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Sample records for psychosocial functioning improved

  1. Spinal Cord Stimulation Provides Pain Relief with Improved Psychosocial Function: Results from EMP3OWER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Jason; Fabi, Alain; Candido, Kenneth; Knezevic, Nick; Creamer, Michael; Carayannopoulos, Alexios; Ghodsi, Abdi; Nelson, Christopher; Bennett, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The EMP(3)OWER™ study evaluated spinal cord stimulation (SCS) safety and efficacy and the associated changes in psychosocial and functional outcomes. Upon informed consent and IRB approval, 620 eligible subjects were enrolled prior to SCS trial evaluation and were assessed at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months post-implant. Patient-reported pain relief (PRP), numerical rating scale (NRS), satisfaction, quality of life (QOL), and pain disability index (PDI) were assessed at all follow-up visits while the pain catastrophizing scale (PCS), short form-36 (SF-36), short form-McGill pain questionnaire version 2 (SF-MPQ-2), and the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were assessed at the 6- and 12-month follow-up visits. Device and/or procedure-related adverse events were also recorded and reported. Subjects reporting a PRP ≥ 50% were considered responders. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) examined the changes across time for all continuous measures. A total of 401 (71%) subjects received a permanent implant. Mean (±SD) patient-reported pain relief was 59.3% (±26.2), 59.2% (±28.9), and 58.2% (±32.0) at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. A majority of enrolled subjects were responders at 3 (75.5%), 6 (74.7%), and 12 months (69.7%). RMANOVA revealed a statistically significant change for NRS, PCS, PDI, SF-36, SF-MPQ-2, and STAI scores. At 3 months, the majority of subjects (85.7%) were either very satisfied or satisfied with their device, with similar results at 6 and 12 months. At 3 months, the majority of subjects (73.3%) reported greatly improved or improved QOL with similar results at 6 and 12 months. Spinal cord stimulation provided pain relief and significant improvement of patient psychological and functional outcome measures. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Relationship between Symptom Relief and Psychosocial Functional Improvement during Acute Electroconvulsive Therapy for Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

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    Lin, Ching-Hua; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the degree of symptom relief to psychosocial functional (abbreviated as "functional") improvement and explore the relationships between symptom relief and functional improvement during acute electroconvulsive therapy for patients with major depressive disorder. Major depressive disorder inpatients (n=130) requiring electroconvulsive therapy were recruited. Electroconvulsive therapy was generally performed for a maximum of 12 treatments. Symptom severity, using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and psychosocial functioning (abbreviated as "functioning"), using the Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale, were assessed before electroconvulsive therapy, after every 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments, and after the final electroconvulsive therapy. Both 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale scores were converted to T-score units to compare the degrees of changes between depressive symptoms and functioning after electroconvulsive therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships between 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale during acute electroconvulsive therapy. One hundred sixteen patients who completed at least the first 3 electroconvulsive therapy treatments entered the analysis. Reduction of 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale T-scores was significantly greater than that of Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale T-scores at assessments 2, 3, 4, and 5. The model analyzed by structural equation modeling satisfied all indices of goodness-of-fit (chi-square = 32.882, P =.107, TLI = 0.92, CFI = 0.984, RMSEA = 0.057). The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale change did not predict subsequent Modified Work and Social Adjustment Scale change. Functioning improved less than depressive symptoms during acute electroconvulsive therapy. Symptom reduction did not predict subsequent functional improvement

  3. Psychobiology and psychosocial functioning of schizoaffective disorder.

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    Correll, Christoph U

    2011-02-01

    Data from neurobiologic and psychosocial outcomes research suggest that, phenomenologically, clinically, and neurobiologically, patients with schizoaffective disorder occupy an intermediate position between more severely disturbed schizophrenia patients and similarly or less severely impaired affective disorder patients. Some biologic-genetic abnormalities are shared between these disorders, while other abnormalities are specific to particular symptoms. Premorbid functioning, especially in academic areas, is better in patients with schizoaffective disorder than in those with schizophrenia, but negative symptoms and cognitive deficits are influential and should be addressed to improve psychosocial outcomes.

  4. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult attachment and psychosocial functioning, predominately in the realm of close relationships. In the first part of the thesis, the focus lay on the assessment of the adult attachment construct. In Cha...

  5. The impact of comorbid depression on recovery from personality disorders and improvements in psychosocial functioning: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; Bamelis, Lotte L M; Huibers, Marcus J H; Speckens, Anne; Arntz, Arnoud

    2014-12-01

    Depressive disorders often co-occur with personality disorders. The extent to which depressive disorders influence treatment outcome in personality disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of co-morbid depression on recovery from personality disorders and improvements in psychosocial functioning. This study drew data from a randomized-controlled trial in which patients (N = 320) with cluster-c (92%), paranoid, histrionic and/or narcissistic personality disorders received schema-therapy, treatment-as-usual, or clarification-oriented psychotherapy. Recovery from personality disorders at three-year follow-up and improvements in psychosocial functioning over a course of three years was predicted by the diagnostic status of depressive disorders at baseline using mixed model regression analyses. Based on the number of axis-I and axis-II disorders, personality disorder severity and global symptomatic distress and functioning a baseline severity index was computed and included in subsequent analyses to test the specificity of baseline depression in predicting outcomes. Patients with co-occurring depression reported higher baseline severity compared to patients without co-occurring depression. Depression at baseline was associated with lower recovery rates at three-year follow-up (p = 0.01) but this effect disappeared after controlling for baseline severity. Patients with depression at baseline reported higher psychosocial impairments throughout treatment (p personality disorders but this effect disappears when general severity is taken into account. Patients with primarily cluster-c personality disorders and co-occurring depression might benefit from additional depression treatment in terms of improved psychosocial functioning.

  6. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

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    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  7. Psychosocial and Family Functioning in Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Devine, Katie A.

    2010-01-01

    A developmentally oriented bio-neuropsychosocial model is introduced to explain the variation in family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in youth and young adults with spina bifida (SB). Research on the family functioning and psychosocial adjustment of individuals with SB is reviewed. The findings of past research on families of youth with…

  8. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  9. Psychosocial functioning of patients after endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Lauren D; Staples, Nancy L; Sears, Samuel F; Klodell, Charles T

    2011-06-01

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is considered the treatment modality of choice for patients with disabling hyperhidrosis. However, the psychosocial impact of the intervention has not been systematically studied in American samples before and after sympathectomy. It is expected that the reduction of symptoms is associated with improved psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The aim of this study was to examine psychosocial functioning in patients with hyperhidrosis undergoing thoracic sympathectomy. Patients with hyperhidrosis undergoing evaluation for sympathectomy were recruited from Shands Hospital at the University of Florida. Fifty-one patients completed individual psychological assessment batteries prior to undergoing sympathectomy and at 1-month follow-up, measuring the constructs of health-related quality of life, anxiety, and depression. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that 1 month after sympathectomy, patients reported significant improvements across the domains of physical quality of life (p=0.01), mental quality of life (p=0.005), trait anxiety (pSympathectomy resulted in increases in health-related quality of life, and decreases in anxiety and depression within 1 month post procedure. Results suggest that sympathectomy exists as an effective treatment choice for both medical and psychosocial outcomes in patients with hyperhidrosis. Copyright © 2011 European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF EQUINE-ASSISTED THERAPY IN IMPROVING THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris MEMISEVIC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of short-term equine-assisted therapy as a complementary therapy modality for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. There were four children in the study, two boys and two girls from ages 8 to 10 years, with ASD included in this study. All of the children were attending a special education school in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The equine-assisted therapy sessions took place once a week for a period of 10 weeks. The results of the study revealed positive effects the therapy had in two of the four children as measured by the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklists (ATEC. The improvement was reported in the domains of speech, socialization, sensory/ cognitive awareness and health/behavior. The authors propose a more widely use of this therapeutic modality in the psychoeducational treatment of children with ASD.

  11. Understanding schizoaffective disorder: from psychobiology to psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U

    2010-01-01

    Psychobiologic evidence and psychosocial functioning in patients with schizoaffective disorder suggest that the disease may be a distinct disorder, a variant of schizophrenia or affective disorders, the comorbidity of schizophrenia and a mood disorder, or an intermediate disorder on a spectrum that ranges from schizophrenia to mood disorders. These data, although inconclusive, contribute to clinicians' understanding of the etiology of the disorder. Further research may lead to an increased understanding of the disorder, improved treatment, and, ultimately, better outcomes.

  12. Trichotillomania: impact on psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Tolin, David F; Hannan, Scott; Crocetto, Johanna; Worhunsky, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    This study explored the impact of hair pulling on psychosocial functioning for patients diagnosed with trichotillomania (TTM; n = 28). TTM patients were compared to age and gender-matched groups of psychiatric patients without TTM (n = 28) and nonpsychiatric control volunteers (NC, n = 28) on measures of psychological distress, functioning/quality of life, and self-esteem. Results indicated that TTM patients reported more severe psychosocial impairments than did NC volunteers; however, these differences were mediated by differences in level of depression. Regression analyses indicated significant relationships between some measures of psychosocial functioning and severity of hair pulling, independent of level of depression. Finally, an interview of the impact of hair pulling on 6 domains of daily functioning (negative affect/negative self-evaluations, grooming, recreational activities, social interaction, work/housework productivity, and physical health) indicated common and wide-ranging impairments for both lifetime and current (i.e., past week) ratings. These results highlight the importance of promoting and improving resources for the clinical care of TTM patients, and provide some directions for clinicians to enhance assessment of interference caused by TTM.

  13. Psychosocial function and health in veteran families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    During the last 25 years Denmark has regularly contributed to international missions through the deployment of Danish soldiers. From 1992 till 2014 32,000 Danish women and men have been deployed. With this mapping of publications we aim to contribute with an overview of publications within...... the research field of psychosocial functioning and health among relatives living with a veteran, including potential gaps within this research field. We have found 103 publications. Most of them are American, 7 are from Europe and none from Scandinavia. Most publications focus on the partner’s relationship...... to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...

  14. Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P

    2006-02-01

    Researchers have highlighted the significance of a poor body image in the development of dysfunctional eating but have systematically investigated few other outcomes. The authors examined the relationships between different aspects of body image and psychosocial functioning. Participants were 245 boys and 173 girls from Grades 8 and 9 (M age = 13.92 years, SD = 0.69 years). Respondents completed measures of physical attractiveness, body satisfaction, body image importance, body image behaviors, appearance comparison, social physique anxiety, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and same-sex and opposite-sex relations. Whereas girls tended to report a more negative body image than did boys, the relevance of body image to self-esteem was similar for boys and girls. Concern about others' evaluation of their bodies was especially important in understanding low female self-esteem, whereas for boys, ratings of general attractiveness most strongly predicted self-esteem. The authors found a negative body image to be unrelated to symptoms of negative affect but to be strongly associated with poor opposite-sex peer relationships, especially among boys. A negative body image also affected same-sex relations among girls.

  15. Clinical feasibility of cervical exercise to improve neck pain, body function, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Kim, Suhn Yeop

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of cervical exercise on neck pain, disability, and psychosocial factors in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. [Subjects] Thirty patients with post-traumatic stress disorder, who also complained of neck pain. [Methods] The cervical exercise group (n = 15) participated in cervical exercises for 30 min, 3 times/week for 6 weeks, and the control group (n = 16) underwent conventional physical therapy alone, without exercise. The exercises were performed in the following order: cervical relaxation, local muscle stabilization, and global muscle stabilization using a sling system. [Results] Compared to the control group, the cervical exercise group demonstrated significant decreases as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 4.2 vs. 1.0; Neck disability index, 3.9 vs. 1.9; and depression on the Symptom checklist-90-revised, 9.4 vs. 4.3 and on the Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 6.3 vs. 2.8. However, anxiety on the Symptom checklist-90-revised (3.1 vs. 1.3) was not significantly different. Effect sizes were as follows: Visual analogue scale score, 1.8; Neck disability index, 0.9; depression, 1.0; and anxiety on Symptom checklist-90-revised and Hopkins symptom checklist-25, 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. [Conclusion] Cervical exercise is effective in improving neck pain, disability, and efficacy of psychological treatment for depression in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder.

  16. An Exercise Program in Youngsters with Complex Congenital Heart Disease: does it improve Health Related Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning? A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Dulfer (Karolijn)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ A 12-week standardized exercise program improved self-reported cognitive functioning, and parent-reported social functioning in children and adolescents with complex congenital heart disease. Furthermore, it resulted in a decrease in passive leisure time spending. In co

  17. The Psychosocial Improvement after Strabismus Surgery in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Ghiasi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the psychosocial status before and after successful strabismus surgery on Iranian strabismic patientsMethods: One hundred twenty-four strabismic patients, older than 15 years were evaluated between 2009 and 2010. They were asked to complete a questionnaire about their psychosocial experiences, before and three months after successful strabismus surgery. Effects of strabismus on self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-assessment of intelligence, employment and interpersonal relationships were compared.Results: Fifty-six percent of patients had problems in adjusting to society, and 71% had developed a mannerism to camouflage their misalignment before surgery. The preoperative scores of self-esteem, self-confidence, and interpersonal relationship were 4.33±2.07, 4.23±2.53 and 6.06±2.33 which changed to 8.33±3.02, 7.29±2.89 and 6.72±3.17 after surgery, respectively (p<0.001 for all of values. More esotropic patients reported to be discriminated against compared to exotropic patients. Postoperatively, 79% of patients reported improvements in their ability to meet new people, and 82% in interpersonal relationships. Scores of self-confidence and self-esteem increased up to three and four units, respectively (p<0.001 for both values.Conclusion: Patients with strabismus have psychosocial problems and successful strabismus surgery improves their psychosocial status.

  18. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Psychological Trauma on Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Derek; Hill, Jonathan; O'Ryan, Dominic; Udwin, Orlee; Boyle, Stephanie; Yule, William

    2004-01-01

    Background: Most studies of the effects of trauma on mental health have generally not separately assessed psychosocial functioning, and in those that have key issues have received little attention, such as the relation between the time courses of the two kinds of outcome, and detailed assessment of social functioning in a range of domains. The…

  20. Masculinity beliefs predict psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa C; Keefe, Francis J; McKee, Daphne C; Waters, Sandra J; Moul, Judd W

    2012-09-01

    Research examining psychosocial functioning in African American prostate cancer survivors has been limited, in spite of documented higher mortality from prostate cancer and worse long-term physical and emotional outcomes from prostate cancer treatment reported by this group of survivors. In addition, the role of masculinity in psychosocial adjustment among prostate cancer survivors is not well understood. In this study, 59 African American prostate cancer survivors completed a questionnaire assessing masculinity beliefs related to self-reliance, emotional control, and dominance, as well as measures of psychosocial functioning (i.e., symptom distress, negative mood, and functional and social well-being). Results of regression analyses indicated that masculinity beliefs predicted negative mood, functional well-being, and social well-being, controlling for age, income, and medical comorbidities. The findings reported here, although preliminary, suggest that masculinity beliefs could be important therapeutic targets for improving the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions for men adjusting to prostate cancer survivorship.

  1. The Contribution of Sleep Problems to Academic and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Archbold, Kristen; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among sleep problems with academic and psychosocial functioning in a prospective cohort study, the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA). Children were assessed between the ages of 6 and 11 years and again approximately 5 years later. Sleep disordered…

  2. Psychosocial Stress and Brain Function in Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Erin Burke; Cattrell, Anna; Jia, Tianye; Artiges, Eric; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Brühl, Rüdiger; Conrod, Patricia J; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Papadopoulos-Orfanos, Dimitri; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Smolka, Michael N; Vetter, Nora C; Walter, Henrik; Whelan, Robert; Glennon, Jeffrey C; Buitelaar, Jan K; Happé, Francesca; Loth, Eva; Barker, Edward D; Schumann, Gunter

    2017-08-01

    The authors sought to explore how conduct, hyperactivity/inattention, and emotional symptoms are associated with neural reactivity to social-emotional stimuli, and the extent to which psychosocial stress modulates these relationships. Participants were community adolescents recruited as part of the European IMAGEN study. Bilateral amygdala regions of interest were used to assess the relationship between the three symptom domains and functional MRI neural reactivity during passive viewing of dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions. Exploratory functional connectivity and whole brain multiple regression approaches were used to analyze how the symptoms and psychosocial stress relate to other brain regions. In response to the social-emotional stimuli, adolescents with high levels of conduct or hyperactivity/inattention symptoms who had also experienced a greater number of stressful life events showed hyperactivity of the amygdala and several regions across the brain. This effect was not observed with emotional symptoms. A cluster in the midcingulate was found to be common to both conduct problems and hyperactivity symptoms. Exploratory functional connectivity analyses suggested that amygdala-precuneus connectivity is associated with hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. The results link hyperactive amygdala responses and regions critical for top-down emotional processing with high levels of psychosocial stress in individuals with greater conduct and hyperactivity/inattention symptoms. This work highlights the importance of studying how psychosocial stress affects functional brain responses to social-emotional stimuli, particularly in adolescents with externalizing symptoms.

  3. The Role of the Psychosocial Dimension in the Improvement of Quality of Care: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makivić, Irena; Kersnik, Janko; Klemenc-Ketiš, Zalika

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our systematic review was to analyse the published literature on the psychosocial dimension of care in family medicine and its relationship with quality of care. We wanted to find out whether there is any evidence on the psychosocial approach in (family) medicine. The recommended bio-psycho-social approach, besides the biomedical model of illness, takes into account several co-influencing psychological, sociological and existential factors. An online search of nine different databases used Boolean operators and the following selection criteria: the paper contained information on the holistic approach, quality indicators, family medicine, patient-centred care and/or the bio-psycho-social model of treatment. We retrieved 743 papers, of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Including the psychosocial dimension in patient management has been found to be useful in the prevention and treatment of physical and psychiatric illness, resulting in improved social functioning and patient satisfaction, reduced health care disparities, and reduced annual medical care charges. The themes of patient-centred, behavioural or psychosocial medicine were quite well presented in several papers. We could not find any conclusive evidence of the impact of a holistic bio-psycho-social-approach. Weak and variable definitions of psychosocial dimensions, a low number of well-designed intervention studies, and low numbers of included patients limited our conclusions.

  4. A new DAWN: Improving the psychosocial management of diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. G. Holt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The second Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN-2 study assessed psychosocial issues and health-care provision of people with diabetes, their family members and health-care professionals. Materials and Methods: Participants completed an online, telephone or in-person survey designed to assess health-related quality-of-life, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, social support and priorities for improving diabetes care as well as health-care provision and the impact of diabetes on family life. Results: A total of 8596 adults with diabetes, 2057 family members of people with diabetes and 4785 health-care professionals across 17 countries completed the survey. There were significant between country differences, but no one country′s outcomes were consistently better or worse than others. A high proportion of people with diabetes reported likely depression (13.8% and poor quality-of-life (12.2%. Diabetes had a negative impact on many aspects of life, including relationships with family/friends and physical health. A third of family members did not know how to help the person with diabetes, but wanted to be more involved in their care. Many health-care professionals indicated that major improvements were needed across a range of areas including health-care organization, resources for diabetes prevention, earlier diagnosis and treatment and psychological support. Conclusions: DAWN-2 is a multinational, multidisciplinary systematic study that compared unmet needs of people with diabetes and those who care for them in 17 countries across four continents. Its findings should facilitate innovative efforts to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes, with the aim of reducing the burden of disease. The implications for India are discussed.

  5. Relationship of psychological symptoms, antipsychotics and social data with psychosocial function in schizophrenia patients in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlelawati, A Talib; Kartini, Abdullah; Norsidah, Kuzaifah; Ramli, Musa; Wan Azizi, Wan Sulaiman; Tariq, Abdul Razak

    2015-03-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial function and the role of relevant sociodemographic data and antipsychotic use in the prediction of psychosocial function among multiracial schizophrenia outpatients in Malaysia. A total of 223 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study conducted from December 2010 to April 2011. Psychological symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale whilst the psychosocial function was assessed using the Personal and Social Performance scale. Sociodemographic and treatment variables were gathered through interview or review of the medical records. All dimensions of psychosocial functions were inversely correlated with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale sub-domains. Only the disorganization sub-domain significantly predicts all dimensions of psychosocial function. For social data, body mass index and employment status were significant predictors of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. Typical antipsychotics significantly predict social function negatively as compared to sulpiride (β = -0.152, P = 0.028). We found that the relationship between psychological symptoms and psychosocial functions were relatively consistent with the findings from the Caucasian population. Additionally, disorganization was the only significant predictor of all dimensions of psychosocial functions. This further emphasized the importance of cognition in psychosocial function. The roles of sulpiride, body mass index and employment status as predictors of psychosocial function were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    behavior problems (EBPs). Other health care professionals working with children with NDDs and/or EBPs may wish to consider several child characteristics together, not just the child's health conditions but also child sex and age. Developing specific intervention programs that improve the psychosocial functioning of children with complex health problems appears to be warranted.

  7. Psychosocial functioning in adults with congenital craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R M; Mathias, J L

    2012-05-01

    To examine the psychosocial functioning of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions relative to normative data. Single sample cross-sectional design. The Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, which is one of the main craniofacial treatment centers in Australia. Adults (N  =  93) with congenital craniofacial conditions (excluding cleft lip/palate) who were treated in the Australian Craniofacial Unit. All participants completed self-report scales assessing health-related quality of life (SF-36); life satisfaction, anxiety, and depression (HADS); self-esteem (Rosenberg); appearance-related concerns; perceived social support; and social anxiety. Overall, participants were very similar in psychosocial function to the general population. However, adults with craniofacial conditions were less likely to be married and have children (females), were more likely to be receiving a disability pension, and reported more appearance-related concerns and less social support from friends. They also reported more limitations in both their social activities, due to physical or emotional problems, and usual role activities, because of emotional problems, as well as poorer mental health. These results give cause to be very positive about the long-term outcomes of children who are undergoing treatment for craniofacial conditions, while also identifying specific areas that interventions could target.

  8. Psychosocial functioning in children and young adults with juvenile arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, J A; Horgan, B; Chaitow, J; Champion, G D

    1988-02-01

    A questionnaire survey of 363 children and young adults with juvenile arthritis was conducted to assess the relations among disease severity, psychosocial functioning, and adjustment in three age groups--primary school, high school, and young adult. Parents were surveyed separately to determine which characteristics of the ill child at different ages most significantly impact the well-being of the family. Indices of psychologic functioning and disease severity were associated with adjustment in the primary school and high school groups, whereas measures of social relationships were strongly associated with adjustment only in the high school group. Relations among measures of psychologic functioning, social relationships, disease severity, and adjustment in young adults were minimal. Level of disease severity was associated with the presence of financial concerns, emotional problems, and physical strain in parents of high school children and young adults. The results emphasize the importance of using a developmental model for understanding the adjustment of individuals with chronic juvenile arthritis and their families.

  9. No improvement in distress and quality of life following psychosocial cancer rehabilitation. A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottmann, Nina; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Rehabilitation programmes are intended to help cancer patients achieve optimal functioning and live independently. We evaluated whether a psychosocial rehabilitation course was effective in relieving cancer patients' distress and improving their well-being. Methods: Patients with breast...... assessment. Patients in the control group showed greater decreases in total mood disturbance and subscales of the POMS-Sf and showed more improvement in emotional, cognitive and social functioning at both 1 and 6 months and in role functioning at 6 months than the intervention group. A similar pattern...... was observed in analyses of breast cancer patients only. Conclusion: A 6-day residential rehabilitation course did not relieve cancer patients' distress or improve their well-being. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  10. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  11. [Occupational therapy for stroke patients during the early stage of in-hospital rehabilitation: recovery of cognitive and psychosocial functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushevichene, D P; Krishchiunas, A I; Savitskas, R Iu

    2009-01-01

    A study included 100 patients (47 men and 53 women) with cerebral stroke. We revealed significant disordres of cognitive and psychosocial functions (memory, social integration and decision making) in the early stage of rehabilitation. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score at baseline (beginning of the early stage of rehabilitation) was 17.3 +/- 7.7. There was a partial recovery of cognitive and psychosocial functions during the rehabilitation that reflected in increasing of FIM score to 25.9 +/- 7.0. Neglect syndrome and severity of lesion (hemiplegia) had a significant negative effect on the effectiveness of occupational therapy (p occupational therapy significantly improves the independence of patients.

  12. Improving outcomes: understanding the psychosocial aspects of the orthopaedic trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Paul E; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Bosse, Michael J; Greenhouse, Pamela K

    2014-01-01

    The care of orthopaedic trauma patients with multiple injuries has dramatically improved in the past 25 years. The understanding of the physiology of trauma has evolved, new surgical approaches have been developed, and technologic advances have created better implants. New methods of treating fractures include fluoroscopic and computer-assisted imaging. Surgical interventions have changed from extensive and prolonged dissections to more limited and effective percutaneous and minimally invasive techniques. The lives of patients are being saved, and radiographic outcomes are improving; however, medical and surgical advances that achieve better radiographic and anatomic outcomes do not always improve functional outcomes. Understanding and optimizing the management of the psychosocial factors that affect trauma patients can improve outcomes.

  13. Psychosocial functioning of children, adolescents, and adults following hypospadias surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureau, M A; Slijper, F M; Slob, A K; Verhulst, F C

    1997-06-01

    Used standardized questionnaires to compare psychosocial functioning of 116 children and adolescents (9 to 18 years) and 73 adults (18 to 38 years) operated on for hypospadias, a congenital penile anomaly, with that of 88 and 50 age-matched comparison males, respectively, treated for an inguinal hernia. The relationships of coping with penile appearance, subject age, severity of hypospadias, number of operations, age at final surgery, and type of surgical procedure with psychosocial functioning were also investigated. Hypospadias patients did not exhibit a poorer psychosocial functioning and no significant relationships of various medical characteristics with psychosocial functioning could be discerned. Genital/body perception of hypospadias patients ages 9 to 18 years correlated positively with psychosocial functioning, albeit with low values. These findings are important for psychologists and specialists in the counseling process of hypospadias patients and their parents.

  14. Interrelations between psychosocial functioning and adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunyoe; Clark, Lee Anna

    2013-08-01

    Decrements in one or more domains of psychosocial functioning (e.g., poor job performance, poor interpersonal relations) are commonly observed in psychiatric patients. The purpose of this study is to increase understanding of psychosocial functioning as a broad, multifaceted construct as well as its associations with both adaptive- and maladaptive-range personality traits in both nonclinical and psychiatric outpatient samples. The study was conducted in two phases. In Study 1, a nonclinical sample (N = 429) was administered seven psychosocial functioning and adaptive-range personality trait measures. In Study 2, psychiatric outpatients (N = 181) were administered the same psychosocial functioning measures, and maladaptive- as well as adaptive-range personality trait measures. Exploratory (both studies) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analyses indicated a common three-factor, hierarchical structure of psychosocial functioning-Well Being, Social/Interpersonal Functioning, and Basic Functioning. These psychosocial functioning domains were closely--and differentially--linked with personality traits, especially strongly so in patients. Across samples, Well Being was associated with both Neuroticism/Negative Affectivity and Extraversion/Positive Affectivity, Social/Interpersonal Functioning was associated with both Agreeableness and Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, and Basic Functioning was associated with Conscientiousness/Disinhibition, although only modestly in the nonclinical sample. These relations generally were maintained even after partialing out current general dysphoric symptoms. These findings have implications for considering psychosocial functioning as an important third domain in a tripartite model together with personality and psychopathology.

  15. Immunological changes associated with clinical improvement of asthmatic children subjected to psychosocial intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castés, M; Hagel, I; Palenque, M; Canelones, P; Corao, A; Lynch, N R

    1999-03-01

    In the present study we evaluated the impact of a program of psychosocial intervention (PSI) on the immunological status and the clinical management of a group of asthmatic children of an island population in Venezuela. We studied a total of 35 asthmatic children who belonged to either a PSI group (19 patients) or a control group (16 patients), both of which received conventional antiasthmatic treatment. The PSI group received, in addition, a 6-month psychosocial intervention program which included relaxation, guided imagery, and self-esteem workshops. During the PSI period, the number of asthmatic episodes and the use of bronchodilator medication were significantly reduced, and pulmonary function was significantly improved, compared to the 6 months before intervention. There was also a significant reduction in the specific IgE responses against the most important allergen in these children, the intestinal parasite Ascaris lumbricoides. PSI resulted in a significant increase of NK cells, an augmented expression of the T-cell receptor for IL-2, and a significant decrease of leukocytes with low affinity receptors for IgE. In fact, these surface markers became similar to those of nonasthmatic children from both Coche Island and the mainland. None of these clinical or immunological changes were seen in the control group of asthmatics who did not undergo PSI. These results are consistent with the possibility that PSI induces immunological alterations that are responsible for the clinical and physiological improvements observed in the study group. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Psychosocial factors and functional capacity evaluation among persons with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, Michael E; Robinson, Michael E; Miller, Quaintance L; Bade, Suzanne M

    2003-12-01

    Psychosocial factors have been found to have a significant impact on functional activity, particularly among persons with chronic pain. While various systems have been developed to assess functional limitations through functional capacity evaluation (FCE), assessment of psychosocial factors that may impact function have been largely ignored. This paper examines the existing literature on psychosocial factors and FCE performance. Given that there are few studies that have directly addressed this issue, the paper also examines psychosocial factors that have been found to influence function in persons with pain. The results of the literature review indicate that few psychosocial factors have been found to be directly associated with FCE and functional measures, although many are related to various measures of disability. The strongest evidence that psychosocial factors are related to functional performance is based on the studies examining the association between functional activity and pain-related fear, self-efficacy, and illness behavior. Psychosocial factors have also been shown to influence measures of sincerity of effort often obtained during FCE. Proposals for modifying FCE assessment are given based on the available data, as well as suggestions for future research.

  17. History of religious delusions and psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-García, Rebeca; López-Luna, Sonia; Páez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raúl; Camarena, Beatriz; Fresán, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The association between global functionality and religiosity among patients from developing and predominantly Catholic countries warrants attention. To compare religiosity and psychosocial functioning in Mexican schizophrenia patients with and without a history of religious delusions, seventy-four patients with paranoid schizophrenia were recruited. Patients with a history of religious delusions had more psychiatric hospitalizations and poorer psychosocial functioning compared with those without a history of religious delusions. No differences emerged between groups in the total scores of religiosity scales. A history of religious delusions rather than religiosity itself may have an influence on psychosocial functioning among Mexican patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Efficacy of walking exercise in promoting cognitive-psychosocial functions in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-melanoma cancer among men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT has been the core therapy for men with advanced prostate cancer. It is only in recent years that clinicians began to recognize the cognitive-psychosocial side effects from ADT, which significantly compromise the quality of life of prostate cancer survivors. The objectives of the study are to determine the efficacy of a simple and accessible home-based, walking exercise program in promoting cognitive and psychosocial functions of men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. Methods A 6-month prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare the Exercise Group with the Control Group. Twenty men with prostate cancer starting ADT will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: the Exercise Group will receive instructions in setting up an individualized 6-month home-based, walking exercise program, while the Control Group will receive standard medical advice from the attending physician. The primary outcomes will be psychosocial and cognitive functions. Cognitive functions including memory, attention, working memory, and executive function will be assessed using a battery of neurocognitive tests at baseline and 6 months. Psychosocial functions including depression, anxiety and self-esteem will be assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Discussion The significance of the cognitive-psychosocial side effects of ADT in men with prostate cancer has only been recently recognized, and the management remains unclear. This study addresses this issue by designing a simple and accessible home-based, exercise program that may potentially have significant impact on reducing the cognitive and psychosocial side effects of ADT, and ultimately

  19. The psychosocial function of reincarnation among Druze in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2006-03-01

    To gain an understanding of the psychosocial function of reincarnation among Druze, interviews were conducted with nine male subjects who had experienced reincarnation (Notq) and with one or two of their family members. Analysis of these interviews revealed that the onset of Notq typically occurs at between two and five years of age. Five of the subjects had displayed psychological distress in their childhood that was alleviated after the Notq. Once the child has displayed initial indications of reincarnation, such as mentioning names that the family construes as being from a past life, the family takes an active role in constructing the past-life story and matching it to a known real story involving a tragic death. This match creates a new order in the life of the child, the family, and the past-life family. All parties benefit from this new order: the child receives new special attention and love and becomes able to control and manipulate the parents; the parents are relieved because they see the child happy, and benefit from the social attention and regard they receive; and the grieving of the bereaved past-life family is alleviated by the realization that the soul of their lost son still lives. The findings support the sociocognitive notion of the constructing of past memories by the social environment. Additional research that should include data collection from the past-life family and examination of the affinity of reincarnation with dissociation and child abuse is recommended.

  20. 应用非洲鼓改善脑瘫患儿肌张力和社会心理功能疗效的观察%Application of djembe in improving muscular tension of children with cerebral palsy and observation on psychosocial functional efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲松; 刘璐; 赵振军

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of djembe on improving muscular tension of children with cerebral palsy and psychosocial functional efficacy, and try to explore new methods and new ways to treat cerebral palsy based on the comparison results before and after training.%观察非洲鼓改善脑瘫患儿肌张力和社会心理功能的疗效,并根据训练前后对比,尝试探索治疗脑瘫的新方法和新途径。

  1. Psychotic symptoms, cognition and affect as predictors of psychosocial problems and functional change in first-episode psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouten, Luyken H.; Veling, Wim; Laan, Winfried; van der Helm, Mischa; van der Gaag, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To enable further understanding of how cognitive deficits and psychopathology impact psychosocial functioning in first-episode psychosis patients, we investigated how psychopathology and cognitive deficits are associated with psychosocial problems at baseline, and how these predict psycho

  2. Preservation of function in genitourinary cancers: psychosexual and psychosocial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofman, U S

    1995-01-01

    GU cancers are commonly associated with treatment-related sexual dysfunction, varying from mild to severe. For the clinical oncologist, it is important to be aware that sexual problems or sexual dysfunction may occur as a result of any aspect of cancer and cancer treatment. Sexual function is sensitive to the effects of trauma, both physical and emotional. This is particularly the case for patients whose cancer affects their genitals. Despite some commonalities of psychosocial and psychosexual issues in GU patients across diagnostic categories, GU patients do not present as one distinct, homogeneous group. GU neoplasms, with the exception of bladder cancer, affect mostly men. Men and women tend to differ in their ways of dealing with emotional distress and physical illness. While the man may typically do well using denial as a defense and may not want to discuss his feelings about his diagnosis and treatment, his partner may suffer if her way of coping is oriented toward communicating thoughts and feelings about the situation. Another important difference in this population is related to age and developmental differences. Testicular cancer typically is diagnosed in young men between the ages of 15 and 34 (46). The patients often still live with their parents or have just formed families of their own. In contrast, prostate cancer is diagnosed in older men, who are at a completely different stage in their lives when they have to deal with this challenge. Developmental stage at the time of diagnosis and treatment is an important variable in adaptation to cancer (47). Since GU malignancies and their treatments directly or indirectly affect sexual organs and sexual functioning, issues of sexual body image and identity as men or women are frequent concerns for GU patients. This is most obviously the case for men facing penectomy or orchiectomy. Similarly, women undergoing cystectomy with its simultaneous removal of uterus, ovaries, and parts of the vaginal wall face

  3. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rots-de Vries, Carin; van de Goor, Ien; Stronks, Karien; Garretsen, Henk

    2011-06-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem families, an assertive outreach intervention was implemented into the field of preventive child health care, The Netherlands. The study aimed to provide a more detailed insight into characteristics of the target group. Although there is consensus about some general features of hard to reach problem families, little is known about their specific characteristics because empirical studies among this group are rarely conducted. Especially, the problems of the children is shed insufficient light on. The studied population consisted of families included in the assertive outreach intervention delivered during one year (N=116). To assess psychosocial adjustment of the children, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was filled in by the parents. Furthermore, a Dutch questionnaire on family functioning was completed by professional carers. Descriptive data were calculated. The findings show that by using the assertive outreach intervention, programme staff came into contact with families characterised by a considerably higher than average proportion of single parents and unemployed households receiving social benefits. The families faced a high level of risk and a wide range of severe and multiple difficulties, including a lack of basic child care, an inadequate social network and poor parenting. Children in these families were also facing a number of risks. The proportion of psychosocial problems was well above the (inter)national average. The findings reveal the problem areas of unreached families and a need to improve the access to care for these families.

  4. Local food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation on infant growth and development. A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Sumatera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were divided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthropometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function. There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (pcognitive development increased to 21.4±12.2 points (effect size 0.56) (pdevelopment increased to 20.7±18.4 points (effect size 0.50) (pcognitive and motor development.

  5. Assessment of psychosocial functioning and its risk factors in children with pectus excavatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE. However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors. Methods A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients. Results No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems. Conclusions The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were

  6. OC21 - Psychosocial functioning of parents of infants diagnosed with complex congenital heart defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petsios, Konstantinos; Matziou, Vassiliki; Voutoufianaki, Ioanna; Manatou, Anna; Azariadis, Prodromos; Rammos, Spiros

    2016-05-09

    Theme: Parenting/parenthood. The diagnosis of complex CHD impacts the psychosocial status of parents and their functioning. A critical evaluation of the literature concerning the psychosocial parental response to their infant's diagnosis of complex CHD. Systematic review of 18 articles published after 2000 in PubMed and CINAHL. The impact of an infant's CHD on the family functioning is determined both by child's medical condition and family's psychosocial factors. The majority of parents experience intense loss and numerous stressors. Nurses and physicians need to be sensitive to the needs, thoughts and experiences of the parents when discussing treatment options. Families with poor social support networks may have the greatest need for professional interventions. Appropriate interventions assist the majority of parents to adapt to the diagnosis of complex CHD. However, there are a number of parents with an increased psychosocial risk associated with higher rates of emotional distress.

  7. Impact of choice of coping strategies and family functioning on psychosocial function of young people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allison L; Critchley, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Both medical and psychological factors have an important impact upon the psychosocial functioning of young people with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that distinguish young people with epilepsy and high psychosocial functioning from those with lower levels. The participants were 114 young people (40 males, 74 females) with active epilepsy and a mean age of 17.92years (SD=3.90) who completed either a paper (60.5%) or a web-based survey (39.5%) comprising demographic, medical, and psychosocial measures. Psychosocial measures included family functioning, adolescent coping, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. A latent class analysis produced two psychosocial functioning groups based on participants' scores for anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Young people were more likely to be members of the group with poor psychosocial functioning if they had a seizure in the last month (Wald=5.63, p<.05), came from families with lower levels of communication and problem solving (Wald=5.28, p<.05), and made greater use of non-productive (emotion-focused) coping strategies such as wishful thinking, withdrawal, and worry (Wald=12.00, p<.01). The findings suggest that, in addition to standard medical treatment, clinicians may promote better outcomes by strengthening family functioning and encouraging less use of nonproductive coping strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Expressive Writing for Gay-Related Stress: Psychosocial Benefits and Mechanisms Underlying Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachankis, John E.; Goldfried, Marvin R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for gay men on outcomes related to psychosocial functioning. Method: Seventy-seven gay male college students (mean age = 20.19 years, SD = 1.99) were randomly assigned to write for 20 min a day for 3 consecutive days about either (a) the most stressful or…

  9. Relationship between Psychosocial Functioning and Body Fat in Preschool Children: A Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klesges, Robert C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined whether 132 preschool children who varied in levels of body fat differed on psychosocial functioning. Children did not differ in self-esteem and family functioning as function of body fat. Prospectively, physical self-esteem weakly but significantly correlated with body fat at one and two years; father's perception of family functioning…

  10. Effect of Psychosocial Skills Training on Functional Remission of Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzdil, Nurcan; Tanrıverdi, Derya

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychosocial skills training on functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia. A total of 100 patients were divided into the training group (n = 50) and the control group (n = 50). The data were collected using a Personal Information Form and Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale. The 13-session training program was given in the form of face-to-face group training and 45- to 60-min sessions twice a week. Training was completed by five groups. Every group comprised of 9 to 12 individuals on average. The training group had higher scores significantly on functional remission levels compared with the control group after psychosocial skills training (p Psychosocial skills training has become considerably effective in increasing the functional remission levels of patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder: an empirical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Aydemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions and domains of psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods: Oxidative stress markers, cognitive functions, and domains of psychosocial functioning were evaluated in 51 patients with bipolar disorder who were in remission. Correlation analyses between these parameters were calculated with data controlled for duration of illness and number of episodes. Results: There was no statistically significant correlation between oxidative stress markers and cognitive functions. In terms of psychosocial functioning, significant correlations were found between malondialdehyde and sense of stigmatization (r = -0.502; household activities and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.501; participation in social activities and nitric oxide (r = 0.414; hobbies and leisure time activities and total glutathione (r = -0.567, superoxide dismutase (r = 0.667, and neurotrophin 4 (r = 0.450; and taking initiative and self-sufficiency and superoxide dismutase (r = 0.597. There was no correlation between other domains of psychosocial functioning and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: These results imply that oxidative stress markers do not appear to correlate clearly with cognitive impairment and reduced psychosocial functioning. However, there were some associations between selected oxidative markers and activity-oriented functional markers. This may represent a true negative association, or may be an artifact of oxidative stress being a state rather than a trait marker.

  12. Psychosocial Functioning of Children with and without Dyslexia: A Follow-up Study from Ages Four to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhiala, P; Torppa, M; Eklund, K; Aro, T; Poikkeus, A-M; Heikkilä, R; Ahonen, T

    2015-08-01

    This longitudinal study compares developmental changes in psychosocial functioning during the transition into school of children with and without dyslexia. In addition, it examines the effects of gender and family risk for dyslexia in terms of the associations between dyslexia and psychosocial functioning. Children's psychosocial functioning (social skills, inattention and externalizing and internalizing problems) was evaluated by their parents at ages 4, 6 and 9, and diagnosis for dyslexia was made at age 8 (in grade 2). The findings indicated that children with dyslexia were already rated as having poorer social skills and being more inattentive than were typical readers before their entry into school. Significant interactions of gender and diagnosis of dyslexia emerged for social skills and inattention. The social skills of boys with dyslexia improved after school entry as compared to the level of girls without dyslexia, whereas the social skills of girls with dyslexia did not improve. Boys with dyslexia were rated as showing a high level of inattention both prior to and after school entry, whereas, for girls with dyslexia, inattention ratings increased after school entry, eventually matching the boys' levels.

  13. Psychosocial skills training on social functioning and quality of life in the treatment of schizophrenia: a controlled study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Veznedaroglu, Baybars; Eryavuz, Ayse; Kayahan, Bulent

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study assessed the impact of a psychosocial skills training program, consisting of psychoeducation, interpersonal group therapy and family education incorporated into social skills training, as an integrative approach on social functioning and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia, in comparison to standard care for an 8-month period. METHOD Thirty patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were included in the study. Patients were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Social Functioning Scale (SFS), and Global Assessment of Function (GAF) at baseline. Fifteen patients underwent an 8-month psychosocial skills training group program and another fifteen patients (waiting list) continued in standard care. Both groups were reassessed and analyzed at the end of the study. RESULTS Two groups were not statistically different in terms of total PANSS, QLS, SFS, GAF scores, and demographic characteristics at baseline. However, there was a significant improvement in the mean total QLS, SFS, GAF, and even in total PANSS scores (respectively from 64.46±19.58 to 89.67±24.10, Ppsychosocial skills training program for patients with schizophrenia. It can be concluded that this comprehensive psychosocial skills training program might be an important contribution to the functioning of the patients.

  14. Individual Differences in Adolescents' Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Functioning Moderate Associations between Family Environment and Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Lisa M.; Fagundes, Christopher P.; Cribbet, Matthew R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether individual differences in autonomic nervous system functioning interact with environmental risk factors to predict adolescents' psychosocial functioning. The authors assessed skin conductance and respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest and during laboratory stressors in 110 14-year-olds. Subsequently, adolescents and…

  15. Effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in improving communication and psychosocial exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B

    2007-07-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.

  16. Parenting, socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in Peruvian families and their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisse L. Manrique Millones

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relation between two dimensions of parenting (Positive Parenting and Negative Behavioral Control and child psychosocial functioning, such as self-worth and problem behavior. We investigated (a whether socioeconomic status moderates the relationship between parenting and child psychosocial outcomes, (b whether parenting mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychosocial functioning in a Peruvian context and finally, (c whether there are interaction effects between positive parenting and negative behavioral control. Information was gathered on 591 Peruvian children and their families from the normal population in urban zones of Metropolitan Lima. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate direct and indirect effects (mediation and moderation. Results revealed a significant mediation effect of positive parenting and negative behavioral control in the relationship between socioeconomic status and self-worth. Implications about the role played by context are discussed.

