were established in accordance with Karasek's job strain model as well as the extension of the model......OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of different job related and socioeconomic factors for development of myocardial infarction (MI). METHOD: The study was a case-control study of 76 male wage earners who had been admitted to hospital with MI. As a control group 176 male wage earners not admitted......, the isostrain model. RESULTS: The most significant findings were consistent with Karasek's job strain model in that mean with a high degree of demand combined with a low degree of control at work had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 2.1 (1.2 to 3.8) for MI after...

  7. Job strain and the risk of stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Eleonor I; Nyberg, Solja T; Heikkilä, Katriina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Psychosocial stress at work has been proposed to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, its role as a risk factor for stroke is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted an individual-participant-data meta-analysis of 196 380 males and females from 14 European cohort...... studies to investigate the association between job strain, a measure of work-related stress, and incident stroke. RESULTS: In 1.8 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up 9.2 years), 2023 first-time stroke events were recorded. The age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio for job strain relative to no job....... CONCLUSION: Job strain may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, but further research is needed to determine whether interventions targeting job strain would reduce stroke risk beyond existing preventive strategies....

  8. Psychosocial Correlates of Burnout and Depression in HIV Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalimi, Hamid; Roffe, Michael W.

    Job stress in health care professionals who provide care to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients has been a subject of interest to a number of health center and hospital physicians, administrators, and to some extent, behavioral scientists. In this study psychosocial correlates of burnout and depression in HIV counselors were…

  9. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  10. Job stress and mental health among nonregular workers in Korea: What dimensions of job stress are associated with mental health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Kyung; Rhee, Min-Kyoung; Barak, Michàlle Mor

    2016-01-01

    Although nonregular workers experience higher job stress, poorer mental health, and different job stress dimensions relative to regular workers, little is known about which job stress dimensions are associated with poor mental health among nonregular workers. This study investigated the association between job stress dimensions and mental health among Korean nonregular workers. Data were collected from 333 nonregular workers in Seoul and Gyeonggi Province, and logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results of the study indicated that high job insecurity and lack of rewards had stronger associations with poor mental health than other dimensions of job stress when controlling for sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. It is important for the government and organizations to improve job security and reward systems to reduce job stress among nonregular workers and ultimately alleviate their mental health issues.

  11. The influence of operational and organizational stressors on the well-being of municipal police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Argentero, P

    2013-01-01

    Helping professions are at a high risk of developing occupational stress that can cause negative effects at individual and organizational levels. This article attempts to examine the presence of operational and organizational stressors as potential predictors of burnout and psychosomatic symptoms among municipal police officers. A cross-sectional study of municipal police officers working in a town in Northern Italy was conducted. A self-report questionnaire was administered to all the officers serving the population of this town (N = 88). Regression analyses revealed that organizational stressors affected emotional exhaustion and cynicism, whereas operational stressors were associated with psychosomatic symptoms. These findings suggest that operational and organizational stressors can affect the level of psychosomatic well-being of municipal police officers, but at the same time reveal the existence of their specific effects on the outcome variables. In this perspective, individual psychological support and group interventions should be carried out not only to deal with traumatic events but also to manage chronic stressors. This is one of the first studies in Italy investigating municipal police officers' well-being as potentially related to specific job stressors. Nevertheless, our results are based on police officers employed by the municipality of a single town; it would be therefore useful to extend the research to larger samples.

  12. Aspectos psicossociais em cirurgia bariátrica: a associação entre variáveis emocionais, trabalho, relacionamentos e peso corporal Psychosocial aspects in bariatric surgery: the association among emotional variables, job, relationships and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela A Nogueira de Almeida

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Operações bariátricas têm sido consideradas alternativa para o tratamento de obesidade mórbida. Alguns eventos adversos que as pessoas experimentam após o tratamento frequentemente são consequência da falta de conhecimento consistente associada a fatores psicossociais que estão relacionadas ao status pré-operatório dos pacientes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as variáveis ?psicossociais de 414 candidatos ? cirurgia bari?trica do Hospital de Cl?nicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de S?o Paulo, Ribeir?o Preto, SP, Brasil. psicossociais de 414 candidatos à cirurgia bariátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados entrevista semi-estruturada, Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI, Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck (BAI e Binge Eating Scale (BES. RESULTADOS: IMC foi maior entre os pacientes que não tinham emprego (p = 0,019, do sexo feminino, os que tinham um parceiro e os pacientes com IMC 50 kg / m² (p 50 kg / m² foram mais propensos a apresentar sintomas de ansiedade.BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgeries have been considered an alternative for treatment of morbid obesity. Some adverse events that people experience after the treatment frequently are the consequence of the lack of consistent knowledge associated with psychosocial factors that are related to the pre-surgery status of the patients. AIM: To evaluate psychosocial variables of 414 candidates for bariatric surgery from Clinical Hospital of Medical School at University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. METHODS: Semi-structured interview, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Binge Eating Scale (BES were used. RESULTS: BMI was higher among patients who had no employment (p = 0.019. Female, patients who had a partner and patients with a BMI 50 kg/m² (p 50 kg / m² were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms.

  13. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chinajob.com professional jobs Chiruyob.com is looking for experienced business teachers to teach marketing and branding, administration and sales skills. Web editors, composers and polishers are needed all through the year. Also, if you are a highly qualified professional in your industry, Chinajob.com can help you with your job search and career advancement. Contact: resume@chinajob.com and teaching@chinajob.com

  14. 工作要求-资源模型新视角——基于心理社会安全氛围的分析%New Perspectives in Job Demand-Resource Model Research:Based on The Analysis of Psychosocial Safety Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周帆; 刘大伟

    2013-01-01

    心理社会安全氛围(Psychosocial safety climate,简称PSC)指员工对组织是否重视员工工作过程中与心理健康和安全相关的政策、规程和行为实践的共同感知和看法.回顾相关研究,对PSC的理论建构、测量方法、效度验证及PSC在工作要求-资源模型(Job Demand-Resource Model,简称JD-R模型)中的作用机制等进行了系统梳理.在此基础上,总结JD-R模型完善的理论贡献与管理启示,并提出PSC理论与测量工具完善、工作要求与工作资源层次匹配、考虑组织外及个人因素、开展本土化研究等未来研究方向.

  15. Agreeableness, Extraversion, Stressor and Physiological Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoyuan Chu; Zhentao Ma; Yuan Li; Jing Han

    2015-01-01

    Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, this study explored the relationship between agreeableness, extraversion, stressor and stress response and figured out interactive effect of agreeableness, extraversion, and stressor on stress response. We draw on the following conclusions: (1) the interaction term of stressor (work) and agreeableness can negatively predict physiological stress response; (2) the interaction term of stresso...

  16. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  17. Job demands and job strain as risk factors for employee wellbeing in elderly care: an instrumental-variables analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo

    2015-02-01

    The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelo de intervención psicosocial en las organizaciones frente al estrés laboral: estrategia operativa Model of psychosocial intervention in organizations opposed to job stress: operational strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Navarro Aparicio

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta un modelo de actuación frente a los factores de riesgo psicosociales derivados del estrés laboral. Primeramente relaciona los principales efectos que ocasiona en toda organización el estrés laboral. Al mismo tiempo establece sus prioridades de actuación, para acto seguido indicar las actividades que deben ejecutarse. Dentro de esta fase de actuación, diferencia aquellas que van dirigidas a la organización de forma colectiva, cuya prioridad es manifiesta, frente a las acciones que deben ofrecerse a los afectados de forma individualizada. Así pues, se trata de un modelo de intervención que interactúa tanto en las medidas organizativas generales como en aquellas específicas y de perfil individual, en la lucha de un fenómeno en auge como es el estrés laboral.The article presents a model for action against the risk factors derived from psychosocial stress. The first lists the main effects on any organization that causes stress at work. At the same time establishing their priorities for action, then to indicate the activities to be implemented. Within this stage of action, unlike those that are directed to the organization of a collective, whose priority is obvious, compared to shares to be offered to the affected individual. Thus, it is an intervention model that interacts both in general and organizational measures in those specific and individual profile in the struggle of a growing phenomenon as is the stress at work.

  19. Towards Comprehensive Job Stress Models of Reservists

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Integrating findings from the general stress literature into occupational stress research the present dissertation aimed at developing comprehensive job stress models that include additionally valuable antecedents and moderators on the link between workplace stress and psychological health problems. Therefore, this work made use of McEwen’s (1998) Allostatic Load Model to analyze the influence of chronic as well as acute stressors on the employees’ (i.e., Reservists) long-term psychological h...

  20. Evaluation of the relationship between musculoskeletal discomforts and occupational stressors among nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Azma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress in nurses may increase the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomforts and job stress among nurses and to investigate the association between musculoskeletal discomforts and occupational stressors. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 144 nurses in one of the main referral hospitals of Tehran-Iran were randomly selected and studied. Data were collected by HSE job stress questionnaire and The Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire through interviews with nurses in their workplace. Results: Most reported musculoskeletal discomforts localized in the neck, back, knee and shoulder and the minimal discomforts were in wrist and elbow. On the other hand, stressors such as demand, changes in workplace, control and responsibilities had significant effect on increasing musculoskeletal discomforts of organs such as neck, shoulders and back (P < 0.001. Conclusion: There was a significant association between stressors such as demand, control, responsibilities and changes in workplace and reported musculoskeletal disorders, especially in neck, shoulders and back. It is suggested to use defined programs for management and control of stressors to control occupational stress in nurses. Moreover, prevention of musculoskeletal discomforts due to their high prevalence in the study population is important.

  1. A Method for Psychosocial Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manvich, Daniel F; Stowe, Taylor A; Godfrey, Jodi R; Weinshenker, David

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel preclinical model of stress-induced relapse to cocaine use in rats using social defeat stress, an ethologically valid psychosocial stressor in rodents that closely resembles stressors that promote craving and relapse in humans. Rats self-administered cocaine for 20 days. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, animals were subjected to social defeat stress or a nonstressful control condition following the session, with discrete environmental stimuli signaling the impending event. After extinction training, reinstatement was assessed following re-exposure to these discrete cues. Animals re-exposed to psychosocial stress-predictive cues exhibited increased serum corticosterone and significantly greater reinstatement of cocaine seeking than the control group, and active coping behaviors during social defeat episodes were associated with subsequent reinstatement magnitude. These studies are the first to describe an operant model of psychosocial stress-induced relapse in rodents and lay the foundation for future work investigating its neurobiological underpinnings.

  2. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  3. Mastery and coping moderate the negative effect of acute and chronic stressors on mental health-related quality of life in HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Katherine; Rueda, Sergio; Rourke, Sean B; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gardner, Sandra; Fenta, Haile; Hart, Trevor A

    2011-06-01

    Acute and chronic life stressors have a detrimental effect on the health of people living with HIV. Psychosocial resources such as mastery, coping, and social support may play a critical role in moderating the negative effects of stressors on health-related quality of life. A total of 758 participants provided baseline enrolment data on demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, education, employment, income), clinical variables (CD4 counts, viral load, AIDS-defining condition, time since HIV diagnosis), psychosocial resources (mastery, coping, social support), life stressors (National Population Health Survey [NPHS] Stress Questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (SF-36). We performed hierarchical multivariate regression analyses to evaluate the potential moderating effects of psychosocial resources on the relationship between stressors and health-related quality of life. The top three stressors reported by participants were trying to take on too many things at once (51%), not having enough money to buy the things they needed (51%), and having something happen during childhood that scared them so much that they thought about it years later (42%). Life stressors were significantly and inversely associated with both physical and mental health-related quality of life. Mastery and maladaptive coping had significant moderating effects on mental health but not on physical health. These results suggest that developing interventions that improve mastery and reduce maladaptive coping may minimize the negative impact of life stressors on the mental health of people with HIV. They also highlight that it is important for clinicians to be mindful of the impact of life stressors on the health of patients living with HIV.

  4. The Impact of Stress and Support on Direct Care Workers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Farida K.; Noelker, Linda S.; Menne, Heather L.; Bagaka's, Joshua G.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research applies a stress and support conceptual model to investigate the effects of background characteristics, personal and job-related stressors, and workplace support on direct care workers' (DCW) job satisfaction. Design and Methods: Researchers collected survey data from 644 DCWs in 49 long-term care (LTC) organizations. The…

  5. Social Stressors at Work, Sleep, and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Diana; Gross, Sven; Elfering, Achim

    2016-03-01

    Many employees in service work are required to work on Saturdays, recovering during work-free Sundays and working again Mondays. We examined the effects of social stressors at work on recovery status at Sunday noon and Monday noon, and investigated if sleep quality mediates the negative effects of social stressors at work on recovery. From Saturday until Monday morning, 41 participants wore actigraphs to measure sleep duration and sleep fragmentation. Social stressors at work were assessed by self-reported questionnaires administered on Saturday. Recovery status was reported Sunday noon and Monday noon. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that social stressors at work were negatively related to recovery status on Sunday and on Monday. Supporting our assumptions, more social stressors at work predicted higher sleep fragmentation in the night to Monday. A mediation effect of sleep quality, however, was not found. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. The impact of stress and support on direct care workers' job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Farida K; Noelker, Linda S; Menne, Heather L; Bagaka's, Joshua G

    2008-07-01

    This research applies a stress and support conceptual model to investigate the effects of background characteristics, personal and job-related stressors, and workplace support on direct care workers' (DCW) job satisfaction. Researchers collected survey data from 644 DCWs in 49 long-term care (LTC) organizations. The DCWs included nurse assistants in nursing homes, resident assistants in assisted living facilities, and home care aides in home health agencies. We examined the influence of components of the LTC stress and support model on DCW job satisfaction. Initially, we ran a multiple regression analysis by entering individual-level DCW predictors with job satisfaction as the outcome. Subsequently, we used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the influence of organizational factors on DCW job satisfaction after controlling for significant individual-level DCW variables. Components of the model explained 51% of the variance in DCW job satisfaction. Background characteristics of DCWs were less important than personal stressors (e.g., depression), job-related stressors (e.g., continuing education), and social support (e.g., interactions with others) in predicting job satisfaction. Results from hierarchical linear modeling analysis showed that nursing homes compared to the two other types of LTC organizations had lower average DCW job satisfaction rates, as did organizations offering lower minimum hourly rates and those reporting turnover problems. Study findings underscore the importance of targeting both DCW-level and organizational-level factors to increase DCW job satisfaction.

  7. Gender differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being among Swedish managers and non-managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Anna; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda

    2015-11-01

    To explore differences in psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, and well-being between managers and non-managers, female and male managers, and managers in the public and private sectors. Data were drawn from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) 2010, including 602 female managers, 4174 female non-managers, 906 male managers, and 2832 male non-managers. Psychosocial work factors, work-personal life interface, satisfaction, and well-being were investigated among non-managers and managers and male and female managers, using logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, educational level, staff category, and labour market sector. Both female and male managers reported high job demands and interference between work and personal life, but also high influence, high satisfaction with work and life, and low amount of sickness absence more often than non-managers of the same sex. However, female managers reported high quantitative and emotional demands, low influence, and work-personal life interference more frequently than male managers. More psychosocial work stressors were also reported in the public sector, where many women work. Male managers more often reported conflicts with superiors, lack of support, and personal life-work interference. Female managers reported poor well-being to a greater extent than male managers, but were more satisfied with their lives. Lack of motivation due to limited increase in satisfaction and organisational benefits is not likely to hinder women from taking on managerial roles. Managerial women's higher overall demands, lower influence at work, and poorer well-being relative to men's could hinder female managers from reaching higher organisational levels.

  8. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  9. Job autonomy and job satisfaction: new evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J.; Bradley, S.; A N Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of perceived job autonomy on job satisfaction. We use the fifth sweep of the National Educational Longitudinal Study (1988-2000), which contains personally reported job satisfaction data for a sample of individuals eight years after the end of compulsory education. After controlling for a wide range of personal and job-related variables, perceived job autonomy is found to be a highly significant determinant of five separate domains of job satisfaction (pay, ...

  10. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and fees: Tuition:4,000 yuan

  11. Job Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angerer, John M.

    2003-01-01

    Presents an overview of job burnout, discusses the pioneering research and current theories of the burnout construct, along with the history of the main burnout assessment--the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Concludes that an understanding of the interaction between employee and his or her environment is critical for grasping the origin of burnout.…

  12. Psychosocial health among immigrants in central and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Marzouk, Diaa; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-08-01

    Migration exposes people to a number of risks that threaten their health, including those related to psychosocial health. Self-perceived health is usually the main indicator used to assess psychosocial health. Electronic databases were used to examine the literature on the psychosocial health of immigrants in Europe and of North Africans living in their own countries. Immigrants of various ethnic groups show a similar risk of psychosocial disorders but generally present a higher risk than the local population. This risk is related to gender (being higher in women), poor socio-economic status and acculturation, discrimination, time elapsed since migration and age on arrival in the new country. Although the stressors and situations the different ethnic groups experience in the host country may be shared, the way they deal with them may differ according to cultural factors. There is a need to collect detailed data on psychosocial health among the various immigrant groups in Europe, as well as to monitor this aspect in North African residents who lack access to specific services.

  13. The need for a systematic approach to disaster psychosocial response: a suggested competency framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robin S; Danford, Taryn

    2014-04-01

    Competency models attempt to define what makes expert performers "experts." Successful disaster psychosocial planning and the institutionalizing of psychosocial response within emergency management require clearly-defined skill sets. This necessitates anticipating both the short- and long-term psychosocial implications of a disaster or health emergency (ie, pandemic) by developing effective and sustained working relationships among psychosocial providers, programs, and other planning partners. The following article outlines recommended competencies for psychosocial responders to enable communities and organizations to prepare for and effectively manage a disaster response. Competency-based models are founded on observable performance or behavioral indicators, attitudes, traits, or personalities related to effective performance in a specific role or job. After analyzing the literature regarding competency-based frameworks, a proposed competency framework that details 13 competency domains is suggested. Each domain describes a series of competencies and suggests behavioral indicators for each competency and, where relevant, associated training expectations. These domains have been organized under three distinct categories or types of competencies: general competency domains; disaster psychosocial intervention competency domains; and disaster psychosocial program leadership and coordination competency domains. Competencies do not replace job descriptions nor should they be confused with performance assessments. What they can do is update and revise job descriptions; orient existing and new employees to their disaster/emergency roles and responsibilities; target training needs; provide the basis for ongoing self-assessment by agencies and individuals as they evaluate their readiness to respond; and provide a job- or role-relevant basis for performance appraisal dimensions or standards and review discussions. Using a modular approach to psychosocial planning, service

  14. Job Strain and Determinants in Staff Working in Institutions for People with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan: A Test of the Job Demand-Control-Support Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lee, Tzong-Nan; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Wu, Jia-Ling; Chu, Cordia M.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the job strain of staff working in disability institutions. This study investigated the staff's job strain profile and its determinants which included the worker characteristics and the psychosocial working environments in Taiwan. A cross-sectional study survey was carried out among 1243 workers by means of a self-answered…

  15. Test anxiety and cardiovascular responses to daily academic stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Kristen M; Lehman, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    Routine academic events may cause stress and produce temporary elevations in blood pressure. Students who experience test anxiety may be especially prone to cardiovascular activation in response to academic stress. This study drew on self-reported stress and ambulatory blood pressure measurements provided by 99 undergraduate participants (30% men, mean age=21 years) who participated over 4 days. Posture, activity level, recent consumption and the previous same-day reading were considered as covariates in a series of hierarchical linear models. Results indicate elevations in systolic blood pressure at times of acute academic stressors; neither diastolic blood pressure nor heart rate was linked with academic stress. In addition, those participants higher in test anxiety exhibited especially pronounced elevations in systolic blood pressure during times of acute academic stress. This research suggests that everyday academic stressors are linked with temporary increases in blood pressure and that test anxiety may contribute to these elevations. Test anxiety has implications for future academic and job success, and cardiovascular responses to everyday stress may contribute to health problems later in life.

