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Sample records for psychosocial factors impact

  1. How to Identify and Prioritize Psychosocial Factors Impacting Stress Level.

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    Mounia N Hocine

    Full Text Available We develop a methodological approach to identify and prioritize psychosocial factors (stressors requiring priority action to reduce stress levels. Data analysis was carried out on a random sample of 10 000 French employees who completed, during a routine interview with the occupational physician, a 25-item questionnaire about stress levels, as well as a questionnaire about 58 stressors grouped into 5 latent variables: job control, job context, relationships at work, tasks performed and recognition. Our method combines Importance-Performance Analysis, a valuable approach for prioritizing improvements in the quality of services, with Partial Least Squares-Path modeling, a Structural Equation Modeling approach widely applied in psychosocial research. Findings on our data suggest two areas worthy of attention: one with five stressors on which decision makers should concentrate, and another with five stressors that managers should leave alone when acting to reduce stress levels. We show that IPA is robust when answers to questions are dichotomized, as opposed to the initial 6-point Likert scale. We believe that our approach will be a useful tool for experts and decision-makers in the field of stress management and prevention.

  2. Childhood circumstances, psychosocial factors and the social impact of adult oral health.

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    Sanders, Anne E; Spencer, A John

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether childhood familial conditions are associated with the social impact of adult oral health and to investigate the role of psychosocial attributes as potential mechanisms by which risk might be conveyed from childhood to adulthood. Using a cross-sectional design, self-report data were obtained from a representative sample of adults in Australia with a telephonic interview and a self-completed questionnaire. The dependent variable was the sum of impacts on the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Childhood familial conditions included socioeconomic position assessed by paternal occupation group, family structure and quality of rearing. Current adult sense of control, perceived stress and satisfaction with life were assessed with standard scales and social support was evaluated with four items. Data were obtained for 3678 dentate adults aged 18-91 years. In bivariate analysis controlling for sex, age and household income in adulthood, parenting style was significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (anova, P parental rearing style was significantly associated with social impact after adjusting for sex, age and household income in adulthood, but was no longer significant in the presence of the psychosocial factors. The importance of parental rearing to adult oral health may be mediated through the quality and nature of psychosocial attributes.

  3. Impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort

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    Anthony C. Ugwu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysterosalpingography (HSG is an important diagnostic procedure in the investigation of infertility. It is the radiographic delineation of uterine and tubal cavities and is part of the diagnostic evaluation of conjugal infertility. This diagnostic procedure is associated with high levels of anxiety, pain and stress from various causes. This study was designed to investigate the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on HSG pain and discomfort.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the impact of demographic and psychosocial factors on hysterosalpingography pain and discomfort.Method: One hundred hysterosalpingography referrals were recruited for this study. Verbal detector scales were used to assess pain perception, Likert scales were used to assess the psychosocial variables, while visual analogue scales were used to assess discomfort. Pearson’s correlations were conducted. Tests were two-tailed, with p < 0.05 indicating statistical signifcance.Results: Some of the patients (34% indicated that the administration of analgesics prior to the procedure reduced the pain and discomfort associated with the procedure. Mean ± standard deviation of pain and discomfort were 2.82 ± 0.77 and 6.36 ± 2.19 respectively. Age correlated signifcantly with pain perception (r = -0.22, P < 0.05, while pain correlated signifcantly with perception of discomfort (r = -0.46, P < 0.05.Conclusion: Age signifcantly correlated with pain. This is a factor that could be harnessed for clinical use.

  4. Psychosocial factors impacting on life transitions among young adults with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Vibeke; Rasmussen, B; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevalence is increasing rapidly worldwide with a significant increase in young adults. There is limited information about psychosocial and service needs of this group. AIM: To explore similarities and differences in how psychosocial factors impact on Australian....... FINDINGS: Eligible participants were from Australia (12) and Denmark (14), aged 19-42 years who had T2DM for more than 10 months. In general, they reported diabetes management was difficult during transitions and diabetes self-care routines had to change to accommodate life changes. The underpinning sense......, and the need for flexible access to health professionals, age-specific tailored support and lower costs for Australians. Australian participants were more concerned than Danish participants about the cost associated with diabetes care and their ability to stay employed; hence, they were reluctant to disclose...

  5. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

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    Withaya Chanchai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2 Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3 Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4 Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%. The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5 Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment.

  6. The Impact of an Ergonomics Intervention on Psychosocial Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Thai Hospital Orderlies

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    Chanchai, Withaya; Songkham, Wanpen; Ketsomporn, Pranom; Sappakitchanchai, Punnarat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Musculoskeletal disorders have a multifactorial etiology that is not only associated with physical risk factors, but also psychosocial risk factors; (2) Objective: This study evaluated the effects of an ergonomic intervention on musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors; (3) Material and Methods: This study took a participatory ergonomic (PE) approach with a randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at tertiary care hospitals during July to December 2014. A group of hospital orderlies in Thailand were randomly selected for examination. Fifty orderlies were placed in a case group and another 50 orderlies were placed in the control group. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) were used for data collection before and after the intervention program; (4) Results: The most commonly reported problem among hospital orderlies was found to be lower back symptoms (82%). The study found significant differences in prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal conditions in the arm, upper back, and lower back regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial risk factors were affected by the intervention. COPSOQ psychosocial risk factors were significantly different pre/post intervention. These variables included: work pace, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, rewards, role conflicts, and social support from supervisors. No other psychosocial risk factors were found to be significant; (5) Conclusions: Positive results were observed following the intervention in the work environment, particularly in terms of reducing physical work environment risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders and increasing promotion factors of the psychosocial work environment. PMID:27153076

  7. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

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    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  8. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

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    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  9. Prevalence of lower back pain and physical inactivity: the impact of psychosocial factors in pregnant women served by the Family Health Strategy

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    Wilma Ferreira Guedes Rodrigues

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study analyzed the impact of psychosocial factors on pregnant women with lower back pain and an associated lack of physical activity prior to pregnancy. Methods: The sample included 66 pregnant women who were randomly selected from a total of 84 patients in the waiting rooms of the Family Health Units in Cuitegí, Paraíba, from September to November 2009. An epidemiological questionnaire adapted from the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale was used for data collection. The questions about back pain, physical activity, and psychosocial factors were emphasized. SPSS 16.0 was used for the data analysis. The prevalence of lower back pain and its relationship to gestational age, habitual physical activity, and psychosocial factors were studied using the descriptive statistics and relative percentages in the SPSS Crosstabs procedure. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for lower back pain were calculated. Results: The prevalence of lower back pain was 75%, which suggests that psychosocial factors were related to the presence of pain. Anxiety was reported in 42.8% of the women with lower back pain, and 38.7% of the women with lower back pain experienced physical fatigue at the end of the day. A higher percentage of pain (53% was noted in the women who did not exercise prior to pregnancy. Conclusion: Lower back pain prior to pregnancy is associated with lack of physical activity and with psychosocial factors in the Family Health Strategy patients of Cuitegí county.

  10. A Pilot Study about Recurrence of Cancer: Impact ofPsychosocial Factors on Patients' Adjustment

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    Yenkamala Mina Ananda

    2014-01-01

    The need to prevent cancer leads the authors to propose three innovative courses of cancer as categories of disease. Theobjectives of the research are to study the impact of different factors on adaptation to the recurrence of cancer and to assess the qualityof life, the anxiety as a state and the depression as a state and the evolution of the disease on a period of three months. During thislongitudinal and prospective study, the author met 32 subjects after announcing the recurrence of their cancer, and saw again 21 of them,three months later. In two times of the study, the author made fill out several questionnaires concerning various variables. The mainresults allow showing that the majority of the subjects did not present new recurrence of cancer and that the use of the Fighting spiritstrategy is representative of them. The author's linear regressions and the author's comparisons of averages allowed the authors severalrelations about to different categories of disease. Supporting therapies and management programs for stress would be beneficial for thepatients who have recurrence of their cancer.

  11. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

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    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  12. The Impact of Perceived College Students and Psychosocial Factors on Missed Class and Work in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jenifer J.; Borrayo, Evelinn A.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of how missed class and work are influenced by psychosocial factors is important. The authors collected data from 303 college students through self-report questionnaires. Moderation analysis indicated that with higher perceived stress, students were more likely to miss class if they were less satisfied with social support and less…

  13. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

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    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  14. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia;

    2017-01-01

    Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight...... with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained...... association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. Results: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases...

  15. The impact of childhood bullying among HIV-positive men: psychosocial correlates and risk factors.

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    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-04-01

    While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants' exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (pbullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive populations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of the clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education on exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in healthy women.

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    Küçük, Fadime; Livanelioglu, Ayşe

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] Exercise is one of the most important components of a healthy life. The purpose of this study was to analyze exercise beliefs and psychosocial factors in sedentary and active healthy women and observe the changes in these parameters resulting from clinical Pilates exercises and verbal education in healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-six healthy women were included in the study. Participants were divided into clinical Pilates (n=21), verbal education (n=25), and control groups (n=20). Prior to and at the end of the study, demographic information, body mass index, waist-hip circumference, exercise beliefs, physical activity index, and psychosocial factors (Rosenberg self-esteem scale, Body Cathexis Index, SF-36 quality of life, Beck Depression Scale, visual analog scale for tiredness) of the subjects were recorded. [Results] Meaningful changes for all the parameters took place in the clinical Pilates and verbal education groups. Our analyses indicated that the changes in the clinical Pilates group were more meaningful than those in the verbal education group. When the data of the study groups were compared with those of the control group, the clinical Pilates group showed meaningful differences. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicate that both clinical Pilates and verbal education are effective in changing exercise beliefs and physical and psychosocial parameters.

  17. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

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    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions.

  18. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  19. The Impact of Familial, Behavioural and Psychosocial Factors on the SES Gradient for Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, Karin; Gwozdz, Wencke; Pischke, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained......Background: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight...... by their combined effect. Most influential of the investigated risk factors were feeding/eating practices, parental body mass index, physical activity behaviour and proportion of sedentary activity. Conclusion: Prevention strategies for childhood overweight should focus on actual behaviours, whereas acknowledging...

  20. [Psychosocial factors in duodenal ulcer].

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    de la Gándara Martín, J J; de Dios Francos, A; de Diego Herrero, E; Goñi Labat, A I; Hernández Herrero, H; Pozo de Castro, J V

    1994-01-01

    "Burn-out" is a kind of assistential laboral stress which affects the professions which involve an interpersonal relationship with beneficiaries of the job, such us health workers. It originates emotional alterations which lead to feelings of emptiness and personal failure or laboral inability. The revisions about studies of mental disorders in health workers fall upon such laboral stress and remark that in such professional people there is a bigger prevalence of disorders because of the use of substances and of depression. To analyse the mental disorders in health workers by means of the retrospective study of a sample in a general hospital which asked for a psychiatric consultation, sociodemographic variables, clinico-diagnostic and variables related to laboral activity were analysed. The sample is constituted by 112 patients of an average age of forty years old and preferentially females (79.5%). In the sample, some professions are represented above all expectations; they are nurses, physicians, the laboral category of "boss and managers" and the laboral regimen of "permanents". The more frequent psychiatric disorders were the adjustment disorders and code V, the affective disorders and the anxiety disorders (23-33%), the disorders caused by the use of substances and the psychotic disorders are limited (5%). The laboral activity was considered an important factor in 43% of the cases and the mental disorder caused laboral inability, transitory or permanent in half of the patients. It is detected a relationship between the diagnostic and variables such as sex, laboral category, laboral inability, psychosocial stress level and GAF and there hasn't been detected any association between mental disorders and age, profession, laboral regimen and laboral stress.

  1. Quality of life among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors: the impact of child characteristics and parental psychosocial factors.

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    Litzelman, Kristin; Catrine, Kris; Gangnon, Ronald; Witt, Whitney P

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the impact of childhood cancer on the family is increasingly important. This study aimed to (1) examine the relationship between child clinical characteristics and health-related quality of life (QOL) among parents of children with cancer or brain tumors, and (2) determine how parental psychosocial factors impact this relationship. Using a within-group approach, this study examined 75 children with cancer or brain tumors and their parent. In-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessed sociodemographics, psychosocial factors, and QOL. Child clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record abstraction. Regressions were performed to determine factors related to parental QOL. Children's activity limitation and active treatment status were associated with worse parental mental QOL (5.4 and 4.4 points lower, respectively; P characteristics to the model eliminated the relationship between child clinical characteristics and parental mental QOL (P > 0.05 for all child characteristics). While child clinical characteristics appear to be related to poor parental QOL, this relationship was mediated by caregiver burden and stress. Interventions to reduce burden and stress may mitigate the deleterious effects of caregiving. Systematic screening of parents' mental and physical health may facilitate interventions and improve the health and well-being of parents and children.

  2. Psychosocial factors associated with acute cervical radiculopathy

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    M. Conradie

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain is an individual multi-dimensional experience, depending on contributions from the sensory, affective and cognitive dimensions. Only a few studies investigated the psychosocial factors associated with cervical radiculopathy (CR. These studies suggested that chronic CR affects functional abilities, emotional and cognitive states. This descriptive study determined (1 whether psychological factors were present, (2 the impact of pain on the ability to perform activities of daily living, and (3 the correlation between pain intensity, emotional state and functional abilities. The researcher, a physiotherapist, interviewed 21 subjects whose clinical diagnosis of acute CR made by a neurosurgeon [and confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI], to determine the cognitive dimension. Three  standardized questionnaires, namely the Neck Disability Index (NDI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD Scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ long form were administrated to assess the pain intensity, emotional state, total pain experience and functional abilities. Central tendencies were determined by calculating the mean andmedian. The Spearman rank order correlation coefficient test was performed to establish correlations between variables.Results suggested that radicular pain is not only a sensory experience since altered emotional and cognitive stateswere present, which frequently influenced functional abilities. Correlations existed between functional abilities, emotional state and total pain experience, as well as anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety than depression levels were found. Thoughts on beliefs and coping strategies were affected. We concluded that clinicians should also address the psychosocial factors and consider the functional impact of the disease, during the assessment and management of acute CR.

  3. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

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    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    of physical activity on academic achievement and other factors beyond physical health; barriers of not having enough time and having too many assignments perceived to hinder frequent physical activity; and parental approval. More rigorous research on psychosocial determinants with close-ended items developed from these open-ended data and with larger sample sizes of students is necessary. Research with parents and school staff will be needed to understand the perceptions of these stakeholder groups key to creating the students' social environment.

  4. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Neirita Hazarika; M Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January...

  5. Psychosocial impact of hidradenitis suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmann, S.; Jemec, G.B.E.

    2011-01-01

    , especially in relation to smell and appearance, various emotional reactions, and feelings of lack of control. It was found that hidra-denitis suppurativa has a great emotional impact on patients and promotes isolation due to fear of stigmati-zation. Shame and irritation are frequent and relate to smell......, scars, itching and pain. Quality of life is adversely affected and professional support is needed.© 2011 The Authors....

  6. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

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    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Nguyen,1 Kourosh Beroukhim,2 Melissa J Danesh,3 Aline Babikian,4 John Koo,3 Argentina Leon3 1University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, 2David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, 3Department of Dermatology, University of California San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, 4Touro University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA Introduction: Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient's quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual's thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists' treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods: A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results: According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo

  7. Psychosocial work environment factors and weight change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial...... factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. METHODS: A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses...... predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. CONCLUSION: This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models....

  8. Psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

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    Harrison, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Although a rare occurrence, cancer is sometimes diagnosed during or shortly after pregnancy. This article reviews two recent studies that specifically examine the psychosocial impact of a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy. Researchers have identified risk factors that may exacerbate women's anxiety, stress or distress during these co-occurring events. Nurses are in a unique position to support women dealing with a cancer diagnosis during pregnancy.

  9. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Danesh, Melissa J; Babikian, Aline; Koo, John; Leon, Argentina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic skin conditions have been well reported to affect a patient’s quality of life on multiple dimensions, including the psychosocial domain. Psychosocial is defined as the interrelation of social factors with an individual’s thoughts and behavior. The assessment of the psychosocial impact of skin disease on a patient can help direct the dermatologists’ treatment goals. To evaluate the psychosocial impact of skin disease, we conducted a review of the literature on three skin conditions with onsets at various stages of life: acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Methods A PubMed search was conducted in March 2015 using the terms “psychosocial” AND “acne”, “psychosocial” AND “vitiligo”, and “psychosocial” AND “psoriasis”. The results were limited to articles published in English in the past 5 years studying patients of all ages. Results and their references were evaluated for relevance according to their discussion of psychosocial qualities in their patients and the validity of psychosocial assessments. The search for acne yielded 51 results, and eleven were found to be relevant; vitiligo yielded 30 results with ten found to be relevant; and psoriasis yielded 70 results with seven found to be relevant. Results According to the articles evaluated, 19.2% of adolescent patients with acne were affected in their personal and social lives. Social phobia was present in 45% of patients with acne compared to 18% of control subjects. Race and sex played a role in self-consciousness and social perceptions of the disease. Vitiligo negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase

  10. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  11. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  12. Psychosocial Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among Omani Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Azri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore different psychosocial impacts on Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer.  Methods: Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer to describe the impact of the disease on their personal and social life. Women were recruited from wards and out-patient clinics at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat.  Results: Four main themes emerged. These were: a factors related to psychological distress of the disease and uncertainty (worry of death, interference with work and family responsibilities, searching for hope/cure, travelling overseas; b reactions of family members (shocked, saddened, unity, pressure to seek traditional treatments; c views of society (sympathy, isolation, reluctant to disclose information; and d worries and threats about the future (side effects of chemotherapy, spread of the disease, effect on offspring.  Conclusion: Breast cancer diagnosis has several devastating psychosocial impacts on women in Oman. Healthcare professionals working with women with breast cancer should be aware of the different psychosocial impacts of the disease on women’s lives. Appropriate measures must be taken by the decision makers whenever needed, including enforcing positive views and support of Oman’s society towards women with breast cancer.

  13. Family Structure, Psychosocial Factors, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the NHLBI CARDIA Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    24) found that for men, having preschool aged children negatively impacted health while having a preschool aged child had protective functions for...2   Psychosocial Factors in the Development of CAD and...177 billion in 2011 (1). Therefore, the study of the contributing factors involved in the development of CAD may ultimately lead to development of

  14. Postnatal depression - an examination of psychosocial factors | Mills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postnatal depression - an examination of psychosocial factors. ... South African Medical Journal ... pregnancy, complications after birth, marital relations, relationship with their own mothers, social support and preparation for motherhood.

  15. The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neirita Hazarika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI questionnaire. Results: Females (56%, 15–20 year olds (61%, facial lesions (60%, and Grade II acne (70% were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10 interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05 found were as follows: Physical symptoms with grade of acne; embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment.

  16. The Psychosocial Impact of Acne Vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Neirita; Archana, M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acne vulgaris causes erythematous papulopustular lesions in active stage and often leave behind residual scarring and pigmentation. Its onset in adolescence may add to the emotional and psychological challenges experienced during this period. Aims: To assess the impact of acne on the various psychosocial domains of daily life. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study done in the dermatology out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital from January to March 2015. A total of 100 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients of acne vulgaris, aged 15 years and above were included in this study. The relationship between acne vulgaris and its sequelae was analyzed with ten different domains of daily life by using dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Females (56%), 15–20 year olds (61%), facial lesions (60%), and Grade II acne (70%) were most common. Acne scars were noted in 75% patients, whereas 79% cases had post-acne hyperpigmentation. Thirty-seven percent patients had DLQI scores of (6–10) interpreted as moderate effect on patient's life. Statistically significant correlation (P embarrassment with site and grade of acne; daily activities with grade of acne and post-acne pigmentation; choice of clothes with site of acne; social activities with gender, site and grade of acne; effect on work/study with grade of acne; interpersonal problems with site and post-acne pigmentation; sexual difficulties with grade of acne. Limitation: It was a hospital-based study with small sample size. Conclusion: Significant impact of acne and its sequelae was noted on emotions, daily activities, social activities, study/work, and interpersonal relationships. Assurance and counseling along with early treatment of acne vulgaris is important to reduce disease-related psychosocial sequelae and increase the efficacy of treatment. PMID:27688440

  17. Psychosocial factors and functional capacity evaluation among persons with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisser, Michael E; Robinson, Michael E; Miller, Quaintance L; Bade, Suzanne M

    2003-12-01

    Psychosocial factors have been found to have a significant impact on functional activity, particularly among persons with chronic pain. While various systems have been developed to assess functional limitations through functional capacity evaluation (FCE), assessment of psychosocial factors that may impact function have been largely ignored. This paper examines the existing literature on psychosocial factors and FCE performance. Given that there are few studies that have directly addressed this issue, the paper also examines psychosocial factors that have been found to influence function in persons with pain. The results of the literature review indicate that few psychosocial factors have been found to be directly associated with FCE and functional measures, although many are related to various measures of disability. The strongest evidence that psychosocial factors are related to functional performance is based on the studies examining the association between functional activity and pain-related fear, self-efficacy, and illness behavior. Psychosocial factors have also been shown to influence measures of sincerity of effort often obtained during FCE. Proposals for modifying FCE assessment are given based on the available data, as well as suggestions for future research.

  18. Influence of psychosocial factors on postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer L; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Lissner, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    For some women, pregnancy may increase the risk of future obesity with consequences for health and well-being. Psychosocial factors may be partly responsible for this. The aim of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial factors during pregnancy and postpartum weight retention...

  19. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

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    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  20. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  1. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  2. Epilepsy characteristics and psychosocial factors associated with ketogenic diet success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Nancy A; Carbone, Loretta A; Shellhaas, Renée A

    2013-10-01

    The ketogenic diet is an effective therapy for childhood epilepsy, but its important impacts on families could affect successful treatment. We assessed medical and psychosocial factors associated with successful ketogenic diet treatment. A total of 23 families of patients treated with ketogenic diet completed questionnaires (30% response), including inquiries about challenges to successful dietary treatments and validated family functioning scales. Of these, 14 were considered successful (diet discontinued once the child was seizure-free or continued as clinically indicated). Family-identified challenges were food preparation time (n = 11) and that the diet was too restrictive (n = 9). Neither Medicaid insurance nor family functioning scale scores were significantly associated with successful treatment. Lower seizure frequency prior to ketogenic diet initiation (P = .02) and postdiet seizure improvement (P = .01) were associated with increased odds of success. Effective ketogenic diet treatment is dictated both by psychosocial and epilepsy-related influences. A focus on understanding the psychosocial issues may help to improve families' experiences and success with the ketogenic diet.

  3. Behavioral and Psychosocial Factors in Chronic Craniofacial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Fricton, James R.

    1985-01-01

    Patients with chronic pain have a multifactoral problem that exhibits both physical and psychosocial symptoms. Evaluation includes determination of the physical diagnosis and psychosocial contributing factors on an equal and integrated basis. Contributing factors include any factor that plays a role in initiation and perpetuation or results from and thus, complicates the problem. Management follows with both reduction of contributing factors and treatment of the diagnosis. Contributing factor...

  4. Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial ... feelings of worthlessness and impaired relationships with family and friends. ... family characteristics, medical history, health care financing, social support, ...

  5. Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial Impacts of Mentally Retarded Children on Parents in Sudan. ... effects are directly related to the age, number of handicapped children in the family as well as the degree ... Keywords: Anxiety, depression, divorce, marital stability.

  6. Role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredini, D.; Lobbezoo, F.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: To summarize literature data about the role of psychosocial factors in the etiology of bruxism. METHODS: A systematic search in the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed papers in the English literature dealing with the bruxism-psychosocial

  7. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  8. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrage David

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables, perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms: psychological distress (GHQ-12, anxiety (GAD-7, depression (PHQ-9 and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform. Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4, probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7 probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9 and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2. Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential

  9. Psychosocial impact of the summer 2007 floods in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The summer of 2007 was the wettest in the UK since records began in 1914 and resulted in severe flooding in several regions. We carried out a health impact assessment using population-based surveys to assess the prevalence of and risk factors for the psychosocial consequences of this flooding in the United Kingdom. Methods Surveys were conducted in two regions using postal, online, telephone questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Exposure variables included the presence of flood water in the home, evacuation and disruption to essential services (incident management variables), perceived impact of the floods on finances, house values and perceived health concerns. Validated tools were used to assess psychosocial outcome (mental health symptoms): psychological distress (GHQ-12), anxiety (GAD-7), depression (PHQ-9) and probable post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD checklist-shortform). Multivariable logistic regression was used to describe the association between water level in the home, psychological exposure variables and incident management variables, and each mental health symptom, adjusted for age, sex, presence of an existing medical condition, employment status, area and data collection method. Results The prevalence of all mental health symptoms was two to five-fold higher among individuals affected by flood water in the home. People who perceived negative impact on finances were more likely to report psychological distress (OR 2.5, 1.8-3.4), probable anxiety (OR 1.8, 1.3-2.7) probable depression (OR 2.0, 1.3-2.9) and probable PTSD (OR 3.2, 2.0-5.2). Disruption to essential services increased adverse psychological outcomes by two to three-fold. Evacuation was associated with some increase in psychological distress but not significantly for the other three measures. Conclusion The psychosocial and mental health impact of flooding is a growing public health concern and improved strategies for minimising disruption to essential services and

  10. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  11. Educational inequalities in disability pensioning - the impact of illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sara Marie; Ernstsen, Linda; Krokstad, Steinar; Westin, Steinar

    2012-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in disability pensioning are well established, but we know little about the causes. The main aim of this study was to disentangle educational inequalities in disability pensioning in Norwegian women and men. The baseline data consisted of 32,948 participants in the Norwegian Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (1995-97), 25-66 years old, without disability pension, and in paid work. Additional analyses were made for housewives and unemployed/laid-off persons. Information on the occurrence of disability pension was obtained from the National Insurance Administration database up to 2008. Data analyses were performed using Cox regression. We found considerable educational inequalities in disability pensioning, and the incidence proportion by 2008 was higher in women (25-49 years 11%, 50-66 years 30%) than men (25-49 years 6%, 50-66 years 24%). Long-standing limiting illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors were not sufficient to explain the educational inequalities: young men with primary education had a hazard ratio of 3.1 (95% CI 2.3-4.3) compared to young men with tertiary education. The corresponding numbers for young women were 2.7 (2.1-3.1). We found small educational inequalities in the oldest women in paid work and no inequalities in the oldest unemployed/laid-off women and housewives. Illness and occupational, psychosocial, and behavioural factors explained some of the educational inequalities in disability pensioning. However, considerable inequalities remain after accounting for these factors. The higher incidence of disability pensioning in women than men and the small or non-existing educational inequalities in the oldest women calls for a gender perspective in future research.

  12. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  13. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach's alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α = 0.85-0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Questionnaires' content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Psycho-social impact of orthogathic sugery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Rocío; Martínez-Lara, Ildefonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Orthognathic surgery is a branch of maxillofacial surgery. It carries out the treatment of the facial skeleton asymmetries and deformities. The patients who ask for this surgery are often young people who usually refer symptoms related to dental malocclusion, difficulty eating and temporo-mandibular pain. These physical symptoms are often accompanied by psychological symptoms triggered by their physical appearance such as low self-esteem, self-confidence and negativism about their social and emotional future. Material and Methods Patients with skeletal malformation of facial bones, consisting in Class II, III, open bite and asymmetries, underwent to orthognathic surgery in our center agreed to participate voluntarily in this study. They answered a questionnaire regarding several psychosocial variables. Results Orthognathic surgery helps to improve patient’s psychosocial well-being. Conclusions Patients with dentofacial deformitiesexperience physical and psychological, oftentimes underestimated by society. A combination of orthodontic treatment and reconstructive surgery is often a necessity to restore function and psychosocial well-being. Key words:Orthogathic surgery, psychosocial consequences, mood, emotions, sense of power, motivation, satisfaction, social changes, satisfaction. PMID:27957267

  15. Confronting Suffering and Death at the End of Life: The Impact of Religiosity, Psychosocial Factors, and Life Regret among Hospice Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimeyer, Robert A.; Currier, Joseph M.; Coleman, Rachel; Tomer, Adrian; Samuel, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Although the role of spiritual, psychological, and social factors is receiving increasing attention in the end of life (EOL) context, we know far less than we need to about how these factors shape attitudes toward life and death in the face of looming loss. The present study begins to remedy these limitations by examining the relative impact of…

  16. Validation of new psychosocial factors questionnaires: a Colombian national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Gloria H; Vargas, Angélica M; Rondón, Martin A; Felknor, Sarah A

    2013-01-01

    The study of workers' health problems possibly associated with stressful conditions requires valid and reliable tools for monitoring risk factors. The present study validates two questionnaires to assess psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses within a sample of Colombian workers. The validation process was based on a representative sample survey of 2,360 Colombian employees, aged 18-70 years. Worker response rate was 90%; 46% of the responders were women. Internal consistency was calculated, construct validity was tested with factor analysis and concurrent validity was tested with Spearman correlations. The questionnaires demonstrated adequate reliability (0.88-0.95). Factor analysis confirmed the dimensions proposed in the measurement model. Concurrent validity resulted in significant correlations with stress and health symptoms. "Work and Non-work Psychosocial Factors Questionnaires" were found to be valid and reliable for the assessment of workers' psychosocial factors, and they provide information for research and intervention. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Factors Related to Psychosocial Quality of Life for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Tessier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Current health services interventions focus on the treatment of the musculoskeletal impairments of cerebral palsy (CP. The goal of this study was to explore whether the severity of physical symptoms correlates with psychosocial quality of life (QOL among pediatric patients with CP. Methods. A sample of 53 caregivers of children with CP was surveyed and health status information was extracted from patient medical records. Descriptive analysis explored the association between the main outcome variable, psychosocial QOL (CP QOL-child, and patient demographics, comorbidity (e.g., visual, hearing and feeding impairments, language delays, and epilepsy, CP severity (GMFCS, and the receipt of family centered care (MPOC-20. Results. Child psychosocial QOL decreased with increasing comorbidity but was not associated with CP symptom severity or any measured demographic factors. Reporting high levels of family centered care (FCC was associated with higher psychosocial QOL in univariate analysis but was not significant when controlling for comorbidities. Conclusion. There is no clear connection between symptom severity and psychosocial QOL in children with CP. Comorbidity however is strongly associated with psychosocial QOL. Focusing on reducing CP comorbidities could have a positive impact on psychosocial QOL.