  17. Feeling well and talking about sex: psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning after cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes to sexual wellbeing are acknowledged to be a long-term negative consequence of cancer and cancer treatment. These changes can have a negative effect on psychological well-being, quality of life and couple relationships. Whilst previous conclusions are based on univariate analysis, multivariate research can facilitate examination of the complex interaction between sexual function and psycho-social variables such as psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and relationship satisfaction and communication in the context of cancer, the aim of the present study. Method Six hundred and fifty seven people with cancer (535 women, 122 men) and 148 partners (87 women, 61 men), across a range of sexual and non-sexual cancers, completed a survey consisting of standardized measures of sexual functioning, depression and anxiety, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, dyadic sexual communication, and self-silencing, as well as ratings of the importance of sex to life and relationships. Results Men and women participants, reported reductions in sexual functioning after cancer across cancer type, for both people with cancer and partners. Multiple regression analysis examined psycho-social predictors of sexual functioning. Physical quality of life was a predictor for men and women with cancer, and for male partners. Dyadic sexual communication was a predictor for women with cancer, and for men and women partners. Mental quality of life and depression were also predictors for women with cancer, and the lower self-sacrifice subscale of self-silencing a predictor for men with cancer. Conclusion These results suggest that information and supportive interventions developed to alleviate sexual difficulties and facilitate sexual renegotiation should be offered to men and women with both sexual and non-sexual cancers, rather than primarily focused on individuals with sexual and reproductive cancers, as is the case currently. It is also important to include partners

  18. Early Life Stress and Physical and Psychosocial Functioning in Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J. P.; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. Methods The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934–44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Results Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = −0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: −0.71 to −0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = −0.89, 95% CI: −1.58 to −0.20) and (b = −0.65, 95% CI: −1.25 to −0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = −0.70, 95% CI: −1.35 to −0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Conclusion Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood. PMID:23861956

  19. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Alastalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. METHODS: The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8% had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36 between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. RESULTS: Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08. Those men separated in school age (>7 years and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20 and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05, respectively. Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06. These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. CONCLUSION: Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  20. Psychosocial child adjustment and family functioning in families reached with an assertive outreach intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rots-de Vries; I. van de Goor; K. Stronks; H. Garretsen

    2011-01-01

    Families who experience a chronic complex of socio-economic and psychosocial problems are hard to reach with mainstream care. Evidence exists that the core of this problem is a problematic interaction between this type of family and current systems of care and services. To improve access to problem

  1. Psychosocial function of driving as redictor of risk-taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Gregersen, Nils Petter

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relation between risk-taking behaviour while driving, the psychosocial function of driving, leisure time activities, car oriented peer group interaction and educational attainment. Two thousand four hundred seventeen drivers aged 18-25, randomly selected from the Danish Dr...

  2. Effects of a Psychosocial Intervention on the Executive Functioning in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana; Presentacion, M. Jesus; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Jara, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of an intensive psychosocial intervention on the executive functioning (EF) in children with ADHD. The treatment was carried out in a coordinated manner over a period of 10 weeks with 27 children with ADHD aged 7 to 10, their parents, and their teachers. A battery of neuropsychological tasks was…

  3. Impact of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Functioning among Urban Jail Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jay Stone; Remy, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the impact of a horticultural therapy program on 48 county jail inmates. Examines the changes in psychosocial functioning of the participants while in treatment and in post-release. Explores the clinical relevance of horticultural therapy in cultivating healthy self-development. (MKA)

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL SKILLS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BIJSTRA, JO; BOSMA, HA; JACKSON, S

    1994-01-01

    This study discusses the relationship between adolescents' social skills and four indicators of psycho-social functioning, viz. self-esteem, well-being, coping and social support. A total of 660 adolescents, 13-15 years of age, responded to a series of self-report measures which referred to these se

  5. Perceptions of Career and Psychosocial Functions between Mentor and Protege Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the career and psychosocial functions that mentor teachers and their protege teachers believed occurred during the 2008-2009 mentoring relationship. This comparative survey study was conducted in a suburban middle-sized Florida school district. The target population for this study involved one group of…

  6. Psychosocial Functioning in Depressive Patients: A Comparative Study between Major Depressive Disorder and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD and bipolar affective disorder (BAD are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression. Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT. Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P=0.031 with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression.

  7. Changes in psychosocial functioning 1 year after mastectomy alone, delayed breast reconstruction, or immediate breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Semple, John; Quan, May-Lynn; Vadaparampil, Susan T; Holloway, Claire; Brown, Mitch; Bower, Bethanne; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report on the changes in psychosocial functioning over 1 year following breast cancer surgery in 3 groups of women, including those with mastectomy alone, those with mastectomy and immediate reconstruction, and those with delayed reconstruction. Women with breast cancer at 2 teaching hospitals in Ontario who were undergoing mastectomy alone, mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, or delayed reconstruction were asked to complete a battery of psychosocial questionnaires at their preoperative appointment and 1 year following surgery. A total of 190 women consented to participate in the study and completed the presurgical questionnaires. There were no presurgical differences between the 3 groups in quality of life, anxiety, depression, or sexual functioning. However, women who were undergoing delayed breast reconstruction (i.e., already had a mastectomy) had higher levels of body stigma (P = 0.01), body concerns (P = 0.002), and transparency (P = 0.002) than women who were undergoing mastectomy alone or mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. Of these women, 158 (83.2%) completed the 1-year follow-up. There were no significant differences in any of the psychosocial functioning scores between the 3 groups. Contrary to the assumed psychological benefits of breast reconstruction, psychological distress was evident among women regardless of reconstruction or timing of reconstruction. Further, psychosocial functioning (including quality of life, sexual functioning, cancer-related distress, body image, depression, and anxiety) was not different at 1-year postsurgery between women with mastectomy alone, mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, and delayed reconstruction. These results suggest that women need psychosocial support after breast cancer diagnosis, even if they have breast reconstruction.

  8. The importance of measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Vasco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is among the most disabling of mental illnesses and frequently causes impaired functioning. We explore issues of definition and terminology, and the relationship between social functioning, cognition, and psychopathology considering relevant research findings. Methods The present article describes measures of social functioning and outlines their psychometric properties. It considers their usefulness in research and clinical settings. Treatment aims and objectives are explored in the context of cognitive and social functioning. Finally, we identify areas for developing research and refining the measurement of social functioning. Results The definition and measurement of social functioning in schizophrenia remains a complex and disputed area. The relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning and social functioning are complex but we are beginning to understand them better. Scales for measuring functioning in clinical practice must be brief and sensitive to change and the Personal and Social Performance (PSP scale may offer several advantages in these regards. Brief cognitive assessments focusing upon the domains most commonly affected in schizophrenia, such as verbal memory and executive functions, should be coadministered with measures of functioning. Conclusions The use of validated scales for schizophrenia that are sensitive to change over the course of the illness and its treatment, should allow for a better understanding of patients' functional disabilities, enabling better and more comprehensive monitoring and evaluation of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment strategies.

  9. Alexithymia, Assertiveness and Psychosocial Functioning in HIV: Implications for Medication Adherence and Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Roger C; Ironson, Gail; Antoni, Michael; Fletcher, Mary Ann; Schneiderman, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Psychosocial function and adherence to antiretroviral regimen are key factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease management. Alexithymia (AL) is a trait deficit in the ability to identify and describe feelings, emotions and bodily sensations. A structural equation model was used to test whether high levels of AL indirectly relate to greater non-adherent behavior and HIV disease severity via psychosocial dysfunction. Blood draws for HIV-1 viral load and CD4 T-lymphocyte, along with psychosocial surveys were collected from 439 HIV positive adults aged 18-73 years. The structural model supports significant paths from: (1) AL to non-active patient involvement, psychological distress, and lower social support, (2) psychological distress and non-active involvement to non-adherent behavior, and (3) non-adherence to greater HIV disease severity (CFI = .97, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). A second model confirmed the intermediary effect of greater patient assertiveness on the path from AL to social support and non-active patient involvement (CFI = .94, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .05). Altogether, AL is indirectly linked with HIV disease management through it's association with poor psychosocial function, however greater patient assertiveness buffers the negative impact of AL on relationship quality with healthcare providers and members of one's social support network.

  10. Psychosocial deprivation, executive functions and the emergence of socio-emotional behavior problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Martin McDermott

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Early psychosocial deprivation can negatively impact the development of executive functions (EF. Here we explore the impact of early psychosocial deprivation on behavioral and physiological measures (i.e. event-related potentials; ERPs of two facets of EF, inhibitory control and response monitoring, and their associations with internalizing and externalizing outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP; Zeanah et al., 2003. This project focuses on two groups of children placed in institutions shortly after birth and then randomly assigned in infancy to either a foster care intervention or to remain in their current institutional setting. A group of community controls was recruited for comparison. The current study assesses these children at 8-years of age examining the effects of early adversity, the potential effects of the intervention on EF and the role of EF skills in socio-emotional outcomes. Results reveal exposure to early psychosocial deprivation was associated with impaired inhibitory control on a flanker task. Children in the foster care intervention exhibited stronger response monitoring compared to children who remained in the institution on the error-related positivity (Pe. Moreover, among children in the foster care intervention those who exhibited stronger error-related negativity (ERN responses had lower levels of socio-emotional behavior problems. Overall, these data identify specific aspects of EF that contribute to adaptive and maladaptive socio-emotional outcomes among children experiencing early psychosocial deprivation.

  11. Executive function and psychosocial adjustment in healthy children and adolescents: A latent variable modelling investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Adam R

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish latent executive function (EF) and psychosocial adjustment factor structure, to examine associations between EF and psychosocial adjustment, and to explore potential development differences in EF-psychosocial adjustment associations in healthy children and adolescents. Using data from the multisite National Institutes of Health (NIH) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Study of Normal Brain Development, the current investigation examined latent associations between theoretically and empirically derived EF factors and emotional and behavioral adjustment measures in a large, nationally representative sample of children and adolescents (7-18 years old; N = 352). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was the primary method of data analysis. CFA results revealed that, in the whole sample, the proposed five-factor model (Working Memory, Shifting, Verbal Fluency, Externalizing, and Internalizing) provided a close fit to the data, χ(2)(66) = 114.48, p psychosocial adjustment associations. Findings indicate that childhood EF skills are best conceptualized as a constellation of interconnected yet distinguishable cognitive self-regulatory skills. Individual differences in certain domains of EF track meaningfully and in expected directions with emotional and behavioral adjustment indices. Externalizing behaviors, in particular, are associated with latent Working Memory and Verbal Fluency factors.

  12. Family dynamics and psychosocial functioning in children with SCI/D from Colombia, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolais, Christina J.; Perrin, Paul B.; Panyavin, Ivan; Nicholls, Elizabeth G.; Olivera Plaza, Silvia Leonor; Quintero, Lorena Medina; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the connections between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with spinal cord injuries and disorders (SCI/D). Design Cross-sectional. Setting Participants were recruited from communities in Neiva, Colombia. Participants Thirty children with SCI/D and their primary caregiver participated. Children were between 8 and 17 years of age, and had sustained their injury at least six months prior to data collection. Interventions NA. Outcome measures Participating children completed measures assessing their own psychosocial functioning (Children's Depression Inventory, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-2, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory), and their primary caregiver completed measures of family dynamics (Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale- Fourth Edition, Family Communication Scale, Family Assessment Device- General Functioning, Family Satisfaction Scale, Relationship-Focused Coping Scale). Results A correlation matrix showed a number of significant bivariate correlations between child and family variables, and three multiple regressions showed that family satisfaction, empathy, and flexibility significantly explained 27% of the variance in child worry; family satisfaction and communication explained 18% of the variance in child social anxiety; and family cohesion and communication explained 23% of the variance in child emotional functioning. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of rehabilitation professionals considering the association between family dynamics and the psychosocial functioning of children with SCI/D when working with this population. PMID:25582185

  13. Psychological consequences of congenital hypothyroidism: Cognitive, motor and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluijs Veer, L.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that although the development of children with (permanent) congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is considerably improved by early treatment as a result of neonatal screening, they are still at risk for motor and cognitive problems. This applies especially for children with severe CH. Fin

  14. [Psychosocial functioning in non-psychiatric acute and chronic inpatients: depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arancibia, Marcelo; Behar, Rosa; Marín, Sofía; Inzunza, Nicolás; Madrid, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Depression, alexithymia, and lack of assertiveness interfere with individual psychosocial functioning and may result in longer hospitalization stay and poorer therapeutic results. To analyze the psychosocial functioning in acute and chronic patients and its association with psychological, clinical and sociodemographic variables. We performed a cross-sectional study that included 80 inpatients of both sexes with organic pathology, aged between 18 to 70 years old, without any current psychiatric disorder. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected from a semi-structured interview and hospital records. Beck Depression Inventory-IA, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Rathus Assertiveness Scale were administered. Fifty five percent of patients had some degree of depression, 33% alexithymia and 34% lack of assertiveness. The levels of depression, alexithymia and lack of assertiveness in chronic patients were significantly higher than those observed in acute patients. Women and participants older than 60 years exhibited the highest degrees of depression. Alexithymia and lack of assertiveness were associated with a lower educational level. A negative significant correlation between alexithymia and assertiveness scores was observed among acute patients. Participants with chronic diseases had a lower psychosocial functioning. Less educated patients showed more alexithymic and less assertive features. We emphasized the need of a better management of these aspects by the health team, since social functioning might interfere with the outcome of physical illnesses.

  15. A prospective study of mastectomy patients with and without delayed breast reconstruction: long-term psychosocial functioning in the breast cancer survivorship period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Zhong, Toni; Narod, Steven A; Quan, May-Lynn; Holloway, Claire; Hofer, Stefan; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Semple, John

    2015-03-01

    For women who have mastectomy, breast reconstruction is an option which may improve psychosocial functioning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in psychosocial functioning over a long follow-up period after mastectomy, specifically examining the differences between those with mastectomy alone and those who underwent postmastectomy delayed breast reconstruction (DBR). This was a prospective longitudinal survey study of women with mastectomy in which a repeated measures design was used to compare psychosocial function scores over 3 timepoints: 1) pre-mastectomy; 2) one year post-mastectomy; and 3) long-term post-mastectomy (mean 6.3 years). In addition, psychosocial functioning was compared between the mastectomy alone group and the group who elected for DBR. 67 women who completed questionnaires at all three time points were included. The long-term follow-up time post-mastectomy was 75.2 months (6.3 years). Twenty-eight women (41.8%) underwent DBR in the study period. For the entire cohort, between one-year and long-term post-mastectomy, there were significant improvements in scores for body concerns (P = 0.03), cancer-related distress (P = 0.01), and total distress (P = 0.04). At long-term follow-up, women with DBR had significantly higher levels of total distress (P = 0.01), obsessiveness (P = 0.03), and cancer-related distress (P = 0.02) compared to those with mastectomy alone. There were no differences in quality of life between the two groups at any time point. Psychosocial functioning improves over time in patients treated with mastectomy in the long-term breast cancer survivorship period, which may be related to the effect of time post-treatment, rather than an effect of choice for or against DBR. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Same-sex attraction, social relationships, psychosocial functioning, and school performance in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M W; Sandfort, Theo G M; de Bruyn, Eddy H; Hakvoort, Esther M

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of social relationships. Data were collected from 866 Dutch high school students (mean age 13.61 years) by means of a computer-based questionnaire. Of the participants, 74 (8.5%) reported having feelings of SSA. The participants with SSA rated the quality of their relationships with their fathers and their peers lower than did those without SSA. Participants with SSA also had poorer mental health (higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-esteem) and lower school performance. A mediation analysis revealed that differences in psychosocial functioning resulted from differences in the quality of the same-sex attracted youths' social relationships, especially with fathers and peers.

  17. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theodorus; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual

  18. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theodorus; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual im

  19. Physical and psychosocial functioning following motor vehicle trauma: relationships with chronic pain, posttraumatic stress, and medication use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Joshua D; Masci, Jarod; Bennett, Shira A; Beck, J Gayle

    2010-04-01

    Chronic pain and PTSD are known to hold substantial comorbidity following traumatic injury. Although pharmacological agents have been examined in the treatment of pain and PTSD individually, little is known regarding the relationship of medication use with functioning in patients with comorbid conditions. This research examined the relationships of pain, PTSD, and medication use across physical and psychosocial functioning in patients with chronic pain following motor vehicle injury (N=234). Separate analyses were conducted for opioids, SSRIs, and sedative/anxiolytics, respectively. Several relevant effects were noted: (1) Pain evidenced strong associations with reduced functioning across both physical and psychosocial domains, (2) Opioid use held interactive relationships with PTSD across both functioning domains. Specifically, opioids were associated with greater physical impairment in patients without comorbid PTSD. Opioids also were related to greater psychosocial impairment in patients without PTSD while PTSD was associated with greater impairment in patients not using opioids, (3) Opioid use evidenced a marginal interaction with pain on psychosocial functioning. Opioids were associated with greater psychosocial impairment among patients with high-pain, and high-pain was associated with greater impairment among opioid users, (4) SSRIs held a marginal interaction with PTSD such that PTSD was related to poorer psychosocial functioning only among individuals not using an SSRI, and (5) Anxiolytic use evidenced a marginal interaction with PTSD on physical functioning although no between-group differences were noted. These data suggest that PTSD symptomology may be an important consideration in determining treatment modality for patients experiencing pain subsequent to traumatic injury.

  20. Sense of humor, childhood cancer stressors, and outcomes of psychosocial adjustment, immune function, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Jacqueline S; Hockenberry, Marilyn; Gregory, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis, treatment, and side effects of childhood cancer have been described as extremely stressful experiences in the life of a child. Anecdotally, children report that a sense of humor helps them cope with the daily experiences of living with cancer; however, no research has examined sense of humor and childhood cancer stressors. This study investigated the effect of sense of humor on the relationship between cancer stressors and children's psychosocial adjustment to cancer, immune function, and infection using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. A direct relationship was observed between sense of humor and psychosocial adjustment to cancer, such that children with a high sense of humor had greater psychological adjustment, regardless of the amount of cancer stressors. A moderating effect was observed for incidence of infection. As childhood cancer stressors increase, children with high coping humor scores reported fewer incidences of infection than low scorers.

  1. A comparison of psychosocial and cognitive functioning between depressed and non-depressed patients with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secora, Alex M; Eddie, David; Wyman, Bertram J; Brooks, Daniel J; Mariani, John J; Levin, Frances R

    2010-07-01

    Cannabis use and depressive disorders are thought to impair cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning. Both disorders co-occurring may compound the negative effects of these diagnoses. In this study, the authors used the California Computerized Assessment Package as the cognitive performance measure and the Addiction Severity Index as the psychosocial functioning measure to compare individuals who were cannabis dependent and either depressed or not depressed (N= 108: 54 cannabis dependent only, 54 cannabis dependent and depressed or dysthymic). As predicted, cannabis dependent individuals with comorbid depression showed more psychosocial impairment than individuals with cannabis dependence alone. However, contrary to the authors' hypothesis, individuals who were cannabis dependent with comorbid depression showed less cognitive impairment in some California Computerized Assessment Package modules than individuals with cannabis dependence alone. Based on the authors' results, they concluded that the additive effects of cannabis dependency and depression may only be limited to psychosocial domains and may not extend to cognitive functioning.

  2. Impairment in psychosocial functioning in patients with different subtypes of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Meira Moser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine psychosocial functioning in eating disorder (ED patients with restrictive and purgative subtypes. METHOD: Forty-four adult female patients with a diagnosis of ED were divided into restrictive (RP and purgative (PP groups according the presence of purgative symptoms. Functioning was assessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF. RESULTS: No differences were found in total FAST scores or in specific domains between the RP (39.58±11.92 and PP (45.75±11.75 groups (p = 0.19. However, PP showed more severe functional impairment than RP in the financial domain (p < 0.01. There were no differences in comorbidity with mood disorders, depressive symptoms, or general psychiatric symptoms between the two ED subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: The similarities found between PP and PR in overall functioning and in autonomy, cognition, work, interpersonal relationships, and leisure seem to reflect the use of an objective scale that corresponds to the clinical impression. In fact, the assessment of psychosocial functioning in ED patients using self-report instruments requires careful consideration because results may reflect the egosyntonic nature of symptoms commonly observed in these patients, particularly in the restrictive subtype.

  3. Quantifying the Relationship Among Hospital Design, Satisfaction, and Psychosocial Functioning in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Inpatient Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman-Bien, Sandra A.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott; Varni, James W.; Katz, Ernest R.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, empirical support demonstrates that the built environment may affect the physical and psychosocial well-being of patients, their families, and hospital staff (Beauchemin & Hays, 1996; Rubin, Owens, & Golden, 1998; Sherman, Varni, Ulrich, & Malcarne, 2005; Ulrich, 1991; Varni et al., 2004; Whitehouse et al., 2001). Investigators posit two mechanisms through which the built environment can impact patients: indirectly, by enhancing the quality of care and helping a patient feel more relaxed; and/or directly, by altering the physiological recovery process (Malcolm, 1992). Several literature reviews have been published on the relationship between the hospital built environment and patient outcomes (Joseph, Keller, & Kronick, 2008; Rubin et al., 1998; Sherman, Shepley, & Varni, 2005; Ulrich, Quan, Zimring, Joseph, & Choudhary, 2004). In their 1998 review, Rubin et al. found studies linking environment with a number of health and satisfaction outcomes but little research that had been conducted in a scientifically valid manner. Ulrich et al.'s 2004 review of the role of the physical environment in hospital design identified a number of more rigorously conducted studies, focusing mainly on adult environments and on issues of medical safety and hospital-acquired infection rates. Their conclusions linked environmental features such as noise to an increase in perceived stress and physiological arousal; exposure to natural light to reductions in depression, length of hospital stay, and pain medications and to improved sleep; and hospital gardens to improved physical and psychosocial functioning (Ulrich et al., 2004). PMID:21960191

  4. Children's psychosocial functioning and parents' quality of life in paediatric short stature: The mediating role of caregiving stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neuza; Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja; Witt, Stefanie; Quitmann, Julia

    2017-09-27

    On the basis of the multidimensional model of the caregiving process, this study aimed (a) to compare the levels of quality of life (QoL) and psychological problems of children with short stature and the levels of caregiving stress and QoL of their parents, between diagnostic, treatment, and current height deviation groups, and (b) to examine the direct and indirect links, via caregiving stress, between children's psychosocial functioning and their parents' QoL. The sample was collected in 5 European countries and comprised 238 dyads of 8- to 18-year-old children and adolescents with a clinical diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency or idiopathic short stature and one of their parents. The children completed self-report measures of height-related QoL (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Core Module) and psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); the parents reported on their own QoL (EUROHIS-QOL-8 Index) and caregiving stress (Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth Effects on Parents subscale). Children who were treated and who achieved normal height reported better QoL compared to those untreated and with current short stature. Parents of children with idiopathic short stature and current short stature presented greater caregiving stress than parents of children with growth hormone deficiency and achieved normal height. Children's better psychosocial functioning was indirectly associated with parents' better QoL, via less caregiving stress, and these links were invariant across diagnoses, treatment status, and current height deviation. These results suggest that, along with growth hormone treatments, multidisciplinary interventions in paediatric endocrinology should be family-centred, by targeting both the children's psychosocial functioning and the parents' stress, in order to improve individual and family adaptation. Key Practitioner Message Height-related quality of life impairments and more internalizing problems in children and

  5. Family Functioning in First-Episode and Chronic Psychosis: The Role of Patient's Symptom Severity and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutra, Katerina; Triliva, Sofia; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basta, Maria; Lionis, Christos; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between illness-related characteristics, such as symptom severity and psychosocial functioning, and specific aspects of family functioning both in patients experiencing their first episode of psychosis (FEP) and chronically ill patients. A total of 50 FEP and 50 chronic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (most recent episode manic severe with psychotic features) and their family caregivers participated in the study. Family functioning was evaluated in terms of cohesion and flexibility (FACES IV Package), expressed emotion (FQ), family burden (FBS) and caregivers' psychological distress (GHQ-28). Patients' symptom severity (BPRS) and psychosocial functioning (GAS) were assessed by their treating psychiatrist within 2 weeks from the caregivers' assessment. Increased symptom severity was associated with greater dysfunction in terms of family cohesion and flexibility (β coefficient -0.13; 95 % CI -0.23, -0.03), increased caregivers' EE levels on the form of emotional overinvolvement (β coefficient 1.03; 95 % CI 0.02, 2.03), and psychological distress (β coefficient 3.37; 95 % CI 1.29, 5.45). Family burden was found to be significantly related to both symptom severity (β coefficient 3.01; 95 % CI 1.50, 4.51) and patient's functioning (β coefficient -2.04; 95 % CI -3.55, -0.53). No significant interaction effect of chronicity was observed in the afore-mentioned associations. These findings indicate that severe psychopathology and patient's low psychosocial functioning are associated with poor family functioning. It appears that the effect for family function is significant from the early stages of the illness. Thus, early psychoeducational interventions should focus on patients with severe symptomatology and impaired functioning and their families.

  6. Psychosocial and metabolic function by smoking status in individuals with binge eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Morgan, Peter; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) report smoking to control appetite and weight. Smoking in BED is associated with increased risk for comorbid psychiatric disorders, but its impact on psychosocial functioning and metabolic function has not been evaluated. Participants were 429 treatment-seeking adults (72.4% women; mean age 46.2±11.0years old) with BED comorbid with obesity. Participants were categorized into current smokers (n=66), former smokers (n=145), and never smokers (n=218). Smoking status was unrelated to most historical eating/weight variables and to current eating disorder psychopathology. Smoking status was associated with psychiatric, psychosocial, and metabolic functioning. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were more likely to meet lifetime diagnostic criteria for alcohol (OR=5.51 [95% CI=2.46-12.33]) and substance use disorders (OR=7.05 [95% CI=3.37-14.72]), poorer current physical quality of life, and increased risk for metabolic syndrome (OR=1.80 [95% CI=0.97-3.35]) and related metabolic risks (reduced HDL, elevated total cholesterol). On the other hand, the odds of meeting criteria for lifetime psychiatric comorbidity or metabolic abnormalities were not significantly greater in former smokers, relative to never smokers. Our findings suggest the importance of promoting smoking cessation in treatment-seeking patients with BED and obesity for its potential long-term implications for psychiatric and metabolic functioning.

  7. Psychosocial functioning and intelligence both partly explain socioeconomic inequalities in premature death. A population-based male cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Falkstedt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The possible contributions of psychosocial functioning and intelligence differences to socioeconomic status (SES-related inequalities in premature death were investigated. None of the previous studies focusing on inequalities in mortality has included measures of both psychosocial functioning and intelligence. METHODS: The study was based on a cohort of 49 321 men born 1949-1951 from the general community in Sweden. Data on psychosocial functioning and intelligence from military conscription at ∼18 years of age were linked with register data on education, occupational class, and income at 35-39 years of age. Psychosocial functioning was rated by psychologists as a summary measure of differences in level of activity, power of initiative, independence, and emotional stability. Intelligence was measured through a multidimensional test. Causes of death between 40 and 57 years of age were followed in registers. RESULTS: The estimated inequalities in all-cause mortality by education and occupational class were attenuated with 32% (95% confidence interval: 20-45% and 41% (29-52% after adjustments for individual psychological differences; both psychosocial functioning and intelligence contributed to account for the inequalities. The inequalities in cardiovascular and injury mortality were attenuated by as much as 51% (24-76% and 52% (35-68% after the same adjustments, and the inequalities in alcohol-related mortality were attenuated by up to 33% (8-59%. Less of the inequalities were accounted for when those were measured by level of income, with which intelligence had a weaker correlation. The small SES-related inequalities in cancer mortality were not attenuated by adjustment for intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in psychosocial functioning and intelligence might both contribute to the explanation of observed SES-related inequalities in premature death, but the magnitude of their contributions likely varies with measure of

  8. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

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    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  9. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A; Kemp, Andrew H; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model. Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  10. Value stream mapping as a tool for systematic employee based improvement of the psychosocial work environment in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Starheim, Liv; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2016-01-01

    are selected and analysed in employee groups. VSM is followed up by collection of data and development of solutions. Results from the practical test show that VSM and process data provide new insights to the employees which help to improve the psychosocial work environment. However, working across departmental......Problems in communication and coordination in hospitals often hamper operations and constitute important stress factor for the staff. A specific methodology (P-lean) based on value stream mapping (VSM) has been developed and tested in practice. Key processes with a potential for psychosocial strain...

  11. Value stream mapping as a tool for systematic employee based improvement of the psychosocial work environment in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Starheim, Liv; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2016-01-01

    are selected and analysed in employee groups. VSM is followed up by collection of data and development of solutions. Results from the practical test show that VSM and process data provide new insights to the employ-ees which help to improve the psychosocial work environment. However, working across......Problems in communication and coordination in hospitals often hamper operations and constitute important stress factor for the staff. A specific methodology (P-lean) based on value stream mapping (VSM) has been developed and tested in practice. Key processes with a potential for psychosocial strain...

  12. Improving the psychosocial work environment at multi-ethnic workplaces: a multi-component intervention strategy in the cleaning industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Hardman; Hviid, Kirsten; Frydendall, Karen Bo; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2013-10-14

    Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  13. Improving the Psychosocial Work Environment at Multi-Ethnic Workplaces: A Multi-Component Intervention Strategy in the Cleaning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Ann Flyvholm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Global labour migration has increased in recent years and immigrant workers are often recruited into low status and low paid jobs such as cleaning. Research in a Danish context shows that immigrants working in the cleaning industry often form social networks based on shared languages and backgrounds, and that conflict between different ethnic groups may occur. This paper evaluates the impact of a multi-component intervention on the psychosocial work environment at a multi-ethnic Danish workplace in the cleaning sector. The intervention included Danish lessons, vocational training courses, and activities to improve collaboration across different groups of cleaners. Interviews about the outcome of the intervention were conducted with the cleaners and their supervisor. The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire was used as a supplement to the interviews. The results suggest that the psychosocial work environment had improved after the intervention. According to the interviews with the cleaners, the intervention had led to improved communication, trust, and collaboration. These findings are supported by the questionnaire where social support from supervisor and colleagues, social community, trust, and teamwork seem to have improved together with meaning of work, rewards, and emotional demands. The design of the intervention may provide inspiration for future psychosocial work environment interventions at multi-ethnic work places.

  14. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were asses

  15. Early detection of psychosocial problems in children aged 5 to 6 years by preventive child healthcare: Has it improved?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, M.H.C.; Vogels, A.G.C.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether the quality of identification of psychosocial problems by preventive child healthcare professionals (CHPs) in children aged 5-6 years has improved after a series of nationwide interventions. Study design: We analyzed data about 8440 children aged 5-6 years who were

  16. Predicting functional remission in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, functioning, and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Valencia,1 Ana Fresán,2 Yoram Barak,3 Francisco Juárez,1 Raul Escamilla,4 Ricardo Saracco41Division of Epidemiological and Psychosocial Research, 2Division of Clinical Research, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Psychiatry Department, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 4Schizophrenia Clinic, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: New approaches to assess outcome in schizophrenia include multidimensional measures such as remission, cognition, psychosocial functioning, and quality of life. Clinical and psychosocial measures have been recently introduced to assess functional outcome.Objective: The study presented here was designed to examine the rates of symptomatic remission, psychosocial remission, global functioning, and clinical global impressions in a sample of schizophrenia outpatients in order to assess functional remission and to identify predictive factors for functional remission.Methods: A total of 168 consecutive Mexican outpatients receiving pharmacological treatment at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Symptomatic remission was assessed according to the definition and criteria proposed by the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale. Psychosocial remission was assessed according to Barak criteria using the Psychosocial Remission in Schizophrenia scale. Functioning was measured with the Global Assessment of Functioning, and clinical outcome with the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI Scale.Results: Findings showed that 45.2% of patients fulfilled the symptomatic remission criteria, 32.1% achieved psychosocial remission, and 53% reported adequate functioning. However, the combination of these three outcome criteria – symptomatic, psychosocial remission, and functioning – indicated that 14.9% of the

  17. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships. We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia to 20.9% (sad mood. Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.

  18. Cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: A cross-sectional study at a tertiary care trauma center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI constitutes a significant public health problem. Objectives: To assess cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome in patients with severe TBI (STBI. Materials and Methods: A total of 77 survivors of STBI treated at our center were prospectively assessed in the outpatient department 1 year after the injury. These patients were assessed for cognitive, functional, and psychosocial outcome using cognitive outcome tests, dysfunctional analysis questionnaire, and personality trait inventory, respectively. Cognitive and functional outcome was graded as average and above average recovery (good recovery or below average recovery (poor recovery. Psychosocial outcome was assessed as average recovery (good recovery or mild impairment and severe impairment (poor to very poor recovery. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and Fisher′s exact tests. Results: The ability to learn new things was most affected aspect of cognitive function and only 1% of patients had good recovery in this domain. However, 44% had good outcome for simple memory. A total of 61% showed good recovery in several aspects of functional status. At the end of 1 year, 62.5% patients still remained unemployed. 45.4% patients had good recovery, while 37% had severe impairment for various personality traits and 40% of patients had impaired emotional stability, while 57% patients showed impaired recovery in depressive tendency. Conclusion: In this study 61% patients with STBI had good recovery in functional outcome and 45.4% in psychosocial outcome at 1 year follow-up. However, improvement in cognitive outcome was not so optimistic with the ability to learn new things being most affected.

  19. Achievement for All: improving psychosocial outcomes for students with special educational needs and disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Neil; Lendrum, Ann; Barlow, Alexandra; Wigelsworth, Michael; Squires, Garry

    2013-04-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of experiencing poor psychosocial outcomes. Developing effective interventions that address the cause of these outcomes has therefore become a major policy priority in recent years. We report on a national evaluation of the Achievement for All (AfA) programme that was designed to improve outcomes for students with SEND through: (1) academic assessment, tracking and intervention, (2) structured conversations with parents, and (3) developing provision to improve wider outcomes (e.g. positive relationships). Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test control group design, we assessed the impact of AfA on teacher ratings of the behaviour problems, positive relationships and bullying of students with SEND over an 18-month period. Participants were 4758 students with SEND drawn from 323 schools across England. Our main impact analysis demonstrated that AfA had a significant impact on all three response variables when compared to usual practice. Hierarchical linear modelling of data from the intervention group highlighted a range of school-level contextual factors and implementation activities and student-level individual differences that moderated the impact of AfA on our study outcomes. The implications of our findings are discussed, and study strengths and limitations are noted.

  20. Self-assessment of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthognathic surgery is a well-accepted treatment for patients with skeletal discrepancies. The primary motivation of many patients who seek orthognathic surgery is esthetics and not for correction of functional disability. The treatment is incomplete if the surgeon attempts to correct the physical deformity alone without adequate understanding and regard for the emotional framework. The purpose of this study is aimed at patient′s self-perceptions of facial form oral function and psychosocial function before and after orthognathic surgery. Fifty patients were included in the study, of which 21 were used as control. Twenty-two questions were asked to evaluate the problem in all four areas as mentioned earlier. Each question takes a score from one to five. In group I, the internal consistency of each scale indicates moderate to high internal reliability, ranging from α = 0.71 for general health to α = 0.88 for psychosocial problem. In group II, except for functional problems, the internal consistency of each scale has moderate to high reliability. The psychological wellbeing of an orthognathic surgery patient is enhanced by careful preoperative counseling regarding the expected surgical treatment objectives, the operative course, and the expected postoperative sequelae. Patients who undergo orthognathic surgery readily accept the changes in their postoperative appearance and are satisfied with achieved results.

  1. XYY syndrome and other Y chromosome polysomies. Mental status and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryns, J P; Kleczkowska, A; Kubień, E; Van den Berghe, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we review the data on 75 male patients with extra Y chromosome diagnosed in Leuven in the period 1968-1993 among 98,725 patients (males and females) referred for constitutional chromosomal analysis. Special attention was given to their mental performance and psychosocial functioning. 1. Fifty male with 47,XYY karyotype were diagnosed. This is very close to the incidence of XYY in newborn studies and indicates that the frequency of MR/MCA is not increased in XYY male in general. 2. In the 60 patients with "pure" Y chromosome polysomy, the most frequent indication for karyotyping was the presence of MR and/or characterological problems in the index patients. Mental retardation was mostly borderline to mild, and severe mental retardation was rare. Characterological problems, difficulties in psychosocial integration and psychiatric problems were found in 86% of the mentally retarded versus 24% of the mentally normal men. 3. The 48,XXYY syndrome is characterized by markedly frequent and severe behavioural and psychiatric problems.

  2. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

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    Mirela P. Vasconcelos-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD, in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36, unaffected siblings (n=35, and healthy controls (n=44. Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST. A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21, unaffected siblings (n=14, and healthy controls (n=22 also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Results: Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35 than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001 and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001. Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008. Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030 and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030. Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Conclusion: Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  3. Professional Identification of Psychosocial Problems among Children from Ethnic Minority Groups: Room for Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crone, M.R.; Bekkema, N.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of child health care professionals (CHP) in identifying psychosocial problems among children originating from industrialized and nonindustrialized countries and to assess whether parental concerns enhance CHP problem-identification. Study design: During routine

  4. Self-rated health, psychosocial functioning, and other dimensions of adolescent health in Central and Eastern European adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy M. Page

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Although studied extensively among adults, self-rated health (SRH has not received the same research attention among adolescents. It has been suggested that SRH in adolescents may be a function of adolescents' overall sense of functioning and may reflect psychosocial functioning more so than in adults. The rating of health as poor by adolescents might be a somatic expression of life distress and may be connected with risky behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate self-rated health (SRH in Central and Eastern European (CEE adolescents and determine its association with psychosocial functioning and other dimensions of adolescent health. Methods: A survey was administered to 3,123 students in 34 secondary schools across CEE which included measures of SRH, psychosocial functioning (loneliness, hopelessness, shyness, perceptions of social status, self-rated happiness, and perception of physical attractiveness, and other dimensions of adolescent health (height/weight, physical activity, eating breakfast, sleep. Results: More girls (19.4 % than boys (11.3 % rated themselves as "not healthy" and this was true in each of the six countries. Significant predictors of SRH in the logistic regression model were gender, country of residence, hopelessness, shyness, subjective social status-society, self-rated happiness, perception of physical attractiveness, vigorous physical activity, eating breakfast, overweight status, and usually get 7-8 hours or more sleep a night. Conclusions: SRH appears to be associated with psychosocial functioning and other dimensions of adolescent health in CEE youth.

  5. Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Bos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of early institutional care on memory and executive functioning. Subjects were participants in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP and included institutionalized children, children with a history of institutionalization who were assigned to a foster care intervention, and community children in Bucharest, Romania. Memory and executive functioning were assessed at the age of eight years using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test and Automated Battery (CANTAB. As expected, children with a history of early institutional care performed worse on measures of both visual memory and executive functioning compared to their peers without a history of institutional care. In comparing children randomly assigned to the foster care intervention with their peers who had continued care in the institution, initial comparisons did not show significant differences on any of the memory or executive functioning outcomes. However, for one of the measures of executive functioning, after controlling for birth weight, head circumference, and duration of time spent in early institutional care, the foster care intervention was a significant predictor of scores. These results support and extend previous findings of deficits in memory and executive functioning among school-age children with a history of early deprivation due to institutional care. This study has implications for the millions of children who continue to experience the psychosocial deprivation associated with early institutional care.

  6. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  7. Connection between emotional intelligence and some aspects of psychosocial functioning in elementary and secondary school pupils

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    Sonja Pečjak

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of measuring emotional intelligence in children and adolescents and on the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and some aspects of psychosocial functioning in elementary and secondary school pupils. Basically there are two main approaches to the measurement of emotional intelligence: the first approach comprehends emotional intelligence as an ability and the second approach as a range of personality traits. In our research we used BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQ-i:YV, 2000, which measures emotional intelligence as a personality trait. The purpose of the article is twofold: first, to check the psychometric characteristics of the questionnaire, and second, to establish the connection between emotional intelligence and some indicators of psychosocial functioning - social acceptance of the pupils in the class, different dimensions of self-concept and the perceptions of the pupils from their schoolmates on different fields of behavior. On the sample of 282 pupils we have found out that EQ-i:YV has an appropriate reliability and factorial validity, but the construct validity of the instrument is questionable. Emotional intelligence as measured by the questionnaire we have used is not significantly connected with measures of social acceptance and perceptions of the pupils from their peers in different fields of behavior. We established a significant connection between measures of emotional intelligence and the pupil's self-concept. Our results confirm the findings of other authors that in further investigation of emotional intelligence the instruments which measure emotional intelligence as an ability should be developed.

  8. Psychosocial functioning in Dutch foster children: The relationship with child, family, and placement characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-06-01

    Foster care is the preferred alternative for out-of-home care, but not necessarily beneficial for foster children's psychosocial functioning. This dilemma leaves researchers with a challenge to find out more about the factors related to foster children's social and emotional functioning. In a sample of 446 Dutch foster children we examined the extent to which three clusters of characteristics, those akin to the foster child, the foster family, or foster placement, were related to foster children's functioning at the time of research. Multivariate three-step hierarchical regression analyses were performed for three outcome variables: externalizing problems, internalizing problems, and prosocial behavior. We found that all three clusters of foster care characteristics were significantly related to foster children's functioning. Foster placement characteristics, in particular interventions aimed at foster children, explained the largest amount of variance in behavior problems. Children receiving interventions had more externalizing and internalizing problems. A possible explanation is that interventions are indicated for those foster children who are in the highest need of additional support. Prosocial behavior was particularly related to foster family characteristics. The results were mostly in line with international research. Careful screening and monitoring of the social and emotional functioning of foster children may help to identify problems at an early stage. In addition (preventive) support should be offered to those foster children and families who are in need of it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study......Long-term follow-up on total reconstruction of the temporomandibular joint - functional, psychosocial and radiological assessments in a case-series study...