  16. Do Job Demands of Chinese Manufacturing Employees Predict Positive or Negative Outcomes? A Test of Competing Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janelle H; Sinclair, Robert R; Shi, Junqi; Wang, Mo

    2015-12-01

    Karasek's job demands-control (JDC) model posits that job control can buffer against the harmful effects of demands experienced by employees. A large volume of JDC research has obtained support for the main effects of demands and control, but not the interactive effects. Recent research on the challenge-hindrance stressors framework, however, found that work stressors may not always be deleterious, suggesting alternative hypotheses about the effects of demands and control. The present study therefore examined competing hypotheses concerning the effects of job demands on occupational health outcomes. Using a sample of 316 employees in a Chinese manufacturing company, we found that, consistent with the challenge-hindrance framework, production demands were challenge stressors associated with favourable outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and psychological well-being). In addition, results showed that the interactive role of job control depended on the nature of outcome variables. Future recommendations and implications of findings are discussed.

  17. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  18. Popular Job

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In a tight job market, more and more young Chinese are opting for the civil service A hundred years after the 1,300-year-old imperial civil service examination system was abolished in the early 20th century, the Confucian idea that one who excels academically should pursue a career in government service seems to have become popular again among young Chinese. But the view now has

  19. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, location and fees: Tuition: 4,000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Zhongshan City, G...

  20. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program, with job placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates, venues and tuition: Tuition: 4,000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing

  1. Abusive supervision and workload demands from supervisors: exploring two types of supervisor-related stressors and their association with strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Yu; Hu, Changya; Yang, Chun-Chi

    2013-08-01

    Our study aimed to identify two types of stressors from supervisors: abusive supervision (AS) and workload demands from supervisors (WDS). AS reflects the relationship dimension of supervisor-related stressors, and WDS reflects the task dimension of supervisor-related stressors. In Study 1, we attempted to distinguish between AS and WDS. The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that AS and WDS are two distinct dimensions of supervisor-related stressors. In Study 2, we utilized job demands-resources model and investigated whether AS and WDS can uniquely predict subordinates' emotional exhaustion (EE). We also explored whether perceived job characteristics (PJCs) have differential moderating effects on the relationships between the two dimensions of supervisor-related stressors (AS and WDS) and EE. Consistent with our predictions, the results showed that both AS and WDS have incremental predictive effects on EE after controlling for the effect of the other. The results also revealed that PJCs weaken the WDS-EE relationship, not the AS-EE relationship. We discussed the theoretical and practical implications at the end.

  2. Job stress models for predicting burnout syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirico, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, the Council Directive 89/391 for improvement of workers' safety and health has emphasized the importance of addressing all occupational risk factors, and hence also psychosocial and organizational risk factors. Nevertheless, the construct of "work-related stress" elaborated from EU-OSHA is not totally corresponding with the "psychosocial" risk, that is a broader category of risk, comprising various and different psychosocial risk factors. The term "burnout", without any binding definition, tries to integrate symptoms as well as cause of the burnout process. In Europe, the most important methods developed for the work related stress risk assessment are based on the Cox's transactional model of job stress. Nevertheless, there are more specific models for predicting burnout syndrome. This literature review provides an overview of job burnout, highlighting the most important models of job burnout, such as the Job Strain, the Effort/Reward Imbalance and the Job Demands-Resources models. The difference between these models and the Cox's model of job stress is explored.

  3. Job satisfaction among anesthesiologists at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrose Rukewe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : We assessed job satisfaction among anesthesiologists at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria and identified elements of job stress and dissatisfaction. Methods : A cross-sectional study design was employed; a structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed, which focused on sociodemographic data, rating of job satisfaction, identification of stressors, and work relationships. Results : Out of 55 questionnaires distributed, 46 (83.6% completed questionnaires were returned. Overall, 27 (58.7% of the anesthesiologists were satisfied with their job. While 8.7% were very satisfied (grade 5, 6.5% were very dissatisfied (grade 1 with their job. The stressors identified by the respondents were time pressures, long working hours with complaints of insufficient sleep, and employment status. Among the respondents, the medical officers were the most discontented (9 out of 12, 75%, followed by senior registrars (5 out of 9, 56%. A high percentage of participants (54.1% declared that the one change if implemented that would enhance their job satisfaction was having a definite closing time. Conclusion : Our results showed that despite the demanding nature of anesthesiology as a specialty, many anesthesiologists were contented with their job.

  4. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents......The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first 3 criteria....... The results of the 2 papers pointed in the same direction, namely that only the control dimension of job strain explained the excess risk for myocardial infarction for job strain. The large number of underpowered studies and the focus on psychosocial models, such as the job strain models, make it difficult...

  5. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace.

  6. Psychosocial stress at work in pregnant health workers from Havana city, Cuba 2005-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, María de Lourdes; Instituto Nacional de Salud de los Trabajadores. La Habana, Cuba. Master en Psicología y en Salud Ocupaciona.; Aguilera, María de los Angeles; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.; Aldrete, María Guadupe; Instituto de Investigación en Salud Ocupacional, Universidad de Guadalajara, México. Doctora en Ciencias de la Salud en el Trabajo.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Evaluate the level of psychosocial stress at work according to the models of demand-control of the work tension and imbalance effort recompense; and to determine associations between the psychosocial stress at work and pregnancy complications. Material and methods. We performed a prospective cohort study with 78 pregnant health workers from the municipality of the Havana city, Cuba, in the period 2005-2006. Those interviewed responded a version to Spanish of the Job Content Que...

  7. Evaluating stress, burnout and job satisfaction in New Zealand radiation oncology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasperse, M; Herst, P; Dungey, G

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to determine the levels of occupational stress, burnout and job satisfaction among radiation oncology workers across New Zealand. All oncology staff practising in all eight radiation oncology departments in New Zealand were invited to participate anonymously in a questionnaire, which consisted of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and measures of stress intensity associated with specific occupational stressors, stress reduction strategies and job satisfaction. A total of 171 (out of 349) complete responses were analysed using spss 19; there were 23 oncologists, 111 radiation therapists, 22 radiation nurses and 15 radiation physicists. All participants, regardless of profession, reported high stress levels associated with both patient-centred and organisational stressors. Participants scored high in all three domains of burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Interestingly, although organisational stressors predicted higher emotional exhaustion and emotional exhaustion predicted lower job satisfaction, patient stressors were associated with higher job satisfaction. Job satisfaction initiatives such as ongoing education, mentoring and role extension were supported by many participants as was addressing organisational stressors, such as lack of recognition and support from management and unrealistic expectations and demands. New Zealand staff exhibit higher levels of burnout than Maslach Burnout Inventory medical norms and oncology workers in previous international studies.

  8. Low Vagal Tone Magnifies the Association Between Psychosocial Stress Exposure and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Rith-Najarian, Leslie; Dirks, Melanie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Vagal tone is a measure of cardiovascular function that facilitates adaptive responses to environmental challenge. Low vagal tone is associated with poor emotional and attentional regulation in children and has been conceptualized as a marker of sensitivity to stress. We investigated whether the associations of a wide range of psychosocial stressors with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology were magnified in adolescents with low vagal tone. Resting heart period data were collected from a diverse community sample of adolescents (ages 13–17; N =168). Adolescents completed measures assessing internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and exposure to stressors occurring in family, peer, and community contexts. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the interbeat interval time series. We estimated interactions between RSA and stress exposure in predicting internalizing and externalizing symptoms and evaluated whether interactions differed by gender. Exposure to psychosocial stressors was associated strongly with psychopathology. RSA was unrelated to internalizing or externalizing problems. Significant interactions were observed between RSA and child abuse, community violence, peer victimization, and traumatic events in predicting internalizing but not externalizing symptoms. Stressors were positively associated with internalizing symptoms in adolescents with low RSA but not in those with high RSA. Similar patterns were observed for anxiety and depression. These interactions were more consistently observed for male than female individuals. Low vagal tone is associated with internalizing psychopathology in adolescents exposed to high levels of stressors. Measurement of vagal tone in clinical settings might provide useful information about sensitivity to stress in child and adolescent clients. PMID:24156380

  9. OC21 - Psychosocial functioning of parents of infants diagnosed with complex congenital heart defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsios, Konstantinos; Matziou, Vassiliki; Voutoufianaki, Ioanna; Manatou, Anna; Azariadis, Prodromos; Rammos, Spiros

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Parenting/parenthood. The diagnosis of complex CHD impacts the psychosocial status of parents and their functioning. A critical evaluation of the literature concerning the psychosocial parental response to their infant's diagnosis of complex CHD. Systematic review of 18 articles published after 2000 in PubMed and CINAHL. The impact of an infant's CHD on the family functioning is determined both by child's medical condition and family's psychosocial factors. The majority of parents experience intense loss and numerous stressors. Nurses and physicians need to be sensitive to the needs, thoughts and experiences of the parents when discussing treatment options. Families with poor social support networks may have the greatest need for professional interventions. Appropriate interventions assist the majority of parents to adapt to the diagnosis of complex CHD. However, there are a number of parents with an increased psychosocial risk associated with higher rates of emotional distress.

  10. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  11. Psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees living in Jordan: systematic review of unpublished needs assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ruth; Steel, Zachary; Abo-Hilal, Mohammad; Hassan, Abdul Halim; Lawsin, Catalina

    2016-08-01

    Humanitarian organisations supporting Syrian refugees in Jordan have conducted needs assessments to direct resources appropriately. To present a model of psychosocial concerns reported by Syrian refugees and a peer review of research practices. Academic and grey literature databases, the United Nations Syria Regional Response website, key humanitarian organisation websites and Google were searched for needs assessments with Syrian refugees in Jordan between February 2011 and June 2015. Information directly reporting the views of Syrian refugees regarding psychosocial needs was extracted and a qualitative synthesis was conducted. Respondents reported that psychological distress was exacerbated by both environmental (financial, housing, employment) and psychosocial outcomes (loss of role and social support, inactivity), which are themselves stressors. Need for improvement in research methodology, participatory engagement and ethical reporting was evident. Participatory engagement strategies might help to address identified psychosocial outcomes. More rigorous qualitative methods are required to ensure accuracy of findings. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  12. Work-Related Psychosocial Hazards and Arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.

  13. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  14. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  15. Matching work capacities and demands at job placement in employees with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoer, Ilona; de Graaf, Lucinda; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Prinzie, Peter; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether employees with disabilities were initially assigned to jobs with work demands that matched their work capacities. Forty-six employees with various physical, mental, sensory and multiple disabilities working in a sheltered workshop. Physical and psychosocial work capacities were assessed post-offer and pre-placement using the Ergo-Kit and Melba. Work demands of the jobs were determined by workplace assessments with TRAC and Melba and were compared with the work capacities. Of the 46 employees, 25 employees were not physically overloaded. When physical overload occurred, it was most often due to regular lifting. All employees were physically underloaded on six or more work activities, most often due to finger dexterity and manipulation. Almost all employees (n=43) showed psychosocial overload or underload on one or more psychosocial characteristics. Psychosocial overload was most often due to endurance (long-term work performance), while psychosocial underload was most often due to speaking and writing. Despite the assessment of work capacities at job placement, underload and overload occurred on both physical activities and psychosocial characteristics. Assessing both work capacities and work demands before job placement is recommended. At job placement more attention should be paid to overloading due to lifting and long-term work performance.

  16. Enhanced emotional empathy after psychosocial stress in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T; Schulte, Judith M; Drimalla, Hanna; Hamacher-Dang, Tanja C; Knoch, Daria; Dziobek, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Empathy is a core prerequisite for human social behavior. Relatively, little is known about how empathy is influenced by social stress and its associated neuroendocrine alterations. The current study was designed to test the impact of acute stress on emotional and cognitive empathy. Healthy male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (trier social stress test, (TSST)) or a well-matched control condition (Placebo-TSST). Afterwards they participated in an empathy test measuring emotional and cognitive empathy (multifaceted empathy test, (MET)). Stress exposure caused an increase in negative affect, a rise in salivary alpha amylase and a rise in cortisol. Participants exposed to stress reported more emotional empathy in response to pictures displaying both positive and negative emotional social scenes. Cognitive empathy (emotion recognition) in contrast did not differ between the stress and the control group. The current findings provide initial evidence for enhanced emotional empathy after acute psychosocial stress.

  17. JOB INFORMATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Training Information: TEFL in China Certificate Training Program,with Job Placement This intensive training program will prepare you as a native speaker of English to be qualified to teach oral English in China, even without previous teaching experience. Dates,Iocation and fees: Tuition:4.000 yuan Date: August 12-19 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street,Beijing Date: August 20-27 Venue: Friendship Hotel, 1 Zhongguancun Nanjie Street, Beijing Date: Augast 20-27 Venue: Zhongshan City, Guang...

  18. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with ha

  19. Invited commentary: job strain and health behaviors--developing a bigger picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-12-15

    Investigation of the association between job stressors and health behaviors has a long history that has been marked by mixed findings. Fransson et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(12):1078-1089) find robust prospective and cross-sectional associations between job strain and leisure-time physical inactivity in combined data from 14 cohort studies. Further research to better understand the observed heterogeneity in the contributing cohorts and other studies will be crucial for application to intervention design and tailoring. The population health significance of these findings requires consideration of other job strain-health behavior (particularly the parallel analyses conducted for body mass index and smoking in the same data set) and job strain-health outcome associations, as well as these same associations for other job stressors. Job strain can be seen as a "fundamental cause" of work-related disease, in that intervention to reduce exposure to job strain could have beneficial impacts on many outcomes, making a compelling case for intervention. The significantly strengthened evidence linking job stressors to health behaviors provided by Fransson et al. may help to further direct workplace health promotion research, policy, and practice towards an approach that better integrates intervention on working conditions and health behaviors. The benefits to population health could be substantial.

  20. Activation of antioxidant defenses in whole saliva by psychosocial stress is more manifested in young women than in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Tsuber

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men.

  1. Identifying Stressors and Reactions to Stressors in Gifted and Non-Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Marzieh

    2005-01-01

    Using the Student Life Stress Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, stressors and reactions to stressors were identified in gifted high school students and compared with non-gifted students. Altogether, 340 boys and girls (156 gifted and 184 non-gifted students) from four high schools in Shiraz (two high schools for gifted and two…

  2. Differential Vocational Rehabilitation Service Patterns Related to the Job Retention and Job-Seeking Needs of Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Timothy N.; Strauser, David; Frain, Michael P.; Bishop, Malachy; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Kaya, Cahit; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    The experience of living with multiple sclerosis (MS) can have a profound effect on employment. The impact of MS is a complex interaction of personal, medical, functional, financial, and psychosocial variables that ultimately results in up to 80% of persons with MS leaving their jobs within 10 years of their diagnosis. The aim of this study was to…

  3. Problem formulation for risk assessment of combined exposures to chemicals and other stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Wilks, Martin F; Bachman, Ammie; Boobis, Alan; Moretto, Angelo; Pastoor, Timothy P; Phillips, Richard; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-11-01

    When the human health risk assessment/risk management paradigm was developed, it did not explicitly include a "problem formulation" phase. The concept of problem formulation was first introduced in the context of ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the pragmatic reason to constrain and focus ERAs on the key questions. However, this need also exists for human health risk assessment, particularly for cumulative risk assessment (CRA), because of its complexity. CRA encompasses the combined threats to health from exposure via all relevant routes to multiple stressors, including biological, chemical, physical and psychosocial stressors. As part of the HESI Risk Assessment in the 21st Century (RISK21) Project, a framework for CRA was developed in which problem formulation plays a critical role. The focus of this effort is primarily on a chemical CRA (i.e., two or more chemicals) with subsequent consideration of non-chemical stressors, defined as "modulating factors" (ModFs). Problem formulation is a systematic approach that identifies all factors critical to a specific risk assessment and considers the purpose of the assessment, scope and depth of the necessary analysis, analytical approach, available resources and outcomes, and overall risk management goal. There are numerous considerations that are specific to multiple stressors, and proper problem formulation can help to focus a CRA to the key factors in order to optimize resources. As part of the problem formulation, conceptual models for exposures and responses can be developed that address these factors, such as temporal relationships between stressors and consideration of the appropriate ModFs.

  4. Overcoming job stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or not advancing in your career. How Job Stress Affects Your Health Like any kind of stress, job stress that continues for a long time can affect your health. Job stress may increase your risk for health problems such ...

  5. Entrepreneurial stressors as predictors of entrepreneurial burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xueyan; Cang, Shuangxin; Hisrich, Robert D

    2015-02-01

    Research on the effects of entrepreneurial stressors is limited, especially regarding its relation to the burnout that frequently occurs in the process of starting and growing a venture. The effect of the role of entrepreneurial stressors (workload, competitive comparison, demands-of-knowledge, managing responsibility, and resource requirements) on burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment) was examined in a Chinese sample of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial stressors emerged as a significant predictor of burnout in the process of entrepreneurship in a sample of 289 entrepreneurs (63.8% men; M age = 26.2 yr.; 39.6% of their parents have been self-employed). The findings clarify the functional relationship between entrepreneurial stressors and burnout. Entrepreneurial stressors played multiple roles. Managing responsibility was an active contributor to the sense of achievement and to emotional exhaustion. Workload was an active contributor to emotional exhaustion. Demands-of-knowledge negatively affected three of the dimensions of burnout. Theoretical and practical implications for management of the effect of these relationships are discussed.

  6. Physical and psychosocial stress exposures in US dental schools: the need for expanded ergonomics training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Linda J; Stuart-Buttle, Carol; Wyszynski, Theresa C; Wilson, Earlena R

    2004-03-01

    Dental students train in an environment similar to dentists in private practice. The literature reveals that physical and psychosocial stressors in dental schools are associated with adverse health outcomes. While dental educators have provided resources to address psychosocial factors and ergonomics training at the didactic level, the reinforcement of biomechanics at the clinic level has been overlooked. In this article the authors introduce a descriptive analysis of an ergonomics awareness program that expands the ergonomic training by including an assessment of the physical work performed by dental students in the clinic environment.

  7. Psychosocial profile of people with AIDS and their caregivers in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein H; Almotgly, Manal M Abd

    2011-06-01

    Caring for individuals with AIDS in developing countries represents a major crisis to families and natural caregivers. This study presents the psychosocial profiles of people with AIDS and their caregivers in Egypt to assess the effects of HIV/AIDS on patients, their caregivers, and the factors that influence caregiving and support. Various stressors and challenges for patients as well as hardships the caregiver faces were explored. The literature documents difficulties such as inadequate health care services, lack of resources, and stigma that patients experience in developing countries. Findings indicate an association between the psychosocial effects of AIDS on patients and their caregivers.