  18. Psychosocial Impact of Training and Work Experience on EFNEP Paraprofessionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Judy; Sandmann, Lorilee

    2011-01-01

    Although considerable data has been gathered documenting impact of local EFNEP programs on enrolled participants, little documentation exists concerning the effect of EFNEP on paraprofessionals conducting these programs. The qualitative study reported here identifies types of psychosocial change in paraprofessionals resulting from EFNEP training…

  19. Stuttering severity, psychosocial impact and lexical diversity as predictors of outcome for treatment of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Susanne; Donlan, Chris; Howell, Peter

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed factors that predicted therapy outcome for children and adolescents who stuttered after attendance at an intensive therapy course. The factors examined were stuttering severity, lexical diversity measured by Type Token Ratio, and psychosocial impact of stuttering on the child's life. Fifty-four children who stuttered (CWS) participated in the study. The hypotheses were: (1) CWS with high initial stuttering severity would be more likely to persist than those with low initial severity; (2) lexical diversity before treatment should be related to therapy outcome; (3) psychosocial factors would affect therapy outcome. The predictions were assessed by linear and logistic regression analyses. Initial stuttering severity was the only significant predictor for stuttering severity after therapy. However, psychosocial impact correlated with improvement in fluency, and lexical diversity correlated with therapy outcome. Only initial stuttering severity was a significant predictor of therapy outcome after an intensive therapy intervention. This is in agreement with the study of Howell and Davis (2011). Readers will get an overview of the literature on risk factors that are considered to predict therapy outcomes for CWS. They will be able to (a) identify what variable represent potential risk factors, (b) describe the psychosocial impact of stuttering, (c) explain how lexical diversity is measured, and (d) describe different assessment instruments used to decide on the outcome of therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychosocial Factors Influencing Competency of Children's Statements on Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyung; Choi, Soul; Shin, Yee Jin

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objectives of this study are to assess children's competence to state their traumatic experience and to determine psychosocial factors influencing the competency of children's statements, such as emotional factors of children and parents and trauma-related variables, in Korean child sex abuse victims. Methods: We enrolled 214…

  1. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Psychosocial and vascular risk factors of depression in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, AJ; Ormel, J; Brilman, EI; van den Berg, MD

    2003-01-01

    Background: Research on the aetiology of late-life depression has typically focused on either risk factors from the psychosocial stress-vulnerability domain or degenerative biological changes (for instance, vascular disease). We examined whether vascular risk factors could be interpreted within the

  3. Psychosocial Impact of Lymphedema: A Systematic Review of Literature from 2004–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mei R.; Ridner, Sheila H.; Hu, Sophia H.; Stewart, Bob R.; Cormier, Janice N.; Armer, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This systematic review aimed to evaluate the level of evidence of contemporary peer-reviewed literature published from 2004–2011 on the psychosocial impact of lymphedema. Methods Eleven electronic databases were searched and 1,311 articles retrieved; 23 met inclusion criteria. Twelve articles utilized qualitative methodology and 11 employed quantitative methodology. An established quality assessment tool was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Results The overall quality of the 23 included studies was adequate. A critical limitation of current literature is the lack of conceptual or operational definitions for the concept of psychosocial impact. Quantitative studies showed statistically significant poorer social well-being in persons with lymphedema, including perceptions related to body image, appearance, sexuality, and social barriers. No statistically significant differences were found between persons with and without lymphedema in the domains of emotional well-being (happy or sad) and psychological distress (depression and anxiety). All 12 of the qualitative studies consistently described negative psychological impact (negative self-identity, emotional disturbance, psychological distress) and negative social impact (marginalization, financial burden, perceived diminished sexuality, social isolation, perceived social abandonment, public insensitivity, non-supportive work environment). Factors associated with psychosocial impact were also identified. Conclusions Lymphedema has a negative psychosocial impact on affected individuals. The current review sheds light on the conceptualization and operationalization of the definitions of psychosocial impact with respect to lymphedema. Development of a lymphedema-specific instrument is needed to better characterize the impact of lymphedema and to examine the factors contributing to these outcomes in cancer and non-cancer-related populations. PMID:23044512

  4. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendoorn, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Koes, B.W.; Bouter, L.M.; Hoogendoorn, L.

    2000-01-01

    Study Design. A systematic review of observational studies. Objectives. To assess whether psychosocial factors at work and in private life are risk factors for the occurrence of back pain. Summary of Background Data. Several reviews on risk factors for back pain have paid attention to psychosocial f

  5. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing.

  6. The impact of psychosocial factors on the risk of erectile dysfunction and inhibition of sexual desire in a sample of the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Sexual dysfunctions can have origins in physical, psychological and psychosocial factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED and female inhibition of sexual desire (ISD in a Brazilian sample, and to estimate the risks of these dysfunctions. TYPE OF STUDY: Non-random survey. SETTING: Ten Brazilian cities. METHODS: 2,835 subjects (53% women aged over 18 years answered a questionnaire about their general health and sex life. The chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The women's average age was 36.6 years (± 13.3 and the men's was 39.5 (± 13.3. 14.7% of men presented moderate/complete ED and 34.6% of women presented ISD. Depression was mentioned by 16.8% of men and 29.7% of women. The chances of having ED and ISD were higher for subjects who had had lower school attainment. Lack of a job and depression gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 2.3 and 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0 greater chances of ED respectively. Compared with men aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 had 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 3.4 and those aged 61 and over had 5.4 times (95% CI: 2.3 - 12.6 greater risk of ED. For women, lack of a job gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.9 greater chance of ISD; depression was not associated with higher risk. Compared with women aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 and 61 or over had, respectively, 2.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 4.1 and 7.5 times (95% CI: 3.0 -18.6 greater risk of ISD. DISCUSSION: Increasing unemployment has affected the whole population, but especially those with lower levels of school attainment. Such levels are positively linked with presence of sexual dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: Lack of jobs, age and low school attainment are risks for the sexual dysfunctions studied. Depression increased the risk of ED but not female ISD.

  7. Design of psychosocial factors questionnaires: a systematic measurement approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Angélica; Felknor, Sarah A

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of psychosocial factors requires instruments that measure dynamic complexities. This study explains the design of a set of questionnaires to evaluate work and non-work psychosocial risk factors for stress-related illnesses. Methods The measurement model was based on a review of literature. Content validity was performed by experts and cognitive interviews. Pilot testing was carried out with a convenience sample of 132 workers. Cronbach’s alpha evaluated internal consistency and concurrent validity was estimated by Spearman correlation coefficients. Results Three questionnaires were constructed to evaluate exposure to work and non-work risk factors. Content validity improved the questionnaires coherence with the measurement model. Internal consistency was adequate (α=0.85–0.95). Concurrent validity resulted in moderate correlations of psychosocial factors with stress symptoms. Conclusions Questionnaires´ content reflected a wide spectrum of psychosocial factors sources. Cognitive interviews improved understanding of questions and dimensions. The structure of the measurement model was confirmed. PMID:22628068

  8. Memory self-efficacy and psychosocial factors in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Aben (Laurien); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R.W.H.M. Ponds (Rudolf W. H. M.); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore whether Memory Self-efficacy is related to depression, neuroticism and coping in patients after stroke, as it is in healthy elderly subjects. Design: A cross-sectional design. The relation between Memory Self-efficacy and psychosocial factors was analysed using a Ma

  9. 'Menopausal symptoms' : associations with menopausal status and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanwesenbeeck, [No Value; Vennix, P; van de Wiel, H

    This study investigated the relative importance of psychosocial factors as opposed to menopausal status in relation to so-called 'menopausal symptoms' among a large sample of premenopausal, perimenopausal and (naturally and surgically) postmenopausal women (n = 4308) in The Netherlands. The

  10. Memory self-efficacy and psychosocial factors in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Aben (Laurien); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R.W.H.M. Ponds (Rudolf W. H. M.); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To explore whether Memory Self-efficacy is related to depression, neuroticism and coping in patients after stroke, as it is in healthy elderly subjects. Design: A cross-sectional design. The relation between Memory Self-efficacy and psychosocial factors was analysed using a Ma

  11. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors of sense of coherence among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Tavel, Peter; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Oega; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Study explores the influence of selected socioeconomic (education and unemployment of father/mother) and psychosocial factors (perceived social support from father, mother, friends, atmosphere and study conditions at school) on sense of coherence (13-item Antonovsky scale) among adolescents (n=1992,

  12. Psychosocial Factors Predicting First-Year College Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei-Mancuso, Elizabeth J.; Newton, Fred B.; Kim, Eunhee; Wilcox, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This study made use of a model of college success that involves students achieving academic goals and life satisfaction. Hierarchical regressions examined the role of six psychosocial factors for college success among 579 first-year college students. Academic self-efficacy and organization and attention to study were predictive of first semester…

  13. Socioeconomic and psychosocial factors of sense of coherence among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Tavel, Peter; Gajdosova, Beata; Orosova, Oega; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Study explores the influence of selected socioeconomic (education and unemployment of father/mother) and psychosocial factors (perceived social support from father, mother, friends, atmosphere and study conditions at school) on sense of coherence (13-item Antonovsky scale) among adolescents (n=1992,

  14. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms a

  15. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  16. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking.

  17. Exposure to psychosocial risk factors in the context of work: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Cláudia; Pereira, Anabela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the scientific literature about the effects of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work contexts. METHODS A systematic review was performed using the terms “psychosocial factors” AND “COPSOQ” in the databases PubMed, Medline, and Scopus. The period analyzed was from January 1, 2004 to June 30, 2012. We have included articles that used the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) as a measuring instrument of the psychosocial factors and the presentation of quantitative or qualitative results. German articles, psychometric studies or studies that did not analyze individual or work factors were excluded. RESULTS We included 22 articles in the analysis. Individual factors, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, were analyzed along with work-related factors such as labor demands, work organization and content, social relationships and leadership, work-individual interface, workplace values, justice and respect, personality, health and well-being, and offensive behaviors. We analyzed the sample type and the applied experimental designs. Some population groups, such as young people and migrants, are more vulnerable. The deteriorated working psychosocial environment is associated with physical health indicators and weak mental health. This environment is also a risk factor for the development of moderate to severe clinical conditions, predicting absenteeism or intention of leaving the job. CONCLUSIONS The literature shows the contribution of exposure to psychosocial risk factors in work environments and their impact on mental health and well-being of workers. It allows the design of practical interventions in the work context to be based on scientific evidences. Investigations in specific populations, such as industry, and studies with more robust designs are lacking. PMID:27253900

  18. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    GESCIT

    2007-01-01

    In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social...

  19. Elderly recipients of liver transplantation: impact of age and psychosocial variables on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Shehzad; Schneekloth, Terry; Taner, C Burcin

    2017-09-12

    With expanding experience and success of liver transplantation, increasing numbers of elderly candidates await and undergo liver transplantation. There is accumulating evidence that graft survival and mortality does not appear to differ significantly between the young and carefully selected elderly liver transplantation recipients. Although existing evidence suggests that psychosocial factors impact outcomes after liver transplantation in general, no such information is available specifically for elderly (age ≥65 years) liver transplantation recipients. We conducted a broad medical literature review of outcome studies of elderly liver transplantation recipients. In this review article, we summarize the findings and comment on psychosocial variables included in these studies. Ten outcome studies have reported on the impact of age on the liver transplantation outcomes. There is increasing evidence of favorable outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. Few of these studies include measures of quality of life, functional improvement and other psychosocial variables. Very limited information is available about the impact of psychosocial factors on outcomes in elderly liver transplantation recipients. This dearth of information represents a critical gap in our knowledge and has implications for optimal candidate selection and outcomes after liver transplantation.

  20. Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well...... associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings....

  1. Psycho-social impacts of virtual communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macura Rajko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and spread of Internet communication has led to changes in social relationships, abuse of the Internet and maladaptive behavior. Among the authors who have studied the impact of these changes there is no consensus, and the results of their research are often contradictory. Some authors conclude that Internet communication strengthens networks of its users, while others believe that such communication leads to reduced participation in real social life. In a number of people, excessive use of the Internet adversely affects the mental health and social life and can lead to obsession at the expense of other aspects of life and creating addiction. The greatest risk of negative impacts of online communication is among children and young people. This paper is meant to indicate, the good sides as well as the negative consequences of excessive and non-functional Internet use

  2. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. Methods 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 y...

  3. Psychosocial factors in peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenstein, Susan

    2002-06-01

    Over the past decade, while gastroenterologists' interest in mind-body interactions in organic disorders dwindled, stronger evidence has linked psychosocial factors with the incidence and recurrence of peptic ulcer and with the course of inflammatory bowel disease. Psychological-behavioral approaches to treatment continue to be disappointing. Psychosocial factors may affect ulcer by increasing duodenal acid load, altering local circulation or motility, intensifying Helicobacter pylori infection, stimulating corticosteroid secretion, and affecting health risk behaviors; possible mechanisms for inflammatory bowel disease include immune deregulation, gut permeability changes, and poor medication adherence. Both belong to the growing category of diseases thought to have an infectious component: for peptic ulcer the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, for inflammatory bowel disease an exaggerated immune response to gut bacteria. Peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease, which present unique interactions among psychological, immunologic, endocrine, infectious, and behavioral factors, are splendid paradigms of the biopsychosocial model.

  4. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-13

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  5. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  6. Trichotillomania: impact on psychosocial functioning and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Tolin, David F; Hannan, Scott; Crocetto, Johanna; Worhunsky, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    This study explored the impact of hair pulling on psychosocial functioning for patients diagnosed with trichotillomania (TTM; n = 28). TTM patients were compared to age and gender-matched groups of psychiatric patients without TTM (n = 28) and nonpsychiatric control volunteers (NC, n = 28) on measures of psychological distress, functioning/quality of life, and self-esteem. Results indicated that TTM patients reported more severe psychosocial impairments than did NC volunteers; however, these differences were mediated by differences in level of depression. Regression analyses indicated significant relationships between some measures of psychosocial functioning and severity of hair pulling, independent of level of depression. Finally, an interview of the impact of hair pulling on 6 domains of daily functioning (negative affect/negative self-evaluations, grooming, recreational activities, social interaction, work/housework productivity, and physical health) indicated common and wide-ranging impairments for both lifetime and current (i.e., past week) ratings. These results highlight the importance of promoting and improving resources for the clinical care of TTM patients, and provide some directions for clinicians to enhance assessment of interference caused by TTM.

  7. Psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris: evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K L

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews current evidence presented by recent studies on the impact of acne on psychosocial health. Study methodologies, including case-control and cross-sectional surveys, have demonstrated psychological abnormalities including depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms, including pain and discomfort, embarrassment and social inhibition. Effective treatment of acne was accompanied by improvement in self-esteem, affect, obsessive-compulsiveness, shame, embarrassment, body image, social assertiveness and self-confidence. Acne is associated with a greater psychological burden than a variety of other disparate chronic disorders. Future studies with a longitudinal cohort design may provide further validation of the causal inference between acne and psychosocial disability provided by the current literature.

  8. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  9. Psychosocial risk factors for the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Masters; Lund, Rikke; Andersen, Ingelise

    2016-01-01

    , menopausal status and life style factors. Results: We found major life events in adult life (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.93 to 2.36) and major life events at work (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.50), lacking a confidant (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.53) and dissatisfaction with social network (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.......11) to be risk factors for developing the metabolic syndrome in women, while vital exhaustion (OR 2.09, 95% CI 0.95 to 4.59) and intake of sleep medications (OR 2.54, 95% CI 0.92 to 5.96) may play a more important role in men. Conclusions: Experiencing major life events in work and adult life and....../or dysfunctional social networks is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in women, and stress reactions such as vital exhaustion and intake of sleep medications may play a more important role in the development of metabolic syndrome men....

  10. Prevalence and Psychosocial Factors of Aggression Among Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Palaniappan Marimuthu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of ...

  11. Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ju Young; Shin, Kyoung Min; Cho, Sun-Mi; Shin, Yun Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in middle school students and to identify associated psychosocial risk factors and depression. Methods This study was part of a larger epidemiological study on childhood psychiatric disorders conducted in Osan, a city of Republic of Korea. We used IAS for internet addiction, K-YSR for subjects' emotional and behavioral problems and K-CDI for depressive symptoms. We used the data of n=1217 completed cases. We p...

  12. Psychosocial work factors and low back pain in taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; Elshatarat, Rami A

    2017-08-01

    Taxi drivers are at high risk for low back pain (LBP). Identify the association between psychosocial-work factors (Job strain, Iso-strain, effort-reward imbalance [ERI], unfairness, and mental exertion) and LBP in taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was done with 129 taxi drivers. Approximately 63% reported LBP in the prior 12 months. Chi square or t-test analyses identified the associations between demographic, work, health, and psychosocial work factors, and self-report of LBP in the prior 12 months. Depression, perceived physical exertion, dispatcher and manager support, unfair treatment at work, and unfair treatment due to nationality were significantly associated with LBP in bivariate analyses. Multivariate logistic regression was done to identify the predictors of LBP. High dispatcher support remained the sole significant predictor for lower prevalence of LBP (OR = 0.66, P = 0.017). Greater understanding of psychosocial work factors may aid in developing interventions to prevent LBP in taxi drivers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Psychosocial impact of involvement in the Special Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Clare; Burns, Jan; Fernie, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests that people with intellectual disabilities are vulnerable to low self-esteem leading to additional psychosocial issues such as social exclusion and stress. Previous research into the involvement of Special Olympics (SO) of people with intellectual disabilities has indicted positive psychosocial outcomes. Involvement in sport is known generally to have psychological and social benefits. This study aimed to compare the psychosocial impact of involvement in sport through the SO to no or limited sports involvement, for a sample of people with intellectual disabilities. A cross sectional design was employed comparing three groups, SO, Mencap Sports, and Mencap No Sports on the variables: Self-esteem, quality of life, stress levels and social networks. One hundred and one participants were recruited either through the SO or Mencap. Data were collected through the completion of validated questionnaires by one to one interviews with the participants. Analysis revealed that self-esteem, quality of life, and stress were all significantly associated with SO involvement. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether scores on these variables were able to predict group membership. Self-esteem was found to be a significant predictor of group membership, those in the SO having the highest self-esteem. The findings provide further evidence of a positive association between sport involvement and increased psychological wellbeing, especially for those involved in the SO. The implications of these findings for practice and future research into the relationship between sport and psychological wellbeing within the learning disabled population are considered.

  14. Ergonomic, psychosocial factors and risks at work in informal mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Nunes Alves de Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks at informal work in the mining sector of the State of Paraíba, Brazil, from miners' perspective. A cross-sectional and descriptive study was conducted with 371 informal mining workers. They responded two questionnaires for assessing work performed in three dimensions: ergonomic factors; psychosocial factors; and occupational risks. The scores of the items of each dimension were added so that, the higher the score, the lower workers' satisfaction related to the area investigated. The results indicated that noise was common in the working environment (66%. Most workers (54.7% pointed out that the work was too hard and that it required attention and reasoning (85.7%. The workers emphasized the lack of training for working in mining (59.3% and few of them regarded the maintenance of the workplace as a component to prevent lumbago (32.3%. Risk of accidents was pointed out as the factor that needed increased attention in daily work (56.6%. All occupational risks were mentioned, including physical and chemical risks. There was significant correlation between age and occupational risks, indicating that the greater the age, the greater the perception of harmful agents (ρ = -0.23; p < 0.01. In the end, it was observed that, to a greater or lesser degree, all workers perceived ergonomic and psychosocial factors, and risks in informal mining. Length of service and age were the features that interfered significantly with the understanding of those factors and occupational risks.

  15. Psychosocial and environmental risk factors associated with mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restrepo, Paula Andrea

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Colombia, there are few studies on the association of psychosocial and environmental factors with the most prevalent mental disorders; such studies are important due to the context of violence, social insecurity, and job and economic instability in the country. The objective of this study was to identify the psychosocial and environmental risk factors for mental disorders, in users of psychological services in Colombia. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and a Questionnaire to evaluate the Axis-IV of the DSM-IV-TR were applied to 490 participants. The analysis comprised descriptive statistics and risk factors. As risk factors for depression, there were identified housing problems, access to health care services, problems related to the primary group, economics, problems of the social environment, and labor. For generalized anxiety, there were identified economic and education issues. For panic disorders, the risk factors were related to social environment, and for social phobia, the risk factors were problems in education, work and social environment

  16. The psychosocial impact of an abnormal cervical smear result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc; Maunsell, Elizabeth; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François; Ferenczy, Alex; Fisher, William; Mansi, James A

    2012-10-01

    Data on the impact of abnormal cervical smear results on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) are scarce. We aimed to (i) prospectively assess the HrQoL of women who were informed of an abnormal smear result; (ii) identify predictors of greater negative psychosocial impact of an abnormal result; and (iii) prospectively estimate the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost following an abnormal result. Between 08/2006 and 08/2008, 492 women with an abnormal result and 460 women with a normal result, frequency matched for age and clinic, were recruited across Canada. HrQoL was measured at recruitment and 4 and 12 weeks later with the EuroQol, Short Form-12, short Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and HPV Impact Profile. Three blocks of potential predictors of higher psychosocial impact were tested by hierarchical modeling: (i) socio-demographics; (ii) sexual activity; and (iii) smear result severity, communication, and understanding. Receiving an abnormal result significantly increased anxiety (STAI mean difference between both groups = 8.3). Initial anxiety decreased over time for the majority of women. However, 35% of women had clinically meaningful anxiety at 12 weeks (i.e. STAI scores ≥0.5 standard deviation of the controls). These women reported a lower socio-economic level, did not completely understand the information about their result and perceived themselves at higher risk of cancer. QALY lost following an abnormal result were between 0.007 and 0.009. Receiving an abnormal smear has a statistically significant and clinically meaningful negative impact on mental health. However, this negative impact subsides after 12 weeks for the majority of women. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Position paper on the importance of psychosocial factors in cardiology: Update 2013

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    Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: The rapid progress of psychosomatic research in cardiology and also the increasing impact of psychosocial issues in the clinical daily routine have prompted the Clinical Commission of the German Heart Society (DGK to agree to an update of the first state of the art paper on this issue which was originally released in 2008.Methods: The circle of experts was increased, general aspects were implemented and the state of the art was updated. Particular emphasis was dedicated to coronary heart diseases (CHD, heart rhythm diseases and heart failure because to date the evidence-based clinical knowledge is most advanced in these particular areas. Differences between men and women and over the life span were considered in the recommendations as were influences of cognitive capability and the interactive and synergistic impact of classical somatic risk factors on the affective comorbidity in heart disease patients.Results: A IA recommendation (recommendation grade I and evidence grade A was given for the need to consider psychosocial risk factors in the estimation of coronary risks as etiological and prognostic risk factors. Furthermore, for the recommendation to routinely integrate psychosocial patient management into the care of heart surgery patients because in these patients, comorbid affective disorders (e.g. depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are highly prevalent and often have a malignant prognosis. A IB recommendation was given for the treatment of psychosocial risk factors aiming to prevent the onset of CHD, particularly if the psychosocial risk factor is harmful in itself (e.g. depression or constrains the treatment of the somatic risk factors. Patients with acute and chronic CHD should be offered anti-depressive medication if these patients suffer from medium to severe states of depression and in this case medication with selective reuptake inhibitors should be given. In the long-term course of treatment

  18. The Evaluation of Psychosocial Factors Associated with Oral Lichen Planus

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    Farhad Mollashahi Leila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is a chronic mucocutaneous disease that often affects the oral mucosa.However, the exact etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear, there are reports about the association between Oral Lichen Plans (OLP and immunological disorders and psychological factors. The role of psychosocial factors especially depression and anxiety in oral lichen planus is debated. This study was done to determine the association of these factors in oral lichen planus.Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was done in department of oral medicine of Zahedan University of Dentistry from May 2007 to May 2008. One hundred and sixty patients were evaluated in three groups of OLP, negative control and positive control using Beck Anxiety (BAI, Beck Depression (BDI and Stress Life Event Questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. P value0.05.Conclusions: It seems that psychosocial factors may have role in the causation of oral lichen planus. These factors may form a starting point for initiation of various autoimmune reactions, which have been shown to be contributory to the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus

  19. Psychosocial work factors and shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgel, Barbara J; White, Mary C; Gillen, Marion; Krause, Niklas

    2010-07-01

    Hotel room cleaners have physically demanding jobs that place them at high risk for shoulder pain. Psychosocial work factors may also play a role in shoulder pain, but their independent role has not been studied in this group. Seventy-four percent (941 of 1,276) of hotel room cleaners from five Las Vegas hotels completed a 29-page survey assessing health status, working conditions, and psychosocial work factors. For this study, 493 of the 941 (52%) with complete data for 21 variables were included in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Fifty-six percent reported shoulder pain in the prior four weeks. Room cleaners with effort-reward imbalance (ERI) were three times as likely to report shoulder pain (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.95-4.59, P = 0.000) even after adjustment for physical workload and other factors. After adjustment for physical workload, job strain and iso-strain were not significantly associated with shoulder pain. ERI is independently associated with shoulder pain in hotel room cleaners even after adjustment for physical workload and other risk factors. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Psychosocial factors associated with reverse smoking: A qualitative research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harini, G.; Krishnam Raju, K. V.; Raju, D. V. S. Kiran; Chakravarthy, K. Kalyan; Kavya, S. Nagasri

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Reverse smoking is a peculiar form of smoking in which the smoker puts the lit end of the cigarette into the mouth and then inhales the smoke. There may be many predisposing factors that influence an individual to cultivate this habit, of which psychosocial habits could be the predominating factor. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the psychosocial factors that influence an individual to undertake this peculiar habit of reverse smoking. Materials and Methods: A total of 128 habitual reverse smokers were included in the study, out of which 121 were females and 7 were males. A pretested open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was collected by direct interview method. Snowball sampling technique was employed in collecting the information regarding regular reverse smokers. Interviews were continued until new information did not provide further insights into the categories. The people who could not understand verbal commands and questions and who did not give an informed consent were excluded from the study. Statistical analysis was done using MS Office Excel using Chi-square test of Goodness of fit. Results: In contrast to the conventional smokers, various new reasons were identified for starting reverse smoking, of which the most important was that they had learned this habit from their mothers. This was followed by other reasons such as peer pressure, friendship, and cold climatic conditions. Conclusion: This study provided an insight into the various factors that could influence an individual to take up this peculiar habit of reverse smoking. PMID:28032044

  1. Factores psicosociales motivacionales y estado de salud Motivational psychosocial factors and health status

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    Antonio Joaquín Vázquez Díaz

    2010-03-01

    and psychosocial demands that require professionals who work there, seriously impacting on their productivity, quality of life and mental health. This also represents a negative impact on users of those services. Therefore, it is necessary to identify psychosocial factors associated with mental health professionals HSO, the objective of this work. We evaluated professionals in Health (Nursing, Clinical Assistants and Education (Senior technicians in Early Childhood Education, Psychologists, Teachers, Educators, Social Workers, etc. belonging to different centers of Andalusia Public Administration. The evaluation of psychosocial factors of worker motivation was performed using a scale developed by "ourselves". The assessment of a mental health questionnaire was conducted with the 28-item Goldberg (GHQ-28. The results showed that 79.2% of the participants had more than 7 points in the GHQ-28. Among the motivational factors found to be more binding (in order of highest to lowest: p46 ( "My professional development allows me to reconcile my personal life", r = -0.33, p13 ( "Work has more advantages than disadvantages", r=-0,314, p18 ( "I am privy to the successes and failures of the results of my work", r = -0,282, p25 ("I feel part of a team, p32 ("The boss solves the problems effectively ", r = -0,269, p26 ("I can easily express my opinions in my workplace ", r = -0,262. We conclude that psychosocial variables account for motivational factors to be considered in defining the health status of HSO professionals.

  2. Psychosocial impact of early onset dementia among caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália R. S. Kimura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is growing recognition of early onset dementia (EOD as a significant clinical and social problem because of its effects on physical and mental health of people with dementia (PWD and their caregivers. Objective: To analyze the psychosocial impact of EOD in family caregivers. Methods: The study design was qualitative. Nine EOD caregivers (7 women were recruited at a service for Alzheimer's disease and assessed using semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze caregivers' reports. Results: Five themes emerged from the narratives: psychological and emotional impact; physical impact; financial and professional impact; social impact and need for support services. The majority of the caregivers of people with EOD perceived their emotional wellbeing as poor or extremely poor. Carers reported poor physical health, which tends to be longer-lasting than mental health problems. Two caregivers had to retire after the disclosure of the dementia diagnosis, and seven reduced their work loads because they had to look after PWD. Preserving the abilities of PWD is essential to maintain their self-esteem, dignity and sense of utility. For the caregivers, interventions and stimulating activities make PWD feel worthwhile and contribute to improving life. Conclusion: The caregivers of people with EOD assume the role of caregiver prematurely and need to balance this activity with other responsibilities. There is a need for more studies of EOD in order to improve understanding of the impact of this disease and to enable development of adequate services for PWD and their caregivers.

  3. Genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors associated with hippocampal volume in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, D; Schwahn, C; Borchardt, U; Wittfeld, K; Schulz, A; Barnow, S; Biffar, R; Hoffmann, W; Habes, M; Homuth, G; Nauck, M; Hegenscheid, K; Lotze, M; Völzke, H; Freyberger, H J; Debette, S; Grabe, H J

    2014-10-14

    The hippocampus--crucial for memory formation, recall and mood regulation--is involved in the pathophysiology of dementia and depressive disorders. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified five genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume (HV). Previous studies have described psychosocial and clinical factors (for example, smoking, type 2 diabetes and hypertension) to have an impact on HV. However, the interplay between genetic, psychosocial and clinical factors on the HV remains unclear. Still, it is likely that genetic variants and clinical or psychosocial factors jointly act in modifying HV; it might be possible they even interact. Knowledge of these factors might help to quantify ones individual risk of or rather resilience against HV loss. We investigated subjects (N=2463; 55.7% women; mean age 53 years) from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-2; SHIP-TREND-0) who underwent whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genotyping. HVs were estimated with FreeSurfer. For optimal nonlinear model fitting, we used regression analyses with restricted cubic splines. Genetic variants and associated psychosocial or clinical factors were jointly assessed for potential two-way interactions. We observed associations between HV and gender (Psmoking (P=0.0058), diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0211), rs7294919 (P=0.0065), rs17178006 (P=0.0002), rs6581612 (P=0.0036), rs6741949 (P=0.0112) and rs7852872 (P=0.0451). In addition, we found three significant interactions: between rs7294919 and smoking (P=0.0473), rs7294919 and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.0447) and between rs7852872 and rs6581612 (P=0.0114). We suggest that these factors might have a role in the individual susceptibility to hippocampus-associated disorders.

  4. Psychosocial factors and T lymphocyte counts in Brazilian peacekeepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Angela M Monteiro da; Speranza, Francisco A B; Ishii, Solange Kiyoko; Hirata Jr, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza; Milagres, Lucimar Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and peripheral blood CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte numbers in Brazilian peacekeepers. Venous blood was collected from 759 peacekeepers who had just returned from a peace mission in Haiti. Among the 759 soldiers, 642 individuals completed the psychosocial measures. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocyte counts were measured by flow cytometry using a commercially available kit. Psychosocial factors, including military peace force stressors, clinical stress, anxiety and depression, were recorded. As a reference for T lymphocyte numbers, we measured T lymphocyte counts in 75 blood donors from the Instituto de Biologia do Exército, Rio de Janeiro. The median numbers of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes in the blood donors were 819 cells/µl and 496 cells/µl, respectively, with a CD4:CD8 ratio of 1.6. Significantly (p<0.05) lower CD4 T cell counts (759 cells/µl) were recorded for peacekeepers, with similar CD8 levels (548 cells/µl) and smaller CD4:CD8 ratios (1.3, p<0.001) compared to blood donors. These differences were due to a group of 14 military personnel with CD4 and CD8 medians of 308 and 266 cells/µl, respectively. Only one (7.1%) of these 14 individuals was diagnosed with clinical stress compared with 13.5% of the individuals with normal levels of CD4 T lymphocytes. One individual out of 628 (0.16%) had a Lipp's Stress Symptom Inventory score of 3, indicating near exhaustion. The prevalence of psychological disorders was low and there were no associations with CD4 or CD8 T cell numbers.

  5. Psychosocial factors in adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer: an emerging context for adherence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Julia R; Christensen, Alan J; de Moor, Janet S

    2014-09-01

    For patients with hormone receptor positive breast cancer, survivorship entails prolonged self-management of adjuvant treatment in the form of daily hormone therapy. Although sustained daily adherence across the 5-year course of therapy is associated with improved recurrence-free survival outcomes, adherence is suboptimal and many women discontinue hormone therapy prematurely. Factors associated with breast cancer survivors' nonadherence and nonpersistence are not comprehensively understood. Furthermore, psychosocial variables have only received limited research attention, despite their documented relationships with adherence in other chronic illness populations. A systematic literature review identified 14 studies that analyzed relationships between psychosocial factors and breast cancer survivors' adherence and/or persistence with adjuvant hormone therapy. Although identified relationships were complex and at times inconsistent, salient conclusions emerged. Interpersonal factors, in the form of positive social support and patient-centered interactions with medical providers, as well as intrapersonal factors, such as anxiety and beliefs about the relative benefits of medication use, were reliably associated with better adherence and persistence. Depression did not demonstrate the negative impact on adherence that has been observed in other medical populations. No relationships between quality of life and adherence were identified. Adjuvant hormone therapy appears to be a unique context for medication adherence, which warrants further attention and more rigorous analysis in future research. Individual patients' psychosocial characteristics and health care preferences should be considered when striving to optimize medication adherence.