  10. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822345

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes

  11. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  12. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  13. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theo P. B. M.; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual impairments (aged 55 and older) who were referred…

  14. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  15. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suic

  16. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  17. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suic

  18. Open-Trial Pilot Study of a Comprehensive Outpatient Psychosocial Treatment for Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Lipinski, Alanna M.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Donnelly, James P.; McDonald, Christin A.; Volker, Martin A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility and initial outcomes of a comprehensive outpatient psychosocial treatment (MAXout) for children aged 7-12 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder. The 18-week treatment, two 90-minute sessions per week, included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social/social communication skills,…

  19. Investigating the Effects of Asthma Medication on the Cognitive and Psychosocial Functioning of Primary School Children with Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of asthma medication on the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of primary school children with asthma are investigated. A questionnaire survey was conducted in a primary school in Stellenbosch (South Africa) with a population of six hundred and thirty-five students. Among these students, fifty-nine asthmatic children were…

  20. Family Violence and Aggression and Their Associations with Psychosocial Functioning in Jamaican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Delores E.; Moore, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationships among selected family interaction variables and psychosocial outcomes in a sample of Jamaican adolescents. The authors hypothesized that adolescent psychosocial outcomes would be negatively associated with physical violence, verbal aggression would be more potent than physical…

  1. Psychosocial and Functional Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of Osteosarcoma: A Comparison of Limb-Salvage Surgery and Amputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Rhonda S.; Ottaviani, Giulia; Huh, Winston W.; Palla, Shana; Jaffe, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Background Traditionally, physicians have believed that limb-salvage surgery has functional and cosmetic advantages over amputation, yet the literature is equivocal. Therefore, we sought to compare the psychosocial and functional outcomes in osteosarcoma survivors after limb-salvage surgery and amputation. We hypothesized there to be neither psychosocial nor functional outcome differences between groups. Procedure Participants received treatment of extremity osteosarcoma, had received their cancer diagnosis at least 2 years prior, and were at least 16 years old. A comprehensive set of validated psychosocial and functional measures was used to assess outcome. Results Fifty-seven patients participated in this study (33 who underwent limb-salvage surgery and 24 who underwent amputation). Participants had gone 12–24 years since diagnosis and were 16–52 years old at study participation. We used multiple linear regression models to examine differences in quality of life, body image, self-esteem, and social support between the two groups and found no differences. Lower limb function was a significant predictor of quality of life (p amputation, amputation after failed limb salvage, than by those who did not. Conclusions Participants with more functional lower limbs had better quality of life than did those with less functional lower limbs regardless of whether they underwent amputation or limb-salvage surgery. PMID:20135700

  2. Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning in Women with MRKHS after Neovaginoplasty According to Wharton-Sheares-George: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Katharina; Naderer, Andrea; Hartung, Dorothee; Abrahamowicz, Clara; Alexopoulos, Johanna; Walch, Katharina; Wenzl, René; Hilger, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) has a major impact on a woman's psychological and sexual well-being. In most of the studies that addressed treatment techniques, postoperative sexual function was reported to be satisfactory; however, comparatively few studies have additionally provided an accurate analysis of psychosocial functions in MRKHS patients following different kinds of neovaginal treatment. This study is to evaluate sexual and psychosocial functioning after creation of a neovagina according to Wharton-Sheares-George in women with MRKHS. We performed a case-control-study using multiple measures to assess sexual and psychosocial functioning. Ten MRKHS patients and 20 controls of a University hospital and tertiary center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology were assessed. The follow-up assessment comprised 6 standardized questionnaires (Female Sexuality Function Index, FSFI; Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ; Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, WHOQoL-BREF; Parental Bonding Instrument, PBI; and a German questionnaire on body image). The main outcome measures were sexual function, psychological status, quality of life, body image, and parental bonding styles. Sexual function, psychological status (including depressive and somatic symptoms), quality of life, and own-body experience were at least as good in operated MRKHS patients as in controls. In some measures (FSFI, PHQ-15, psychological domain of the WHOQoL-BREF, and BSI Positive Symptom Total), patients scored significantly better than controls. The results of the PBI indicated a close and sustainable mother-daughter-relationship in MRKHS patients. We found no evidence for an impairment of sexual or psychosocial functioning in patients after neovaginoplasty according to Wharton-Sheares-George. MRKHS may not necessarily compromise sexual and psychological well-being, provided that the syndrome is properly managed by a multidisciplinary team

  3. Sexual and Psychosocial Functioning in Women with MRKHS after Neovaginoplasty According to Wharton-Sheares-George: A Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Leithner

    Full Text Available Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS has a major impact on a woman's psychological and sexual well-being. In most of the studies that addressed treatment techniques, postoperative sexual function was reported to be satisfactory; however, comparatively few studies have additionally provided an accurate analysis of psychosocial functions in MRKHS patients following different kinds of neovaginal treatment. This study is to evaluate sexual and psychosocial functioning after creation of a neovagina according to Wharton-Sheares-George in women with MRKHS.We performed a case-control-study using multiple measures to assess sexual and psychosocial functioning. Ten MRKHS patients and 20 controls of a University hospital and tertiary center for pediatric and adolescent gynecology were assessed. The follow-up assessment comprised 6 standardized questionnaires (Female Sexuality Function Index, FSFI; Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ; Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI; World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, WHOQoL-BREF; Parental Bonding Instrument, PBI; and a German questionnaire on body image. The main outcome measures were sexual function, psychological status, quality of life, body image, and parental bonding styles.Sexual function, psychological status (including depressive and somatic symptoms, quality of life, and own-body experience were at least as good in operated MRKHS patients as in controls. In some measures (FSFI, PHQ-15, psychological domain of the WHOQoL-BREF, and BSI Positive Symptom Total, patients scored significantly better than controls. The results of the PBI indicated a close and sustainable mother-daughter-relationship in MRKHS patients.We found no evidence for an impairment of sexual or psychosocial functioning in patients after neovaginoplasty according to Wharton-Sheares-George. MRKHS may not necessarily compromise sexual and psychological well-being, provided that the syndrome is properly managed by a

  4. Body experiences, emotional competence, and psychosocial functioning in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Meini, Antonella; Molinaro, Anna; Cattalini, Marco; Oggiano, Silvia; Fazzi, Elisa; Neri, Francesca; Plebani, Alessandro; Nacinovich, Renata

    2013-08-01

    We investigated self-image, psychological functioning, and quality of life in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Thirty-nine children with JIA were compared with 80 healthy peers. We first administered the Human Figure Drawing Test (HFDT) to all subjects; children also completed standardized questionnaires evaluating health-related quality of life (PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales) and the main aspects of psychological functioning: anxiety (SAFA-A) and depression (CDI). Parents were asked to complete the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the PEDSQL 4.0. For each patient with JIA, clinical notes were gathered and a global disease assessment (visual analog scale--VAS) was performed. Compared to healthy peers, patients with JIA reported reduced maturity quotients at HFDT, more depressive traits, greater anxiety, and lower health-related quality of life. Among the subjects with JIA, HFDT revealed that adolescents had a greater impairment in all areas investigated. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the physical well-being rated by VAS and the perception of poorer quality of life in patients, mostly in the psychosocial domains. Children and adolescents with JIA exhibit emotional difficulties and a delay of psychological development leading to low self-esteem, a distorted self-image, more anxiety and depression traits, and a worse quality of life, when compared to healthy subjects.

  5. Factors related to the psychosocial functioning of youth with neonatal brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrikoski, Janelle M; Duncan, Christina L; Melanson, Andrea; Louden, Emily; Allgier, Allison; Michaud, Linda; Rinaldi, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the possible visible nature and functional impairments associated with neonatal brachial plexus injuries (NBPI), the current study investigated the relations of injury severity, social support, and coping strategies to social difficulties and self-concept in youth with NBPI. 88 children (aged 10-17 years) with NBPI and their parent(s) were recruited from a national organization and two brachial plexus clinics. Participants completed a variety of questionnaires during their scheduled clinic visits. More social support from classmates was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties. Less frequent use of negative coping strategies was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties and was a significant moderator of the relation between injury severity and self-concept. Clinicians who work with children with NBPI should consider peer support and coping strategies when promoting the psychosocial functioning of these youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Neuropsychological Impairment in Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Subjects with Preserved Psychosocial Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Martelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChronic alcoholism and its related cognitive impairments are associated with increased social, relational, and professional deficits which have a variable overall impact on social integration. These impairments are known to have varying severities and have rarely been studied among healthy alcohol-dependent subjects with preserved psychosocial functioning. Thus, the objective of this study is to describe neuropsychological performance in this particular population.MethodTwenty-nine socially adjusted alcohol-dependent men, hospitalized for a first or second withdrawal and abstinent for 3 weeks minimum, were compared to 29 healthy non-alcoholic controls. All subjects underwent clinical and psychiatric examination, neuropsychological tests of memory (M, working memory (WM, and executive functions (EF. Comparisons were performed using Student’s t-tests or Mann–Whitney U tests.ResultsNo group differences were found on the Self-Reported Social Adjustment Scale (SAS-SR or in the Mini-Mental State Examination. Compared to controls, patients had greater episodic, spatial, and WM deficits as well as slightly altered executive functions. In contrast, their executive functions (spontaneous flexibility, criteria generation, rule maintenance, and inhibitory control were relatively preserved.ConclusionOur sample of socially and professionally integrated alcoholic patients shows fewer cognitive deficits than described in previous studies. Our results suggest that early on, alcohol-dependent subjects develop compensatory adaptation processes to preserve social function and adaptation. Minor cognitive impairments should be screened early in the disease to integrate cognitive interventions into the health-care plan to thus eventually prevent further socio-professional marginalization.

  7. Sexual Self-Esteem and Psychosocial Functioning in Military Veterans After Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Syme, Maggie L.; Delaney, Eileen; Moye, Jennifer; Gosian, Jeffrey; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing s...

  8. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002, a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low and psychosocial functioning (good/poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  9. Chronic Functional Constipation and Encopresis in Children in Relationship with the Psychosocial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaru, Claudia; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Trandafir, Laura; Gimiga, Nicoleta; Olaru, Radian A; Stefanescu, Gabriela; Ciubotariu, Gabriela; Burlea, Marin; Iorga, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Functional constipation is an issue for both the patient and his/her family, affecting the patient's psychoemotional balance, social relations, and their harmonious integration in the school environment. We aimed to highlight the connection between chronic constipation and encopresis and the patient's psychosocial and family-related situation. Material and Method. 57 patients with ages spanning from 6 to 15 were assessed within the pediatric gastroenterology ward. Sociodemographic, medical, and psychological data was recorded. The collected data was processed using the SPSS 20 software. Results. The study group consisted of 57 children diagnosed with encopresis (43 boys (75.44%) and 14 girls (24.56%)), M = 10.82 years. It was determined that most of the children came from urban families with a poor socioeducational status. We identified a level of studies of 11.23 ± 5.56 years in mothers, while fathers had an average number of 9.35 ± 4.53 years of study. We also found a complex relationship between encopretic episodes and school performances (F = 7.968, p = 0.001, 95% Cl). Children with encopresis were found to have more anxiety/depression symptoms, greater social problems, more disruptive behavior, and poorer school performance. Conclusions. The study highlights the importance of the family environment and socioeconomic factors in manifestations of chronic constipation and encopresis.

  10. The development of loneliness from mid- to late adolescence: trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-12-01

    Although loneliness is a common problem across late adolescence, its developmental course has not been investigated in depth in this period of life. The present study aims to fill this gap by means of a five-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study spanning ages 15 to 20 (N = 389). Both variable-centered (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) and person-centered (i.e., latent class growth analysis) approaches were used. Variable-centered analyses showed that loneliness generally decreased over time. Person-centered analyses pointed to considerable inter-individual differences in the development of loneliness, and identified five trajectory classes (i.e., stable low, low increasing, moderate decreasing, high increasing, and chronically high). These five trajectory classes were differentially related to personality traits at age 15 (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and psychosocial functioning at age 20 (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anxiety, and perceived stress). These findings underscore the additional value of studying subgroups regarding the development of loneliness.

  11. Physical and Psychosocial Functions of Adults with Lower Limb Congenital Deficiencies and Amputations in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ll. Montesinos-Magraner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To describe the epidemiological and medical features of a sample with LLA and LLD in childhood and (2 to explore their relationship with subsequent physical and psychosocial functions in adulthood. Methods. Cross-sectional survey. Demographics, medical data, Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI, and Discomfort-Engagement in Everyday Activities Involving Revealing the Body Scale (D-EEARB were collected from thirty-two adults who suffered from LLA in childhood or LLD. Results. Most of the sample (53.1% males was working (84.4%, living independently (75%, and single (75%. Mean age was 33.16 (SD = 7.64, range 18–50. Leading causes for LLA were traumatic (40.6% and oncologic (25%. LLD was present in 6 cases (18.8%. LCI scores revealed a high performance among males (t17,464=2.976, p=.008. D-EEARB scores showed that 56.25% stated feeling “quite” or “totally comfortable” in situations which involved revealing their body, but 43.75% stated the contrary (“uncomfortable” or “very uncomfortable”. LLD and traumatic LLA show higher scores in D-EEARB than vascular and oncological LLA (χ2=7.744, df = 3, p=.05. Conclusions. Adults suffering from LLDs and LLAs during childhood seem to perform well once they are adults. However, 43.75% of patients express considerable discomfort in situations that involve revealing the body.

  12. Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R

    2013-01-01

    , with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant...... change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence for an effect......PURPOSE: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief...

  13. Improving Psychosocial Health, Coping, and Self-Efficacy in Parents of Sleep-Disturbed Young Children

    OpenAIRE

    Brandhorst, Isabel; Hautzinger, Martin; Schlarb, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Various research has shown that mothers of sleep-disturbed young children experience poorer physical and mental health, show more symptoms of depression or anxiety, and demonstrate a higher level of stress. Coping strategies and self-efficacy might play an important role in this context. In the present study we aimed to investigate psychosocial health, coping, and the sleep-related self-efficacy of parents participating in an Internetbased treatment for sleep-disturbed young childr...

  14. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial of add-on melatonin versus placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-03-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine use is common in patients with mental illness and is associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether benzodiazepine-induced cognitive impairment is reversible. Amelioration of cognitive dysfunction may be facilitated during benzodiazepine tapering by add-on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily with either prolonged-release melatonin or placebo in a 24-week, double-blind clinical trial. All participants gradually tapered usual benzodiazepine dosage in a closely monitored treatment setting. We used the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess neurocognitive performance with additional assessments of subjective well-being and psychosocial functioning. BACS composite and subscale scores (except motor speed) significantly improved in parallel with benzodiazepine dose reduction, but there was no additional effect of melatonin. Cognitive performance was still markedly impaired post-tapering compared with normative data. Neither benzodiazepine withdrawal nor treatment group affected subjective well-being or psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, add-on melatonin does not seem to affect cognition, well-being, or psychosocial functioning in patients with severe mental illness. The observed improvement in cognitive performance could not be distinguished from retest effects, which may in turn have been facilitated by the benzodiazepine tapering.

  15. Who seeks bariatric surgery? Psychosocial functioning among adolescent candidates, other treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, C C; Devlin, M J; Fennoy, I; Zitsman, J L; Walsh, B T; Sysko, R

    2017-08-25

    Limited data are available on the characteristics of adolescents with obesity who seek bariatric surgery. Existing data suggest that adolescent surgery candidates have a higher body mass index (BMI) than comparison adolescents with obesity, but the limited findings regarding psychosocial functioning are mixed. This study aimed to compare BMI and psychosocial functioning among adolescent bariatric surgery candidates, outpatient medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity (receiving lifestyle modification), and adolescents in the normal-weight range. All adolescents completed self-report measures of impulsivity, delay discounting, depression, anxiety, stress, eating pathology, family functioning and quality of life, and had their height and weight measured. Adolescent surgical candidates had higher BMIs than both comparison groups. Surgical candidates did not differ from medical-treatment-seeking adolescents with obesity on any measure of psychosocial functioning, but both groups of adolescents with obesity reported greater anxiety and eating pathology and poorer quality of life than normal-weight adolescents. Quality of life no longer differed across groups after controlling for BMI, suggesting that it is highly related to weight status. Adolescents with obesity may experience greater anxiety, eating pathology, and quality of life impairments than their peers in the normal-weight range regardless of whether they are seeking surgery or outpatient medical treatment. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Impairment in psychosocial functioning associated with dysthymic disorder in the NESARC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, David J; Agosti, Vito; Bosi, Monica; Black, Sarah R

    2010-12-01

    Chronic depression is associated with impaired functioning. The National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcoholism and Related Conditions (NESARC) is a representative sample (N=43,093) of the United States non-institutionalized population aged 18years and older. We hypothesized that individuals with chronic low-grade depression, dysthymic disorder, would have more impaired functioning than individuals with acute major depression or the general population. Diagnoses were generated by the NIAAA Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). The dysthymic disorder (DD) sample (N=328) consisted of DD diagnosis without current MDD. The dysthymic group was not chosen on the basis of alcohol use or abuse. Individuals with MDD with duration ≦24months, without lifetime DD constituted the acute depression (AD) sample (N=712). All other respondents were classified as general population (GP) (N=42,052). Past year functioning was assessed by Supplemental Social Security Income (SSI), employment, and Medicaid statuses. Past month functioning was assessed by Short-form 12-Item Health Survey (SF-12), with scores for social functioning, role emotional functioning, and mental health, using odds ratios. Over the past year, compared to AD, persons with DD were less likely to work full-time (36.2% vs. 44%; OR=0.70, CI=.54,.92) and more often received SSI (13.9% vs. 4.5%; OR=3.4, CI=2.0,5.9) and Medicaid (20.2% vs. 13%; OR=1.7 , CI=1.1,2.6). Dysthymics reported accomplishing less over the past month due to emotional problems, and that emotional or physical problems interfered with social activities. Relative to GP, respondents with DD were more likely to receive SSI (13.9% vs. 2.9%; OR=4.6, CI 3.4,6.2) and Medicaid (20.2% vs. 5.9%; OR=2.9, CI 2.0,4.1). Compared to GP, dysthymics reported accomplishing less due to emotional problems, and that emotional or physical problems interfered with social activities and work functioning. DD

  17. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrin, Paul B; Norup, Anne; Caracuel, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. M...

  18. The Relationship between Type of Bullying Experienced in Childhood and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heretick, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is well recognized as an experience with negative and potentially adverse consequences. Specifically, research has consistently shown that involvement in bullying has been linked to a wide range of psychosocial difficulties. There are three forms of bullying that have been identified in the literature: Overt bullying, relational bullying,…

  19. The Relationship between Social Skills and Psycho-Social Functioning in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijstra, Jan O.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between anxiety and performance dimensions of adolescents' social skills and their self-esteem, well-being, coping, and social support. Found that scores on a social skills measure and on measures of the four psychosocial factors were related. The social skills measure identified three subgroups (assertives,…

  20. Assessment of family psychosocial functioning in survivors of pediatric cancer using the PAT2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Jordan; Reed-Knight, Bonney; Brand, Sarah; Griffin, Anya; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Meacham, Lillian; Mertens, Ann

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to examine clinical validity and utility of a screening measure for familial psychosocial risk, the Psychosocial Assessment Tool 2.0 (PAT2.0), among pediatric cancer survivors participating in long-term survivorship care. Caregivers (N=79) completed the PAT2.0 during their child's survivorship appointment. Caregivers also reported on family engagement in outpatient mental health treatment. Medical records were reviewed for treatment history and oncology provider initiated psychology consults. The internal consistency of the PAT2.0 total score in this survivorship sample was strong. Psychology was consulted by the oncology provider to see 53% of participant families, and families seen by psychology had significantly higher PAT2.0 total scores than families without psychology consults. PAT2.0 total scores and corresponding subscales were higher for patients, parents, and siblings enrolled in outpatient mental health services since treatment completion. Results were consistent with psychosocial risk categories presented within the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model. Fifty-one percent of families presenting for survivorship care scored in the "universal" category, 34% scored in the "targeted" category, and 15% scored in the "clinical" category. Data indicate that the overall proportions of families experiencing "universal", "targeted", and "clinical" levels of familial distress may be constant from the time of diagnosis into survivorship care. Overall, the PAT2.0 demonstrated strong psychometric properties among survivors of pediatric cancer and shows promise as a psychosocial screening measure to facilitate more effective family support in survivorship care. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  2. A livelihood intervention to improve economic and psychosocial well-being in rural Uganda: Longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kakuhikire

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV and poverty are inextricably intertwined in sub-Saharan Africa. Economic and livelihood intervention strategies have been suggested to help mitigate the adverse economic effects of HIV, but few intervention studies have focused specifically on HIV-positive persons. We conducted three pilot studies to assess a livelihood intervention consisting of an initial orientation and loan package of chickens and associated implements to create poultry microenterprises. We enrolled 15 HIV-positive and 22 HIV-negative participants and followed them for up to 18 months. Over the course of follow-up, participants achieved high chicken survival and loan repayment rates. Median monthly income increased, and severe food insecurity declined, although these changes were not statistically significant (P-values ranged from 0.11 to 0.68. In-depth interviews with a purposive sample of three HIV-positive participants identified a constellation of economic and psychosocial benefits, including improved social integration and reduced stigma.

  3. Preattentive sensory processing as indexed by the MMN and P3a brain responses is associated with cognitive and psychosocial functioning in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Braff, David L

    2007-10-01

    Understanding the basic neural processes that underlie complex higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning is a fundamental goal of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory event-related potential components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if MMN and P3a are associated with higher order cognitive operations and psychosocial functioning in clinically normal healthy subjects. Twenty adults were assessed using standardized clinical, cognitive, and psychosocial functional instruments. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests and functional ratings. Participants were also tested on a duration-deviant MMN/P3a paradigm (50-msec standard tones, p = .90; 100-msec deviant tones, p = .10; stimulus onset asynchrony [SOA] = 505 msec). Across fronto-central electrode regions, significant correlations were observed between psychosocial functioning and MMN (r = -.62, p sensory information processing are associated with higher order cognitive abilities and psychosocial functioning in normal subjects. Efficiency at elementary levels of information processing may underlie the successful encoding, retrieval, and discrimination of task-relevant information, which, in turn, facilitates the iterative and responsive processing necessary for adaptive cognitive and social functioning.

  4. The effects of religious socialization and religious identity on psychosocial functioning in Korean American adolescents from immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Kyoung Ok; Lee, Richard M

    2012-06-01

    This study examined religious identity as a mediator and moderator between religious socialization by parents, peers, and religious mentors and psychosocial functioning (i.e., social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems) among 155 Korean American adolescents. Religious socialization by parents and peers were positively associated with adolescents' religious identity and social competence. Religious identity fully mediated the relationship between religious socialization by parents and social competence, and partially mediated the relationship between religious socialization by peers and social competence. A competing model with religious identity as a moderator found adolescents with low religious identity showed significantly more externalizing behavior problems when they received more religious socialization from parents.

  5. Use it or lose it : Music preferences and uses related to psychosocial functioning among adolescents and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, J

    2008-01-01

    “Music corrupts the minds of our young”. This allegation has generated numerous studies investigating the ‘music taste’ and psychosocial functioning of popular music audiences. Youth are considered to be susceptible to messages promoting sexual promiscuity, substance use, violence and sometimes suicide. The most notorious music genres in this regard are rap/hip hop, and harder forms of rock such as heavy metal and punk. This thesis focused on the role of ‘music taste’ by; analyzing the consis...

  6. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.

  7. Do Psychosocial Interventions Improve Quality of Life and Wellbeing in Adults with Neuromuscular Disorders? A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklet, Elaine; Muse, Kate; Meyrick, Jane; Moss, Tim

    2016-08-30

    Quality of life and well-being are frequently restricted in adults with neuromuscular disorders. As such, identification of appropriate interventions is imperative. The objective of this paper was to systematically review and critically appraise quantitative studies (RCTs, controlled trials and cohort studies) of psychosocial interventions designed to improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders. A systematic review of the published and unpublished literature was conducted. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were appraised using a validated quality assessment tool and results presented in a narrative synthesis. Out of 3,136 studies identified, ten studies met criteria for inclusion within the review. Included studies comprised a range of interventions including: cognitive behavioural therapy, dignity therapy, hypnosis, expressive disclosure, gratitude lists, group psychoeducation and psychologically informed rehabilitation. Five of the interventions were for patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). The remainder were for patients with post-polio syndrome, muscular dystrophies and mixed disorders, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, myasthenia gravis and myotonic dystrophy. Across varied interventions and neuromuscular disorders, seven studies reported a short-term beneficial effect of intervention on quality of life and well-being. Whilst such findings are encouraging, widespread issues with the methodological quality of these studies significantly compromised the results. There is no strong evidence that psychosocial interventions improve quality of life and well-being in adults with neuromuscular disorders, due to a paucity of high quality research in this field. Multi-site, randomised controlled trials with active controls, standardised outcome measurement and longer term follow-ups are urgently required.

  8. Functional and psychosocial effects of pulmonary Daoyin on patients with COPD in China: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-qing Yu; Jian-sheng Li; Su-yun Li; Yang Xie; Ming-hang Wang; Hai-long Zhang; Hai-feng Wang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health problem worldwide.Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an established intervention for the management of patients with COPD.Exercise training is an important part of PR,and its effectiveness in patients with COPD is well established.However,alternative methods of PR training such as Daoyin have not been appropriately studied.Hence,alternative forms of exercise training that require less exercise equipment and no specific training place should be evaluated.This paper describes the study protocol of a clinical trial that aims to determine if pulmonary Daoyin training will improve the exercise capacity and psychosocial function of patients with COPD in China.METHODS AND DESIGN:A multicenter,randomized,controlled trial will be conducted.A total of 464 patients meeting the inclusion criteria will be enrolled into this study with 232 patients in each of the trial group and the control group.Based on patient education,patients in the trial group will receive pulmonary Daoyin and continue with their usual therapy for three months.In the control group,patients will continue with their usual therapy.The primary outcomemeasures are exercise capacity assessed by the six-minute walking distance test and lung function.Secondary outcomes include dyspnea and quality of life.Measurements will be taken at baseline (month 0) and after the study period (month 3).DISCUSSION:It is hypothesized that pulmonary Daoyin will have beneficial effects in improving exercise capacity and psychosocial function of patients with stable COPD,and will provide an alternative form of exercise training that is accessible for the large number of people with COPD.TRIAL REGISTRATION:This trial has been registered in C/inicalTria/s.gov.The identifier is NCT01482000.

  9. On the association between adolescent autonomy and psychosocial functioning: examining decisional independence from a self-determination theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Beyers, Wim; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we focus on the concept of adolescent autonomy and its relation with psychosocial functioning. Specifically, we aim to differentiate between 2 prevailing conceptualizations of autonomy, that is, (a) autonomy defined as independence versus dependence and (b) autonomy defined as self-endorsed versus controlled functioning. A 2nd goal is to examine the relative contribution of each autonomy operationalization in the prediction of adolescents' adjustment (i.e., well-being, problem behavior, and intimacy). Data were gathered in a sample of 707 Belgian adolescents. Using a newly developed questionnaire, we assessed both the degree of independent decision making per se and the self-endorsed versus controlled motives underlying both independent and dependent decision making. The degree of independent decision making could clearly be differentiated from the underlying motives for doing so. Moreover, independent decision making as such showed unique associations with more problem behavior. Further, as expected, self-endorsed motives for both independent and dependent decision making generally related to an adaptive pattern of psychosocial functioning, and controlled motives were associated with maladjustment. The discussion focuses on the difference between the 2 perspectives on autonomy and on the different meaning of the motives underlying independent, relative to dependent, decision making.

  10. Chronic psychosocial stress in mice leads to changes in brain functional connectivity and metabolite levels comparable to human depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Joanes; Azzinnari, Damiano; Seuwen, Aline; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Pryce, Christopher R; Rudin, Markus

    2016-11-15

    Human depression, for which chronic psychosocial stress is a major risk factor, is characterized by consistent alterations in neurocircuitry. For example, there is increased functional connectivity (FC) within and between regions comprising the default mode network (DMN) including prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex. Alterations in network FC are associated with specific aspects of psychopathology. In mice, chronic psychosocial stress (CPS) leads to depression-relevant behavior, including increased fear learning, learned helplessness, fatigue and decreased motivation for reward. Using multimodal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS), we investigated CPS effects on function and structure in the mouse brain under light anesthesia. Mice underwent a baseline MRI/MRS session, followed by 15-day CPS (n=26) or control handling (n=27), and a post-treatment MRI/MRS session. In BOLD fMRI, relative to controls, CPS mice exhibited robust, reproducible increases in FC within 8 of 9 identified cortical networks, including the prefrontal and cingulate cortices that contribute to the "mouse DMN". CPS mice exhibited increases in between-network FC, including amygdala - prefrontal cortex and amygdala - cingulate cortex. MRS identified metabolic alterations in CPS mice as increased inositol levels in amygdala and increased glycerophosphorylcholine levels in prefrontal cortex. Diffusion-weighted MRI detected increased fractional anisotropic values in the cingulum. This study demonstrates that chronic psychosocial stress induces FC states in the mouse brain analogous to those observed in depression, as well as cerebral metabolism and white matter pathway alterations that contribute to understanding of pathological processes. It also demonstrates the importance of brain imaging to the establishment of valid animal models in translational psychiatry.

  11. Evaluating construct validity of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire through analysis of differential item functioning and differential item effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the construct validity of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire II (COPSOQ II) by means of tests for differential item functioning (DIF) and differential item effect (DIE). METHODS: We used a Danish general population postal survey (n = 4,732 with 3,517 wage earners) with a ...... shortform measures and to improve the conceptual framework, items and scales of the COPSOQ II. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that tests of DIF and DIE are useful for evaluating construct validity.......) with a one-year register based follow up for long-term sickness absence. DIF was evaluated against age, gender, education, social class, public/private sector employment, and job type using ordinal logistic regression. DIE was evaluated against job satisfaction and self-rated health (using ordinal logistic...

  12. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  13. [PSP Scale: German version of the Personal and Social Performance Scale: valid instrument for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in the treatment of schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, D; Juckel, G

    2011-09-01

    In the treatment of schizophrenia, the domain of psychosocial functioning is an important aspect of therapeutic success that should be considered in addition to the reduction of psychopathology. Valid and standardised measures are necessary for diagnostics and the assessment of patients" personal, social and professional functioning. The German version of the Personal and Social Performance (PSP) Scale (with its four subdimensions: "socially useful activities, work and study included", "personal and social relationships", "self-care" and "disturbing and aggressive behaviour") was administered to patients with schizophrenia in previous studies. These data demonstrated this scale to be a reliable, valid and efficient tool for measuring psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Thus, it is argued that, for everyday clinical practice, the PSP Scale is useful for the assessment of psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia during short, medium and long-term treatment courses.

  14. Sexual self-esteem and psychosocial functioning in military veterans after cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Maggie L; Delaney, Eileen; Wachen, Jennifer Schuster; Gosian, Jeffrey; Moye, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the sexual well-being of male Veteran cancer survivors, or the relationship of sexual concerns to psychosocial adaptation postcancer. This study examined the association between sexual self-esteem and psychosocial concerns in male Veteran cancer survivors. Forty-one male survivors were recruited from a Veterans Affairs (VA) hospital to participate in a pilot study addressing cancer survivorship care for Veterans. Sixty- to 90-minute interviews were conducted, assessing sociodemographic, medical, stress/burden (cancer-related posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression), and resource (social support, post-traumatic growth) variables. Twenty-one (51.2%) Veteran cancer survivors reported lowered sexual self-esteem as a result of cancer, which corresponded to significantly higher levels of depression and cancer-related PTSD. The lowered sexual self-esteem group also indicated significantly lower social support. Veteran cancer survivors with lowered sexual self-esteem tend to have higher levels of stress and lower levels of resources, putting them at risk for lowered quality of life. This increased risk highlights the importance of addressing sexual well-being in the survivorship care of Veterans.

  15. Impulsivity, risk taking, and cortisol reactivity as a function of psychosocial stress and personality in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finy, M Sima; Bresin, Konrad; Korol, Donna L; Verona, Edelyn

    2014-11-01

    Although adolescence is characterized by hormonal changes and increased disinhibited behaviors, explanations for these developmental changes that include personality and environmental factors have not been fully elucidated. We examined the interactions between psychosocial stress and the traits of negative emotionality and constraint on impulsive and risk-taking behaviors as well as salivary cortisol reactivity in 88 adolescents. In terms of behavioral outcomes, analyses revealed that negative emotionality and constraint were protective of impulsivity and risk taking, respectively, for adolescents in the no-stress condition; personality did not relate to either behavior in the stress condition. Low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition engaged in less risk taking than low-constraint adolescents in the no-stress condition, whereas there was no effect of stress group for high-constraint adolescents. In terms of cortisol reactivity, analyses revealed that low-constraint adolescents in the stress condition exhibited greater cortisol reactivity compared to high-constraint adolescents, which suggests that low-constraint adolescents mobilize greater resources (e.g., increased cognitive control, heightened attention to threat) in stressful situations relative to nonstressful ones. These results demonstrate that two facets of disinhibition and cortisol reactivity are differentially affected by psychosocial stress and personality (and their interactions) in adolescents.

  16. Functional and psychosocial effects of health qigong in patients with COPD: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bobby H P; Tsang, Hector W H; Jones, Alice Y M; So, C T; Mok, Thomas Y W

    2011-03-01

    The initial gain from a Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program (PRP) among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) begins to fade away 6 months after the completion of a rehabilitation program. One possible reason may be due to the poor compliance of the patients to the existing forms of home exercise program (e.g., walking, weight training activities, etc.). This study tested the efficacy of health qigong (HQG), a traditional Chinese exercise, as an adjunct home exercise program in optimizing the gains obtained from PRP until 6 months after discharge. This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) on a mind-body exercise intervention. Eighty (80) patients with COPD receiving conventional PRP pulmonary rehabilitation program were randomized to the HQG intervention group (n = 40) and control group (n = 40). Assessments were undertaken by blinded assessors at baseline, discharge from training, and follow-up (FU) at 3 and 6 months. Primary outcomes involved functional capacity scales and secondary outcomes involved quality-of-life scales. Intention-to-treat analysis identified trends of improvement in all outcome measures in the HQG group, whereas lesser improvement and trends of deteriorations were identified in the control group. Ancillary analysis using a per-protocol method, however, identified significantly better improvements in functional capacity measures among the HQG at the 6-month FU. This RCT provided some evidence to support the positive effect of HQG as an adjunct home exercise for rehabilitation among people with COPD and to support further related research.

  17. Non-specialist psychosocial interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Reichow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of effective treatments for use by non-specialists is listed among the top research priorities for improving the lives of people with mental illness worldwide. The purpose of this review is to appraise which interventions for children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders delivered by non-specialist care providers in community settings produce benefits when compared to either a no-treatment control group or treatment-as-usual comparator. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched electronic databases through 24 June 2013 to locate prospective controlled studies of psychosocial interventions delivered by non-specialist providers to children with intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders. We screened 234 full papers, of which 34 articles describing 29 studies involving 1,305 participants were included. A majority of the studies included children exclusively with a diagnosis of lower-functioning autism spectrum disorders (15 of 29, 52%. Fifteen of twenty-nine studies (52% were randomized controlled trials and just under half of all effect sizes (29 of 59, 49% were greater than 0.50, of which 18 (62% were statistically significant. For behavior analytic interventions, the best outcomes were shown for development and daily skills; cognitive rehabilitation, training, and support interventions were found to be most effective for improving developmental outcomes, and parent training interventions to be most effective for improving developmental, behavioral, and family outcomes. We also conducted additional subgroup analyses using harvest plots. Limitations include the studies' potential for performance bias and that few were conducted in lower- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review support the delivery of psychosocial interventions by non-specialist providers to children who have intellectual disabilities or lower-functioning

  18. Effects of Yoga on Symptoms, Physical Function, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Adults with Osteoarthritis: A Focused Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Park, Juyoung; Wyman, Jean F

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic condition. Because physical activity is a key component in OA management, effective exercise interventions are needed. Yoga is an increasingly popular multimodal mind-body exercise that aims to promote flexibility, strength, endurance, and balance. Its gentle approach is potentially a safe and effective exercise option for managing OA. The purpose of this focused review is to examine the effects of yoga on OA symptoms and physical and psychosocial outcomes. A comprehensive search was conducted using seven electronic databases. Twelve reports met inclusion criteria involving a total of 589 participants with OA-related symptoms. A variety of types, frequencies, and durations of yoga interventions were reported; Hatha and Iyengar yoga were the most commonly used types. Frequency of intervention ranged from once a week to 6 days a week. Duration of the interventions ranged from 45 to 90 mins per session for 6 to 12 wks. Yoga intervention resulted in reductions in pain, stiffness, and swelling, but results on physical function and psychosocial well-being were inconclusive because of a variety of outcome measures being used.

  19. Stability of the DSM-5 Section III pathological personality traits and their longitudinal associations with psychosocial functioning in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aidan G C; Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Yam, Wern How; Zelazny, Kerry; Williams, Trevor F; Rotterman, Jane H; Simms, Leonard J

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to establish (a) the stability of the DSM-5 Section III personality disorder (PD) traits, (b) whether these traits predict future psychosocial functioning, and (c) whether changes in traits track with changes in psychosocial functioning across time. Ninety-three outpatients (61% female) diagnosed with at least 1 PD completed patient-report measures at 2 time-points (M time between assessments = 1.44 years), including the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 and several measures of psychosocial functioning. Effect sizes of rank-order and mean-level change were calculated. In addition, Time 1 traits were used to predict functioning measures at Time 2. Finally, latent change score models were estimated for DSM-5 Section III traits and functioning measures, and correlations among latent change scores were calculated to establish the relationship between change in traits and functional outcomes. Findings demonstrated that the DSM-5 Section III traits were highly stable in terms of normative (i.e., mean-level) change and rank-order stability over the course of the study. Furthermore, traits prospectively predicted psychosocial functioning. However, at the individual level traits and functioning were not entirely static over the study, and change in individuals' functioning tracked with changes in trait levels. These findings demonstrate that the DSM-5 Section III traits are highly stable consistent with the definition of PD, prospectively predictive of psychosocial functioning, and are dynamically associated with functioning over time. This study provides important evidence in support of the DSM-5 Section III PD model.

  20. Long-term effects of STN DBS on mood: psychosocial profiles remain stable in a 3-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brücke Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus significantly improves motor function in patients with severe Parkinson's disease. However, the effects on nonmotor aspects remain uncertain. The present study investigated the effects of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on mood and psychosocial functions in 33 patients with advanced Parkinson's disease in a three year follow-up. Methods Self-rating questionnaires were administered to 33 patients prior to surgery as well as three, six, twelve and 36 months after surgery. Results In the long run, motor function significantly improved after surgery. Mood and psychosocial functions transiently improved at one year but returned to baseline at 36 months after surgery. In addition, we performed cluster and discriminant function analyses and revealed four distinct psychosocial profiles, which remained relatively stable in the course of time. Two profiles featured impaired psychosocial functioning while the other two of them were characterized by greater psychosocial stability. Conclusion Compared to baseline no worsening in mood and psychosocial functions was found three years after electrode implantation. Moreover, patients can be assigned to four distinct psychosocial profiles that are relatively stable in the time course. Since these subtypes already exist preoperatively the extent of psychosocial support can be anticipatory adjusted to the patients' needs in order to enhance coping strategies and compliance. This would allow early detection and even prevention of potential psychiatric adverse events after surgery. Given adequate psychosocial support, these findings imply that patients with mild psychiatric disturbances should not be excluded from surgery.

  1. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  2. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  3. Cognitive, emotional and psychosocial functioning of girls treated with pharmacological puberty blockage for idiopathic central precocious puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Wojniusz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Central precocious puberty (CPP develops due to premature activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis, resulting in early pubertal changes and rapid bone maturation. CPP is associated with lower adult height and increased risk for development of psychological problems. Standard treatment of CPP is based on postponement of pubertal development by blockade of the HPG axis with gonadotropin releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa leading to abolition of gonadal sex hormones synthesis. Whereas the hormonal and auxological effects of GnRHa are well researched, there is a lack of knowledge whether GnRHa treatment influences psychological functioning of treated children, despite the fact that prevention of psychological problems is used as one of the main reasons for treatment initiation. In the present study we seek to address this issue by exploring differences in cognitive function, behavior, emotional reactivity, and psychosocial problems between GnRHa treated CPP girls and age-matched controls.Fifteen girls with idiopathic CPP; median age 10.4 years, treated with slow-release GnRHa (triptorelin acetate – Decapeptyl SR ® 11.25 and 15 age-matched controls, were assessed with a comprehensive test battery consisting of paper and pencil tests, computerized tasks, behavioral paradigms, heart rate variability, and questionnaires filled in by the children’s parents. Both groups showed very similar scores with regard to cognitive performance, behavioral and psychosocial problems. Compared to controls, treated girls displayed significantly higher emotional reactivity (p = 0.016; Cohen’s d = 1.04 on one of the two emotional reactivity task conditions. Unexpectedly, the CPP group showed significantly lower resting heart rates than the controls (p = 0.004; Cohen’s d = 1.03; lower heart rate was associated with longer treatment duration (r = - 0.582, p = 0.037. The results suggest that GnRHa treated CPP girls do not differ in their cognitive or

  4. Small-Group Standardized Patient Encounter Improves Athletic Training Students' Psychosocial Intervention and Referral Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stacy E.; Weidner, Thomas G.; Thrasher, Ashley B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Athletic trainers provide psychological support, counseling, intervention, and referral to patients during clinical practice. However, students are rarely exposed to real-life opportunities to develop these skills. Objective: To determine if a small-group standardized patient (SP) encounter improved athletic training students'…

  5. Physical and psychosocial function in residential aged-care elders: effect of Nintendo Wii Sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Power, Nicola; Wooller, Leslie; Lucas, Patricia; Whatman, Chris

    2014-04-01

    This mixed-methods, quasi-experimental pilot study examined whether the Nintendo Wii Sports (NWS) active video game (exergame) system could significantly improve the functional ability, physical activity levels, and quality of life of 34 older adults (4 men and 30 women, 83 ± 8 yr) living in 2 residential aged-care (RAC) centers. Change score analyses indicated the intervention group had significantly greater increases in bicep curl muscular endurance, physical activity levels, and psychological quality of life than the control group (p < .05). Analysis of the quotes underlying the 3 themes (feeling silly, feeling good; having fun; and something to look forward to) suggested that intervention group participants developed a sense of empowerment and achievement after some initial reluctance and anxiousness. They felt that the games were fun and provided an avenue for greater socialization. These results add some further support to the utilization of NWS exergames in the RAC context.

  6. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Neurocognitive performance, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning after benzodiazepine withdrawal in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthoj, Birte

    2017-01-01

    Chronic benzodiazepine use is common in patients with mental illness and is associated with cognitive impairment. It is unclear whether benzodiazepine-induced cognitive impairment is reversible. Amelioration of cognitive dysfunction may be facilitated during benzodiazepine tapering by add......-on melatonin due to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. We examined how melatonin and benzodiazepine withdrawal affect cognition, subjective well-being, and psychosocial functioning. Eighty patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder were randomized to add-on treatment once daily...... with either prolonged-release melatonin or placebo in a 24-week, double-blind clinical trial. All participants gradually tapered usual benzodiazepine dosage in a closely monitored treatment setting. We used the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to assess neurocognitive performance...

  8. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  9. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality.

  10. A Novel Model for Predicting Rehospitalization Risk Incorporating Physical Function, Cognitive Status, and Psychosocial Support Using Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Cronin, Patrick R; Carballo, Victoria; Danaei, Goodarz; Choy, Garry

    2017-03-01

    With the increasing focus on reducing hospital readmissions in the United States, numerous readmissions risk prediction models have been proposed, mostly developed through analyses of structured data fields in electronic medical records and administrative databases. Three areas that may have an impact on readmission but are poorly captured using structured data sources are patients' physical function, cognitive status, and psychosocial environment and support. The objective of the study was to build a discriminative model using information germane to these 3 areas to identify hospitalized patients' risk for 30-day all cause readmissions. We conducted clinician focus groups to identify language used in the clinical record regarding these 3 areas. We then created a dataset including 30,000 inpatients, 10,000 from each of 3 hospitals, and searched those records for the focus group-derived language using natural language processing. A 30-day readmission prediction model was developed on 75% of the dataset and validated on the other 25% and also on hospital specific subsets. Focus group language was aggregated into 35 variables. The final model had 16 variables, a validated C-statistic of 0.74, and was well calibrated. Subset validation of the model by hospital yielded C-statistics of 0.70-0.75. Deriving a 30-day readmission risk prediction model through identification of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial issues using natural language processing yielded a model that performs similarly to the better performing models previously published with the added advantage of being based on clinically relevant factors and also automated and scalable. Because of the clinical relevance of the variables in the model, future research may be able to test if targeting interventions to identified risks results in reductions in readmissions.

  11. Psychosocial intervention improves depression, quality of life, and fluid adherence in hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Asher, Deborah Rosenthal; Coplan, Jeremy D; Weedon, Jeremy; Wyka, Katarzyna E; Saggi, Subodh J; Kimmel, Paul L

    2014-01-01

    Patients with ESRD have high rates of depression, which is associated with diminished quality of life and survival. We determined whether individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) reduces depression in hemodialysis patients with elevated depressive affect in a randomized crossover trial. Of 65 participants enrolled from two dialysis centers in New York, 59 completed the study and were assigned to the treatment-first group (n=33) or the wait-list control group (n=26). In the intervention phase, CBT was administered chairside during dialysis treatments for 3 months; participants were assessed 3 and 6 months after randomization. Compared with the wait-list group, the treatment-first group achieved significantly larger reductions in Beck Depression Inventory II (self-reported, P=0.03) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (clinician-reported, Pimprovements in quality of life, assessed with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (P=0.04), and interdialytic weight gain (P=0.002) than the wait-list group, although no effect on compliance was evident at follow-up. In summary, CBT led to significant improvements in depression, quality of life, and prescription compliance in this trial, and studies should be undertaken to assess the long-term effects of CBT on morbidity and mortality in patients with ESRD.