  8. Evidence for multiple stressor interactions and effects on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Stephen S; Graham, Nicholas A J; Connolly, Sean R

    2014-03-01

    Concern is growing about the potential effects of interacting multiple stressors, especially as the global climate changes. We provide a comprehensive review of multiple stressor interactions in coral reef ecosystems, which are widely considered to be one of the most sensitive ecosystems to global change. First, we synthesized coral reef studies that examined interactions of two or more stressors, highlighting stressor interactions (where one stressor directly influences another) and potentially synergistic effects on response variables (where two stressors interact to produce an effect that is greater than purely additive). For stressor-stressor interactions, we found 176 studies that examined at least 2 of the 13 stressors of interest. Applying network analysis to analyze relationships between stressors, we found that pathogens were exacerbated by more costressors than any other stressor, with ca. 78% of studies reporting an enhancing effect by another stressor. Sedimentation, storms, and water temperature directly affected the largest number of other stressors. Pathogens, nutrients, and crown-of-thorns starfish were the most-influenced stressors. We found 187 studies that examined the effects of two or more stressors on a third dependent variable. The interaction of irradiance and temperature on corals has been the subject of more research (62 studies, 33% of the total) than any other combination of stressors, with many studies reporting a synergistic effect on coral symbiont photosynthetic performance (n = 19). Second, we performed a quantitative meta-analysis of existing literature on this most-studied interaction (irradiance and temperature). We found that the mean effect size of combined treatments was statistically indistinguishable from a purely additive interaction, although it should be noted that the sample size was relatively small (n = 26). Overall, although in aggregate a large body of literature examines stressor effects on coral reefs and coral

  9. The influence of job insecurity on job performance and absenteeism: The moderating effect of work attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Chirumbolo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Job insecurity was found to have relevant psychosocial consequences for both individuals and organisations. Recently, research is increasingly focusing on those variables that can moderate its negative influences. In this study, the impact of job insecurity on two indicators of organisational behaviour (i.e. job performance and absenteeism was investigated. It was expected that job insecurity was negatively related to job performance and positively to absenteeism, and that this relationship was moderated by work related attitudes, such as job satisfaction and organisational commitment. Four-hundred and twenty five workers were interviewed with a structured questionnaire. Overall, the hypotheses were supported by the data: job insecurity was in fact negatively correlated with job performance and positively with absenteeism. However, work related attitudes moderated only the effect of job insecurity on job performance but not on absenteeism. Opsomming Daar is gevind dat werksonsekerheid relevante psigososiale gevolge vir beide individue en organisasies inhou. Onlangse navorsing fokus al hoe meer op daardie veranderlikes wat die negetiewe effekte hiervan kan modereer. In hierdie studie is die impak van werksonsekerheid op twee indikatore van organisasiegedrag (werksprestasie en afwesigheid ondersoek. Dit was verwag dat werkonsekerheid ’n negetiewe verhouding tot werksprestasie en ’n positiewe verhouding tot afwesigheid sou gehad het en dat hierdie verhouding gemodereer sou word deur werksverwante gesindhede, soos werkstevredenheid en organisasiegebondenheid. 425 werknemers is met ’n gestruktureerde vraelys ondervra. Die hipotese is oor die algemeen deur die data ondersteun: werksonsekerheid het inderdaad ’n negetiewe korrelasie tot werksprestasie en ’n positiewe korrelasie tot afwesigheid gehad. Werksverwante gesindhede het egter slegs die effek van werksonsekerheid op werksprestasie gemodereer, maar nie op afwesigheid nie.

  10. [Psychosocial factors in duodenal ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Gándara Martín, J J; de Dios Francos, A; de Diego Herrero, E; Goñi Labat, A I; Hernández Herrero, H; Pozo de Castro, J V

    1994-01-01

    "Burn-out" is a kind of assistential laboral stress which affects the professions which involve an interpersonal relationship with beneficiaries of the job, such us health workers. It originates emotional alterations which lead to feelings of emptiness and personal failure or laboral inability. The revisions about studies of mental disorders in health workers fall upon such laboral stress and remark that in such professional people there is a bigger prevalence of disorders because of the use of substances and of depression. To analyse the mental disorders in health workers by means of the retrospective study of a sample in a general hospital which asked for a psychiatric consultation, sociodemographic variables, clinico-diagnostic and variables related to laboral activity were analysed. The sample is constituted by 112 patients of an average age of forty years old and preferentially females (79.5%). In the sample, some professions are represented above all expectations; they are nurses, physicians, the laboral category of "boss and managers" and the laboral regimen of "permanents". The more frequent psychiatric disorders were the adjustment disorders and code V, the affective disorders and the anxiety disorders (23-33%), the disorders caused by the use of substances and the psychotic disorders are limited (5%). The laboral activity was considered an important factor in 43% of the cases and the mental disorder caused laboral inability, transitory or permanent in half of the patients. It is detected a relationship between the diagnostic and variables such as sex, laboral category, laboral inability, psychosocial stress level and GAF and there hasn't been detected any association between mental disorders and age, profession, laboral regimen and laboral stress.

  11. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  12. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saastamoinen Peppiina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%. Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment

  13. Teacher Efficacy in Student Engagement, Instructional Management, Student Stressors, and Burnout: A Theoretical Model Using In-Class Variables to Predict Teachers' Intent-to-Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy K.; Sass, Daniel A.; Schmitt, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    The models presented here posit a complex relationship between efficacy in student engagement and intent-to-leave that is mediated by in-class variables of instructional management, student behavior stressors, aspects of burnout, and job satisfaction. Using data collected from 631 teachers, analyses provided support for the two models that…

  14. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  16. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  17. Impaired memory retrieval after psychosocial stress in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sabrina; Piel, Marcel; Wolf, Oliver T

    2005-03-16

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are known to modulate memory in animals and humans. One popular model suggests that stress or GC treatment enhances memory consolidation while impairing delayed memory retrieval. Studies in humans have documented that treatment with GCs impairs delayed memory retrieval. Similar alterations after exposure to stress have not been observed thus far. In the present study, 19 young healthy male subjects were exposed to either a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition in a crossover manner. After both treatments, retrieval of a word list (learned 24 h earlier) containing 10 neutral, 10 negative, and 10 positive words was tested. The stressor induced a significant increase in salivary free cortisol and a decrease in mood. Memory retrieval (free recall) was significantly impaired after the stress condition. Follow-up analysis revealed that negative and positive words (i.e., emotionally arousing words) were affected, whereas no effect was observed for neutral words. No changes were detected for cued recall, working memory, or attention. The present study thus demonstrates that psychosocial stress impairs memory retrieval in humans and suggests that emotionally arousing material is especially sensitive to this effect.

  18. Evaluation of stressors and coping strategies for stress in Indian anaesthesiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R V Shidhaye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have been done to assess job satisfaction and quantify effects of stressors on anaesthesiologists in different regions and countries.Studies related to stress in Indian anaesthesiologists are very limited, which prompted us to design this study not only to identify the stressors but also to find out how anaesthesiologists react to stress and devise means to minimize it to increase their job satisfaction levels. A set of questions was handed over personally to 200 anaesthesiologists at the national- and state-level anaesthesiology conferences and continuing medical educations with a request to return them duly filled in, with an assurance that confidentiality and anonymity would bemaintained.Main outcome measures were demographics, factors causing stress, how the responding anaesthesiologists and their colleagues react to it and methods they adopt to reduce stress at their workplace. Response rate was 96%. The total number of respondents was 192 (54% males and 46% females; juniors, 76%; and seniors, 24%. Identified stressors were as follows: time constraints (34%, medicolegal concerns (24%, interference with home life (22%, clinical problems (20% and communication problems (9%. Different strategies for coping with stress were identified. This survey is just a beginning. Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists is requested to look into the matter and take it further on a larger scale by multicentric studies to lay down standards related to number of working hours, number of night-call duties per week, proper assistance, medicolegal protection, etc., which would not only reduce occupational stress but also improve efficiency and job satisfaction among anaesthesiologists.

  19. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  20. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6 and 13…

  1. Daily Stressors in Primary Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Trianes, María V.; Escobar, Milagros; Blanca, María J.; Muñoz, Ángela M.

    2015-01-01

    Daily stress can have a bearing on children's emotional and academic development. This study aimed to assess daily stressors and to determine their prevalence among primary education students, taking into account their gender, academic year, social adaptation, and the school location. A sample of 7,354 Spanish schoolchildren aged between 6…

  2. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  3. Habituation to a stressor predicts adolescents' adiposity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background and Objectives: Stress is associated with gains in adiposity. One factor that determines how much stress is experienced is how quickly an adolescent reduces responding (habituates) across repeated stressors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of body mass index pe...

  4. Job descriptions made easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The act of writing a job description can be a daunting and difficult task for many managers. This article focuses on the key concepts of What, How, and Measureable Results as they relate to an employee's job duties. When the answers to these three elements are articulated, they define the core responsibilities of any job that form the basis for an effective job description.

  5. Physiological and subjective responses after psychosocial stress in Chinese hepatitis B patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiansheng; Zhao, Li; Lai, Yinyan; Jiang, Suwen; Shen, Xueyong; Liu, Sheng

    2015-02-01

    Compared with healthy participants, Chinese patients with hepatitis B (HB) experience more psychosocial stress. The present study provided the first examination of physiological and subjective responses to stress in Chinese HB patients. A standard psychosocial stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), was administered to 26 Chinese HB patients and 24 healthy control participants. Cortisol concentrations were measured in blood samples collected before and after the stressor. Self-reported emotional responses and cardiovascular measures were examined before and after the TSST. Depression and anxiety were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Chinese HB patients exhibited higher cortisol response to the stressor than healthy control participants. Compared with healthy participants, Chinese HB patients showed higher levels of anxiety, depression and nervousness, and lower levels of calmness after the TSST. HB patients reported more negative life events in the previous 6 months and obtained higher adversity scores, as compared with control participants. Significant correlations were obtained between adversity scores and change cortisol secretion after TSST in HB patients, but not in healthy participants. This study firstly demonstrates that physiological and subjective responses to psychosocial stress among Chinese HB patients were different from that in healthy control participants.

  6. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jens; Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Blum, Karl; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf

    2011-05-20

    Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI) and the demand-control model (job strain). The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57) and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61). Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  7. Psychosocial stress at work and perceived quality of care among clinicians in surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von dem Knesebeck Olaf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the association between job stress and job performance among surgeons, although physicians' well-being could be regarded as an important quality indicator. This paper examines associations between psychosocial job stress and perceived health care quality among German clinicians in surgery. Methods Survey data of 1,311 surgeons from 489 hospitals were analysed. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI and the demand-control model (job strain. The quality of health care was evaluated by physicians' self-assessed performance, service quality and error frequency. Data were collected in a nationwide standardised mail survey. 53% of the contacted hospitals sent back the questionnaire; the response rate of the clinicians in the participating hospitals was about 65%. To estimate the association between job stress and quality of care multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Clinicians exposed to job stress have an increased risk of reporting suboptimal quality of care. Magnitude of the association varies depending on the respective job stress model and the indicator of health care quality used. Odds ratios, adjusted for gender, occupational position and job experience vary between 1.04 (CI 0.70-1.57 and 3.21 (CI 2.23-4.61. Conclusion Findings indicate that theoretical models of psychosocial stress at work can enrich the analysis of effects of working conditions on health care quality. Moreover, results suggest interventions for job related health promotion measures to improve the clinicians' working conditions, their quality of care and their patients' health.

  8. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms, and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational farm accidents. Higher levels of stressors and stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour were all associated with an elevated risk of injury. In the case of stress symptoms...... be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk....

  9. Assessment of safety and health of storage workers - a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is still a lot to do as far as prevention and elimination of traditional health and work safety hazards is concerned, the problem of psychosocial risk prevention is extremely important nowadays. It is crucial to take into consideration the health of workers and promotion of health in the workplace, as the occupational stress epidemics is getting more and more widespread. Methods: The article is based on the statistic analysis of accidents at work as well as the analysis of health problems resulting from the job itself. The latest work safety reports have been reviewed and special attention has been paid to psychosocial risk analysis. The author has tried to explicate the terms of new and emerging risks as regards storage work. Results: Various threat aspects of storage work have been evaluated. Deficits in psychosocial hazard identification have been indicated. What is more, no correlation between occupational tasks of storage workers and their knowledge about psychosocial risks has been emphasized.  An exemplified approach to warehouse psychosocial threat identification has been presented. The approach is based on the diagnosis of the current situation.  Conclusions: The psychosocial risk of storage work may lead to health deterioration, greater accident risk and worse performance at work. Such consequences mean that the psychosocial risks affect both an individual and the organization. Therefore, we should expect more intense efforts to increase psychosocial risk awareness of both employers and employees.

  10. Occupational stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTiernan, K; McDonald, N

    2015-04-01

    Burnout negatively impacts the delivery of mental health services. Psychiatric nurses face stressors that are distinct from other nursing specialities. The research was conducted in Ireland and captured a relatively large sample of respondents. The results compared the stressors, coping strategies and burnout levels between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses. Occupational stress can negatively impact on the well-being of psychiatric nurses, which in turn can lead to poor client care. There is a dearth of published research conducted in Ireland that examines stress within the discipline. A between-groups study, undertaken in February 2011, investigated stressors, burnout and coping strategies between hospital and community-based psychiatric nurses in a Dublin region. Sixty-nine participants (8 males and 61 females), aged between 18 to 60 years voluntarily completed the Mental Health Professional Stress Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the PsychNurse Methods of Coping Scale. The findings revealed that nurses were operating in a moderately stressful environment. Stressors focused on organizational issues as opposed to client issues. The main stressors identified were lack of resources, workload and organizational structures/processes. Both groups reported average levels of emotional exhaustion, low levels of depersonalization and average levels of personal accomplishment. A Mann-Whitney U-test and Independent Samples t-test found significant differences between hospital and community-based nurses regarding depersonalization and personal accomplishment, respectively. Hospital nurses reported higher depersonalization scores, and community nurses had a greater sense of personal accomplishment. The personal accomplishment scores of hospital nurses were below mental health professional norms. No significant differences emerged regarding coping strategies. Avoidant coping strategies were favoured by both groups. It is recommended that interventions

  11. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2014-01-01

    Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT) and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT). These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA), and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  12. Stress effects on mood, HPA axis, and autonomic response: comparison of three psychosocial stress paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Giles

    Full Text Available Extensive experimental psychology research has attempted to parse the complex relationship between psychosocial stress, mood, cognitive performance, and physiological changes. To do so, it is necessary to have effective, validated methods to experimentally induce psychosocial stress. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST is the most commonly used method of experimentally inducing psychosocial stress, but it is resource intensive. Less resource intense psychosocial stress tasks include the Socially Evaluative Cold Pressor Task (SECPT and a computerized mental arithmetic task (MAT. These tasks effectively produce a physiological and psychological stress response and have the benefits of requiring fewer experimenters and affording data collection from multiple participants simultaneously. The objective of this study was to compare the magnitude and duration of these three experimental psychosocial stress induction paradigms. On each of four separate days, participants completed either a control non-stressful task or one of the three experimental stressors: the TSST, SECPT, or MAT. We measured mood, working memory performance, salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase (AA, and heart rate. The TSST and SECPT exerted the most robust effects on mood and physiological measures. TSST effects were generally evident immediately post-stress as well as 10- and 20-minutes after stress cessation, whereas SECPT effects were generally limited to the duration of the stressor. The stress duration is a key determinant when planning a study that utilizes an experimental stressor, as researchers may be interested in collecting dependent measures prior to stress cessation. In this way, the TSST would allow the investigator a longer window to administer tasks of interest.

  13. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  14. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  15. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  16. Protege--Mentor Agreement about the Provision of Psychosocial Support: The Mentoring Relationship, Personality, and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Lea

    2004-01-01

    Protege--mentor agreement (PMA) about the provision of psychosocial support was examined in relation to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work self-esteem. One-hundred and sixty-six junior administrative and information technology (IT) staff at an Australian university and their matched mentors completed a questionnaire that…

  17. Hypertension and appraisal of physical and psychological stressors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: In the operant conditioning of hypertension hypothesis, it is assumed that the frequently found diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli in hypertensives can be generalized to sensitivity to other stressors, including psychological stressors. The validity of this assumption is examined

  18. Working in group living homes for older people with dementia: the effects on job satisfaction and burnout and the role of job characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Boekhorst, Selma; Willemse, Bernadette; Depla, Marja F I A; Eefsting, Jan A; Pot, Anne Margriet

    2008-10-01

    Group living homes are a fast-growing form of nursing home care for older people with dementia. This study seeks to determine the differences in job characteristics of nursing staff in group living homes and their influence on well-being. We examined the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS) model in relation to 183 professional caregivers in group living homes and 197 professional caregivers in traditional nursing homes. Multilevel linear regression analysis was used to study the mediator effect of the three job characteristics of the JDCS-model (demands, control and social support) on job satisfaction and three components of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and decreased personal accomplishment). Demands were lower in group living homes, while control and social support from co-workers were higher in this setting. Likewise, job satisfaction was higher and burnout was lower in group living homes. Analysis of the mediator effects showed that job satisfaction was fully mediated by all three psychosocial job characteristics, as was emotional exhaustion. Depersonalization was also fully mediated, but only by control and social support. Decreased personal accomplishment was partially mediated, again only by job characteristics, control and support. This study indicates that working in a group living home instead of a traditional nursing home has a beneficial effect on the well-being of nursing staff, largely because of a positive difference in psychosocial job characteristics.

  19. Three job stress models and their relationship with musculoskeletal pain in blue- and white-collar workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, R.M.; Bosch, J.A.; Loerbroks, A.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Jarczok, M.N.; Fischer, J.E.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Musculoskeletal pain has been found to co-occur with psychosocial job stress. However, different conceptualizations of job stress exist, each emphasizing different aspects of the work environment, and it is unknown which of these aspects show the strongest associations with musculoskelet

  20. Hearing status, need for recovery after work, and psychosocial work characteristics: results from an internet-based national survey on hearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nachtegaal, J.; Kuik, D.J.; Anema, J.R.; Goverts, S.T.; Festen, J.M.; Kramer, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to address the relationship between hearing status and need for recovery. In addition, the role of hearing status in the relationship between psychosocial work characteristics (i.e. job demands and job control) and need for recovery was assessed. The sample comprised 925

  1. Childhood psychosocial stressors and adult onset arthritis : Broad spectrum risk factors and allostatic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Kessler, Ronald C.; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities

  2. Assessment of psychosocial stressors at work: psychometric properties of the JCQ in Colombian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviola Gómez Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Debido a que los dos principales modelos e instrumentos usados para evaluar factores psicosociales en el trabajo se han propuesto y estudiado principalmente en países desarrollados, persisten dudas sobre sus propiedades psicométricas en países menos desarrollados económicamente. En este estudio, se evaluó en Colombia una versión en español de cuestionario del contenido del trabajo. Se realizaron estudios transversales con 294 enfermeras, 281 conductores y 661 personas con ocupaciones mixtas. Las medias y desviaciones estándar de los trabajadores colombianos se compararon con las reportadas en estudios de otros países. La consistencia interna se analizó mediante el alfa de Cronbach; la validez factorial con análisis factorial exploratorio; la validez concurrente se calculó usando correlaciones con el indicador de desbalance Esfuerzo/ Recompensa del cuestionario ERI; la validez predictiva se evaluó a través de correlaciones con un indicador de salud. En general las diferencias entre las muestras fueron pequeñas, pero a pesar de ello mostraron tendencias interesantes. Los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach fueron aceptables. Los análisis factoriales indicaron una solución de 7 factores, siendo el relacionado con "latitud de decisión" el más problemático. Algunos pocos ítems mostraron cargas factoriales inconsistentes y dificultades de confiabilidad. La mayor parte de las correlaciones con el indicador de salud fueron las esperadas. Finalmente, el indicador de tensión laboral y el de desbalance esfuerzo/recompensa estuvieron positivamente relacionados, lo que indica una buena validez concurrente. Se concluye que esta versión en español de JCQ es un instrumento adecuado para evaluar los riesgos psicosociales laborales en Colombia.