  6. Interactions among Ecological Factors That Explain the Psychosocial Quality of Life of Children with Complex Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Thurston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore the associations and interactions among ecological factors and explain the psychosocial quality of life of children with complex needs. Methods. In this cross-sectional survey consenting parents were identified by the Children's Treatment Network. Families were eligible if the child from 0 to 19 years, resided in Simcoe/York, and there were multiple family needs. Regression analysis was used to explore associations and interactions. n=429. Results. Younger children, without conduct disorder, without hostile and punitive parenting and with low adverse family impact demonstrated the highest levels of psychosocial quality of life. Statistically significant interactions between processes of care and parent variables highlight the complexity of real life situations. Conclusions. It is not possible to fully understand the child's psychosocial quality of life in complex needs families by considering only simple associations between ecological factors. A multitude of factors and interactions between these factors are simultaneously present and the care of these families requires a holistic approach.

  7. Does psychosocial compliance have an impact on long-term outcome after heart transplantation?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sponga, Sandro; Travaglini, Clara; Pisa, Federica; Piani, Daniela; Guzzi, Giorgio; Nalli, Chiara; Spagna, Enrico; Tursi, Vincenzo; Livi, Ugolino

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Since patient compliance following organ transplantation is considered a limiting factor for long-term outcome, psychosocial assessment is commonly employed to evaluate suitability for organ transplantation...

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with chronic pain in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlijn, Vivian P B M; Hunfeld, Joke A M; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Hazebroek-Kampschreur, Alice A J M; Koes, Bart W; Passchier, Jan

    2003-01-01

    A number of psychosocial factors have been associated with the onset, exacerbation and/or maintenance of chronic pain in adolescents. The present study was conducted to evaluate the relative importance of vulnerability, reinforcement, and modeling. We compared 222 adolescents with chronic pain and no documented physiological etiology (headache, back, limb and abdominal pain) with 148 controls and their (respectively 183 vs. 127) parents. Analyses showed that adolescents with chronic pain are more vulnerable in terms of neuroticism, negative fear of failure, and (less) experienced social acceptance. Contrary to our expectations, the chronic pain group experienced less reinforcement for their pain behavior by both parents and peers than the control group. While the number of pain models was higher in the chronic pain group, no differences were found between their parents and those of the adolescents without chronic pain in pain experience, pain parameters, and pain coping. Regression analyses on the contribution of psychosocial factors to chronic pain and its parameters sustained the positive relation between vulnerability, (less) pain reinforcement, pain models and coping with pain. Furthermore, we also found evidence that gender differences have to be taken into account.

  9. Psychosocial factors and the health of the elderly Malaysian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P C

    1987-01-01

    Consequent to rapidly declining mortality and birth rates, developing countries, including Malaysia, can expect a rapid increase in the population aged 60 years and above. The health of the elderly is intimately tied up with both biophysical as well as psychosocial factors which include status loss, loneliness, fear of illness and death, poverty, harmful life-styles and deterioration of the quality of life. The effects of these psychosocial factors can manifest as sleep difficulties, worry and anxiety, depression, loss of interest, and a feeling of tiredness. In extreme cases, there may be auditory or visual hallucinations or paranoia. In the present paper, which is based upon a WHO sponsored study of 1001 elderly Malaysians, it is noted that 36% of the elderly have sleep difficulties, 47% "feel tired", 31% have a "loss of interest" and 22% are "worried tense". However 71% of the elderly are able to correctly perform at least 12 of 15 cognitive tests. 20% of elderly men smoke 15 or more cigarettes a day while 44% smoke at least one cigarette a day. 40% of elderly men indicate that their families complain about the amount of alcohol they drink. Undoubtedly primary health care programmes need to be re-oriented to the problems and needs of the elderly in countries such as Malaysia.

  10. Psychosocial factors at work, personality traits and depressive symptoms: Longitudinal results from the GAZEL Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PATERNITI, S; NIEDHAMMER, I; LANG, T; CONSOLI, S. M

    2002-01-01

    .... This association could be explained by personality traits. To examine the relationship between psychosocial factors at work and changes in depressive symptoms, taking into account personality traits...

  11. A bidirectional relationship between psychosocial factors and atopic disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There is growing epidemiological literature focusing on the bidirectional association between psychosocial factors and atopic disorders, but no efforts to quantify the relationship systematically have been published...

  12. Relationships among symptoms, psychosocial factors, and health-related quality of life in hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzik, Kelly; Huang, I-Chan; Rizzo, J Douglas; Shenkman, Elizabeth; Wingard, John

    2015-03-01

    The study aims to evaluate the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between physical symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors and to test a conceptual model of psychosocial factors, in addition to physical and psychological symptoms, that might contribute to HRQOL. This is a secondary data analysis using HSCT survivors (N = 662) identified from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Data were collected through mail and phone surveys and medical records. We used structural equation modeling to test the mediating role of depressive symptoms on the relationship of physical symptoms with HRQOL. We also tested comprehensive pathways from physical symptoms to HRQOL by adding psychosocial factors (optimism, coping, and social constraints). In the depressive symptom mediation analyses, physical symptoms had a stronger direct effect on physical HRQOL (b = -0.98, p 0.05). Depressive symptoms were associated with mental HRQOL and mediated the relationship between physical symptoms and mental HRQOL. In comprehensive pathways, physical symptoms remained the most significant factor associated with physical HRQOL. In contrast, depressive symptoms had direct effects (b = -0.76, p Psychosocial factors were directly associated with mental HRQOL and indirectly associated with mental HRQOL through depressive symptoms. Physical symptoms are most strongly associated with physical HRQOL, while depressive symptoms and psychosocial factors impact mental HRQOL more than physical HRQOL. Interventions addressing psychosocial factors as well as symptoms may improve the HRQOL of HSCT survivors.

  13. Impact of choice of coping strategies and family functioning on psychosocial function of young people with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allison L; Critchley, Christine

    2016-06-01

    Both medical and psychological factors have an important impact upon the psychosocial functioning of young people with epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that distinguish young people with epilepsy and high psychosocial functioning from those with lower levels. The participants were 114 young people (40 males, 74 females) with active epilepsy and a mean age of 17.92years (SD=3.90) who completed either a paper (60.5%) or a web-based survey (39.5%) comprising demographic, medical, and psychosocial measures. Psychosocial measures included family functioning, adolescent coping, anxiety, depression, and quality of life. A latent class analysis produced two psychosocial functioning groups based on participants' scores for anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Young people were more likely to be members of the group with poor psychosocial functioning if they had a seizure in the last month (Wald=5.63, p<.05), came from families with lower levels of communication and problem solving (Wald=5.28, p<.05), and made greater use of non-productive (emotion-focused) coping strategies such as wishful thinking, withdrawal, and worry (Wald=12.00, p<.01). The findings suggest that, in addition to standard medical treatment, clinicians may promote better outcomes by strengthening family functioning and encouraging less use of nonproductive coping strategies. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The psychosocial impact of life-threatening childhood food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome-Stone, S Brantlee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this integrated literature review was to bring understanding to medical professionals of the psychosocial impact of parenting a child with life-threatening food allergies. Prevalence of life-threatening food allergy among children is increasing, and families continue to navigate the effects it can have on all members of a family. A comprehensive literature review was performed related to chronic childhood illnesses and life-threatening food allergies. Commonalities among the conditions exist related to stress, coping, and adaptive responses when parental perceptions and experiences are considered. This information may provide a conceptual context for the adaptation process involved with parenting a young child with life-threatening food allergies, revealing areas where nursing can serve to intervene and support this process.

  15. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  16. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  17. Psychosocial Factors Involved in Transitions from College to Postcollege Careers for Male NCAA Division-1 Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Paul; O'Boyle, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article investigated the key psychosocial factors that impact upon National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-1 male basketball players, as they transition from college to postcollege athletic or nonathletic careers. Participants (N = 9) were current/former NCAA Division-1 basketball players. Four participants were selected…

  18. Psychosocial risk factors for hospital readmission in COPD patients on early discharge services: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Christopher J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital readmission for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD occurs in up to 30% of patients, leading to excess morbidity and poor survival. Physiological risk factors predict readmission, but the impact of modifiable psychosocial risk factors remains uncertain. We aimed to evaluate whether psychosocial risk factors independently predict readmission for AECOPD in patients referred to early discharge services (EDS. Methods This prospective cohort study included 79 patients with AECOPD cared for by nurse led EDS in the UK, and followed up for 12 months. Data on lung function, medical comorbidities, previous hospital admissions, medications, and sociodemographics were collected at baseline; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and social support were measured at baseline, 3 and 12-months. Exploratory multivariate models were fitted to identify psychosocial factors associated with readmission adjusted for known confounders. Results 26 patients were readmitted within 90 days and 60 patients were readmitted at least once during follow-up. Depression at baseline predicted readmission adjusted for sociodemographics and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.60, p = 0.013. Perceived social support was not significantly associated with risk of readmission. Home ownership was associated with the total number of readmissions (B = 0.46, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.06, p = 0.024. Compared with those not readmitted, readmitted patients had worse SGRQ and HADS scores at 12 months. Conclusion Depressive symptoms and socioeconomic status, but not perceived social support, predict risk of readmission and readmission frequency for AECOPD in patients cared for by nurse-led EDS. Future work on reducing demand for unscheduled hospital admissions could include the design and evaluation of interventions aimed at optimising the psychosocial care of AECOPD patients managed at

  19. [Psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, L; Kodysová, E

    2011-06-01

    To give an overview of the main psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients and present recommendations for good practice. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. Qualitative methodology--content analysis of 189 childbirth narratives written by parturients and demi-structured interviews with 44 parturients. Seven dimensions of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients were identified: 1. staff attitude and behavior; 2. staff communication; 3. parturient's participation in decision-making; 4. support of early mother-baby contact; 5. breastfeeding support; 6. mother-baby friendliness of maternity unit operation rules; 7. clarity of maternity unit operation rules. The most important dimensions include empathy and psychological support, respect for privacy and feelings of shame, relational symmetry/asymmetry and quality of provided information. Psychosocial aspects are a decisive criterion of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients. Psychological competences of health care providers and staff make an inseparable part of their competence, with communication skills development and prevention and therapy of the burn-out syndrome deserving special attention.

  20. Psychosocial factors for influencing healthy aging in adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyungHun; Lee, YunJung; Gu, JaSung; Oh, Hee; Han, JongHee; Kim, KwuyBun

    2015-03-07

    Healthy aging includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being in later years. The purpose of this study is to identify the psychosocial factors influencing healthy aging and examining their socio-demographic characteristics. Perceived health status, depression, self-esteem, self-achievement, ego-integrity, participation in leisure activities, and loneliness were identified as influential factors in healthy aging. 171 Korean adults aged between 45 and 77 years-old participated in the study. Self-reporting questionnaires were used, followed by descriptive statistics and multiple regressions as inferential statistical analyses. There were significant differences between participants' general characteristics: age, education, religion, housing, hobby, and economic status. The factors related to healthy aging had positive correlation with perceived health status, self-esteem, self-achievements, and leisure activities, and negative correlation with depression and loneliness. The factors influencing healthy aging were depression, leisure activities, perceived health status, ego integrity, and self-achievements. These factors were able to explain 51.9%. According to the results, depression is the factor with the greatest influence on healthy aging. Perceived health status, ego integrity, self-achievement, self-esteem, participation of leisure activities were also influential on healthy aging as beneficial factors.

  1. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... on average gained 2 kg of weight and 8% became obese during follow-up. The experience of major life events in childhood, work life and adult life was associated with weight gain and obesity in women, but not in men. Vital exhaustion was associated with weight gain in a dose-response manner in men (P = 0...

  2. The psychosocial impact of vitiligo in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Pahwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitiligo has a special significance in Indian patients both because depigmentation is obvious on darker skin and the enormous stigma associated with the disease in the culture. Aims: This study was carried out to determine the beliefs about causation, aspects of the disease that cause concern, medical, and psychosocial needs of the patients, expectation from treatment and from the treating physician, and effects of disease on the patient′s life. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 50 patients with vitiligo. Purposive sampling was used to select subjects for the study. Each interview was recorded on an audio-cassette and transcripts were analyzed to identify significant issues and concerns. Results: Patients had a range of concerns regarding their disease such as physical appearance, progression of white patches onto exposed skin and the whole body, ostracism, social restriction, dietary restrictions, difficulty in getting jobs, and they considered it to be a significant barrier to getting married. The condition was perceived to be a serious illness. Stigma and suicidal ideation was reported. While there were several misconceptions about the cause of vitiligo, most patients did not think their disease was contagious, heritable or related to leprosy. Multiple medical consultations were frequent. Complete repigmentation was strongly desired, but a lesser degree of repigmentation was acceptable if progression of disease could be arrested. The problems were perceived to be more severe in women. The disease imposed a significant financial burden. Conclusion: Addressing psychosocial factors is an important aspect of the management of vitiligo, particularly in patients from communities where the disease is greatly stigmatizing.

  3. Patient-caregiver differences and dyad concordance towards psychosocial impacts of stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Bucki, Barbara; Baumann, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Are patient-caregiver dyads concordant when applying to stroke psychosocial impacts ? Methods: Two questionnaires administered two years poststroke in Luxemburg to 62 patients and their 62 natural caregivers include 15 common items assessing psychosocial impacts of stroke on both patients and caregivers. We (1) compare these impacts of stroke on patients and caregivers, and (2) use paired analysis of the concordance in responses within dyads. Findings: Patients feel ashamed, more ...

  4. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth

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    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Materials and Methods: Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. Results: About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years. The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. Conclusion: The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  5. Psychosocial impact of the teacher's voice throughout the career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, Piet G C; Thomas, G; Graamans, K; de Jong, F I C R S

    2007-05-01

    It is generally accepted that vocal performance decreases with age. This decrease can be expected to be more pronounced in voice loading professions, which may lead to occupational dysphonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the course of voice complaints, experienced handicap, and absenteeism of work due to voice problems throughout the teaching years. Questionnaires were distributed among teachers of primary and secondary education, and 1875 were analyzed. The questionnaire was designed in such a way that personal aspects and questions about periods with symptoms and absence from work were included. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) developed by Jacobson et al was sent along with the questionnaire. Surprisingly, a significant decrease of voice complaints during the career of the teachers was observed. The expectation that the percentage of teachers with a history of voice problems should experience more psychosocial impact, measured with the VHI, along their professional career could not be confirmed by this study. These results indicate that serious attention has to be paid to teachers with voice complaints. The fact that teachers in the beginning of their career complain more than in the end of their career emphasizes the importance of adequate aimed prevention programs for future teachers and for starting teachers with regard to their voice.

  6. Psychosocial factors of migration: adaptation and application of the health belief model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Bruijn, B.J.; Bilsborrow, R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors influencing behaviour play a central role in health research but seem under-explored in migration research. This is unfortunate because these factors, which include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and personality traits, provide essential and potentially effective

  7. Psychosocial factors of migration: adaptation and application of the health belief model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Bruijn, B.J.; Bilsborrow, R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors influencing behaviour play a central role in health research but seem under-explored in migration research. This is unfortunate because these factors, which include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and personality traits, provide essential and potentially effective hand

  8. [Changes in work organization and management of psychosocial risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, major changes have occurred in Italian working conditions and employment patterns due to several concurrent factors: increasing occupation in the tertiary sector, implementation of new technologies, labour market globalization, higher variability of working time arrangements, decrease of traditional physical-chemical risks, ageing of general/working population, access to work of people with disabilities, growing immigration of extra-community workers. Thus, psychosocial risk factors are becoming crucial issues of the present work organization, dealing with job content (complexity, meaning, uncertainties), mental work load, time pressure, variable working hours; career perspectives, role conflicts and ambiguity, education and training, personal relations, social support, work/family conflicts; age and cultural discrimination. The Occupational Health Physician has to deal with these multidimensional and multifaceted aspects of work stress by different and concurrent approaches, at both group and individual levels, with epidemiological and clinical perspectives, enacting preventive and therapeutic strategies. Both "external" work load and individual "responses" have to be properly considered and risk has to be assessed with "relative" rather than "absolute" criteria, addressed not only at fitness to work, but also to corrective actions. Hence, the OHP has to act in closer collaboration with work psychologists, sociologists, human resources managers and work organisation experts.

  9. Psychosocial impact of specialized cardiac genetic clinics for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, Jodie; Lind, Joanne M; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Semsarian, Christopher

    2008-02-01

    The diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an autosomal dominant chronic heart disease, can have significant implications, including increased risk of sudden death, exercise limitations, and risk of transmission to offspring. This study sought to describe the psychosocial factors associated with attending a specialty cardiac genetic clinic, and to determine whether these may be predictors of comorbid anxiety and depression in this population. Questionnaires were sent to 184 individuals attending the Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Clinic. Questionnaires were anonymous and comprised demographics, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient Experience Scales, and Patient Satisfaction Scales. Completed questionnaires were returned by 109 participants (59.2% response rate), of which 76.9% had a diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, while 23.1% were at-risk relatives attending for clinical screening. Patient satisfaction scores were generally high to very high across all groups, though only 24% of HCM patients showed good adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 10% had low worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores. Within the disease group, logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, and education revealed adjustment to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and worry about hypertrophic cardiomyopathy scores to be significantly associated with anxiety, while adjustment scores and location of patient follow-up (i.e., Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy clinic or another cardiologist) to be significantly associated with depression scores. HCM patients who attend specialized cardiac genetic clinics are better adjusted and worry less, than those who do not attend. An integrated approach, including a genetic counselor, is important in the management of HCM families.

  10. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit: a Delphi survey among health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Erwin C; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted among experts recruited via the Dutch National Amputee and Prosthesis Work Group. The main outcome measure was consensus among care professionals on statements concerning new and presented biomechanical and psychosocial factors that influence transtibial prosthesis fit. Fifty-four experts participated in the survey, and consensus was reached on 67% (46/69) of all statements. Consensus on statements relevant for good prosthesis fit was reached in most of the statements concerning psychosocial factors and on statements concerning the biomedical factors "prosthesis support and suspension". Least consensus was reached on statements concerning the biomedical factor "skin problems and pain in the residual limb". Biomedical and psychosocial factors influence transtibial prosthesis fit. Consensus was reached among care professionals in a majority of the presented statements concerning these factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Prosthesis fit and comfort is suboptimal in many prosthesis users. Both biomedical and psychosocial factors influence fit. Biomedical and psychosocial factors should be checked during transtibial prosthesis prescription to achieve and maintain an optimal fit. Consensus on many factors influencing prosthesis fit is achieved among care professionals. Consensus was largest regarding prosthesis support and suspension and least regarding skin problems and pain in the residual limb. This consensus contributes to systematic assessment of prosthesis fit.

  11. Associations between psychosocial factors and happiness among school adolescents.

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    Natvig, Gerd Karin; Albrektsen, Grethe; Qvarnstrøm, Ulla

    2003-06-01

    The concept of health contains aspects of social and mental well-being and not just the absence of disease. The concept of well-being is sometimes used interchangeably with the term happiness, although focus has been on other aspects as well. Here we explore associations between happiness and experience of stress at school, personal and social factors among 887 Norwegian school adolescents participating in a World Health Organization project on health-promoting schools. Happiness was measured by a one item question (ordered responses 1-4). The psychosocial factors were represented by an average score of 3-12 items. Odds ratios of feeling very/quite happy were calculated in multiple logistic regression analyses. An increasing degree of stress experience reduced the feeling of happiness significantly. Furthermore, increasing levels of general self-efficacy increased the odds of feeling happy, whereas the more specific measure of school self-efficacy showed no independent effect. Social support from teachers also enhanced happiness significantly. A less consistent pattern was found for support from peers, but the most happy pupils experienced significantly more support than pupils who reported being unhappy. No significant trend was found with decision control. We also explored associations between happiness and psychosomatic symptoms. Pupils feeling unhappy reported a particular symptom more often and they also had the highest mean number of reported symptoms. To evaluate whether these health indicators represent different dimensions of health, a comparison of strength of associations with common risk factors is made. Implications for health promotion practice are discussed.

  12. Psychosocial impact of predictive testing for myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Claude; Veillette, Suzanne; Perron, Michel; Laberge, Claude; Tremblay, Carmen; Auclair, Julie; Villeneuve, Josée; Tremblay, Marc; Mathieu, Jean

    2004-04-01

    In the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean region (Quebec, Canada), a predictive DNA-testing program for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) has been available as a clinical service since 1988. From 1 to 12 years (median, 5 years) after receiving predictive testing, a total of 308 participants (44 carriers and 264 non-carriers) answered a questionnaire to determine the psychosocial impact of this genetic testing. The main reasons for wanting to be tested were to learn if children are at risk for DM1 or for reproductive decision making (75%) and to relieve the uncertainty for themselves (17%). The majority of participants (96.1%) remembered correctly their test result. At the time of the survey, the perception of the general well-being, the psychological distress (Psychiatric Symptom Index), and the self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) were similar in carriers, in non-carriers, and in the reference (Quebec) population. When participants indicated a change in different aspects of their lives following predictive testing, it was perceived as a change for the better by non-carriers and as a change for the worse by carriers. Nevertheless, for a majority of carriers and of non-carriers, the test result did not bring changes in their lives. All respondents believed that predictive testing should be available for the at-risk population and the vast majority of carrier and of non-carriers would recommend the use of predictive testing to their family members. Predictive testing for individuals at-risk of DM1 can be offered safely within a well-organized clinical and genetic counseling program that includes careful pre-test counseling, pre-test clinical assessment, post-test psychological support, and follow-up for those identified as carriers. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Race, Ethnicity, Psychosocial Factors, and Telomere Length in a Multicenter Setting.

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    Shannon M Lynch

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length(LTL has been associated with age, self-reported race/ethnicity, gender, education, and psychosocial factors, including perceived stress, and depression. However, inconsistencies in associations of LTL with disease and other phenotypes exist across studies. Population characteristics, including race/ethnicity, laboratory methods, and statistical approaches in LTL have not been comprehensively studied and could explain inconsistent LTL associations.LTL was measured using Southern Blot in 1510 participants from a multi-ethnic, multi-center study combining data from 3 centers with different population characteristics and laboratory processing methods. Main associations between LTL and psychosocial factors and LTL and race/ethnicity were evaluated and then compared across generalized estimating equations(GEE and linear regression models. Statistical models were adjusted for factors typically associated with LTL(age, gender, cancer status and also accounted for factors related to center differences, including laboratory methods(i.e., DNA extraction. Associations between LTL and psychosocial factors were also evaluated within race/ethnicity subgroups (Non-hispanic Whites, African Americans, and Hispanics.Beyond adjustment for age, gender, and cancer status, additional adjustments for DNA extraction and clustering by center were needed given their effects on LTL measurements. In adjusted GEE models, longer LTL was associated with African American race (Beta(β(standard error(SE = 0.09(0.04, p-value = 0.04 and Hispanic ethnicity (β(SE = 0.06(0.01, p-value = 0.02 compared to Non-Hispanic Whites. Longer LTL was also associated with less than a high school education compared to having greater than a high school education (β(SE = 0.06(0.02, p-value = 0.04. LTL was inversely related to perceived stress (β(SE = -0.02(0.003, p<0.001. In subgroup analyses, there was a negative association with LTL in African Americans with a high

  14. The factors associated to psychosocial stress among general practitioners in Lithuania. Cross-sectional study

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    Vanagas Giedrius

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are number of studies showing that general practice is one of the most stressful workplace among health care workers. Since Baltic States regained independence in 1990, the reform of the health care system took place in which new role and more responsibilities were allocated to general practitioners' in Lithuania. This study aimed to explore the psychosocial stress level among Lithuanian general practitioner's and examine the relationship between psychosocial stress and work characteristics. Methods The cross-sectional study of 300 Lithuanian General practitioners. Psychosocial stress was investigated with a questionnaire based on the Reeder scale. Job demands were investigated with the R. Karasek scale. The analysis included descriptive statistics; interrelationship analysis between characteristics and multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for each of the independent variables in the model. Results Response rate 66% (N = 197. Our study highlighted highest prevalence of psychosocial stress among widowed, single and female general practitioners. Lowest prevalence of psychosocial stress was among males and older age general practitioners. Psychosocial stress occurs when job demands are high and job decision latitude is low (χ2 = 18,9; p Conclusion One half of respondents suffering from work related psychosocial stress. High psychological workload demands combined with low decision latitude has the greatest impact to stress caseness among GP's. High job demands, high patient load and young age of GP's can be assigned as significant predictors of psychosocial stress among GP's.

  15. Relationship between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders in footwear industry workers

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    Jonhatan Magno Norte da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of psychosocial factors on the risk of WRMD symptoms in Brazilian footwear industry workers. The workers’ perceptions regarding psychosocial factors and frequency of body pain were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the risk (Odds Ratio of a worker more frequently exhibiting a symptom due to psychosocial factors. It was observed that some psychosocial factors, such as stress, contribute to WRMD in men, increasing the chance of symptoms in the knee (OR=3.07; p-value=0.036. In women, the ‘job dissatisfaction’ factor contributes to WRMD, increasing the chance of pain in the elbow (OR=4.83; p-value=0.007. It was concluded that a greater number of psychosocial factors influences the development of WRMD in male workers, although the effect these factors be discreet. In women, less psychosocial factors are related to WRMD, however its influence is very significant.

  16. Impact beyond the impact factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-02-01

    The journal impact factor is an annually calculated number for each scientific journal, based on the average number of times its articles published in the two preceding years have been cited. It was originally devised as a tool for librarians and publishers to provide information about the citation performance of a journal as a whole, but over the last few decades it has increasingly been used to assess the quality of specific articles and the research performance of individual investigators, institutions, and countries. In addition to this clear abuse of the journal impact factor, several conceptual and technical issues limit its usability as a measure of journal reputation, especially when journals are compared across different fields. An author's decision regarding the suitability of a scholarly journal for publication should, therefore, be based on the impact that this journal makes in the field of research, rather than on the journal impact factor.

  17. Psychosocial factors as mediators of food insecurity and weight status among middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Don E; Fitzpatrick, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Research regarding the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth has produced mixed results. However, few studies on this topic have utilized data that includes survey responses from children themselves regarding their experience with food insecurity. This study was undertaken to examine the association between food insecurity and weight status among youth, as well as the potential mediation by psychosocial factors. A survey of 5th-7th grade students was administered to gather information on food insecurity, social and psychological resources, and health. The primary analysis includes OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) regression conducted using SPSS software and Sobel's test for mediation. Results suggest a positive association between food insecurity and weight status even when controlling for key demographic variables. In addition, we find that this association is mediated by psychosocial factors-namely, perceived social status and depression. Insights from this work highlight the need to consider non-nutritional pathways through which food insecurity impacts health as well the need to continue surveying youth directly when examining their experiences with food insecurity.

  18. Psychosocial and Biological Factors Contributing to Body Weight Gain in Schizophrenia

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    Shae-Leigh C. Vella

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity are frequently reported to be a significant issue in schizophrenia resulting in the inherent complications of these disorders. Body weight gain also commonly results from treatment with the most tolerable and efficacious pharmacological treatments, second-generation antipsychotics. However there are numerous other factors that contribute to increased body mass in individuals with schizophrenia prior to the initiation of treatment. With prior research indicating that individuals with schizophrenia have higher rates of overweight and obesity before treatment. Therefore this article provides a review of pertinent issues associated with body weight gain in schizophrenia in an attempt to delineate the impact of both the disease and treatment upon body weight gain. The results of the review indicate that body weight gain in schizophrenia occurs from both psychosocial and biological factors that are further compounded by antipsychotic treatment. The article concludes with recommendations for future research.

  19. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

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    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  20. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  1. Dataset on psychosocial risk factors in cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary Clyde; Kaczor, Kim; Acker, Deborah; Webb, Tina; Brenzel, Allen; Lorenz, Douglas J; Young, Audrey; Thompson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    This article presents the psychosocial risk factors identified in the cases of 20 children less than four years of age who were victims of fatal or near-fatal physical abuse during a 12 month period in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. These data are related to the article "History, injury, and psychosocial risk factor commonalities among cases of fatal and near-fatal physical child abuse" (Pierce et al., 2017) [1].

  2. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with sexual behaviour in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, O.; Madarasova-Geckova, A.; Klein, D.; Jarcuska, P.; Orosova, O.; van Dijk, J.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the psychosocial characteristics of sexually inexperienced adolescents with those of youths who had had sex, whether safe or unsafe. Methods We gathered information on self-esteem, well-being, social support, family structure, educational aspiration, parental education and sexu

  6. Assessment of psychosocial functioning and its risk factors in children with pectus excavatum

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    Wang Xuejun

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial functioning is poor in patients with pectus excavatum (PE. However, a comprehensive understanding of this issue does not exist. The aim of this study was to assess the severity of psychosocial problems as associated with PE, as well as to identify its risk factors. Methods A comparative study was performed at the Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences/Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital in Chengdu, China. Patients age 6 to 16 who admitted to the outpatient department for the evaluation or treatment for PE were included in the study. In addition to parental reports of child psychosocial problems on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL, parents also filled in other structured questionnaires, including socio-demographic variables, patients' medical and psychological characteristics. The severity of malformation was assessed by CT scan. For comparison, an age- and gender- matched control group was recruited from the general population. The socio-demographic and scores on CBCL were compared between patients and control subjects. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to examine risk factors for psychosocial problems in patients. Results No statistically significant differences were found with respect to social-demographic variables between children with PE and control subjects. Compared with control subjects, children with PE displayed higher prevalence of psychosocial problems in the different scales of the CBCL questionnaire such as 'withdraw', 'anxious-depressed', 'social problems' and 'total problems'. Both univariate and multivariate analyses suggested that age, severity of malformation, and being teased about PE were significantly associated with patients' psychosocial problems. Conclusions The information derived from this study supports the opinion that children with PE have more psychosocial problems than children from the general population. Multiple medical and psychosocial factors were

  7. Obstetric care providers assessing psychosocial risk factors during pregnancy: validation of a short screening tool - the KINDEX Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyridou, Andria; Schauer, Maggie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2014-01-01

    High levels of stress due to diverse psychosocial factors have a direct impact on the mothers' wellbeing during pregnancy and both direct and indirect effects on the fetus. In most cases, psychosocial risk factors present during pregnancy will not disappear after delivery and might influence the parent-child relationship, affecting the healthy development of the offspring in the long term. We introduce a short innovative prenatal assessment to detect psychosocial risk factors through an easy to use instrument for obstetrical medical staff in the daily clinical practice, the KINDEX Spanish Version. In the present study midwives and gynecologists interviewed one hundred nineteen pregnant women in a public health center using the KINDEX Spanish Version. Sixty-seven women were then randomly selected to participate in an extended standardized validation interview conducted by a clinical psychologist using established questionnaires to assesses current stress (ESI, PSS-14), symptoms of psychopathology (HSCL-25, PDS) and traumatic experiences (PDS, CFV). Ethical approval was granted and informed consent was required for participation in this study. The KINDEX sum score, as assessed by medical staff, correlated significantly with stress, psychopathology and trauma as measured during the clinical expert interview. The KINDEX shows strong concurrent validity. Its use by medical staff in daily clinical practice is feasible for public health contexts. Certain items in the KINDEX are related to the respective scales assessing the same risks (e.g.PSS-4 as the shorter version of the PSS-14 and items from the ESI) used in the validation interview. The KINDEX Spanish Version is a valid tool in the hands of medical staff to identify women with multiple psychosocial risk factors in public health settings. The KINDEX Spanish Version could serve as a base-instrument for the referral of at-risk women to appropriate psychosocial intervention. Such early interventions could prove pivotal

  8. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  9. Psychosocial impact of intestinal failure: a familial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadogan, Jane

    Intestinal failure is a complicated long-term condition that can have profound physical and psychosocial consequences for a patient's life. Hospitalisation can be long, with many distressing and unpleasant medical procedures being endured. Patients often have to deal with large volumes of unmanageable faecal fluid from stomas or fistulae and usually require home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for the remainder of their life. The literature focuses on how patients often have to tolerate long periods of suffering, which can be the basis for significant emotional anguish. It also addresses how the condition can contribute to myriad psychosocial difficulties, which can have devastating effects on their body image and quality of life. However, there is a lack of information regarding the effects of this condition on the family, who not only have to provide ongoing support for the patient, but also have to attempt to function normally while coping with their own fears and emotions. This article reviews the experiences of two patients, father and daughter, living with intestinal failure; it discusses their experiences and reveals how they cope with the physical aspects. It also addresses how the condition can effect psychosocial disturbances, not only for them but for those living closely with them. The article addresses ways that nurses could develop their relationship with the patient, enabling them to recognise and act early on signs of emotional malady.