  12. Psychosocial factors associated with in postsurgical prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Mazetto, Lenon; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    We examined the long-term psychosocial trajectory in a consecutive and homogeneous series of 120 patients followed up for five years after corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Evaluation of psychosocial variables at baseline and at five-year follow-up were compared. After five years of CAH, a significant improvement in educational level (p=0.004) and employment status (p0.05). A more favorable surgical outcome (Engel IA) was related to better psychiatric status (p=0.012). Poor psychosocial adjustment before surgery was the most important predictor of QOL outcome (p<0.05). Patients' trajectory after surgical treatment showed positive effects mainly in those with better seizure outcome. Our results emphasized the influence regarding baseline psychosocial functioning on postoperative psychosocial adjustment. Furthermore, many psychosocial gains and difficulties after surgery may be similar in developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-pronged assessment and diagnosis of personality disorder and its consequences: personality functioning, pathological traits, and psychosocial disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self-functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality) and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the 3 dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the 5-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were cofactored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the 5-factor level, included (a) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction); (b) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness); (c) disinhibition; (d) poor basic functioning; and (e) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD diagnostic

  14. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lee Anna; Ro, Eunyoe

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functioning and traits is important conceptually, because simply having extreme traits is not necessarily pathological. However, adding personality functioning to PD diagnosis represents an empirical challenge, because the constructs overlap conceptually. Further, there is debate regarding whether diagnosis of mental disorder requires either distress or disability, concepts that also overlap with maladaptive-range personality traits and personality dysfunction. We investigated interrelations among these constructs using multiple self-report measures of each domain in a mixed community-patient sample (N = 402). We examined the structures of functioning (psychosocial disability and personality), and personality traits, first independently, then jointly. The disability/functioning measures yielded the three dimensions we have found previously (Ro & Clark, 2013). Trait measures had a hierarchical structure which, at the five-factor level, reflected neuroticism/negative affectivity (N/NA), (low) sociability, disinhibition, (dis)agreeableness, and rigid goal engagement. When all measures were co-factored, a hierarchical structure again emerged which, at the five-factor level, included (1) internalizing (N/NA and self-pathology vs. quality-of-life/satisfaction), (2) externalizing (social/interpersonal dysfunction, low sociability, and disagreeableness), (3) disinhibition, (4) poor basic functioning, and (5) rigid goal engagement. Results are discussed in terms of developing an integrated PD

  15. No matter of etiology: biogenetic, psychosocial and vulnerability-stress causal explanations fail to improve attitudes towards schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlier, Björn; Schmick, Sylvia; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2014-03-30

    Many anti-stigma campaigns emphasize biogenetic causes to convey that schizophrenia is an "illness like others". A growing body of studies shows that although biogenetic explanations reduce blame, they tend to reinforce prognostic pessimism and harsher treatment of people with schizophrenia. In contrast, psychosocial explanations attenuate prognostic pessimism and perceived otherness, but seem less suitable to reduce blame. We hypothesized that a vulnerability-stress model that combines biogenetic and psychosocial explanations would yield clearer stigma-reducing effects than the mono-causal models. In an online-experiment, 416 participants from the general population randomly received either a vulnerability-stress, biogenetic, psychosocial or control-intervention, which consisted of information text and video presentation of a case-example. Causal beliefs, stereotypes and desired social distance were assessed by self-report. Baseline causal beliefs were weakly associated with stereotypes. The vulnerability-stress intervention did not reduce stigma more effectively than the biogenetic or psychosocial intervention and was less effective in reducing perceived blame than the biogenetic intervention. Compared to the control-intervention, no intervention showed significant stigma-reducing effects, but the psychosocial and vulnerability-stress conditions both increased blame. We found no evidence for vulnerability-stress explanations as a mean to reduce stigma. We propose further research to identify more effective ways to tackle stigma.

  16. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  17. Pharmacological Augmentation of Psychosocial and Remediation Training Efforts in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological approaches to cognitive enhancement have received considerable attention but have not had considerable success in improving their cognitive and functional targets. Other intervention strategies, such as cognitive remediation therapy (CRT, have been shown to enhance cognitive performance but have not been found to improve functional outcomes without additional psychosocial interventions. Recently, several studies have attempted to enhance the effects of CRT by adding pharmacological interventions to the CRT treatments. In addition, as CRT has been shown to synergistically improve the effects of psychosocial interventions, the combination of pharmacological therapies aimed at cognition and psychosocial interventions may itself provide a promising strategy for improving functional outcomes. This review and commentary examines the current state of interventions combining CRT and psychosocial treatments with pharmacological augmentation. Our focus is on the specific level of effect of the pharmacological intervention, which could be enhancing motivation, training efficiency, or the consolidation of therapeutic gains. Different pharmacological strategies (e.g., stimulants, plasticity-inducing agents, or attentional or alertness enhancers may have the potential to lead to different types of gains when combined with CRT or psychosocial interventions. The relative potential of these different mechanisms for immediate and durable effects is considered.

  18. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  19. Empirical Investigation of the Psychosocial Functioning of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2009-01-01

    Empirical studies describing the functioning of children raised by their grandparents are noticeably limited, yet custodial grandparenting has become a prominent alternate family structure. Grandparents may function better as surrogate parents than abusive parents, nonrelatives, or foster caregivers. Although many children raised by their…

  20. Potential psychosocial mechanisms linking depression to immune function in elderly subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, AL; Flentge, F; Oldehinkel, AJ; van den Berg, MD

    2004-01-01

    Although depression and immune changes in elderly subjects constitute a considerable health risk, mechanisms underlying the association between depression and immune function are unclear. The question of whether personality and social support can explain the variation in immune function during depre

  1. The relationship between change in cognition and change in functional ability in schizophrenia during cognitive and psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispaud, Samuel G; Rose, Jennifer; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2016-10-30

    While a wealth of studies have evaluated cross-sectional links between cognition and functioning in schizophrenia, few have investigated the relationship between change in cognition and change in functioning in the context of treatment trials targeted at cognition. Identifying cognitive skills that, when improved, predict improvement in functioning will guide the development of more targeted rehabilitation for this population. The present study identifies the relationship between change in specific cognitive skills and change in functional ability during one year of cognitive rehabilitation. Ninety-six individuals with schizophrenia were assessed with a battery of cognitive measures and a measure of performance-based functioning before and after cognitive training consisting of either drill-and-practice cognitive remediation or computer skills training. Results revealed that while working and episodic memory, problem-solving, and processing speed skills all improved during the trial, only improved working memory and processing speed skills predicted improvement in functional ability. Secondary analyses revealed these relationships were driven by individuals who showed a moderate level (SD≥0.5) of cognitive improvement during the trial. These findings suggest that while a variety of cognitive skills may improve during training targeted at cognition, only improvements in a subset of cognitive functions may translate into functional gains.

  2. Long-term effects of trauma: psychosocial functioning of the second and third generation of Holocaust survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri

    2007-01-01

    The long-term effects of extreme war-related trauma on the second and the third generation of Holocaust survivors (HS) were examined in 88 middle-class families. Differences in functioning between adult offspring of HS (HSO) and a comparison group, as well as the psychosocial functioning of adolescent grandchildren of HS, were studied. Degree of presence of Holocaust in the family was examined in families in which both parents were HSO, either mother or father was HSO, and neither parent was HSO. Mothers' Holocaust background was associated with higher levels of psychological distress and less positive parenting representations. In line with synergic (multiplicative) models of risk, adolescents in families where both parents were HSO perceived their mothers as less accepting and less encouraging independence, and reported less positive self-perceptions than their counterparts. They also perceived their fathers as less accepting and less encouraging independence, showed higher levels of ambivalent attachment style, and according to their peers, demonstrated poorer adjustment during military basic training than their fellow recruits from the one-parent HSO group. Parents and adolescents in the one-parent HSO group functioned similarly to others with no Holocaust background. Parenting variables mediated the association across generations between degree of Holocaust experience in the family of origin of the parents and ambivalent attachment style and self-perception of the adolescents. It is recommended that researchers and clinicians develop awareness of the possible traces of trauma in the second and the third generation despite their sound functioning in their daily lives.

  3. Funciones, expectativas y riesgos psicosociales del trabajo contemporáneo Functions, expectations and psychosocial risks of contemporary work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Cebey

    2010-12-01

    's functions and expectations as they are perceived by the participants and their nexus with the denominated psycho-social risk factors at work.

  4. A comprehensive approach to understand somatic symptoms and their impact on emotional and psychosocial functioning in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Rita; Spensieri, Valentina; Valastro, Carmela; Presaghi, Fabio; Canitano, Roberto; Guidetti, Vincenzo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Somatic symptoms are frequently reported by children with significant impairment in functioning. Despite studies on adult populations that suggest somatic symptoms often co-occur with difficulties in identifying and describing feelings, little research has been done in childhood. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and frequency of somatic symptoms as well as to investigate the functional impairment in children with high number of self reported somatic symptoms versus those with fewer somatic symptoms. Additionally the parental perception of their children's somatic symptoms and functioning was explored. Finally, we explored the direct and indirect effects of difficulties in identifying feelings in predicting somatic symptoms and functional disability among school-aged children. Methods 356 Italian school-aged children and their mothers participated in this study. Children (mean age = 11.43; SD = 2.41) completed the Children’s Somatization Inventory (CSI-24) to assess somatic symptoms, the Functional Disability Inventory (FDI) to assess physical and psychosocial functioning and the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children (AQC) to evaluate alexithymic features. Mothers completed the parental forms of the CSI and the FDI. Results Among children, 66.3% did not declare somatic symptoms and 33.7% reported one or more somatic symptoms in the last two weeks. A significant positive correlation emerged between children’s and mothers’ CSI total scores. Both children’s and mothers’ FDI total scores were significantly correlated with CSI scores. A significant correlation was observed between somatic symptoms and alexithymic features. Furthermore, the data showed that somatic symptoms mediated the relationship between difficulties in identifying feelings and functional impairment. Finally, it was showed that alexithymia facet of difficulty in identifying feelings contributed in large part to the prediction of the somatic symptomatology (b = 0

  5. Brain development and cognitive, psychosocial, and psychiatric functioning in classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2011-01-01

    The disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis characteristic of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is likely to affect brain development, yet neuroanatomic work is only beginning. Fetal hyperandrogenemia in 46, XX 21-OHD leads to masculinized brain organization and, consequently, at later stages of development, to masculinized gender-related behavior and cognitive function, including, although relatively uncommonly, gender identity. Genital masculinization as well as its surgical treatment has implications for social stigmatization and sexual functioning. CAH-associated electrolyte crises in infancy and later may result in severe cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are somewhat increased, especially in patients with severe degrees of CAH.

  6. Do psychosocial sleep interventions improve infant sleep or maternal mood in the postnatal period? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Liora; Sharpe, Louise; Miller, Christopher B; Bartlett, Delwyn J

    2016-10-01

    Sleep complaints are common amongst mothers of infants and insufficient, inefficient or fragmented sleep is associated with postnatal depression. The aim of this review is to determine whether psychosocial sleep-focused interventions offered in the perinatal period improve infant sleep or maternal mood. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, EMBASE and CINAHL with no date restriction. We reviewed 1097 articles, resulting in nine papers (n = 1,656) that fit the eligibility criteria for inclusion in the analyses. The primary outcome was infant sleep, defined as maternal reports of infant nocturnal total sleep time and number of night-time wakes. The secondary outcome was maternal mood. The meta-analysis indicated improvements in reported infant nocturnal total sleep time (Hedge's g = 0.204, p improvements (Hedge's g = 0.152, p = 0.014), however, this could have been influenced by publication bias. Psychosocial sleep interventions appear to impact the amount of sleep that a mother reports her baby to have, although the infants continue to wake as frequently. More research is needed to confirm whether sleep-related improvements can translate into improvements in maternal mood.

  7. [Features of occupational health nurse support for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and related factors: Focusing on required knowledge and skills, and measures to develop them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomoko; Nishikido, Noriko; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the support activities provided for occupational health nurses aimed at improving psychosocial working environments, related knowledge and skills, and learning environments as well as associations among these factors. In addition, we aimed to create correlated factor models to describe the support activities in order to identify ways to promote these activities among occupational health nurses. An anonymous mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted of occupational health nurses who were members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and belonged to enterprises or independent health insurance societies. Among 356 returned questionnaires (response rate: 46.4%), all the main items were answered in 329 (valid response rate: 92.4%), and these questionnaires were analyzed. Factor analysis was performed for the seven items pertaining to support activities for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and models of each factor of the support activities were developed using covariance structure analysis. In the factor analysis, [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] and [Facilitating workplace involvement] were identified as support-related factors. The mean implementation rates for these approaches were approximately 50 to 80%, and less than 40%, respectively. [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] was associated with skills of "providing superiors with explanations to enhance their understanding" and "collecting and analyzing stress survey results by department", and knowledge of "personal stress questionnaires" and "common stress factors in working environments". The above-mentioned knowledge and skills were associated with self-learning of "examining and reporting daily activities for the improvement of working environments" and "reviewing related papers". [Facilitating workplace involvement] was associated with skills of "indirectly supporting discussions led by

  8. Do child's psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). ME

  9. Effects of Parental Chronic Illness on Children's Psychosocial and Educational Functioning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cliff Yung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    A good number of children grow up in households where a parent has been diagnosed with medical chronic illness. Parental chronic illness is stressful for children and adolescents and may have some potential impact on children's adjustment and functioning. Some emerging research conducted in the fields of medicine, nursing, and family studies has…

  10. Influence of family environment on long-term psychosocial functioning of adolescents with juvenile fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Lynch-Jordan, Anne; Ting, Tracy V; Peugh, James; Noll, Jennie; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the impact of family environment on the long-term adjustment of patients with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM). Our objective was to evaluate whether family environment in early adolescence predicted later physical functioning and depressive symptoms of adolescents with JFM as they transitioned to early adulthood in the context of a controlled long-term followup study. Participants consisted of 39 youth (mean age 18.7 years) with JFM and 38 healthy matched controls who completed web-based surveys about their health status (Short Form 36 health survey) and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II) ~4 years after a home-based, in-person assessment of child and family functioning. During the initial assessment, parents of the participants (94% mothers) completed the Family Environment Scale and adolescents (mean age 14.8 years) completed self-report questionnaires about pain (visual analog scale) and depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory). The results indicated that family environment during early adolescence significantly predicted greater depressive symptoms in early adulthood for both the JFM group and the healthy controls. In particular, a controlling family environment (use of rules to control the family and allowing little independence) during early adolescence was the driving factor in predicting poorer long-term emotional functioning for patients with JFM. Family environment did not significantly predict longer-term physical impairment for either group. Adolescents with JFM from controlling family environments are at an increased risk for poorer emotional functioning in early adulthood. Behavioral and family interventions should foster independent coping among adolescents with JFM and greater parenting flexibility to enhance successful long-term coping. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in Parkinson’s disease: differences in clinical manifestations, quality of life and psychosocial functioning between males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadi, Farzaneh; Vosoughi, Kia; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex-related differences in clinical manifestations and consequences of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been poorly explored. Better understanding of sexual dimorphism in neurologic diseases such as PD has been announced as a research priority. The aim of our study was to determine independent sex differences in clinical manifestations and subtypes, psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QoL) and its domains between male and female individuals with PD. Patients and methods A com...

  12. Pathways to Pain: Racial Discrimination and Relations Between Parental Functioning and Child Psychosocial Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Riana E; Hussain, Saida B; Wilson, Melvin N; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Williams, Joanna Lee

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between racial discrimination, parental functioning, and child adjustment is not well understood. The goal of the present study was to assess parental reports of discrimination in relation to depression and parenting practices, as well as on subsequent child internalizing and externalizing problems in low-income Black families. Data include a subsample of the Early Steps project, a multisite longitudinal study of financial and behaviorally at-risk families. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze our hypothesized model. Excellent model fit was established after removing externalizing problems from the model. As predicted, indirect associations were found from discrimination to parental depression, parenting, and child internalizing problems; and direct associations were found from discrimination to child internalizing problems. The results are consistent with findings suggesting that discrimination is negatively associated with adult well-being; moreover, contribute to the sparse literature on the effects of discrimination beyond the direct recipient. Finally, that parent discrimination was directly associated with child emotional problems suggests the continued need to address and treat discriminatory practices more generally.

  13. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  14. Relationships among stressful life events and physiological markers, treatment adherence, and psychosocial functioning among youth with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walders-Abramson, Natalie; Venditti, Elizabeth M; Ievers-Landis, Carolyn E; Anderson, Barbara; El Ghormli, Laure; Geffner, Mitchell; Kaplan, Joan; Koontz, Michaela B; Saletsky, Ron; Payan, Marisa; Yasuda, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationships between stressful life events and physiological measures, adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens, depressive symptoms, and impaired quality of life (QoL) in adolescents with recent-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). Data were collected from 497 ethnically diverse participants (66% female) in the final year of the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth multicenter clinical trial. Exposure to 32 possible events over the previous year and rating of subsequent distress were collected by self-report and summarized as a major stressors score. This score was analyzed for relationship to glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c and treatment failure), body mass index, diagnosis of hypertension or triglyceride dyslipidemia, adherence to a prescribed oral medication regimen, presence of depressive symptoms, and impaired QoL. The total number of major stressful life events in the adolescents with T2D was calculated, with 33% reporting none, 67% reporting ≥ 1, 47% reporting ≥ 2, 33% reporting ≥ 3, and 20% reporting ≥ 4. There were no associations between the major stressors score and physiological measures or diagnosis of comorbidities. The odds of medication nonadherence increased significantly from those reporting ≥ 1 major stressor (OR, 1.58; P = .0265) to those reporting ≥ 4 major stressors (OR, 2.70; P = .0009). Significant odds of elevated depressive symptoms and impaired QoL were also found with increased reporting of major stressors. Exposure to major stressful life events is associated with lower adherence to prescribed oral medication regimens and impaired psychosocial functioning in adolescents with T2D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Disclosure of Financial Conflicts of Interests in Interventions to Improve Child Psychosocial Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Manuel; Humphreys, David K; Wilson, Philip; Gardner, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Academic journals increasingly request a full disclosure of financial conflict of interest (CoI). The Committee for Publication Ethics provides editors with guidance about the course of action in the case of suspected non-disclosure. No prior study has examined the extent to which journal articles on psychosocial interventions disclose CoI, and how journal editors process requests to examine suspected undisclosed CoI. Four internationally disseminated psychosocial interventions were examined. 136 articles related to an intervention, co-authored by intervention developers and published in health sciences journals were retrieved as requiring a CoI statement. Two editors refused consent to be included in the study. COI disclosures and editor responses were coded for 134 articles. Overall, 92/134 (71%) of all articles were found to have absent, incomplete or partly misleading CoI disclosures. Disclosure rates for the four programs varied significantly between 11% and 73%. Journal editors were contacted about 92 published articles with no CoI disclosure or a disclosure that was considered problematic. In 65/92 (71%) of all cases the editors published an 'erratum' or 'corrigendum'. In 16 of these cases the journal had mishandled a submitted disclosure. The most frequent reason for non-publication of an erratum was that the journal had no disclosure policy at the time of the publication (16 cases). Consumers of research on psychosocial interventions published in peer-reviewed journals cannot currently assume that CoI disclosures are adequate and complete. More efforts are needed to achieve transparency.

  16. Formative evaluation of the STAR intervention: improving teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ronél; Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2011-04-01

    The article describes the pilot phase of a participatory reflection and action (PRA) study. The longitudinal investigation explores teachers' ability to provide psychosocial support within the context of HIV/AIDS following an asset-based intervention. The study ensued from our desire to understand and contribute to knowledge about the changed roles of teachers due to adversity in the community, specifically in relation to HIV/AIDS and education. The supportive teachers, assets and resilience (STAR) intervention was facilitated from November 2003 to October 2005 and consisted of the research team undertaking nine field visits and facilitating 20 intervention sessions (2-3 hours each), and 12 post-intervention research visits have been conducted to date. Ten female teachers were selected for participation through random purposeful sampling at a primary school in an informal settlement outside Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data-generation included PRA activities, observation, informal interactive interviews, and focus group discussions. The data were analysed by means of inductive thematic analysis. We found that the teachers did not view vulnerability as being related to children or HIV/AIDS in isolation, but rather that their psychosocial support to children and the school community was inclusive across a spectrum of vulnerabilities and services. We argue that teachers who are inclined to provide such support will fulfil this role irrespective of understanding policy or receiving training. We contend that teachers are well-positioned to manage school-based psychosocial support in order to create relevant and caring spaces for vulnerable individuals in the school community.

  17. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  18. Ranitidine improves postoperative monocyte and neutrophil function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, H; Jensen, S

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The histamine H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine hydrochloride has been shown to improve trauma-, blood transfusion-, and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ranitidine on postoperative impairment in monocyte and neutrophil function. METHODS: Twenty...... difference (P detected. There were no infectious complications in ranitidine-treated patients. CONCLUSION: These results support previous studies...

  19. Does psychosocial competency training for junior physicians working in pediatric medicine improve individual skills and perceived job stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Monika; Baresi, Lisa; Groneberg, David; Mache, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Pediatricians' job performance, work engagement, and job satisfaction are essential for both the individual physician and quality of care for their little patients and parents. Therefore, it is important to maintain or possibly augment pediatricians' individual and professional competencies. In this study, we developed and implemented a psychosocial competency training (PCT) teaching different psychosocial competencies and stress coping techniques. We investigated (1) the influence of the PCT on work-related characteristics: stress perception, work engagement, job satisfaction and (2) explored pediatricians' outcomes and satisfaction with PCT. Fifty-four junior physicians working in pediatric hospital departments participated in the training and were randomized in an intervention (n = 26) or a control group (n = 28). In the beginning, at follow-up 1 and 2, both groups answered a self-rated questionnaire on perceived training outcomes and work-related factors. The intervention group showed that their job satisfaction significantly increased while perceived stress scores decreased after taking part in the PCT. No substantial changes were observed with regard to pediatricians' work engagement. Participating physicians evaluated PCT with high scores for training design, content, received outcome, and overall satisfaction with the training.

  20. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, H.; O’Rourke, R. W.; Lumeng, C. N.; Sandoval, D. A.; Seeley, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. PMID:27272117

  1. Does bariatric surgery improve adipose tissue function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frikke-Schmidt, H; O'Rourke, R W; Lumeng, C N; Sandoval, D A; Seeley, R J

    2016-09-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for obesity. Not only do these types of surgeries produce significant weight loss but also they improve insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolic function. The aim of this review is to explore how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the potent metabolic effects of some of these procedures. This includes specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes and the interaction between adipose tissue and other key metabolic tissues. Besides a dramatic loss of fat mass, bariatric surgery shifts the distribution of fat from visceral to the subcutaneous compartment favoring metabolic improvement. The sensitivity towards lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines is improved, adipokine secretion is altered and local adipose inflammation as well as systemic inflammatory markers decreases. Some of these changes have been shown to be weight loss independent, and novel hypothesis for these effects includes include changes in bile acid metabolism, gut microbiota and central regulation of metabolism. In conclusion bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery. © 2016 World Obesity.

  2. Long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in midlife on health functioning after labor market exit--results from the GAZEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Sembajwe, Grace; Zins, Marie; Berkman, Lisa; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2012-07-01

    To study long-term effects of psychosocial work stress in mid-life on health functioning after labor market exit using two established work stress models. In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on psychosocial work stress were assessed using the full questionnaires measuring the demand-control-support model (in 1997 and 1999) and the effort-reward imbalance model (in 1998). In 2007, health functioning was assessed, using the Short Form 36 mental and physical component scores. Multivariate regressions were calculated to predict health functioning in 2007, controlling for age, gender, social position, and baseline self-perceived health. Consistent effects of both work stress models and their single components on mental and physical health functioning during retirement were observed. Effects remained significant after adjustment including baseline self-perceived health. Whereas the predictive power of both work stress models was similar in the case of the physical composite score, in the case of the mental health score, values of model fit were slightly higher for the effort-reward imbalance model (R(2): 0.13) compared with the demand-control model (R²: 0.11). Findings underline the importance of working conditions in midlife not only for health in midlife but also for health functioning after labor market exit.

  3. Gain beyond cosmesis: Demonstration of psychosocial and functional gains following successful strabismus surgery using the adult strabismus questionnaire adult strabismus 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danish Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strabismus adversely affects psychosocial and functional aspects; while its correction impacts positively. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the gains in scores: Overall scores (OASs, psychosocial subscale scores (PSSs and functional subscale scores (FSSs following successful surgical alignment. Settings and Design: We evaluated changed scores in the adult strabismus 20 (AS-20 questionnaire, administered before and after successful surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty adults horizontal strabismics, were administered the AS-20, at baseline, and at 6-week and 3-month. Group-wise analysis was carried out based on gender, strabismus type (esotropia [ET] or exotropia [XT], back-ground and amblyopia. Statistical Analysis: We used Wilcoxon, and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: At baseline, there were no significant differences within the groups, except that those with amblyopia significantly scored less than nonamblyopes in OAS (median scores: 53.8 vs. 71.3; P = 0.009 and FSS (56.3 vs. 85.3; P = 0.009. OAS, PSS and FSS showed significant gains at 6-week and 3-month (all Wilcoxon P < 0.001. Compared with males, females showed significantly more gain at 3-month (OAS: 37.9 vs. 28.7; P = 0.02, on account of PSS gain (49.6 vs. 37.5; P = 0.01. The ET performed better than XT only on the FSS at 6-week (28.7 vs. 15.0; P = 0.02. Vis-à-vis the nonamblyopes, the amblyopes showed significantly more benefit at 6-week alone (OAS: 18.7 vs. 28.7; P = 0.04, largely due to gains in PSS. Conclusions: Successful strabismus surgery has demonstrated significant gains in psychosocial, functional and overall functions. There is some evidence that gains may be more in females; with a trend to better outcomes in ET and amblyopes up to 6-week.

  4. A post hoc analysis of negative symptoms and psychosocial function in patients with schizophrenia: a 40-week randomized, double-blind study of ziprasidone versus haloperidol followed by a 3-year double-blind extension trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Stephen M; Malla, Ashok; Newcomer, John W; Potkin, Steven G; Weiden, Peter J; Harvey, Philip D; Loebel, Antony; Watsky, Eric; Siu, Cynthia O; Romano, Steve

    2010-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a persistent, lifelong illness such that enduring functional improvements may only occur over the course of years [corrected].This post hoc analysis in stable outpatients with schizophrenia investigated the negative symptom efficacy and treatment outcomes of ziprasidone (80-160 mg/d given twice a day, mean modal dose of 112 mg/d; and 80-120 mg/d given every day, mean modal dose of 96 mg/d) versus haloperidol (5-20 mg/d, mean modal dose of 12 mg/d) in a randomized, 40-week, double-blind study, followed by a double-blind continuation trial that extended up to 156 additional weeks. Symptomatic and functional recovery criteria were met when subjects attained both negative symptom remission and adequate psychosocial functioning based on the 4 Quality-of-Life subscales (instrumental role, interpersonal relations, participation in community, and intrapsychic foundations). Negative symptom remission (P = 0.005), as well as sustained adequate functioning (6 months) in instrumental role (P = 0.04) and participation in community (P = 0.02), was associated with significantly shorter time to remission in the ziprasidone 80 to 160 mg group than in the haloperidol group, as was the combination of symptomatic and functional recovery during the 196-week double-blind study period. A similar pattern was observed for the ziprasidone 80 to 120 mg group, which showed significant differences versus haloperidol in negative symptom remission and instrumental role functioning (but not other Quality-of-Life subscale measures). The clinically relevant outcome differences detected in this post hoc exploratory analysis support the potential for both enhanced remission in negative symptoms and psychosocial recovery during long-term treatment with an atypical agent and add to our understanding regarding the degree to which negative symptom remission can be attained in the maintenance phase.

  5. Assessing Change in Psychosocial Functioning of Incarcerated Girls with a Substance Use Disorder: Gender Sensitive Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Lewis, Amelia C.; Welch-Brewer, Chiquitia L.; Jackson, Mary S.; Kirk, Raymond; Pharr, O. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the effectiveness of a female gender-specific substance abuse treatment intervention (Holistic Enrichment for At-Risk Teens, or HEART) in improving problems related to personal and social functioning. A quasi-experimental, 2-group pretest and posttest repeated measures design was used to…

  6. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... assessed around 18 years of age regarding psychosocial functioning and lifetime psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Compared with controls, individuals with Tourette syndrome had substantially lower CGAS scores (P = 10(-8)) and higher rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), major depression...... and high comorbidity rates in late adolescence....

  7. Psychosocial outcome and psychiatric comorbidity in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome: controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorman, Daniel A; Thompson, Nancy; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with Tourette syndrome generally experience improvement of tics by age 18 years, but psychosocial and comorbidity outcomes at this age are unclear. AIMS: To compare psychosocial outcomes and lifetime comorbidity rates in older adolescents with Tourette syndrome and controls. We...... hypothesised a priori that individuals with Tourette syndrome would have lower Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores. METHOD: A total of 65 individuals with Tourette syndrome, identified in childhood, and 65 matched community controls without tic or obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms were......, learning disorder and conduct disorder (Ptic severity. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically ascertained children with Tourette syndrome typically have impaired psychosocial functioning...

  8. Resveratrol: A Multifunctional Compound Improving Endothelial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huige; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The red wine polyphenol resveratrol boosts endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxations. The improvement of endothelial function by resveratrol is largely attributable to nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). By stimulating eNOS expression, eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS deacetylation, resveratrol enhances endothelial NO production. By upregulating antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and suppressing the expression a...

  9. Resveratrol: A Multifunctional Compound Improving Endothelial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huige; Förstermann, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The red wine polyphenol resveratrol boosts endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxations. The improvement of endothelial function by resveratrol is largely attributable to nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). By stimulating eNOS expression, eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS deacetylation, resveratrol enhances endothelial NO production. By upregulating antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and suppressing the expression a...

  10. Psychosocial functioning, quality of life and clinical correlates of comorbid alcohol and drug dependence syndromes in people with schizophrenia across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Johnson, Sonia; Crocamo, Cristina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Toumi, Mondher; Bebbington, Paul E

    2016-05-30

    Little is known about the correlates of comorbid drug and alcohol dependence in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. We tested hypotheses that dependence on alcohol/drugs would be associated with more severe symptoms, and poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The EuroSC Cohort study (N=1204), based in France, Germany and the UK, used semi-structured clinical interviews for diagnoses, and standardized tools to assess correlates. We used mixed models to compare outcomes between past-year comorbid dependence on alcohol/drugs, controlling for covariates and modelling both subject and country-level effects. Participants dependent on alcohol or drugs had fewer negative symptoms on PANSS than their non-dependent counterparts. However, those dependent on alcohol scored higher on PANSS general psychopathology than those who were not, or dependent only on drugs. People with schizophrenia dependent on drugs had poorer quality of life, more extrapyramidal side effects, and scored worse on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those without dependence. People with alcohol dependence reported more reasons for non-compliance with medication, and poorer functioning on GAF, though not on Global Assessment of Relational Functioning. In people with schizophrenia, comorbid dependence on alcohol or drugs is associated with impaired clinical and psychosocial adjustment, and poorer quality of life.

  11. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  12. Sexual dimorphism in Parkinson’s disease: differences in clinical manifestations, quality of life and psychosocial functioning between males and females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Farzaneh; Vosoughi, Kia; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Delbari, Ahmad; Lökk, Johan; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex-related differences in clinical manifestations and consequences of Parkinson’s disease (PD) have been poorly explored. Better understanding of sexual dimorphism in neurologic diseases such as PD has been announced as a research priority. The aim of our study was to determine independent sex differences in clinical manifestations and subtypes, psychosocial functioning, quality of life (QoL) and its domains between male and female individuals with PD. Patients and methods A comprehensive list of demographics, motor symptoms and subtypes, nonmotor features, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), psychosocial functioning and general aspects of daily life was assessed in 157 individuals (108 males and 49 females) with idiopathic PD. In order to control for potential confounding variables, we applied Orthogonal Partial Least Squares – Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) to explore the strength of each feature to discriminate male and female patients with PD. Results While no sex difference was found in the total Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and cumulative daily dose of levodopa, females had significantly more severe anxiety (mean difference =2.2 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.5–4.0], P=0.011), worse nutritional status (23.8 [standard deviation, SD =4.2] vs 25.8 [SD =2.6], P=0.003) and poorer QoL (28.3 [SD =15.7] vs 17.9 [SD =14.2], P<0.001). Based on multivariate discriminant analysis, emotional well-being, bodily discomfort, social support, mobility and communication domains of HRQoL, together with anxiety, depression and psychosocial functioning, were the strongest features with more severe/worse status in females after adjustment for potential statistical confounders. Conclusion Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of sexual dimorphism in PD. Anxiety, depression, specific domains of HRQoL (mobility, emotional well-being, social support and bodily discomfort) and psychosocial functioning were significantly

  13. The Influence of Exercise Training on Quality of Life and Psychosocial Functioning in Children with Congenital Heart Disease:A Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolijn Dulfer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents operated upon for congenital heart disease may show reduced exercise capacity and physical activity, associated with lowered quality of life. This review presents intervention studies on the influence of an exercise program on quality of life and psychosocial functioning in children with severe congenital heart disease. Participation in an exercise program among young people with complex congenital heart disease seemed to have positive effects on quality of life and passive leisure time spent. However, more effects of the exercise programs may have been expected. For future research it is important to critically evaluate the content of the exercise programs.

  14. Cross-functional team processes and patient functional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Lichtenstein, Richard; Jinnett, Kimberly; Wells, Rebecca; Zazzali, James; Liu, Dawei

    2005-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that higher levels of participation and functioning in cross-functional psychiatric treatment teams will be related to improved patient outcomes. Primary data were collected during the period 1992-1999. The study was conducted in 40 teams within units treating seriously mentally ill patients in 16 Veterans Affairs hospitals across the U.S. A longitudinal, multilevel analysis assessed the relationship between individual- and team-level variables and patients' ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) over time. Team data were collected in 1992, 1994, and 1995. The number of times patient data were collected was dependent on the length of time the patient was treated and varied from 1 to 14 between 1992 and 1999. Key variables included: patients' ADL scores (the dependent variable); measures of team participation and team functioning; the number of days from baseline on which a patient's ADLs were assessed; and several control variables. Team data were obtained via self-administered questionnaires distributed to staff on the study teams. Additional team data were obtained via questionnaires completed by unit directors contemporaneously with the staff survey. Patient data were collected by trained clinicians at regular intervals using a standard assessment instrument. Results indicated that patients treated in teams with higher levels of staff participation experienced greater improvement in ADL over time. No differences in ADL change were noted for patients treated in teams with higher levels of team functioning. Findings support our premise that team process has important implications for patient outcomes. The results suggest that the level of participation by the team as a whole may be a more important process attribute, in terms of patient improvements in ADLs, than the team's smooth functioning. These findings indicate the potential appropriateness of managerial interventions to encourage member investment in team processes.

  15. Foster care placement improves children's functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, S M; Balestracci, K M; Simms, M D

    2001-11-01

    To examine changes in reported functioning over a 12-month follow-up period and predictors of those changes for a cohort of young children enrolled in foster care. Data came from a longitudinal follow-up of a cohort of young children entering foster care in one Connecticut region. These data were originally assembled to evaluate the effectiveness of a specialized set of services designed to provide a baseline multidisciplinary assessment and ongoing monitoring for young children entering foster care. From February 1, 1992, through July 31, 1993, all young children (N = 120) entering foster care in one Connecticut region were enrolled in this study. Children were assessed at entry into care and at 6 and 12 months after entry. Participation rates exceeded 90% at each follow-up period. The principal outcome of interest for these analyses is 12-month functioning as measured by the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) scores completed by their foster mothers. At entry into foster care, children ranged in age from 11 to 76 months, were evenly divided by sex, and had a mean VABS score of 79.5 signifying functioning below the average range. At 6 months children gained an average of 7.87 points on their VABS score. By 12 months children showed an average change of 9.65 points, for a mean VABS score of 94.5, well within the nationally normed average range. The multivariate linear model predicting the 12-month VABS score showed that, controlling for the baseline VABS score, when children who were abused, older at placement, female, of African American ethnicity, spent more time in foster care, and had fewer recommended services while in care, they were more likely to show improvement on the foster mother-reported VABS evaluation. These results demonstrate that children's reported functioning improves over the course of placement in foster care and that sociodemographic characteristics, reason for placement, length of time in foster care, and fewer recommended services at

  16. Cannabis Use Is Associated With Increased Psychotic Symptoms and Poorer Psychosocial Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis: A Report From the UK National EDEN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer L; Birchwood, Max; Copello, Alex; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; Marshall, Max; Singh, Swaran P

    2016-05-01

    The use of cannabis during the early stage of psychosis has been linked with increased psychotic symptoms. This study aimed to examine the use of cannabis in the 12 months following a first-episode of psychosis (FEP) and the link with symptomatic course and outcome over 1 year post psychosis onset. One thousand twenty-seven FEP patients were recruited upon inception to specialized early intervention services (EIS) for psychosis in the United Kingdom. Participants completed assessments at baseline, 6 and 12 months. The results indicate that the use of cannabis was significantly associated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms, mania, depression and poorer psychosocial functioning. Continued use of cannabis following the FEP was associated with poorer outcome at 1 year for Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score, negative psychotic symptoms, depression and psychosocial functioning, an effect not explained by age, gender, duration of untreated psychosis, age of psychosis onset, ethnicity or other substance use. This is the largest cohort study of FEP patients receiving care within EIS. Cannabis use, particularly "continued use," was associated with poorer symptomatic and functional outcome during the FEP. The results highlight the need for effective and early intervention for cannabis use in FEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Virtual reality training improves balance function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yurong Mao; Peiming Chen; Le Li; Dongfeng Huang

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a com-puter and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These ifndings suggest that virtual reality training can acti-vate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  18. Virtual reality training improves balance function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

    2014-09-01

    Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function.

  19. Lanczos steps to improve variational wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becca, Federico; Hu, Wen-Jun; Iqbal, Yasir; Parola, Alberto; Poilblanc, Didier; Sorella, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    Gutzwiller-projected fermionic states can be efficiently implemented within quantum Monte Carlo calculations to define extremely accurate variational wave functions for Heisenberg models on frustrated two-dimensional lattices, not only for the ground state but also for low-energy excitations. The application of few Lanczos steps on top of these states further improves their accuracy, allowing calculations on large clusters. In addition, by computing both the energy and its variance, it is possible to obtain reliable estimations of exact results. Here, we report the cases of the frustrated Heisenberg models on square and Kagome lattices.

  20. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  1. Psychosocial interventions for premature ejaculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Melnik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Premature ejaculation (PE is a very common sexual dysfunction among patients, and with varying prevalence estimates ranging from 3% to 20%. Although psychological issues are present in most patients with premature PE, as a cause or as a consequence, research on the effects of psychological approaches for PE has in general not been controlled or randomised and is lacking in long-term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for PE. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: Trials were searched in computerized general and specialized databases, such as: MEDLINE by PubMed (1966 to 2010; PsycINFO (1974 to 2010; EMBASE (1980 to 2010; LILACS (1982 to 2010; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2010; and by checking bibliographies, and contacting manufacturers and researchers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating psychosocial interventions compared with different psychosocial interventions, pharmacological interventions, waiting list, or no treatment for PE. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information on patients, interventions, and outcomes was extracted by at least two independent reviewers using a standard form. The primary outcome measure for comparing the effects of psychosocial interventions to waiting list and standard medications was improvement in IELT (i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation. The secondary outcome was change in validated PE questionnaires. MAIN RESULTS: In one study behavioral therapy (BT was significantly better than waiting list for duration of intercourse (MD (mean difference 407.90 seconds, 95% CI 302.42 to 513.38, and couples' sexual satisfaction (MD -26.10, CI -50.48 to -1.72. BT was also significantly better for a new functional-sexological treatment (FS (MD 412.00 seconds, 95% CI 305.88 to 518.12, change over time in subjective perception of duration of intercourse (Women: MD 2

  2. Improving information retrieval in functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Juan C; González, Germán A; Fresno, Cristóbal; Llera, Andrea S; Fernández, Elmer A

    2016-12-01

    Transcriptome analysis is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating key biological processes and functions. The first step usually consists of identifying candidate genes; to find out which pathways are affected by those genes, however, functional analysis (FA) is mandatory. The most frequently used strategies for this purpose are Gene Set and Singular Enrichment Analysis (GSEA and SEA) over Gene Ontology. Several statistical methods have been developed and compared in terms of computational efficiency and/or statistical appropriateness. However, whether their results are similar or complementary, the sensitivity to parameter settings, or possible bias in the analyzed terms has not been addressed so far. Here, two GSEA and four SEA methods and their parameter combinations were evaluated in six datasets by comparing two breast cancer subtypes with well-known differences in genetic background and patient outcomes. We show that GSEA and SEA lead to different results depending on the chosen statistic, model and/or parameters. Both approaches provide complementary results from a biological perspective. Hence, an Integrative Functional Analysis (IFA) tool is proposed to improve information retrieval in FA. It provides a common gene expression analytic framework that grants a comprehensive and coherent analysis. Only a minimal user parameter setting is required, since the best SEA/GSEA alternatives are integrated. IFA utility was demonstrated by evaluating four prostate cancer and the TCGA breast cancer microarray datasets, which showed its biological generalization capabilities.

  3. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...

  4. Acupuncture improves cognitive function A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mason Chin Pang Leung; Ka Keung Yip; Chung Tsung Lam; Ka Shun Lam; Wai Lau; Wing Lam Yu; Amethyst King Man Leung; Kwok-fai So

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment.OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function.RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5.CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol.

  5. Preoperative cross functional teams improve OR performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Justin; van Veen-Berkx, Elizabeth; van Amelsvoort, Pierre; Gooszen, Hein

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the effect of the introduction of cross-functional team (CFT)-based organization, rather than, on planning and performance of OR teams. In total, two surgical departments of the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center (RUNMC) in the Netherlands were selected to illustrate the effect on performance. Data were available for a total of seven consecutive years from 2005 until 2012 and consisted of 4,046 OR days for surgical Department A and 1,154 OR days for surgical Department B on which, respectively 8,419 and 5,295 surgical cases were performed. The performance indicator "raw utilization" of the two surgical Departments was presented as box-and-whisker plots per year (2005-2011). The relationship between raw utilization (y) and years (x) was analyzed with linear regression analysis, to observe if performance changed over time. Based on the linear regression analysis, raw utilization of surgical Department A showed a statistically significant increase since 2006. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 33 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Surgical Department B showed that raw utilization increased since 2005. The variation in raw utilization reduced from IQR 21 percent in 2005 to IQR 8 percent in 2011. Hospitals need to improve their productivity and efficiency in response to higher societal demands and rapidly escalating costs. The RUNMC increased their OR performance significantly by introduction of CFT-based organization in the operative process and abandoning the so called functional silos. The stepwise reduction of variation - a decrease of IQR during the years - indicates an organizational learning effect. This study demonstrates that introducing CFTs improve OR performance by working together as a team.

  6. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  7. Psychosocial benefits of cardiac rehabilitation among women compared with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, Garrett; Williams, Jennifer W; Wakefield, Jessica; Perlman, Adam; Kraus, William E; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiac risk and improve the psychosocial functioning of participants. This study examines gender differences on several psychosocial indicators across the course of CR. Patients (N = 380; 67.9% men and 32.1% women) referred from local inpatient and outpatient settings at a southeastern US academic medical facility were assessed on reported levels of depression, anxiety, panic, anger, and relationship satisfaction, using the Burns Brief Mood Survey, at the start and conclusion of a CR program. Medical variables were also assessed but are not the focus of this report. Statistical analyses included 1-way, Kruskal-Wallis, and repeated-measures analysis of variance procedures, as well as χ analyses. Women reported more psychosocial symptoms at pre-CR than men, and overall, both groups improved across CR. Women with significant depression, anxiety, and panic experienced clinically significant benefit across CR. Although the percentage of men reporting clinically significant levels of anger decreased significantly across CR, clinically significant levels of anger did not significantly change among women. In addition, women did not report benefits in relationship dissatisfaction. This study provides further evidence that CR offers psychosocial benefit for women, as has been reported in several small clinical samples. Some notable gender differences on anger and relationship satisfaction were observed. Clinical attention may be warranted to facilitate improvement for symptoms of anger and relationship concerns among selected women who participate in CR.