  3. Autonomic and Neuroendocrine Responses to a Psychosocial Stressor in Adults with Autistic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Gispen-de Wied, Christine C.; Wiegant, Victor M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Objective of the study was to replicate in adults our previous findings of decreased heart rate and normal endocrine responses to stress in autistic children and to elucidate the discrepancy between autonomic and endocrine stress responses by including epinephrine, norepinephrine, oxytocin and vasopressin measurements. Ten autistic spectrum…

  4. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  5. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  6. Non-chemical stressors and cumulative risk assessment: an overview of current initiatives and potential air pollutant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Sax, Sonja N; Wason, Susan C; Campleman, Sharan L

    2011-06-01

    Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. Specifically, cumulative risk assessment initiatives have stressed the importance of considering both chemical and non-chemical stressors, such as socioeconomic status (SES) and related psychosocial stress, in evaluating health risks. The integration of non-chemical stressors into a cumulative risk assessment framework has been largely driven by evidence of health disparities across different segments of society that may also bear a disproportionate risk from chemical exposures. This review will discuss current efforts to advance the field of cumulative risk assessment, highlighting some of the major challenges, discussed within the construct of the traditional risk assessment paradigm. Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. The results from these studies, while suggestive of possible interactions, are mixed and hindered by inconsistent application of social stress indicators. Overall, while there have been significant advances, further developments across all of the risk assessment stages (i.e., hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose-response, and risk characterization) are necessary to provide a scientific basis for regulatory actions and effective community interventions, particularly when considering non-chemical stressors. A better understanding of the biological underpinnings of social stress on disease and implications for chemical-based dose-response relationships is needed. Furthermore, when considering non-chemical stressors, an appropriate metric, or series of metrics, for risk characterization is also needed. Cumulative risk assessment research will benefit

  7. Freelancing: Cool jobs or bad jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Elstad, Beate

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study the working conditions for freelance jazz musicians and freelance journalists in Norway. The study indicates that freelancing entails both good and bad job characteristics. The overall job satisfaction is reasonably high. Furthermore, the freelancers’ turnover intentions in terms of intention to leave the freelance job situation are quite low. The intrinsic motivation is very high and most freelancers perceive self-employment to be a personal choice. Th...

  8. Job Stress among Iranian Prison Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Akbari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to job stress causes deleterious effects on physical and mental health of employees and productivity of organizations.Objective: To study work-related stressors among employees of prisons of Ilam, western Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional study conducted from July to October 2013, 177 employees of Ilam prisons and security-corrective measures organization were enrolled in this study. The UK Health and Safety Executive Organization 35-item questionnaire for assessment of occupational stress was used to determine job stress among the studied employees.Results: Job stress was highest among employees of “correction and rehabilitation center” of Ilam province followed by “Dalab vocational training center.” There was no significant relationship between occupational stress and age, work experience, level of education, marital status, sex of employees, and obesity.Conclusion: Employees of prisons, for their nature of job and work environment, are exposed to high level of occupational stress.

  9. Chronic psychosocial stress induces visceral hyperalgesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramullas, Mónica; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-05-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence has shown that chronic stress plays an important role in the onset and/or exacerbation of symptoms of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Here, we aimed to investigate whether exposure to a chronic and temporally unpredictable psychosocial stressor alters visceral and somatic nociception as well as anxiety-related behaviour. In male C57BL/6J mice, chronic stress was induced by repeated exposure to social defeat (SD, 2 h) and overcrowding (OC, 24 h) during 19 consecutive days. Visceral and somatic nociception was evaluated by colorectal distension and a hot plate, respectively. The social interaction test was used to assess social anxiety. Mice exposed to psychosocial stress developed visceral hyperalgesia and somatic hypoalgesia 24 h following the last stress session. SD/OC mice also exhibited social anxiety-like behaviour. All these changes were also associated with physiological alterations, measured as a decreased faecal pellet output and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disruption. Taken together, these data confirm that this mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress may be useful for studies on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying such stress-associated disorders and to further test potential therapies.

  10. Job strain among Malaysian office workers of a multinational company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizura, H; Retneswari, M; Moe, H; Hoe, V C W; Bulgiba, A

    2010-05-01

    Information on job strain exposure among Malaysian workers in multinational companies is limited. To investigate the prevalence and factors associated with high job strain among office workers of a multinational company in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in November 2007 among 470 eligible workers. Respondents self-administered the Job Content Questionnaire downloaded from the company's intranet. A median-split procedure was applied to create four groups according to the Job Demand-Control Model: active, passive, high and low job strain. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the associations between socio-demographic, occupational and psychosocial factors and high job strain. A total of 356 questionnaires were received (response rate 76%). Twenty-one per cent of respondents were in the high job strain group, 35% were in the passive group, whereas 26% and 17% of workers were in the low strain and active groups, respectively. After controlling for confounders, three factors were found to be associated with high job strain: male workers (adjusted OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.64), working >48 h per week (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.39) and job insecurity (adjusted OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27). One protective factor for high job strain was the scale 'created skill', which is part of skill discretion (adjusted OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.57-0.86). About one in five workers in this study experience high job strain. Work improvement measures include reducing long working hours and job insecurity and giving workers the opportunity to learn, use creativity and develop abilities.

  11. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  13. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  14. Stressors and coping strategies of homeless men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R B

    1996-08-01

    1 Major stressors commonly encountered by homeless men are violence to self, theft of belongings, inability to meet basic needs, inconsistent enforcement of rules by shelter staff, and other people's dehumanization or humiliation caused by behavior toward the men. 2 Cognitive, sociocultural, and spiritual coping strategies were frequently used and found to be effective in coping with stressors by homeless men who were either in crisis or alcohol/drug dependent. 3 Severely and persistently mentally ill men had lower mean scores for both use and effectiveness of coping strategies in physical, cognitive, psychological, sociocultural, and spiritual strategies. 4 The longer the duration of homelessness, the lower the mean scores for frequency and effectiveness of use of coping strategies in any of the dimensions.

  15. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive......Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... significant correlation between performance and psychosocial work environment. A sample of 12 departments was selected for in-depth qualitative study based on their relative change in performance and psychosocial work environment between 2005 and 2007. Through the qualitative study we are able to identity...

  16. Stressors and Caregivers' Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-Solving Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K; Erlen, Judith A

    2015-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss.

  17. Stressors and Caregivers’ Depression: Multiple Mediators of Self-Efficacy, Social Support, and Problem-solving Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengyan; Jang, Heejung; Lingler, Jennifer; Tamres, Lisa K.; Erlen, Judith A.

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an older adult with memory loss is stressful. Caregiver stress could produce negative outcomes such as depression. Previous research is limited in examining multiple intermediate pathways from caregiver stress to depressive symptoms. This study addresses this limitation by examining the role of self-efficacy, social support, and problem-solving in mediating the relationships between caregiver stressors and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 91 family caregivers, we tested simultaneously multiple mediators between caregiver stressors and depression. Results indicate that self-efficacy mediated the pathway from daily hassles to depression. Findings point to the importance of improving self-efficacy in psychosocial interventions for caregivers of older adults with memory loss. PMID:26317766

  18. The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan H; Kristensen, Tage S

    2009-01-01

    for development (skill discretion), lower level of meaning of work, more role conflicts, decreased role clarity, reduced sense of community, less social support from colleagues, increased conflicts at work, more threats of violence and more slander and gossip. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial work environment......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elucidate the development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. METHODS: The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys (N1=1062; N2=3517) of randomly selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial...... Questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was described by 19 scales and 6 single items. RESULTS: Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace, less influence (job control), less possibilities...

  19. Stressor controllability modulates fear extinction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Catherine A; Gorun, Alyson; Reddan, Marianne C; Ramirez, Franchesca; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-09-01

    Traumatic events are proposed to play a role in the development of anxiety disorders, however not all individuals exposed to extreme stress experience a pathological increase in fear. Recent studies in animal models suggest that the degree to which one is able to control an aversive experience is a critical factor determining its behavioral consequences. In this study, we examined whether stressor controllability modulates subsequent conditioned fear expression in humans. Participants were randomly assigned to an escapable stressor condition, a yoked inescapable stressor condition, or a control condition involving no stress exposure. One week later, all participants underwent fear conditioning, fear extinction, and a test of extinction retrieval the following day. Participants exposed to inescapable stress showed impaired fear extinction learning and increased fear expression the following day. In contrast, escapable stress improved fear extinction and prevented the spontaneous recovery of fear. Consistent with the bidirectional controllability effects previously reported in animal models, these results suggest that one's degree of control over aversive experiences may be an important factor influencing the development of psychological resilience or vulnerability in humans.

  20. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Munch-Hansen, T.; Wieclaw, J.;

    2009-01-01

    -reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units...... with an average of 18 employees (range 3-120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. RESULTS......: The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living...

  1. Relationships among supervisor feedback environment, work-related stressors, and employee deviance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jei-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Man; Lee, Yin-Ling

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the employee deviance imposes enormous costs on organizational performance and productivity. Similar research supports the positive effect of favorable supervisor feedback on employee job performance. In light of such, it is important to understand the interaction between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviant behavior to streamline organization operations. The purposes of this study were to explore how the supervisor feedback environment influences employee deviance and to examine the mediating role played by work-related stressors. Data were collected from 276 subordinate-supervisor dyads at a regional hospital in Yilan. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test hypotheses. Structural equation modeling analysis results show that supervisor feedback environment negatively related to interpersonal and organizational deviance. Moreover, work-related stressors were found to partially mediate the relationship between supervisor feedback environment and employee deviance. Study findings suggest that when employees (nurses in this case) perceive an appropriate supervisor-provided feedback environment, their deviance is suppressed because of the related reduction in work-related stressors. Thus, to decrease deviant behavior, organizations may foster supervisor integration of disseminated knowledge such as (a) how to improve employees' actual performance, (b) how to effectively clarify expected performance, and (c) how to improve continuous performance feedback. If supervisors absorb this integrated feedback knowledge, they should be in a better position to enhance their own daily interactions with nurses and reduce nurses' work-related stress and, consequently, decrease deviant behavior.

  2. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations...... asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years......, 1 109 individuals experienced a severe asthma exacerbation (430 with asthma as the primary diagnostic code). In the age- and sex-adjusted analyses, job strain was associated with an increased risk of severe asthma exacerbations defined using the primary diagnostic code (hazard ratio, HR: 1.27, 95...

  3. Job strain and the risk of severe asthma exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, K; Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients and healthcare professionals believe that work-related psychosocial stress, such as job strain, can make asthma worse, but this is not corroborated by empirical evidence. We investigated the associations between job strain and the incidence of severe asthma exacerbations...... in working-age European men and women. METHODS: We analysed individual-level data, collected between 1985 and 2010, from 102 175 working-age men and women in 11 prospective European studies. Job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline. Incident severe...... asthma exacerbations were ascertained from national hospitalization and death registries. Associations between job strain and asthma exacerbations were modelled using Cox regression and the study-specific findings combined using random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 10 years...

  4. Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, I E H; Nyberg, S T; Magnusson Hanson, L L;

    2017-01-01

    as a risk factor for clinical depression. METHOD: We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD.......94-1.65), but attenuated on adjustment for a continuous depressive symptoms score (RR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.32). CONCLUSIONS: Job strain may precipitate clinical depression among employees. Future intervention studies should test whether job strain is a modifiable risk factor for depression.......BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain...

  5. Effects of an ergonomics-based job stress management program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol among employees of a national private bank in Denpasar Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnawati, Susy; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Sutjana, Dewa Putu; Adiputra, Nyoman

    2016-08-06

    The present work describes a newly developed ergonomics-based job stress management program - Ergo-JSI (Ergonomics-based Job Stress Intervention) - including a pilot study to ascertain the effects of the program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol levels among bank employees in Indonesia. A single-group, pre- and post-test experimental study was conducted in a sample of employees in a National Bank in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The outcomes of the study focused on reductions in job strain index and psychological distress, measured by the Indonesian version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), and improvement in blood cortisol levels following the study.A total of 25 male employees, with an average age of 39, received an eight-week intervention with the Ergo-JSI. Compared to baseline, the job strain index decreased by 46% (pjob strain, psychosocial distress, and blood cortisol among employees in Indonesia.

  6. Efficacy beliefs as a moderator of the impact of work-related stressors: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, S M; Bliese, P D

    1999-06-01

    This study built on previous exploratory research (S. M. Jex & D. M. Gudanowski, 1992) that examined both self-efficacy and collective efficacy as moderators of stressor-strain relations. Based on survey data collected from 2,273 U.S. Army soldiers representing 36 companies, it was found that both self- and collective efficacy moderated the relationship between stressors and strains. Multilevel random coefficient model results revealed that respondents with strong self-efficacy reacted less negatively in terms of psychological and physical strain to long work hours and work overload than did those reporting low levels of efficacy. In addition, respondents with high levels of self-efficacy responded more positively in terms of job satisfaction to tasks with high significance than did those with low efficacy. The results also revealed that group-level collective efficacy moderated the relationship between work overload and job satisfaction and between task significance and organizational commitment. Limitations of the study and implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. The context specificity of anxiety responses induced by chronic psychosocial stress in rats: a shift from anxiety to social phobia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsy, Boglárka; Leveleki, Csilla; Zelena, Dóra; Haller, József

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anxiety-increasing effects of chronic psychosocial stress generalize to non-social (i.e. heterotypic) stressful situations. To investigate this issue, we repeatedly exposed rats to predictable or unpredictable psychosocial stress for 5 or 12 days and examined their anxiety in two markedly different contexts: the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests. Psychosocial stress and the social interaction test were administered under highly similar conditions, i.e. the two situations were homotypic. Psychosocial stress did not affect anxiety in the elevated plus-maze under any condition, but markedly increased anxiety in the social interaction test. In contrast, repeated restraint-a non-social stressor heterotypic to both the elevated plus maze and social interaction tests-increased plus-maze anxiety, demonstrating that anxiety in this test was sensitive to repeated restraint, and the effects were manifested in heterotypic situations. Thus, the anxiety-related effects of chronic psychosocial stress-unlike those of the chronic non-social stressor-were context-dependent. This is reminiscent of phobic anxiety, which manifests in specific situations only. In addition, behavior in the social interaction test showed changes that went beyond simple anxiogenesis. Socially stressed rats spent nearly 40% of total time in aggressive interactions. Based on recent data showing that social phobics are prone to violence under social pressure, and also based on the situation-dependent effects of the social stressor, we suggest that chronic psychosocial stress leads to a behavioral profile akin to social phobia.

  8. Job Oriented Monitoring Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi Cigala,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been a lot of development in the field of clusters and grids. Recently, the use of clusters has been on rise in every possible field. This paper proposes a system that monitors jobs onlarge computational clusters. Monitoring jobs is essential to understand how jobs are being executed. This helps us in understanding the complete life cycle of the jobs being executed on large clusters. Also, this paper describes how the information obtained by monitoring the jobs would help in increasing the overall throughput of clusters. Heuristics help in efficient job distribution among the computational nodes, thereby accomplishing fair job distribution policy. The proposed system would be capable of loadbalancing among the computational nodes, detecting failures, taking corrective actions after failure detection, job monitoring, system resource monitoring, etc.

  9. Job Stress and Coping Mechanisms among Nursing Staff in Public Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loo-See Beh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the prominent causes and effects of job stress and coping mechanism among nurses in public health services. The research methodology included qualitative and quantitative survey. The results indicated that the major contributor of job stress among nurses is the job itself. Heavy workload, repetitive work, and poor working environment were among the stressors identified in the category of job itself. Respondents identified that inconsiderate and inequitable superior/matron, lack of recognition, and conflict within and between groups were the stressors. Respondents also view social support as a buffer against the dysfunctional consequences of stress emanating from the workplace and established network of friends, family, superior, peers, and colleagues to seek emotional support when faced with job-related stress in the workplace. Further, respondents adopt more than one coping mechanisms to combat job stress based on scenarios, situations, and level of job stress. This study is limited only to the investigation of job stress and coping mechanism among nurses in a public hospital. Other non-medical and medical staffs such as administrators and doctors were not included in this study. Suggestions for future research are also mentioned.

  10. Assessment of pharmacists' job satisfaction and job related stress in Amman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khalidi, Doaa; Wazaify, Mayyada

    2013-10-01

    The myriad changes in pharmacy practice in Jordan have transformed the pharmacist's role to be more focused on the patient and his/her therapeutic needs than on just the traditional dispensing. This, in addition to other possible factors, is believed to have influenced pharmacists' job satisfaction and stress level in different practice settings in Jordan. This study aimed to determine the level of job satisfaction and job related stress among pharmacists in Amman. Moreover, the main causes of dissatisfaction and stress-related factors affecting pharmacists at their working positions were also explored. The study was conducted in four pharmacy practice settings: independent and chain community pharmacies as well as private and public hospital pharmacies. The study adopted the self-administered survey methodology technique using a pre-validated pre-piloted questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from one previously used in Northern Ireland. Data were entered into SAS database and analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi square and regression analysis. The significance level was set at P pharmacy practice settings (P = 0.038), pharmacists' registration year (P = 0.048) and marital status (P = 0.023). Moreover, job related stress situations like patient care responsibility have been associated significantly with the type of pharmacy practice settings (P = 0.043) and pharmacists' registration year (P = 0.013). Other job stressors like long working hours, lack of advancement, promotion opportunities and poor physician pharmacists' relationship have also been reported by participants. The study concluded that community pharmacists in Amman are found to be less satisfied with their jobs than their hospital counterparts. Pharmacists' job satisfaction should be enhanced to improve pharmacists' motivation and competence. Consequently, this will improve their productivity and provision of pharmaceutical care.