  10. Ostomies in rectal cancer patients: what is their psychosocial impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, S; Stephens, E K; Jatoi, A

    2014-05-01

    The resection of a low-lying rectal cancer can lead to the creation of an ostomy to discharge fecal material. In view of this reconfiguration of anatomy and life-changing modification of daily bodily functions, it is not surprising that a rapidly growing literature has examined ostomy patients' psychosocial challenges. The current study was designed (1) to systematically review the published literature on these psychosocial challenges and (2) to explore, in a single-institution setting, whether medical oncologists appear to acknowledge the existence of an ostomy during their post-operative evaluations of rectal cancer patients. This systematic review identified that social isolation, sleep deprivation; financial concerns; sexual inhibition; and other such issues are common among patients. Surprisingly, however, in our review of 66 consecutive rectal cancer patients, in 17%, the ostomy was not mentioned at all in the medical record during the first medical oncology visit; and, in one patient, it was never mentioned at all during months of adjuvant chemotherapy. Even in the setting of ostomy complications, the ostomy was not always mentioned. This study underscores the major psychosocial issues cancer patients confront after an ostomy and suggests that healthcare providers of all disciplines should work to remain sensitive to such issues.

  11. Analysis of psychosocial factors influencing the distribution and projection of Spanish scientific activity: report of the initial qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GESCIT (Grup d'Estudis Socials de la Ciència i la Tecnologia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In this first phase of a longer study, we identify a number of psycho-social factors which are affecting science in Spain: attitudes, stereotypes, prejudices, values, beliefs, and attribution processes. We also examine how these factors might help or hinder Spanish science's greater impact in the international scientific community. This study falls within the framework of the Social Psychology of Science, the main principle of which is to explain scientific work by appeal to psycho-social variables and processes. We use qualitative methods to analyse a wide sample of material gleaned from the Spanish scientific community, and report on those elements that construct and perpetuate the perceptions, images and representations of current Spanish science research.

  12. The impact of psychosocial stress on healthy skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H J A; Momen, S E; Kleyn, C E

    2015-07-01

    Dermatologists are only too aware of the significant role psychosocial stress plays in the exacerbation of skin disease; indeed, it is often the first precipitant patients mention when they attend outpatient clinics. Of late, research has focused on understanding the 'brain-skin' axis, a complex interplay between the nervous and immune systems and the skin. In particular, there is an evolving body of literature exploring the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms by which psychosocial stress influences skin homeostasis. This article provides a broad overview of the literature, emphasizing the importance of individual stress perception and summarizing the varied roles of the major cutaneous stress-response pathways. Both central [the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the locus ceruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) sympathetic adrenomedullary system] and peripheral (the intracutaneous HPA axis and the release of mediators from peripheral sensory and autonomic nerves) pathways are discussed. Moreover, how activation of these pathways affects the skin's immune system, barrier function, wound healing and susceptibility to infection is reviewed. Although this field of research is rapidly expanding, several important questions remain unanswered, including: what is the precise role of mast cells in the cutaneous stress response?; what is the role of regulatory T-cells?; can therapeutic intervention be harnessed to prevent the stress-induced exacerbation of skin disease? It is anticipated that an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms through which psychosocial stress affects the homeostasis of healthy skin will not only increase knowledge of the brain-skin axis but will also improve the holistic management of stress-responsive cutaneous disease.

  13. Prognostic psychosocial factors for disabling low back pain in Japanese hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Takahiko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Fujii, Tomoko; Masuda, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Sakae; Matsudaira, Ko

    2017-01-01

    Although the occupational health field has identified psychosocial factors as risk factors for low back pain that causes disability, the association between disabling low back pain and psychosocial factors has not been examined adequately in Japanese hospital workers. Therefore, this study examined the association between low back pain, which interfered with work, and psychosocial factors in Japanese hospital workers. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a hospital in Japan. In total, 280 hospital workers were recruited from various occupational settings. Of these, 203 completed a self-administered questionnaire that included items concerning individual characteristics, severity of low back pain, fear-avoidance beliefs (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), somatic symptoms (Somatic Symptom Scale-8), psychological distress (K6), workaholism, and work-related psychosocial factors (response rate: 72.5%). Logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with disabling low back pain. Of the 203 participants who completed questionnaires, 36 (17.7%) reported low back pain that interfered with their work. Multivariate analyses with individual factors and occupations adjusted for showed statistically significant associations between disabling low back pain and fear-avoidance beliefs (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.619, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.003-6.538], somatic symptoms (OR: 4.034, 95% CI: 1.819-9.337), and interpersonal stress at work (OR: 2.619, 95% CI: 1.067-6.224). Psychosocial factors, such as fear-avoidance beliefs, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal relationships at work, were important risk factors in low back pain that interfered with work in Japanese hospital workers. With respect to occupational health, consideration of psychosocial factors is required to reduce disability related to low back pain.

  14. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addr

  15. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies

  16. Sickle Cell Anemia: psychosocial impact on children and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Georgousopoulou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickle cell disease (SCD dramatically affects the wellbeing of patients by leading to disabilities, poor quality-of-life and reduced life expectancy. The morbidity and chronic nature of the disease inevitably affect the psyche and behavior of both patients and their families. Objective: To review the existing literature in order to highlight the psychosocial areas which are mainly affected by SCD with respect to the patients, the cohesion and functionality of their families and the interpersonal relations between family members. Materials and Methods: Both original research and review papers published in the last 30 years were searched within the PubMed database with particular emphasis on publications since 2000. The term SCD was combined with the following key words: coping, psychosocial problems, depression, and psychological problems. Selection of articles was based on representativeness and methodological adequacy. Results: High rates of anxiety, depression, behavioral problems and difficulties in interpersonal relationships are observed in SCD patients. SCD also affects family function and coherence. A well built social welfare system (network can play a protective role. Despite the extensive documentation of psychological problems in patients with SCD, proper emphasis on prevention, etiological and holistic treatment and shielding of these families is lacking in daily clinical practice. Conclusions: The therapeutic approach of patients with SCD should always include the timely identification of dysfunctions in both children and their families and attempt to reduce the disproportionate burden that they are forced to withstand.

  17. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  18. Depression and Psychosocial Risk Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Theng, Yin-Leng; Foo, Schubert

    2015-12-01

    Depression is the most common mental and emotional disorder that emerges in the late stages of life. It is closely associated with poor health, disability, mortality, and suicide. The study examines the risk factors of depression in late life, especially the psychosocial factors, among a sample comprising 162 community-dwelling Singaporean adults aged 65 years and above. An interview-based structured survey was conducted in multiple senior activity centers located in different parts of Singapore. Results from the hierarchical regression analysis show that 32.9% of the variance in geriatric depression can be explained by the three psychosocial factors, among which loneliness, perceived social support, and the emotional regulation component of resilience are significantly associated with depression in older adults. Large-scale studies should be conducted to confirm the findings of the present study, and to further examine the predictive effects of these psychosocial factors on depression among older adults.

  19. Working conditions and psychosocial risk factors of employees in French electricity and gas company customer support departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and customers (often or very often: OR = 1.8) and an unsatisfactory workplace (OR = 2.0). Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite the initial choice; high level of psychosocial risk factors.

  20. Pediatric Coccidioidomycosis Patients: Perceptions, Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Mary Gaab

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research investigating the effects of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever on children and the psychosocial implications of this disease in general is lacking. This study reviews what is known about pediatric coccidioidomycosis patients. It documents the psychological functioning, quality of life, and illness perceptions of a sample of coccidioidomycosis patient families. Primary caregivers of pediatric patients and patients from a major hospital in the San Joaquin Valley of California were interviewed regarding their perceptions of disease detection, access to care and the patient/family experience.

  1. Pediatric Coccidioidomycosis Patients: Perceptions, Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, Erin Mary; Naeem, Fouzia

    2015-01-01

    Research investigating the effects of coccidioidomycosis (valley fever) on children and the psychosocial implications of this disease in general is lacking. This study reviews what is known about pediatric coccidioidomycosis patients. It documents the psychological functioning, quality of life, and illness perceptions of a sample of coccidioidomycosis patient families. Primary caregivers of pediatric patients and patients from a major hospital in the San Joaquin Valley of California were interviewed regarding their perceptions of disease detection, access to care and the patient/family experience. PMID:27417796

  2. Do psychosocial work environment factors measured with scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire predict register-based sickness absence of 3 weeks or more in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner; Aust, Birgit; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To analyse the predictive validity of 18 psychosocial work environment scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire version II (COPSOQ II) with regard to risk of sickness absence. METHODS: The study population consisted of 3188 wage earners (52% women) from a representative sample......% CI 1.15-1.52). After applying adjustment for multiple testing, the effect of emotional demands and of role conflict remained statistically significant, but not the effect of cognitive demands. CONCLUSIONS: Selected psychosocial work environment factors from the COPSOQ predict register-based sickness...

  3. Study oOf Important Psychosocial Factors in Institutionalized Blinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddhav T Kumbhar, Armaity Dehmubed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blindness probably is the most feared infirmity of mankind. The blind individuals were considered useless for the centuries till recent development in culture and civilization. Present study was conducted with the aim to study important psychosocial aspects of blinds undergoing formal vocational training in institutes. Objective: to identify candidates’ psychosocial profile using Self Reporting Questionnaire (S.R.Q.. Materials and Methods: it was a cross sectional study conducted in two vocational training institutes for blinds (one for males and other for females in Mumbai. The individuals were subjected to pre tested S.R.Q. and the individuals found positive with this tool and double the number of matched S.R.Q. negative controls from the institute were subjected to psychiatric examination done by qualified psychiatrist. Analysis: analysis was done using fisher’s exact test and chi square test results: 15 (7.18% blinds were found S.R.Q. positive indicating they either have or prone to have psychiatric morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological rehabilitation of the blinds should be considered before planning the vocational training of blinds.

  4. The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; AlMulhem, Alaa; Moscovici, Mario; AlShalan, Hanan; Alqazlan, Mohammad; Aldaif, Abdulgader; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disorder in some regions of the world, with over 2.3 million people diagnosed worldwide. Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest symptoms to present in the course of the disease and can cause significant morbidity. We proposed a study to explore the psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment in MS patients in Saudi Arabia, a previously unexplored patient population. Demographic data, depression scale (PHQ9), symptom burden (PHQ15), anxiety (GAD7), disease duration, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) scores were collected from 195 patients in a neurology clinic in Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify variables that are significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Variables that were identified to be significantly associated with cognition, p < 0.05, were education level, disease duration, and family history. Both education level and disease duration were variables identified in previous studies. We showed family history to be a significant variable, and no association was found with depression or anxiety, which is unique to our study population. We identified several psychosocial predictors that are associated with cognition in our patient population. It was also noted that a difference exists between patient populations, highlighting the need for further studies in specific geographical regions.

  5. The Relationship between Psychosocial Factors and Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad D. Alosaimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple sclerosis (MS is a common disorder in some regions of the world, with over 2.3 million people diagnosed worldwide. Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest symptoms to present in the course of the disease and can cause significant morbidity. We proposed a study to explore the psychosocial predictors of cognitive impairment in MS patients in Saudi Arabia, a previously unexplored patient population. Methods. Demographic data, depression scale (PHQ9, symptom burden (PHQ15, anxiety (GAD7, disease duration, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA scores were collected from 195 patients in a neurology clinic in Ryiadh, Saudi Arabia. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify variables that are significantly associated with cognitive impairment. Results. Variables that were identified to be significantly associated with cognition, p<0.05, were education level, disease duration, and family history. Discussion. Both education level and disease duration were variables identified in previous studies. We showed family history to be a significant variable, and no association was found with depression or anxiety, which is unique to our study population. Conclusions. We identified several psychosocial predictors that are associated with cognition in our patient population. It was also noted that a difference exists between patient populations, highlighting the need for further studies in specific geographical regions.

  6. Impact of Horticultural Therapy on Psychosocial Functioning among Urban Jail Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jay Stone; Remy, Linda L.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the impact of a horticultural therapy program on 48 county jail inmates. Examines the changes in psychosocial functioning of the participants while in treatment and in post-release. Explores the clinical relevance of horticultural therapy in cultivating healthy self-development. (MKA)

  7. Anticipating the psychosocial impact of disasters and crises: the need for an interdisciplinary social science framework.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duckers, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: An interdisciplinary social science framework is presented to answer the question: how to anticipate the psychosocial impact of disasters and crises? Background: The scientific knowledge on health effects, and the quality of aftercare in a disaster context is strongly rooted in

  8. The Psychosocial Impact of Closed-Circuit Televisions on Persons with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Jessica G.; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Plotkin, Ann D.

    2008-01-01

    Closed-circuit televisions (CCTVs) are used by many elderly people who have age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The functional vision of 68 participants, which was measured immediately after they adopted CCTVs, suggested successful outcomes, but the psychosocial impact of the use of CCTVs did not peak until a month later. The findings help…

  9. Workplace levels of psychosocial factors as prospective predictors of registered sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether workplace levels of psychosocial work environment factors predict individual sickness absence. METHODS: Data were collected in a prospective study in 52 Danish workplaces in three organizations: municipal care, technical services, and a pharmaceutical...... company. Psychosocial factors were aggregated as workplace means. We used multilevel Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors as predictors and individual level sickness absence from absence registries as outcome. RESULTS: High workplace levels of decision authority predicted low sickness...... absence in the technical services (rate ratio = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.51-0.86) and high workplace levels of skill discretion predicted low sickness absence in the pharmaceutical company (rate ratio = 0.74, 95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.88) after control for relevant confounders. Workplaces...

  10. The impact of psychosocial stress on conceptual knowledge retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christian J; Dietsch, Florian; Schneider, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The acquisition of conceptual knowledge in scientific domains is among the central aims of school instruction because this semantic declarative knowledge helps individuals make interferences and explain complex phenomena. Recent research shows that naïve concepts acquired during childhood persist in long-term memory long after learning the scientifically correct concepts in school. In this study, we investigated the effects of stress on the retrieval of these conceptual representations. To this end, 40 healthy men were randomly assigned to either psychosocial stress or a control condition and evaluated, as quickly and accurately as possible, statements that were compatible with scientific concepts or incompatible with those concepts. Some of these statements were true and some were false. Incompatible statements in this case are statements which are in line with adults' scientific concepts, but not with children's naïve theories. In contrast, compatible statements are in line with both. Stress induction was successful as evidenced by increases in blood pressure and cortisol concentrations in the stress group compared to the control group. Responses were delayed and less accurate for incompatible compared to compatible statements. Psychosocial stress had no main effect on retrieval, but abolished reaction time differences on false- vs. true-incompatible statements. This effect was mirrored in correlations between individuals' cortisol increases and reaction times. These results suggest that stress, as embodied by increases in cortisol concentrations, interferes with the retrieval of conceptual knowledge. They help to better understand conceptual knowledge retrieval in real-life situations such as examinations or problem solving in the workplace.

  11. Adolescent Psychosocial Risk Factors for Severe Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined prospective measures of psychosocial risk factors as predictors of severe intimate partner violence among a community sample of 610 young adults at risk for intergenerational transmission of depression. The hypothesized risk factors were youth history of depression by age 15 and maternal history of depression. Youth social…

  12. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted amon

  13. Biomedical and psychosocial factors influencing transtibial prosthesis fit : a Delphi survey among health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, Erwin C.; Schrier, Ernst; Geertzen, Jan H.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to reach consensus among professionals caring for prosthesis users, on definitions of biomedical and psychosocial factors, to assess their influence on fit of transtibial prosthesis and to identify new factors. Method: A three-round, internet-based, Delphi survey was conducted amon

  14. Psychosocial factors and mental health in cancer patients: Opportunities for health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.; Elving, W.J.L.; Seydel, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A first step in planning health promotion with respect to mental health is analysing the factors that influence mental health. Diagnosis of the relevant variables may contribute to the design of effective health promotion programmes. In this paper the relationship between psychosocial factors and me

  15. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva L. Bergsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP and shoulder pain (SP were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW by 30% (low back and 18% (shoulders, and intense pain (PINT occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99 and 2.68 (1.09–6.61 while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49 and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65 and 2.11 (1.08–4.12. Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation.

  16. Which psychosocial factors are related to chelation adherence in thalassemia? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangeli, Michael; Mughal, Kulsoom; Porter, John B

    2010-06-01

    Good adherence to iron chelation therapy in thalassemia is crucial. Although there is evidence that adherence is related to regimen factors, there has been less emphasis on the relationship between psychosocial (psychological, demographic and social) factors and adherence. We present a systematic review of psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence in thalassemia. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Information was extracted regarding the study characteristics and the relationship between psychosocial factors and chelation adherence. Methodological quality was rated. The studies took place in a range of countries, were mostly cross sectional in design, and examined adherence to deferoxamine (DFO) only. Sample sizes ranged from 15 to 1573. A variety of psychosocial variables were examined. Definitions of adherence varied between studies and non adherence rates were also variable (9 to 66%). Older age was consistently associated with lower levels of chelation adherence. There were few other consistent findings. The methodological quality of studies was variable. There is a need for more methodologically sophisticated and theoretically informed studies on psychosocial correlates of chelation adherence. We offer specific suggestions.

  17. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Bulimia Nervosa during Pregnancy: An Internal Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Hunna J.; Von Holle, Ann; Knoph, Cecilie; Hamer, Robert M.; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Magnus, Per; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this paper was to internally validate previously reported relations (1) between psychosocial factors and bulimia nervosa (BN) outcomes during pregnancy. Method This study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Participants were women enrolled during pregnancy (N = 69,030). Internal validity was evaluated by way of bootstrapped parameter estimates using the overall sample and a split sample calibration approach. Results Bootstrap bias estimates were below the problematic threshold, and extend earlier findings(1) by providing support for the validity of the models at the population level of all pregnant women in Norway. Bootstrap risk ratios indicated that prevalence, incidence, and remission of BN during pregnancy were significantly associated with psychosocial factors. The split sample procedure showed that the models developed on the training sample did not predict risks in the validation sample. Discussion This study characterizes associations between psychosocial exposures and BN outcomes among pregnant women in Norway. Women with lifetime and current self-reported psychosocial adversities were at a much higher risk for BN during pregnancy. Psychosocial factors were associated with BN remission during pregnancy, inviting the prospect of enhancing therapeutic interventions. We consider the findings in the context of reproducibility in science. PMID:25346291

  18. Impact of the size of the class on pupils’ psychosocial well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.B.; Kalvåg, H.; Pons, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Most research on class size effect focuses on pupils’ school achievement but few on pupils’ psychosocial well-being. On the other hand an increasing number of studies have showed that there is a link between pupils’ psychosocial well-being and their school achievement. 97 Danish typically...... developing 3rd grade pupils were tested. They were divided into 3 class size groups: Small (10 pupils), Medium (20 pupils), and Large (25 pupils). The average age (10 years) and the proportion of boys and girls (50%) and SES (medium) were similar in the 3 class size groups. Pupils’ psychosocial well......-being was assessed with the Beck Youth Inventories of Emotional and Social Impairment, the Test of Emotion Comprehension, the Me and the School questionnaire, and The Pupil’s Self-report. Preliminary analyses showed that increasing class size had a significant increasing impact on pupils’ disruptive behaviours...

  19. QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE: importance of clinical, demographic and psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana MAGALHÃES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Inflammatory bowel disease causes physical and psychosocial consequences that can affect the health related quality of life. Objectives To analyze the relationship between clinical and sociodemographic factors and quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Methods Ninety two patients with Crohn’s disease and 58 with ulcerative colitis, filled in the inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ-32 and a questionnaire to collect sociodemographic and clinical data. The association between categorical variables and IBDQ-32 scores was determined using Student t test. Factors statistically significant in the univariate analysis were included in a multivariate regression model. Results IBDQ-32 scores were significantly lower in female patients (P<0.001, patients with an individual perception of a lower co-workers support (P<0.001 and career fulfillment (P<0.001, patients requiring psychological support (P = 0.010 and pharmacological treatment for anxiety or depression (P = 0.002. A multivariate regression analysis identified as predictors of impaired HRQOL the female gender (P<0.001 and the perception of a lower co-workers support (P = 0.025 and career fulfillment (P = 0.001. Conclusions The decrease in HRQQL was significantly related with female gender and personal perception of disease impact in success and social relations. These factors deserve a special attention, so timely measures can be implemented to improve the quality of life of patients.

  20. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents......The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first 3 criteria....... The results of the 2 papers pointed in the same direction, namely that only the control dimension of job strain explained the excess risk for myocardial infarction for job strain. The large number of underpowered studies and the focus on psychosocial models, such as the job strain models, make it difficult...

  1. Factors influencing psychosocial development of preschool children in a rural area of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Aggarwal, A K; Kaur, M; Iyengar, S D

    1997-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, 3746 children aged less than 6 years residing in 47 randomly selected villages of district Ambala (India), were studied to find out the environmental risk factors influencing psychosocial development. A culture appropriate test battery comprising 67 test items was administered, and psychosocial development score of each child was computed by scoring each test item passed as 1 and failed as 0. At each age level children having score in lower quartile were categorised as having slow psychosocial development and those in upper quartile were labelled as having accelerated development. Logistic regression revealed that per capita income, education of mother, nutritional status of the child, number of rooms and environmental hygiene in the house, presence of a high school within easy travel distance, availability of a caretaker when mother is busy, child attending a nursery (anganwadi), households having access to newspaper, child having toys or toy substitutes, TV, books, story telling by the mother were found to have a significant association with psychosocial development of preschool children. The risk factors identified in this survey can be used for screening families at risk in rural communities and for selection of interventions for promotion of psychosocial development of children.

  2. The effect of a joint communication campaign on multiple sex partners in Mozambique: the role of psychosocial/ideational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Kincaid, D Lawrence; Hurley, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Mozambique is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa most affected by the HIV epidemic. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MSP/CP) have been recognized as one of the key drivers in the rapid spread of HIV in the region. Though HIV prevention programs have been successful in increasing condom use and HIV testing, reducing the practice of MSP/CP has been more difficult. Grounding their interventions in social and behavior change theory, four organizations in Mozambique joined efforts to implement a year-long, multimedia national campaign for HIV prevention with emphasis on the reduction of MSP/CP. Evaluating its impact and identifying the factors that hinder or contribute to its success are critical to building effective programs in the future. With data from a 2011 population-based survey of 1427 sexually active women and men, multivariate causal attribution (MCA) analysis was used to estimate the impact of the campaign in the four regions of Mozambique with the highest levels of HIV prevalence. The analysis tested the psychosocial pathways through which the campaign was expected to affect MSP. The results indicate that exposure (recall) was high; 81.2% of the respondents could recall one or more of the communication campaign components. The campaign had a significant indirect impact on MSP through its negative effect on attitudes that favor MSP, and its positive effect on knowledge and discussion of MSP risk with sex partner. This study demonstrates the value of identifying appropriate psychosocial factors and using them to design the campaign communication strategy, and evaluate the causal pathways by which it has an impact. The campaign was successful in changing MSP behavior by working through two psychosocial variables.

  3. Do Psychosocial Factors Predict Muscle Strength, Pain, or Physical Performance in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Meeus, Mira; Mahmoudian, Armaghan; Luyten, Frank P; Nijs, Jo; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors, namely, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and maladaptive coping strategies, with muscle strength, pain, and physical performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)-related symptoms. A total of 109 women (64 with knee OA-related symptoms) with a mean age of 65.4 years (49-81 years) were recruited for this study. Psychosocial factors were quantified by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, and Pain Coping Inventory. Clinical features were assessed using isometric and isokinetic knee muscle strength measurements, visual analog scale, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, and functional tests. Associations were examined using correlation and regression analysis. In knee OA patients, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy explained a significant proportion of the variability in isometric knee extension and flexion strength (6.3%-9.2%), accounting for more overall variability than some demographic and medical status variables combined. Psychosocial factors were not significant independent predictors of isokinetic strength, knee pain, or physical performance. In understanding clinical features related to knee OA, such as muscle weakness, pain catastrophizing, kinesiophobia, and coping strategy might offer something additional beyond what might be explained by traditional factors, underscoring the importance of a biopsychosocial approach in knee OA management. Further research on individual patient characteristics that mediate the effects of psychosocial factors is, however, required in order to create opportunities for more targeted, personalized treatment for knee OA.

  4. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  5. The significance of psychosocial factors of the working environment in the development of sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sick building syndrome (SBS is a medical condition in which people in a certain buildings suffer from symptoms of illness or feeling unwell. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure of the employees of public institutions from the city of Osijek to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment, to assess whether there is a connection between the exposure to these factors and the incidence of SBS symptoms and to clarify the nature of this connection.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2013 among 178 employees of public institutions in the city of Osijek. An anonymous questionnaire which contained questions relating to demographic data and working status of the participants, their exposure to various harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and occurrence of certain symptoms of SBS among them was used as a research tool.Results: 96.1 % (171/178 of participants were exposed to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment. Employees exposed to those factors more frequently expressed symptoms of SBS. The incidence and the number of symptoms of SBS among employees simultaneously grew with the increase of the number of harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment to which they were exposed.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the exposure to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and the incidence of SBS symptoms, highlighting this issue as a very important subject in the field of occupational medicine and health protection in the workplace.

  6. Relationship of psychosocial factors to HIV risk among Haitian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, R M; Cassagnol, T; McMahon, R; Jennings, T E; Roatta, V G

    2000-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among low-income, Haitian women, identifies theoretically relevant mediating psychosocial HIV risk predictors, and provides formative data for developing culturally and gender sensitive interventions for this distinctive, high risk, and understudied population. Confidential interview surveys were administered to 101 women of Haitian descent while they awaited their medical appointments at a local low-income, community medical clinic. Moderately high levels of sexual risk behavior (i.e., unprotected sex with nonmonogamous partners; multiple lifetime partners) were reported. On average, these women reported a belief in their HIV susceptibility, relatively little HIV-related anxiety, somewhat inadequate levels of communication regarding safer sex practices, and lack of adequate confidence in their ability to negotiate safer behaviors in sexual encounters. Both personal and partner condom attitudes were unfavorable and these attitudes predicted condom use levels. It was concluded that interventions need to be developed for Haitian women to improve their attitudes toward condom use and their confidence in negotiating safer sexual practices. However, these interventions cannot be developed in a vacuum. Although it is crucial to consider the woman's individual attitudes and behaviors, it is also important to consider the male partner's attitudes toward sex and the woman's relationship with her male partner within the context of Haitian culture. Only by determining and targeting important potential motivations for safe sex within the cultural context can we most effectively reduce HIV sex risk behavior in Haitian women.

  7. Association of psychosocial and demographic factors with postpartum negative thoughts and appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Pauline L; Holden, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The impact of psychosocial and demographic factors on symptoms of postpartum depression remains unclear. This study aimed to explore whether particular maternal sociodemographic variables were associated with postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals. Data were collected from a community sample of 181 mothers with infants aged 0 to 7 months. Participants completed and returned anonymous questionnaires including the Postnatal Negative Thoughts Questionnaire (PNTQ) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. The PNTQ is a self-report scale to detect and measure postpartum negative cognitions. It consists of 2 factors: "baby- related and motherhood negative thoughts" (BRM-NT) and "appraisals of cognition, emotion and situation" (ACES). Analyses revealed that practical and emotional support and satisfaction with this support were related to low ACES scores, and mothers of infant boys were more likely to have high ACES scores (ie, more negative appraisals of their own thinking). Satisfaction with practical and emotional support was also related to low BRM-NT scores. Logistic regression analyses revealed that sex of infant predicted ACES scores, whereby having a boy predicted high ACES scores. In conclusion, this study found that postpartum negative thoughts and negative appraisals are correlated with the amount and satisfaction of support received, and having an infant boy was found to reliably predict a tendency to appraise thoughts negatively.

  8. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Psychosocial Factors at Work Among Healthcare Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson Hanse, Jan; Harlin, Ulrika; Jarebrant, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study aims to examine the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX) and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was undertaken at four units in two not-for-profit hospitals in southwestern Sweden. The study sample included 240 employees......-quality LMX was associated with good psychosocial work conditions experienced by the employees. Conclusions: The results support possible ways for managers and employees to strengthen their relationships and this may in turn lead to more sustainable systems in health care....

  9. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...

  10. Urban form and psychosocial factors : Do they interact for leisure-time walking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, Mariëlle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Burdorf, Alex; Van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model on the hierarchy of walking needs to explore direct associations and interactions of urban-form characteristics and individual psychosocial factors for leisure-time walking. METHODS: Questionnaire data (n = 736)

  11. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Non-Smoking Adolescents' Intentions to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian N.; Bean, Melanie K.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Speizer, Ilene S.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. Most adult smokers began smoking during adolescence, making youth tobacco prevention an especially important public health goal. Guided by an extension of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the role of psychosocial factors in accounting for adolescents'…

  12. Physical and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Physical Activity in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Jorine E.; Boezen, H. Marike; de Greef, Mathieu H.; ten Hacken, Nick H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess physical activity and sitting time in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to investigate which physical and psychosocial factors are associated with physical activity and sitting time. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Patients were recruited at

  13. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents...