  8. Functional, aesthetic and psychosocial outcomes of face transplantYüz naklinin fonksiyonel, estetik ve psikososyal sonuçları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Altun Uğraş

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world, the number of individuals developing severe craniofacial deformities due to trauma, tumor ablation or congenital disorders is increasing every day. These individuals tend to surgical reconstruction to repair these deformities causing adverse effects on body image and to improve functional and/or aesthetic outcomes. Until 2004, reconstructive surgery options to the patients with severe aesthetic facial deformity were rather limited, and the surgical interventions performed back then were far from satisfying functional, aesthetic and psychological expectations of these patients. With the advent of new techniques in surgery, the first partial face transplant was performed in France in 2005, thus emerging as a promising treatment option to patients experiencing serious functional, aesthetic and psychological problems due to facial deformities. Since 2005, 30 face transplants have been successfully performed around the world. Studies have revealed that after face transplant in general patients are satisfied with the functional, aesthetic psychosocial consequences and their quality of life has increased. With the increase in the number of face transplants, certain concepts such as face transplant programs and face transplant teams have gained attention, and nurses have taken their place in this development, providing the necessary care to this group of patients. This literature review is designed to inform nurses, providing care to these patients, about the positive outcomes of face transplant by discussing functional, aesthetic and psychosocial consequences of face transplant in the literature. ÖzetTravma, tümör ablasyonu ya da konjenital hastalıklar nedeniyle yüz bölgesinde ciddi deformite oluşan birey sayısı dünya çapında hızla artmaktadır. Bu bireyler, deformitelerin düzeltilmesi, fonksiyonel veya estetik sonuçların iyileştirilmesi için cerrahi tedaviye yönelmektedirler. Ciddi yüz deformitesi olan hastalar

  9. Symptomatic Remission Determines Functional Improvement and Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaçya, Mehmet Hanifi; Virit, Osman; Çöpoğlu, Ümit Sertan; Savaş, Haluk; Ari, Mustafa; Bahçeci, Bülent

    2016-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic illness that negatively affects the quality of life and psychosocial functions. Defined criteria to assess remission in schizophrenia are considered to be useful in the long-term follow-up of patients and in discriminating diagnostic factors. This study investigated the quality of life and functionality in schizophrenia patients in symptomatic remission (R-Sch) and not in remission (Non-R-Sch). Sociodemographic data were collected for 40 R-Sch and 40 Non-R-Sch patients, and the following scales were administered: the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) Scale; Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Short Form, Turkish Version (WHOQOL-BREF-TR), Quality of Life Scale for Schizophrenia Patients (QLS), and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF). The total and all subscale scores of PANSS and the CGI-S score were significantly lower in the R-Sch group than in the Non-R-Sch group, whereas the GAF scores and all subscales of QLS and WHOQOL-BREF-TR were significantly higher. This study demonstrates that improvement in symptoms in schizophrenia patients improves quality and functionality in all areas of life, suggesting that an improvement in symptoms is the most important determinant of functional recovery in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  10. Psychosocial healing and post-conflict social reconstruction in the former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutlove, Paula; Thompson, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Post-conflict reconstruction encompasses social, physical and political reconstruction. Social reconstruction entails rebuilding the human interactions that allow a society to function. This involves the healing of psychological and social wounds of individuals and society. Psychosocial healing is a process to promote psychological and social health of individuals, families and community groups. The Medical Network for Social Reconstruction in the Former Yugoslavia has pioneered a broad range of psychosocial healing programmes including community-integration programmes, development of volunteer action, and training of professional and lay people to take part in psychosocial healing. These programmes have demonstrated that psychosocial healing can be an effective way to heal post-conflict societal trauma and contribute to rebuilding society with an improved quality of life.

  11. Functional dysphonia: strategies to improve patient outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Mara; Madazio, Glaucya; Oliveira, Gisele

    2015-01-01

    Functional dysphonia (FD) refers to a voice problem in the absence of a physical condition. It is a multifaceted voice disorder. There is no consensus with regard to its definition and inclusion criteria for diagnosis. FD has many predisposing and precipitating factors, which may include genetic susceptibility, psychological traits, and the vocal behavior itself. The assessment of voice disorders should be multidimensional. In addition to the clinical examination, auditory-perceptual, acoustic, and self-assessment analyses are very important. Self-assessment was introduced in the field of voice 25 years ago and has produced a major impact in the clinical and scientific scenario. The choice of treatment for FD is vocal rehabilitation by means of direct therapy; however, compliance has been an issue, except for cases of functional aphonia or when an intensive training is administered. Nevertheless, there are currently no controlled studies that have explored the different options of treatment regimens for these patients. Strategies to improve patient outcome involve proper multidisciplinary diagnosis in order to exclude neurological and psychiatric disorders, careful voice documentation with quantitative measurement and qualitative description of the vocal deviation for comparison after treatment, acoustic evaluation to gather data on the mechanism involved in voice production, self-assessment questionnaires to map the impact of the voice problem on the basis of the patient’s perspective, referral to psychological evaluation in cases of suspected clinical anxiety and/or depression, identification of dysfunctional coping strategies, self-regulation data to assist patients with their vocal load, and direct and intensive vocal rehabilitation to reduce psychological resistance and to reassure patient’s recovery. An international multicentric effort, involving a large population of voice-disordered patients with no physical pathology, could produce enough data for

  12. Vitamin d and rehabilitation: improving functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinchuk, Leonid M; Shinchuk, Leonid; Holick, Michael F

    2007-06-01

    Vitamin D inadequacy is pandemic among rehabilitation patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Male and female patients of all ages and ethnic backgrounds are affected. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis, causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia, and worsens proximal muscle strength and postural sway. Vitamin D inadequacy can be prevented by sensible sun exposure and adequate dietary intake with supplementation. Vitamin D status is determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The recommended healthful serum level is between 30 and 60 ng/mL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels of >30 ng/mL are sufficient to suppress parathyroid hormone production and to maximize the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption from the small intestine. This can be accomplished by ingesting 1000 IU of vitamin D(3) per day, or by taking 50,000 IU of vitamin D(2) every 2 weeks. Vitamin D toxicity is observed when 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels exceed 150 ng/mL. Identification and treatment of vitamin D deficiency reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures by improving bone health and musculoskeletal function. Vitamin D deficiency and osteomalacia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with musculoskeletal pain, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myositis. There is a need for better education of health professionals and the general public regarding the optimization of vitamin D status in the care of rehabilitation patients.

  13. Improved algorithm for calculating the Chandrasekhar function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, A.

    2013-02-01

    algorithms by selecting ranges of the argument omega in which the performance is the fastest. Reasons for the new version: Some of the theoretical models describing electron transport in condensed matter need a source of the Chandrasekhar H function values with an accuracy of at least 10 decimal places. Additionally, calculations of this function should be as fast as possible since frequent calls to a subroutine providing this function are made (e.g., numerical evaluation of a double integral with a complicated integrand containing the H function). Both conditions were satisfied in the algorithm previously published [1]. However, it has been found that a proper selection of the quadrature in an integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function may considerably decrease the running time. By suitable selection of the number of abscissas in Gauss-Legendre quadrature, the execution time was decreased by a factor of more than 20. Simultaneously, the accuracy of results has not been affected. Summary of revisions: (1) As in previous work [1], two integral representations of the Chandrasekhar function, H(x,omega), were considered: the expression published by Dudarev and Whelan [2] and the expression published by Davidović et al. [3]. The algorithms implementing these representations were designated A and B, respectively. All integrals in these implementations were previously calculated using Romberg quadrature. It has been found, however, that the use of Gauss-Legendre quadrature considerably improved the performance of both algorithms. Two conditions have to be satisfied. (i) The number of abscissas, N, has to be rather large, and (ii) the abscissas and corresponding weights should be determined with accuracy as high as possible. The abscissas and weights are available for N=16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 64, 80, and 96 with accuracy of 20 decimal places [4], and all these values were introduced into a new procedure GAUSS replacing procedure ROMBERG. Due to the fact that the

  14. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on improving home environment and child-rearing practices: results from a community-based trial among severely malnourished children in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahar Baitun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting programmes are effective in enhancing parenting practices and child development. This study evaluated the effects of a intervention with psychosocial stimulation (PS on the quality of the home environment and mothers’ child-rearing practices in a community-based trial with severely malnourished Bangladeshi children. Method Severely underweight children (n = 507, 6–24 months of age, were randomly assigned to five groups: PS; food supplementation (FS; PS + FS; clinic-control (CC; and, hospital-control (CH. PS included fortnightly follow-up visits for six months at community clinics where a play leader demonstrated play activities and gave education on child development and child rearing practices. FS comprised cereal-based supplements (150–300 kcal/day for three months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplements and growth monitoring. Mothers were given the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME inventory and a questionnaire on parenting at baseline and after six months to assess the outcome. Results 322 children completed the study. After six months of intervention the PS + FS and PS groups benefitted in the total HOME score (depending on the comparison group, effect sizes varied from 0.66 to 0.33 SD The PS + FS and PS groups also benefitted in two HOME subscales: maternal involvement (effect sizes: 0.8 to 0.55 SD and play materials, (effect sizes: 0.46 to 0.6 SD, and child-rearing practices scores (effect size: 1.5 to 1.1 SD. The PS + FS group benefitted 4.0 points in total HOME score compared with CH, 4.8 points compared with CC and 4.5 points compared with FS (p  Conclusions Child-rearing practices of mothers of severely malnourished children and the quality of their home environment can be improved through community-based psychosocial stimulation with or without food supplementation. This may be of importance to promote child development.

  15. Neurocognitive and Social Cognitive Approaches for Improving Functional Outcome in Early Psychosis: Theoretical Considerations and Current State of Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali F. Bartholomeusz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving functional outcome, in addition to alleviating psychotic symptoms, is now a major treatment objective in schizophrenia research. Given the large body of evidence suggesting pharmacological treatments generally have minimal effects on indices of functioning, research has turned to psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Among these, neurocognitive and social cognitive interventions are at the forefront of this field and are argued to target core deficits inherent to the schizophrenia illness. However, to date, research trials have primarily focused on chronic schizophrenia populations, neglecting the early psychosis groups who are often as severely impaired in social and occupational functioning. This theoretical paper will outline the rationale for investigating adjunctive cognitive-based interventions in the early phases of psychotic illness, critically examine the current approach strategies used in these interventions, and assess the evidence supporting certain training programs for improving functional outcome in early psychosis. Potential pathways for future research will be discussed.

  16. Socio-demographic psychosocial and clinical characteristics of participants in e-HealthyStrides©: an interactive ehealth program to improve diabetes self-management skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemu, Priscilla E; Quarshie, Alexander Q; Josiah-Willock, R; Ojutalayo, Folake O; Alema-Mensah, Ernest; Ofili, Elizabeth O

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes self-management (DSM) training helps prevent diabetic complications. eHealth approaches may improve its optimal use. The aims were to determine a) acceptability of e-HealthyStrides© (an interactive, Internet-based, patient-driven, diabetes self-management support and social networking program) among Morehouse Community Physicians' Network diabetics; b) efficacy for DSM behavior change c) success factors for use of e-HealthyStrides©. Baseline characteristics of pilot study participants are reported. Of those approached, 13.8% agreed to participate. Among participants, 96% were Black, 77% female; age 56±9.2 years; education: 44% college or higher and 15% less than 12th grade; 92.5% with home computers. Over half (51%) failed the Diabetes Knowledge Test. Nearly half (47%) were at goal A1C; 24% at goal blood pressure; 3% at goal LDL cholesterol level. Median (SD) Diabetes Empowerment Scale score = 3.93 (0.72) but managing psychosocial aspects = 3.89 (0.89) scored lower than other domains. There was low overall confidence for DSM behaviors. Assistance with healthy eating was the most frequently requested service. Requestors were more obese with worse A1C than others. Chronic care delivery scored average with high scores for counseling and problem solving but low scores for care coordination and follow up.

  17. Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial

  18. Assessing psychosocial functioning of bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Windover, Amy; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Lavery, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2013-11-01

    Psychological comorbidity is common in bariatric surgery candidates. Many multidisciplinary teams incorporate psychometric testing to screen for psychological factors that, if left unattended, may negatively impact surgical results. Here, we report descriptive findings and empirical correlates of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales among of bariatric surgery candidates undergoing a pre-surgical psychological evaluation. The sample consisted of male (n = 324) and female (n = 658) patients seeking bariatric surgery who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their psychological evaluation. Psychosocial and medical variables were retrospectively coded from the patients' medical records. These criteria included history/current mental health diagnoses and treatments, maladaptive eating behaviors/diagnoses, past/current substance use, abuse history, sleep apnea, and denial of surgery. Descriptive analyses demonstrated similar findings for male and female candidates and replicated previous reports. MMPI-2-RF scales measuring emotional dysfunction were associated with maladaptive eating patterns, a history of Major Depressive Disorder, and previous suicide attempts. Scale scores measuring behavioral dysfunction were associated with current/past substance use and previous physical abuse. MMPI-2-RF scale scores measuring somatic problems were associated with a higher BMI at the time of surgery, sleep apnea diagnosis/adherence, physical/sexual abuse history, active mood disorder, previous mental health diagnoses, and maladaptive eating patterns. The MMPI-2-RF can aid in identifying a broad range of psychological comorbidity among bariatric surgery candidates. When used in conjunction with a pre-surgical psychological interview, it can aid in the assessment of psychological factors relevant to pre-surgical psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

  19. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  20. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  1. Plant improvement by known-function genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Quiroz Chávez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant molecular improvement by recombinant DNA technology represents an advantage to obtain new varieties or traits. This technique is promised for genetic improvement of crop plants. Lines with increased yield, quality, disease resistance, or tolerant to abiotic stress have been obtained, with clear advantages for producers, marketers and consumers. However, they have several limitations in its application to agriculture because of its risk and hazards. The aim of the document is to show the advantages and disadvantages of GM crop plant, to develop represent an opportunity to have new exotic traits.

  2. Combining psychosocial data to improve prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors and events:: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2[6]=27.8, p<0.001). Scale-wise factor analysis revealed two factors: Negative Affectivity (NA) and Hostility(explained variance 45.6% and 17.1%, respectively). SNI didn't load on either factor. NA was associated with BMI (β [SE] = 0.18[0.09], p=0.04), Hostility with metabolic syndrome (Exp(β)= 0.60[0.28], p=0.04), both factors with blood pressure (BP). NA with SBP β=2.53[1.04], p=0.02, DBP β=1.66[0.60], p=0.02; Hostility with SBP β=2.72[1.13], p=0.02, DBP β =1.83[0.65], p=0.005). Neither factor predicted CVD events. In multivariable analyses, original scales were associated with CVD events (lower SNI HR=0.74, CI=0.57–0.96), low Hostile Affect (HR=0.80, CI=0.56–1.03), and higher BDI(HR=1.33, CI=1.08–1.74). Conclusion In women with suspected ischemia, there is shared variance among psychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916

  3. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adults Who Stutter: Psychosocial Adjustment and Speech Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group intervention program for adults who stutter (N = 20). The program consisted of 2-h therapeutic sessions conducted weekly for eight consecutive weeks. It was an integrated program designed to improve: (a) psychosocial functioning, (b)…

  4. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Adults Who Stutter: Psychosocial Adjustment and Speech Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Janet M.; Byrnes, Michelle L.; Yaruss, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy group intervention program for adults who stutter (N = 20). The program consisted of 2-h therapeutic sessions conducted weekly for eight consecutive weeks. It was an integrated program designed to improve: (a) psychosocial functioning, (b)…

  5. Three-Pronged Assessment and Diagnosis of Personality Disorder and its Consequences: Personality Functioning, Pathological Traits, and Psychosocial Disability

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The alternative dimensional model of personality disorder (PD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), Section III, has two main criteria: Impairment in personality functioning and one or more pathological personality traits. The former is defined as disturbances in self functioning (viz., identity, self-direction), and/or interpersonal functioning (viz., empathy, intimacy). Distinguishing personality functio...

  6. Physical training improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disease Laboratory, Human Parasitology, Department of Basic Health Sciences, State University of Maringa, Paraná, Brasil ... physical exercise, may increase the functional capacity of ... pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) [8]. ... disease of different etiologies, has been the ..... chronic infection induces an immune-type.

  7. Physical, Cognitive, and Psychosocial Predictors of Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents with Neurofibromatosis-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly M. Garwood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine physical, cognitive, and social-emotional predictors of quality of life (HRQOL and functional disability (FD in adolescents diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis-1. Methods. Participants were twenty-seven adolescents with a diagnosis of NF-1 who were recruited through an NF-1 specialty clinic at a large Midwestern children’s hospital. Measurements of the adolescents’ cognitive functioning, pain, FD, HRQOL, and social and emotional functioning were obtained with corresponding parent measures. Results. Emotional functioning significantly predicted youth-reported and parent-reported HRQOL, whereas days of pain significantly predicted youth-reported FD. Conclusions. NF-1 is a complex disease. Measurements of the overall impact of the disease tap into different aspects of the effects of NF-1 on daily life. Global outcomes such as HRQOL appear to be influenced especially by emotional functioning, whereas outcomes such as FD appear to be influenced by the physical/organic aspects of NF-1.

  8. An Improved Functional Hierarchy Frame Model for System Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dai-Lin; CHEN Dong-lin; WANG Ru-gen; ZHU Xue-ping

    2003-01-01

    By means of analogy, this paper analyses the present functional hierarchy frame model for system maintainability, and presents an improved model. Practical application indicates that the improved model is visualized, more convenient and perfected over the pervious models.

  9. Improved functional vasodilation in obese Zucker rats following exercise training

    OpenAIRE

    Sebai, Mohamad; Lu, Silu; Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Obese individuals exhibit impaired functional vasodilation and exercise performance. We have demonstrated in obese Zucker rats (OZ), a model of morbid obesity, that insulin resistance impairs functional vasodilation via an increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction. Chronic treadmill exercise training improves functional vasodilation in the spinotrapezius muscle of the OZ, but the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in functional vasodilation are not clear. Based on ...

  10. Epilepsy characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with ketogenic diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Nancy A; Carbone, Loretta A; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2013-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood epilepsy, but its important impacts on families could affect successful treatment. We assessed medical and psychosocial factors associated with successful ketogenic diet treatment. A total of 23 families of patients treated with ketogenic diet completed questionnaires (30% response), including inquiries about challenges to successful dietary treatments and validated family functioning scales. Of these, 14 were considered successful (diet discontinued once the child was seizure-free or continued as clinically indicated). Family-identified challenges were food preparation time (n = 11) and that the diet was too restrictive (n = 9). Neither Medicaid insurance nor family functioning scale scores were significantly associated with successful treatment. Lower seizure frequency prior to ketogenic diet initiation (P = .02) and postdiet seizure improvement (P = .01) were associated with increased odds of success. Effective ketogenic diet treatment is dictated both by psychosocial and epilepsy-related influences. A focus on understanding the psychosocial issues may help to improve families' experiences and success with the ketogenic diet.

  11. Sulforaphane is anticonvulsant and improves mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Pozo, Catalina; Tan, Kah Ni; Borges, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway (Nrf2) has been previously identified to protect the brain against various impacts. Here, we investigated the effect of the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane in various seizure models and hippocampal mitochondrial bioenergetics. We found that daily injections of sulforaphane for 5 days elevated the seizure thresholds to 6 Hz stimulation and fluorothyl-, but not pentylenetetrazole-induced tonic seizures and protected mice against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). Also, sulforaphane increased the antioxidant defences within hippocampal formations and blood plasma. In addition, sulforaphane treatment reduced the extent of hippocampal lipid peroxidation 24 h post-SE and protected hippocampal mitochondria against SE-induced reduction in state 2 and uncoupler-stimulated state 3 respiration. SE-mediated partial loss of rotenone-sensitive and complex II-driven respiration was reduced, consistent with the enhanced activities of complexes I and II in sulforaphane-treated SE mice. In mitochondria isolated from both no SE and SE mice, sulforaphane increased state 3 respiration and respiration linked to ATP synthesis, which may contribute to its anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects by providing more ATP for cellular vital and protective functions. However, sulforaphane did not prevent SE-induced hippocampal cell death. In conclusion, sulforaphane and/or Nrf2 activation are viable anticonvulsant strategies, which are antioxidant and enhance mitochondrial function, especially the ability to produce ATP. Sulforaphane was anticonvulsant in two acute mouse models of epilepsy and protected mice against pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE). We also found antioxidant effects of sulforaphane in mouse plasma and hippocampal formations, exhibited by increased catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, as well as increased abilities of hippocampal mitochondria to produce ATP. These effects likely underlie

  12. Melatonin treatment and light therapy for chronic sleep onset insomnia in children : Effects on sleep, cognition, health, and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin treatment is known to be an effective treatment for chronic sleep onset problems in children, as it can advance the sleep-wake rhythm and improve sleep. However, it is currently not known how long melatonin treatment should be continued, while especially in young children, short term treat

  13. Toward a More Complex Understanding of Acculturation and Adjustment: Cultural Involvements and Psychosocial Functioning in Vietnamese Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong H.; Messe, Lawrence A.; Stollak, Gary E.

    1999-01-01

    Examines link between acculturation and adjustment in 182 Vietnamese youths living in an Anglo-American community. Results indicate involvement in U.S. culture predicts positive functioning on personal, interpersonal, and academic levels. Involvement in the Vietnamese culture predicts positive family relationships. (MMU)

  14. Do child’s psychosocial functioning, and parent and family characteristics predict early alcohol use? The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, I.; de Winter, A.F.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Verhulst, F.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Given the negative consequences of early alcohol use for health and social functioning, it is essential to detect children at risk of early drinking. The aim of this study is to determine predictors of early alcohol use that can easily be detected in Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Me

  15. Effectiveness of LISTEN on loneliness, neuroimmunological stress response, psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and physical health measures of chronic illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie A. Theeke

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: LISTEN can effectively diminish loneliness and decrease the systolic blood pressure in community-dwelling, chronically ill, older adults. Results indicate that this population, if left with untreated loneliness, may experience functional impairment over a period as short as 4 months. Further studies on LISTEN are needed with larger samples, in varied populations, and over longer periods of time to assess the long-term effects of diminishing loneliness in multiple chronic conditions.

  16. Functional, psychosocial and professional outcomes in long-term survivors of lower-extremity osteosarcomas: amputation versus limb salvage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Robert, Rhonda S; Huh, Winston W; Jaffe, Norman

    2009-01-01

    As the number of osteosarcoma survivors increases, the impact of quality of life and function needs to be addressed. Limb salvage is the preferred treatment when patients have treatment options; yet, the questionable long-term durability and complications of prostheses, combined with ambiguous function, leave some doubt regarding the best clinical and surgical options. Comparisons between limb salvage patients, amputees and controls also require further investigation. Amputation would leave the patients with a lifelong requirement for an external prosthetic leg associated with an overall limited walking distance. While artificial limbs are much more sophisticated than those used in the past, phantom limb sensations remain a substantial and unpredictable problem in the amputee. Complications such as stump overgrowth, bleeding, and infection, also require further elucidation. Limb salvage surgery using endoprosthesis, allografts or reconstruction is performed in approximately 85% of patients affected by osteosarcoma located in the middle and/or distal femur. One drawback in limb-salvage surgery in the long-term survivor is that endoprostheses have a limited life span with long-term prosthetic failure. The inherent high rate of reoperation remains a serious problem. Replacing a damaged, infected or severely worn-out arthroplastic joint or its intramedullary stem is difficult, especially in the long-stem cemented endoprostheses used in the 1980s. Limb lengthening procedures in patients who have not reached maturity must also be addressed. Periprosthetic infections, compared to other indications for joint reconstruction, were found to be more frequent in patients treated for neoplastic conditions and their outcome can be devastating, resulting in total loss of joint function, amputation, and systemic complications. Quality of life in terms of function, psychological outcome and endpoint achievements such as marriage and employment apparently do not differ significantly

  17. Using Quality Function Deployment to Improve Reference Services Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Long Chang

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been conducted regarding how reference librarians can evaluate and improve the quality of the answers they provide to users' inquiries. There has been considerably less discussion, however, concerning how to improve the quality of the delivery of those answers, and to upgrade the overall quality of reference services as a whole. Suggestions for improving the quality of service contained within the business literature may be applied to improve library services as well. In this paper the use of Quality Function Deployment (QFD as a tool for improving reference services quality is explored and an adapted framework referred to as service quality function deployment is proposed.

  18. Improved functional vasodilation in obese Zucker rats following exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebai, Mohamad; Lu, Silu; Xiang, Lusha; Hester, Robert L

    2011-09-01

    Obese individuals exhibit impaired functional vasodilation and exercise performance. We have demonstrated in obese Zucker rats (OZ), a model of morbid obesity, that insulin resistance impairs functional vasodilation via an increased thromboxane receptor (TP)-mediated vasoconstriction. Chronic treadmill exercise training improves functional vasodilation in the spinotrapezius muscle of the OZ, but the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in functional vasodilation are not clear. Based on evidence that exercise training improves insulin resistance, we hypothesized that, in the OZ, exercise training increases functional vasodilation and exercise capability due to decreases TP-mediated vasoconstriction associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Six-week-old lean Zucker rats (LZ) and OZ were exercised on a treadmill (24 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk) for 6 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed at the end of the training period. We measured functional vasodilation in both exercise trained (spinotrapezius) and nonexercise trained (cremaster) muscles to determine whether the improved functional vasodilation following exercise training in OZ is due to a systemic improved insulin resistance. Compared with LZ, the sedentary OZ exhibited impairments in glucose tolerance and functional vasodilation in both muscles. The TP antagonist SQ-29548 improved the vasodilator responses in the sedentary OZ with no effect in the LZ. Exercising training of the LZ increased the functional vasodilation in spinotrapezius muscle, with no effect in the cremaster muscle. Exercising training of the OZ improved glucose tolerance, along with increased functional vasodilation, in both the spinotrapezius and cremaster muscles. SQ-29548 treatment had no effect on the vasodilator responses in either cremaster or spinotrapezius muscles of the exercise-trained OZ. These results suggest that, in the OZ, there is a global effect of exercising training to improve insulin resistance and

  19. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  20. Long-Term Psychosocial Functioning in Women with Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: Does Preservation of the Nipple-Areolar Complex Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Cil, Tulin D; Semple, John L; Li, Lucy Dong Xuan; Bagher, Shaghayegh; Zhong, Toni; Virani, Sophia; Narod, Steven; Pal, Tuya

    2015-10-01

    Nipple-sparing prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is an option for women at high-risk for breast cancer, and may offer better cosmetic results than a skin-sparing PM where the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) is removed. However, there may be residual breast cancer risk due to the maintained NAC. It is unclear if sparing the NAC with PM impacts on psychosocial functioning, including cancer-related distress and body image after PM. This was a cross-sectional survey study of women who had undergone bilateral PM (no previous breast cancer) recruited through surgical or cancer genetics clinics. All women completed standardized questionnaires assessing cancer-related distress, anxiety, depression, satisfaction with decision, decision regret, and health-related quality of life related to breast surgery. Outcomes were compared between women with nipple-areola-sparing PM (NAC-PM) and skin-sparing PM (SS-PM). Overall, 137 women completed the study; 53 (39%) had NAC-PM and 84 (61%) had SS-PM. The mean age of the study population was 41.5 years [standard deviation (SD) 8.8] and the mean time between PM and questionnaire completion was 50 months (SD 31). On the BREAST-Q, we found that women with NAC-PM had significantly higher levels of satisfaction with breasts (p = 0.01), satisfaction with outcome (p = 0.02), and sexual well-being (p women with NAC-PM had better body image and sexual functioning compared with women with SS-PM, while both groups had comparable levels of cancer-related distress and perception of breast cancer risk.

  1. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Current practices and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M.; Kring, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments – cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions – and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions. PMID:23988452

  2. Psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms in schizophrenia: current practices and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Ori; Caponigro, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia can be a chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorder. Though advancements have been made in the psychosocial treatment of some symptoms of schizophrenia, people with schizophrenia often continue to experience some level of symptoms, particularly negative symptoms, throughout their lives. Because negative symptoms are associated with poor functioning and quality of life, the treatment of negative symptoms is a high priority for intervention development. However, current psychosocial treatments primarily focus on the reduction of positive symptoms with comparatively few studies investigating the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for negative symptoms. In this article, we review and evaluate the existing literature on three categories of psychosocial treatments--cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), social skills training (SST), and combined treatment interventions--and their impact on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Of the interventions reviewed, CBT and SST appear to have the most empirical support, with some evidence suggesting that CBT is associated with maintenance of negative symptom improvement beyond six months after treatment. It remains unclear if a combined treatment approach provides improvements above and beyond those associated with each individual treatment modality. Although psychosocial treatments show promise for the treatment of negative symptoms, there are many unanswered questions about how best to intervene. We conclude with a general discussion of these unanswered questions, future directions and methodological considerations, and suggestions for the further development of negative symptom interventions.

  3. Early childhood stunting is associated with poor psychological functioning in late adolescence and effects are reduced by psychosocial stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Susan P; Chang, Susan M; Powell, Christine A; Simonoff, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally M

    2007-11-01

    Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; however, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort study of stunted and nonstunted children. Participants were identified at age 9-24 mo by a survey of poor neighborhoods in Kingston, Jamaica, and a 2-y intervention trial of supplementation and stimulation was conducted in the stunted children. Psychological functioning was assessed at age 17 y in 103 of 129 stunted children enrolled and 64 of 84 nonstunted participants. Anxiety, depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and antisocial behavior were reported by participants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and attention deficit, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior were reported by parent interviews. The stunted participants reported significantly more anxiety (regression coefficient = 3.03; 95% CI = 0.99, 5.08) and depressive symptoms (0.37; 95% CI = 0.01, 0.72) and lower self-esteem (-1.67; 95% CI = -0.38, -2.97) than nonstunted participants and were reported by their parents to be more hyperactive (1.29; 95% CI = 0.12, 2.46). Effect sizes were 0.4-0.5 SD. Participants who received stimulation in early childhood differed from the nonstunted group in hyperactivity only. Children stunted before age 2 y thus have poorer emotional and behavioral outcomes in late adolescence. The findings expand the range of disadvantages associated with early stunting, which affects 151 million children <5 y old in developing countries.

  4. Patients' expectations for the functional and psychosocial outcomes of orbital decompression surgery for thyroid eye disease: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickwar, Sadie; McBain, Hayley; Edmunds, Matthew R; Ezra, Daniel G; Rose, Geoffrey E; Newman, Stanton P

    2017-07-25

    Patients with appearance-altering conditions may be dissatisfied with the outcomes of reconstructive surgery due to unmet expectations. This study explored patients' expectations of orbital decompression surgery for thyroid eye disease (TED) and whether these were met. Semi-structured interviews were conducted at two times: (1) in the weeks after patients were listed for decompression surgery and before surgery; (2) up to 12 months after surgery. Thematic analysis was performed for each time point, to identify themes within the data. Fourteen adults with TED were interviewed prior to surgery and five were followed up after surgery. Thematic analyses found: (1) Prior to surgery, patients had formed expectations through online information about the procedure, consultations with physicians, the impact TED had on their lives, and speaking to relevant others. Patients had specific expectations about the procedure, the recovery, post-operative appearance and post-operative vision. (2) After surgery, patients generally felt their appearance and well-being had improved. However, dissatisfaction was linked to unanticipated specific aspects of surgical care, recovery, or appearance. Dissatisfaction can arise from unmet expectations for the outcomes of reconstructive surgery. Physicians should be aware of the processes by which patients form expectations, for example different types and quality of online information. Ensuring that preoperative expectations are realistic could enhance satisfaction after surgery.

  5. Adolescent Religiosity and Psychosocial Functioning: Investigating the Roles of Religious Tradition, National-Ethnic Group, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Stolz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized data from over 9,300 youth from 11 national or within-nation ethnic groups to evaluate the relationship between youth religiosity and youth social outcomes (social initiative, antisocial behavior and psychological outcomes (self-esteem and depression considering the roles of religious tradition, national-ethnic group, and gender. We created national-ethnic group by religious tradition (NEG × RT combinations, partitioned religiosity into between-group and within-group components, and performed a series of mixed model regressions for each outcome. The levels of all four outcomes of interest differed significantly across NEG × RT groups, and these differences were attributable to national-ethnic group rather than religious tradition. Youth reports of antisocial behavior and self-esteem were predicted by between-group religiosity. Additionally, within-group religiosity predicted all four outcomes, indicating that the protective role of religiosity functions in a comparative, or relative, manner with youth who are more religious than others in their group reaping the most benefits.

  6. Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter-Levi, Yael; Pratt, Maayan; Vakart, Adam; Feldman, Michal; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Maternal depression across the first years of life negatively impacts children's development. One pathway of vulnerability may involve functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We utilize a community cohort of 1983 women with no comorbid risk repeatedly assessed for depression from birth to six years to form two groups; chronically depressed (N=40) and non-depressed (N=91) women. At six years, mother and child underwent psychiatric diagnosis, child salivary cortisol (CT) was assessed three times during a home-visit, mother-child interaction was videotaped, and child empathy was coded from behavioral paradigms. Latent Growth curve Model using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) estimated the links between maternal depression and mother's negative parenting and three child outcomes; psychopathology, social withdrawal, and empathy as related to child CT baseline and variability. Depressed mothers displayed more negative parenting and their children showed more Axis-I psychopathology and social withdrawal. SEM analysis revealed that maternal depression was associated with reduced CT variability, which predicted higher child psychopathology and social withdrawal. Whereas all children exhibited similar initial levels of CT, children of controls reduced CT levels over time while children of depressed mothers maintained high, non-flexible levels. Mother negativity was related to lower initial CT levels, which predicted decreased empathy. Findings suggest that chronic maternal depression may compromise children's social-emotional adjustment by diminishing HPA-system flexibility as well as limiting the mother's capacity to provide attuned and predictable caregiving.

  7. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  8. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  9. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutr...

  10. Adult attachment and psychosocial functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielage, Suzanne Brenda

    2006-01-01

    In the trilogy Attachment, Separation and Loss (1969, 1973, 1980), Bowlby theorized that early experiences with caregivers affect the quality of individuals’ later (romantic) relationships and, consequently, their mental health. The current thesis set out to examine the relationships between adult a

  11. Design of the Quality of Life in Motion (QLIM study: a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a combined physical exercise and psychosocial training program to improve physical fitness in children with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takken Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood cancer and its treatment have considerable impact on a child's physical and mental wellbeing. Especially long-term administration of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy impairs physical fitness both during and after therapy, when children often present with muscle weakness and/or low cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical exercise can improve these two elements of physical fitness, but the positive effects of physical exercise might be further increased when a child's wellbeing is simultaneously enhanced by psychosocial training. Feeling better may increase the willingness and motivation to engage in sports activities. Therefore, this multi-centre study evaluates the short and long-term changes in physical fitness of a child with a childhood malignancy, using a combined physical exercise and psychosocial intervention program, implemented during or shortly after treatment. Also examined is whether positive effects on physical fitness reduce inactivity-related adverse health problems, improve quality of life, and are cost-effective. Methods This multi-centre randomized controlled trial compares a combined physical and psychosocial intervention program for children with cancer, with care as usual (controls. Children with cancer (aged 8-18 years treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and who are no longer than 1 year post-treatment, are eligible for participation. A total of 100 children are being recruited from the paediatric oncology/haematology departments of three Dutch university medical centres. Patients are stratified according to pubertal stage (girls: age ≤10 or >10 years; boys: ≤11 or >11 years, type of malignancy (haematological or solid tumour, and moment of inclusion into the study (during or after treatment, and are randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Discussion Childhood cancer patients undergoing long-term cancer therapy may benefit from a combined physical exercise and

  12. Cognitive and psychosocial impairment in remitted bipolar patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moreira Lima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence showing that bipolar disorder is associated with persistent cognitive deficits. However, the exact meaning and impact of cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder is still not entirely known, even though they have been associated with poor psychosocial functioning. This study aims to summarize cognitive and psychosocial functioning findings of remitted bipolar patients. We conducted an extensive Medline search of the published English literature for the period January 2000– March 2014 using a variety of search terms to find relevant articles. Bibliographies of retrieved papers were further analysed for publications of interest. Our results showed that: (1 all mood states of bipolar disorder are associated with cognitive impairment. However, the euthymic state is associated with less impairment than the other states; (2 there is a strong association between clinical factors (i.e, duration of illness, number of episodes, residual mood symptoms, comorbidities and cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients, although these factors do not account fully for these deficits; (3 cognitive deficits, in particular, verbal learning and executive dysfunctions may contribute to poor functioning. In conclusion, our review suggests that cognitive deficits are strongly associated with mood episodes; such deficits persist, in lower degree, during remission. Impairment on cognitive performance may explain, in part, poor long–term functioning in remitted bipolar patients. It highlights that psychosocial interventions in combination with pharmacotherapy should be considered to improve cognition and enhance the level of functioning. Therefore, studies assessing the efficacy of novel strategies focused on cognitive and functional status are an important area of future investigation in bipolar disorder.

  13. Resting cardiac function in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: The impact of borderline personality disorder symptoms and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Rinnewitz, Lena; Parzer, Peter; Resch, Franz; Thayer, Julian F; Kaess, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is reduced in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with comorbid psychopathology, in particular BPD. We aimed to examine differences in cardiac function (vmHRV and heart rate [HR]) comparing adolescents (12-17 years) engaging in NSSI (n=30) and healthy controls (n=30). Further, we aimed to determine clinical concomitants of cardiac function in patients with NSSI. Analyses showed no significant group differences on cardiac function. Controlling for a host of confounding variables resting state HR and vmHRV in adolescents with NSSI were significantly correlated with BPD symptoms and the current level of functioning.

  14. Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions. PMID:22393388

  15. Text mining improves prediction of protein functional sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspoor, Karin M; Cohn, Judith D; Ravikumar, Komandur E; Wall, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

  16. Text mining improves prediction of protein functional sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M Verspoor

    Full Text Available We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites. The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA, which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

  17. Implementation of the thinking skills for work program in a psychosocial clubhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Schiano, Diane; Mueser, Kim T; Wolfe, Rosemarie

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive remediation programs aimed at improving role functioning have been implemented in a variety of different mental health treatment settings, but not in psychosocial clubhouses. This study sought to determine the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of providing a cognitive remediation program (the Thinking Skills for Work program), developed and previously implemented in supported employment programs at mental health agencies, in a psychosocial club-house. Twenty-three members with a history of difficulties getting or keeping jobs, who were participating in a supported employment program at a psychosocial clubhouse, were enrolled in the Thinking Skills for Work program. A neurocognitive battery was administered at baseline and 3 months later after completion of the computer cognitive training component of the program. Hours of competitive work were tracked for the 2 years before enrollment and 2 years following enrollment. Other work-related activities (school, volunteer) were also tracked for 2 years following enrollment. Twenty-one members (91%) completed 6 or more computer cognitive training sessions. Participants demonstrated significant improvements on neurocognitive measures of processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. Sixty percent of the members obtained a competitive job during the 2-year follow-up, and 74% were involved in some type of work-related activity. Participants worked significantly more competitive hours over the 2 years after joining the Thinking Skills for Work program than before. The findings support the feasibility and promise of implementing the Thinking Skills for Work program in the context of supported employment provided at psychosocial clubhouses.

  18. AN IMPROVED MULTIVARIATE LOSS FUNCTION APPROACH TO OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhong MA; Fengyu ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    The basic purpose of a quality loss function is to evaluate a loss to customers in a quantitative manner. Although there are several multivariate loss functions that have been proposed and studied in the literature, it has room for improvement. A good multivariate loss function should represent an appropriate compromise in terms of both process economics and the correlation structure among various responses. More important, it should be easily understood and implemented in practice.According to this criterion, we first introduce a pragmatic dimensionless multivariate loss function proposed by Artiles-Leon, then we improve the multivariate loss function in two respects: one is making it suitable for all three types of quality characteristics; the other is considering correlation structure among the various responses, which makes the improved multivariate loss function more adequate in the real world. On the bases of these, an example from industrial practice is provided to compare our improved method with other methods, and last, some reviews are presented in conclusion.

  19. Family Relationships and Psychosocial Dysfunction Among Family Caregivers of Patients With Advanced Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Kathrine G; Trevino, Kelly; Lange, Theis; Prigerson, Holly G

    2016-12-01

    Caring for a family member with advanced cancer strains family caregivers. Classification of family types has been shown to identify patients at risk of poor psychosocial function. However, little is known about how family relationships affect caregiver psychosocial function. To investigate family types identified by a cluster analysis and to examine the reproducibility of cluster analyses. We also sought to examine the relationship between family types and caregivers' psychosocial function. Data from 622 caregivers of advanced cancer patients (part of the Coping with Cancer Study) were analyzed using Gaussian Mixture Modeling as the primary method to identify family types based on the Family Relationship Index questionnaire. We then examined the relationship between family type and caregiver quality of life (Medical Outcome Survey Short Form), social support (Interpersonal Support Evaluation List), and perceived caregiver burden (Caregiving Burden Scale). Three family types emerged: low-expressive, detached, and supportive. Analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons showed that caregivers of detached and low-expressive family types experienced lower levels of quality of life and perceived social support in comparison to supportive family types. The study identified supportive, low-expressive, and detached family types among caregivers of advanced cancer patients. The supportive family type was associated with the best outcomes and detached with the worst. These findings indicate that family function is related to psychosocial function of caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Therefore, paying attention to family support and family members' ability to share feelings and manage conflicts may serve as an important tool to improve psychosocial function in families affected by cancer. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  1. THE EFFECTS OF EQUINE-ASSISTED THERAPY IN IMPROVING THE PSYCHO-SOCIAL FUNCTIONING OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    OpenAIRE

    Haris MEMISEVIC; Saudin HODZIC

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the effects of short-term equine-assisted therapy as a complementary therapy modality for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There were four children in the study, two boys and two girls from ages 8 to 10 years, with ASD included in this study. All of the children were attending a special education school in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The equine-assisted therapy sessions took place once a week for a period of 10 weeks. The result...

  2. Diagnosing and improving functioning in interdisciplinary health care teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Gail; Persaud, D David

    2012-01-01

    Interdisciplinary teams play a key role in the delivery of health care. Team functioning can positively or negatively impact the effective and efficient delivery of health care services as well as the personal well-being of group members. Additionally, teams must be able and willing to work together to achieve team goals within a climate that reflects commitment to team goals, accountability, respect, and trust. Not surprisingly, dysfunctional team functioning can limit the success of interdisciplinary health care teams. The first step in improving dysfunctional team function is to conduct an analysis based on criteria necessary for team success, and this article provides meaningful criteria for doing such an analysis. These are the following: a common team goal, the ability and willingness to work together to achieve team goals, decision making, communication, and team member relationships. High-functioning interdisciplinary teams must exhibit features of good team function in all key domains. If a team functions well in some domains and needs to improve in others, targeted strategies are described that can be used to improve team functioning.

  3. An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model of Acquired Brain Injury Patient Impairments and Caregiver Psychosocial Functioning: A Dyadic-Report, Multi-National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin, Paul. B; Norup, Anne; Caracue, Alfonso; Bateman, Andrew; Tjørnlund, Morten; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Wiley. ${\\bf Objective: }$ The purpose of this study was to use actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM) to examine the simultaneous effects of both acquired brain injury (ABI) patient and caregiver ratings of patient impairments on both patient and caregiver ratings of caregiver psychosocial dysfunction. ${\\bf Method: }$ A sample of 968 individuals with ABI and their caregi...

  4. A short executive function training program improves preschoolers’ working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eBlakey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive training has been shown to improve executive functions in middle childhood and adulthood. However, fewer studies have targeted the preschool years – a time when executive functions undergo rapid development. The present study tested the effects of a short four session executive function training program in 54 four-year-olds. The training group significantly improved their working memory from pre-training relative to an active control group. Notably, this effect extended to a task sharing few surface features with the trained tasks, and continued to be apparent three months later. In addition, the benefits of training extended to a measure of mathematical reasoning three months later, indicating that training executive functions during the preschool years has the potential to convey benefits that are both long-lasting and wide-ranging.

  5. Improved Wave-vessel Transfer Functions by Uncertainty Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Fønss Bach, Kasper; Iseki, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modelling of wave-vessel transfer functions used to calculate or predict wave-induced responses of a ship in a seaway. Although transfer functions, in theory, can be calculated to exactly reflect the behaviour of the ship when exposed to waves, uncertainty in input...... variables, notably speed, draft and relative wave eading, often compromises results. In this study, uncertling is applied to improve theoretically calculated transfer functions, so they better fit the corresponding experimental, full-scale ones. Based on a vast amount of full-scale measurements data......, it is shown that uncertainty modelling can be successfully used to improve accuracy (and reliability) of theoretical transfer functions....

  6. Short-term improvement of masticatory function after implant restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Si-Mook; Lee, Sang-Soo; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dental implants present several advantages over other tooth replacement options. However, there has been little research on masticatory function in relation to implant treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement of masticatory function two weeks after implant restoration. Methods Masticatory ability was evaluated with the subjective food intake ability (FIA) and objective mixing ability index (MAI) methods. Fifty-four subjects with first and seco...

  7. Improved Left Ventricular Structure and Function After Successful Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Hewing

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Cardiac changes observed in chronic kidney disease patients are of multifactorial origin including chronic uremia, hemodynamics or inflammation. Restoration of renal function by kidney transplantation (KTX may reverse cardiac changes. Novel echocardiographic methods such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE allow early and sensitive detection of subtle changes of cardiac parameters. We evaluated changes of cardiac structure and function after KTX by advanced echocardiographic modalities. Methods: Thirty-one KTX recipients (female n=11 were evaluated by medical examination, laboratory testing and echocardiography before and after KTX (median follow-up 19 months. Left ventricular (LV and right ventricular (RV diameters and function were assessed by echocardiographic standard parameters. Longitudinal 2D strain of the LV (GLPS and left atrium (LA was determined by 2D STE. Results: After KTX, median serum creatinine level was 1.3 mg/dl (IQR, 1.2-1.5. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after KTX. Echocardiography showed a significant reduction in LV end-diastolic septal and posterior wall thickness and LV mass index after KTX, which was accompanied by an improvement of GLPS. There were no relevant changes in parameters of LA (reservoir, conduit or contractile function, LV diastolic or RV function after KTX. Conclusion: LV hypertrophy reversed after successful KTX and was accompanied by an improvement in longitudinal LV function as assessed by STE. Diastolic function and STE-derived LA function parameters did not change significantly after KTX.