  11. Physicians' Psychosocial Work Conditions and Quality of Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Angerer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physician jobs are associated with adverse psychosocial work conditions. We summarize research on the relationship of physicians' psychosocial work conditions and quality of care. Method: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and PsycINFO. All studies were classified into three categories of care quality outcomes: Associations between physicians' psychosocial work conditions and (1 the physician-patient-relationship, or (2 the care process and outcomes, or (3 medical errors were examined. Results: 12 publications met the inclusion criteria. Most studies relied on observational cross-sectional and controlled intervention designs. All studies provide at least partial support for physicians’ psychosocial work conditions being related to quality of care. Conclusions: This review found preliminary evidence that detrimental physicians’ psychosocial work conditions adversely influence patient care quality. Future research needs to apply strong designs to disentangle the indirect and direct effects of adverse psychosocial work conditions on physicians as well as on quality of care.Keywords: psychosocial work conditions, physicians, quality of care, physician-patient-relationship, hospital, errors, review, work stress, clinicians

  12. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology.

  13. Who Creates Jobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani, Ejaz; Kerr, William R.; O'Connell, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    There is a consensus that jobs are vital in translating economic growth into lasting poverty reduction and social cohesion. But who creates jobs is an understudied field. This economic premise argues that there is a strong link between initial levels of young and small firms and subsequent job growth, as evidenced in India. The economic geography of entrepreneurship in India is still evolv...

  14. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...

  15. Student Job Seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Helen

    1978-01-01

    The problem of graduate unemployment in India is examined in a study of 650 job seekers in Madras City. The relatively long period of waiting before a graduate actually finds and takes a job is attributed often to high income expectation. Correlations between job and studies preference of students are among the factors discussed. (LBH)

  16. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  17. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  18. Mobility into favourable jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos

    2005-01-01

    Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These employees

  19. Influence of stress and nursing leadership on job satisfaction of pediatric intensive care unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, M M; Broome, M; Kelber, S; Lostocco, L

    2000-09-01

    High levels of stress and the challenges of meeting the complex needs of critically ill children and their families can threaten job satisfaction and cause turnover in nurses. To explore the influences of nurses' attributes, unit characteristics, and elements of the work environment on the job satisfaction of nurses in pediatric critical care units and to determine stressors that are unique to nurses working in pediatric critical care. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The sample consisted of 1973 staff nurses in pediatric critical care units in 65 institutions in the United States and Canada. The following variables were measured: nurses' perceptions of group cohesion, job stress, nurse-physician collaboration, nursing leadership, professional job satisfaction, and organizational work satisfaction. Significant associations (r = -0.37 to r = -0.56) were found between job stress and group cohesion, professional job satisfaction, nurse-physician collaboration, nursing leadership behaviors, and organizational work satisfaction. Organizational work satisfaction was positively correlated (r = 0.35 to r = 0.56) with group cohesion, professional job satisfaction, nurse-physician collaboration, and nursing leadership behaviors. Job stress, group cohesion, job satisfaction, nurse-physician collaboration, and nursing leadership behaviors explained 52% of the variance in organizational work satisfaction. Dealing with patients' families was the most frequently cited job stressor. Job stress and nursing leadership are the most influential variables in the explanation of job satisfaction. Retention efforts targeted toward management strategies that empower staff to provide quality care along with focal interventions related to the diminishment of stress caused by nurse-family interactions are warranted.

  20. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors: evidence from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population. DESIGN: A total of 3462 women and 2576 men aged 20-97 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS......: An MS index was defined from the seven components: waist-hip ratio, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Social status was measured by educational level. Psychosocial factors included fatigue...

  1. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  2. Survey and coping strategies for job stress of new nurses in pharmacy intravenous admixture service: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Shuang; Jin, Ou; Feng, Hua; Wang, Feng-Hua; Ren, Chun-Hui

    2015-01-01

    To survey the nurse stress and analyze stressors in new nurses from pharmacy intravenous admixture service (PIAS). A questionnaire survey referring to the revised stressor scale was carried out on 52 new nurses of PIAS in four hospitals in Harbin. The average stress score for all participants was 2.43±0.63, as medium level of stress. The stressors were classified into 6 categories: ensuring up-to-date knowledge of professional nursing skills, increased workload and work-time, interpersonal relationship, ensuring knowledge of equipments, attending educational programs, and decreased occupational demand. The most important stressors included fear of medical accident occurrence, fear of failure in performance assessment, fear of occupational injuries, feeling fatigue and lack of sleep. Considering the various kinds of stressors in the working places, it was necessary for managers' to use appropriate strategies to cope with the job stress in new nurses of PIAS.

  3. [Association between psychosocial work environment and workplace bullying among office workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Y J; Dai, J M; Gao, J L; Lu, X Y; Liu, J Y; Fu, H

    2016-04-20

    To assess the prevalence of bullying in companies and health care center and identify the association between psychosocial environment and workplace bullying. A total of 847 employees at in business building companies and 146 employees at one community health service center were invited to this survey by cluster sampling during October to December 2014, using anonymous questionnaires including the general demographic information, job characteristics, job stress core scale, the social capital scale, and NAQ-R. The rate of targets of bullying in the two kinds of workplaces were 13.1% and 5.6% respectively. Workplace bullying was associated with employee's education level(χ(2)=11.17, P=0.019)and the area his or her families live in(χ(2)=5.66, P=0.017). In addition, workplace bullying was significantly associated with psychosocial work environment. Job demand was positively correlated with workplace bullying (OR=2.24, 95% CI=1.34~3.74), and workplace social support was negatively associated with workplace bullying (OR= 0.33, 95% CI=0.18~0.60). Workplace bullying can be reduced by adjusting certain working conditions that negatively affect employees who are susceptible to being bullied, giving their individual and job characteristic. Moreover, workplace bullying could also be reduced if job demands are limited and job control and social capital are increased.

  4. Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC as a model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewir D Nyuyki

    Full Text Available Chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC is an adequate and reliable mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress, resulting in reduced body weight gain, reduced thymus and increased adrenal weight, long-lasting anxiety-like behaviour, and spontaneous colitis. Furthermore, CSC mice show increased corticotrophin (ACTH responsiveness to acute heterotypic stressors, suggesting a general mechanism which allows a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to a novel threat. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to extend the CSC model to another rodent species, namely male Wistar rats, and to characterize relevant physiological, immunological, and behavioural consequences; placing particular emphasis on changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor. In line with previous mouse data, exposure of Wistar rats to 19 days of CSC resulted in a decrease in body weight gain and absolute thymus mass, mild colonic barrier defects and intestinal immune activation. Moreover, no changes in stress-coping behaviour or social preference were seen; again in agreement with the mouse paradigm. Most importantly, CSC rats showed an increased plasma corticosterone response to an acute heterotypic stressor (open arm, 5 min despite displaying similar basal levels and similar basal and stressor-induced plasma ACTH levels. In contrast to CSC mice, anxiety-related behaviour and absolute, as well as relative adrenal weights remained unchanged in CSC rats. In summary, the CSC paradigm could be established as an adequate model of chronic psychosocial stress in male rats. Our data further support the initial hypothesis that adrenal hyper-responsiveness to ACTH during acute heterotypic stressors represents a general adaptation, which enables a chronically-stressed organism to adequately respond to novel challenges.

  5. The impact of environmental factors on nursing stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applebaum, Diane; Fowler, Susan; Fiedler, Nancy; Osinubi, Omowunmi; Robson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental factors of odor, noise, light, and color and perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. The physical work environment may positively or negatively influence nurses' stress, and stress may negatively impact their job satisfaction and intention to change jobs. The research questions were answered using a descriptive, correlational design. The sample (n = 116) consisted of medical-surgical nurses working in acute-care settings. A 36-item questionnaire addressed odor, noise, light, color, perceived stress, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Significant relationships were found between noise and perceived stress, perceived stress and job satisfaction, job satisfaction and turnover intention, and perceived stress and turnover intention. Nurses tend to overlook their physical environment and "do their job." Common environmental stressors in the work environment can be stressful to staff and influence job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs. Mitigating or eliminating these environmental factors has the potential to improve staff satisfaction and retention. Stress influences nursing job satisfaction and, ultimately, intention to change jobs.

  6. Investigating the Nature of Occupational Stressors:Informational and Controlling Stressors%信息性与控制性:工作压力源的性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑛华; 张剑; 张海利

    2012-01-01

    Beijing, Shenyang, Hebei and other places in China. Subjects in this study include 1SS "Post-80" staff (who were bom after 1980) and 109 "70" and "60" staff (who were born between 1960 and 1980). Questionnaire contains 24 items, 9 items of which measure the intensity of work stress, and 14 items measure the occupational stressors. Following each item measures the occupational stressors. The questions used to measure occupational stressors consist of three dimensions; interpersonal relationship and role, organizational structure, and atmosphere. The nature of the stressors is classified into informational and controlling stressors. All questions adopt Likert scale of 1 to 5.By employing T test and variance analysis on the data, we compared the occupational stress among different groups and found that it is suitable and valuable to divide a stressor into different natures. The feeling of stress which is caused by informational stressors is significantly less intensified than the controlling stressors. The specific stressors such as interpersonal relationship and role, the characteristics of jobs, the organizational structure, and the atmosphere can be further divided into informative stressors and controlling stressors. Significant differences were found in these two kinds of stressors, as well as in groups of different ages. The results have many managerial implications on the influence of the individual evaluation on stressors and the age of employees. While the stressors cannot be changed, the stress can be significantly relieved by creating informative environment.%本研究在自我决定理论(self-determination theory,SDT)的框架指导下,对264名企业员工所感受的压力源的性质进行了分析.结果发现,根据作用方式或者个体评价方式的不同,同一个压力源可以再分为信息性或控制性;信息性压力源所产生的压力感受显著地低于控制性的压力源所产生的压力感受;人际与角色压力、工作特征压

  7. Mobility into favourable jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Gesthuizen; Jaco Dagevos

    2005-01-01

    Original title: Arbeidsmobiliteit in goede banen. Hundreds of thousands of employees change jobs each year. Why do they do this, and what benefits do they derive from it? Many employees are not in the right jobs. Job dissatisfaction is found to be a key reason for labour mobility. These employees look for a job that offers a better match for their capacities and preferences. Does changing their job have a positive effect? This report shows that labour mobility does indeed generally lead to a ...

  8. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geronimus, Arline T; Pearson, Jay A; Linnenbringer, Erin; Schulz, Amy J; Reyes, Angela G; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2015-06-01

    Residents of distressed urban areas suffer early aging-related disease and excess mortality. Using a community-based participatory research approach in a collaboration between social researchers and cellular biologists, we collected a unique data set of 239 black, white, or Mexican adults from a stratified, multistage probability sample of three Detroit neighborhoods. We drew venous blood and measured telomere length (TL), an indicator of stress-mediated biological aging, linking respondents' TL to their community survey responses. We regressed TL on socioeconomic, psychosocial, neighborhood, and behavioral stressors, hypothesizing and finding an interaction between poverty and racial-ethnic group. Poor whites had shorter TL than nonpoor whites; poor and nonpoor blacks had equivalent TL; and poor Mexicans had longer TL than nonpoor Mexicans. Findings suggest unobserved heterogeneity bias is an important threat to the validity of estimates of TL differences by race-ethnicity. They point to health impacts of social identity as contingent, the products of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes.

  9. The effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on computer professionals' subjective health status and productive behavior in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Maki; Asakura, Takashi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the effect of micro and macro stressors in the work environment on the subjective health status and productive behavior of computer professionals, we conducted a web-based investigation with Japanese IT-related company employees in 53 company unions. The questionnaire consisted of individual attributes, employment characteristics, working hour characteristics, company size and profitability, personal characteristics (i.e., Growth Need Strength), micro and macro stressors scale, and four outcome scales concerning the subjective health status and productive behavior. We obtained 1,049 Japanese IT-related company employees' data (response rate: 66%), and analyzed the data of computer engineers (80%; n=871). The results of hierarchical multiple regressions showed that each full model explained 23% in psychological distress, 20% in cumulative fatigue, 44% in job dissatisfaction, and 35% in intentions to leave, respectively. In micro stressors, "quantitative and qualitative work overload" had the strongest influence on both the subjective health status and intentions to leave. Furthermore, in macro stressors, "career and future ambiguity" was the most important predictor of the subjective health status, and "insufficient evaluation systems" and "poor supervisor's support" were important predictors of productive behavior as well. These findings suggest that improving not only micro stressors but also macro stressors will enhance the subjective health status and increase the productive behavior of computer professionals in Japan.

  10. Association between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Janssens

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed at investigating cross-sectional relationships between psychosocial characteristics of work and presenteeism in a sample of Belgian middle-aged workers. Material and Methods: Data were collected from 1372 male and 1611 female workers in the Belstress III study. Psychosocial characteristics assessed by the use of self-administered questionnaires were: job demands, job control, social support, efforts, rewards, bullying, home-to-work conflict and work-to-home conflict. Presenteeism was measured using a single item question, and it was defined as going to work despite illness at least 2 times in the preceding year. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and presenteeism, while adjusting for several socio-demographic, health-related variables and neuroticism. An additional analysis in a subgroup of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism was conducted. Results: The prevalence of presenteeism was 50.6%. Overall results, adjusted for major confounders, revealed that high job demands, high efforts, low support and low rewards were associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, a significant association could be observed for both bullying and work-to-home conflict in relation to presenteeism. The subgroup analysis on a selection of workers with good self-rated health and low neuroticism generally confirmed these results. Conclusions: Both job content related factors as well as work contextual psychosocial factors were significantly related to presenteeism. These results suggest that presenteeism is not purely driven by the health status of a worker, but that psychosocial work characteristics also play a role.

  11. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  12. Resource Minimization Job Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuzhoy, Julia; Codenotti, Paolo

    Given a set J of jobs, where each job j is associated with release date r j , deadline d j and processing time p j , our goal is to schedule all jobs using the minimum possible number of machines. Scheduling a job j requires selecting an interval of length p j between its release date and deadline, and assigning it to a machine, with the restriction that each machine executes at most one job at any given time. This is one of the basic settings in the resource-minimization job scheduling, and the classical randomized rounding technique of Raghavan and Thompson provides an O(logn/loglogn)-approximation for it. This result has been recently improved to an O(sqrt{log n})-approximation, and moreover an efficient algorithm for scheduling all jobs on O((OPT)^2) machines has been shown. We build on this prior work to obtain a constant factor approximation algorithm for the problem.

  13. Integrating psychosocial safety climate in the JD-R model: A study amongst Malaysian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd A. Idris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Job characteristics are well accepted as sources of burnout and engagement amongst employees; psychosocial safety climate may precede work conditions.Research purpose: We expanded the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R model by proposing psychosocial safety climate (PSC as a precursor to job demands and job resources. As PSC theoretically influences the working environment, the study hypothesized that PSC has an impact on performance via both health erosion (i.e. burnout and motivational pathways (i.e. work engagement.Motivation for the study: So far, integration of PSC in the JD-R model is only tested in a Western context (i.e. Australia. We tested the emerging construct of PSC in Malaysia, an Eastern developing country in the Asian region.Research design, approach and method: A random population based sample was derived using household maps provided by Department of Statistics, Malaysia; 291 employees (response rate 50.52% from the State of Selangor, Malaysia participated. Cross-sectional data were analysed using structural equation modelling.Main findings: We found that PSC was negatively related to job demands and positively related to job resources. Job demands, in turn, predicted burnout (i.e. exhaustion and cynicism, whereas job resources predicted engagement. Both burnout and engagement were associated with performance. Bootstrapping showed significant indirect effects of PSC on burnout via job demands, PSC on performance via burnout and PSC on performance via the resources-engagement pathway.Practical/managerial implications: Our findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that PSC should be a target to improve working conditions and in turn reduce burnout and improve engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: These findings suggest that JD-R theory may be expanded to include PSC as an antecedent and that the expanded JD-R model is largely valid in an Eastern, developing economy setting.

  14. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in sheep is attenuated during lactation in response to psychosocial and predator stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Tilbrook, A J

    2016-04-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by psychosocial stress is attenuated during lactation. We tested the hypothesis that lactating ewes will have attenuated HPA axis responses to isolation and restraint but will have greater responses to predator stress in the form of barking dogs. We imposed two 4 h stressors: psychosocial stress (isolation and restraint of ewes) and predator stress (barking dogs). Blood was collected intravenous every 10 min from nonlactating ewes (n = 6), lactating ewes with lambs present but not able to be suckled (n = 6), and lactating ewes with lambs present and able to be suckled (n = 6). Plasma cortisol and oxytocin were measured. For nonlactating ewes, cortisol increased (P HPA axis response to a stressor that may be perceived to threaten the welfare of themselves and/or their offspring. The role of oxytocin in attenuation of the HPA axis to stress in sheep is unclear from the current research and requires further investigation.

  15. Female leaders’ experiences of psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences in Swedish public human service organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil J. Landstad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Municipal workplaces have high levels of sickness absence, and deterioration of the psychosocial work environment has been most pronounced for women and employees in this sector of Swedish working life. This study explores how female leaders in one rural municipality in Sweden experience their psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences. Interviews were carried out with 20 female leaders. Data were analyzed with a content analysis method using major dimensions of work stress models. These were job demands, job control, job resources, social support, and its health consequences. The analysis shows that the leaders experience high and conflicting job demands, limited possibilities to influence their work situation, insufficient job resources and social support, and limited time for their own health promotion. However, the leaders experience possibilities to develop skills in their jobs and opportunities to participate in educational programs. The analyses confirm the need for improvements in the prerequisites for female leaders in public human service organizations. It is important to improve female leaders’ psychosocial working conditions by implementing a more narrow control range, increased personal and economical recourses, leadership support, and leader development programs.

  16. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  17. Manifestation of Workplace Stressors among Banking Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Amudha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress is the physiological or psychological imbalance among the individuals when they find a disparity between a situational demand and their ability. Traditionally, management has taken the problem of stress as the workers’ personal problem and the management also blamed the workers that they are not fitting themselves into the working environment. But, now-a-days, the management analyses the job requirements and the social relationships as the prime indicators of stress. With the advent of the technological inventions, the nature of job is deskilled and the worker is totally disconnected from the end product. This paved way for the high degree of boredom and decreased scope for improvisation. The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of socio-economic factors influencing the level of stress among the employees in State Bank of India, Tiruchirapalli. Random sampling method is used to collect the primary data from 150 employees of branches of State Bank of India in Tiruchirapalli district by administering a questionnaire. SPSS package is used to analyses the data collected with the help of ANOVA single factor and Weighted ANOVA. The results show that age and educational qualification, gender marital status and annual income do not influence the level of occupational stress. The increased level of stress for experienced respondents is due to the job hierarchy and extended responsibilities in the job. They stressed because of their expectation in the career elevation and incapacity to cope up with the innovation in the technologies. The respondents feel that they can manage in acquiring skill and knowledge to cope up with the job requirements and expectations.

  18. A model of psychosocial work environment, stress, and satisfaction among dental students in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schéle, Ingrid A; Hedman, Leif R; Hammarström, Anne

    2012-09-01

    Dental students are often described as stressed. The stress has, among other things, been connected to stressors in their psychosocial environment and inconsistent feedback. The hypothesis of this study was that the psychosocial work environment in dental schools leads to stress and affects the satisfaction of dental students and that tolerance for ambiguity shields students from stress. A web-based survey was sent to the entire Swedish dental student population in clinical training (N=805); the response rate was 40 percent. Structural equation modeling used in the analyses contains four main constructs: psychosocial work environment, tolerance for ambiguity, perceived stress, and student satisfaction (χ(2)=267.437, d.f.=174, pstress and satisfaction: it accounted for almost all of the explained variance in perceived stress for women, while about half of the variance for the men was explained by tolerance for ambiguity. This study concluded that about 40 percent of the total perceived stress of these female dental students was related to their psychosocial work environment. Tolerance for ambiguity shielded men but not women from stress. An improved psychosocial work environment in dental schools would decrease the stress of both male and female dental students.