  14. Psychosocial factors influencing the recovery of athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injury : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, S. C. M.; van der Sluis, A.; van den Akker-Scheek, I.; Elferink-Gemser, M. T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    This review describes the psychosocial factors that affect recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstructive surgery in athletes. A systematic search in literature with inclusion and exclusion criteria on PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase was performed. Articles used in this r

  15. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Quality of Life among Individuals with Chronic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gloria K.; Chronister, Julie; Bishop, Malachy

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) of 171 individuals with chronic pain. Participants completed a battery of self-rated inventories measuring three sets of predictor variables--demographic (age, gender, income, marital status), pain-specific (chronicity, severity, duration, frequency, pain…

  16. Conflict in the Indian Kashmir Valley II: psychosocial impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromm Silke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India and Pakistan have disputed ownership of the Kashmir Valley region for many years, resulting in high levels of exposure to violence among the civilian population of Kashmir (India. A survey was done as part of routine programme evaluation to assess confrontation with violence and its consequences on mental health, health service usage, and socio-economic functioning. Methods We undertook a two-stage cluster household survey in two districts of Kashmir (India using questionnaires adapted from other conflict areas. Analysis was stratified for gender. Results Over one-third of respondents (n = 510 were found to have symptoms of psychological distress (33.3%, CI: 28.3–38.4; women scoring significantly higher (OR 2.5; CI: 1.7–3.6. A third of respondents had contemplated suicide (33.3%, CI: 28.3–38.4. Feelings of insecurity were associated with higher levels of psychological distress for both genders (males: OR 2.4, CI: 1.3–4.4; females: OR 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.3. Among males, violation of modesty, (OR 3.3, CI: 1.6–6.8, forced displacement, (OR 3.5, CI: 1.7–7.1, and physical disability resulting from violence (OR 2.7, CI: 1.2–5.9 were associated with greater levels of psychological distress; for women, risk factors for psychological distress included dependency on others for daily living (OR 2.4, CI: 1.3–4.8, the witnessing of killing (OR 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.4, and torture (OR 2.1, CI: 1.2–3.7. Self-rated poor health (male: OR 4.4, CI: 2.4–8.1; female: OR 3.4, CI: 2.0–5.8 and being unable to work (male: OR 6.7, CI: 3.5–13.0; female: OR 2.6, CI: 1.5–4.4 were associated with mental distress. Conclusion The ongoing conflict exacts a huge toll on the communities' mental well-being. We found high levels of psychological distress that impacts on daily life and places a burden on the health system. Ongoing feelings of personal vulnerability (not feeling safe was associated with high levels of psychological distress

  17. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

  18. Suicide behavior and associated psychosocial factors among adolescents in Campeche, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Forteza, Catalina; Juárez-López, Carlos E; Jiménez, Alberto; Montejo-León, Liliana; Rodríguez-Santisbón, Ulises R; Wagner, Fernando A

    2017-09-13

    Suicide is an important public health problem that requires a preventive approach. The present study aimed at assessing suicidal behaviors and their relations with other psychosocial factors in Campeche, Mexico, in order to inform the design of potential preventive interventions. A multistage probability sample of 2386 students representative of all middle schools of the state of Campeche, Mexico, took a standardized, paper-and-pencil survey covering selected psychosocial constructs including suicide behavior, depression, drug use, familial relationships, locus of control, impulsivity, and self-esteem, among others. Latent classes were identified and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze associations between class membership and psychosocial covariates. An estimated 8% of the middle school population in Campeche had three or more psychosocial problems in the past month including drug use, major depression episode symptoms, as well as suicidal problems like attempts and self-inflicted injuries. Four latent classes were identified, one with lowest risk and three with varying characteristics in terms of binge alcohol and other drug use, depression, and suicide behaviors. Associations between psychosocial covariates and latent class were observed, as predicted based on a multi-dimensional theoretical framework. Heterogeneity across "High-Risk" groups and their potential determinants highlight the need for differentiated, specialized efforts ranging from universal to indicated interventions. Given the high level of risk factors in this population, universal preventive interventions should aim at building resiliency among youth by helping them develop an array of coping resources, as well as by creating a more nurturing psychosocial environment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors for Adolescent Alcohol Use and Misuse in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Whitehorne-Smith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study sought to determine if there were gender differences in the impact of five psychosocial risk and protective factors for adolescent alcohol use. The five factors considered by the study were family relationships, self-esteem, peer pressure, religious involvement and school performance. Method: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study which utilized a 96-item self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire captured key demographic and alcohol-related information. It also consisted of three standardized scales: the Cernkovich and Giordano’s Family Relationship Scale, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the CAGE questionnaire. Data were collected from students 12−18 years old in three schools in the Kingston and St Andrew area in Jamaica. Results: There were 240 participants in the study, 121 males and 119 females. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between male and female adolescent alcohol use in the last 30 days. There was also no significant difference between male and female adolescent risk of substance abuse. Logistic regression analysis of risk factor for each gender revealed that for males, their family relationship, peer pressure and self-esteem were significant predictors for alcohol use, while for females, peer pressure and school performance were significant predictors for alcohol use. Religious involvement was not found to be a significant protective factor for either gender. Conclusion: Gender differences in risk and protective factors exist among Jamaican adolescents. Further research needs to be done to determine the extent of these differences which need to be considered in the development of prevention and intervention programmes.

  20. Psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in insufficiently active adults with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, G M E E Geeske; Brown, Wendy J; Burton, Nicola W

    2015-09-01

    Although physical activity can potentially reduce symptoms of arthritis, 50% of people with arthritis are insufficiently active. The aim was to identify psychosocial factors associated with increased physical activity in mid-age adults with arthritis who did not meet recommended physical activity levels. Longitudinal cohort study. Data were from 692 insufficiently active men and women (mean age 55 ± 6.6 years) with arthritis, who answered mailed surveys in 2007 and 2009 in the HABITAT study. Increased physical activity was defined as a change of ≥ 200 MET min/week in walking, moderate and vigorous activities from 2007 to 2009. Scale scores were used to measure psychosocial factors including intention, experiences, attitudes, efficacy, barriers, motivation, social support, and health professional advice. Associations between (1) 2007 psychosocial factors and (2) 2007-2009 improvement (≥ +1 standard deviation) in psychosocial factors and increased physical activity were examined with logistic regression models. Results were adjusted for education, body mass index, and self-rated health. Between 2007 and 2009, 296 participants (42.8%) increased their physical activity. Engagement, mastery and physical activity intention in 2007 were associated with this increase in physical activity (engagement OR = 1.11, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.17; mastery OR = 1.12, 99%CI = 1.02-1.22; physical activity intention OR = 1.29, 99%CI = 1.06-1.56). Improved scores for encouragement (OR = 2.07, CI = 1.07-4.01) and self-efficacy (OR =2 .27, CI = 1.30-3.97) were also significantly associated with increased physical activity. Positive physical activity experiences and intentions were predictors of increased physical activity among people with arthritis. Improved physical activity confidence and social support were associated with increased physical activity. It is important to consider these psychosocial factors when planning physical activity interventions for people with

  1. Influence of psychosocial factors on treatment of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guolong Yu; Tianlun Yang; Cesar V. Borlongan; Christine E. Stahl; Xiumei Xie; Jin He; Biefei Li; Ke Xia

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of psychosocial factors on the treatment of elderly patients with hypertension. Methods Atotalof 260 elderly Chinese patients with hypertension were treated with benazepril alone or benazepril combined with amlodipine for 8 weeks. The target blood pressure (BP) (both <140 mmHg systolic, SBP, and <90 mmHg diastolic, DBP)was achieved in 180 patients, who were then assigned to the well-controlled BP group; the rest were placed in the modestly controlled BP group. The psychosocial factors present in both groups were assessed by the Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton anxiety scale, life event scale and social support evaluation list before and after anti-hypertensive treatment. Results There were no significant differences in gender, mean age, hist ory of hypertension, education and smoking habit, or in SBP and DBP between the groups before treatment.Significant differences were also not found in all psychosocial factors before and after treatment in the patients. However, significant differences were found between the groups with respect to post-treatment SBP and marital status. The patients with modestly controlled BP had significantly higher scores, as well as incidents, on the depressive, anxiety, and stressful life event scales than those with well-controlled BP. The patients with well-controlled BP had significantly higher scores in tangible support, subjective support,and social support compared to the patients with modestly controlled BP. Logistic regression analysis showed the independent contribution of psychosocial factors in reaching the goal of lowering BP at treatment endpoint in these hypertensive patients. Conclusions The results suggest that psychosocial factors stand as a main barrier to achieving the BP-lowering target in the management of elderly Chinese patients with hypertension.

  2. Adverse psychosocial factors predict poorer prognosis in HIV disease: a meta-analytic review of prospective investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Vedhara, Kavita

    2009-05-01

    There is a growing epidemiological literature focusing on the association between psychosocial stress and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), but inconsistent findings have been published. We aimed to quantify the association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. We searched Medline; PsycINFO; Web of Science; PubMed up to 19 January 2009, and included population studies with a prospective design that investigated associations between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression or AIDS. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and estimates of associations. The overall meta-analysis examined 36 articles including 100 psychosocial and disease related relationships. It exhibited a small, but robust positive association between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV progression (correlation coefficient as combined size effect 0.059, 95% confidence interval 0.043-0.074, pHIV disease progression than stress stimuli per se, and that all of the immunological and clinical outcome indicators (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome stage, CD4+ T-cell decline, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus disease or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome symptoms) except for viral load exhibited detrimental effects by adverse psychosocial factors. In conclusion, the current review reveals a robust relationship between adverse psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Furthermore, there would appear to be some evidence for particular psychosocial factors to be most strongly associated with HIV disease progression.

  3. The Psychosocial Impact of Diabetes in Adolescents: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhel Ashraff

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 Diabetes mellitus is known to have a major psychological impact on adolescents. Different types of therapies have been developed to support the patient as well as their families to deal with this impact. These include Behavioral Family Systems Therapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. However, studies conducted recently, though few in numbers have shown a direct relationship between general psychological functioning and metabolic control. Self-management of diabetes and its complication therefore, is an integral part of these program. This review looks into the various studies carried out that decide the best approach towards addressing the psychological aspect of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

  4. Living with hearing loss: psychosocial impact and the role of social support

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, S.; Alexandre, J.; Esteves, F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hearing loss is one of the most common diseases affecting older occupying the 10th place among the diseases with greatest influence in human life conditions, and in Portugal it is considered the 5th main cause of suffering in this population. Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the psychosocial impact (daily activities, social activities, general emotional state) of this disease as a function of the hearing loss degree (mild, moderate or severe)On the other hand...

  5. [Psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal workers in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo-Vélez, Gonzalo; Carrasco, Jairo; Bastías, Álvaro; Méndez, María Doris; Jiménez, Andrés

    2015-05-01

    Characterize the relationship between psychosocial risk factors and work satisfaction in female seasonal agricultural workers in central Chile. Cross-sectional study in a non-probability sample of 106 female workers for a fruit trading and export company in the region of Maule, Chile. The interviews were conducted in September and October 2013. The SUSESO ISTA-21 questionnaire was used to evaluate five areas of psychosocial risk in the workplace (psychological requirements, active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, compensation, and "double presence"). Questionnaire S10/12 was used to measure labor satisfaction in three areas (satisfaction with benefits received, satisfaction with the company's physical environment, and satisfaction with supervision) and satisfaction in general. The level of psychosocial risk was high in two areas (double presence, and active work and possibilities of development) and medium in the other areas; the level of satisfaction was high in all three areas. The perception of psychosocial risk factors was negatively associated with work satisfaction in three areas: active work and opportunities for development, social support in the company and quality of leadership, and compensation (compensation was negatively associated except for satisfaction with the company's physical environment). Risks associated with seasonal work and the main issues that workers consider to affect their satisfaction with work and, by extension, their general well-being, are concentrated mainly in the three areas identified.

  6. When Women with Cystic Fibrosis Become Mothers: Psychosocial Impact and Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L. Cammidge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment and life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF patients mean that motherhood is now a realistic option for many women with CF. This qualitative study explored the psychosocial impact and adjustments made when women with CF become mothers. Women with CF (n=11 were recruited via an online forum and participated in semistructured telephone interviews about their experiences of becoming a mother. Transcriptions were analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis revealed three core categories: (i “Living with CF”: how becoming a mother impacted on health and treatment adherence, requiring a change in support from the CF team, (ii “Becoming a Mother”: balancing issues common to new mothers with their CF, and (iii “Pooling Personal Resources”: coping strategies in managing the dual demands of child and CF care. Participants experienced a variety of complex psychosocial processes. Most participants acknowledged an initial negative impact on CF care; however over time they reported successful adaptation to managing dual commitments and that adherence and motivation to stay well had improved. This study highlights the need for preconceptual psychosocial counselling and postpartum adjustment to CF care.

  7. Economic and psychosocial impact of rotavirus infection in Spain: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Aristegui, Javier; López-Belmonte, Juan Luis; Pedrós, Montse; Sicilia, José García

    2014-06-24

    Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in children under 5 years of age. A literature review was performed to investigate the economic and psychosocial impact of rotavirus infection in children in this age group. We retrieved 56 articles on the economic burden of the disease in Europe, 18 of them reported data from Spain; 8 articles were retrieved analysing its psychosocial impact. In Spain, rotavirus is responsible for 14% to 30% of all cases of gastroenteritis, and a quarter of these require hospitalisation. It is also associated with high use of health care resources (emergency and primary care visits). Rotavirus gastroenteritis costs the Spanish national health system EUR 28 million a year and causes productivity loss in two-thirds of parents (mean of 4 days). Taking into account these costs, it was estimated that implementing universal vaccination could prevent 76% to 95% of hospital admissions due to rotavirus gastroenteritis, as well as reduce emergency and paediatric visits, nosocomial infections, and days missed from work (77% reduction). Rotavirus gastroenteritis also has a considerable psychosocial impact on the family, although it is difficult to compare results due to the diversity of study designs and the low specificity of the measurement tools used. It also causes high stress among parents, adding to their workload and adversely affecting their quality of life.

  8. psychosocial impact of irritable bowel syndrome: A brief review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah; Ballou; Alyse; Bedell; Laurie; Keefer

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome(IBS) is a common disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with unclear etiology and no reliable biomarker. Like other chronic and functional disorders, medical treatments for IBS are suboptimal and the overall illness burden is high. Patients with IBS report high rates of psychopathology, low quality of life, and increased suicidal ideation. These patients also miss more days of work, are less productive at work, and use many healthcare resources. However, little is known about the burden of IBS on daily functioning. The primary aim of this paper is to review the current literature on the burden of IBS and to highlight the need for further research to evaluate the impact of IBS on daily activities. This research would contribute to our existing understanding of the impact of IBS on overall quality of life and well-being.

  9. Interaction between physical and psychosocial work risk factors for low back symptoms and its consequences amongst Indonesian coal mining workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widanarko, Baiduri; Legg, Stephen; Devereux, Jason; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the interaction between physical and psychosocial factors for low back symptoms (LBS) and its consequences (reduced activities and absenteeism) in a developing country. A sample of 1294 Indonesian coal mining workers reported occupational exposures, LBS and its consequences using a self-administered questionnaire. Respondents were placed into one of four combination exposure groups: high physical and high psychosocial (HPhyHPsy); high physical and low psychosocial (HPhyLPsy); low physical and high psychosocial (LPhyHPsy), and; low physical and low psychosocial (LPhyLPsy). The attributable proportion due to interaction between physical and psychosocial factors was examined. Individuals in the HPhyHPsy group were most likely to report LBS (OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.30-8.89), reduced activities (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.09-7.74), and absenteeism (OR 4.96, 95% CI 3.05-8.06). Interactions between physical and psychosocial factors were present for LBS, reduced activities, and absenteeism; although for LBS and absenteeism the interactions were not significant. Current smokers were more likely to report LBS consequences. Permanent employment and night shift work increased the odds of LBS and its consequences. We conclude that interventions aimed at reducing LBS and its consequences should address both physical and psychosocial factors, with a focus on smokers, permanent employment and night shift work.

  10. Impact of psychosocial training on burnout, engagement and resilience among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Škodová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of psychosocial training, with a focus on increasing social and coping skills, on the levels of burnout and engagement in students in various healthcare professions. Design: A quasi-experimental design was used in the present study. Methods: 97 students (20.2 ‘ 1.49; 95.9% female of psychology, nursing and midwifery participated in the research (50 students in an experimental group receiving psychosocial training, and 47 students in a control group. To measure burnout, the School Burnout Inventory (SBI, Antonovski Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES and Baruth Protective Factors Inventory (BPFI were employed. Data were statistically analyzed using correlation analysis, Student's t-test, and the ANOVA with LSD post hoc tests. Results: A statistically significant decrease in burnout syndrome (95 % CI: 5.26; 11.94, and an increased sense of coherence (95 % CI: -11.48; -3.37 and resilience (95 % CI: -7.92; -1.70 were found in the experimental group of students after psychosocial training, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Research assumptions regarding engagement were not confirmed. Conclusion: The research study has shown that psychosocial training as a method has a positive effect on burnout syndrome and related personality characteristics among students of the healthcare professions, and is thus a relevant and appropriate method of burnout prevention.

  11. Psychosocial factors and treatment adherence in paediatric HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naar-King, S; Arfken, C; Frey, M; Harris, M; Secord, E; Ellis, D

    2006-08-01

    A social ecological model provides a promising framework for understanding the individual, family, and societal factors contributing to non-adherence to treatment of paediatric HIV. This study explored which factors relevant to this model are associated with caregivers' adherence and child health outcomes. A cross-sectional design was utilized to assess relationships among current individual, familial, extra-familial factors, caregiver adherence, and viral load. Data were collected from 43 caregivers, and viral load data were obtained from the medical records of their HIV+ children. Caregiver drug and alcohol use and HIV+ status were associated with non-adherence and elevated viral load. Negative outcome expectancy was associated with lower adherence but was not significant in the multivariate analyses. Family factors were not significant, but these measures had low reliability in this sample. Extra-familial factors such as dissatisfaction with medical specialty care and more stressful life events were not directly associated with adherence but were related to increased caregiver substance use. Results of this first study to explore multiple predictors of adherence and health outcomes in paediatric HIV require replication with larger samples, but findings suggest caregiver characteristics that place children at risk for disease progression due to poor adherence to treatment.

  12. Vitiligo impact scale: An instrument to assess the psychosocial burden of vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurang S Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Vitiligo is a disease that significantly impairs quality of life. Previous studies have shown that vitiligo has an impact that may not correlate with the size and extent of depigmentation, indicating a need for an independent measure of the psychosocial burden. Aims : To develop a rating scale to assess the psychosocial impact of vitiligo. Methods : The study was undertaken in three broad phases: item generation, pre- and pilot testing, and test administration. Items were generated largely from a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of patients. Face and content validity were assessed through pre- and pilot testing in 80 patients and the final version was administered to 100 patients who also received the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI and the Skindex-16. Each patient also underwent a physician global assessment (PGA of the impact of vitiligo. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 20 patients. Results: Of 72 items initially generated for the scale, 27 were retained in the final version. Subjects were able to comprehend the items and took about 5-7 min to complete the instrument. The scale was internally consistent (Cronbach′s α = 0.85. Scores on the scale correlated moderately well with the DLQI and the Skindex (Spearman rank correlation: 0.51 and 0.65, respectively. The scale was able to discriminate between patients having mild and those having moderate and severe impact as assessed by PGA. The test-retest reliability coefficient (Spearman rank correlation was 0.80. Conclusion: The Vitiligo Impact Scale appears to be a valid measure of the psychosocial impact of vitiligo and this instrument may be useful both in the clinic and in clinical trials.

  13. Are psychosocial factors associated with quality of life in patients with haematological cancer? A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allart, Priscilla; Soubeyran, Pierre; Cousson-Gélie, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Haematological cancers differ from other cancers mainly with regard to treatment strategies: surgery is used for diagnostic purposes but rarely for treatment, whereas chemotherapy is of central importance and, in some cases, cures patients. This article reviews studies that examine the relationships between psychosocial factors and quality of life (QoL) in haematological cancer patients. A review of the literature was conducted from the databases 'PsycInfo', 'Medline' and 'Science Direct' using the keywords 'lymphoma', 'leukaemia', 'myeloma', 'quality of life', 'psychosocial factors', 'coping', 'social support', 'personality', 'anxiety,' 'depression', 'locus of control' and 'alexithymia'. Fourteen studies were analysed. One study found positive relationships between sense of coherence and health-related QoL, whereas another showed a positive link between self-esteem and QoL. Another study suggested that a high external health locus of control was related to a better QoL. Fighting spirit had a positive impact on QoL for two studies, and helplessness-hopelessness was positively related to emotional distress in one study. Two studies indicated the relationships between emotional distress and QoL. Satisfaction with information about disease determined emotional distress in another study. Social support, general health perceptions, global meaning or spirituality were found to improve QoL in four other reports. Literature about the relationships between psychosocial factors and QoL is lacking. Sense of coherence, self-esteem and health locus of control, coping strategies, social support, global meaning or emotional distress are associated with QoL. Results concerning coping and social support should be interpreted with caution because of level II evidence in studies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial Factors Related to Underuse of Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S; Leukefeld, Carl G; Brook, David W

    2016-08-01

    In this longitudinal study, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the historical, predisposing, enabling/barrier, and need factors as related to the underuse of medical services during early midlife. We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife. The findings supported a mediational model: A mutually affectionate parent-child relationship in early adolescence was inversely related to underuse of medical services in early midlife via the mediational roles played by later predisposing factors (i.e., depressive mood and cigarette smoking), need factor (i.e., physical health problems), barriers (i.e., financial difficulty), and enabling factors (i.e., social support for health services in early midlife). In addition, satisfaction with medical services in the neighborhood had an association with less underuse of medical services in early midlife. Family therapy focused on an increase in the affectionate relationship between the adolescents and his/her parents and cognitive-behavioral treatment of depressive mood may lead to a decrease in the underuse of medical services.

  15. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancy in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Arlene M.

    1992-01-01

    Compared self-esteem and perceived maternal care and control of 134 Jamaican schoolgirls and 108 pregnant adolescents and teenage mothers. Subjects were 14 through 17 years old, from working-class backgrounds, and living in rural and urban areas. Findings suggest that father-figure absence and low self-esteem may combine as risk factors for…

  16. Psychosocial risk and protective factors associated with perpetration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the ... male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to ... as well as protective factors (social support and self-esteem) as self-reported by ...

  17. Persistent postmastectomy pain in breast cancer survivors: analysis of clinical, demographic, and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfer, Inna; Schreiber, Kristin L; Shaffer, John R; Shnol, Helen; Blaney, Kayleigh; Morando, Alexandra; Englert, Danielle; Greco, Carol; Brufsky, Adam; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Kehlet, Henrik; Edwards, Robert R; Bovbjerg, Dana H

    2013-10-01

    Persistent postmastectomy pain (PPMP) is increasingly recognized as a major individual and public health problem. Although previous studies have investigated surgical, medical, and demographic risk factors, in this study we aimed to more clearly elucidate the relationship of psychosocial factors to PPMP. Postmastectomy patients (611) were queried about pain location, severity, and burden 38.3 ± 35.4 months postoperatively. Validated questionnaires for depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, perceived stress, emotional stability, somatization, and catastrophizing were administered. Detailed surgical, medical, and treatment information was abstracted from patients' medical records. One third (32.5%) of patients reported PPMP, defined as ≥3/10 pain severity in the breast, axilla, side, or arm, which did not vary according to time since surgery. Multiple regression analysis revealed significant and independent associations between PPMP and psychosocial factors, including catastrophizing, somatization, anxiety, and sleep disturbance. Conversely, treatment-related factors including surgical type, axillary node dissection, surgical complication, recurrence, tumor size, radiation, and chemotherapy were not significantly associated with PPMP. These data confirm previous studies suggesting that PPMP is relatively common and provide new evidence of significant associations between psychosocial characteristics such as catastrophizing with PPMP, regardless of the surgical and medical treatment that patients receive, which may lead to novel strategies in PPMP prevention and treatment. This cross-sectional cohort study of 611 postmastectomy patients investigated severity, location, and frequency of pain a mean of 3.2 years after surgery. Significant associations between pain severity and individual psychosocial attributes such as catastrophizing were found, whereas demographic, surgical, medical, and treatment-related factors were not associated with persistent pain. Copyright

  18. Psychosocial risk factors, interventions and comorbidity in patients with non-specific low back pain in primary care: need for comprehensive and patient-centered care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline eRamond-Roquin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific low back pain (LBP affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical and occupational may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for

  19. Milestones and Impact Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  20. Milestones and impact factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-07-08

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact.

  1. Musculoskeletal complaints among nurses related to patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors - Based on logbook registrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, S.; Precht, D.H.; Suadicani, P.

    2009-01-01

    ) fulfilled logbooks for three consecutive working days followed by a day off. Low back pain (LBP), neck/shoulder pain (NSP), knee pain (KP), psychosocial factors (time pressure, stress, conscience of the quality of work) and patient transfers and care tasks were reported. The logbook was reliable for both...... transfer and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting MSC and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days (15%-30% and 17%-37%, respectively) and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer task were associated with LPB and transfer tasks were associated with KP. Our......The aims were to evaluate the inter-method reliability of a registration sheet for patient handling tasks, to study the day-to-day variation of musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) and to examine whether patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors were associated with MSC. Nurses (n = 148...

  2. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  3. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    ,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were followed in nationwide registries until 2007, with less than 0.2% loss to follow-up. Almost one...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion......Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...

  4. Translation and validation of the italian version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (pidaq) among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, R; Rongo, R; Zito, E; Valletta, R; Michelotti, A; D'anto, V

    2017-06-01

    The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) is a valid tool aiming to evaluate the self-reported influence of dental aesthetics on quality of life. This questionnaire was developed in English for young adults, and later translated and validated with an Italian population. A new version of the questionnaire was recently introduced to be used in adolescents (11-17 years- old), but it had not been translated in Italian yet. Hence, the purpose of this study was to translate, cross-culturally adapt and validate the PIDAQ for adolescents, for its use among Italian subjects. To develop the Italian PIDAQ, the original version was translated, back-translated, cross-culturally adapted and pre-tested. Afterwards, the Italian PIDAQ was administered to a convenience sample of 677 subjects, aged 11-17 years, together with two other written questionnaires: the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN-AC) and the Perception of Occlusion Scale (POS), which are instruments dedicated to assess the self-reported degree of malocclusion. A one-way ANOVA was performed to assess the difference between groups, within each PIDAQ factor, according to POS and IOTN-AC scores. The correlation between PIDAQ factors and POS/IOTN-AC scores was measured as Spearman's rank correlation. The internal consistency was assessed as Cronbach's alpha coef?cient (α), and the test-retest reproducibility as Intra-Class Correlation Coef?cient (ICC). The one-way ANOVA showed that all the factors of the self- reported impact of dental aesthetics on quality of life significantly increased as the degree of malocclusion worsened (PItalian adolescent PIDAQ showed good reliability and validity. The psychometric properties of this version of the questionnaire support its use for the assessment of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics among Italian adolescents.

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gledhill, A; Harwood, C; Forsdyke, D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a critical systematic review of recent research into psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football. Design: Systematic review informed by the PRISMA guidelines. Method: Literature was sourced from Science Direct, Sport Discus, Psycharticles and Psychinfo. This was followed by a detailed screening and sifting process to identify literature. Identified literature was independently appraised by multiple reviewers using the mixed-methods Appraisal Tool...

  6. Psychosocial factors in trauma patients : studies on trauma recurrence and trauma recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Ponzer, Sari

    1999-01-01

    The present studies aimed to highlight the influence of psychosocial and psychiatric factors on trauma recurrence and trauma recovery. A subgroup of trauma patients, 820 victims of firearm injuries, were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group in a retrospective register study. The results showed that firearm victims were characterised by high mortality, morbidity and antisocial traits independent of the intention of the gunshot. Hospitalisation due to injuries as ...

  7. Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Tyas, S.; Pederson, L

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking.
DATA SOURCES—General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files.
STUDY SELECTION—Reviewed li...

  8. Psychosocial factors related with smoking behaviour in Portuguese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Paulo D; Kremers, Stef P J; Mudde, Aart N; Pais-Clemente, Manuel; de Vries, Hein

    2006-12-01

    Few studies describe the factors associated with smoking behaviour in Portuguese adolescents. Hence, smoking prevention activities are not based on research findings. This study analyses the differences between smokers and nonsmokers and factors associated with smoking behaviour in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. A questionnaire was administrated to seventh grade students of 25 schools from five municipalities near Lisbon (n=3064). The majority of them were never smokers (71.3%), 21.9% smoked less than monthly, 2.1% monthly and 4.7% weekly or more frequently. Smokers were older, had lower school achievement, had more money available to spend, preferred less to be together with nonsmoking people and were more likely to be allowed to smoke at home, to use alcohol and to perform various risky behaviours. Nonsmokers were less convinced of the advantages and more convinced of the disadvantages of smoking, encountered more social norms against smoking, perceived less smoking in others, felt less pressure to smoke from peers, were more confident to refuse cigarettes and had a lower intention to smoke next year. Intention to smoke, self-efficacy expectations to refuse smoking, social influence and alcohol consumption were the most relevant variables associated with smoking behaviour. Consequently, Portuguese smoking prevention programmes should include activities aimed to help adolescents to deal with pressure to smoke from peers and to improve self-efficacy expectations to refuse cigarettes. Our findings also confirm the link between smoking and alcohol use suggesting that the prevention of these two behaviours should be complementary.

  9. Psychosocial risk factors in medical personnel of a health service in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Y. Castillo Á

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the variables associated with psychosocial risk factors among the doctors of a stateowned social welfare enterprise providing health services in Cartagena. Methodology: a cross-sectional study on a population of 197 doctors from the enterprise’s outpatient and emergency services. The istas21 questionnaire, a Spanish adaptation of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (copsoq, was used to assess psychosocial factors. Statistical analysis was performed using the program SPSS® version 17, and the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was applied to estimate the associations between variables. Results: 170 doctors participated in this study; 88.8% of which had favorable exposure to risk factors in the following dimensions: social support and quality of leadership and Double presence. 69.4% showed adverse exposure in the insecurity dimension. In the dimensions Insecurity and Double Presence, general practitioners were in worse conditions than specialists (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. Additionally, doctors from the outpatient service showed more deterioration in the social support and quality of leadership dimensions than those from the emergency service (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05. As for the psychological demands dimension, doctors from higher socioeconomic strata showed higher unfavorable scores than those from lower strata (Mann-Whitney U Prob<0.05.

  10. Psychosocial Factors in End-Stage Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Hospital in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Bale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This study seeks to review the psychosocial factors affecting patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD from a tertiary hospital in Australia. Methods. We audited patients with ESKD, referred to social work services from January 2012 to December 2014. All patients underwent psychosocial assessments by one, full-time renal social worker. Patient demographics, cumulative social issues, and subsequent interventions were recorded directly into a database. Results. Of the 244 patients referred, the majority were >60 years (58.6%, male (60.7%, born in Australia (62.3%, on haemodialysis (51.6%, and reliant on government financial assistance (88%. Adjustment issues (41%, financial concerns (38.5%, domestic assistance (35.2%, and treatment nonadherence (21.3% were the predominant reasons for social work consultation. Younger age, referral prior to start of dialysis, and unemployment were significant independent predictors of increased risk of adjustment issues (p=0.004, <0.001, and =0.018, resp.. Independent risk factors for treatment nonadherence included age and financial and employment status (p=0.041, 0.052, and 0.008, resp.. Conclusion. Psychosocial and demographic factors were associated with treatment nonadherence and adjustment difficulties. Additional social work support and counselling, in addition to financial assistance from government and nongovernment agencies, may help to improve adjustment to the diagnosis and treatment plans as patients approach ESKD.

  11. Associations between psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders: application to the IT profession in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Parijat, Prakriti

    2012-01-01

    The exponential growth of the information technology (IT) industry in India has been accompanied with a substantial increase in the reporting of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The purpose of the current study was to identify and assess the contributions of prevalent psychosocial factors on perceived WMSD outcomes among IT professionals from India. About 77 IT professionals from India completed a survey set consisting of 26 question items from the Job Content Questionnaire and 3 separate question items pertaining to WMSD outcomes (pain/discomfort and psychological stress scores). The findings suggest prevalence of existing pain (shoulder/neck and low back) in more than one-fourth of the respondents. Additionally two-thirds of the respondents had never had any ergonomics awareness training. Co-worker support and psychological work demands were found to be the strongest contributors of psychosocial risk factors towards pain/discomfort and psychological stress outcomes. Findings from this study highlight the influence of certain psychosocial traits of the Indian IT workplace on perceived WMSD outcomes. There is a need to develop and implement intervention strategies to address these factors that may help lower the risk of work-related musculoskeletal pain.

  12. Metabolic syndrome: psychosocial, neuroendocrine, and classical risk factors in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, N G; Brunner, E J; Eriksson, J W; Robertson, R P

    2007-10-01

    This article summarizes some aspects of stress in the metabolic syndrome at the psychosocial, tissue, and cellular levels. The metabolic syndrome is a valuable research concept for studying population health and social-biological translation. The cluster of cardiovascular risk factors labeled the metabolic syndrome is linked with low socioeconomic status. Systematic differences in diet and physical activity contribute to social patterning of the syndrome. In addition, psychosocial factors including chronic work stress are linked with its development. Psychosocial factors could lead to metabolic perturbations and increase cardiovascular risk via activation of neuroendocrine responses, for example, in the autonomic nervous system and in several hormonal pathways. High glucocorticoid levels will promote lipid storage in visceral rather than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Adipocytes secrete several proinflammatory cytokines, which considered major contributors to increase in oxidants and cell injury. Upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and peroxidase in the early development of diabetes produces a decrease in oxidative-mediated injury. Increased HO activity is associated with a significant decrease in superoxide, endothelial cell shedding and blood pressure. Finally, it is proposed that overexpression of glutathione peroxidase in beta cells may protect beta cell deterioration from oxidative stress during development of diabetes and hyperglycemia and this may result in attenuation of beta cell failure. If this proves to be the case, then the scene will be set to develop glutathione peroxidase mimetics for use in preclinical and clinical trials.