  8. Psychosocial adaptation to stoma surgery: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Poen, H.; Bergsma, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade strong improvements have been made in the medical care of patients with a digestive tract stoma, particularly with regard to nursing skills and to the quality of collecting material for faecal products. Scientific investigation into the psychosocial adjustment of patients afte

  9. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care...... to this group of patients. Background: MM is the type of cancer, which over the past 50 years has increased the most in newly discovered cases, and is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. The statement above shows that this group of patients will increase in the future. It is therefore important...... to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated...

  10. A psychosocial perspective on the glossectomy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettygrove, W B

    1985-02-01

    This analysis of the glossectomy experience based on Goffman's concepts of the preservation of self and of stigma management suggests several helpful responses for speech-language pathologists and other clinicians. Attention to psychosocial dimensions of recovery. In the face of life-threatening illness and necessarily radical treatment, the patient and others may trivialize or overlook psychosocial needs. The importance of specific social behaviors--talking on a telephone or eating in a restaurant--can only be understood in terms of the patient's own self-definition. The psychological impact is more than frustration at lost or inadequate functioning. It may be profound grief, a response to threats to aspects of self-definition most valued by the patient. Help in the presentation and preservation of self. While helping to improve speech intelligibility by reinforcing different compensatory mechanisms, clinicians can assist with other compensations in social performance. More attention to nonverbal cues, including dress and physical appearance, may be helpful. Increased use of written communication can facilitate social interactions and reinforce the sense of linguistic competence until intelligibility and fluency are regained. From the perspective of Goffman's analyses, the individual who selectively manipulates social cues to counteract a stigma need not feel "fake." The intent of more conscious manipulations is not to invent a new self or to fool others but to preserve the integrity of the self. More information about stereotypes may help the glossectomee cope with others' inappropriate reactions and evaluate the relative importance of stigmas in different social interactions (e.g., stereotypes expressed by one's employer or family members deserve more attention than those expressed by strangers).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Psychosocial stress and liver disease status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristin Constantin Vere; Costin Teodor Streba; Letitia Maria Streba; Alin Gabriel Ionescu; Felix Sima

    2009-01-01

    "Psychosocial stress" is an increasingly common concept in the challenging and highly-demanding modern society of today. Organic response to stress implicates two major components of the stress system,namely the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. Stress is anamnestically reported by patients during the course of disease, usually accompanied by a decline in their overall health status. As the mechanisms involving glucocorticoids and catecholamines have been deciphered, and their actions on immune cell function deeper understood, it has become clear that stress has an impact on hepatic inflammatory response. An increasing number of articles have approached the link between psychosocial stress and the negative evolution of hepatic diseases. This article reviews a number of studies on both human populations and animal models performed in recent years, all linking stress, mainly of psychosocial nature, and the evolution of three important liver-related pathological entities: viral hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  12. FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior Strategies) to Improve Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the FAB (Functionally Alert Behavior) Strategies approach to improve behavior in children and adolescents with complex behavioral challenges. FAB Strategies include evidence-based environmental adaptations, sensory modulation, positive behavioral support, and physical self-regulation strategies. FAB Strategies can be used by…

  13. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with ha

  14. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Ip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15, with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  15. Using Operational Analysis to Improve Access to Pulmonary Function Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Ada; Asamoah-Barnieh, Raymond; Bischak, Diane P; Davidson, Warren J; Flemons, W Ward; Pendharkar, Sachin R

    2016-01-01

    Background. Timely pulmonary function testing is crucial to improving diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases. Perceptions of poor access at an academic pulmonary function laboratory prompted analysis of system demand and capacity to identify factors contributing to poor access. Methods. Surveys and interviews identified stakeholder perspectives on operational processes and access challenges. Retrospective data on testing demand and resource capacity was analyzed to understand utilization of testing resources. Results. Qualitative analysis demonstrated that stakeholder groups had discrepant views on access and capacity in the laboratory. Mean daily resource utilization was 0.64 (SD 0.15), with monthly average utilization consistently less than 0.75. Reserved testing slots for subspecialty clinics were poorly utilized, leaving many testing slots unfilled. When subspecialty demand exceeded number of reserved slots, there was sufficient capacity in the pulmonary function schedule to accommodate added demand. Findings were shared with stakeholders and influenced scheduling process improvements. Conclusion. This study highlights the importance of operational data to identify causes of poor access, guide system decision-making, and determine effects of improvement initiatives in a variety of healthcare settings. Importantly, simple operational analysis can help to improve efficiency of health systems with little or no added financial investment.

  16. Probucol alleviates atherosclerosis and improves high density lipoprotein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Jian-Kai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probucol is a unique hypolipidemic agent that decreases high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. However, it is not definite that whether probucol hinders the progression of atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. Methods Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into the control, atherosclerosis and probucol groups. Control group were fed a regular diet; the atherosclerosis group received a high fat diet, and the probucol group received the high fat diet plus probucol. Hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages were isolated for [3H] labeled cholesterol efflux rates and expression of ABCA1 and SR-B1 at gene and protein levels; venous blood was collected for serum paraoxonase 1, myeloperoxidase activity and lipid analysis. Aorta were prepared for morphologic and immunohistochemical analysis after 12 weeks. Results Compared to the atherosclerosis group, the paraoxonase 1 activity, cholesterol efflux rates, expression of ABCA1 and SR-BI in hepatocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and the level of ABCA1 and SR-BI in aortic lesions were remarkably improved in the probucol group, But the serum HDL cholesterol concentration, myeloperoxidase activity, the IMT and the percentage plaque area of aorta were significantly decreased. Conclusion Probucol alleviated atherosclerosis by improving HDL function. The mechanisms include accelerating the process of reverse cholesterol transport, improving the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant functions.

  17. Improved Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Hydrolysates in Food Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the enhanced functional characteristics of enzymatic hydrolysates of whey proteins (WPHs) in food applications compared to intact whey proteins (WPs). WPs are applied in foods as whey protein concentrates (WPCs), whey protein isolates (WPIs), and WPHs. WPs are byproducts of cheese production, used in a wide range of food applications due to their nutritional validity, functional activities, and cost effectiveness. Enzymatic hydrolysis yields improved functional and nutritional benefits in contrast to heat denaturation or native applications. WPHs improve solubility over a wide range of pH, create viscosity through water binding, and promote cohesion, adhesion, and elasticity. WPHs form stronger but more flexible edible films than WPC or WPI. WPHs enhance emulsification, bind fat, and facilitate whipping, compared to intact WPs. Extensive hydrolyzed WPHs with proper heat applications are the best emulsifiers and addition of polysaccharides improves the emulsification ability of WPHs. Also, WPHs improve the sensorial properties like color, flavor, and texture but impart a bitter taste in case where extensive hydrolysis (degree of hydrolysis greater than 8%). It is important to consider the type of enzyme, hydrolysis conditions, and WPHs production method based on the nature of food application.

  18. Improved variational many-body wave function in light nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Q. N.; Singh, A.; Anwar, K.; Rawitscher, G.

    2009-09-01

    We propose and implement a simple method for improving the variational wave function of a many-body system. We have obtained a significant improvement in the binding energies, wave functions, and variance for the light nuclei H3, He4, and Li6, using the fully realistic Argonne (AV18) two-body and Urbana-IX (UIX) three-body interactions. The energy of He4 was improved by about 0.2 MeV and the Li6 binding energy was increased by ≈1.7 MeV compared to earlier variational Monte Carlo results. The latter result demonstrates the significant progress achieved by our method, and detailed analyses of the improved results are given. With central interactions the results are found to be in agreement with the “exact” calculations. Our study shows that the relative error in the many-body wave functions, compared to two-body pair correlations, increases rapidly at least proportionally to the number of pairs in the system. However, this error does not increase indefinitely since the pair interactions saturate owing to convergence of cluster expansion.

  19. Psycho-social consequences in everyday life of patients of diabetes mellitus and the potential for the improvement of health-care interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsounis A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic illness with multiple medical, psychological, social and economic consequences, both in macro-social and individual level. Aim: The aim of the present task is το study the multiple consequences of the illness in patients’ and their social environment life and tο search for ways of coping that will take into account all the involvement parts (patients, health-professionals, health-care system. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliography with the help of keywords. Conclusions: The meeting of an individual with a chronic illness like Diabetes Mellitus brings rapid changes to his/her everyday life. The constraints that emerge in all social activities, the effects on the quality of social contacts, the development of psychological clinical symptoms, the social stigma, the impact on self-image and self-esteem cause significant psychosocial burden. For their effective treatment, holistic interventions on the part of health professionals and exploitation of the potential of the patient’s social environment are imposed.

  20. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray, Liv Larsen; Stray, Torstein; Iversen, Synnøve; Ruud, Anne; Ellertsen, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement. PMID:19439096

  1. Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iversen Synnøve

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH on such motor performance in children with HKD Methods 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into two groups within a double blind cross-over design, and tested with a motor assessment instrument, during MPH and placebo conditions. Results The percentage of MFNU scores in the sample indicating 'severe motor problems' ranged from 44–84%, typically over 60%. Highly significant improvements in motor performance were observed with MPH compared to baseline ratings on all the 17 subtests of the MFNU 1–2 hr after administration of MPH. There were no significant placebo effects. The motor improvement was consistent with improvement of clinical symptoms. Conclusion The study confirmed our prior clinical observations showing that children with ADHD typically demonstrate marked improvements of motor functions after a single dose of 10 mg MPH. The most pronounced positive MPH response was seen in subtests measuring either neuromotor inhibition, or heightened muscular tone in the gross movement muscles involved in maintaining the alignment and balance of the body. Introduction of MPH generally led to improved balance and a generally more coordinated and controlled body movement.

  2. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  3. An improved method for estimating the frequency correlation function

    KAUST Repository

    Chelli, Ali

    2012-04-01

    For time-invariant frequency-selective channels, the transfer function is a superposition of waves having different propagation delays and path gains. In order to estimate the frequency correlation function (FCF) of such channels, the frequency averaging technique can be utilized. The obtained FCF can be expressed as a sum of auto-terms (ATs) and cross-terms (CTs). The ATs are caused by the autocorrelation of individual path components. The CTs are due to the cross-correlation of different path components. These CTs have no physical meaning and leads to an estimation error. We propose a new estimation method aiming to improve the estimation accuracy of the FCF of a band-limited transfer function. The basic idea behind the proposed method is to introduce a kernel function aiming to reduce the CT effect, while preserving the ATs. In this way, we can improve the estimation of the FCF. The performance of the proposed method and the frequency averaging technique is analyzed using a synthetically generated transfer function. We show that the proposed method is more accurate than the frequency averaging technique. The accurate estimation of the FCF is crucial for the system design. In fact, we can determine the coherence bandwidth from the FCF. The exact knowledge of the coherence bandwidth is beneficial in both the design as well as optimization of frequency interleaving and pilot arrangement schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Iloprost improves ventricular function in the hypertrophic and functionally impaired right heart by direct stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Sarah; Andersen, Asger; Vildbrad, Mads D;

    2013-01-01

    and dysfunctional right ventricle (RV). Rats were randomized to monocrotaline injection (60 mg/kg; [Formula: see text]), pulmonary trunk banding (PTB; [Formula: see text]), or a sham operation ([Formula: see text]). RV function was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and invasive pressure...... that iloprost has inotropic properties directly improving ventricular function in the hypertrophic and dysfunctional right heart of the rat....

  5. Kinesthetic taping improves walking function in patients with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeskov, Birgitte; Carver, Line Tornehøj; von Essen-Leise, Anders

    2014-01-01

    walking speed and clinical indices of spasticity in patients with stroke. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (9 women) receiving rehabilitation after stroke (average, 50 days since stroke) who had impaired walking ability were recruited. Primary outcome was maximal walking speed measured by the 10-meter walk...... be a valuable adjunct in physical therapy and rehabilitation of patients with stroke.......BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of severe disability and impaired motor function. Treatment modalities that improve motor function in patients with stroke are needed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of kinesthetic taping of the anterior thigh and knee on maximal...

  6. Mirror therapy for improving motor function after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieme, Holm; Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann; Dohle, Christian

    2012-03-14

    Mirror therapy is used to improve motor function after stroke. During mirror therapy, a mirror is placed in the patient's midsagittal plane, thus reflecting movements of the non-paretic side as if it were the affected side. To summarise the effectiveness of mirror therapy for improving motor function, activities of daily living, pain and visuospatial neglect in patients after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2011) and PEDro (June 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, trials and research registers, checked reference lists and contacted trialists, researchers and experts in our field of study. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised cross-over trials comparing mirror therapy with any control intervention for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials based on the inclusion criteria, documented the methodological quality of studies and extracted data. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables. We included 14 studies with a total of 567 participants that compared mirror therapy with other interventions. When compared with all other interventions, mirror therapy may have a significant effect on motor function (post-intervention data: SMD 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 1.0; P = 0.002; change scores: SMD 1.04; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.51; P < 0.0001). However, effects on motor function are influenced by the type of control intervention. Additionally, mirror therapy may improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.60; P = 0.02). We found a significant positive effect on pain (SMD -1.10; 95% CI -2.10 to -0.09; P = 0.03) which is influenced by patient population

  7. Yoga practice improves executive function by attenuating stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothe, Neha P; Keswani, Rahul K; McAuley, Edward

    2016-12-01

    Prolonged activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system is thought to have deleterious effects on brain function. Neuroendocrine studies suggest that brain exposure to higher cortisol concentrations contribute to cognitive deficits as we age. Mind-body techniques such as yoga have shown to improve stress levels by restoring the body's sympathetic-parasympathetic balance. The objective of this study was to determine whether yoga practice moderated the stress response resulting in improved executive function. Sedentary community dwelling older adults (N=118, Mean age=62.02) were randomized to an 8-week yoga intervention or a stretching control group. At baseline and following 8 weeks, all participants completed measures of executive function, self-reported stress and anxiety and provided saliva samples before and after cognitive testing to assess cortisol. Yoga participants showed improved accuracy on executive function measures and an attenuated cortisol response compared to their stretching counterparts who showed increased cortisol levels and poor cognitive performance at follow up. The change in cortisol levels as well as self-reported stress and anxiety levels predicted performance on the running span task, n-back working memory and task switching paradigm (β's=0.27-0.38, p's≤0.05 for yoga and β's=-0.37-0.47, p's≤0.01 for stretching control). Eight weeks of regular yoga practice resulted in improved working memory performance that was mediated by an attenuated response to stress as measured by self-report stress and objective salivary cortisol measurements. This trial offers evidence for non-traditional physical activity interventions such as yoga that may be helpful in restoring HPA balance in older adults, thereby preventing cognitive decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Mitochondrial Function Protects Bumblebees from Neonicotinoid Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powner, Michael B.; Salt, Thomas E.; Hogg, Chris; Jeffery, Glen

    2016-01-01

    Global pollination is threatened by declining insect pollinator populations that may be linked to neonicotinoid pesticide use. Neonicotinoids over stimulate neurons and depolarize their mitochondria, producing immobility and death. However, mitochondrial function can be improved by near infrared light absorbed by cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondrial respiration. In flies, daily exposure to 670nm light throughout life increases average lifespan and aged mobility, and reduces systemic inflammation. Here we treat bumble bees with Imidacloprid a common neonicotinoid. This undermined ATP and rapidly induced immobility and reduced visual function and survival. Bees exposed to insecticide and daily to 670nm light showed corrected ATP levels and significantly improved mobility allowing them to feed. Physiological recordings from eyes revealed that light exposure corrected deficits induced by the pesticide. Overall, death rates in bees exposed to insecticide but also given 670nm light were indistinguishable from controls. When Imidacloprid and light exposure were withdrawn, survival was maintained. Bees and insects generally cannot see deep red light so it does not disturb their behaviour. Hence, we show that deep red light exposure that improves mitochondrial function, reverses the sensory and motor deficits induced by Imidacloprid. These results may have important implications as light delivery is economic and can be placed in hives/colonies. PMID:27846310

  9. Improved adsorption energetics within density-functional theory using revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1999-01-01

    A simple formulation of a generalized gradient approximation for the exchange and correlation energy of electrons has been proposed by Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof (PBE) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3865 (1996)]. Subsequently Zhang and Yang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 890 (1998)] have shown that a slight...... revision of the PBE functional systematically improves the atomization energies for a large database of small molecules. In the present work, we show that the Zhang and Yang functional (revPBE) also improves the chemisorption energetics of atoms and molecules on transition-metal surfaces. Our test systems...... comprise atomic and molecular adsorption of oxygen, CO, and NO on Ni(100), Ni(111), Rh(100), Pd(100), and Pd(111) surfaces. As the revPBE functional may locally violate the Lieb-Oxford criterion, we further develop an alternative revision of the PBE functional, RPBE, which gives the same improvement...

  10. Psychosocial adjustment and craniofacial malformations in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertschuk, M J; Whitaker, L A

    1985-02-01

    Forty-three children between the ages of 6 and 13 years with congenital facial anomalies underwent psychosocial evaluation prior to surgery. Also evaluated were healthy children matched to the craniofacial subjects by sex, age, intelligence, and economic background. Relative to this comparison group, the craniofacial children were found to have poorer self-concept, greater anxiety at the time of evaluation, and more introversion. Parents of the craniofacial children noted more frequent negative social encounters for their children and more hyperactive behavior at home. Teachers reported more problematic classroom behavior. Examination of these results revealed craniofacial malformations to be associated with psychosocial limitations rather than marked deficits. These children tended to function less well than the comparison children, but with few exceptions, they were not functioning in a psychosocially deviant range. Explanations for the observed circumscribed impact of facial deformity include the use of denial as a coping mechanism, possible diminished significance of appearance for younger children, and the restricted environment experienced by most of the subjects. It can be predicted that time would render these protective influences ineffective, so that adolescent and young adult patients could be at far greater psychosocial risk.

  11. A Multicenter, Randomized, Open-Labeled, Parallel Group Trial of Sildenafil in Alcohol-Associated Erectile Dysfunction: The Impact on Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grinshpoon

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effect of sildenafil on erectile dysfunction (ED and psychosocial outcomes in alcohol-dependent (AD men, 108 men with these diagnoses were randomly assigned to either take sildenafil (50 mg as add-on to standard treatment for AD, or the same treatment without sildenafil, for 12 weeks. Only 50 patients in sildenafil group and 51 in control group twice completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF and a battery of self-report questionnaires. IIEF scores and psychosocial functioning, self-esteem and support from friends improved only for sildenafil-treated patients (P < 0.001. The high effect sizes suggest that the observed benefits are unlikely to be a placebo effect, although their unspecific nature could not be ruled out. In men with ED associated with AD, sildenafil improves both ED and psychosocial outcomes. Further placebo-controlled clinical trial is warranted.

  12. An improved density matrix functional by physically motivated repulsive corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Oleg; Pernal, Katarzyna; Baerends, Evert Jan

    2005-05-22

    An improved density matrix functional [correction to Buijse and Baerends functional (BBC)] is proposed, in which a hierarchy of physically motivated repulsive corrections is employed to the strongly overbinding functional of Buijse and Baerends (BB). The first correction C1 restores the repulsive exchange-correlation (xc) interaction between electrons in weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) as it appears in the exact electron pair density rho(2) for the limiting two-electron case. The second correction C2 reduces the xc interaction of the BB functional between electrons in strongly occupied NOs to an exchange-type interaction. The third correction C3 employs a similar reduction for the interaction of the antibonding orbital of a dissociating molecular bond. In addition, C3 applies a selective cancellation of diagonal terms in the Coulomb and xc energies (not for the frontier orbitals). With these corrections, BBC still retains a correct description of strong nondynamical correlation for the dissociating electron pair bond. BBC greatly improves the quality of the BB potential energy curves for the prototype few-electron molecules and in several cases BBC reproduces very well the benchmark ab initio potential curves. The average error of the self-consistent correlation energies obtained with BBC3 for prototype atomic systems and molecular systems at the equilibrium geometry is only ca. 6%.

  13. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  14. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  16. The impact of psychosocial stress on healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H J A; Momen, S E; Kleyn, C E

    2015-07-01

    Dermatologists are only too aware of the significant role psychosocial stress plays in the exacerbation of skin disease; indeed, it is often the first precipitant patients mention when they attend outpatient clinics. Of late, research has focused on understanding the 'brain-skin' axis, a complex interplay between the nervous and immune systems and the skin. In particular, there is an evolving body of literature exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which psychosocial stress influences skin homeostasis. This article provides a broad overview of the literature, emphasizing the importance of individual stress perception and summarizing the varied roles of the major cutaneous stress-response pathways. Both central [the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) sympathetic adrenomedullary system] and peripheral (the intracutaneous HPA axis and the release of mediators from peripheral sensory and autonomic nerves) pathways are discussed. Moreover, how activation of these pathways affects the skin's immune system, barrier function, wound healing and susceptibility to infection is reviewed. Although this field of research is rapidly expanding, several important questions remain unanswered, including: what is the precise role of mast cells in the cutaneous stress response?; what is the role of regulatory T-cells?; can therapeutic intervention be harnessed to prevent the stress-induced exacerbation of skin disease? It is anticipated that an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which psychosocial stress affects the homeostasis of healthy skin will not only increase knowledge of the brain-skin axis but will also improve the holistic management of stress-responsive cutaneous disease.

  17. Psychosocial support intervention for HIV-affected families in Haiti: implications for programs and policies for orphans and vulnerable children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Fawzi, Mary C; Eustache, Eddy; Oswald, Catherine; Louis, Ermaze; Surkan, Pamela J; Scanlan, Fiona; Hook, Sarah; Mancuso, Anna; Mukherjee, Joia S

    2012-05-01

    Given the increased access of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout the developing world, what was once a terminal illness is now a chronic disease for those receiving treatment. This requires a paradigmatic shift in service provision for those affected by HIV/AIDS in low-resource settings. Although there is a need for psychosocial support interventions for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers, to date there has been limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of curriculum-based psychosocial support groups in HIV-affected families in low-income countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility and assess the preliminary effectiveness of a psychosocial support group intervention for HIV-affected youth and their caregivers in central Haiti. The study was conducted at six Partners In Health-affiliated sites between February 2006 and September 2008 and included quantitative as well as qualitative methods. HIV-affected youth (n = 168) and their caregivers (n = 130) completed a baseline structured questionnaire prior to participation in a psychosocial support group intervention. Ninety-five percent of families completed the intervention and a follow-up questionnaire. Psychological symptoms, psychosocial functioning, social support, and HIV-related stigma at baseline were compared with outcomes one year later. Qualitative methods were also used to assess the participants' perspectives of the intervention. Comparing pre- and post-intervention assessment, youth affected by HIV experienced decreased psychological symptoms as well as improved psychosocial functioning and social support. Caregivers (95% HIV-positive) demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive symptoms, improved social support, and decreased HIV-related stigma. Although further study is needed to assess effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial, corroborative findings from qualitative data reflected reduced psychological distress, less social isolation and

  18. Activities and Programs That Improve Children's Executive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Adele

    2012-10-01

    Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children's EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children's motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children's emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to "catch up" with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities.

  19. Electrochemically polymerized conjugated polymer films: Stability improvement and surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bin

    Conjugated polymers have been widely used in various applications including organic solar cells, electrochromic devices, chemical sensors, and biomedical devices. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and its derivatives have received considerable interest because of their low oxidation potential, relatively high chemical stability, and high conductivity. Electrochemical deposition is a convenient method for precisely fabricating conjugated polymer thin films. Here, we report the stability improvement and surface functionalization of electrochemically polymerized PEDOT films. The long-term performance of PEDOT coatings is limited by their relatively poor stability on various inorganic substrates. Two different methods were used to improve the stability of PEDOT coatings, one involved using carboxylic acid functionalized EDOT (EDOT-acid) as adhesion promoter. EDOT-acid molecules were chemically bonded onto activated metal oxide substrates via chemisorption. PEDOT was then polymerized onto the EDOT-acid modified substrates, forming covalently bonded coatings. An aggressive ultrasonication test confirmed the significantly improved adhesion of the PEDOT films on electrodes with EDOT-acid treatment over those without treatment. The other method was to use an octa-ProDOT-functionalized POSS derivative (POSSProDOT) as cross-linker. PEDOT copolymer films were electrochemically deposited with various concentrations of POSS-ProDOT. The optical, morphological and electrochemical properties of the copolymer films could be systematically tuned with the incorporation of POSS-ProDOT. Significantly enhanced electrochemical and mechanical stability of the copolymers were observed at intermediate levels of POSS-ProDOT content (3.1 wt%) via chronic stimulation tests. Surface functionalization of conducting polymer films provides a potential means for systematically tailoring their chemical and physical properties. We have synthesized, polymerized and characterized a dialkene-functionalized

  20. Elderly recipients of liver transplantation: impact of age and psychosocial variables on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Shehzad; Schneekloth, Terry; Taner, C Burcin

    2017-09-12

    With expanding experience and success of liver transplantation, increasing numbers of elderly candidates await and undergo liver transplantation. There is accumulating evidence that graft survival and mortality does not appear to differ significantly between the young and carefully selected elderly liver transplantation recipients. Although existing evidence suggests that psychosocial factors impact outcomes after liver transplantation in general, no such information is available specifically for elderly (age ≥65 years) liver transplantation recipients. We conducted a broad medical literature review of outcome studies of elderly liver transplantation recipients. In this review article, we summarize the findings and comment on psychosocial variables included in these studies. Ten outcome studies have reported on the impact of age on the liver transplantation outcomes. There is increasing evidence of favorable outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. Few of these studies include measures of quality of life, functional improvement and other psychosocial variables. Very limited information is available about the impact of psychosocial factors on outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. This dearth of information represents a critical gap in our knowledge and has implications for optimal candidate selection and outcomes after liver transplantation.

  1. The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for stroke family caregivers and stroke survivors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ho Yu; Chair, Sek Ying; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for family caregivers on their psychosocial and physical wellbeing, quality of life, and the use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Electronic English and Chinese bibliographic databases were searched (inception to January 2012) for clinical trials. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised study quality. When possible, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were statistically pooled. Otherwise, a narrative summary was used. Eighteen studies (psychoeducation and social support group) were included. Pooled analysis of two individual psychoeducation programs showed a small effect on improving family functioning (SMD: -0.12; 95% CI: -0.23 to -0.01; p=0.03). Caregivers receiving psychoeducation that aimed at equipping caregivers with the skills of problem-solving, caregiving, and stress-coping appeared to have a more positive influence on the caregivers' psychosocial wellbeing and a reduced use of healthcare resources by stroke survivors. Evidence on the effects of psychosocial interventions was limited. More RCTs of multifaceted psychoeducation programs are needed to further examine the optimal dose and format. To support caregivers across the stroke trajectory, the core skills of problem-solving and stress-coping should be included in the psychosocial interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

    2013-10-01

    Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency.

  3. Executive Function Improvement in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Following Shunt Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to evaluate improvement of executive functions after shunt surgery in patients with early normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH. Patients with NPH were assessed before and after shunt surgery with tests shown to be sensitive to damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Significant differences were found between basal and follow-up performances on the Boston Naming Test, the backwards digits span, Part B of the Trail Making Test, and the number of words produced on the phonological fluency task. In conclusion, our study reveals that patients with NPH who respond positively to continuous slow lumbar cerebral spinal fluid drainage and receive a ventriculoperitoneal shunt implant, improve their performance on tasks of executive function. Due to the high demand for this form of mental processing in real-life complex scenarios, and based on the severe executive deficits present in both demented and non-demented NPH patients, we encourage the assessment of executive functions in this clinical group.

  4. Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Polyurethane Dispersions with Improved Adhesion Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breucker, Laura; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-11-11

    A facile route to phosphorus-functionalized polyurethane dispersions (P-PUDs) with improved adhesion properties is presented. (Bis)phosphonic acid moieties serve as adhesion promoting sites that are covalently attached via an end-capping reaction to isocyanate-reactive polyurethane particles under aqueous conditions. The synthetic approach circumvents solubility issues, offers great flexibility in terms of polyurethane composition, and allows for the synthesis of semicrystalline systems with thermomechanical response due to reversible physical cross-linking. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to investigate the effect of functionalization on the semicrystallinity. The end-capping conversion was determined via inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and was surprisingly found to be almost independent of the stoichiometry of reaction, suggesting an adsorption-dominated process. Particle charge detection (PCD) experiments reveal that a dense surface coverage of phosphonic acid groups can be attained and that, at high functionalization degrees, the phosphonic adhesion moieties are partially dragged inside the colloidal P-PUD particle. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD) investigations conducted with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and stainless steel sensors as model surfaces show a greatly enhanced affinity of the aqueous P-PUDs and furthermore indicate polymer chain rearrangements and autonomous film formation under wet conditions. Due to their facile synthesis, significantly improved adhesion, and variable film properties, P-PUD systems such as the one described here are believed to be of great interest for multiple applications, e.g., adhesives, paints, anticorrosion, or dentistry.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liu; Guangyu Shen; Shukun Deng; Xiubin Wang; Qinfeng Wu; Aisong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury;however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney’s free fal ing method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was sig-nificantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibril ary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly im-proves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is me-diated by metabolic changes and nerve cellrestoration in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-12-15

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats' spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region.

  7. Milk protein tailoring to improve functional and biological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JEAN-MARC CHOBERT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are involved in every aspects of life: structure, motion, catalysis, recognition and regulation. Today's highly sophisticated science of the modifications of proteins has ancient roots. The tailoring of proteins for food and medical uses precedes the beginning of what is called biochemistry. Chemical modification of proteins was pursued early in the twentieth century as an analytical procedure for side-chain amino acids. Later, methods were developed for specific inactivation of biologically active proteins and titration of their essential groups. Enzymatic modifications were mainly developed in the seventies when many more enzymes became economically available. Protein engineering has become a valuable tool for creating or improving proteins for practical use and has provided new insights into protein structure and function. The actual and potential use of milk proteins as food ingredients has been a popular topic for research over the past 40 years. With today's sophisticated analytical, biochemical and biological research tools, the presence of compounds with biological activity has been demonstrated. Improvements in separation techniques and enzyme technology have enabled efficient and economic isolation and modification of milk proteins, which has made possible their use as functional foods, dietary supplements, nutraceuticals and medical foods. In this review, some chemical and enzymatic modifications of milk proteins are described, with particular focus on their functional and biological properties.

  8. Disability and schizophrenia: a systematic review of experienced psychosocial difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Świtaj Piotr

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF as disabilities, in particular impairments of mental functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions. Methods An electronic search using MEDLINE and PsychINFO plus a manual search of the literature was performed for qualitative and longitudinal studies published in English between 2005 and 2010 that examined PSDs in persons with schizophrenia. The ICF was used as a conceptual framework. Results A total of 104 papers were included. The most frequent PSDs addressed in the literature were not specific ones, directly linkable to the ICF categories of mental functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions, but broad areas of psychosocial functioning, such as psychopathological symptoms (53% of papers or global disability and functioning (37%. Among mental functions, the most extensively studied were cognitive functions (27% and emotional functions (27%. Within the domain of activities and participation, the most widely investigated were difficulties in relationships with others (31% and employment (20%. Of the factors associated with the intensity or course of PSDs, the most commonly identified were treatment modalities (56%, psychopathological symptoms (26%, and socio-demographic variables (24%. Medication tended to improve the most relevant PSD, but at the same time was the only consistently reported determinant of onset of PSDs (emerging as unwanted side-effects. Conclusions The present review illustrates the

  9. Short-Term Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorders: Neuropsychological-Psychosocial Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daccò, Silvia; Sacco, Ferdinando; Micieli, Wilma; Cavedini, Paolo; Caldirola, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Objective Our pilot study aims to investigate the efficacy of a Short-Term (4 weeks) Psychiatric Rehabilitation Program (S-T PsyRP), without specific cognitive remediation trainings, on the neuropsychological performance and psychosocial functioning of inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Bipolar Disorder (BD). Published studies with similar aims are lacking. Methods Fifty-three inpatients with MDD and 27 with BD (type I/II) were included. The S-T PsyRP was usually performed as clinical practice at Villa San Benedetto Menni Hospital and included a variety of activities aimed at promoting personal autonomies, interpersonal/social skills, and self-care. At the beginning and the end of the hospitalization we evaluated: neuropsychological performance (cognitive tests on verbal/visual working memory, attention, visual-constructive ability, language fluency, and comprehension); psychosocial functioning by the Rehabilitation Areas Form (RAF, handbook VADO); illness severity by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Repeated-measure ANOVA and Pearson's linear correlation were used. Results We found significant improvement (pneuropsychological tests except for one, in 4 out of 6 RAF psychosocial areas (“involvement in ward activities”, “autonomies”, “self-care”, and “self-management of health”) and in clinical symptoms severity. No associations were found between the amelioration of clinical symptoms and neuropsychological or psychosocial improvement. Conclusion A S-T PsyRP without specific cognitive remediation trainings may improve several cognitive/functional domains in MDD or BD inpatients, probably by offering opportunities to engage in demanding problem-solving conditions and cognitively stimulating activities. PMID:28096869

  10. Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is highly prevalent in Western populations and is considered a risk factor for the development of renal impairment. Interventions that reduce the tissue burden of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have shown promise in stemming the progression of chronic disease. Here we tested...... function and an inflammatory profile (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)) were improved following the low-AGE diet. Mechanisms of advanced glycation-related renal damage were investigated in a mouse model of obesity using the AGE...... if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39¿kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal...

  11. Improving the Network Structure can lead to Functional Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Pade, Jan Philipp

    2014-01-01

    In many real-world networks the ability to synchronize is a key property for its performance. Examples include power-grid, sensor, and neuron networks as well as consensus formation. Recent work on undirected networks with diffusive interaction revealed that improvements in the network connectivity such as making the network more connected and homogeneous enhances synchronization. However, real-world networks have directed and weighted connections. In such directed networks, understanding the impact of structural changes on the network performance remains a major challenge. Here, we show that improving the structure of a directed network can lead to a failure in the network function. For instance, introducing new links to reduce the minimum distance between nodes can lead to instabilities in the synchronized motion. This counter-intuitive effect only occurs in directed networks. Our results allow to identify the dynamical importance of a link and thereby have a major impact on the design and control of direct...

  12. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan Chandramouli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week. The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training. Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs. Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  13. Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Ranganathan, Rajiv; Kantak, Shailesh S; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2012-08-20

    Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3 × per week). The subject's neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6 weeks. The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

  14. The impact of an emotional self-management skills course on psychosocial functioning and autonomic recovery to stress in middle school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCraty, R; Atkinson, M; Tomasino, D; Goelitz, J; Mayrovitz, H N

    1999-01-01

    Unmanaged emotional reactions to stress not only lead to behavior problems in young people but also create physiological conditions that inhibit learning and potentially increase the risk of disease later in life. For these reasons, the integration of emotional self-management skills training programs has become an increased priority in some schools. In this study, middle school students enrolled in a course in emotional competence skills learned techniques designed to intercept stressful responses during emotionally challenging situations. Behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Achievement Inventory Measure and autonomic function was measured by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during and after a stressful interview. Following the program, students exhibited significant improvements in areas including stress and anger management, risky behavior, work management and focus, and relationships with family, peers and teachers. These improvements were sustained over the following six months. Students using the skills taught in the course to recover from acute emotional stress were also able to positively modulate their physiological stress responses. As compared to a control group, trained students demonstrated significantly increased HRV and more rhythmic, sine wave-like heart rhythm patterns during recovery. This response pattern reflects increased parasympathetic activity, heart rhythm coherence, and entrainment of other biological oscillatory systems to the primary heart rhythm frequency. Increased physiological coherence is associated with improved cognitive performance, emotional balance, mental clarity and health outcomes. These physiological shifts could promote the sustained psychological and behavioral improvements associated with the use of emotional management skills. It is suggested that learning emotional competence skills in childhood establishes healthier physiological response patterns which can benefit learning and long-term health. Results

  15. Ways of improvement of the city road network functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Dzyura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available According to analysis of the diagram an hour-long traffic vehicles intensity determined the directions of improvement functioning of the road network of the city, by redistribution of traffic streams on sections of the road network by optimization traffic light cycles. Traffic lights cycles proposed to distribute by analyzing the distribution laws of traffic streams at crossroads during the day. By analyzing of statistical data for characteristics determination of distribution proposed to use a small sample theory that provides to get a reliable data in a short period of time. Evaluation of the effectiveness of implementation proposed measures is realizing by Student and Fisher criterions.

  16. Sildenafil Improves Erectile Function in Men with Chronic Heart Failure

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    Niloufar Samiei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF have been shown to have enhanced risk of Erectile Dysfunction (ED due to low cardiac output, endothelial dysfunction, medications, co-morbid conditions, and psychogenic factors. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sildenafil on erectile function of patients with stable CHF using the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5. Patients and Methods: Using convenience sampling, 222 sexually-active adult males with NYHA class I-III stable CHF were included in this cross-sectional study. All the patients filled out the IIEF-5 questionnaire, in which they were required to score the five domains of male sexual function, including erectile function, orgasm function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. All the analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical software (v. 19 and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: In our sample, the patients’ mean age was 47.14 ± 11.86 years, their mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 20% (15% - 25%, and the prevalence of ED was 70.3%. In addition, severe, moderate, mild to moderate, and mild ED were seen in 57%, 17%, 7%, and 19% of the patients with ED, respectively. ED was significantly more prevalent in the patients with ischemic heart failure compared to those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (84.68% vs. 55.85%, P < 0.001. Moreover, the prevalence of ED was significantly lower in the patients taking sildenafil compared to the other group (42.85% vs. 82.89%, P < 0.001. Conclusions: Sildenafil appears to provide satisfactory results toward improving sexual function in patients with CHF.

  17. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach's alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α = 0.85-0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Questionnaires' content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Short-term improvement of masticatory function after implant restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Dental implants present several advantages over other tooth replacement options. However, there has been little research on masticatory function in relation to implant treatment. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the improvement of masticatory function two weeks after implant restoration. Methods Masticatory ability was evaluated with the subjective food intake ability (FIA) and objective mixing ability index (MAI) methods. Fifty-four subjects with first and second missing molars completed the study. The subjects were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire about 30 different food items, and to chew wax samples 10 times both before and two weeks after implant restoration. A total of 108 waxes were analyzed with an image analysis program. Results Dental implant restoration for lost molar teeth on one side increased the FIA score by 9.0% (P<0.0001). The MAI score also increased, by 14.3% after implant restoration (P<0.0001). Comparison between the good and poor mastication groups, which were subdivided based on the median MAI score before implant restoration, showed that the FIA score of the poor group was enhanced 1.1-fold while its MAI score was enhanced 2.0-fold two weeks after an implant surgery. Conclusions Using the FIA and MAI assessment methods, this study showed that masticatory function was improved two weeks after implant restoration. In particular, the enhancement of masticatory function by implant restoration was greater in patients with relatively poor initial mastication than in those with good initial mastication. PMID:26734490

  19. Astym therapy improves function and range of motion following mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies CC

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Claire C Davies,1 Dorothy Brockopp,2 Krista Moe2 1Baptist Health Rehabilitation, 2Research Department, Baptist Health Lexington, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Hypersensitive scar tissue formation along the incision line and drain site is a common side effect following mastectomy. If this scar tissue is not addressed, it can lead to decreased flexibility and function in the involved upper quadrant. Astym® treatment is a new approach to soft tissue injuries, and is evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues. It has also been found to reduce pain and increase function in people with soft tissue dysfunction. The aim of Astym treatment is to engage the regenerative mechanisms of the body in order to resorb scar tissue, stimulate tissue turnover, and regenerate soft tissues. Handheld instrumentation is applied topically to locate and treat the underlying dysfunctional soft tissue through specific protocols for the application of particular pressures and shear forces. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Astym treatment on activities of daily living in women who had undergone a mastectomy following a diagnosis of breast cancer. A quasi-experiment involving 40 women, following a mastectomy, evaluated five outcome measures pre- and post-Astym treatment. All five measurement scores: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Measure; a clothing questionnaire on their ability to wear a bra; Patient-Specific Functional Scale; active range of motion of shoulder flexion; and active range of motion of abduction were also measured and all demonstrated significant changes. In this study, Astym treatment improved active range of motion in the involved quadrant and also improved function in patients following a mastectomy. Keywords: breast cancer, quality of life, scar tissue treatment, physical therapy

  20. Astym therapy improves function and range of motion following mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire C; Brockopp, Dorothy; Moe, Krista

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive scar tissue formation along the incision line and drain site is a common side effect following mastectomy. If this scar tissue is not addressed, it can lead to decreased flexibility and function in the involved upper quadrant. Astym(®) treatment is a new approach to soft tissue injuries, and is evidenced in animal studies to promote the healing and regeneration of soft tissues. It has also been found to reduce pain and increase function in people with soft tissue dysfunction. The aim of Astym treatment is to engage the regenerative mechanisms of the body in order to resorb scar tissue, stimulate tissue turnover, and regenerate soft tissues. Handheld instrumentation is applied topically to locate and treat the underlying dysfunctional soft tissue through specific protocols for the application of particular pressures and shear forces. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Astym treatment on activities of daily living in women who had undergone a mastectomy following a diagnosis of breast cancer. A quasi-experiment involving 40 women, following a mastectomy, evaluated five outcome measures pre- and post-Astym treatment. All five measurement scores: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Outcome Measure; a clothing questionnaire on their ability to wear a bra; Patient-Specific Functional Scale; active range of motion of shoulder flexion; and active range of motion of abduction were also measured and all demonstrated significant changes. In this study, Astym treatment improved active range of motion in the involved quadrant and also improved function in patients following a mastectomy.

  1. Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grünwald Frank

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion without (group I; n = 6 or with LIM (group II; n = 6. The cardiac indices (CI and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p 2; p = 0.23. Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.

  2. Remote sensing of vegetation ecophysiological function for improved hydrologic prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, D.; Ruddell, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface hydrology in vegetated landscapes is strongly controlled by ecophysiological function. The coupling between photosynthesis, stomatal dynamics and leaf energy balance fundamentally links the hydrologic and carbon cycles, and provides a basis for examining the utility of observations of functional plant traits for hydrologic prediction. Here we explore the potential of solar induced fluorescence (SIF) and thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing observations to improve the accuracy and reduce the uncertainty in hydrologic prediction. While SIF represents an emission of radiation associated with photosynthesis, TIR provides information on foliage temperature and is related to stomatal function and water stress. A set of remote observing system simulation experiments are conducted to quantify the value of remotely sensed observations of SIF and TIR when assimilated into a detailed vegetation biophysical model. The MLCan model discretizes a dense plant canopy to resolve vertical variation in photosynthesis, water vapor and energy exchange. Here we present extensions to MLCan that allow for direct computation of the canopy emission of both SIF and TIR. The detailed representation of the physical environment and biological functioning of structurally complex canopies makes MLCan an ideal simulation tool for exploring the impact of these two unique, and potentially synergistic observables. This work specifically addresses remote sensing capabilities on both recently launched (OCO-2) and near-term (ECOSTRESS) satellite platforms. We contrast the information gained through the assimilation of SIF and TIR observations to that of the assimilation of data related to physical states such as soil moisture and leaf area index.

  3. Improved protein structure selection using decoy-dependent discriminatory functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levitt Michael

    2004-06-01

    -dependent scoring functions for improved protein structure selection. Their success indicates that information from the ensemble of decoy conformations can be used to derive statistical probabilities and facilitate the identification of near-native structures.

  4. Traditional Japanese Medicine Daikenchuto Improves Functional Constipation in Poststroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Numata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15 g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS points and the gas volume score (GVS (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P<0.01. In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction significantly improved in the DKT group (P<0.01, P=0.049, and P=0.03, resp.. The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P=0.03. DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393.

  5. Maca (L. meyenii for improving sexual function: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Byung-Cheul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  6. Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

    2014-08-06

    The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia.