  19. The estrous cycle of the ewe is resistant to disruption by repeated, acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2010-06-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a "layered stress" paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1-2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles.

  20. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  1. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  2. Estimating job runtime for CMS analysis jobs

    CERN Document Server

    Sfiligoi, Igor

    2013-01-01

    The basic premise of pilot systems is to create an overlay scheduling system on top of leased resources. And by definition, leases have a limited lifetime, so any job that is scheduled on such resources must finish before the lease is over, or it will be killed and all the computation wasted. In order to effectively schedule jobs to resources, the pilot system thus requires the expected runtime of the users jobs. Past studies have shown that relying on user provided estimates is not a valid strategy, so the system should try to make an estimate by itself. This paper provides a study of the historical data obtained from the CMS Analysis Operations submission system. Clear patterns are observed, suggesting that making prediction of an expected job lifetime range is achievable with high confidence level in this environment.

  3. Estimating job runtime for CMS analysis jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.

    2014-06-01

    The basic premise of pilot systems is to create an overlay scheduling system on top of leased resources. And by definition, leases have a limited lifetime, so any job that is scheduled on such resources must finish before the lease is over, or it will be killed and all the computation is wasted. In order to effectively schedule jobs to resources, the pilot system thus requires the expected runtime of the users' jobs. Past studies have shown that relying on user provided estimates is not a valid strategy, so the system should try to make an estimate by itself. This paper provides a study of the historical data obtained from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment's Analysis Operations submission system. Clear patterns are observed, suggesting that making prediction of an expected job lifetime range is achievable with high confidence level in this environment.

  4. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    in turn influences individual workers understanding of their job function. These two mechanisms are reinforcing each other and lead to better performance, lower employee turnover and sick days compared to the other customer centers. The model is then tested statistically and verified....... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...

  5. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  6. Demographic differences in sport performers’ experiences of organizational stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers’ experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a funct...

  7. For a Psychosocial Approach to Decent Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyaud, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The notion of decent work was developed by the International Labour Organization 20 years ago. The notion is now well known by lawyers, economists, and sociologists, and even if it appears difficult to define it clearly, it constitutes a useful general framework with which to think of the relationships between policy practices, work market globalization, and human rights principles. The fields of career guidance and counseling psychology are highly concerned by questions of social justice and human rights that people experience through work. Career choices being made in a liquid and unstable society, incompatibility between individualist values and collective work issues, increasing psychological health problems at work, work-family balance in precarious job situations, the growing necessity of mobility, adaptability or flexibility… all of these questions are at the heart of current career counseling practices, and concern the decent work debate. Nevertheless, the notion of decent work is not well developed in the field of vocational psychology. Despite its relevance, it is difficult to operationalize the policy and human rights principles during career counseling sessions. The article aims to explore the usefulness of the concept for career counselors, and to propose a psychosocial framework that incorporates decent work in career counseling practices. The first part of this article presents the theoretical bases of the notion of decent work and their possible use in the field of psychology. It deals with the necessity of a multilevel and psychosocial perspective, that takes into account both objective and subjective dimensions of decent work. The second part focuses on a case study illustrating how the notion of decent work emerges during counseling sessions. Four levels of the work experience linked with subjective and objective dimensions of decent work are explored; the personal level, the activity level, the collective level, and the social level. Finally

  8. For a psychosocial approach to decent work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques ePOUYAUD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The notion of decent work was developed by the International Labour Organization twenty years ago. The notion is now well known by lawyers, economists, and sociologists, and even if it appears difficult to define it clearly, it constitutes a useful general framework with which to think of the relationships between policy practices, work market globalization, and human rights principles. The fields of career guidance and counseling psychology are highly concerned by questions of social justice and human rights that people experience through work. Career choices being made in a liquid and unstable society, incompatibility between individualist values and collective work issues, increasing psychological health problems at work, work-family balance in precarious job situations, the growing necessity of mobility, adaptability or flexibility… all of these questions are at the heart of current career counseling practices, and concern the decent work debate. Nevertheless, the notion of decent work is not well developed in the field of vocational psychology. Despite its relevance, it is difficult to operationalize the policy and human rights principles during career counseling sessions. The article aims to explore the usefulness of the concept for career counselors, and to propose a psychosocial framework that incorporates decent work in career counseling practices. The first part of this article presents the theoretical bases of the notion of decent work and their possible use in the field of psychology. It deals with the necessity of a multilevel and psychosocial perspective, that takes into account both objective and subjective dimensions of decent work. The second part focuses on a case study illustrating how the notion of decent work emerges during counseling sessions. Four levels of the work experience linked with subjective and objective dimensions of decent work are explored; the personal level, the activity level, the collective level, and the

  9. The Relative Salience of Daily and Enduring Influences on Off-Job Reactions to Work Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderwood, Charles; Ackerman, Phillip L

    2016-12-01

    Work stress is an important determinant of employee health and wellness. The occupational health community is recognizing that one contributor to these relationships may be the presence of negative off-job reactivity to work, which we argue involves continued thoughts directed towards work (cognitive reactivity), continued negative mood stemming from work (affective reactivity), and the alteration of post-work behaviours in response to work factors (behavioural reactivity). We explored the relative contributions of daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions to negative off-job reactivity. These relationships were evaluated in a study of hospital nurses (n = 75), who completed trait measures and then provided self-assessments of daily work stress and off-job reactions for four work days. The results of several multilevel analyses indicated that a main-effects model best described the data when predicting cognitive, affective, and behavioural reactivity from daily work stressors, affective traits, and subjective job stress perceptions. A series of multilevel dominance analyses revealed that subjective job stress perceptions dominated the prediction of behavioural reactivity, while trait negative affect dominated the prediction of affective reactivity. Theoretical implications and the relative salience of daily and enduring contributors to negative off-job reactivity are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Vitiligo disease triggers: psychological stressors preceding the onset of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2015-05-01

    Vitiligo is the loss of skin pigmentation caused by autoimmune destruction of melanocytes. Little is known about the impact of psychological stressors preceding vitiligo onset on symptoms associated with vitiligo and the extent of disease. We performed a questionnaire-based study of 1541 adults with vitiligo to evaluate the impact of psychological stressors in this patient population. Psychological stressors should be considered as potential disease triggers in vitiligo patients, and screening of vitiligo patients for psychological stressors and associated symptoms should be included in routine assessment.

  11. El malestar por inestabilidad laboral y su relación con tensión y recursos personales Uneasiness due to Job instability and its relationship With psychological strain and personnal resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Leibovich de Figueroa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad laboral se ha tornado uno de los estresores psicosociales más relevantes en las últimas décadas y su percepción podría generar malestar y sufrimiento, desembocando en un estado de estrés con la consecuente elevación de tensión en uno o varios de sus canales de expresión, provocando así efectos deletéreos en la salud psico-física de los trabajadores. Nos preguntamos qué aspectos personales y laborales de los trabajadores estarían vinculados a un mayor malestar debido a la inestabilidad laboral y si éste es predictor de la tensión psicológica que manifiesta el trabajador. El IMPIL, en su versión reducida, junto con otras técnicas, fue administrado a una muestra de 90 empleados en relación de dependencia. Concluimos que la inestabilidad laboral impacta negativamente en el trabajador a través de uno de los canales de expresión: el malestar, sobre todo si existe un desajuste entre el nivel de instrucción y la tarea que realiza. A su vez, corroboramos que la inestabilidad laboral y el malestar que la misma genera producen altos niveles de tensión psicológica en el trabajador.In the last decades job instability has become one of the most important psychosocial stressors and its perception could generate uneasiness and suffering, leading to a stressful state with a consequent increase of strain through one or several of its channels of expression, producing deleterious effects in the psychophysical health of workers. We wonder which workers' personal and job features could be related to a greater uneasiness due to job instability and if this job instability is a predictor of the psychological strain expressed by them. The IMPIL, in its reduced version, and other techniques were administered to a sample of 90 salaried employees. We conclude that job instability has a negative impact on the worker through one of the channels of expression: uneasiness, most of all if there exists a maladjustement between the

  12. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  13. Cortisol response to psychosocial stress during a depressive episode and remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Matthew C; Rao, Uma

    2014-01-01

    This study compared cortisol responses to a standardized psychosocial stressor during a major depressive episode (MDE) and again during remission in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-six individuals with no personal or family history of a major psychiatric disorder (NC) and 24 individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (MDD) at Time 1 participated in the study. The MDD group showed robust cortisol responses during their index episode and after recovery. In contrast, the NC group showed habituation to the repeated psychosocial stressor, as evident in a flatter cortisol response profile at Time 2. Within the MDD group, net peak cortisol during the first stress test was positively associated with the duration of the index MDE and negatively associated with the total duration of all MDEs. Whereas summary indices of cortisol responses were relatively stable across repeated stress tasks within the MDD group, this was not the case for NC. Results demonstrate that cortisol responses fail to habituate to repeated psychosocial stress during recovery from an MDE and could reflect a trait-like marker of risk for recurrence.

  14. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  15. The Mediating Effects of Work-Related Stress on Mentoring Functions and Job Attitude: A Comparison of General and Special Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Greg A.

    2011-01-01

    The current study is designed to investigate the mediating effects of work-related stress on the relationship between mentoring functions (i.e., career support, psychosocial support, and role modeling) and measures of job attitude (i.e., job satisfaction and organizational commitment). Mentoring is widely used as a means of assisting in the new…

  16. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Multiple stressors for oceanic primary production

    KAUST Repository

    Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-15

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly exposed to stress factors of anthropogenic origin that change their function, structure and services they deliver society. Climate change occurs simultaneously with other changes in the environment acting jointly in a context of global environmental change. For oceanic phytoplankton communities, the research conducted so far has identified stress factors associated with global change and their impact individually (warming, acidification, increased UVB radiation, pollutants). But when several stressors act simultaneously interactions and responses are not equal to the sum of individual impacts, but may have synergistic effects (the effects are multiplied) or antagonistic (cancel out the effects) that hinder predictions of the vulnerability of ecosystems to global change. Here we will examine the vulnerability of oceanic primary producers to the accumulation of different stressors associated with global change. The trend for autotrophic picoplankton to increase with temperature in the ocean has led to predictions that autotrophic picoplankton abundance will increase with warming. However, it is documented a trend towards a decline in productivity, due to declined autotroph biomass and production with warming and the associated stratification in the subtropical ocean. Models predicting an increase in abundance are in contradiction with the reported decrease in productivity in several oceanic areas, and associate oligotrophication. Here we perform a global study to analyze the relationships of autotrophic picoplankton with oceanic temperature, nutrients, underwater light and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and productivity. We built a model to project the future changes of autotrophic picoplankton considering multiple environmental changes in future climate scenarios for the subtropical gyres. We considered increased water temperature, and associated changes in productivity and underwater light and UVB. The model show that warming and

  18. Psychosocial work aspects, stress and musculoskeletal pain among musicians. A systematic review in search of correlates and predictors of playing-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-16

    Musicians face numerous psychosocial and physical demands at work resulting in high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike physical risks, little is known about psychosocial work factors influencing such health problems in this particular group. The paper aimed to identify psychosocial work demands resulting in musculoskeletal problems among musicians. A systematic review was undertaken to find data linking psychosocial work demands or stress with musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. The exploration of databases resulted in nine research studies linking psychosocial aspects of work or stress with musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The analyzed studies linked psychosocial aspects with musculoskeletal problems in three ways - showing proportions of people indicating particular causes of pain, indicating correlations between these variables or performing regression analysis showing psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal pain. Only a few studies have undertaken the issue of psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The results revealed that some psychosocial aspects of work, e.g. long hours at work, work content, high job demands, low control/influence, lack of social support, were related to musculoskeletal pain, however, the methods and results were inconsistent. The extant studies employed variety of definitions of psychosocial aspects that hindered the possibility for consistent conclusions. Basing on those conclusions, future directions were offered.

  19. Relationship between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders in footwear industry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonhatan Magno Norte da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of psychosocial factors on the risk of WRMD symptoms in Brazilian footwear industry workers. The workers’ perceptions regarding psychosocial factors and frequency of body pain were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the risk (Odds Ratio of a worker more frequently exhibiting a symptom due to psychosocial factors. It was observed that some psychosocial factors, such as stress, contribute to WRMD in men, increasing the chance of symptoms in the knee (OR=3.07; p-value=0.036. In women, the ‘job dissatisfaction’ factor contributes to WRMD, increasing the chance of pain in the elbow (OR=4.83; p-value=0.007. It was concluded that a greater number of psychosocial factors influences the development of WRMD in male workers, although the effect these factors be discreet. In women, less psychosocial factors are related to WRMD, however its influence is very significant.

  20. The effects of stressors on emergency medical technicians (Part II): A critical review of the literature, and a call for further research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, E; Mandry, C

    1996-01-01

    Part I of this series of articles about stress among emergency medical technicians (EMTs) reviewed the potential sources of EMT stress. This article investigates the other side of the stress equation and provides a critical review of the empirical literature on the effects of stressors on EMTs. It is subdivided into sections corresponding to trends in the research, including: 1) predictors of higher stress levels; 2) differences in stress responses among EMTs, other health professionals, and firefighters; and 3) various physiologic, psychologic, and job performance responses. It identifies some of the methodologic flaws found in the EMT-stress literature that are noted in Part I, and provides further direction for future research. To maintain homogeneity, this review is limited to those articles published in scholarly journals. Studies investigating constructs such as job dissatisfaction and burnout were not included unless the study also included a measure of stress or stressors.

  1. Psychosocial work factors and low back pain in taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Elshatarat, Rami A

    2017-08-01

    Taxi drivers are at high risk for low back pain (LBP). Identify the association between psychosocial-work factors (Job strain, Iso-strain, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], unfairness, and mental exertion) and LBP in taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was done with 129 taxi drivers. Approximately 63% reported LBP in the prior 12 months. Chi square or t-test analyses identified the associations between demographic, work, health, and psychosocial work factors, and self-report of LBP in the prior 12 months. Depression, perceived physical exertion, dispatcher and manager support, unfair treatment at work, and unfair treatment due to nationality were significantly associated with LBP in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was done to identify the predictors of LBP. High dispatcher support remained the sole significant predictor for lower prevalence of LBP (OR = 0.66, P = 0.017). Greater understanding of psychosocial work factors may aid in developing interventions to prevent LBP in taxi drivers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. A review of the effect of the psychosocial working environment on physiological changes in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Rugulies, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present survey was to provide a literary review of current knowledge of the possible association between the psychosocial working environment and relevant physiological parameters measured in blood and urine. Literature databases (PubMed, Toxline, Biosis and Embase) were screened......-based studies. The studied exposures in work place/population-based studies included: job demands (26/8 studies), job control (24/10 studies), social support and/or leadership behaviour (12/3 studies), effort-reward imbalance (three/one studies), occupational changes (four studies), shift work (eight studies...... the anabolic indicators defined as constructive building up energy resources were decreased when the psychosocial working environment was perceived as poor. In conclusion, in this review the association between an adverse psychosocial working environment and HbA(1c), testosterone and fibrinogen in serum...

  3. Resilience as a moderator of the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Julie Jean; Bruk-Lee, Valentina

    2017-07-16

    To examine the relative effects of interpersonal conflict and workload on job outcomes (turnover intentions, burnout, injuries) and examine if resilience moderates the indirect effects of conflict and workload on job outcomes via job-related negative effect. There is interest in understanding resilience in the nursing profession. Placing resilience in the context of the Emotion-Centred Model of Occupational Stress (Spector, ) is a novel approach to understanding how resilience ameliorates the negative effects of workplace stressors. This study used a two-wave survey design to collect data from 97 nurses across medical units. Nurses working in the US were recruited in June 2014 using Qualtrics Panels, an online survey platform service that secures participants for research. Nurses were contacted via email at two time points, two weeks apart and provided a link to an online survey. SPSS v. 23 and PROCESS v2.15 were used to analyse regressions and moderated mediation. Interpersonal conflict predicted turnover intentions and burnout; workload predicted injuries. Job-related negative affect mediated the relationships between stressors and job outcomes except for the direct effect of workload on injuries. Low resilience increased the magnitude of the indirect effects of conflict on job outcomes. Job characteristics like workload predicted unique variability in self-reported physical injuries. Conflict at work, a social stressor, predicted well-being and job attitudes. Highly resilient nurses bounced back after experiencing conflict in the workplace. Resilience should be explored for its potential as a method to reduce the negative effects of social stressors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulon Madeleine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. Methods The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain. Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database. Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p Results In total 889 respondents from 36 institutions took part in the study. 412 worked in Home Care (HC, 313 in Geriatric Nursing Homes (GNH, 164 in other professions (e.g. administration. Comparison between HC and GNH showed more favourable values for the first group for the most scales, e.g. lower quantitative and emotional demands and less work-privacy conflict, better possibilities for development etc. Compared to external values from the German COPSOQ database for general hospital care (N = 1.195 and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168, the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity. A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of

  5. Psychosocial work load and stress in the geriatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nübling, Matthias; Vomstein, Martin; Schmidt, Sascha G; Gregersen, Sabine; Dulon, Madeleine; Nienhaus, Albert

    2010-07-21

    Due to the decrease in informal care by family members and the demographic development, the importance of professional geriatric care will rise considerably. Aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial workplace situation for employees in this profession. The German version of the COPSOQ (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire) was used for the assessment of psychosocial factors at work. The instrument includes 22 scales and 3 single items concerning demands, control, stress, support, and strain.Results between two study groups of geriatric care were compared to each other as well as to employees in general hospital care and a general population mean (COPSOQ database).Statistical analysis included t-tests, ANOVA and multiple comparisons of means. Statistical significance (p hospital care (N = 1.195) and the total mean across all professions, COPSOQ-total (N = 11.168), the results are again positive for HC workers on most of the scales concerning demands and social support. The only negative finding is the very low amount of social relations at work due to the obligation to work alone most of the time. Employees in GNH rate predictability, quality of leadership and feedback higher when compared to general hospital care and show some further favourable mean values compared to the COPSOQ mean value for all professions. A disadvantage for GNH is the high rating for job insecurity.A supplementary subgroup analysis showed that the degree of negative evaluation of psychosocial factors concerning demands was related to the amount of working hours per week and the number of on-call duties. Compared to employees in general hospital care and the COPSOQ overall mean value across all professions, geriatric care employees and especially home care workers evaluate their psychosocial working situation more positive for most aspects. However, this seems partly due to the very high proportion of part-time workers. Critical results for the two study groups are the relatively

  6. Family stressors as predictors of codependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, J A; Warner, R M

    2000-02-01

    Codependency has been defined as an extreme focus on relationships, caused by a stressful family background (J. L. Fischer, L. Spann, & D. W. Crawford, 1991). In this study the authors assessed the relationship of the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (J. L. Fischer et al., 1991) and the Potter-Efron Codependency Assessment (L. A. Potter-Efron & P. S. Potter-Efron, 1989) with self-reported chronic family stress and family background. Students (N = 257) completed 2 existing self-report codependency measures and provided family background information. Results indicated that women had higher codependency scores than men on the Spann-Fischer scale. Students with a history of chronic family stress (with an alcoholic, mentally ill, or physically ill parent) had significantly higher codependency scores on both scales. The findings suggest that other types of family stressors, not solely alcoholism, may be predictors of codependency.