  13. Psychosocial factors and mortality in women with early stage endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telepak, Laura C; Jensen, Sally E; Dodd, Stacy M; Morgan, Linda S; Pereira, Deidre B

    2014-11-01

    Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with survival and mortality in cancer populations. Little evidence is available about the relationship between these factors and outcomes in gynaecologic cancer populations, particularly endometrial cancer, the fourth most common cancer among women. This study examined the relationship between several psychosocial factors prior to surgical resection and risk of all-cause mortality in women with endometrial cancer. The study utilized a non-experimental, longitudinal design. Participants were 87 women (Mage  = 60.69 years, SDage  = 9.12 years) who were diagnosed with T1N0-T3N2 endometrial cancer and subsequently underwent surgery. Participants provided psychosocial data immediately prior to surgery. Survival statuses 4-5 years post-diagnoses were abstracted via medical record review. Cox regression was employed for the survival analysis. Of the 87 women in this sample, 21 women died during the 4- to 5-year follow-up. Adjusting for age, presence of regional disease and medical comorbidity severity (known biomedical prognostic factors), greater use of an active coping style prior to surgery was significantly associated with a lower probability of all-cause mortality, hazard ratio (HR) = 0.78, p = .04. Life stress, depressive symptoms, use of self-distraction coping, receipt of emotional support and endometrial cancer quality of life prior to surgery were not significantly associated with all-cause mortality 4-5 years following diagnosis. Greater use of active coping prior to surgery for suspected endometrial cancer is associated with lower probability of all-cause mortality 4-5 years post-surgery. Future research should attempt to replicate these relationships in a larger and more representative sample and examine potential behavioural and neuroendocrine/immune mediators of this relationship. What is already known on this subject? Psychosocial factors have previously been linked with clinical outcomes in a

  14. Psychosocial factors associated with the prescription of generic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Calvillo, Javier A; Lana, Alberto; Cueto, Antonio; Markham, Wolfgang A; López, Maria Luisa

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate factors associated with "Generic drug prescription" (GDP) behaviour in Spain using the ASE (Attitude, Social Influence, Self-Efficacy) Model. General Practitioners were sent a validated and anonymous questionnaire measuring the ASE and Motivation variables for GDP and their generic drug prescription percentage. Most (n=486; 61.98%) responded to this cross-sectional survey. The mean scores and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. A binary logistic regression was used to identify the variables that best predict GDP behaviour. The main advantages and motivations for GDP were "saving money" and "protecting professional ethics". The greatest social influences were "doctors' personal preferences" and "authorities' pressure". GDP accounted for a scarce 15% of the total prescription. ASE and Motivation items were the best predictors: they explain 25% of being a 'high prescriber'. The highest prescribers were paediatricians (OR=5.07), workers in rural settings (OR=3.68) and professionals with high Motivation (OR=1.17) and Attitude (OR=1.11) scores. GDP percentage is very low compared with other countries. Interventions to modify the Attitudes of Primary Care doctors towards generic drugs should be implemented. Better informed patients, longer doctor appointment times and more varied dosage forms of generic drugs would also facilitate improvements in GDP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Pääsuke, Mati; Merisalu, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital's nursing population). The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57%) and neck (56%) were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses (p pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.

  16. Work-Related Psychosocial Factors and Mental Health Problems Associated with Musculoskeletal Pain in Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Freimann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Musculoskeletal pain is the most common cause of incapacity among nurses. This study aimed to report the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among hospital nurses and to explore the associations of work-related psychosocial factors and mental health problems with musculoskeletal pain. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital during April and May 2011. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the associations between dependent and independent variables. Results. Analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the hospital’s nursing population. The overall prevalence of MSP was 70% in the past year and 64% in the past month. Lower back (57% and neck (56% were the body areas most commonly painful in the past year. Higher quantitative and emotional demands, work pace, low justice and respect in the workplace, influence on work organisation, and role conflicts were significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain among nurses (p<0.05. All mental health problems and most strongly somatic stress symptoms were associated with musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems, especially somatic stress symptoms, have an important impact on the occurrence of musculoskeletal pain among university hospital nurses.

  17. How is impact factor impacting our research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Seema

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of an journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. However it is not a perfect metric and has its own limitations. Journals are increasingly finding new ways to improve their impact factor by increasing self citation, publishing more review articles. This correspondence discuss the fallacies of the impact factor.

  18. Psychosocial Risk Factors for Hospitalisation and Death from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

    2015-01-01

    exhaustion were both associated with a higher risk of COPD in an exposure-dependent manner, with high vital exhaustion being associated with a hazard ratio [HR] of 2.31 (95% CI 1.69-3.16) for women and 2.48 (1.69-3.64) for men. A higher risk of COPD was also found in participants who experienced economic...... hardship or had a dysfunctional social network. Furthermore, the accumulation of psychosocial risk factors was associated with a higher risk of COPD in both women (HR = 2.40, 1.78-3.22) and men (HR = 1.93, 1.33-2.80). Psychosocial vulnerability may be important to consider both in clinical practice...

  19. Does work-site physical activity improve self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R

    2013-01-01

    , with 199 participants in the training group and 228 in the control group. Influence at work, sense of community, time pressure, and job satisfaction were measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire at baseline and post-intervention after 20 weeks. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant...... change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence for an effect......PURPOSE: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief...

  20. Standardized assessment of psychosocial factors and their influence on medically confirmed health outcomes in workers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Susel; Fonseca, João A; Nienhaus, Albert; da Costa, José Torres

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of psychosocial work factors have indicated their importance for workers' health. However, to what extent health problems can be attributed to the nature of the work environment or other psychosocial factors is not clear. No previous systematic review has used inclusion criteria based on specific medical evaluation of work-related health outcomes and the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence assessing the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and workers' health based on studies that used standardized and validated instruments to assess the psychosocial work environment and that focused on medically confirmed health outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was carried out by searching the databases PubMed, B-ON, Science Direct, Psycarticles, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection and the search engine (Google Scholar) using appropriate words for studies published from 2004 to 2014. This review follows the recommendations of the Statement for Reporting Systematic Reviews (PRISMA). Studies were included in the review if data on psychosocial validated assessment method(s) for the study population and specific medical evaluation of health-related work outcome(s) were presented. In total, the search strategy yielded 10,623 references, of which 10 studies (seven prospective cohort and three cross-sectional) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (7/10) observed an adverse effect of poor psychosocial work factors on workers' health: 3 on sickness absence, 4 on cardiovascular diseases. The other 3 studies reported detrimental effects on sleep and on disease-associated biomarkers. A more consistent effect was observed in studies of higher methodological quality that used a prospective design jointly with the use of validated instruments for the assessment of the psychosocial (work) environment and clinical

  1. Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics and desire for orthodontic treatment among Chinese undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Song Yi,1 Chuqin Zhang,2 Chulei Ni,1 Ying Qian,3 Jun Zhang4 1Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, 2Ophthalmology and Otorhinolaryngology Department, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children’s Hospital, 3Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 4Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics in undergraduate students in the People’s Republic of China and to investigate the association between normal orthodontic treatment needs, psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics, and desire for orthodontic treatment.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in two universities in a city of the People’s Republic of China with 374 young adults aged between 19 years and 24 years. The students answered a Chinese version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ and addressed their desire for orthodontic treatment. Objective malocclusion severity was assessed with the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS software (Version 15.0.Results: There was no statistical sex difference in relation to the dental health component of IOTN (P=0.893 and PIDAQ scores (P=0.06, but it was found that the desire for orthodontic treatment was significantly stronger among females. The total and subscale PIDAQ scores and malocclusion severity differed significantly among the five grades of desire (P<0.01. Significant positive correlation was found among desire for orthodontic treatment, IOTN-dental health component grades, and total or subscale PIDAQ scores (P<0.01. High correlation was found between desire and PIDAQ score (r=0.93.Conclusion: The desire for orthodontic treatment is higher among female young

  2. Psychosocial Factors at Work and Blood-Borne Exposure among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to human blood and body fluids is a common risk for nurses. Many factors can affect the prevalence and incidence of this occupational hazard. Psychosocial factors at work may be a risk factor for the exposure.Objective: To assess needle stick, sharp injury and mucus exposure to blood-borne pathogens among nurses in Iran and to determine the association between these exposures and psychosocial factors at work.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses in a public hospital, Tehran, Iran. 364 nurses received and 339 completed and returned a self-reported questionnaire containing demographic data, history of exposure to blood-borne pathogens at work during previous year and the General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire.Results: Of 339 participants, 197 (58.1% reported needle-stick injury, 186 (54.6% reported another type of sharp injury, and 112 (33% reported a mucous membrane exposure during the previous year. More than half of the participants who had history of exposure, had not reported it. Those with middle or high level of stress had higher crude and adjusted odds than those with lower stress for all kinds of exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for high stress group (ranging from 2.8 to 4.4 were statistically different from 1.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of needle-stick and sharp injury and mucous membrane exposure to patients' blood or body fluids among studied nurses. There is a significant association between increasing psychosocial factors at work and exposure to blood-borne pathogens among this group of nurses.

  3. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  4. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Veloso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method, qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34% had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25% had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41% was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents.

  5. [Psychosocial and socioeconomic factors related to insomnia and menopause: Pró-Saúde Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina, Jaqueline Rodrigues; Lopes, Claudia S; Rotenberg, Lúcia; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the association between insomnia and menopausal status and the influence of socioeconomic and psychosocial variables on this association in a cross-sectional analysis of 2,190 university employees (the Pró-Saúde Study). A self-administered questionnaire was used, covering menopausal status, complaints of insomnia, common mental disorders, stressful life events, social support, and socioeconomic variables. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression with a polytomous outcome. After adjusting for potential socio-demographic confounders, women who had entered menopause more than 60 months previously were more likely to report complaints with sleep (OR 1.53-1.86) as compared to women in menopause for less than 60 months. After adjusting for psychosocial variables, in the first group the ORs decreased to 1.53 (95%CI: 0.92-2.52) for difficulty initiating sleep, 1.81 (95%CI: 1.09-2.98) for difficulty maintaining sleep, and 1.71 (95%CI: 1.08-2.73) for general complaints of insomnia. Psychosocial factors can mediate the manifestation of insomnia among menopausal women.

  6. Milestones and impact factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozonoff, David M; Grandjean, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable...... type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published...... was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent...

  7. Impactitis: The impact factor myth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsaie Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : In the early 1960s, Eugene Garfield and Irving Sher created the journal impact factor to help select journals for the Science Citation Index (SCI. Today it has become a widespread subject of controversy even for Garfield, the man who created it who is quoted saying " Impact Factor is not a perfect tool to measure the quality of articles but there is nothing better and it has the advantage of already being in existence and is, therefore, a good technique for scientific evaluation". The use of the term "impact factor" has gradually evolved, especially in Europe, to include both journal and author impact. This ambiguity often causes problems. It is one thing to use impact factors to compare journals and quite another to use them to compare authors. Journal impact factors generally involve relatively large populations of articles and citations. Individual authors, on average, produce much smaller numbers of articles. Objectives: Impact factor, an index based on the frequency with which a journal′s articles are cited in scientific publications, is a putative marker of journal quality. However, empiric studies on impact factor′s validity as an indicator of quality are lacking. The authors try to evaluate and highlight the validity of Impact Factors and its significance as a tool of assessment for scientific publications. Methods: Analysis of the several reports in literature and from their own point of view. Conclusion: A journal′s impact factor is based on 2 elements: the numerator, which is the number of citations in the current year to any items published in a journal in the previous 2 years, and the denominator, which is the number of substantive articles (source items published in the same 2 years. The impact factor could just as easily be based on the previous year′s articles alone, which would give an even greater weight to rapidly changing fields.

  8. Intimate partner violence before and during pregnancy: related demographic and psychosocial factors and postpartum depressive symptoms among Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Corrie L; Ciciolla, Lucia; Crnic, Keith A; Luecken, Linda J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Coonrod, Dean V

    2015-02-01

    Although research examining intimate partner violence (IPV) has expanded in recent years, there has been relatively little examination of the related demographic and psychosocial factors, as well as mental health outcomes, for IPV before and during pregnancy, especially in a Mexican American population. The current study provides a snapshot of the occurrence of IPV in a community sample of low-income, perinatal Mexican American women (n = 320). Results indicated that 13.1% of the women reported IPV before pregnancy and 11.3% reported IPV during pregnancy. For both IPV before and during pregnancy, women born in the United States were more likely to report IPV than foreign-born women. For IPV before pregnancy, women who were not in a serious romantic relationship or reported a history of childhood trauma were also more likely to report IPV. For IPV during pregnancy, women who reported higher general stress and lower social support were also more likely to report IPV. Finally, the current study provided strong evidence that a history of IPV predicted elevated postpartum depressive symptoms, above and beyond the impact of prenatal depressive symptoms. This study brings greater awareness to a complex and harmful situation in an understudied population. Results are discussed in terms of the relation between demographic and psychosocial risk for IPV before and during pregnancy, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms, as well as the implications for the development of future prevention and intervention programs.

  9. Psychosocial health risk factors and resources of medical students and physicians: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirsching Michael

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological data indicate elevated psychosocial health risks for physicians, e. g., burnout, depression, marital disturbances, alcohol and substance abuse, and suicide. The purpose of this study was to identify psychosocial health resources and risk factors in profession-related behaviour and experience patterns of medical students and physicians that may serve as a basis for appropriate health promoting interventions. Methods The questionnaire -Related Behaviour and Experience "Work administered in cross-sectional surveys to students in the first (n = 475 and in the fifth year of studies (n = 355 in required courses at three German universities and to physicians in early professional life in the vicinity of these universities (n = 381. Results Scores reflecting a healthy behaviour pattern were less likely in physicians (16.7% compared to 5th year (26.0% and 1st year students (35.1% while scores representing unambitious and resigned patterns were more common among physicians (43.4% vs. 24.4% vs. 41.0% and 27.3% vs. 17.2% vs. 23.3 respectively. Female and male responders differed in the domains professional commitment, resistance to stress and emotional well-being. Female physicians on average scored higher in the dimensions resignation tendencies, satisfaction with life and experience of social support, and lower in career ambition. Conclusion The results show distinct psychosocial stress patterns among medical students and physicians. Health promotion and prevention of psychosocial symptoms and impairments should be integrated as a required part of the medical curriculum and be considered an important issue during the further training of physicians.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with patterns of smoking surrounding pregnancy in fragile families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robin L; Padilla, Yolanda C; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-01-01

    Although research has documented factors associated with maternal smoking, we need a more in-depth understanding of the risk factors associated with changes in smoking behaviors during the postpartum period. We investigate smoking patterns during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum as a function of relevant psychosocial factors. We use data on 3,522 postpartum mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to analyze the predictors of smoking among mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy but smoked at 1 year postpartum, mothers who smoked both during pregnancy and postpartum, and mothers who did not smoke during either period. Our covariates are grouped into four categories of risk factors for smoking: socioeconomic status, health care, life course and health, and partner and social support. Postpartum mothers in our sample were more likely to smoke throughout or after their pregnancies if they had only a high school education or less, had a household income three or more times below the poverty line, had public or no health insurance, breastfed for less than 5 months, were not married to the infant's father, if the infant's father currently smoked, and if they attended religious services less than once a week. Mental health problems were consistently associated with an increased risk of constant and postpartum smoking relative to non-smoking. Psychosocial factors play a role in postpartum smoking, but they have a stronger effect in predicting smoking that persists throughout pregnancy and the first year postpartum.

  11. Clinical and psychosocial factors predicting health-related quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gun Woo; Lee, In Hee; Ahn, Ki Sung; Lee, Jonghun; Ji, Yunmi; Woo, Jungmin

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with end-stage renal disease have significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Most previous studies have focused on clinical factors; however, quality of life can also be affected by psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to identify the possible predictors of HRQoL among clinical and psychosocial factors in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 101 patients who were undergoing HD. Psychosocial factors were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We also assessed laboratory and clinical factors, including albumin, Kt/V as a marker of dialysis adequacy, normalized protein catabolic rate, and duration of HD. The Euro Quality of Life Questionnaire 5-Dimensional Classification (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate HRQoL. The mean EQ-5D index score was 0.704 ± 0.199. The following variables showed a significant association with the EQ-5D index: age (P < 0.001), depression (P < 0.001), anxiety (P < 0.001), support from friends (P < 0.001), cognitive function (P < 0.001), duration of HD (P = 0.034), triglyceride (P = 0.031), total iron-binding capacity (P = 0.036), and phosphorus (P = 0.037). Multiple regression analysis showed that age (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.008 to -0.002), anxiety (95% CI -0.025 to -0.009), and support from friends (95% CI 0.004 to 0.018) were independent predictors of impaired HRQoL. This study explored determinants of impaired HRQoL in HD patients. We found that impaired HRQoL was independently associated with age, anxiety, and support from friends. We should consider psychosocial as well as clinical factors when evaluating ways to improve HRQoL in HD patients.

  12. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership), employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers. A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational

  13. The psychosocial impact of armed conflict on children. Rethinking traditional paradigms in research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichick, T

    2001-10-01

    It is undeniable that the impact of war on children is a significant issue that merits continued efforts in research and intervention. It is time for a shift in paradigms; instead of focusing solely on exposure to traumatic events and defining pathology per dominant diagnostic criteria, it is essential that research turn to examining the effect of chronic stressors and exploring how certain mechanisms may be protective or act to moderate the psychosocial impact of war on children. The role of such protective mechanisms must be examined for differences by development and gender and by cultural context and the nature of the conflict situation itself. Investigations of the health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected children and the programs that serve them must attend to the restoration of basic physiologic needs, safety, structure, familial ties, and other sources of support and integration of cultural practices of healing. The coping efforts of young people and their families and the creation of more positive roles for youth also must be explored. Addressing these fundamental issues in research and programming will go a long way in fostering new opportunities for peace, healing, and the promotion of mental health and well-being for war-affected children in modern times.

  14. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiko I Fried

    Full Text Available Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships. We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia to 20.9% (sad mood. Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms.

  15. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; dos Santos, Laís Araújo; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. Objectives To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. Results The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. Conclusions acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition. PMID:26560206

  16. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Gustavo Nunes; Santos, Laís Araújo dos; Sobral Filho, Jader Freire

    2015-01-01

    Dermatological diseases, among which acne vulgaris, have psychological impact on the affected generating feelings of guilt, shame and social isolation. To compare quality of life, self-esteem and other psychosocial variables amongst adolescents with and without acne vulgaris, and between levels of severity. Cross-sectional observational study in a sample of 355 high school students from the city of João Pessoa. Data collection was performed with questionnaires and clinical-dermatological evaluation. The primary variables were the incidence of AV; quality of life, set by the Children's Dermatology Quality of Life Index and Dermatology Quality of Life Index; and self-esteem, measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. For calculation of statistical tests, we used the SPSS 20.0 software, considering p=0.05. The sample, with an average age of 16, showed 89.3% prevalence of acne vulgaris. The most prevalent psychosocial issue was "afraid that acne will never cease", present in 58% of affected youth. The median score of Quality of Life in Children's Dermatology Index was different amongst students with and without acne vulgaris (p=0.003), as well as the Quality of Life in Dermatology (p=0.038) scores, so that students with acne vulgaris have worse QoL. There was a correlation between the severity of acne vulgaris and worse quality of life. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with the occurrence or severity of acne vulgaris. acne vulgaris assumes significance in view of its high prevalence and the effect on quality of life of adolescents, more severe at the more pronounced stages of disease (p<0.001). The psychosocial impact of acne vulgaris should be valued in the management of patients with this condition.

  17. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson Hanna; Eklund Mona

    2014-01-01

    The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosoc...

  18. Effects of Psychosocial Work Factors on Lifestyle Changes: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allard, K. O.; Thomsen, J. F.; Mikkelsen, S.;

    2011-01-01

    controlling for potential confounders. There were no other significant findings in the expected direction except for some of the confounders. CONCLUSIONS:: We found only limited and inconsistent support for the hypothesis that a poor psychosocial work environment is associated with an adverse lifestyle...... were assessed with questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict changes in lifestyle factors. RESULTS:: Low reward predicted smoking, low-decision latitude predicted being inactive, and high demands predicted high-alcohol consumption but only for men at follow-up even after...

  19. Psychosocial factors of modern work life and incident depression in Denmark 2000-06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Else; Thielen, Karsten; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    depression, or missing values, were excluded, leaving 3158 persons for the prospective analyses. Psychosocial factors of modern work life 2000 were measured by scales on work pressure, work pace, emotional pressure, learning opportunities, variation of work, meaningfulness, social support from colleagues....... By logistic regression we calculated odds ratio (OR) and confidence intervals (CIs) for depression, controlling for age, sex, occupational social position, family status, alcohol consumption, seniority and MDI score at baseline. Results Preliminary results showed that work pace (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1...

  20. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald;

    2014-01-01

    The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first 3 criteria......, and social capital); and (4) Statistical power: acceptable to detect a 20% increased risk in IHD. Eleven new papers met the inclusion criteria 1-3; a total of 44 papers were evaluated regarding inclusion criteria 4. Of 169 statistical analyses, only 10 analyses in 2 papers had acceptable statistical power...

  1. Psychosocial risk factors distinguishing melancholic and nonmelancholic depression: a comparison of six systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D; Mitchell, P; Hickie, I; Wilhelm, K; Brodaty, H; Boyce, P; Roy, K

    1991-12-01

    We examined six systems or scales designed to distinguish melancholia from residual nonmelancholic depressive disorders in a sample of 305 patients. A count of the number of significant psychosocial risk factors showed that a clinical diagnosis was the most differentiating (19 significant risk factors), followed by the Newcastle index (13), DSM-III (10), and the CORE system (10)--the last essentially assessing psychomotor change; Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) (7) and an endogeneity symptom scale (2) were the least differentiating. A subsample of "composite melancholics" was derived, comprising 138 who met "melancholia" criteria for DSM-III, RDC, and CORE, and they were contrasted with residual depressives. The composite melancholics were older, had had a briefer depressive episode, and differed significantly on 12 risk factors, essentially being less likely to report deprivational experiences such as deficient parenting and dysfunctional marital relationships. We suggest that such a risk factor strategy is of potential use in refining the clinical definition of melancholia.

  2. Impact of psychosocial factors on suicide attempts in high school and college students, data from eight cities of China%中国八城市大中学生自杀未遂心理社会因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高荣; 陶芳标; 胡传来; 苏普玉; 郝加虎; 万宇辉

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper aimed to report the rate of suicide attempts among adolescent and young students of eight cities in China, and to examine the impact of related psychosocial factors on suicide attempts. Methods The investigation was obtained in senior and junior high school and college students in eight cities of China. All of the 17 622 participants were recruited to complete anonymous questionnaires regarding their experiences of suicide attempts and related psychosocial factors. Results Overall, 2.2 percent of the respondents reported that they had experienced attempted suicide during the previous year. Scores on high anxiety (OR=2.61,95%CI: 1.64-4.16),high depression (OR=2.05, 95%CI: 1.35-3.10),suicide idea (OR= 14.21, 95%CI: 9.88-20.43),suicide plan(OR=3.50,95%CI:2.59-4.73) were revealed as common risk factors while the whole time span being accompanied by mothers during juvenile years (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.20-0.74) seemed to be protective factor for suicide attempts through multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion Our results showed that emotional symptom, idea and plans for suicide were statistically associated with suicide attempted in high school and college students.%目的 了解中国城市大中学生自杀未遂发生的报告率及其与心理社会因素的关系.方法 选取全国8城市17 622名大学、高中、初中的一年级和二年级学生,进行问卷调查,收集自杀未遂及其相关心理社会因素等资料.结果 8城市大中学生中自杀未遂报告率为2.2%,多因素logistic回归分析显示,焦虑程度高(OR=2.61,95%CI:1.64~4.16)、抑郁程度高(OR=2.05,95%CI:1.35~3.10)、有自杀意念(OR=14.21,95%CI:9.88~20.43)、有自杀计划(OR=3.50,95%CI:2.59~4.73)是自杀未遂发生的危险因素.少年阶段母亲陪伴长大是自杀未遂发生的保护因素(OR=0.38,95%CI:0.20~O.74).结论 情绪症状和既往自杀心理与大中学生自杀未遂相关联.

  3. Physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain among Australian hospital-based nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawera, Inoka K; Hoe, Victor C W; Kelsall, Helen L; Urquhart, Donna M; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-02-01

    To assess the personal, physical and psychosocial factors associated with wrist or hand pain in Australian hospital-based nurses. Wrist or hand pain, associated disability and sickness absence, demographic, occupational, physical, psychosocial and personal factors among nurses working for three hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were assessed in a cross-sectional study. Factors associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month were assessed using logistic regression. This analysis was based on 1111 participants. The prevalence of wrist or hand pain in the past month was 15.3%. Repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.80 to 3.84), high job strain (1.54, 1.04 to 2.28), job insecurity (1.55, 1.04 to 2.28), somatisation tendency (2.73, 1.75 to 4.26), pain catastrophising (1.56, 1.03 to 2.37), better mental (0.97, 0.95 to 0.99) and physical (0.96, 0.94-0.98) health and well-being were associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month, after adjusting for possible confounding factors. When all significant factors were examined in the same model, repeated movements of the wrist or finger >4 h (2.50, 1.71 to 3.67), somatisation (2.61, 1.65 to 4.13) and better physical health and well-being (0.96, 0.94 to 0.99) remained independently associated with wrist or hand pain in the past month. This study highlights that wrist or hand pain is prevalent in hospital nurses. Workplace physical factors and personal factors were associated with wrist or hand pain. Further longitudinal investigation is needed to examine the predictive nature of these factors.

  4. Psycho-social Needs Impact on Hookah Smoking Initiation among Women: A Qualitative Study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Shahbazi Sighaldeh, Shirin; Ebadi, Abbas; Kelishadi, Roya; Majdzadeh, Seyed Reza

    2015-01-01

    In Iranian women, the use of hookah is the most common method of tobacco smoking. This study aimed to find the role of psycho-social needs and gaps as a possible risk factor for hookah smoking initiation in women. This qualitative study was conducted during 2012-2013 in Tehran, Iran. Thirty-six women participated in the study. They were current or former users of hookah. Data were collected through in-depth individual interviews and was analyzed through content analysis. Four main categories were identified from the data. This study focused on the category: Psycho-social needs and gaps. This category has five sub-categories which explain why women begin to smoke hookah including curiosity; desire for non-feminine, forbidden, and negative activities; need for amusement and recreation; for others: To show off; attract attention; satisfy and join others and protection. From this study, a variety of factors which contribute to the initiation of hookah smoking among women have been identified. Keeping young girls and women away from seemingly happy gatherings of hookah smokers; Providing appropriate recreational facilities for young women and training families on how to help their children in the event of a crisis-like intention to take up smoking behavior, can be some effective ways for reducing hookah smoking initiation among women.

  5. Psychosocial factors and their predictive value in chiropractic patients with low back pain: a prospective inception cohort study

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    Breen Alan C

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being able to estimate the likelihood of poor recovery from episodes of back pain is important for care. Studies of psychosocial factors in inception cohorts in general practice and occupational populations have begun to make inroads to these problems. However, no studies have yet investigated this in chiropractic patients. Methods A prospective inception cohort study of patients presenting to a UK chiropractic practice for new episodes of non-specific low back pain (LBP was conducted. Baseline questionnaires asked about age, gender, occupation, work status, duration of current episode, chronicity, aggravating features and bothersomeness using Deyo's 'Core Set'. Psychological factors (fear-avoidance beliefs, inevitability, anxiety/distress and coping, and co-morbidity were also assessed at baseline. Satisfaction with care, number of attendances and pain impact were determined at 6 weeks. Predictors of poor outcome were sought by the calculation of relative risk ratios. Results Most patients presented within 4 weeks of onset. Of 158 eligible and willing patients, 130 completed both baseline and 6-week follow-up questionnaires. Greatest improvements at 6 weeks were in interference with normal work (ES 1.12 and LBP bothersomeness (ES 1.37. Although most patients began with moderate-high back pain bothersomeness scores, few had high psychometric ones. Co-morbidity was a risk for high-moderate interference with normal work at 6 weeks (RR 2.37; 95% C.I. 1.15–4.74. An episode duration of >4 weeks was associated with moderate to high bothersomeness at 6 weeks (RR 2.07; 95% C.I. 1.19 – 3.38 and negative outlook (inevitability with moderate to high interference with normal work (RR 2.56; 95% C.I. 1.08 – 5.08. Conclusion Patients attending a private UK chiropractic clinic for new episodes of non-specific LBP exhibited few psychosocial predictors of poor outcome, unlike other patient populations that have been studied. Despite

  6. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Anna E; Slekiene, Jurgita; von Medeazza, Gregor; Asplund, Fredrik; Cardoso, Placido; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-05-15

    ways of aligning existing hygiene programs with relevant psychosocial factors. This research is relevant to further outbreaks of contagious diseases as it sheds light on important aspects of the impact of public health interventions during emergencies and epidemics.

  7. Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Aging among the Aged in Ihitte-Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria

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    Ojukwu M.O.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine influence of psychosocial factors on aging among the aged in Ihitte Uboma Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto or casual comparative research design was adopted for the study. Two hundred and twenty-five (225 old people were selected through random sampling for the study. Self-constructed instrument entitled “Influence of Psychosocial factors on aging in Ihitte Uboma LGA” was used to collect data. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Mean and t-test analysis were used to analyze the data collected for the study. Major findings revealed that lack of security, inadequate care giver, poverty, migration of kids and family members to the urban areas, lack of health facilities and care are the major psychosocial factors affecting aging in the LGA. In all these it was also revealed that women were more influenced by these psychosocial factors than their men counterpart. It was also revealed that self-concept has significant influence on the ageing process of the aged in the area. Based on the findings it was recommended that government should provide adequate security in the villages, as well as provision of adequate healthcare and facilities. Keywords: Influence, Psychosocial factors, aged, aging process and Ihitte Uboma

  8. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies...... the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry...... have been inconclusive. AIM: To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). METHODS: The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed...

  9. Factors Associated with Youth Alcohol Consumption: A Review from a Psychosocial and Ecological Perspective

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    Javier Pons

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abusive alcohol consumption in adolescence is currently an important problem of public health, to the point that prevention has become a priority in health policies. Also, in the field of social intervention, the psychosocial factors involved in that consumption has been studied in the last years. In the present work a revision of those factors is carried out from the ecological perspective, in which psychological, relational and sociocultural variables are integrated. Alcohol consumption is analyzed as part of the youth culture, rejecting explanations of pathological or moralistic content, and following an approach in which alcohol consumption is understood as a mean used by the adolescent in order to achieve adjustment in a society characterized by complexity. First, individual dispositional variables are analysed; following this, variables from the family context are examined, and finally the relationship between alcohol consumption and factors of the sociocultural context are explored.

  10. Assistive Technology Needs and Measurement of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Independent Living of Older Hispanics: Lessons Learned

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    Elsa M. Orellano-Colón

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Knowledge about the assistive technology (AT needs and psychosocial impact of AT in different populations is needed because the adoption, retention, or abandonment of AT may be influenced by the psychosocial impact that AT has on its users. The aims of this study were to: (a identify the AT needs of a sample of Hispanic older adults with functional limitations; (b describe the psychosocial impact of these technologies on the sample’s quality of life; and (c describe the methodological challenges in using the Puerto Rican version of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PR-PIADS with a Hispanic sample; (2 Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a sample of 60 participants. Data was collected using the Assistive Technology Card Assessment Questionnaire (ATCAQ and the PR-PIADS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis; (3 Results: The sample’s most frequently reported needs for AT devices were in the areas of cooking, home tasks, and home safety activities. The sample reported a positive impact of AT use in their quality of life. Several methodological challenges of the PIADS were identified; (4 Conclusions: The sample has unmet needs for using AT devices to overcome difficulties in daily living activities.