  7. Cholinergic stimulation with pyridostigmine improves autonomic function in infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, Raquel N; Rodrigues, Bruno; Moraes-Silva, Ivana C; Souza, Leandro E; Sirvente, Raquel; Mostarda, Cristiano; De Angelis, Kátia; Soares, Pedro P; Lacchini, Silvia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia

    2013-09-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of short-term pyridostigmine bromide (0.14 mg/mL) treatment started early after myocardial infarction (MI) on left ventricular (LV) and autonomic functions in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, pyridostigmine, infarcted and infarcted + pyridostigmine-treated groups. Pyridostigmine was administered in the drinking water, starting immediately after MI or sham operation, for 11 days. Left ventricular function was evaluated indirectly by echocardiography and directly by LV catheterization. Cardiovascular autonomic control was evaluated by baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), heart rate variability (HRV) and pharmacological blockade. All evaluations started after 7 days pyridostigmine treatment and were finalized after 11 days treatment. Pyridostigmine prevented the impairment of +dP/dT and reduced the MI area in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (7 ± 3% vs 17 ± 4%, respectively). Mean blood pressure was restored in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats (103 ± 3 vs 94 ± 3 mmHg, respectively). In addition, compared with the infarcted group, pyridostigmine improved BRS, as evaluated by tachycardic (1.6 ± 0.2 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 b.p.m./mmHg, respectively) and bradycardic (-0.42 ± 0.01 vs -1.9 ± 0.1 b.p.m./mmHg) responses, and reduced the low frequency/high frequency ratio of HRV (0.81 ± 0.11 vs 0.24 ± 0.14, respectively). These improvements are probably associated with increased vagal tone and reduced sympathetic tone in infarcted + pyridostigmine compared with infarcted rats. In conclusion, the data suggest that short-term pyridostigmine treatment started early after MI can improve BRS, HRV and parasympathetic and sympathetic tone in experimental rats. These data may have potential clinical implications because autonomic markers have prognostic significance after MI.

  8. On Improving Reliability of SRAM-Based Physically Unclonable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Vijayakumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physically unclonable functions (PUFs have been touted for their inherent resistance to invasive attacks and low cost in providing a hardware root of trust for various security applications. SRAM PUFs in particular are popular in industry for key/ID generation. Due to intrinsic process variations, SRAM cells, ideally, tend to have the same start-up behavior. SRAM PUFs exploit this start-up behavior. Unfortunately, not all SRAM cells exhibit reliable start-up behavior due to noise susceptibility. Hence, design enhancements are needed for improving reliability. Some of the proposed enhancements in literature include fuzzy extraction, error-correcting codes and voting mechanisms. All enhancements involve a trade-off between area/power/performance overhead and PUF reliability. This paper presents a design enhancement technique for reliability that improves upon previous solutions. We present simulation results to quantify improvement in SRAM PUF reliability and efficiency. The proposed technique is shown to generate a 128-bit key in ≤0.2 μ s at an area estimate of 4538 μ m 2 with error rate as low as 10 − 6 for intrinsic error probability of 15%.

  9. Baduanjin Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Executive Control Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Yue, Guang H.; Tian, Yingxue; Jiang, Changhao

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at comparing the effects of the Baduanjin mind-body (BMB) intervention with a conventional relaxation training program on enhancing the executive function. The study also attempts to explore the neural substrates underlying the cognitive effect of BMB intervention using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique. Forty-two healthy college students were randomly allocated into either the Baduanjin intervention group or relaxation training (control) group. Training lasted for 8 weeks (90 min/day, 5 days/week). Each participant was administered the shortened Profile of Mood States to evaluate their mood status and the flanker task to evaluate executive function before and after training. While performing the flanker task, the NIRS data were collected from each participant. After training, individuals who have participated in BMB exercise showed a significant reduction in depressive mood compared with the same measure before the intervention. However, participants in the control group showed no such reduction. The before vs. after measurement difference in the flanker task incongruent trails was significant only for the Baduanjin intervention group. Interestingly, an increase in oxygenated hemoglobin in the left prefrontal cortex was observed during the Incongruent Trails test only after the BMB exercise intervention. These findings implicate that Baduanjin is an effective and easy-to-administering mind-body exercise for improving executive function and perhaps brain self-regulation in a young and healthy population. PMID:28133453

  10. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  11. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  12. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  13. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  14. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Sau Fong Leung, Frederick KK Yeung, Wai Kit Wong School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major healthcare databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy, psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of

  15. Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased.

  16. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Arthur Calheiros Leite

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5-10% progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients.Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55. Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X, protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1.This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status.

  17. Anxiety disorders in adolescents and psychosocial outcomes at age 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia A; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Olaya, Beatriz; Seeley, John R

    2014-07-01

    Anxiety disorders are associated with adverse psychosocial functioning, and are predictive of a wide range of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. The present study examined the associations between anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence and psychosocial outcomes at age 30, and sought to address the extent to which psychopathology after age 19 mediated these relations. Eight hundred and sixteen participants from a large community sample were interviewed twice during adolescence, at age 24, and at age 30. They completed self-report measures of psychosocial functioning and semi-structured diagnostic interviews during adolescence and young adulthood. Adolescent anxiety predicted poor total adjustment, poor adjustment at work, poor family relationships, problems with the family unit, less life satisfaction, poor coping skills, and more chronic stress. Adolescent anxiety predicted, substance (SUD), alcohol abuse/dependence (AUD), and anxiety in adulthood. No adult psychopathology mediated the relationship between childhood anxiety disorders and psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adult, SUD, AUD and anxiety mediated the association between adolescent anxiety and most domains of psychosocial functioning at age 30. The participants are ethically and geographically homogenous, and changes in the diagnostic criteria and the interview schedules across the assessment periods. Adolescent anxiety, compared to childhood anxiety, is associated with more adverse psychosocial outcomes at age 30. Adolescent anxiety affects negative outcomes at age 30 directly and through adult anxiety, SUD and AUD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive......Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... significant correlation between performance and psychosocial work environment. A sample of 12 departments was selected for in-depth qualitative study based on their relative change in performance and psychosocial work environment between 2005 and 2007. Through the qualitative study we are able to identity...

  19. Improving Project Management with Simulation and Completion Distribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant R.

    2004-01-01

    million per month is being spent on this project, which is scheduled to complete by 2010. NASA project stakeholders participated in determining and managing completion distribution functions produced from PAST. The first result was that project stakeholders improved project completion risk awareness. Secondly, using PAST, mitigation options were analyzed to improve project completion performance and reduce total project cost.

  20. Functional electrical stimulation improves brain perfusion in cranial trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Juarez Amorim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate brain perfusion changes due to neuronal activation after functional electrical stimulation (FES. METHOD: It was studied 14 patients with hemiplegia who were submitted to a program with FES during fourteen weeks. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed before and after FES therapy. These patients were further separated into 2 groups according to the hemiplegia cause: cranial trauma and major vascular insults. All SPECT images were analyzed using SPM. RESULTS: There was a significant statistical difference between the two groups related to patient's ages and extent of hypoperfusion in the SPECT. Patients with cranial trauma had a reduction in the hypoperfused area and patients with major vascular insult had an increase in the hypoperfused area after FES therapy. CONCLUSION: FES therapy can result in brain perfusion improvement in patients with brain lesions due to cranial trauma but probably not in patients with major vascular insults with large infarct area.

  1. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  2. Knee dermolipectomy: a simple operation with significant functional improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertheuil, N; Huguier, V; Beuzeboc, M; Aillet, S; Watier, E

    2013-02-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in Western societies. It may lead to difficulties in daily life that have an impact on quality of life and create psychological disorders. After failure of diet and exercise, patients can undergo bariatric surgery, but some obese patients are not motivated to undergo a bariatric procedure. For such patients, plastic surgeons can correct some excess fat to improve their quality of life. This report describes an original technique for correcting the excess fat at the medial part of the knees to regain a normal walking perimeter. A 68-year-old woman was admitted to the authors' center for correction of a functional walking disorder. Indeed, her clinical examination found a static disorder, with a valgus knee morphotype related to a major excess of skin and fat in the medial part of the knees. She underwent a knee dermolipectomy to obtain a solely functional result. No complications were observed in the woman's postoperative course. At this writing, the result is stable 18 months after the surgical procedure, with a minimal visible scar hidden in the internal face of the knees. The woman has experienced a loss of her genu valgum and regained a walking distance longer than 1 km. She also has lost 10 kg of weight. Knee dermolipectomy is a simple procedure with good results and few complications that improves the quality of life for obese patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  3. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Functionality and Curation Support in the ADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Murray, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    In this poster we describe the developments of the new ADS platform over the past year, focusing on the functionality which improves its discovery and curation capabilities.The ADS Application Programming Interface (API) is being updated to support authenticated access to the entire suite of ADS services, in addition to the search functionality itself. This allows programmatic access to resources which are specific to a user or class of users.A new interface, built directly on top of the API, now provides a more intuitive search experience and takes into account the best practices in web usability and responsive design. The interface now incorporates in-line views of graphics from the AAS Astroexplorer and the ADS All-Sky Survey image collections.The ADS Private Libraries, first introduced over 10 years ago, are now being enhanced to allow the bookmarking, tagging and annotation of records of interest. In addition, libraries can be shared with one or more ADS users, providing an easy way to collaborate in the curation of lists of papers. A library can also be explicitly made public and shared at large via the publishing of its URL.In collaboration with the AAS, the ADS plans to support the adoption of ORCID identifiers by implementing a plugin which will simplify the import of papers in ORCID via a query to the ADS API. Deeper integration between the two systems will depend on available resources and feedback from the community.

  5. Psychosocial support for patients in pediatric oncology: the influences of parents, schools, peers, and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Lalita K; Kato, Pamela M

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of pediatric cancer can be associated with profound psychosocial changes in the life of young patients. Although nurses, physicians, and other health care professionals are important sources of support, psychosocial support is also available through parents, schools, and peers. This article presents a review of the literature on how parents, schools, and peers affect the coping and adjustment of young patients with cancer and critically reviews interventions directed at improving functioning in these areas. Special attention is paid to recent interventions that exploit technology such as video games, CD-ROMs, and the Internet to provide creative new forms of support for patients in pediatric oncology. Existing research on both technological and interpersonal forms of intervention and support shows promising results, and suggestions for further study are provided.

  6. Production of Lupinus angustifolius protein hydrolysates with improved functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millán, Francisco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein hydrolysates wer e obtained from lupin flour and from the purified globulin α -conglutin, and their functional properties were studied. Hydrolysis with alcalase for 60 minutes yielded degrees of hydrolysis ranging from 4 % to 11 % for lupin flour, and from 4 % to 13% for α -conglutin. Protein solubility, oil absorption, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability of hydrolysates with 6% degree of hydrolysis were determined and compared with the properties of the original flour. The protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original proteins. Most importantly, the solubility of the α -conglutin and L. angustifolius flour hydrolysates was increased by 43 % and 52 %, respectively. Thus, lupin seed protein hydrolysates have improved functional properties and could be used in the elaboration of a variety of products such as breads, cakes, and salad dressings.Se obtuvieron hidrolizados proteicos de la harina del altramuz y de la globulina α - conglutina purificada y se estudiaron sus propiedades funcionales. La hidrólisis con alcalasa durante 60 minutos produjo hidrolizados con grados de hidrólisis entre el 4 % y el 11 % para la harina y entre el 4 % y el 13 % para la α - conglutina. Se estudió en un hidrolizado con un 6 % de grado de hidrólisis la solubilidad proteica, absorción de aceite, capacidad y estabilidad espumante y actividad y estabilidad emulsificante. Los hidrolizados proteicos mostraron mejores propiedades funcionales que las proteínas originales. Más aún, la solubilidad de los hidrolizados de α - conglutina y la harina se incrementó en un 43 % y 52 % respectivamente. Así pues, hidrolizados de proteínas de semilla de lupino presentan mejores propiedades funcionales y podrían usarse en la elaboración de productos como pan, dulces, salsas o cremas.

  7. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions.

  8. Parenting as a Mechanism of Change in Psychosocial Treatment for Youth with ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith; Hinshaw, Stephen; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2016-09-15

    We investigated whether parenting and child behavior improve following psychosocial treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Presentation (ADHD-I) and whether parenting improvements mediate child outcomes. We analyzed data from a randomized clinical trial investigating the efficacy of a multicomponent psychosocial intervention (Child Life and Attention Skills, CLAS, n = 74) in comparison to Parent-Focused Treatment (PFT, n = 74) and treatment as usual (TAU, n = 51) for youth with ADHD-I (average child age = 8.6 years, range 7-11 years, 58 % boys). Child and parent/family functioning were assessed prior to treatment, immediately following treatment, and at follow-up into the subsequent school year using parent and teacher reports of inattention, organization, social skills, academic competency (teachers only), parenting daily hassles, and positive and negative parenting behaviors (parents only). Both treatment groups improved on negative parenting and home impairment, but only CLAS families also improved on positive parenting as well as academic impairment. Improvements in positive and negative parenting mediated treatment effects on child impairment independent of improvements in child inattention, implicating parenting as an important mechanism of change in psychosocial treatment for ADHD-I. Further, whereas parent-focused training produces improvements in negative parenting and impairment at home for children with ADHD-I, a multicomponent approach (incorporating child skills training and teacher consultation) more consistently produces improvements at school and in positive parenting, which may contribute to improvements in social skills into the next school year.

  9. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  10. PEDF improves mitochondrial function in RPE cells during oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Leung, Kar Wah; Ren, Yuan; Pei, Jinzhi; Ge, Jian; Tombran-Tink, Joyce

    2014-09-11

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in health and aging. We have shown that oxidative stress impairs mitochondrial function and promotes RPE cell death in an age-dependent manner. This study investigates the role of pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in limiting oxidative stress-induced damage to RPE cells through mitochondrial pathways. Three groups of early-passaged RPE cells from donors 50 to 55, 60 to 65, and 70 to 75 years old (yo) were either preconditioned with PEDF followed by exposure to sublethal doses of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or post-treated with PEDF after H2O2 treatment. Effects of PEDF on mitochondrial function and cell viability were examined. Oxidative stress induced an age-dependent increase in LDH release, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and cell death and a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in human RPE cells. Preconditioning or poststressed treatment with PEDF resulted in increased cell viability, inhibition of cytochrome c release and caspase 3 cleavage, and improved mitochondria function denoted by a decrease in ROS generation and increases in ATP production and ΔΨm. Oxidative stress also disrupted the reticular network, trafficking, and distribution of the mitochondria and blocked activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, and Erk signaling in the cells. These effects were more pronounced in RPE cells from individuals>60 yo compared to the 50 to 55 yo age group. Pigment epithelium-derived factor mitigated negative effects of oxidative stress on mitochondrial remodeling and cellular distribution and unblocked its control of PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Although PEDF potentiated both PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling in the cells, stabilization of mitochondrial networks and function was dependent on its activation of PI3K/Akt. Specificity of PEDF's activity was confirmed using the pharmacological inhibitors LY294002

  11. Influence of Psychosocial Intervention on Social function and Life quality of Patients with Geriatric Depression%心理社会干预对老年抑郁症患者社会功能及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张富松; 符娟; 潘苗

    2011-01-01

    higher than that of the medication group (P < 0.01 all). [ Conclusion ] The antidepressant combined with psychosocial intervention in geriatric depression patients has better clinical efficacy and more improvement of insight, treatment compliance life quality and social function than simple antidepressant.

  12. [Advances in psychosocial interventions on quality of life of cancer survivors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuefen; Wang, Jiwei; Gong, Xiaohuan; Yu, Jinming

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the importance of psychosocial interventions' studies on quality of life in cancer survivors because of improving cancer survival rate. This paper was an integrative literatures review of various psychosocial interventions including cognitive behavioral therapy, group-based supportive therapy, counseling or psychotherapy, education or psychoeducation and music therapy et al, and analyzing the complexity of psychosocial interventions' RCTs in oncology and the current characteristic of these studies in China.

  13. The Rapalogue, CCI-779, improves salivary gland function following radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Morgan-Bathke

    Full Text Available The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate

  14. The Impact of Teen Court on Rural Adolescents: Improved Social Relationships, Psychological Functioning, and School Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Rose, Roderick A; Evans, Caroline B R; Barbee, James; Cotter, Katie L; Bower, Meredith

    2017-08-01

    Teen Court is a prevention program aimed at diverting first time juvenile offenders from the traditional juvenile justice system and reintegrating them into the community. Few studies have examined if Teen Court impacts adolescent functioning. We examined how Teen Court participation impacted psychosocial functioning, social relationships, and school experiences in a sample of 392 rural Teen Court participants relative to two comparison samples, one from the same county as Teen Court (n = 4276) and one from a neighboring county (n = 3584). We found that Teen Court has the potential to decrease internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior, violent behavior, parent-adolescent conflict, and delinquent friends, and increase self-esteem and school satisfaction.

  15. Improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity correlates with perception of improved hand function in patients after hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate how well patients' perceptions related to the improvements in their hand function during hospitalization. [Subjects] Sixteen patients who were hospitalized after hand surgery. [Methods] Using the Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand edition of the Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire; tactile roughness discrimination acuity, motor imagery, motor function, sensory function, and pain of the upper limb were assessed at admission and discharge. Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients were calculated using the differences in all assessment items at admission and discharge. A multiple regression analysis (stepwise method) was performed to investigate factors that correlated with improvements in Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores. [Results] The improvement of tactile roughness discrimination acuity was significantly associated with patient perception of improved hand function. [Conclusion] The results suggest that an improvement in tactile roughness discrimination acuity was most strongly correlated with patient perception of improved hand function.

  16. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  17. The Role of Daytime Sleepiness in Psychosocial Outcomes after Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Yuet Ying Lau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of daytime sleepiness and sleep quality in psychosocial outcomes of patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP. Thirty-seven individuals with moderate to severe OSA and compliant with CPAP treatment for at least 3 months were compared to 27 age- and education-matched healthy controls. The OSA group and the control group were studied with overnight polysomnography (PSG and compared on measures of daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, mood (Beck Depression Inventory, Profile of Mood States, and functional outcomes (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire. After CPAP treatment, the OSA group improved on sleep quality and sleepiness. As a group, they did not differ from controls on sleep architecture after CPAP. The OSA group also showed significant improvements in functional outcomes and was comparable to controls on mood and functional outcomes. Persistent difficulties included lowered activity level and residual sleepiness in some individuals. Sleepiness was found to be a significant predictor of mood and affective states, while both sleepiness and sleep quality predicted functional outcomes. These results highlight the importance of assessment and intervention targeting psychosocial functioning and sleepiness in individuals with OSA after treatment.

  18. Improved Collision Attack on Hash Function MD5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Liang; Xue-Jia Lai

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fast attack algorithm to find two-block collision of hash function MD5.The algorithm is based on the two-block collision differential path of MD5 that was presented by Wang et al.In the Conference EUROCRYPT 2005.We found that the derived conditions for the desired collision differential path were not sufficient to guarantee the path to hold and that some conditions could be modified to enlarge the collision set.By using technique of small range searching and omitting the computing steps to check the characteristics in the attack algorithm, we can speed up the attack of MD5 efficiently.Compared with the Advanced Message Modification technique presented by Wang et al.,the small range searching technique can correct 4 more conditions for the first iteration differential and 3 more conditions for the second iteration differential, thus improving the probability and the complexity to find collisions.The whole attack on the MD5 can be accomplished within 5 hours using a PC with Pentium4 1.70GHz CPU.

  19. Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

    2014-10-21

    Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders.

  20. A device for the functional improvement of lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşik, Mehmet Doğan; Yaprak, Bülent; Güven, Erdem; Karabulut, Aylin Bilgin; Güçlü, Burak

    2013-07-01

    A new device was tested on rabbits for the improvement of lagophthalmos, which causes dryness and irritation of the eye and may cause blindness if untreated. In the presented study, 14 rabbits were injected with local anesthetic to induce temporary facial palsy leading to lagophthalmos on one side. To provide functionality to the upper eyelids, ferromagnetic steel plates were either implanted within the eyelid or taped on the eyelid surface. The device detected blinking in the nonparalytic side and moved the anesthetized paralytic eyelid by pulling the steel plate electromagnetically. The control group (n = 5) did not wear the device, and they could not shut their paralytic eyelids. The treatment group with the external placement of the metal plate (n = 4) and the treatment group with the implant (n = 5) wore the device for artificial blinking. All animals were observed during the experiments, and blinking was recorded on digital video. The data collected from video records were analyzed to test the statistical difference of blinking between control and the treated groups. The results showed that the treatment groups could artificially move their paralytic eyelids. Furthermore, the treatment group with the implant showed a noticeable similarity in eyelid position compared with healthy (nonparalytic) eyes.

  1. Magnetic Alignment and Charge Transport Improvement in Functional Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Pawel W.

    The realization of nanostructured functional materials by self-assembly in polymers and polymer nanocomposites is adversely affected by persisting structural defects which greatly diminish the performance of the material. The use of magnetic fields to impose long-range order is investigated in three distinct systems - ion-conducting block copolymers, semiconducting nanowire-polymer composites and lyotropic surfactant mesophases. The alignment process is quantitatively studied with X-ray scattering and microscopic methods. Time and temperature resolved data collected in situ during the magnetic experiments provide an insight into the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the process. These data together with simultaneous electrical conductivity measurements allow relating fundamental structural properties (e.g., morphology and long-range order) to transport properties (i.e., conductivity). In particular, it is demonstrated that magnetic fields offer a viable route for improvement of electric conductivity in these systems. More than an order of magnitude increase in conductivity is recorded in magnetically-annealed materials. The resulting aligned nanostructured systems are attractive for ordered solid polymer electrolyte membranes, heterojunction photovoltaic devices and generally help to understand charge transport mechanisms in anisotropic heterogeneous systems.

  2. Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

  3. Skills Versus Pills: Psychosocial Treatments for ADHD in Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Erin N; Sasser, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    Although side effects and family concerns are common and long-term medication adherence is low, stimulant medications are a front-line treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychosocial treatments include classroom, family, and child-focused interventions that teach caregivers and teachers how to implement contingencies to shape behavior and provide children with skills to compensate for ADHD deficits. Such programs have a growing evidence-base and can be implemented alone or in conjunction with pharmacological treatments. The most efficacious psychosocial treatments for children with ADHD include Behavioral Parent Training, Behavioral Classroom Management, and Behavioral Peer Interventions, which all focus on contingency management by adults. Training interventions are increasingly used to teach organizational and interpersonal skills to children and adolescents. These treatments are found to improve functional outcomes associated with ADHD, including on-task behavior, compliance, academic performance, social relationships, and family functioning. Clinicians play an important role in educating families about psychosocial treatments for ADHD, increasing family motivation and engagement, and including these interventions in multimodal treatment plans for youth with ADHD across development. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(10):e367-e372.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G. R.; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P.; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K.; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges. PMID:23869293

  5. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G R; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K M

    2013-05-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges.

  6. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  7. Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Filip Holst; Pedersen, Christina Gravgaard; Jensen, Majbritt Lykke

    Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.......Physiotherapy improves patient reported shoulder function and health status in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome....

  8. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  9. The Older Woman: Increased Psychosocial Benefits from Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakat, Diane; Odom, Sarah

    1982-01-01

    Older women who participate in physical activity programs find physical benefits in the improvement of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems. The psychosocial benefits which result from physical activity include an increase in self-esteem, increased social contacts, a counteraction to depression, and improved stress management. Suggestions…

  10. Oral bisoprolol improves surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitha Mary Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS depends on visual clarity of the surgical field, through the endoscope. The objective of this double-blind, randomized, controlled study was to determine if a pre-operative dose of bisoprolol (2.5 mg would reduce the bleeding during FESS and improve the visualization of the operative field. Materials and Methods: Thirty American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II patients, scheduled for FESS were randomized to receive either a placebo (Group A or 2.5 mg of bisoprolol (Group B 90 min prior to the surgery. All the patients received standard anesthesia and monitoring. The aim was to maintain the mean arterial pressure (MAP of 60-70 mmHg, by titrating dose of isoflurane and fentanyl. The concentration of isoflurane used was recorded every 15 min. At the end of the surgery, the volume of blood loss was measured and the surgeon was asked to grade the operative field as per the Fromme-Boezaart Scale. Result: The blood loss was significantly (P < 0.0001 more in the control group (398.67 ± 228.79 ml as compared with that in the bisoprolol group (110.67 ± 45.35 ml. The surgical field was graded better in those who received bisoprolol as compared with those in the control group ( P − 0.0001. The volume percent of isoflurane and the dose of fentanyl used was significantly lower in those who received bisoprolol. During the operative period, the MAPs were 70.0 ± 2.7 (Group A and 62.6 ± 3.6 mmHg (Group B and the heart rate was 99.8 ± 5.0/min (Group A and 69.2 ± 4.4/min (Group B. These differences were statistically significant ( P − 0.001. Conclusion: This clinical trial has demonstrated that administration of a single pre-operative dose of bisoprolol (2.5 mg can significantly reduce the blood loss during FESS and improve the visualization of the operating field.

  11. Neurodevelopmental and psychosocial aspects of Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Zinn, A; McCauley, E

    2000-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is the complex phenotype of human females with complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome, or monosomy X. A characteristic neurocognitive and psychosocial profile has also been described in TS females. Typically, specific deficits in visual-spatial/perceptual abilities, nonverbal memory function, motor function, executive function, and attentional abilities occur in TS children and adults of varying races and socioeconomic status. TS-associated psychosocial difficulties occur in the areas of maturity and social skills. We hypothesize that a subset of the neurocognitive deficits (visual-spatial/perceptual abilities) are genetically determined and result from abnormal expression of one or more X chromosome genes. In addition, a different subset of these neurocognitive deficits (memory, reaction time, and speeded motor function) result from estrogen deficiency and are at least somewhat reversible with estrogen treatment. The TS-associated psychosocial problems are most likely linked to these core neurocognitive deficits and do not reflect a separate and independent component of the syndrome. Turner syndrome research has progressed significantly over the last decade. The field has moved from descriptive reports based on single individuals or small clinical samples to the use of experimental designs with larger, more diverse and representative samples. This degree of variability among individuals with Turner syndrome in all domains (karyotype or genetic constitution, physical attributes, neurocognitive and social functioning) suggests the need to identify risk and protective factors contributing to the heterogeneity in the phenotype. Active education about TS and participation in patient advocacy groups such as the Turner Syndrome Society of the United States (http://www. turner-syndrome-us.org/) has provided new information for TS adults and families as well as a supportive peer group. MRDD Research Reviews 2000;6:135-141.

  12. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  13. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  14. Weight loss improves biomarkers endothelial function and systemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markers of inflammation and endothelial function were measured before and after 3 ... (CRP), inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule ... Keywords: Menopause, cytokines, endothelial function, exercise, diet ...

  15. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part II: psychosocial interventions and patient-focused perspectives in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Leung, Sau Fong; Yeung, Frederick Kk; Wong, Wai Kit

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric illness associated with disruptions in cognition, emotion, and psychosocial and occupational functioning. Increasing evidence shows that psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia, as an adjunct to medications or usual psychiatric care, can reduce psychotic symptoms and relapse and improve patients' long-term outcomes such as recovery, remission, and illness progression. This critical review of the literature was conducted to identify the common approaches to psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia. Treatment planning and outcomes were also explored and discussed to better understand the effects of these interventions in terms of person-focused perspectives such as their perceived quality of life and satisfaction and their acceptability and adherence to treatments or services received. We searched major health care databases such as EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsycLIT and identified relevant literature in English from these databases. Their reference lists were screened, and studies were selected if they met the criteria of using a randomized controlled trial or systematic review design, giving a clear description of the interventions used, and having a study sample of people primarily diagnosed with schizophrenia. Five main approaches to psychosocial intervention had been used for the treatment of schizophrenia: cognitive therapy (cognitive behavioral and cognitive remediation therapy), psychoeducation, family intervention, social skills training, and assertive community treatment. Most of these five approaches applied to people with schizophrenia have demonstrated satisfactory levels of short- to medium-term clinical efficacy in terms of symptom control or reduction, level of functioning, and/or relapse rate. However, the comparative effects between these five approaches have not been well studied; thus, we are not able to clearly understand the superiority of any of these interventions. With the

  16. Improved parameter estimation for hydrological models using weighted object functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A.; Zaadnoordijk, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensitivity of calibration of hydrological model parameters to different objective functions. Several functions are defined with weights depending upon the hydrological background. These are compared with an objective function based upon kriging. Calibration is applied to pi

  17. Functioning in the Real World: Using Storytelling to Improve Validity in the Assessment of Executive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annotti, Lee A; Teglasi, Hedwig

    2016-08-02

    Real-world contexts differ in the clarity of expectations for desired responses, as do assessment procedures, ranging along a continuum from maximal conditions that provide well-defined expectations to typical conditions that provide ill-defined expectations. Executive functions guide effective social interactions, but relations between them have not been studied with measures that are matched in the clarity of response expectations. In predicting teacher-rated social competence (SC) from kindergarteners' performance on tasks of executive functions (EFs), we found better model-data fit indexes when both measures were similar in the clarity of response expectations for the child. The maximal EF measure, the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, presents well-defined response expectations, and the typical EF measure, 5 scales from the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), presents ill-defined response expectations (i.e., Abstraction, Perceptual Integration, Cognitive-Experiential Integration, and Associative Thinking). To assess SC under maximal and typical conditions, we used 2 teacher-rated questionnaires, with items, respectively, that emphasize well-defined and ill-defined expectations: the Behavior Rating Inventory: Behavioral Regulation Index and the Social Skills Improvement System: Social Competence Scale. Findings suggest that matching clarity of expectations improves generalization across measures and highlight the usefulness of the TAT to measure EF.

  18. Functionalized Graphitic Supports for Improved Fuel Cell Catalyst Stability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) together with the University of Connecticut (UCONN) proposes to demonstrate the improved fuel cell catalyst support durability offered...

  19. Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system

  20. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) spend the majority of their lives as adults, and psychosocial interventions show promise for improving outcomes in this population. This research conducted a systematic review of all peer-review studies evaluating psychosocial interventions for adults with ASD. A total of 1,217 studies were…

  1. Psychosocial dysfunction associated with skin picking disorder and trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-05-30

    Skin picking disorder (SPD) and trichotillomania (TTM) are common and oftentimes disabling disorders. 125 Participants with SPD and 152 with TTM undertook clinical and neurocognitive evaluation, and were grouped according to mild, moderate, or severe levels of psychosocial dysfunction. Relationships between functional impairment and other variables were explored using linear regression and categorical analyses. Greater functional impairment was associated with worse disease severity in both groups, and by later symptom onset and lower quality of life in TTM subjects. These results indicate that levels of self-reported psychosocial dysfunction have a strong association with specific clinical aspects of SPD and TTM.

  2. Essential Arterial Hypertension – Psycho-social Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Karner-HUTULEAC

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential Arterial Hypertension (EAHT is one of the most spread cardiovascular diseases. EAHT is considered to be a mostly psychosomatic disease, which can affect the psycho-social functioning (depression, anxiety as well as the neuro-cognitive one (attention, memory and executive function disorders. These could lead to the negative influence of the patient and important family members’ level of quality of life. The psycho-social factors (type A behaviour pattern, negative close relationships, social preasure etc. can also influence adherence to treatment and the control of arterial hypertension.

  3. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Ruiter Marieke A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Methods/Design Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35 or placebo training (n=35. Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once. Discussion If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922.

  4. Neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning of children treated for a brain tumor: design of a randomized controlled double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke A; Schouten-Van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; van Mourik, Rosa; Janssen, Tieme W P; Greidanus, Juliette E M; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha A

    2012-12-06

    Neurotoxicity caused by treatment for a brain tumor is a major cause of neurocognitive decline in survivors. Studies have shown that neurofeedback may enhance neurocognitive functioning. This paper describes the protocol of the PRISMA study, a randomized controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of neurofeedback to improve neurocognitive functioning in children treated for a brain tumor. Efficacy of neurofeedback will be compared to placebo training in a randomized controlled double-blind trial. A total of 70 brain tumor survivors in the age range of 8 to 18 years will be recruited. Inclusion also requires caregiver-reported neurocognitive problems and being off treatment for more than two years. A group of 35 healthy siblings will be included as the control group. On the basis of a qEEG patients will be assigned to one of three treatment protocols. Thereafter patients will be randomized to receive either neurofeedback training (n=35) or placebo training (n=35). Neurocognitive tests, and questionnaires administered to the patient, caregivers, and teacher, will be used to evaluate pre- and post-intervention functioning, as well as at 6-month follow-up. Siblings will be administered the same tests and questionnaires once. If neurofeedback proves to be effective for pediatric brain tumor survivors, this can be a valuable addition to the scarce interventions available to improve neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00961922.

  5. Developmental regression, depression, and psychosocial stress in an adolescent with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, David S; Munir, Kerim M; Karweck, Andrea J; Davidson, Emily J; Stein, Martin T

    2013-04-01

    Kristen is a 13-year-old girl with Down syndrome (DS) who was seen urgently with concerns of cognitive and developmental regression including loss of language, social, and toileting skills. The evaluation in the DS clinic focused on potential medical diagnoses including atlantoaxial joint instability, vitamin deficiency, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and seizures. A comprehensive medical evaluation yielded only a finding of moderate OSA. A reactive depression was considered in association with several psychosocial factors including moving homes, entering puberty/onset of menses, and classroom change from an integrated setting to a self-contained classroom comprising unfamiliar peers with behavior challenges.Urgent referrals for psychological and psychiatric evaluations were initiated. Neuropsychological testing did not suggest true regression in cognitive, language, and academic skills, although decreases in motivation and performance were noted with a reaction to stress and multiple environmental changes as a potential causative factor. Psychiatry consultation supported this finding in that psychosocial stress temporally correlated with Kristen's regression in skills.Working collaboratively, the team determined that Kristen's presentation was consistent with a reactive form of depression (DSM-IV-TR: depressive disorder, not otherwise specified). Kristen's presentation was exacerbated by salient environmental stress and sleep apnea, rather than a cognitive regression associated with a medical cause. Treatment consisted of an antidepressant medication, continuous positive airway pressure for OSA, and increased psychosocial supports. Her school initiated a change in classroom placement. With this multimodal approach to evaluation and intervention, Kristen steadily improved and she returned to her baseline function.

  6. Psychosocial outcomes in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder during 2 years of maintenance treatment with venlafaxine extended release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Dunner, David L.; Kornstein, Susan G.; Thase, Michael E.; Zajecka, John M.; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Shelton, Richard C.; Keller, Martin B.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial outcomes from the Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine ER for Two Years (PREVENT) study were evaluated. Methods Adult outpatients with recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and response or remission following 6-month continuation treatment with venlafaxine extended release (ER) were randomized to receive venlafaxine ER or placebo for 1 year. Patients without recurrence on venlafaxine ER during year 1 were randomized to venlafaxine ER or placebo for year 2. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire—Short Form (Q-LES-Q), Life EnjoymentScale—Short Version (LES-S), Social Adjustment Scale—Self-Report (SAS-SR) total and individual factors, Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) (vitality, social functioning, and role function-emotional items), and Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation (LIFE). Results At year 1 end, better overall psychosocial functioning was seen among patients randomly assigned to venlafaxine ER (n=129) vs placebo (n=129), with significant differences at end point on SF-36 role function-emotional, Q-LES-Q, and SAS-SR total, and work, house work, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). At year 2 end, significant differences favored venlafaxine ER (n=43) vs placebo (n=40)on SF-36 vitality and rolefunction-emotional, Q-LES-Q, LES-S, LIFE, and SAS-SR total, social/leisure, and extended-family factor scores (p≤0.05). Limitations Patients with chronic MDD or treatment resistance were excluded and long-term specialist care was a financial incentive for treatment compliance. Discontinuation-related adverse events may have compromised the integrity of the treatment blind. Conclusions For patients with recurrent MDD, 2 years’ maintenance therapy with venlafaxine ER may improve psychosocial functioning vs placebo. PMID:20510459

  7. Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L; Gates-Ulanet, Patricia; Mellon, Nancy K

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric hearing loss changed more in the past two decades than it had in the prior 100 years with children now identified in the first weeks of life and fit early with amplification. Dramatic improvements in hearing technology allow children the opportunity to listen, speak and read on par with typically hearing peers. National laws mandate that public and private schools, workplaces, and anywhere people go must be accessible to individuals with disabilities. In 2015, most children with hearing loss attended mainstream schools with typically hearing peers. Psychosocial skills still present challenges for some children with hearing loss.

  8. New class of camshaft transfer functions with improved characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Vlastimir D.; Lutovac, Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    The design of camshaft transfer functions is straightforward and explained in many scientific papers. Modern systems require a new design procedure in order to minimize unwanted movements and to reduce the power consumption. This paper presents a new class of transfer functions that reduces maximal deviations and increases number of cycles. The results are based on combined symbolic-numeric optimization. .

  9. Improving the Functionality of Dictionary Definitions for Lexical Sets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    in a set results in more functional definitions, keeping in mind that functional- .... 79) note, the concepts of semantic fields, lexical domains and thus also lexical .... tive, intuitive part" of the exercise (and more so when it comes to lexical sets.

  10. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  11. Coping with Interpersonal Stress and Psychosocial Health among Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angela T.

    2006-01-01

    This meta-analysis examines the relationship between active coping and psychosocial health among youth. Results from 40 studies of coping with interpersonal stress were synthesized using a random-effects model. Four areas of psychosocial functioning were examined: externalizing and internalizing behavior problems, social competence, and academic…

  12. The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Benefits in the Satisfaction Formation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Prevo; P. Leunisse; H. Roest (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate the mediating role of psychosocial benefits in the customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction formation process. Most research on this subject deals with the causality direction of psychosocial benefits and satisfaction, sometimes preceded by an overall functional

  13. The Mediating Role of Psychosocial Benefits in the Satisfaction Formation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Prevo; P. Leunisse; H. Roest (Henk)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate the mediating role of psychosocial benefits in the customer satisfaction/dissatisfaction formation process. Most research on this subject deals with the causality direction of psychosocial benefits and satisfaction, sometimes preceded by an overall functional

  14. Development and evaluation of the feasibility and effects on staff, patients, and families of a new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE), to improve communication and palliative care in intensive care and during clinical uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip; Prentice, Wendy; Burman, Rachel; Leonard, Sara; Rumble, Caroline; Noble, Jo; Dampier, Odette; Bernal, William; Hall, Sue; Morgan, Myfanwy; Shipman, Cathy

    2013-10-01

    There are widespread concerns about communication and support for patients and families, especially when they face clinical uncertainty, a situation most marked in intensive care units (ICUs). Therefore, we aimed to develop and evaluate an interventional tool to improve communication and palliative care, using the ICU as an example of where this is difficult. Our design was a phase I-II study following the Medical Research Council Guidance for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions and the (Methods of Researching End-of-life Care (MORECare) statement. In two ICUs, with over 1900 admissions annually, phase I modeled a new intervention comprising implementation training and an assessment tool. We conducted a literature review, qualitative interviews, and focus groups with 40 staff and 13 family members. This resulted in the new tool, the Psychosocial Assessment and Communication Evaluation (PACE). Phase II evaluated the feasibility and effects of PACE, using observation, record audit, and surveys of staff and family members. Qualitative data were analyzed using the framework approach. The statistical tests used on quantitative data were t-tests (for normally distributed characteristics), the χ2 or Fisher's exact test (for non-normally distributed characteristics) and the Mann-Whitney U-test (for experience assessments) to compare the characteristics and experience for cases with and without PACE recorded. PACE provides individualized assessments of all patients entering the ICU. It is completed within 24 to 48 hours of admission, and covers five aspects (key relationships, social details and needs, patient preferences, communication and information status, and other concerns), followed by recording of an ongoing communication evaluation. Implementation is supported by a training program with specialist palliative care. A post-implementation survey of 95 ICU staff found that 89% rated PACE assessment as very or generally useful. Of 213 family members

  15. Measuring Emotional Intelligence in Early Adolescence with the MSCEIT-YV: Psychometric Properties and Relationship with Academic Performance and Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Susan E.; Brackett, Marc A.; Reyes, Maria R.; Mayer, John D.; Caruso, David R.; Salovey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) theory provides a framework to study the role of emotion skills in social, personal, and academic functioning. Reporting data validating the importance of EI among youth have been limited due to a dearth of measurement instruments. In two studies, the authors examined the reliability and validity of the…

  16. Victimization, Social Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among Children of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Poteat, V. Paul; Noret, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    To further develop an understanding of psychological and social functioning of children raised by lesbian couples, the authors compared 18 students ages 12-16 raised in families led by female same-sex couples, who were identified from a large school-based survey, with 18 matched students raised by opposite-sex couples and the general student…

  17. Psychosocial issues in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease: report of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackner, Laura M; Greenley, Rachel Neff; Szigethy, Eva; Herzer, Michele; Deer, Kate; Hommel, Kevin A

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can affect many areas of psychosocial functioning, and comprehensive medical care includes consideration of psychosocial issues as well as disease factors. The purpose of this clinical report is to review research on psychosocial functioning in pediatric IBD and to provide recommendations for care providers in the areas of psychopathology, health-related quality of life, and social, family, and school functioning. Youth with IBD are at increased risk for difficulty in all areas reviewed, and many psychosocial factors are associated with disease activity, which highlights the importance of monitoring psychosocial functioning as part of clinical care. Several interventions have empirical support or show promise for addressing psychosocial difficulty, and recommendations for monitoring and treating these issues are provided.

  18. Psychosocial development of full term singletons, born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) at preschool age and family functioning: a prospective case-controlled study and multi-informant approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C; Van Acker, F; Bonduelle, M; Desmyttere, S; Nekkebroeck, J

    2015-05-01

    Do full term singletons born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) differ in their psychosocial functioning from children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and spontaneous conceived controls (SC)? The psychosocial maturation process of 5-6-year-old PGD children is comparable between the three conception groups (PGD, ICSI and SC). In general, a lot of research has been published regarding follow-up of children born after artificial reproductive technologies (ART), which mainly is reassuring. But the ART population itself is marked by broad diversity [IVF, ICSI, gamete donation, preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) or PGD] which complicates comparisons. Some literature concerning the socio-emotional development of PGD/PGS children is available and it suggests a normal maturation process. However, the complex reality of PGD families (e.g. safety of the technique and psychological burden of genetic histories) asks for an exclusive PGD sample with matched control groups and a multi-informant approach. Between April 2011 and May 2013, the psychosocial wellbeing of preschoolers and their families born after PGD was assessed in a prospective case-controlled, matched follow-up study, with a multi-informant approach. A group of 47 PGD, 50 ICSI and 55 SC 5-6-year-old children participated in a follow-up study performed at the Centre for Medical Genetics of the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel). Assessments took place in the hospital and in kindergartens. Children performed the Bene-Anthony family relations test (FRT), yielding their perceptions upon family relationships. Parents and teachers completed the child behaviour checklist (CBCL) and Caregiver Teacher Report Form (C-/TRF), respectively. Parental and family functioning were measured by the NEO-FFi, the parenting stress index (PSI), the Greenberger Work-Parenting Investment Questionnaire and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS). Statistical analysis was performed by

  19. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The ai...

  20. Psychosocial modulators of motor learning in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eZemankova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Using the remarkable overlap between brain circuits affected in Parkinson’s disease (PD and those underlying motor sequence learning, we may improve the effectiveness of motor rehabilitation interventions by identifying motor learning facilitators in PD. For instance, additional sensory stimulation and task cueing enhanced motor learning in people with PD, whereas exercising using musical rhythms or console computer games improved gait and balance, and reduced some motor symptoms, in addition to increasing task enjoyment. Yet, despite these advances, important knowledge gaps remain. Most studies investigating motor learning in PD used laboratory-specific tasks and equipment, with little resemblance to real life situations. Thus, it is unknown whether similar results could be achieved in more ecological setups and whether individual’s task engagement could further improve motor learning capacity. Moreover, the role of social interaction in motor skill learning process has not yet been investigated in PD and the role of mind-set and self-regulatory mechanisms have been sporadically examined. Here we review evidence suggesting that these psychosocial factors may be important modulators of motor learning in PD. We propose their incorporation in future research, given that it could lead to development of improved non-pharmacological interventions aimed to preserve or restore motor function in PD.

  1. Improved detection of event-related functional MRI signals using probability functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, G E; Zito, G; Patria, F; Sanes, J N

    2001-11-01

    Selecting an optimal event distribution for experimental use in event-related fMRI studies can require the generation of large numbers of event sequences with characteristics hard to control. The use of known probability distributions offers the possibility to control event timing and constrain the search space for finding optimal event sequences. We investigated different probability distributions in terms of response estimation (estimation efficiency), detectability (detection power, parameter estimation efficiency, sensitivity to true positives), and false-positive activation. Numerous simulated event sequences were generated selecting interevent intervals (IEI) from the uniform, uniform permuted, Latin square, exponential, binomial, Poisson, chi(2), geometric, and bimodal probability distributions and fixed IEI. Event sequences from the bimodal distribution, like block designs, had the best performance for detection and the poorest for estimation, while high estimation and detectability occurred for the long-decay exponential distribution. The uniform distribution also yielded high estimation efficiency, but probability functions with a long tail toward higher IEI, such as the geometric and the chi(2) distributions, had superior detectability. The distributions with the best detection performance also had a relatively high incidence of false positives, in contrast to the ordered distributions (Latin square and uniform permuted). The predictions of improved sensitivities for distributions with long tails were confirmed with empirical data. Moreover, the Latin square design yielded detection of activated voxels similar to the chi(2) distribution. These results indicate that high detection and suitable behavioral designs have compatibility for application of functional MRI methods to experiments requiring complex designs.