  7. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie

    2009-07-22

    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  8. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karb, Rebecca A; Elliott, Michael R; Dowd, Jennifer B; Morenoff, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get "under the skin" remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physician job satisfaction related to actual and preferred job size

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lodewijk J Schmit Jongbloed; Janke Cohen-Schotanus; Jan C C Borleffs; Roy E Stewart; Johanna Schonrock-Adema

    2017-01-01

    ...’ job satisfaction, well-being, and patient safety. Our aim was to determine the actual and preferred job size of physicians and to investigate how these and the differences between them influence physicians’ job satisfaction...

  10. Suicide in the United States Air Force: Relationship Among Marital Status and Life Stressors, Communication of Distress, and Helping Services Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    alcohol problems were included (e.g., missing work due to drinking , excessive drinking known to others, underage drinking , public intoxication, or... drinking related charges were the top behavioral indicator found in both Navy and Marine suicides (Stander, Hilton, Kennedy, & Robbins, 2004). Moreover... drinking on the job), 41% of the sample were represented. Life Stressor Precipitants 24 Hours Prior to Suicide Approximately 74% of the sample had

  11. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  12. Developing a multi-stressor gradient for coral reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are often found near coastal waters where multiple anthropogenic stressors co-occur at areas of human disturbance. Developing coral reef biocriteria under the U.S. Clean Water Act requires relationships between anthropogenic stressors and coral reef condition to be es...

  13. Which Stressors Increase the Odds of College Binge Drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Daphne E.

    2017-01-01

    College binge drinking has been linked to student stress. Which among a variety of stressors are more likely to result in problem drinking? In this paper, the relative influence of three types of stressors on college binge drinking is considered, including the academic, interpersonal, and developmental (e.g., making decisions about the future,…

  14. Daily Stressors in School-Age Children: A Multilevel Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Milagros; Alarcón, Rafael; Blanca, María J.; Fernández-Baena, F. Javier; Rosel, Jesús F.; Trianes, María Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This study uses hierarchical or multilevel modeling to identify variables that contribute to daily stressors in a population of schoolchildren. Four hierarchical levels with several predictive variables were considered: student (age, sex, social adaptation of the student, number of life events and chronic stressors experienced, and educational…

  15. Interpersonal Stressors Predict Ghrelin and Leptin Levels in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaremka, Lisa M.; Belury, Martha A.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Malarkey, William B.; Glaser, Ronald; Christian, Lisa; Emery, Charles F.; Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stressful events enhance risk for weight gain and adiposity. Ghrelin and leptin, two hormones that are implicated in appetite regulation, may link stressful events to weight gain; a number of rodent studies suggest that stressors increase ghrelin production. The present study investigated the links among daily stressors, ghrelin and leptin, and dietary intake in humans. Method Women (N = 50) completed three study appointments that were scheduled at least 2 weeks apart. At each visit, women arrived fasting and ate a standardized breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected 45 minutes after each meal. Women completed a self-report version of the Daily Inventory of Stressful Events (DISE) at each appointment. Two composites were created from the DISE data, reflecting the number of stressors that did and did not involve interpersonal tension. Results Women who experienced more stressors involving interpersonal tension had higher ghrelin and lower leptin levels than those who experienced fewer interpersonal stressors. Furthermore, women who experienced more interpersonal stressors had a diet that was higher in calories, fat, carbohydrates, protein, sugar, sodium, and fiber, and marginally higher in cholesterol, vegetables (but not fruits), vitamin A, and vitamin C. Stressors that did not involve interpersonal tension were unrelated to ghrelin and leptin levels or any of the dietary components examined. Conclusions These data suggest that ghrelin and leptin may link daily interpersonal stressors to weight gain and obesity. PMID:25032903

  16. The effects of two chronic intermittent stressors on brain monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campmany, L; Pol, O; Armario, A

    1996-03-01

    The effects of chronic exposure (27 days) to two different stressors on brain monoaminergic activity was studied in adult male rats. The stressors used were restraint in tubes (RES) and immobilization in wooden boards (IMO). Both chronically stressed and stress naive (control) rats were subjected to 0, 15, and 60 min of the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed. Previous chronic exposure to either RES or IMO significantly reduced ACTH response to the same stressor. Monoaminergic response to these stressors was studied by measuring the levels of noradrenaline (NA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites: 3-methoxy,4-hydroxyphenyletileneglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), respectively. The regions studied were: pons plus medulla, midbrain, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and frontal cortex. Previous chronic exposure to the stressors induced only few changes in the resting levels of the monoamines and their metabolites. In addition, monoaminergic response to the same stressor to which they were chronically exposed was always similar in control and chronically stressed rats. These data indicate that brain NA and 5-HT metabolism is less sensitive than ACTH to the process of habituation to a repeated stressor, at least in the gross areas of the brain analyzed in the present study.

  17. Job strain as a risk factor for clinical depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Magnusson Hanson, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adverse psychosocial working environments characterized by job strain (the combination of high demands and low control at work) are associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms among employees, but evidence on clinically diagnosed depression is scarce. We examined job strain...... as a risk factor for clinical depression. METHOD: We identified published cohort studies from a systematic literature search in PubMed and PsycNET and obtained 14 cohort studies with unpublished individual-level data from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD...... unpublished datasets we included 120 221 individuals and 982 first episodes of hospital-treated clinical depression. Job strain was associated with an increased risk of clinical depression in both published [relative risk (RR) = 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.13] and unpublished datasets (RR = 1...

  18. Job Strain and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Madsen, Ida E H; Nyberg, Solja T;

    2014-01-01

    -Work Consortium. Work-related psychosocial stress was operationalised as job strain (a combination of high demands and low control at work) and was self-reported at baseline. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis were ascertained from national hospitalisation and drug reimbursement registers. The associations...... between job strain and inflammatory bowel disease outcomes were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. The study-specific results were combined in random effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: Of the 95,379 participants who were free of inflammatory bowel disease at baseline, 111 men and women...... developed Crohn's disease and 414 developed ulcerative colitis during follow-up. Job strain at baseline was not associated with incident Crohn's disease (multivariable-adjusted random effects hazard ratio: 0.83, 95% confidence interval: 0.48, 1.43) or ulcerative colitis (hazard ratio: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.76, 1...

  19. Job characteristics: their relationship to job satisfaction, stress and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Steyn, Renier; Vawda, Naseema

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the influences of job characteristics on job satisfaction, stress and depression among South African white collar workers. Participants were managers in full-time employment with large organisations. They completed the Job Diagnostic Survey, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. A regression approach was used to predict job satisfaction, stress and depression from job characteristics. Job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task signi...

  20. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  1. Job characteristics as determinants of job satisfaction and labour mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelißen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of detailed job characteristics on job satisfaction, job search and quits using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) in a fixed effects framework. Using a factor analysis, seventeen job characteristics are reduced to seven factors that describe different aspects of a job, which are qualified as status, physical strain, autonomy, advancement opportunities, social relations at the work place, work time and job security. The effects of these facto...

  2. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive...... and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  3. Multiple Stressors and the Functioning of Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, Alastair R.; Rogers, Alice; Bozec, Yves-Marie; Mumby, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs provide critical services to coastal communities, and these services rely on ecosystem functions threatened by stressors. By summarizing the threats to the functioning of reefs from fishing, climate change, and decreasing water quality, we highlight that these stressors have multiple, conflicting effects on functionally similar groups of species and their interactions, and that the overall effects are often uncertain because of a lack of data or variability among taxa. The direct effects of stressors on links among functional groups, such as predator-prey interactions, are particularly uncertain. Using qualitative modeling, we demonstrate that this uncertainty of stressor impacts on functional groups (whether they are positive, negative, or neutral) can have significant effects on models of ecosystem stability, and reducing uncertainty is vital for understanding changes to reef functioning. This review also provides guidance for future models of reef functioning, which should include interactions among functional groups and the cumulative effect of stressors.

  4. College student stressors: a review of the qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Carrie S; Baranik, Lisa E; Daniel, Francis

    2013-10-01

    A total of 40 qualitative studies were reviewed and coded according to the college student stressors they represented. These studies utilized a variety of qualitative methods to examine stressors representing the following themes: relationships, lack of resources, academics, the environment, expectations, diversity, transitions and other stressors. Relationship stressors were the most commonly reported theme and covered areas including stress associated with family, romantic, peer and faculty relationships. Three of the themes (relationships, diversity and other) are novel categories of stressors compared with quantitative reviews on the topic, highlighting the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative pieces of information. This review contributes to the stress literature by synthesizing and identifying trends in the qualitative student stress research.

  5. Job Rotation Designed to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders and Control Risk in Manufacturing Industries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Comper, Maria Luiza Caires; Sparer, Emily H.; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2017-01-01

    To better understand job rotation in the manufacturing industry, we completed a systematic review asking the following questions: 1) How do job-rotation programs impact work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and related risk control for these MSDs, as well as psychosocial factors? and 2) How best should the job rotation programs be designed? We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Business Source Premier, ISI Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, PsyINFO, Scopus, and SciELO databases for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Eligible studies were examined by two independent reviewers for relevance (population of manufacturing workers, outcomes of musculoskeletal disease, physical factors, psychosocial factors, and strategies used in job-rotation implantation) and methodological quality rating. From 10,809 potential articles, 71 were read for full text analysis. Of the 14 studies included for data extraction, two were non-randomized control trial studies, one was a case-control study, and 11 were cross-sectional comparisons. Only one, with a case-control design, was scored with good methodological quality. Currently, weak evidence exists supporting job rotation as a strategy for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders. Job rotation did not appear to reduce the exposure of physical risk factors; yet, there are positive correlations between job rotation and higher job satisfaction. Worker training has been described as a crucial component of a successful job-rotation program. The studies reported a range of parameters used to implement and measure job-rotation programs. More rigorous studies are needed to better understand the full impact of job rotation on production and health. PMID:27633235

  6. Disaster medical assistance teams: what psychosocial support is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Garry; Byrne, Simon; Raphael, Beverley; Ollerton, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the perceptions of internationally deployed Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) personnel regarding the psychosocial support needs of these teams. The DMAT questionnaire was sent to 34 members of Australian medical teams involved in deployments to the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami and the 2006 Java earthquake. Twenty personnel (59%) completed this survey, which reviewed key deployment stressors, specific support strategies, and the support needs of team members, their families, and team leaders. A key aspect of the survey was to determine whether the perceived psychosocial needs would be supported best within with existing provisions and structures, or if they would be enhanced by further provisions, including the deployment of mental health specialists. There was strong support for brief reviews of stress management strategies as part of the pre-deployment briefing, and access to written stress management information for both team members and their families. However, more comprehensive provisions, including pre-deployment, stress-management training programs for personnel and intra-deployment family support programs, received lower levels of support. The availability of mental health-related training for the team leader role and access to consultation with mental health specialists was supported, but this did not extend to the actual deployment of mental health specialists. In this preliminary study, clear trends toward the maintenance of current mental health support provisions and the role of the DMAT leader were evident. A follow-up study will examine the relationship between team-leader, psychosocial support strategies and team functioning.

  7. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  8. Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tims

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: For a long time, employees have been viewed as passive performers of their assigned job tasks. Recently, several scholars have argued that job design theory needs to address the influence of employees on their job designs.Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to fit job crafting in job design theory.Motivation for the study: The study was an attempt to shed more light on the types of proactive behaviours of individual employees at work. Moreover, we explored the concept of job crafting and its antecedents and consequences.Research design, approach and method: A literature study was conducted in which the focus was first on proactive behaviour of the employee and then on job crafting.Main findings: Job crafting can be seen as a specific form of proactive behaviour in which the employee initiates changes in the level of job demands and job resources. Job crafting may be facilitated by job and individual characteristics and may enable employees to fit their jobs to their personal knowledge, skills and abilities on the one hand and to their preferences and needs on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Job crafting may be a good way for employees to improve their work motivation and other positive work outcomes. Employees could be encouraged to exert more influence on their job characteristics.Contribution/value-add: This article describes a relatively new perspective on active job redesign by the individual, called job crafting, which has important implications for job design theories.

  9. Relevance of a Healthy Change Process and Psychosocial Work Environment Factors in Predicting Stress, Health Complaints, and Commitment Among Employees in a Ghanaian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was intended to examine the effect of the healthiness of change process and psychosocial work environment factors in predicting job stress, health complaints and commitment among employees in a Ghanaian bank (N=132), undergoing organizational change. The change process was measured in terms of dimensions from the Healthy Change Process Index (HCPI) and the psychosocial work environment was measured by the Demands-Control-Support (DCS) model. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal...

  10. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with heterogeneous JSpreferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with wea...... JS-preferences trade JS for higher wages. The relation between optimal job insecurity and the perceived dismissal probability is hump-shaped. If firms observe demand, but workers do not, separation is not contractible and firms dismiss workers at-will. Although the workers are risk...

  11. Analyzing jobs for redesign decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, V S; Davis, N K; Occena, L G

    1996-01-01

    Job analysis, the collection and interpretation of information that describes job behaviors and activities performed by occupants of jobs, can provide nurse administrators with valuable information for redesigning effective and efficient systems of care.

  12. Long-term job insecurity, job satisfaction and organisational attitudes: Test of Warr’s Curvilinear Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans De Witte

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that job insecurity is an important work stressor, negatively affecting well-being and organisational attitudes and behaviours. This article concentrates on two often ignored issues in this field. First, the consequences of long-term job insecurity regarding job satisfaction, the evaluation of management and organisational attitudes are analysed. Secondly, Warr’s assumption of curvilinear associations between job insecurity and well-being is tested, and extended to the evaluation of management and organisational attitudes. The hypotheses are tested with data of 769 employees from various branches of a large European multinational company. In total, 15 reliable scales were used to test the hypotheses. The results show that 48,2% of the interviewees had worries about their long-term job security. Separate analyses of variance showed that long-term job insecurity was associated with two thirds of the scales. Long-term job insecurity was associated with lower job satisfaction, lower organisational attitudes and a lower evaluation of supervisors and management. Warr’s assumption of curvilinear associations with job insecurity was not corroborated, however. Suggestions for practice and for future research are discussed. Opsomming Navorsing stel voor dat werksonsekerheid ’n belangrike werk stressor is en dat dit welstand, organisasie gesindhede en gedrag negetief affekteer. Die artikel konsentreer op twee onderwerpe in hierdie veld wat gereeld geignoreer word. Eerstens word die gevolge van langtermyn werksonsekerheid met betrekking tot werkstevredenheid, die evaluering van bestuur en organisasiegesindhede geanaliseer. Tweedens, is Warr se aanames van kromlynige verhoudings tussen werksonsekerheid en welstand getoets, en uitgebrei tot die evaluasie van bestuur en organisasiegesindhede. Die hipotese is getoets met data van 769 werknemers van verskeie takke van ’n groot Europese multinasionale maatskappy. Daar is in totaal 15

  13. Job Redesign Improves Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, W. Philip; Williams, Kathleen L.

    1975-01-01

    The unique challenges presented in good banking business are approached through the concept of job enrichment. Described in this article is one consulting firm's experience with one bank--how they transformed job satisfaction, motivation, and performance into useable tools benefiting the individual and the organization. (Author)

  14. MY CHOICE FOR JOB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A recent survey shows that people who get highersalaries generally work longer hours than those who getlower salaries.Some people favor higher-paying jobs,even though such jobs always result in longer worktime.They believe that money is so indispensable in

  15. College Students’ Job Hunting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the employment of college students is becoming more and more of a problem. About a decade ago, university students could find satisfactory and enviable jobs after graduation, while the things are quite different at present. In addition, according to statistics, about 30% of graduate students can't find a job but stay at home after graduation.

  16. Learning about Job Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Jäger, Simon

    We conduct a large-scale field experiment in the German labor market to investigate how information provision affects job seekers’ employment prospects and labor market outcomes. Individuals assigned to the treatment group of our experiment received a brochure that informed them about job search...

  17. Establishing Job Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Even amid holiday festivities and feelings of good cheer,the end of the year is traditionally a bad season for job hunters.But each day at the Longgang District labor market,located in Shenzhen in south China's Guangdong Province,more than 600 companies set up stands,offering some 12,000 jobs.

  18. Job Instruction Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Richard H.

    Job Instruction Training (JIT) is a step-by-step, relatively simple technique used to train employees on the job. It is especially suitable for teaching manual skills or procedures; the trainer is usually an employee's supervisor but can be a co-worker. The JIT technique consists of a series of steps that a supervisor or other instructor follows…

  19. Job Redesign Improves Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, W. Philip; Williams, Kathleen L.

    1975-01-01

    The unique challenges presented in good banking business are approached through the concept of job enrichment. Described in this article is one consulting firm's experience with one bank--how they transformed job satisfaction, motivation, and performance into useable tools benefiting the individual and the organization. (Author)

  20. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007 Job Fair for Foreigners The 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners in Beijing and Shanghai will he held in Beijing Swissotel(Hong Kong Macao Center)on April 14,and in the Shanghai Library on April 21. Dozens of employers from educational institutions.

  1. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    2007 Job Fair for Foreigners The 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners in Beijing and Shanghai will be held in Beijing Swissotel (Hong Kong Macao Center) on April 14, and in the Shanghai Library on April 21. Dozens of employers from educational institutions, lang

  2. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    resume@chinajob.com 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners The 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners in Beijing and Shanghai will be held in Beijing Swissotel (Hong Kong Macao Center) on April 14, and in the Shanghai Library on April 21. Dozens of employers from educationa

  3. Investment Opportunities & Job Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners The 2007 Job Fair for Foreigners in Beijing and Shanghai will be held in Beijing Swissotel (Hong Kong Macao Center) on April 14, and in the Shanghai Library on April 21. Dozens of employers from educational institutions,

  4. Coping with an acute psychosocial challenge: behavioral and physiological responses in young women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Villada

    Full Text Available Despite the relevance of behavior in understanding individual differences in the strategies used to cope with stressors, behavioral responses and their relationships with psychobiological changes have received little attention. In this study on young women, we aimed at analyzing the associations among different components of the stress response and behavioral coping using a laboratory psychosocial stressor. The Ethological Coding System for Interviews, as well as neuroendocrine, autonomic and mood parameters, were used to measure the stress response in 34 young women (17 free-cycling women in their early follicular phase and 17 oral contraceptive users subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and a control condition in a crossover design. No significant differences in cardiac autonomic, negative mood and anxiety responses to the stressor were observed between the two groups of women. However, women in the follicular phase showed a higher cortisol response and a larger decrease in positive mood during the social stress episode, as well as greater anxiety overall. Interestingly, the amount of displacement behavior exhibited during the speaking task of the TSST was positively related to anxiety levels preceding the test, but negatively related to baseline and stress response values of heart rate. Moreover, the amount of submissive behavior was negatively related to basal cortisol levels. Finally, eye contact and low-aggressiveness behaviors were associated with a worsening in mood. Overall, these findings emphasize the close relationship between coping behavior and psychobiological reactions, as well as the role of individual variations in the strategy of coping with a psychosocial stressor.