  11. Assistive Technology Needs and Measurement of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Independent Living of Older Hispanics: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey; Santiago, Angélica; Torres, Víctor; Benítez, Keyla; Torres, Mayra

    2016-09-01

    (1) Knowledge about the assistive technology (AT) needs and psychosocial impact of AT in different populations is needed because the adoption, retention, or abandonment of AT may be influenced by the psychosocial impact that AT has on its users. The aims of this study were to: (a) identify the AT needs of a sample of Hispanic older adults with functional limitations, (b) describe the psychosocial impact of these technologies on the sample's quality of life, and (c) describe the methodological challenges in using the Puerto Rican version of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PR-PIADS) with a Hispanic sample. (2) Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design conducted with a sample of 60 participants. Data was collected using the Assistive Technology Card Assessment Questionnaire (ATCAQ) and the PR-PIADS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis. (3) Results: The sample's most frequently reported needs for AT devices were in the areas of cooking, home tasks, and home safety activities. The sample reported a positive impact of AT use in their quality of life. Several methodological challenges of the PIADS were identified. (4) Conclusions: The sample has unmet needs for using AT devices to overcome difficulties in daily living activities.

  12. Psychosocial Factors Associated with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Case Control Study

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    Manizheh Sayyah-Melli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a disorder in women of reproductive age. Psychosocial factors can play a role in PCOS. Methods: To determine the psychosocial factors associated with PCOS in a case control study, 742 PCOS cases were compared to 798 women without PCOS for psychiatric disorders and social conditions. The data were collected using a validated questionnaire of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire (DSM-IV was used to diagnose major psychopathological disorders and other depressive and anxiety syndromes. The suspected psychopathology was evaluated by a clinical psychiatrist. Results: There was a significant difference between cases and controls in education level (71.8% vs. 80.4%; (P<0.001, and employment status (60% vs. 53%; P=0.01 (respectively. Chronic anxiety (35.7% vs. 26.8%; P<0.001, depression (18.9% vs. 7.9 %; P<0.001, anxiety disorders (7.7% vs. 3.3%; P<0.001, and personality disorders (2.9% vs. 1.7%; P=0.01, were higher in the PCOS patients compared controls, respectively.Conclusion: The results showed that chronic anxiety and depression were the most pscycologic pattern in PCO patients. Lower educational level and unemployment were higher in the cases than controls.

  13. Psychosocial factors and prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing workers in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Jorge Luiz Lima; Soares, Rafael da Silva; Costa, Felipe dos Santos; Ramos, Danusa de Souza; Lima, Fabiano Bittencourt; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of burnout syndrome among nursing workers in intensive care units and establish associations with psychosocial factors. This descriptive study evaluated 130 professionals, including nurses, nursing technicians, and nursing assistants, who performed their activities in intensive care and coronary care units in 2 large hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data were collected in 2011 using a self-reported questionnaire. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to evaluate the burnout syndrome dimensions, and the Self Reporting Questionnaire was used to evaluate common mental disorders. The prevalence of burnout syndrome was 55.3% (n = 72). In the quadrants of the demand-control model, low-strain workers exhibited a prevalence of 64.5% of suspected cases of burnout, whereas high-strain workers exhibited a prevalence of 72.5% of suspected cases (p = 0.006). The prevalence of suspected cases of common mental disorders was 27.7%; of these, 80.6% were associated with burnout syndrome (burnout syndrome. Psychosocial factors were associated with the development of burnout syndrome in this group. These results underscore the need for the development of further studies aimed at intervention and the prevention of the syndrome.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors, pre-motor symptoms and first-time hospitalization with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Ritz, B; Prescott, E;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental studies support a link between stress and development of parkinsonian symptoms, but prospective population studies are lacking. The aim of the current study is to determine the effects of several psychosocial factors on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), as...... PD. Vital exhaustion may be useful for screening aimed at early detection and when considering disease-modifying therapies in people at high risk of clinical PD.......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Experimental studies support a link between stress and development of parkinsonian symptoms, but prospective population studies are lacking. The aim of the current study is to determine the effects of several psychosocial factors on the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD......), as well as to identify potential pre-motor symptoms for PD in a large prospective cohort study. METHODS: In 1991-1993, a total of 9955 women and men free of PD from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were asked about major life events, economic hardship, social network, impaired sleep and vital exhaustion...

  15. Psychosocial factors and sport injuries: prediction, prevention and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Urban; Ivarsson, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    This review provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical developments regarding psychosocial factors related to the prediction and prevention of sport injuries, and highlights some of the most interesting areas of investigation that have been carried out in the past few years. For instance, a systematic review of the most cited and used theoretical framework in the field has recently been performed, which supports the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes. Based on substantial empirical evidence it is also shown that changes in stress and perceived recovery appear to predict injury occurrence in sport. Current studies, focusing on overuse injuries, also suggest that cultural norms and rules can be seen as factors that can indirectly influence the risk of becoming injured. Future research directions are presented such as the need for interdisciplinary injury prevention programs based on a combination of physiological and psychological interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychosocial factors at work and the development of mobility limitations among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Darsø, Lilie; Manty, Minna

    2014-01-01

    : This study is based on data from 2952 middle-aged men and women without mobility limitations in 2000. Results: We found increased risk of incident mobility limitations during 6-year follow up among men who often perceived high work pace (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.21-24.52) vs. never, who only sometimes or....../never perceived the work to be meaningful (OR 6.54, 95% CI 1.55-27.55) vs. always, and who sometimes perceived high emotional demands at work (OR 7.85, 95% CI 1.78-34.65) vs. never. Among women, lower risk of incident mobility limitations was observed among those who in 2000 perceived high work pace sometimes (OR......Aim: Psychosocial factors in the working environment have been shown to be associated with mobility limitations, but this has not yet been confirmed in a Danish population. We aimed to examine how psychosocial factors at work are related to developing mobility limitations in Denmark. Methods...

  17. [Tobacco use in secondary schools in Gabon: Prevalence and associated psychosocial factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzouzi, Netti; Piette, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to measure the prevalence of smoking and identify the psychosocial factors associated with it among students in secondary schools in Gabon. This cross-sectional descriptive study collected information by a self-administered questionnaire, completed by 4833 students aged 14 to 22 years. The results show that 10.9% of these young people are current smokers and that the risk of smoking is highest among males and increases with age. Poor school performance and poor family relationships were both associated with smoking. The risk of smoking was highest among students repeating a year at least 3 times, those with substantial school absenteeism, those from smaller families, and finally among those at a relatively well-to-do socioeconomic level. The youth who "go out regularly" were the group at the highest risk in the study. This study, which focuses on the psychosocial factors associated with smoking, may contribute to the prevention of smoking among young Gabonese. For the first time, it is possible to identify the groups at highest risk of smoking and thus to contribute to developing antismoking strategies appropriate to the cultural and socioeconomic conditions of the country.

  18. Relationship between academic performance with physical, psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in female undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Maude Dubuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  19. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, Peating disorders in this population.

  20. Analogue Simulation of human and psychosocial factors for MoonMars bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidová, Lucie; Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Several courageous plans regarding future human space exploration have been proposed. Both main future targets, ESA's Moon village, as well as journey to Mars represent huge challenge for humans. Appropriate research on psychological aspects of humans in extreme conditions is needed. Analogue simulations represent valuable source of information that help us to understand how to provide an adequate support to astronauts in specific conditions of isolation and limited resources. The psychosocial investigation was designed to builds on combination of several methods based on subjective as well as objective assessments, namely observation, sociomapping, content analysis of interviews etc. Research on several simulations provided lessons learned and various insights. The attention was paid particularly to the interpersonal interactions among crew members, intragroup as well as intergroup communication, cooperation, and performance. This comprehensive approach enables early detection of hidden structures and potential insufficiencies of an astronaut team. The sociomapping of interpersonal communication as well as analysis of interviews with participants revealed insufficiencies especially in communication between the analogue astronauts and mission control. Another important finding was gain by investigation of the relationship between the astronaut crew and mission control. Astronauts low trust to mission control can have a great negative impact to the performance and well-being of astronauts. The findings of the psychosocial studies are very important for designing astronaut training and planning future mission.

  1. Subgrouping of rheumatoid arthritis patients based on pain, fatigue, inflammation and psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yvonne C.; Frits, Michelle L.; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Weinblatt, Michael E.; Shadick, Nancy A.; Williams, David A.; Cui, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Objective Among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, pain may be due to peripheral inflammation or other causes, such as central pain mechanisms. The objective was to use self-report measures and physical examination to identify clusters of RA patients who may have different causes of pain and different prognoses and treatment options. Methods Data were analyzed from 169 RA patients in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study who had pain > 0/10 and completed questionnaires on pain, fatigue and psychosocial factors. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering procedure with Ward’s method was used to obtain subgroups. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the contribution of each variable in a cluster. General linear regression models were used to examine differences in clinical characteristics across subgroups. Discriminant analyses were performed to determine coefficients for linear combinations of variables that assigned cluster membership to individual cases. Results Three clusters best fit these data. Cluster 1 consisted of 89 individuals with low inflammation, pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 2 consisted of 57 individuals with minimal inflammation but high pain, fatigue and psychosocial distress. Cluster 3 consisted of 23 individuals with active inflammatory disease, manifested by high joint counts, high C-reactive protein and high pain and fatigue. Conclusion Although most patients had low levels of inflammation, pain and fatigue, 47.3% continued to report moderate to high pain and fatigue. Most of these patients had minimal signs of inflammation but high levels of fatigue, pain catastrophizing and sleep disturbance, indicative of a chronic widespread pain syndrome. PMID:24782222

  2. Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlström, Jonas; Kecklund, Göran; Anund, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention. This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport. A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered. In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control. This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  3. Impacto da depressão e outros fatores psicossociais no prognóstico de pacientes renais crônicos El impacto de la depresión y otros factores psicosociales en el pronóstico de pacientes renales crónicos The impact of depression and others psychosocial factors in the prognosis of chronic renal patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Zimmermann

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores realizaram uma revisão bibliográfica sobre a depressão e outros fatores psicossociais que poderiam influenciar a evolução dos pacientes renais. Avaliaram trabalhos relativos a depressão, idade, gênero, raça, suporte social e status marital/suporte familiar. Ao final, ficou demonstrado que não existem resultados definitivos nas pesquisas realizadas sobre esses fatores. A idade parece ser um fator que influencia a evolução, mas os fatores de confusão não foram contemplados nos trabalhos examinados, e surgiram evidências fortes de que o gênero não estaria associado à evolução desses pacientes.Los autores realizaron una revisión bibliográfica sobre la depresión y otros factores psicosociales que podrían tener influencia en la evolución de los pacientes renales. Evaluaron trabajos relativos a depresión, edad, género, raza, soporte social y situación marital / soporte familiar. Al final, se demostró que no hay resultados definitivos en las investigaciones realizadas sobre estos factores. La edad parece ser un factor que influye en esta evolución, pero los factores de confusión no se contemplaron en los trabajos examinados. Además, aparecieron fuertes evidencias de que el género no estaría asociado a la evolución de estos pacientes.The authors review the literature on depression and other psychosocial risk factors that may influence the evolution of patients with kidney disease. Studies addressing depression, age, gender, skin color, social support, and marital status/family support were included in the review. The study revealed that trials assessing these factors have not come to a consensus so far. Age seems to be a factor that interferes with disease evolution, but the papers examined did not include confounding factors. Some papers also showed strong evidence that gender is not associated with the evolution of these patients.

  4. Association between psychosocial disorders and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.

  5. The mental health and psychosocial impact of the Bougainville Crisis: a synthesis of available information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, David; Bolton, Paul; Matanu, Barnabas; Garasu, Lorraine; Barnabas, Essah; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The Bougainville Crisis (1988-1997) was the largest armed conflict in the Pacific since WW-II. Despite this, there has been no assessment of the Mental Health and Psychosocial (MHPS) impact of the war. The aim of this paper is to summarize the available data regarding the longer-term MHPS impact of the Bougainville Crisis. A literature review and a sequence of consultations in Bougainville were conducted to identify the MHPS impact of the Bougainville Crisis and the capacity within Bougainville to address these issues. The Bougainville Crisis resulted in violence-related deaths; the displacement of more than half of the population; widespread human rights abuses; far-reaching societal impacts including undermining of the traditional authority of elders and women and damage to cultural values and relationships; property damage; and significant impacts on education and the economy. Conflict-related experiences continue to impact on mental health in the form of trauma-related symptoms, anger, complicated grief, alcohol and substance abuse, domestic violence including sexual assault, excessive alcohol use and a lack of engagement in purposeful activities. Other impacts include an increase in other forms of gender-based violence (including sexual assault), population displacement, and adverse trans-generational effects on children exposed to disturbed parental behaviours attributable to conflict exposure. In spite of the evident needs, there is limited capacity within Bougainville to address these pressing MHPS issues. The Bougainville Crisis has had a significant MHPS impact at multiple levels in the society. There is a strong interest within Bougainville to draw on external expertise to build local capacity to address MHPS issues. Preliminary recommendations are made to assist the process of building the capacity in Bougainville to address MHPS needs.

  6. Importance of personality traits and psychosocial factors for the development of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary heart disease (CHD. These factors have been related to the following psychosocial domains: personality factors and character traits, depression, anxiety, social isolation and chronic life stress. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of personality traits and psychosocial risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Methods. The investigation was conducted as observational cross-sectional (case-control study. Based on medical records all subjects were divided into two groups: the group of patients with CHD (61 participants, and the control group of 41 healthy participants. All participants fulfilled the Eysenck Inventory Questionnaire, Paykel stress scale and Bortner scale of A-B self-estimation. Results. The participants with CHD were shown to have lower education than healthy participants, but were comparable by gender, age and place of residence. According to the Bortner scale, most participants with CHD expressed type A personality, whereas most healthy participants expressed types B and AB. The patients with CHD achieved higher scores on the Paykel stress scale of life events, and they had the higher level of neurotic and psychotic tendencies, as well as the lower level of extroversion compared to the healthy participants. Multivariate logistic regression model identified chronic stress (odds ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 1.007−1.028 as an important predictor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease, when adjusted for age, gender, nourishment and blood pressure. On the other side, the lower risk for the occurrence of CHD was observed among the participants who had the higher level of extroversion (odds ratio 0.859; 95% confidence interval 0.636−0.902. Conclusion. Chronic stress and introversion can be considered important risk factors for

  7. Psychosocial impact of living with a stuttering disorder: knowing is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilby, Janet

    2014-05-01

    Stuttering requires a multidimensional perspective given that, in recent years, researchers have shown the impact of the disorder to reach far beyond the surface components with demonstrated psychosocial and anxiety effects for the individual living with a stutter. This article explores the impact a stuttering disorder has on the individual (child, adolescent, and adult) and on their family members (siblings, parents, and partners). These experiences include behavioral and social difficulties, self-awareness, reactions to stuttering, communication difficulties in daily situations, and overall quality of life. The influence of stuttering on the most intimate relationships of the person who stutters is presented. An overview of stuttering across the life span is discussed in terms of stuttering in children and adolescents, and the significant levels of adverse impact as a result of living with a stutter are described. In addition, the impact that the stuttering disorder has on the parents and siblings of children who stutter is also detailed through significant findings pertaining to lack of attachment and trust between the young people and their parents. The responsibilities and demands on parents and siblings in the family context are highlighted. Focus is also placed on the experience of living with a person who stutters from the perspective of their life partner. Perceived quality of life is explored with unexpected differences recounted between the quality of life experienced by the adult who stutters and their partner's perceptions of this disorder. Finally, the potential for a novel Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for individuals who stutter is presented.

  8. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  9. The Impact of the Developmental Timing of Trauma Exposure on PTSD Symptoms and Psychosocial Functioning among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Christin M.; Rubin, David C.; Siegler, Ilene C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of the developmental timing of trauma exposure on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and psychosocial functioning in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults (N = 1,995). Specifically, we investigated whether the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events were greater for traumas…

  10. Development of Psychosocial Scales for Evaluating the Impact of a Culinary Nutrition Education Program on Cooking and Healthful Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Williams, Joel E.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Griffin, Sara F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop scales to assess the impact of the "Cooking with a Chef" program on several psychosocial constructs. Methods: Cross-sectional design in which parents and caregivers were recruited from child care settings (Head Start, faith-based, public elementary schools), and cooks were recruited from church and school kitchens. Analysis…

  11. Psychosocial impact of visual impairment and coping strategies in female ex-Service personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevelink, Sharon A M; Fear, N T

    2016-04-01

    To examine how vision loss affects the psychosocial well-being of female ex-Service personnel and how they cope with their visual impairment. A cross-sectional study was conducted consisting of two study phases. During phase 1, a questionnaire was undertaken via the telephone with nine female ex-Service personnel (all under 55 years of age) using clinical screening measures to identify the probable presence of the following mental health disorders: depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Assessment), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, PTSD Checklist-Civilian) and alcohol misuse (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). In phase 2, eight of the participants were interviewed face to face regarding the impact being visually impaired had had on their daily lives. Approximately 1 in 10 women screened positive for probable depression, probable PTSD or alcohol misuse; 1 in 5 fulfilled the criteria for probable anxiety disorder. Participants struggled to adjust to the loss of vision and its impact on their lives. They reported low self-esteem, feeling down and social withdrawal. As time went by, the women were able to apply various coping strategies such as having a positive attitude, relearning skills and integrating low vision aids in their daily routine. However, some coping strategies, such as alcohol misuse and lack of help-seeking when needed, hindered participants' success in adjusting to their visual impairment. Sustaining a visual impairment negatively affects psychosocial well-being in female ex-Service personnel. Over time, participants learnt to cope with the challenges and limitations associated with being visually impaired. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Relationship between physical activity level and psychosocial and socioeconomic factors and issues in children and adolescents with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergren, Thomas; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE: The first objective of this scoping review is to identify and map information about instruments used to measure psychosocial and socioeconomic factors associated with level of physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with asthma that have been reported...... and socioeconomic factors and PA level in children and adolescents with asthma.Specifically the review questions are as follows....

  13. Gender differences in the relations between work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints might be explained by differences in the effect of exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors. A systematic review was conducted to examine gender differences in the relations between these risk factors and muscu

  14. Construction of a scale for assessing at work psychosocial risk factors in professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Unda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to create a valid and reliable instrument to measure psychosocial risk factorsat work in Mexican professors. A 66-item scale with 5 response choices was built. In order to validate thescale, it was administered to 500 public professors at Mexico city, aged between 21 an 76, 331 males and168 females, belonging to nine higher education schools. Statistical analyses were made to know the itemdiscriminant power, reliability, and factor structure. The scale rendered five factors: perceived inequity,difficult students, perceived insecurity, academic overload, and lack of resources at the workplace. Thescales had a Cronbach´s alpha between .75 and 92. As a conclusion, the scale fulfills the requirements ofreliability and validity in a population of professors.

  15. Ranking of psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Peter; Marott, Jacob L; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2015-01-01

    .001] and systolic blood pressure (≥160 mmHg or blood pressure medication vs. high vs. low; HR 2.07; 95% CI, 1......-statistics and net reclassification improvement. During the follow-up, 1731 non-fatal and fatal coronary events were registered. In men, the highest ranking risk factors for coronary heart disease were vital exhaustion [high vs. low; hazard ratio (HR) 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.70-3.26; P ...AIMS: To rank psychosocial and traditional risk factors by importance for coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Copenhagen City Heart Study is a prospective cardiovascular population study randomly selected in 1976. The third examination was carried out from 1991 to 1994, and 8882 men...

  16. Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, J. P.; Andersen, JH

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the importance of physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). METHODS: Case-referent study of 267 new cases of tennis elbow and 388 referents from the background population enrolled from general practices in Ringkjoebing County, Denmark. RESULTS......: Manual job tasks were associated with tennis elbow (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9 to 5.1). The self reported physical risk factors "posture" and "forceful work" were related to tennis elbow. Among women, work involving performing repeated movements of the arms was related...... to tennis elbow (OR 3.7, CI 1.7 to 8.3). Among men, work with precision demanding movements was related to tennis elbow (OR 5.2, CI 1.5 to 17.9). Among both males and females, the results for work with hand held vibrating tools were inconsistent, partly because of few exposed subjects. A physical strain...

  17. Psychosocial and Cultural Factors Related to Risky Sexual Behavior Leading to HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Kiylioglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from adolescence, importance of sexuality increases in the lives of young people. When done without necessary prevention measures, sexuality may lead to deadly infections in health. Of them, perhaps the most important is HIV/AIDS. Although resulting from sexual behavior the probability of HIV transmission is low, AIDS can be deadly. The aim of this study is to review psycho-social and cultural factors claimed to explain and related with risky sexual behavior that can lead to HIV/AIDS. These factors are gender roles, religiosity, sexual sensation seeking, self-efficacy for AIDS prevention, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 367-379

  18. Urinary Incontinence and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Intimate Relationship Satisfaction Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Lori; Meize-Grochowski, Robin

    To explore associations among symptoms of urinary incontinence, severity of symptoms, and measures of psychosocial health that may be assessed during a well-woman screening examination and the possible contribution of these variables to the relationship satisfaction of partnered midlife women living with urinary incontinence. Exploratory correlational design using self-report questionnaires. Community recruitment by posted fliers, advertisements, and social media. Partnered women, ages 45 to 65 years, with urinary incontinence (N = 57). Self-report measures of severity of incontinence symptoms, relationship satisfaction, self-concept/emotional health (self-esteem, body image, depression, anxiety), and relationship factors (sexual quality of life, incontinence-related communication). Data were analyzed using Spearman rho correlation with an exploration of the contribution of study factors to relationship satisfaction through standard multiple regression. The severity of urinary incontinence symptoms had no significant correlation with scores on relationship satisfaction or psychosocial health. Measures of self-concept/emotional health and relationship factors were significantly correlated with each other (rs = .40-.75, p satisfaction (rs = .35-.71, p satisfaction through exploratory regression analysis showed unique contributions from sexual quality of life (18.7%, p depression (8.7%, p = .004). Midlife women with urinary incontinence, regardless of symptom severity, might benefit from screening for poorer sexual quality of life and mild depression symptoms because these two study factors significantly contributed to poorer intimate relationship satisfaction among this study's participants. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adolescents’ Perception of the Psychosocial Factors affecting Sustained Engagement in Sports and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    GAVIN, JAMES; MCBREARTY, MADELEINE; MALO, KIT; ABRAVANEL, MICHAEL; MOUDRAKOVSKI, TATIANA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore adolescents’ perceptions of psychosocial influences – personal characteristics, environmental factors and behavioural undertakings – influencing their prolonged involvement in sports and physical activity (PA). A qualitative approach was adopted wherein 16 adolescents (8 boys, 8 girls; mean age 15.9 years), who had been physically active for at least the last 8 years, and sixteen adults identified as their ‘parents’ or ‘guardians’ participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using the HyperRESEARCH software. Data were analysed using thematic analysis procedures. Four main themes pertaining to psychosocial influences were identified: 1) personal characteristics; 2) school and community resources; 3) parental support; and 4) social interaction. Except for social interaction, for which participants did not identify challenges, themes are discussed according to their motivational aspects and the challenges they represent for adolescents’ PA involvement. The research has implications for health promotion endeavours directed toward parents of children and adolescents. Given the limitations of a qualitative study, readers are invited to apply the conclusions to their own context.

  20. Are risk estimates biased in follow-up studies of psychosocial factors with low base-line participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Kolstad, Henrik; Hansen, Åse Marie;

    2011-01-01

    Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population.......Low participation in population-based follow-up studies addressing psychosocial risk factors may cause biased estimation of health risk but the issue has seldom been examined. We compared risk estimates for selected health outcomes among respondents and the entire source population....

  1. Measures of psychosocial factors that may influence help-seeking behaviour in cancer: A systematic review of psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, Sonja; Walter, Fiona M; Chilcot, Joseph; Scott, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    Advanced stage cancer is frequently attributed to delays in presentation to a healthcare professional. To reduce undue delay, it is imperative to understand the reasons underlying help-seeking behaviour and to measure those using valid and reliable tools. This systematic review aimed to identify how studies have measured psychosocial factors affecting time to presentation for (potential) cancer symptoms. A total of 35 studies were included. Most studies failed to use valid and reliable tools, and predominantly provided inconclusive results regarding psychosocial factors and time to presentation when no or minimal psychometric evidence was present. Consequently, measure selection and future measure development should be guided by psychometric principles.

  2. Health inequalities in Japan: the role of material, psychosocial, social relational and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Shipley, Martin J; Brunner, Eric J

    2014-03-01

    The extent that risk factors, identified in Western countries, account for health inequalities in Japan remains unclear. We analysed a nationally representative sample (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions surveyed in 2001 (n = 40,243)). The cross-sectional association between self-rated fair or poor health and household income and a theory-based occupational social class was summarised using the relative index of inequality [RII]. The percentage attenuation in RII accounted for by candidate contributory factors - material, psychosocial, social relational and behavioural - was computed. The results showed that the RII for household income based on self-rated fair or poor health was reduced after including the four candidate contributory factors in the model by 20% (95% CI 2.1, 43.6) and 44% (95% CI 18.2, 92.5) in men and women, respectively. The RII for the Japanese Socioeconomic Classification [J-SEC] was reduced, not significantly, by 22% (95% CI -6.3, 100.0) in men in the corresponding model, while J-SEC was not associated with self-rated health in women. Material factors produced the most consistent and strong attenuation in RII for both socioeconomic indicators, while the contributions attributable to behaviour alone were modest. Social relational factors consistently attenuated the RII for both socioeconomic indicators in men whereas they did not make an independent contribution in women. The influence of perceived stress was inconsistent and depended on the socioeconomic indicator used. In summary, social inequalities in self-rated fair or poor health were reduced to a degree by the factors included. The results indicate that the levelling of health across the socioeconomic hierarchy needs to consider a wide range of factors, including material and psychosocial factors, in addition to the behavioural factors upon which the current public health policies in Japan focus. The analyses in this study need to be replicated using a longitudinal study design

  3. Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Technologies for Mobility and Their Implications for Active Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Correia Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Active ageing is defined as the process of optimizing opportunities for physical, social and mental health to enable older people to actively take part in society without discrimination and to enjoy independence and good quality of life. The World Health Organization assumed this to be a process for increasing and maintaining an individual’s participation in activities to enhance his/her quality of life. In this survey, the authors addressed the following question: is assistive technology (AT for mobility contributing to enhancement of lifelong capacity and performance? Method: From June 2015 until February 2016, 96 community dwelling adults, AT users for mobility (powered wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, lower limb prostheses, walkers, crutches and canes, aged 45–97, mean 67.02 ± 14.24 years old, 56.3% female, were interviewed using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (P-PIADS, the Activities and Participation Profile related to Mobility (APPM and demographics, clinical and questions about AT use and training. Results and Discussion: The participants’ profiles revealed moderate limitation and restrictions in participation, measured by the APPM (2.03. Most participants displayed a positive impact from AT; average scores obtained from the P-PIADS subscales were: Self-esteem 0.62, Competency 1.11 and Adaptability 1.10. The P-PIADS total was 0.96, with the powered wheelchair users scoring the highest (1.53 and the walker users scoring the lowest (0.73. All subscales and the P-PIADS total were positively correlated with the activities and participation profile. There was no relation between age and the psychosocial impact of AT or activities and participation profile. These results encourage the authors to follow up with these participants for a lifelong intervention. To accomplish that aim, currently, the protocol is implemented at the AT prescribing centers in Coimbra, Portugal in order to assess the impact of AT on

  4. Terrorist Threats in the Basque Country: its Impact on the Psychosocial Sphere of Victims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Martín-Peña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ceasefire of armed activities announced by ETA (Basque Homeland and Freedom in 2011 has fostered a debate about the violence and the victims of the terrorist organization. During those years, the violence perpetrated by ETA was characterized by bomb attacks and assassinations. In addition to this blatant violent behavior, a low-intensity violence was also taking place in the Basque Country, consisting of terrorist threats against their targets. There is, however, a lack of evidence-based research into this phenomenon. This investigation studies the impact of terrorist threats on the psychosocial functioning of people threatened by ETA in the Basque Country. Seventy-six people targeted by ETA completed self-reported survey. Terrorist threats and their derived psychosocial consequences were assessed by this way. The findings point out a relationship between terrorist threats and their psychosocial effects, which greatly affected the immediate environment of the targets too. The implications of these findings are discussed. El cese de la actividad armada anunciado por ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – Euskadi y Libertad en 2011 ha promovido un debate sobre la violencia y las víctimas de la organización terrorista. Durante esos años, la violencia perpetrada por ETA se caracterizó por ataques con bombas y asesinatos. Además de este comportamiento claramente violento, en el País Vasco también se estaba produciendo una violencia de baja intensidad, consistente en amenazas terroristas contra sus objetivos. Sin embargo, no hay una investigación basada en la evidencia sobre este fenómeno. Esta investigación estudia el impacto de las amenazas terroristas en el funcionamiento psicosocial de las personas amenazadas por ETA en el País Vasco. Setenta y seis personas amenazadas por ETA completaron una encuesta de autoevaluación. Se evaluaron de esta forma las amenazas terroristas y sus consecuencias psicosociales derivadas. Los resultados indicaron

  5. The Psychosocial Impact of Lymphedema-related Distress among Breast Cancer Survivors in the WHEL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sally A.; Natarajan, Loki; Pierce, John P.; Madanat, Hala; Madlensky, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Lymphedema is a distressing and chronic condition affecting up to 30% of breast cancer survivors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we examined the impact of self-reported lymphedema-related distress on psychosocial functioning among breast cancer survivors in the Women’s Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) Study. The WHEL Study has a dataset that includes self-report data on lymphedema status, symptoms and distress. Methods Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression models were used to examine how specific participant characteristics, including lymphedema-related distress, were associated with physical health and mental health as measured by the SF-36 and depressive symptoms assessed by the CES-Dsf. Results Of the 2,431 participants included in the current study population, 692 (28.5%) self-reported ever having lymphedema. A total of 335 (48.9%) women reported moderate to extreme distress as a result of their lymphedema and were classified as having lymphedema-related distress. The logistic regression models showed that women with lymphedema-related distress had 50% higher odds of reporting poor physical health (p=0.01) and 73% higher odds of having poor mental health (plymphedema. In contrast, even though lymphedema-related distress was significantly associated (p=0.03) with elevated depressive symptoms in the bivariate analyses, it was not significant in the logistic regression models. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors with lymphedema-related distress had worse physical and mental health outcomes than women with lymphedema who were not distressed and women with no lymphedema. Our findings provide further evidence of the relationship between lymphedema and psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer survivors. PMID:24615880

  6. Psychosocial impact of scars due to cutaneous leishmaniasis on high school students in Errachidia province, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Issam; Thys, Séverine; Filali, Hind; De Brouwere, Vincent; Sahibi, Hamid; Boelaert, Marleen

    2017-04-07

    In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is usually known to be a slowly healing localized skin disease, but in some cases, it can lead to mutilating scars. The outbreak of CL due to Leishmania major in the Errachidia province in southeastern Morocco between 2008 and 2010 left many adolescents with permanent scar tissue on the face or other exposed body parts. We studied the psychosocial impact of CL on these young people. In 2015 we conducted a cross-sectional survey among high-school students living in boarding schools in two CL-endemic areas of Errachidia: Rissani and Tinejdad. A self-administered questionnaire elicited responses about general knowledge of CL and related scars. An open-ended question focused on the possible psychosocial effects associated with these scars. The quantitative data were analyzed with Epi Info™ and the text data with NVivo software. Almost 20% of 448 respondents reported they had experienced a CL lesion and 87% said it could possibly or definitely lead to psychological consequences. The text analysis showed that girls more often than boys expanded on the negative psychological effects of CL. The students considered CL as "dangerous", "serious", and "deathly", and said it sometimes led to extreme suicidal ideations. The burden of CL in this age group is not negligible. The indelible CL scars lead to self-stigma and social stigma, and the emergence of negative psychological effects in this age group. While some students accepted their CL scars and related suffering as their "destiny", others were eagerly demanding protective measures against CL and treatment for the scars.