  2. Physical Rehabilitation Improves Muscle Function Following Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    Seene T, Kaasik P: Role of exercise therapy in prevention of decline in aging muscle function : glucocorticoid myopathy and unloading. J Aging Res...Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice... exercise . Int J Sports Med 2014, 35(1):19–27. 25. Hourdé C, Joanne P, Medja F, Mougenot N, Jacquet A, Mouisel E, Pannerec A, Hatem S, Butler-Browne G

  3. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive...... and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  4. Improved symbiotic organisms search algorithm for solving unconstrained function optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Nama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS algorithm is being used for solving complex problems of optimization. This paper proposes an Improved Symbiotic Organisms Search (I-SOS algorithm for solving different complex unconstrained global optimization problems. In the improved algorithm, a random weighted reflective parameter and predation phase are suggested to enhance the performance of the algorithm. The performances of this algorithm are compared with the other state-of-the-art algorithms. The parametric study of the common control parameter has also been performed.

  5. IMPROVING THE EFFECTIVENESS AND UTILISATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Lister

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research work carried out by the University of Cape Town has examined the following questions:
    - are industrial engineering techniques being used in industry?
    - what are the reasons for not using the various techniques?
    - what factors that can be addressed by industrial engineers, are inhibiting the improvement of manufacturing productivity?
    - are industrial engineers being utilised in the most effective t"ay? Investigations in South African and overseas companies have indicated some barriers to acceptance that have to be overcome. This paper identifies key elements which, if implemented or adopted, will improve the effectiveness of both industrial engineers, and the intrOduction of industrial engineering techniques.

  6. Improving protein function prediction methods with integrated literature data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabow Aaron P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the function of uncharacterized proteins is a major challenge in the post-genomic era due to the problem's complexity and scale. Identifying a protein's function contributes to an understanding of its role in the involved pathways, its suitability as a drug target, and its potential for protein modifications. Several graph-theoretic approaches predict unidentified functions of proteins by using the functional annotations of better-characterized proteins in protein-protein interaction networks. We systematically consider the use of literature co-occurrence data, introduce a new method for quantifying the reliability of co-occurrence and test how performance differs across species. We also quantify changes in performance as the prediction algorithms annotate with increased specificity. Results We find that including information on the co-occurrence of proteins within an abstract greatly boosts performance in the Functional Flow graph-theoretic function prediction algorithm in yeast, fly and worm. This increase in performance is not simply due to the presence of additional edges since supplementing protein-protein interactions with co-occurrence data outperforms supplementing with a comparably-sized genetic interaction dataset. Through the combination of protein-protein interactions and co-occurrence data, the neighborhood around unknown proteins is quickly connected to well-characterized nodes which global prediction algorithms can exploit. Our method for quantifying co-occurrence reliability shows superior performance to the other methods, particularly at threshold values around 10% which yield the best trade off between coverage and accuracy. In contrast, the traditional way of asserting co-occurrence when at least one abstract mentions both proteins proves to be the worst method for generating co-occurrence data, introducing too many false positives. Annotating the functions with greater specificity is harder

  7. Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Petersen, AH; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    1996-01-01

    An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was associ

  8. Improved Decomposition for a System of Completely Specified Boolean Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Taghavi Afshord

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional decomposition is an important and powerful technique in the logic synthesis. The ternary matrix cover approach is one of the existing methods of this type. This method is also used in decomposition of a system of completely specified Boolean functions. Before constructing the desired superposition, it needs to encode a table. There is a trivial encoding method. But to find a better solution, it is important to use a special approach, because the result of the encoding has a direct influence on the obtained functions. In this paper, an efficient algorithm to encode this table is presented. It uses the approach connected with the assembling Boolean hyper cube method. The proposed algorithm is explained in details with an example. The benefits and impacts of the suggested technique are also discussed.

  9. AN IMPROVED RADIAL BASIS FUNCTION BASED METHOD FOR IMAGE WARPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nie Xuan; Zhao Rongchun; Zhang Cheng; Zhang Xiaoyan

    2005-01-01

    A new image warping method is proposed in this letter, which can warp a given image by some manual defined features. Based on the radial basis interpolation function algorithm, the proposed method can transform the original optimized problem into nonsingular linear problem by adding one-order term and affine differentiable condition. This linear system can get the steady unique solution by choosing suitable kernel function. Furthermore, the proposed method demonstrates how to set up the radial basis function in the target image so as to achieve supports to adopt the backward re-sampling technology accordingly which could gain the very slippery warping image. Theexperimental result shows that the proposed method can implement smooth and gradual image warping with multi-anchor points' accurate interpolation.

  10. Using functional analysis diagrams to improve product reliability and cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Michalakoudis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering are well-established methods in the manufacturing industry, commonly applied to optimize product reliability and cost, respectively. Both processes, however, require cross-functional teams to identify and evaluate the product/process functions and are resource-intensive, hence their application is mostly limited to large organizations. In this article, we present a methodology involving the concurrent execution of failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering, assisted by a set of hierarchical functional analysis diagram models, along with the outcomes of a pilot application in a UK-based manufacturing small and medium enterprise. Analysis of the results indicates that this new approach could significantly enhance the resource efficiency and effectiveness of both failure mode and effects analysis and value engineering processes.

  11. Hypnotic Relaxation and Yoga to Improve Sleep and School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Smith, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency, defined as inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness, has been linked with students' learning and behavioral outcomes at school. However, there is limited research on interventions designed to improve the sleep of school-age children. In order to promote more interest on this critical topic, we…

  12. Hypnotic Relaxation and Yoga to Improve Sleep and School Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Smith, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Sleep insufficiency, defined as inadequate sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness, has been linked with students' learning and behavioral outcomes at school. However, there is limited research on interventions designed to improve the sleep of school-age children. In order to promote more interest on this critical topic, we…

  13. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory fu

  14. Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

  15. The Lean Reference Collection: Improving Functionality through Selection and Weeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses references collections in academic libraries and offers guidelines for placing materials in a reference collection that focus on their suitability for true reference functions and the expected frequency of use. Problems with poorly managed collections are discussed, and the importance of selection policies and weeding are emphasized. (37…

  16. Red raspberries can improve motor function in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Many foods rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds have been shown to increase health and reduce markers of aging. A number of berry fruits high in polyphenols are known to ameliorate age-related declines in cellular, cognitive and behavioral function in rats. OBJECTIVES: Thi...

  17. Improved Green's function parabolic equation method for atmospheric sound propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salomons, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The numerical implementation of the Green's function parabolic equation (GFPE) method for atmospheric sound propagation is discussed. Four types of numerical errors are distinguished: (i) errors in the forward Fourier transform; (ii) errors in the inverse Fourier transform; (iii) errors in the refra

  18. Improving compact gravity inversion using new weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnoee, Mohammad Hossein; Ansari, Abdolhamid; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a method to estimate the geometry, location and densities of anomalies coming from 2-D gravity data based on compact gravity inversion technique. Compact gravity inversion is simple, fast and user friendly but severely depends on the number of model parameters, that is, by increasing the model parameters, the anomalies tend to concentrate near the surface. To overcome this ambiguity new weighting functions based on density contrast, depth, and compactness models have been introduced. Variable compactness factors have been defined here to get either a sharp or a smooth model based on the depth of the source or existence of prior information. Depth weighting derived from one station of gravity data whereas the effect of gravity data is 2-D and 3-D. To compensate this limitation an innovating weighting function namely kernel function has been introduced which multiplies with weight and compactness matrixes to yield a general model weighting function. The method is tested using three different sets of synthetic examples: a body at various depths (20, 40, 80 and 140 m), two bodies at the same depth but various distances to estimate lateral resolution and three bodies with negative and positive density contrast in different depths. The method is also applied to three real gravity data of Woodlawn massive sulphide body, sulphides mineralization of British Colombia and iron ore body of Missouri. The method produces solutions consistent with the known geologic attributes of the gravity sources, illustrating its potential practicality.

  19. Improving compact gravity inversion based on new weighting functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghalehnoee, Mohammad Hossein; Ansari, Abdolhamid; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    We have developed a method to estimate the geometry, location and densities of anomalies coming from two-dimensional gravity data based on compact gravity inversion technique. Compact gravity inversion is simple, fast and user friendly but severely depends on the number of model parameters, i.e. by increasing the model parameters, the anomalies tend to concentrate near the surface. To overcome this ambiguity new weighting functions based on density contrast, depth, and compactness models have been introduced. Variable compactness factors have been defined here to get either a sharp or a smooth model based on the depth of the source or existence of prior information. Depth weighting derived from one station of gravity data whereas the effect of gravity data is two- and three-dimensional. To compensate this limitation an innovating weighting function namely kernel function has been introduced which multiplies with weight and compactness matrixes to yield a general model weighting function. The method is tested using three different sets of synthetic examples: a body at various depths (20, 40, 80 and 140 m), two bodies at the same depth but various distances to estimate lateral resolution and three bodies with negative and positive density contrast in different depths. The method is also applied to three real gravity data of Woodlawn massive sulfide body, sulfides mineralization of British Colombia and iron ore body of Missouri. The method produces solutions consistent with the known geologic attributes of the gravity sources, illustrating its potential practicality.

  20. [Neurobiological and psychosocial causes of individual male violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogerts, B; Möller-Leimkühler, A M

    2013-11-01

    Individual and collective acts of violence are mainly a male phenomenon caused by complex interactions of neurobiological and psychosocial factors. Amazingly this topic has not yet played a major role in the clinical psychiatric literature although the disastrous consequences are clearly visible everywhere and although aggression also belongs to the archaic human emotions, such as anxiety, depression and euphoria.The article gives an integrative overview on epidemiological, neurobiological, genetic, neuropathological, neurochemical/hormonal, developmental and psychosocial theories on aggression and violence, including sociocognitive models, hedonistic aspects of violence, effects of violence in the media and processes of childhood socialization.Better knowledge of the broad spectrum of these intensively interacting biological and psychosocial components resulting in violence not only improves our understanding of this calamitous psychosyndrome but can also lead to more effective preventive measures.

  1. Psychosocial Indicators in North African Immigrant Women in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Rinaldo, Natascia; Caccialupi, Maria Giovanna; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2017-03-03

    The present research evaluated the psychosocial health and quality of life of North African (NA) immigrant women living in Italy. A survey of 205 NA-born and Italian-born women was carried out. Psychosocial, sociodemographic and migration data were collected. Anthropometric indices were computed by direct measurements of height, weight, waist and hip circumferences. Multivariate analysis showed that the main explanatory variable for all dimensions of psychosocial status was the migrant status. Other explanatory variables were educational level and number of children for psychological discomfort, and weight status for well-being, quality of life and stress. Anthropometric indices were explanatory variables for quality of life. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence of higher psychological stress and discomfort and lower well-being and quality of life in immigrant women. Public social support is necessary to control, maintain and improve the mental health outcomes of immigrant communities in the host country.

  2. Application in Mexico of psychosocial rehabilitation with schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelo; Rascon, Maria Luisa; Juarez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo; Liberman, Robert Paul

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether evidence-based, psychosocial treatments developed in the United States and England are applicable to Mexican outpatients with schizophrenia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of family psycho-education and psychosocial skills training added to customary treatment vs. customary treatment alone. Clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 12-month randomized, controlled trial at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. An experimental group (N = 47) received the combination of psychosocial skills training, family psycho-education and customary pharmacotherapy while the comparison group (N = 36) received customary treatment alone. Patients were assessed at baseline and one year after commencement of treatment. Significant differences favoring the group that received psychosocial rehabilitation were found in ratings of adherence to medication, attendance at appointments, symptoms, social functioning, relapse, and re-hospitalization. While some adaptations were made in the psychosocial treatments to resolve cultural differences, the results provide cross-national validation of evidence-based treatments for persons with schizophrenia.

  3. Shaping of psycho-social independence in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Kazimiera; Lorencowicz, Regina; Rejszel, Elzbieta; Zajko, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of psycho-social independence among neurological patients. The study was conducted by means of the Neurological Patients' Psycho-Social Independence Scale developed by the author, and covered 120 patients--51 males and 69 females aged 21-72; unmarried--34 and married--86, with the level of education: elementary--33, secondary school--79 and university--8; who had cerebral stroke--67, multiple sclerosis--31, radicular syndrome--22. During the first stage of the study psycho-social independence remained primarily on the medium level with respect to the knowledge concerning life style, apart from the consumption of alcohol, strong tea and coffee, the patients showing a good knowledge of this problem prior to the implementation of the education programme. With respect to skills and the remaining psycho-social aspects (motivation, self-acceptance, social functioning, intellectual efficiency) the respondents represented primarily a very high or high level during the second study. Unfortunately, a considerable number of patients still showed a medium or low level. Population who represented a very high and high levels of psycho-social independence, increased by 25.0%.

  4. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  5. Improvement of Mixing Function for Modified Upwinding Compact Scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Fu, Huankun; Liu, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    The compact scheme has high order accuracy and high resolution, but cannot be used to capture the shock. WENO is a great scheme for shock capturing, but is too dissipative for turbulence and small length scales. We developed a modified upwinding compact scheme which uses an effective shock detector to block compact scheme to cross the shock and a control function to mix the flux with WENO scheme near the shock. The new scheme makes the original compact scheme able to capture the shock sharply and, more important, keep high order accuracy and high resolution in the smooth area, which is particularly important for shock boundary layer and shock acoustic interactions. This work is a continuation to modify the control function for the modified up-winding compact scheme (MUCS). Numerical results show the scheme is successful for 2-D Euler.

  6. Astym therapy improves function and range of motion following mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Davies CC; Brockopp D; Moe K

    2016-01-01

    Claire C Davies,1 Dorothy Brockopp,2 Krista Moe2 1Baptist Health Rehabilitation, 2Research Department, Baptist Health Lexington, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Hypersensitive scar tissue formation along the incision line and drain site is a common side effect following mastectomy. If this scar tissue is not addressed, it can lead to decreased flexibility and function in the involved upper quadrant. Astym® treatment is a new approach to soft tissue injuries, and is evidenced in animal s...

  7. Improved Likelihood Function in Particle-based IR Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Satria, R.; Sorensen, J.; Hammoud, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a log likelihood-ratio function of foreground and background models used in a particle filter to track the eye region in dark-bright pupil image sequences. This model fuses information from both dark and bright pupil images and their difference image into one model. Our...... performance in challenging sequences with test subjects showing large head movements and under significant light conditions....

  8. Oversampling ad converters with improved signal transfer functions

    CERN Document Server

    Pandita, Bupesh

    2011-01-01

    This book describes techniques for designing complex, discrete-time I""IGBP ADCs with signal-transfer functions that significantly filter interfering signals. The book provides an understanding of theory, issues, and implementation of discrete complex I""IGBP ADCs. The concepts developed in each chapter are further explained by applying them to a target application of I""IGBP ADCs in DTV receivers.

  9. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew; O'Donnell, Katie; Marmot, Michael; Wardle, Jane

    2008-05-01

    Positive affect is associated with longevity and favourable physiological function. We tested the hypothesis that positive affect is related to health-protective psychosocial characteristics independently of negative affect and socio-economic status. Both positive and negative affect were measured by aggregating momentary samples collected repeatedly over 1 day, and health-related psychosocial factors were assessed by questionnaire in a sample of 716 men and women aged 58-72 years. Positive affect was associated with greater social connectedness, emotional and practical support, optimism and adaptive coping responses, and lower depression, independently of age, gender, household income, paid employment, smoking status, and negative affect. Negative affect was independently associated with negative relationships, greater exposure to chronic stress, depressed mood, pessimism, and avoidant coping. Positive affect may be beneficial for health outcomes in part because it is a component of a profile of protective psychosocial characteristics.

  10. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated With Learning Disability Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M; Holland, Sara C; Kubas, Hanna A; Fitzer, Kim R; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A; Fraccaro, Rebecca L; Smith, Amanda D; Macoun, Sarah J; Harrison, Gina L; Hale, James B

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent comprehensive evaluations for learning and/or behavior problems in two Pacific Northwest school districts. Using concordance-discordance model (C-DM) processing strengths and weaknesses SLD identification criteria, results revealed working memory SLD (n = 20), processing speed SLD (n = 30), executive SLD (n = 32), and no disability groups (n = 41). Of the SLD subtypes, repeated measures MANOVA results revealed the processing speed SLD subtype exhibited the greatest psychosocial and adaptive impairment according to teacher behavior ratings. Findings suggest processing speed deficits may be behind the cognitive and psychosocial disturbances found in what has been termed "nonverbal" SLD. Limitations, implications, and future research needs are addressed.

  11. Psychosocial Intimacy and Identity: From Early Adolescence to Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Marilyn J.

    2005-01-01

    Age and gender differences in patterns of behavior and experience, cognitive beliefs, affective involvement, and psychosocial functioning in romantic relationships were observed in 473 adolescents and emerging adults (ages 12-24). Older adolescents indicated more dating experiences, times in love, passion, identity, and intimacy. They also…

  12. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  13. Community Trial of a Comprehensive Psychosocial Treatment for HFASDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopata, Christopher; Toomey, Jennifer A.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; McDonald, Christin A.; Fox, Jeffery D.; Smith, Rachael A.; Meichenbaum, David L.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Lipinski, Alanna M.

    2015-01-01

    This community effectiveness trial examined the feasibility and efficacy of a comprehensive psychosocial treatment for 28 children, aged 7 to 10 years with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASDs). Treatment included instruction and therapeutic activities targeting social skills, face-emotion recognition skills, interest expansion, and…

  14. A 2-year follow-up study of people with severe mental illness involved in psychosocial rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Petra; Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Jormfeldt, Henrika

    2014-08-01

    BACKGROUNDS. A focus on psychiatric rehabilitation in order to support recovery among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) has been given great attention in research and mental health policy, but less impact on clinical practice. Despite the potential impact of psychiatric rehabilitation on health and wellbeing, there is a lack of research regarding the model called the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Approach from Boston University (BPR). The aim was to investigate the outcome of the BPR intervention regarding changes in life situation, use of healthcare services, quality of life, health, psychosocial functioning and empowerment. The study has a prospective longitudinal design and the setting was seven mental health services who worked with the BPR in the county of Halland in Sweden. In total, 71 clients completed the assessment at baseline and of these 49 completed the 2-year follow-up assessments. The most significant finding was an improved psychosocial functioning at the follow-up assessment. Furthermore, 65% of the clients reported that they had mainly or almost completely achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals at the 2-year follow-up. There were significant differences with regard to health, empowerment, quality of life and psychosocial functioning for those who reported that they had mainly/completely had achieved their self-formulated rehabilitation goals compared to those who reported that they only had to a small extent or not at all reached their goals. Our results indicate that the BPR approach has impact on clients' health, empowerment, quality of life and in particular concerning psychosocial functioning.

  15. The potential of cover crops for improving soil function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoate, Chris; Crotty, Felicity

    2017-04-01

    Cover crops can be grown over the autumn and winter ensuring green cover throughout the year. They have been described as improving soil structure, reducing soil erosion and potentially even a form of grass weed control. These crops retain nutrients within the plant, potentially making them available for future crops, as well as increasing soil organic matter. Over the last three years, we have investigated how different cover crop regimes affect soil quality. Three separate experiments over each autumn/winter period have investigated how different cover crops affect soil biology, physics and chemistry, with each experiment building on the previous one. There have been significant effects of cover crops on soil structure, as well as significantly lower weed biomass and increased yields in the following crop - in comparison to bare stubble. For example, the effect of drilling the cover crops on soil structure in comparison to a bare stubble control that had not been driven on by machinery was quantified, and over the winter period the soil structure of the cover crop treatments changed, with compaction reduced in the cover crop treatments, whilst the bare stubble control remained unchanged. Weeds were found in significantly lower biomass in the cover crop mixes in comparison to the bare stubble control, and significantly lower weed biomass continued to be found in the following spring oat crop where the cover crops had been, indicating a weed suppressive effect that has a continued legacy in the following crop. The following spring oats have shown similar results in the last two years, with higher yields in the previous cover crop areas compared to the bare stubble controls. Overall, these results are indicating that cover crops have the potential to provide improvements to soil quality, reduce weeds and improve yields. We discuss the economic implications.

  16. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  17. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  18. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  19. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  20. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general popula

  1. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  2. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with acute cervical radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Conradie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an individual multi-dimensional experience, depending on contributions from the sensory, affective and cognitive dimensions. Only a few studies investigated the psychosocial factors associated with cervical radiculopathy (CR. These studies suggested that chronic CR affects functional abilities, emotional and cognitive states. This descriptive study determined (1 whether psychological factors were present, (2 the impact of pain on the ability to perform activities of daily living, and (3 the correlation between pain intensity, emotional state and functional abilities. The researcher, a physiotherapist, interviewed 21 subjects whose clinical diagnosis of acute CR made by a neurosurgeon [and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI], to determine the cognitive dimension. Three  standardized questionnaires, namely the Neck Disability Index (NDI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD Scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ long form were administrated to assess the pain intensity, emotional state, total pain experience and functional abilities. Central tendencies were determined by calculating the mean andmedian. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient test was performed to establish correlations between variables.Results suggested that radicular pain is not only a sensory experience since altered emotional and cognitive stateswere present, which frequently influenced functional abilities. Correlations existed between functional abilities, emotional state and total pain experience, as well as anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety than depression levels were found. Thoughts on beliefs and coping strategies were affected. We concluded that clinicians should also address the psychosocial factors and consider the functional impact of the disease, during the assessment and management of acute CR.

  4. IMPROVED BRAIN FUNCTION FROM MEDITATION FOLLOWING AN AWARENESS TRAINING PROGR AMME IN SPIRITUAL MEDICINE (ATPi SM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain

    2015-06-01

    Spiritual Medicine”. MATERIAL & METHODS: STUDY SUBJECTS : 40 medical students of either sex between the ages of 18 to 21 years studying in MBBS at the institute constituted study population. After explaining purpose of the study and getting their consent , all the volunteers underwent a battery of tests for psycho - motor , cognitive and psycho - social functions. All volunteers were instructed regarding meditation practice by an expert. They were asked to meditate daily for about 15 minutes in the morning and as well as in the evening for two months. Subsequently , volunteers were divided in to two groups of 20 each by random allocation as treatment (T and control (C groups. The treatment group also received additional information on spiritual medicine in the form ATPiSM at the start of the study. At the end of t wo months , all the test parameters were repeated for both the groups. Observations were recorded and results were analyzed. RESULTS: Compliance for meditation: Test group compliance for meditation was found to be in the range of 83 to 90% while control gro up compliance ranged between 48 to 90%. There was significant difference between pre and post interventional scores among test volunteers for psychomotor tests viz Visual reaction time (VRT , p<.002 , stopwatch - VRT (S - VRT , p<.005 and Critical Flicker Fusio n (CFF , <0.007. Significant differences were also noted between pre and post intervention scores among study volunteers in cognitive function tests. Computer based Memory Test (CMT , p<.001 , Digit Cancellation Test (DCT , p<.002 and Letter Substitution Te st (LST , p<0.05. There was significant improvement in psychosocial behavior for all three categories as evident from higher scores post intervention in Cognitive Failure (p<.005 , Anxiety Level (p<.05 and Self Esteem (p<.006. Control group also showed s ignificant difference between pre and post score for CCF (p<.05 , Cognitive Failure (p<.05 and Self Esteem (p<.01. CONCLUSIONS: ATPiSM act like a

  5. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  6. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Luis; Oliveira, Jose; Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Rebelo, Antonio; Brito, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods: Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22) and a control group (CG; n = 25). The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results: The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05). However, the FG performed better (P football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest. PMID:26448848

  7. Targeting Treatments to Improve Cognitive Function in Mood Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Rush, A. John; Gerds, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Learning Test (RAVLT) total recall with multiple logistic regression adjusted for diagnosis, age, gender, symptom severity, and education levels. RESULTS: We included 79 patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis of unipolar or bipolar disorder, of whom 39 received EPO and 40 received placebo (saline). For EPO......OBJECTIVE: There is no established efficacious treatment for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar and bipolar disorder. This may be partially due to lack of consensus regarding the need to screen for cognitive impairment in cognition trials or which screening criteria to use. We have demonstrated in 2...... randomized placebo-controlled trials that 8 weeks of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment has beneficial effects on verbal memory across unipolar and bipolar disorder, with 58% of EPO-treated patients displaying a clinically relevant memory improvement as compared to 15% of those treated with placebo. METHODS: We...

  8. Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diqiu LIU; Xianlong ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned and analyzed. On the other hand, identification of stress response genes expressed in cotton was performed by other research groups. The major stress factors were studied including the wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxy-sporum f. sp. vasinfectum, bacterial blight, root-knot nematode, drought, and salt stress. What is more, a few genes related to the biosynthesis of gossypol, other sesquiterpene phytoalexins and the major seed oil fatty acids were isolated from cotton. In the present review, we focused on the major advances in cotton gene cloning and expression profiling in the recent years.

  9. Improving Kepler Pipeline Sensitivity with Pixel Response Function Photometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert L.; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C

    2014-06-01

    We present the results of our investigation into the feasibility and expected benefits of implementing PRF-fitting photometry in the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. The Kepler Pixel Response Function (PRF) describes the expected system response to a point source at infinity and includes the effects of the optical point spread function, the CCD detector responsivity function, and spacecraft pointing jitter. Planet detection in the Kepler pipeline is currently based on simple aperture photometry (SAP), which is most effective when applied to uncrowded bright stars. Its effectiveness diminishes rapidly as target brightness decreases relative to the effects of noise sources such as detector electronics, background stars, and image motion. In contrast, PRF photometry is based on fitting an explicit model of image formation to the data and naturally accounts for image motion and contributions of background stars. The key to obtaining high-quality photometry from PRF fitting is a high-quality model of the system's PRF, while the key to efficiently processing the large number of Kepler targets is an accurate catalog and accurate mapping of celestial coordinates onto the focal plane. If the CCD coordinates of stellar centroids are known a priori then the problem of PRF fitting becomes linear. A model of the Kepler PRF was constructed at the time of spacecraft commissioning by fitting piecewise polynomial surfaces to data from dithered full frame images. While this model accurately captured the initial state of the system, the PRF has evolved dynamically since then and has been seen to deviate significantly from the initial (static) model. We construct a dynamic PRF model which is then used to recover photometry for all targets of interest. Both simulation tests and results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science

  10. Regular Football Practice Improves Autonomic Cardiac Function in Male Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the cardiovascular regulation is of primal importance. Since it has been associated with adverse conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, sudden death, sleep disorders, hypertension and obesity. Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the impact of recreational football practice on the autonomic cardiac function of male children, as measured by heart rate variability. Patients and Methods Forty-seven male children aged 9 - 12 years were selected according to their engagement with football oriented practice outside school context. The children were divided into a football group (FG; n = 22 and a control group (CG; n = 25. The FG had regular football practices, with 2 weekly training sessions and occasional weekend matches. The CG was not engaged with any physical activity other than complementary school-based physical education classes. Data from physical activity, physical fitness, and heart rate variability measured in time and frequency domains were obtained. Results The anthropometric and body composition characteristics were similar in both groups (P > 0.05. The groups were also similar in time spent daily on moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (FG vs. CG: 114 ± 64 vs. 87 ± 55 minutes; P > 0.05. However, the FG performed better (P < 0.05 in Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (1394 ± 558 vs. 778 ± 408 m and 15-m sprint test (3.06 ± 0.17 vs. 3.20 ± 0.23 s. Also, the FG presented enhanced autonomic function. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05 between groups for low frequency normalized units (38.0 ± 15.2 vs. 47.3 ± 14.2 n.u (normalized units, high frequency normalized units (62.1 ± 15.2 vs. 52.8 ± 14.2 n.u., and LF:HF ratio (0.7 ± 0.4 vs. 1.1 ± 0.6 ms2. Conclusions Children engaged with regular football practice presented enhanced physical fitness and autonomic function, by increasing vagal tone at rest.

  11. Improved SOFC performance with continuously graded anode functional layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Xu, Ping [Department of Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Naiqing; Sun, Kening [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Qiao, Jinshuo [Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Post-doctoral Research Center of Civil Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2009-06-15

    Continuously graded anode functional layers (CG-AFLs) were fabricated on the Ni-YSZ anode substrates by electrophoretic co-deposition (EPD) technique. The microstructure and composition of the CG-AFLs were investigated. The result showed that uniform and graded structure in AFL was obtained. The single cells were constructed on the basis of CG-AFLs, with a maximum output power density greater than 1.10 W cm{sup -2} obtained at 800 C for the cell with 9.8 {mu}m-thick CG-AFL. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicated that the excellent cell performance was contributed to the enlargement of triple phase boundary (TPB) by adding the CG-AFL. (author)

  12. Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

    In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

  13. Early intervention to improve hand function in hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Purna Basu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle: however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified constraint-induced movement therapy and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention.

  14. The influence of family management style on psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2015-04-01

    To examine the psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea and investigate whether such problems are influenced by family management style. Family members of 158 childhood cancer survivors answered a questionnaire on demographic and illness characteristics, described psychosocial problems in their children using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), and completed the Family Management Measure (FaMM). Perceived economic status and all six subscales of the FaMM were significantly correlated with children's psychosocial problems. In a multiple regression model, the Family Life Difficulty and Parental Mutuality scales of the FaMM were each independent predictors of psychosocial problems in young cancer survivors. A detailed care plan designed to (1) promote balance between the management of a child's condition and normal family life and (2) encourage parents to share their feelings with one another and provide mutual support should be required to improve psychosocial outcomes for childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Minor mental disorders in Taiwanese healthcare workers and the associations with psychosocial work conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ju Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Despite the fact that healthcare workers work longer hours and shift work, there were several modifiable psychosocial work conditions that should be targeted to improve their mental health.

  16. New Sports Nutritious Food for Health Improvement and Antioxidant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilei Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to explore the influence of new sports nutritious food (Hydrogen Water on exercise-induced oxidative stress injury and athletic ability of power organic skeletal muscle that is susceptible to oxidation attacks and in vivo basis and possible mechanism of hydrogen water in the process of selective oxidation. This study randomly divided 80 healthy male SD rats into 8 groups of quiet control group (EC, group A, exercise control group (EE, group B, hydrogen water injection before exercise group (EH, group C and joint hydrogen water injections before and after exercise group (EM, group D, with 10 rats in each group. The rest groups conducted adaptive low intensive treadmill running for 1 time every day before a week of the experiment except EC (group A. EH (group C conducted intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen water with 10 mL/kg before 1 min of exercise before formal experiment. EM (group D conducted intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen water immediately in 1 min before and after exercise. EE (group B conducted intraperitoneal injection with same volume normal saline. EE, EH and EM group conducted a one-time heavy intensive exhausted treadmill running by using Marra project. Group B, C, D conducted quantitative treadmill running, detected 3-NT, 8-OHdG value of skeletal muscle after 3 h of exercise in group A, B, C, D using Elisa method and measured MDA, SOD, GSH, T-AOC and level of O2-, H2O2 and •OH using chemical colorimetry. The results showed that hydrogen water can significantly prolong the duration of exercise to exhaustion of rats, which had significant anti-fatigue effect; and can significantly inhibit the aggravation of motility of O2-, H2O2 and •OH, remove in vivo cytotoxic substances •OH effectively, improve SOD and GSH, enhance T-AOC, improve minicirculation and reduce the damage of cells; joint hydrogen water injections before and after exercise had synergistic effect for the prevention and control of exercise

  17. Improved cellular uptake of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, A.; Serafini, S.; Menotta, M.; Sfara, C.; Pierigé, F.; Giorgi, L.; Ambrosi, G.; Rossi, L.; Magnani, M.

    2010-10-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) due to their unique structural and physicochemical properties, have been proposed as delivery systems for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, SWNTs have proven difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, limiting their use in biological applications. In an attempt to improve SWNTs' solubility, biocompatibility, and to increase cell penetration we have thoroughly investigated the construction of carbon scaffolds coated with aliphatic carbon chains and phospholipids to obtain micelle-like structures. At first, oxidized SWNTs (2370 ± 30 nmol mg - 1 of SWNTs) were covalently coupled with an alcoholic chain (stearyl alcohol, C18H37OH; 816 nmol mg - 1 of SWNTs). Subsequently, SWNTs-COOC18H37 derivatives were coated with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or -serine (PS) phospholipids obtaining micelle-like structures. We found that cellular uptake of these constructs by phagocytic cells occurs via an endocytotic mechanism for constructs larger than 400 nm while occurs via diffusion through the cell membrane for constructs up to 400 nm. The material that enters the cell by phagocytosis is actively internalized by macrophages and localizes inside endocytotic vesicles. In contrast the material that enters the cells by diffusion is found in the cell cytosol. In conclusion, we have realized new biomimetic constructs based on alkylated SWNTs coated with phospholipids that are efficiently internalized by different cell types only if their size is lower than 400 nm. These constructs are not toxic to the cells and could now be explored as delivery systems for non-permeant cargoes.

  18. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  19. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  20. [Psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, L; Müller-Kalthoff, T

    2002-10-01

    This article analyses drug-related deaths in the German Federal States of Bavaria (Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg counties) during 1999 and Baden-Wurttemberg (Stuttgart and Mannheim counties) during 1999 and in the first half of 2000. The persons who had been in contact with drug care services were studied for psychosocial stress preceding drug-related deaths. Epidemiological data from different sources (police, relatives, counselling centres, detoxification clinics, therapy and substitution treatment) were collated to estimate factors of psychosocial stress preceding drug deaths. The results in both Laender indicate high prevalence rates of a history of at least one non-fatal overdose (approx. 50%) or a suicide attempt (approx. 35%). More than 40% of the deceased had been suffering from at least one additional mental disorder, in most cases from depression. At least one critical life event (in most cases, a relapse) or a period of abstinence (i.e., due to imprisonment, therapy or detoxification) during the past three months before death was reported for more than half of the addicts. The results were discussed in the light of data on opiate users and the general population. Improved specialist training of therapeutic and medical workers as well as of any other co-operating professionals is considered a necessary prerequisite for an early detection of risk factors.

  1. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity, f

  2. Physical activity and enhanced fitness to improve cognitive function in older people without known cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angevaren, Maaike; Aufdemkampe, Geert; Verhaar, H. J. J.; Aleman, A.; Vanhees, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical activity is beneficial for healthy ageing. It may also help maintain good cognitive function in older age. Aerobic activity improves cardiovascular fitness, but it is not known whether this sort of fitness is necessary for improved cognitive function. Studies in which activity,

  3. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  4. Improved cellular uptake of functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, A; Serafini, S; Menotta, M; Sfara, C; Pierige, F; Rossi, L; Magnani, M [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Via Saffi 2, 61029 Urbino (Italy); Giorgi, L; Ambrosi, G, E-mail: antonella.antonelli@uniurb.it, E-mail: sonja.serafini@erydel.com, E-mail: michele.menotta@uniurb.it, E-mail: carla.sfara@uniurb.it, E-mail: francesca.pierige@uniurb.it, E-mail: luca.giorgi@uniurb.it, E-mail: gianluca.ambrosi@uniurb.it, E-mail: luigia.rossi@uniurb.it, E-mail: mauro.magnani@uniurb.it [Department of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , Via S Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino (Italy)

    2010-10-22

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) due to their unique structural and physicochemical properties, have been proposed as delivery systems for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents. However, SWNTs have proven difficult to solubilize in aqueous solution, limiting their use in biological applications. In an attempt to improve SWNTs' solubility, biocompatibility, and to increase cell penetration we have thoroughly investigated the construction of carbon scaffolds coated with aliphatic carbon chains and phospholipids to obtain micelle-like structures. At first, oxidized SWNTs (2370 {+-} 30 nmol mg{sup -1} of SWNTs) were covalently coupled with an alcoholic chain (stearyl alcohol, C{sub 18}H{sub 37}OH; 816 nmol mg{sup -1} of SWNTs). Subsequently, SWNTs-COOC{sub 18}H{sub 37} derivatives were coated with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or -serine (PS) phospholipids obtaining micelle-like structures. We found that cellular uptake of these constructs by phagocytic cells occurs via an endocytotic mechanism for constructs larger than 400 nm while occurs via diffusion through the cell membrane for constructs up to 400 nm. The material that enters the cell by phagocytosis is actively internalized by macrophages and localizes inside endocytotic vesicles. In contrast the material that enters the cells by diffusion is found in the cell cytosol. In conclusion, we have realized new biomimetic constructs based on alkylated SWNTs coated with phospholipids that are efficiently internalized by different cell types only if their size is lower than 400 nm. These constructs are not toxic to the cells and could now be explored as delivery systems for non-permeant cargoes.

  5. Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

  6. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  7. Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Colm

    2011-05-23

    Abstract Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens.

  8. Matrigel improves functional properties of primary human salivary gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Ola M; Zeitouni, Anthony; Gologan, Olga; Tran, Simon D

    2011-05-01

    Currently, there is no effective treatment available to patients with irreversible loss of functional salivary acini caused by Sjogren's syndrome or after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. A tissue-engineered artificial salivary gland would help these patients. The graft cells for this device must establish tight junctions in addition to being of fluid-secretory nature. This study analyzed a graft source from human salivary glands (huSG) cultured on Matrigel. Cells were obtained from parotid and submandibular glands, expanded in vitro, and then plated on either Matrigel-coated (2 mg/mL) or uncoated culture dish. Immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and transepithelial electrical resistance were employed. On Matrigel, huSG cells adopted an acinar phenotype by forming three-dimensional acinar-like units (within 24 h of plating) as well as a monolayer of cells. On uncoated surfaces (plastic), huSG cells only formed monolayers of ductal cells. Both types of culture conditions allowed huSG cells to express tight junction proteins (claudin-1, -2, -3, -4; occludin; JAM-A; and ZO-1) and adequate transepithelial electrical resistance. Importantly, 99% of huSG cells on Matrigel expressed α-amylase and the water channel protein Aquaporin-5, as compared to cells on plastic. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed an acinar phenotype with many secretory granules. Matrigel increased the secretion of α-amylase two to five folds into the media, downregulated certain salivary genes, and regulated the translation of acinar proteins. This three-dimensional in vitro serum-free cell culture method allows the organization and differentiation of huSG cells into salivary cells with an acinar phenotype.

  9. [Psychosocial Interventions in Acute and Maintenance Treatment of Adult Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahunca Velásquez, Luisa Fernanda; García Valencia, Jenny; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Palacio Acosta, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the psychosocial strategies designed to improve the outcomes in adults with schizophrenia in both, acute and stable phase of the disorder. This evidence is used to propose recommendation in the guidelines of integral attention for the diagnosis, treatment and psychosocial rehabilitation of adults with schizophrenia. A guideline for clinical practice was developed using the methodological framework of the Ministerio de la Protección Social to collect evidence and grading recommendations. A search, evaluation and synthesis of evidence were carried out. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The psychoeducation and family intervention showed higher efficacy, compared with the usual treatment, to prevent relapses and hospital readmissions, to reduce family burden and to improve adherence to treatment. The social skill training was effective to improve symptoms, social functioning and quality of life. However, the quality of evidence was low. There was not enough evidence about the efficacy of occupational therapy, but considering patients preferences and its wide clinical utilization, the GDG suggested its inclusion. Psychoeducation, family intervention and social skill training are recommended to be offered for the treatment of schizophrenia. Furthermore, occupational therapy is suggested for inpatients and outpatients with the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  11. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs; psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety.Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, emotion-focused therapy (EFT, comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS, FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT, telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C, problem-solving intervention (COPE.Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers.

  12. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). DESIGN: A one-year follow-up study. SETTING: A CR programme (Go......%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention.......01), self-care management (p 

  13. Principles of brain plasticity in improving sensorimotor function of the knee and leg in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ageberg, Eva; Bjorkman, Anders; Rosen, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    in sensorimotor function often persists despite training. Therefore, it was suggested that training programs need to be more effective to improve sensorimotor function after knee injury. The aim of the current study was to investigate if principles of brain plasticity that have been successfully used on the hand......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Principles of brain plasticity are used in the treatment of patients with functional limitations to improve sensorimotor function. Training is included in the treatment of knee injury to improve both patient-reported function and sensorimotor function. However, impairment...... group. There were no differences between the groups due to treatment effect (EMLA vs. placebo). CONCLUSION: We found no effect of temporary cutaneous anesthesia on sensorimotor function of the ipsilateral knee and leg in uninjured subjects. The principles used in this study remain to be tested...

  14. Improved Learning Performance of Hardware Self-Organizing Map Using a Novel Neighborhood Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikawa, Hiroomi; Maeda, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    Many self-organizing maps (SOMs) implemented on hardware restrict their neighborhood function values to negative powers of two. In this paper, we propose a novel hardware friendly neighborhood function that is aimed to improve the vector quantization performance of hardware SOM. The quantization performance of the hardware SOM with the proposed neighborhood function is examined by simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed function can improve the hardware SOM's vector quantization capability even though the function value is restricted to negative powers of two. Then, the hardware SOM is implemented on field-programmable gate array to find out the hardware cost and performance speed of the proposed neighborhood function. Experimental results show that the proposed neighborhood function can improve SOM's quantization performance without additional hardware cost or slowing down the operating speed. Due to fully parallel operation, the proposed SOM with 16×16 neurons achieves a performance of 25 344 million connections updates per second.

  15. The relationship between psychosocial variables and pain reporting in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, P; Hochberg, M C

    1998-02-01

    Psychosocial factors may explain some of the variation in pain reporting among individuals with knee OA. This has important potential implications for management; indeed, several studies (reviewed in ref. 56) have demonstrated that interventions may reduce knee pain without apparent halting or reversing of structural damage. Such interventions have included the simple provision of support by monthly telephone calls (57), self-management programs (58), and cognitive-behavioral approaches designed to teach patients ways of coping with their pain (59). These programs are even more effective if the spouse is involved (60). It should be noted that there may be a large placebo effect in these interventions, and the degree to which patients are responding simply to an interest being taken in them and their problems is unclear; at least one study has shown that formal cognitive-behavioral therapy is no better than didactic education at improving pain and function in knee OA (though both are beneficial) (61). Many studies examining the role of psychosocial factors have suffered from poor design; many, for example, fail to control for radiographic severity. Future studies should define how pain is identified (dichotomous, ever/never/current, severity), differentiate community and hospital subjects, and separate patients by type and location of OA. Studies should also control for other factors potentially associated with pain: obesity, comorbidity, muscle weakness, and aerobic fitness. Prospective studies would allow clarification of the cause and effect relationship between anxiety, depression, and pain, both in the community and in patients who have elected to seek medical help. In this way, we may increase our understanding of the complex interaction between mood, social factors, and pain reporting in knee OA and, thus, improve the effectiveness, already equivalent to many pharmacologic interventions, of treatments designed to address psychosocial factors.

  16. The impact of comorbid depression on recovery from personality disorders and improvements in psychosocial functioning: Results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renner, F.; Bamelis, L.L.M.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Speckens, A.; Arntz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive disorders often co-occur with personality disorders. The extent to which depressive disorders influence treatment outcome in personality disorders remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of co-morbid depression on recovery from personality disorders and improvem

  17. Group psychosocial interventions for adults with schizophrenia and bipolar illness: the evidence base in the light of publications between 1986 and 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segredou, I; Xenitidis, K; Panagiotopoulou, M; Bochtsou, V; Antoniadou, O; Livaditis, M

    2012-05-01

    The treatment of major mental disorders usually combines medical and psychosocial interventions. The present study reviews research pertaining to the efficacy of group psychosocial interventions for people with psychotic illness. An electronic search was conducted through Medline and PsychINFO to identify articles relevant to group therapy for people with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. Articles published in the English language, between January 1986 and May 2006, were considered. Studies were included if they had a control group and at least 20 participants. The search resulted in 23 articles concerning patients with schizophrenia and five concerning patients with bipolar affective disorder. The therapeutic approach in the majority of the studies was along the lines of cognitive behaviour therapy and psychoeducation. All studies reported improvement in at least one parameter. Most of them report improvement in skills and overall functioning.

  18. A Psychosocial Approach to Understanding Underground Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun H. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available With a growing need for usable land in urban areas, subterranean development has been gaining attention. While construction of large underground complexes is not a new concept, our understanding of various socio-cultural aspects of staying underground is still at a premature stage. With projected emergence of underground built environments, future populations may spend much more of their working, transit, and recreational time in underground spaces. Therefore, it is essential to understand the challenges and advantages that such environments have to improve the future welfare of users of underground spaces. The current paper discusses various psycho-social aspects of underground spaces, the impact they can have on the culture shared among the occupants, and possible solutions to overcome some of these challenges.