  5. Repressors report fewer intrusions following a laboratory stressor : The role of reduced stressor-relevant concept activation and inhibitory functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overwijk, Sippie; Wessel, Ineke; de Jong, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated whether a repressive coping style is associated with fewer intrusions following an experimentally controlled stressor. Furthermore, we examined whether lower activation of stressor-relevant concepts in long-term memory and better inhibitory functioning may contribute to this

  6. Not all job demands are equal: differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Broeck, Anja; De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to integrate the differentiation between two types of job demands, as made in previous studies, in the Job-Demands Resources (JD-R) model. Specifically, this study aimed to examine empirically whether the differentiation between job hindrances and job challenges, next to the category of job resources, accounts for the unexpected positive relationships between particular types of job demands (e.g., workload) and employees' work engagement. Results of confirmatory factor analys...

  7. Exigencias laborales psicológicas percibidas por médicos especialistas hospitalarios Job stress perceived by hospital medical staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Escribà-Agüir

    2002-12-01

    muerte, sentirse responsable de vidas humanas, incertidumbre ante el diagnóstico y el tratamiento y otros con la organización del trabajo (sobrecarga de trabajo y falta de personal.Objective: To identify the psychosocial risk factors related to psychological demands perceived by specialist physicians from six public hospitals in the province of Valencia in Spain. Methods: A qualitative study was carried out. The population studied comprised the hospitals' specialist medical staff (Oncology, Internal Medicine, Traumatology, Radiology and Intensive Care. A trained interviewer performed 47 individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. To select the participants, the following structural variables were taken into account: gender, age, family responsibilities, medical specialty, professional standing, length of service, and type of contract. Interviews were tape recorded and subsequently transcribed. Finally, the content of the interviews was analyzed. Results: The main psychosocial risk factors mentioned by the participants were workload and lack of staff, mainly due to the characteristics of work organization in the hospital. Another job stressor was daily contact with suffering and death, and feeling responsible for human life. Other significant job stressors were interpersonal relations in the work environment, in the case of patients' relatives, uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment, the possibility of being sued for malpractice, and communicating bad news. Conclusions: Hospital physicians report a large number of psychosocial risk factors. Some involve the characteristics of the medical profession (contact with suffering and death, responsibility for human life, uncertainty about diagnosis and treatment and others concern work organization (workload and staffing shortages.

  8. A Study on the Job Stress Assessment in Korean Nuclear Power Plants based on KOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Hwan; Lee, Yong Hee; Lee, Jung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Sook Hee; Jung, Kwang Hee; Jung, Yeon Sub [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Job stress is a harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions, including psychological disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e.g., dissatisfaction, fatigue, tension, etc.), maladaptive behaviors (e.g., aggression, substance abuse), and cognitive impairment (e.g., concentration and memory problems). In turn, these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. Job stress is also associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health, such as cardiovascular disease or in extreme cases, death. In Korea, organizational job stress factors were investigated for the jobs in nuclear power plants that are operated based on procedures. Especially, the occupational stress scale for Korean employees (KOSS) was developed. The KOSS has 8 subscales by using a factor analysis and validation process in order to measure stress at work and to find methods for the prevention of stressors. In this point of view, the RHRI (Radiation Health Research Institute of KHNP (Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power) assessed how wellsuited employees were for their job during their health examination in 2009. In this study the present condition of employee's stress level is investigated to find a way to manage their stressors

  9. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease risk: the role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress and depression are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and poorer prognosis, and physical (in)activity may be a key underlying biobehavioral mechanism. Physical activity has antidepressant effects, and physically fitter, more active individuals seem to be more biologically resilient to psychosocial stressors. This article will present data from a series of population cohort studies and laboratory-based psychophysiological studies to explore the role of physical activity as a protective factor against the effects of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease. These mechanisms may improve the treatment and prevention of stress-related illnesses and, thus, has important implications for public health and clinical care of high-risk patients.

  10. Implementation of the thinking skills for work program in a psychosocial clubhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Schiano, Diane; Mueser, Kim T; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive remediation programs aimed at improving role functioning have been implemented in a variety of different mental health treatment settings, but not in psychosocial clubhouses. This study sought to determine the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of providing a cognitive remediation program (the Thinking Skills for Work program), developed and previously implemented in supported employment programs at mental health agencies, in a psychosocial club-house. Twenty-three members with a history of difficulties getting or keeping jobs, who were participating in a supported employment program at a psychosocial clubhouse, were enrolled in the Thinking Skills for Work program. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 3 months later after completion of the computer cognitive training component of the program. Hours of competitive work were tracked for the 2 years before enrollment and 2 years following enrollment. Other work-related activities (school, volunteer) were also tracked for 2 years following enrollment. Twenty-one members (91%) completed 6 or more computer cognitive training sessions. Participants demonstrated significant improvements on neurocognitive measures of processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. Sixty percent of the members obtained a competitive job during the 2-year follow-up, and 74% were involved in some type of work-related activity. Participants worked significantly more competitive hours over the 2 years after joining the Thinking Skills for Work program than before. The findings support the feasibility and promise of implementing the Thinking Skills for Work program in the context of supported employment provided at psychosocial clubhouses.

  11. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  12. The impact of role stress on workers' behaviour through job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Concha

    2009-06-01

    Dysfunctions in role performance have been associated with a large number of consequences, almost always negative, which affect the well-being of workers and the functioning of organizations. An individual's experience of receiving incompatible or conflicting requests (role conflict) and/or the lack of enough information to carry out his/her job (role ambiguity) are causes of role stress. According to previous theory, role ambiguity and conflict decrease workers' performance and are positively related to the probability of workers leaving the organization. Job satisfaction refers to a positive evaluation of a job, while organizational commitment refers to an employee's attachment to the organization. The affective dimensions of organizational commitment and job satisfaction are considered to be important predictors of turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. In the literature, role conflict and ambiguity have been proposed as determining factors of workers' job satisfaction and their commitment towards the organization. The role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment were analysed as variables that should mediate between role ambiguity and conflict and employees' behaviour. The hypotheses were confirmed by means of path analysis carried out with data obtained from a sample of Spanish blue-collar workers employed by a bus company and a water supply company. Role stressors were negatively related to affective commitment mediated through job satisfaction. Affective commitment to the organization exerted a positive influence on performance and reduces the withdrawal behaviour analysed— intention to leave and absenteeism—although the strongest predictor of intention to leave was, in this study, job satisfaction.

  13. Are psychosocial factors associated with low back pain and work absence for low back pain in an occupational cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Donna M; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between individual and work-related psychosocial factors and low back pain (LBP) and associated time off work in an occupational cohort. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses working across 3 major public hospitals. Participants provided sociodemographic data and information on the occurrence of LBP, time off work, and psychosocial factors. One thousand one hundred eleven participants (response rate 38.6%) were included in the study. Fifty-six percent of participants reported LBP in the previous year. When individual psychosocial factors were examined in the same model, the relationship between somatization and LBP persisted (OR 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35, 2.01). Low job security was also significantly associated with LBP independent of the other work-related factors (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69, 0.98). Of those participants with LBP, 30% reported absence from work due to LBP. When absence from work was examined, negative beliefs (OR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94, 1.00) and pain catastrophizing (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.71) were independently associated with time off work, along with low job satisfaction (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51, 0.97) and high job support (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.75). Somatization and low job security were found to be independently associated with occupational LBP, whereas negative beliefs, pain catastrophizing, reduced job satisfaction, and high job support were independently related to time off work. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these individual and work-related psychosocial factors predict, or alternatively, are outcomes of pain and time off work associated with LBP.

  14. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with hetero-geneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers...

  15. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with heterogeneous JSpreferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with weak...

  16. Job Security as an Endogenous Job Characteristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    This paper develops a hedonic model of job security (JS). Workers with heterogeneous JS-preferences pay the hedonic price for JS to employers, who incur labor-hoarding costs from supplying JS. In contrast to the Wage-Bill Argument, equilibrium unemployment is strictly positive, as workers with weak...

  17. Jobs in Marine Science. Job Family Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Research Associates, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    The instructional booklet explores various occupations in the job family of marine science. Following a brief introduction to the concept of occupational clusters, the student is given an overall orientation to the general area of oceanography and marine-related careers. A shore research station and the activities of a marine biologist are…

  18. Data linkage between the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assess workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Lupo, Philip J; Tinker, Sarah C; Razzaghi, Hilda; Pompeii, Lisa A; Hoyt, Adrienne T; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge of the prevalence of work-related physical activities, sedentary behaviors, and emotional stressors among pregnant women is limited, and the extent to which these exposures vary by maternal characteristics remains unclear. Data on mothers of 6,817 infants without major birth defects, with estimated delivery during 1997 through 2009 who worked during pregnancy were obtained from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Information on multiple domains of occupational exposures was gathered by linking mother's primary job to the Occupational Information Network Version 9.0. The most frequent estimated physical activity associated with jobs during pregnancy was standing. Of 6,337 mothers, 31.0% reported jobs associated with standing for ≥75% of their time. There was significant variability in estimated occupational exposures by maternal age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Our findings augment existing literature on occupational physical activities, sedentary behaviors, emotional stressors, and occupational health disparities during pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  20. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  1. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  2. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general popula

  3. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  4. Stressors and sources of support: the perceptions and experiences of newly diagnosed Latino youth living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jaime; Lemos, Diana; Hosek, Sybil

    2012-05-01

    Little is known of the experience of Latino youth with HIV infection in the United States, especially with respect to stressors and how these youth cope with said stressors. This study reports on a subset (Latino/Hispanic self-identified youth, n=14) of qualitatively interviewed youth (n=30), both in individual interviews and in focus group discussion settings, aware of their HIV diagnosis for 12-24 months (mean: 16.7 months; standard deviation [SD], 4.89) Youth were 16-24 years old (M=21.5 years), female (43%) and males (57%). Youth were recruited from three cities: Chicago, New York, and San Juan (Puerto Rico). Interviews of Latinos (n=14) were reviewed for sources of stressors and support. Seven themes emerged in analyzing stated sources of stressors: (1) initial psychosocial responses to HIV diagnosis, (2) disclosure to family and friends, (3) stigma related to receiving an HIV diagnosis, (4) body image and concerns of the physical changes associated with HIV and antiretroviral medications, (5) taking antiretroviral medications and side effects, (6) the disruption of their future life goals, and (7) reproductive health concerns. Identified sources of support and coping were described including; gaining appreciation for what matters in life, adapting and developing achievable goals, reordering priorities and relying on religion and spiritual beliefs for health outcomes. The information gathered is from individual interviews and from focus group discussions can be used to increase the understanding of this understudied population while improving services to engage and retain these youth in care.

  5. Job satisfaction is more than a fruit basket, health checks and free exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Fishwick, David; Robinson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    work' with an OR of 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.62). Only two out of five types of workplace health-promotion offers (physical exercise and healthy diet) were associated with job satisfaction. For example, for offers of physical exercise the OR for being very satisfied with the job was 1.84 (95% CI 1.......33-2.55). CONCLUSIONS: While psychosocial work factors and to some extent physical work demands are important for job satisfaction, workplace health-promotion offers appear to play a minor role....... wage earners ( N=10,427) replied to questions about work, lifestyle and health. Multinomial logistic regression controlled for sex, age, job group, smoking, body mass index, chronic disease and general health assessed the association between work factors and job satisfaction (very satisfied...

  6. Effects of stressor controllability on diurnal physiological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Christianson, John P; Maslanik, Thomas M; Maier, Steve F; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2013-03-15

    Disruptions in circadian and diurnal rhythms are associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders and stressor exposure can disrupt these rhythms. The controllability of the stressor can modulate various behavioral and neurochemical responses to stress. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress produces behaviors in rats that resemble symptoms of anxiety and depression. Whether acute stress-induced disruptions in physiological rhythms are sensitive to controllability of the stressor, however, remains unknown. To examine the role of controllability in diurnal rhythm disruption, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Data Sciences International (DSI) biotelemetry devices. Real-time measurements were obtained before, during and after exposure to a controllable or yoked uncontrollable stressor. Controllable and uncontrollable stress equally disrupted diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature but not heart rate. The diurnal heart rate the day following stressor exposure was flattened to a greater extent and was significantly higher in rats with control over stress suggesting a relationship between stressor controllability and the heart rate response. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that acute stress-induced disruptions in diurnal physiological rhythms likely contribute little to the behavioral and affective consequences of stress that are sensitive to stressor controllability.

  7. Organisational stressors, coping, and outcomes in competitive sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David; Daniels, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Organisational stressors are associated with positive and negative outcomes in extant literature; however, little is known about which demands predict which outcomes. Extant theory and literature also suggests that coping style may influence an individual's resilience or vulnerability to stressors and, subsequently, their psychological responses and outcomes. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine the main effects of organisational stressors and coping styles on various outcomes (e.g., positive and negative affect, performance satisfaction). Sport performers (n = 414) completed measures of organisational stressors, coping styles, positive and negative affect, and performance satisfaction. Multiple regression analyses revealed positive relationships of both goals and development stressors (duration and intensity) and team and culture stressors (frequency and intensity) on negative affect. Furthermore, problem-focused coping was positively related to positive affect, and emotion-focused coping was positively related to negative affect. This study furthers theoretical knowledge regarding the associations that both organisational stressors (and their dimensions) and coping styles can have with various outcomes, and practical understanding regarding the optimal design of stress management interventions.

  8. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  9. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  10. The God of Job

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Mare

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available God is often portrayed extremely negatively in the Old Testament. For example, in the Book of Nahum God is pictured as being responsible for the most horrifying violence imaginable. This negative portrayal of God is also found in the Book of Job. God is responsible for the suffering that his righteous servant Job, has to endure. He is even manipulated by the satan to allow him free reign in attacking Job. God even acknowledges that the misery and pain inflicted on Job, was for no reason. Job�s children are killed in order for God to prove a point, and in his response to Job�s suffering, he doesn�t even address the issue of Job�s suffering. This is a picture of a very cruel, vicious God. This article investigates the negative, disturbing images of God in the Book of Job. Are these images of God who God really is, or is the God of Job a literary construct of the author? The focus of this study is on the prologue and epilogue to the book, as well as the speeches of God in Job 38�41.

  11. Bacterial Stressors in Minimally Processed Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress responses are of particular importance to microorganisms, because their habitats are subjected to continual changes in temperature, osmotic pressure, and nutrients availability. Stressors (and stress factors, may be of chemical, physical, or biological nature. While stress to microorganisms is frequently caused by the surrounding environment, the growth of microbial cells on its own may also result in induction of some kinds of stress such as starvation and acidity. During production of fresh-cut produce, cumulative mild processing steps are employed, to control the growth of microorganisms. Pathogens on plant surfaces are already stressed and stress may be increased during the multiple mild processing steps, potentially leading to very hardy bacteria geared towards enhanced survival. Cross-protection can occur because the overlapping stress responses enable bacteria exposed to one stress to become resistant to another stress. A number of stresses have been shown to induce cross protection, including heat, cold, acid and osmotic stress. Among other factors, adaptation to heat stress appears to provide bacterial cells with more pronounced cross protection against several other stresses. Understanding how pathogens sense and respond to mild stresses is essential in order to design safe and effective minimal processing regimes.

  12. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  13. The Job Training and Job Satisfaction Survey Technical Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    Job training has become an important aspect of an employee's overall job experience. However, it is not often called out specifically on instruments measuring job satisfaction. This technical manual details the processes used in the development and validation of a survey instrument to measure job training satisfaction and overall job…

  14. Whose Job Goes Abroad? International Outsourcing and Individual Job Separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the adjustment costs of globalisation by studying the effects of international outsourcing on individual transitions out of jobs in the Danish manufacturing sector for the period 1990-2003. A competing risks duration model that distinguishes between job-to-job and job...

  15. Reciprocal relationships between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Rodríguez-Muñoz (Alfredo); A.I. Sanz-Vergel (Ana Isabel); E. Demerouti (Eva); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to explore longitudinal relationships between job demands, job resources, and recovery opportunities. On the basis of the Job Demands-Resources model and Conservation of Resources theory we hypothesized that we would find reciprocal relations between job demands

  16. Directive and nondirective social support in the workplace - is this social support distinction important for subjective health complaints, job satisfaction, and perception of job demands and job control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Tone Langjordet; Eriksen, Hege Randi; Indahl, Aage; Tveito, Torill Helene

    2017-08-01

    Social support is associated with well-being and positive health outcomes. However, positive outcomes of social support might be more dependent on the way support is provided than the amount of support received. A distinction can be made between directive social support, where the provider resumes responsibility, and nondirective social support, where the receiver has the control. This study examined the relationship between directive and nondirective social support, and subjective health complaints, job satisfaction and perception of job demands and job control. A survey was conducted among 957 Norwegian employees, working in 114 private kindergartens (mean age 40.7 years, SD = 10.5, 92.8% female), as part of a randomized controlled trial. This study used only baseline data. A factor analysis of the Norwegian version of the Social Support Inventory was conducted, identifying two factors: nondirective and directive social support. Hierarchical regression analyses were then performed. Nondirective social support was related to fewer musculoskeletal and pseudoneurological complaints, higher job satisfaction, and the perception of lower job demands and higher job control. Directive social support had the opposite relationship, but was not statistically significant for pseudoneurological complaints. It appears that for social support to be positively related with job characteristics and subjective health complaints, it has to be nondirective. Directive social support was not only without any association, but had a significant negative relationship with several of the variables. Nondirective social support may be an important factor to consider when aiming to improve the psychosocial work environment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02396797. Registered 23 March 2015.

  17. Changes in job stability - evidence from lifetime job histories

    OpenAIRE

    Rokkanen, Miikka; Uusitalo, Roope

    2010-01-01

    We use individual-level panel data spanning over 42 years from the pension records to evaluate changes in job stability in Finland between 1963 and 2004. Compared with previous research on job stability we cover much longer period and for some cohorts observe the entire lifetime job histories. These data allow us to study job stability using standard duration models instead of simply examining changes in elapsed tenure. We find that hazard of job loss increased during the recession years in t...

  18. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Bergsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP and shoulder pain (SP were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW by 30% (low back and 18% (shoulders, and intense pain (PINT occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99 and 2.68 (1.09–6.61 while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49 and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65 and 2.11 (1.08–4.12. Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  19. Job satisfaction of older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maassen van den Brink, H.; Groot, W.J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Using data for The Netherlands, this paper analyzes the relation between allocation, wages and job satisfaction. Five conclusions emerge from the empirical analysis: satisfaction with the job content is the main factor explaining overall job satisfaction; the effects of individual and job characteri

  20. Perceiving Jobs in the Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Robert; And Others

    Differential perceptions of standard, established jobs in a stable organization (telephone company plant department) were obtained for sixteen jobs rated by job incumbents, peers, and supervisors on eight characteristics (variety, autonomy, task identity, feedback, friendship opportunities, dealing with others, prestige compared to craft jobs, and…