  7. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  8. Psychosocial factors and early childhood caries among low-income African-American children in Detroit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Tracy L; Siefert, Kristine; Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung

    2007-12-01

    This study sought to advance knowledge of the social determinants of oral health, by examining how several specific maternal health beliefs, behaviors, and psychosocial factors relate to young children's early childhood caries (ECC) status in a lower-income African-American population. Data were collected by the Detroit Dental Health Project (NIDCR grant), a population-based study of 1021 African-American families with at least one child under 6 years of age and living in 39 low-income Census tracts in Detroit, Michigan. Analyses were limited to 719 children aged 1-5 years and their biological mothers, and conducted in SUDAAN to account for the complex sampling design. Survey data included health belief scales on mothers' self-efficacy, feelings of fatalism, knowledge about appropriate bottle use and children's oral hygiene needs, brushing habits, psychosocial measures of depressive symptoms (CES-D), parenting stress, and availability of instrumental social support. The child's age, dental insurance status, dental visit history, and 1-week brushing frequency were also included in the model. Children's ECC status, based on a dental examination, was the main outcome. The dental team used the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria for caries detection. Each child was classified as either caries-free or having ECC or severe ECC (S-ECC) based on the case definition of ECC proposed by an expert panel for research purposes with preschool-aged children. The dental team followed a specific examination protocol and established reliable and consistent ratings of ECC based on the ICDAS criteria. The inter-rater reliability kappa was 0.83 overall, and the intra-rater reliability kappa was 0.74 overall. One-third of the children had ECC, and 20% had severe ECC. Age of the child and lower parenting stress scores were each positively associated with ECC, while higher education and income were protective. Maternal oral health fatalism and knowledge of

  9. Psychosocial factors associated with in postsurgical prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Mazetto, Lenon; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    We examined the long-term psychosocial trajectory in a consecutive and homogeneous series of 120 patients followed up for five years after corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Evaluation of psychosocial variables at baseline and at five-year follow-up were compared. After five years of CAH, a significant improvement in educational level (p=0.004) and employment status (p0.05). A more favorable surgical outcome (Engel IA) was related to better psychiatric status (p=0.012). Poor psychosocial adjustment before surgery was the most important predictor of QOL outcome (p<0.05). Patients' trajectory after surgical treatment showed positive effects mainly in those with better seizure outcome. Our results emphasized the influence regarding baseline psychosocial functioning on postoperative psychosocial adjustment. Furthermore, many psychosocial gains and difficulties after surgery may be similar in developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Continuation of Health Behaviors: Psychosocial Factors Sustaining Drinking Water Chlorination in a Longitudinal Study from Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lilje

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Behavior that has changed following promotion campaigns is usually not maintained at its initial level. Psychosocial factors for initiating behavior are often not the same as for the continuation of health behaviors such as water treatment and are much less understood. Better knowledge of factors for behavioral continuation would help to improve programs, both in the design of strategies for sustainable behavior change and by defining stronger criteria for the evaluation of sustainability. This study compared the mindsets of caregivers who continuously performed household drinking water treatment over time with individuals that stopped doing so in a population sample from Chad. Several factors from health psychology based on the Risks, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-Regulation (RANAS model were used to compare the two groups and examine their differing development. Normative factors such as others’ behavior, personal obligation, social support and discourse, perceived self-efficacy convictions, action control, and intention best discriminated between the two groups and developed significantly more positively over time for continuers of water treatment. These factors should be considered when designing future interventions intended to lead to sustainable behavior change.

  11. Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors and Mechanisms in Psychosocial Prevention and Intervention Programs for Black Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2016-06-01

    Extending previous reviews related to cultural responsiveness in the treatment of ethnic minority youth, the current review provides a critical assessment and synthesis of both basic and applied research on the integration of three racial-ethnic protective factors (racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) in psychosocial prevention and intervention programs for Black children and adolescents. Seventeen programs meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated for the extent to which racial-ethnic protective factors and related mechanisms were integrated, applied, and tested in such programs. A systematic assessment of these programs revealed that several prevention and intervention programs drew upon the three factors, particularly Africentric worldview. In addition, a number of studies hypothesized and assessed mechanisms, both those previously identified in conceptual literature and those that emerged from the interventions themselves. A set of recommendations encouraging the implementation of these factors into future prevention and intervention programs, examples of how clinicians can infuse these factors into psychotherapy, and areas for future research are discussed.

  12. The psychosocial impacts caused by diagnosis and treatment of Coeliac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Rocha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To comprehend the psychosocial effects that Coeliac Disease diagnosis entails. METHOD Qualitative study, achieved through semi-structured interviews, analyzed in accordance to the Association of ideas map Technique. A total 12 recently-diagnosed patients from the Centro de diagnóstico, tratamento e apoio ao paciente com doença celíaca (Coeliac Disease Prevention, Support and Treatment Diagnose Centre from the Hospital Universitário de Brasília (University Hospital of Brasilia were enrolled for the study, between the years of 2013 and 2014. RESULTS The interviewed patients presented negative impacts in three categories: psychoaffective, family and social relationships, indicating issues with social readaptation once the treatment had started, as well as difficulty coping with a gluten free diet. CONCLUSION Coeliac Disease holds substantial impact on psychological functions, family and social relationships to diagnosed patients, requiring a clinical biopsychological assistance for better adherence to treatment and patients quality of life.

  13. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors: evidence from the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population. DESIGN: A total of 3462 women and 2576 men aged 20-97 years from the Copenhagen City Heart Study. METHODS......: An MS index was defined from the seven components: waist-hip ratio, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Social status was measured by educational level. Psychosocial factors included fatigue...

  14. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.M. Alavinia (Seyed Mahammad); F.J. Bredt (Folef); D. Lindeboom; L.A.M. Elders (Leo); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1

  15. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease and quality of life among Roma coronary patients : a study matched by socioeconomic position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQL) differ between Roma and non-Roma coronary patients and to what degree socioeconomic status (SES) explains these differences. We included 138 patients out of 437 interviewed: 46 Roma, all with l

  16. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  17. Dose-response relations between occupational exposures to physical and psychosocial factors and the risk of low back pain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Morgenstern; A. Burdorf (Alex); J.P. Jansen (Jeroen)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To assess dose-response relations between occupational exposures to physical and psychosocial factors and the risk of low back pain. METHODS: A cohort of 523 subjects, working in nursing homes and homes for the elderly, was followed prospectively for one year. Phy

  18. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.I.J. van den Berg (Tilja); S.M. Alavinia (Seyed Mahammad); F.J. Bredt (Folef); D. Lindeboom; L.A.M. Elders (Leo); A. Burdorf (Alex)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n =

  19. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  20. Influence of Some Psychosocial Factors on Mobbing and Its Consequences among Employees Working with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo-Ferraz, Hugo; Gil-Monte, Pedro R.; Grau-Alberola, Ester; Llorca-Pellicer, Marta; Garcia-Juesas, Juan A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The problem of mobbing has attracted a great deal of attention over the past few years. This concern has increased the study of the phenomena, which has resulted in many scientific publications. Mobbing has been characterized as an emerging risk at work. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of some psychosocial factors at…

  1. Psychosocial work environment, stress factors and individual characteristics among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tuvesson; Mona, Eklund

    2014-01-20

    The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics--Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience--are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff's perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  2. Psychosocial Work Environment, Stress Factors and Individual Characteristics among Nursing Staff in Psychiatric In-Patient Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuvesson Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychosocial work environment is an important factor in psychiatric in-patient care, and knowing more of its correlates might open up new paths for future workplace interventions. Thus, the aims of the present study were to investigate perceptions of the psychosocial work environment among nursing staff in psychiatric in-patient care and how individual characteristics—Mastery, Moral Sensitivity, Perceived Stress, and Stress of Conscience—are related to different aspects of the psychosocial work environment. A total of 93 nursing staff members filled out five questionnaires: the QPSNordic 34+, Perceived Stress Scale, Stress of Conscience Questionnaire, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and Mastery scale. Multivariate analysis showed that Perceived Stress was important for Organisational Climate perceptions. The Stress of Conscience subscale Internal Demands and Experience in current units were indicators of Role Clarity. The other Stress of Conscience subscale, External Demands and Restrictions, was related to Control at Work. Two types of stress, Perceived Stress and Stress of Conscience, were particularly important for the nursing staff’s perception of the psychosocial work environment. Efforts to prevent stress may also contribute to improvements in the psychosocial work environment.

  3. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD.

  4. Acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Ahn, Hyunmi; Miller, Arlene; Park, Chang Gi; Kim, Sun Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify the relationships among acculturative stress, work-related psychosocial factors and depression in Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea and to determine whether work-related psychosocial factors mediate the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. A descriptive correlational cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 200 Korean-Chinese full-time migrant workers was recruited, and 170 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. Acculturative stress was assessed by Sandh and Asrabadi's Acculturative Stress Scale. Work-related psychosocial factors were assessed by job demand, insufficient job control and interpersonal conflict measures from the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Self-administered or face-to-face surveys were conducted by trained data collectors. Multiple regression and path analysis were used. Roughly 30% of the sample met the criteria for depression. Female workers had significantly higher depression scores than male workers. Acculturative stress and work-related psychosocial factors significantly predicted 26.3% of the variance in depression. A path model revealed the mediating effect of job demand on the relationship between acculturative stress and depression. Our results indicate that work-related psychosocial factors are salient factors that lead to depression among Korean-Chinese migrant workers living in Korea. The results suggest that occupational health-care professionals should promote the prevention and management of depression in this population and highlight the importance of acculturation context in the development of interventions designed to reduce work-related stress.

  5. Psychosocial factors associated with broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy: findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoph Berg, Cecilie; Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Torgersen, Leila; Hamer, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial characteristics and broadly defined bulimia nervosa during early pregnancy, including factors associated with continuation, incidence and remission. A total of 41 157 women completed questionnaires at approximately gestation week 18, including items on eating disorders and psychosocial characteristics as a part of Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Incident bulimia nervosa during the first trimester was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression and low self-esteem and life satisfaction, whereas remission was significantly associated with higher self-esteem and life satisfaction. Continuation was not significantly related to any of the psychosocial variables tested. Onset of bulimia nervosa during pregnancy is associated with mood and anxiety symptoms. Remission of bulimic symptoms and new onset of bulimia nervosa are associated with opposite profiles of self-esteem, and life satisfaction measures.

  6. The efficacy of targeted interventions for modifiable psychosocial risk factors of persistent nonspecific low back pain e A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Kjær, Per

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is considerable interest in whether best practice management of nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) should include the targeting of treatment to subgroups of people with identifiable clinical characteristics. However, there are no published systematic reviews of the efficacy...... were randomised controlled trials of targeted psychosocial interventions that used trial designs capable of providing robust information on the efficacy of targeted treatment (treatment effect modification) for the outcomes of pain, activity limitation and psychosocial factors (fear avoidance...... limitation at 12 months, when targeted to people with higher movement-related pain. Few studies have investigated targeted psychosocial interventions in NSLBP, using trial designs suitable for measuring treatment effect modification, and they do not provide consistent evidence supporting such targeting...

  7. How changes in psychosocial job characteristics impact burnout in nurses: a longitudinal analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pisanti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this longitudinal study was to test the Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS model and to analyze whether changes in psychosocial job characteristics are related to (changes in burnout. Previous studies on the effects of JDCS variables on burnout dimensions have indicated that the iso strain hypothesis (i.e., high job demands, low control and low support additively predict high stress reactions and the buffer hypotheses (i.e., high job control and/or social support is expected to moderate the negative impact of high demands on stress reactions have hardly been examined concurrently in a longitudinal design; and that the effects of changes of psychosocial job variables on burnout dimensions have hardly been analysed. This two wave study was carried out over a period of 14 months in a sample of 217 Italian nurses.Method: Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the cross lagged main and interactive effects of JDCS variables, and to analyse the across-time effects of changes in JDCS dimensions on burnout variables.The Time 1 job characteristics explained 2 to 8% of the variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions, but no support for the additive or the buffer hypothesis of the JDCS model was found. Changes in job characteristics explained an additional 3 to 20% of variance in the Time 2 burnout dimensions. Specifically, high levels of emotional exhaustion at Time 2 were explained by high levels of social support at Time 1, and unfavourable changes in demands, control and support over time; high depersonalisation at Time 2 was explained by high social support at time 1 and by an increase in demands over time; and high personal accomplishment at Time 2 was predicted by high demands, high control, interactive effect demands X control X social support, at Time 1, and by a decrease in demands over time. No reversed effects of burnout on work characteristics have been found.Our findings suggest that the work environment is subject to

  8. Quality of Life and Psychosocial Factors in African Americans with Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Anna; Fischer, Michael J.; Brooks, Deborah; Bruce, Marino; Charleston, Jeanne; Cleveland, William H.; Dowie, Donna; Faulkner, Marquetta; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Hiremath, Leena; Kendrick, Cindy; Kusek, John W.; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Wang, Xuelei; Norris, Keith; Unruh, Mark; Lash, James

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is poorly understood in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) prior to end-stage renal disease. The association between psychosocial measures and HRQOL has not been fully explored in CKD, especially in African Americans. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HRQOL and its association with sociodemographic and psychosocial factors in African Americans with hypertensive CKD. There were 639 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Cohort Study. The Short Form-36 was used to measure HRQOL. The Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale measured life satisfaction, the Beck Depression Inventory-II assessed depression, the Coping Skills Inventory-Short Form measured coping, and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-16 was used to measure social support. Mean participant age was 60 years at enrollment, and 61% were male. Forty-two percent reported a household income below $15,000/year. Higher levels of social support, coping skills, and life satisfaction were associated with higher HRQOL, while unemployment and depression were associated with lower HRQOL (p<0.05). There was a significant positive association between higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with the Physical Health Composite (PHC) score (p=0.004) but not the Mental Health Composite (MHC) score (p=0.24). Unemployment was associated with lower HRQOL, and lower eGFR was associated with lower PHC. African Americans with hypertensive CKD with better social support and coping skills had higher HRQOL. This study demonstrates an association between CKD and low HRQOL and highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further examine this association. PMID:22153804

  9. Impact of burnout and psychosocial work characteristics on future long-term sickness absence. Prospective results of the Danish PUMA-study among human service workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, KB; Rugulies, R

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation...... and Job satisfaction) followed up during the proceeding 18 months regarding onset of long-term sickness absence. Questionnaire data regarding burnout and psychosocial factors were aggregated at work unit level. We used Poisson regression models with psychosocial factors and burnout as predictors of long......-term sickness absence for more than 18 months based on data from a national absence register. Results: Long-term sickness absence was predicted by psychosocial factors and by burnout at work unit level. Conclusion: To reduce sickness absence, organizations within human services should improve the psychosocial...

  10. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study.

  11. Social gradient in the metabolic syndrome not explained by psychosocial and behavioural factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina; Osler, Merete

    2007-01-01

    Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population.......Psychosocial stressors may mediate the effect of social status on the metabolic syndrome (MS). The paper explores this hypothesis in a random sample of the general population....

  12. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  13. How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8?

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen; Barreau, Sofka; Burton, Veronica; Davis, Rosemary; Potter, Sylvia; Sayeed, Zahirun; Early Years Review Group

    2005-01-01

    This report looks at research that assesses the effectiveness of measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8.

  14. Broadening the etiological discourse on Alzheimer's disease to include trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder as psychosocial risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, David P R; Burnette, Denise

    2013-08-01

    Biomedical perspectives have long dominated research on the etiology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD); yet these approaches do not solely explain observed variations in individual AD trajectories. More robust biopsychosocial models regard the course of AD as a dialectical interplay of neuropathological and psychosocial influences. Drawing on this broader conceptualization, we conducted an extensive review of empirical and theoretical literature on the associations of trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and AD to develop a working model that conceptualizes the role of psychosocial stressors and physiological mechanisms in the onset and course of AD. The proposed model suggests two pathways. In the first, previous life trauma acts as a risk factor for later-life onset of AD, either directly or mediated by PTSD or PTSD correlates. In the second, de novo AD experiential trauma is associated with accelerated cognitive decline, either directly or mediated through PTSD or PTSD correlates. Evidence synthesized in this paper indicates that previous life trauma and PTSD are strong candidates as psychosocial risk factors for AD and warrant further empirical scrutiny. Psychosocial and neurological-based intervention implications are discussed. A biopsychosocial approach has the capacity to enhance understanding of individual AD trajectories, moving the field toward 'person-centered' models of care.

  15. Psychosocial biomarker research: integrating social, emotional and economic factors into population studies of aging and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, Andrew

    2011-04-01

    There are complex reciprocal relationships between health and social, emotional and economic factors in aging populations. Social and affective neurosciences are rapidly developing an understanding of the mechanisms underlying these phenomena using sophisticated behavioural, neuroimaging and psychophysiological methods. These techniques are often complex and expensive, so are generally used in relatively small selected samples rather than in large-scale cohort studies. However, an understanding of the significance of these processes in health and well-being depends on integrating findings from social and affective neuroscience into population-level studies. The aim of this article is to describe how a population perspective on the determinants of health and well-being in old age articulates with the agenda of social, affective and economic neuroscience, particularly through the application of psychosocial biomarker research. Social and affective neuroscience and epidemiological approaches provide complementary research strategies for understanding the mechanisms linking social, emotional and economic factors with health risk. This will be illustrated primarily from findings from two studies conducted at University College London, the Whitehall II Study and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

  16. Potentially modifiable psychosocial factors associated with alcohol use during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callas, Peter W; Flynn, Brian S; Worden, John K

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors associated with alcohol use among early adolescents. A survey was administered to all Grade 7 and 8 students in 16 Vermont school districts. The questionnaire covered demographics, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, and measures of psychosocial mediators of alcohol use drawn from social cognitive theory. These included positive and negative expectancies about alcohol effects, perceived peer and parent alcohol norms, perceived prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, and confidence in ability to refuse alcohol. Of the 2919 respondents, 29% reported having at least one drink of beer in the preceding 30 days. In logistic regression, factors independently related to risk of drinking beer in the past 30 days were smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8-3.0), marijuana use (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.0-5.2), negative expectancies (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.6), parent norms (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), and estimated percentage of high school students who drink (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1-1.5). Gender, positive alcohol expectancies, and lack of confidence in ability to refuse alcohol all significantly interacted with peer norm, with these items more strongly associated with alcohol use when peer norm is toward "shouldn't drink." Modifiable perceptions of alcohol use were strongly associated with actual use in this adolescent sample, providing a basis for intervention program design.

  17. The Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Work Accidents in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Akgun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and work accidents among waste collector workers in Izmir Konak Municipality Cleaning Services Section. The study consisted 92 (%68 out of 135 workers of those accepted to participation. METHOD: face-to-face questionnaire were administered for data collection. Dependent variable was the work-related accident for previous six months. Independent variables were sociodemographic features, working conditions, mental health status, daytime sleepiness, workload and social support. The chi-square test and the logistic regression models used for data analysis. RESULTS: Work accident prevalence was 32.6% for the last 6 months. Age and workload were significantly affected work-related accidents (p=0.03; p=0.01 respectively. Social support, mental health status and daytime sleepiness status did not effect work-related accident prevalence (p=0.48; p=0.21; p=0.30 respectively. CONCLUSION: Results of the study indicated that work-related accident prevalence is high among workers in Izmir Konak Municipality. Workload was found important risk factor for the work accident among waste collector workers. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 623-632

  18. Behavioral and psychosocial factors associated with insomnia in adolescents with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Tonya M; Wilson, Anna C; Lewandowski, Amy S; Toliver-Sokol, Marisol; Murray, Caitlin B

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify differences in sleep behaviors, sleep quality, pre-sleep arousal and prevalence of insomnia symptoms in adolescents with chronic pain compared to a healthy age and sex-matched cohort and (2) examine pain intensity, pubertal development, depression, and pre-sleep arousal as risk factors for insomnia symptoms. Participants included 115 adolescents, 12-18 years of age (73.0% female), 59 youth with chronic pain and 56 healthy youth. During a home-based assessment, adolescents completed validated measures of pain, sleep quality, sleep hygiene, pre-sleep arousal, depressive symptoms, and pubertal development. Findings revealed a significantly higher percentage of adolescents with chronic pain reporting symptoms of insomnia (54.2%) compared to healthy adolescents (19.6%), pinsomnia, having chronic pain (OR=6.09) and higher levels of cognitive pre-sleep arousal (OR=1.24). Level of pain intensity did not predict insomnia. While sleep disruption may initially relate to pain, these symptoms may persist into a separate primary sleep disorder over time due to other behavioral and psychosocial factors. Assessment of insomnia may be important for identifying behavioral targets for the delivery of sleep-specific interventions to youth with chronic pain.

  19. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T. I. J.; Alavinia, S. M.; Bredt, F. J.; Lindeboom, D.; Elders, L. A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Results Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Conclusion Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors. PMID:18175140

  20. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  1. Psycho-social factors are important for the perception of disease in patients with acute coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekke-Hansen, Sidsel; Weinman, John; Thastum, Mikael; Thygesen, Kristian; Zachariae, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Little is presently known about determinants of cardiac illness perceptions, especially regarding psycho-social factors. Questionnaire study among 97 consecutively recruited inpatients (72.2% male; mean age 60.6 years) with acute coronary syndrome. We examined the role of socio-demographic, illness-related and psycho-social factors (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Life Orientation Test-Revised) for perceived consequences, controllability and causes (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire) with standard multiple regression. In final models, dispositional pessimism was associated with perceptions of more severe consequences, less personal control and more attribution of illness to immune system factors. Dispositional optimism was associated with less severe perceived consequences. Higher general self-efficacy was associated with less attribution of illness to psychological factors, smoking and poor medical care. Greater perceived social support was associated with higher perceived treatment control and less attribution of illness to immune system factors, poor medical care, chance and accident. Also, gender, educational status, previous heart disease and family history of cardiovascular disease were significantly related to illness perceptions, whereas present disease severity (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) was not. Psycho-social resources and illness history were more important determinants of cardiac illness perceptions than present disease severity. This study was supported by unrestricted grants from The FOOD Study Group and The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries; The Beckett-Foundation; and The Augustinus Foundation. Not relevant.

  2. Validity of Pro Children Project questionnaire for assessing psychosocial factors of fruit and vegetable intake in Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Ochoa-Meza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine content and construct validity for the Mexican version of Pro Children Project questionnaire for assessing psychosocial factors, related to fruit and vegetable intake in samples of 10-12 year-old schoolchildren. Materials and methods. The questionnaire consisted of 87 items. It was administered to 2084 children in an instrumental study conducted in 2011 in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Results. Kappa statistic resulted in good agreement between experts (kappa=0.69, very good agreement in children (kappa=0.93. Seven factors were obtained that explained 37.87% of the variance in fruit and 48.18% of the variance in vegetable. Cronbach´s alpha values were low to moderate (range 0.55 to 0.83. An internal structure of seven first order factors was confirmed in fruits and six linked to vegetables. Conclusion. The questionnaire provides sufficient validity for assessing psychosocial factors related to fruit and vegetable intake in 10-12 year old schoolchildren. Finally, implications of the findings in the test adaptation process for assessing psychosocial factors of fruit and vegetable intake and for future research in this instrument are discussed.

  3. Validation and reliability of the Malaysian English version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Hassan, Wan Nurazreena; Yusof, Zamros Yuzadi Mohd; Makhbul, Mohd Zambri Mohamed; Shahidan, Siti Safuraa Zahirah; Mohd Ali, Siti Farhana; Burhanudin, Rashidah; Gere, Maria Jirom

    2017-03-21

    The Malay version of the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire has been validated for use by Malaysian adolescents. Although Malay is their national language, English is widely used as the lingua franca among Malaysians of different ethnicities. This study aimed to validate an English version of the PIDAQ adapted for use by Malaysian adolescents to optimize data capture from adolescents who prefer English as the medium for communication. The published English version of PIDAQ was pilot tested on 12- to 17-year-old adolescents, resulting in a few modifications to suit the Malaysian variety of English. Psychometric properties were tested on 393 adolescents who attended orthodontic practices and selected schools. Malocclusion was assessed using the Malocclusion Index, an aggregation of Perception of Occlusion Scale and the Aesthetic Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need, by the subjects (MI-S) and investigators (MI-D). Data were analysed for internal consistency and age-associated invariance, discriminant, construct and criterion validities, reproducibility and floor and ceiling effects using AMOS v.20 and SPSS v.20. The item Don't like own teeth on video of the Aesthetic Concern (AC) subscale was not relevant to a large proportion of participants (11.7%). Therefore, it was removed and the Malaysian English PIDAQ was analysed based on 22 items instead of 23 items. Confirmatory factor analysis showed good fit statistics (comparative fit index: 0.902, root-mean-square error of approximation: 0.066). Internal consistency was good for the Dental Self-Confidence, Social Impact and Psychological Impact subscales (Cronbach's alpha: 0.70-0.95) but lower (0.52-0.62) though acceptable for the AC subscale as it consisted of only 2 items. The reproducibility test was acceptable (intra-class correlations: 0.53-0.78). For all PIDAQ subscales, the MI-S and MI-D scores of those with severe malocclusion differed significantly from those with no or

  4. Psychosocial and Somatosensory Factors in Women with Chronic Migraine and Painful Temporomandibular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande-Alonso, Mónica; La Touche, Roy; Lara-Lara, Manuel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Psychosocial and somatosensory factors are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic migraine (CM) and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Objective. To compare and assess the relationship between pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in patients with CM or chronic TMD. Method. Cross-sectional study of 20 women with CM, 19 with chronic TMD, and 20 healthy volunteers. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were assessed. The level of education, pain intensity, and magnitude of temporal summation of stimuli in the masseter (STM) and tibialis (STT) muscles were also evaluated. Results. There were significant differences between the CM and chronic TMD groups, compared with the group of asymptomatic subjects, for all variables (p < .05) except kinesiophobia when comparing patients with CM and healthy women. Moderate correlations between kinesiophobia and catastrophizing (r = 0.46; p < .01) were obtained, and the strongest association was between kinesiophobia and magnification (r = 0.52; p < .01). The strongest associations among physical variables were found between the STM on both sides (r = 0.93; p < .01) and between the left and right STT (r = 0.76; p < .01). Conclusion. No differences were observed in pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia between women with CM and with chronic TMD. Women with CM or chronic TMD showed higher levels of pain catastrophizing than asymptomatic subjects. PMID:27818609

  5. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

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    Leslie B. Hammer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based, followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety.

  6. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

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    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  7. Psychosocial and Somatosensory Factors in Women with Chronic Migraine and Painful Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gil-Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychosocial and somatosensory factors are involved in the pathophysiology of chronic migraine (CM and chronic temporomandibular disorders (TMD. Objective. To compare and assess the relationship between pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia in patients with CM or chronic TMD. Method. Cross-sectional study of 20 women with CM, 19 with chronic TMD, and 20 healthy volunteers. Pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia were assessed. The level of education, pain intensity, and magnitude of temporal summation of stimuli in the masseter (STM and tibialis (STT muscles were also evaluated. Results. There were significant differences between the CM and chronic TMD groups, compared with the group of asymptomatic subjects, for all variables (p<.05 except kinesiophobia when comparing patients with CM and healthy women. Moderate correlations between kinesiophobia and catastrophizing (r=0.46; p<.01 were obtained, and the strongest association was between kinesiophobia and magnification (r=0.52; p<.01. The strongest associations among physical variables were found between the STM on both sides (r=0.93; p<.01 and between the left and right STT (r=0.76; p<.01. Conclusion. No differences were observed in pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia between women with CM and with chronic TMD. Women with CM or chronic TMD showed higher levels of pain catastrophizing than asymptomatic subjects.

  8. Individual, Psycho-Social and Disease-Related Risk Factors in Diabetic Neuropathy

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    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropathy is the mostly prevalent of complications and the major cause of amputation, pain and disability in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of individual, psycho-social, and disease-related risk factors in neuropathy of type 2 diabetes patients.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, 271 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected by convenience sampling in diabetic outpatient clinics of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the Iranian Diabetic Association. The data were collected by demographical and disease characteristics questionnaires and DASS-42, QOLS, DSMS, and DKS scales. Then, the data were analyzed by r binary logistic regression along with PASW software.Results: Socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin, body mass index, diabetes self-management, depression, quality of life, diabetes knowledge, and diabetes duration were significantly able to differentiate diabetic patients with neuropathy from diabetic patients without neuropathy (p0.05. The total regression model explained that 95.2% of cases were classified correctly.Conclusion: Inappropriate socio-economic status, glycosylated hemoglobin over 9%, being overweight and obesity, poor diabetes self-management, clinical depression, low quality of life, poor diabetes knowledge, and longer diabetes duration contribute to the incidence of neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and attention must be paid to them for neuropathy prevention.

  9. Tackling psychosocial risk factors for adolescent cyberbullying: Evidence from a school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkoukis, Vassilis; Lazuras, Lambros; Ourda, Despoina; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is an emerging form of bullying that takes place through contemporary information and communication technologies. Building on past research on the psychosocial risk factors for cyberbullying in this age group, the present study assessed a theory-driven, school-based preventive intervention that targeted moral disengagement, empathy and social cognitive predictors of cyberbullying. Adolescents (N = 355) aged between 16 and 18 years were randomly assigned into the intervention and the control group. Both groups completed anonymous structured questionnaires about demographics, empathy, moral disengagement and cyberbullying-related social cognitive variables (attitudes, actor prototypes, social norms, and behavioral expectations) before the intervention, post-intervention and 6 months after the intervention. The intervention included awareness-raising and interactive discussions about cyberbullying with intervention group students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that, after controlling for baseline measurements, there were significant differences at post-intervention measures in moral disengagement scores, and in favorability of actor prototypes. Further analysis on the specific mechanisms of moral disengagement showed that significant differences were observed in distortion of consequences and attribution of blame. The implications of the intervention are discussed, and guidelines for future school-based interventions against cyberbullying are provided.

  10. Fear of falling (FF): Psychosocial and physical factors among institutionalized older Chinese men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chow, Philip C; Lin, Yu-Te; Tang, Kwong-Yui; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Chen, Liang-Kung; Lu, Ti; Pan, Chih-Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Fear of falling (FF) can have multiple adverse consequences in the elderly. Although there are various fall prevention programs, little is known of FF and its associated characteristics. This study examined FF-associated physical and psychosocial factors in older Chinese men living in a veterans home in southern Taiwan. Subjects with a recent episode of delirium, of bed-ridden or wheelchair-bound status, severe hearing impairment or impaired cognition were excluded. Overall, 371 residents (mean age 82.1 ± 5.11 years, all males) participated. The prevalence of FF was 25.3%. Univariate analysis revealed that subjects in the FF group were older age, having lower education level, poorer sitting and standing balance, poorer activities of daily living (ADL), more depressive symptoms, higher chances of using walking aids, neurologic diseases, and a history of fall within the past 6 months. Logistic regression showed that depressive symptoms (odds ratio = OR = 6.73, 95%CI: 3.03-14.93, p FF.

  11. Effects of a Workplace Intervention Targeting Psychosocial Risk Factors on Safety and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Leslie B.; Truxillo, Donald M.; Bodner, Todd; Rineer, Jennifer; Pytlovany, Amy C.; Richman, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of a workplace intervention targeting work-life stress and safety-related psychosocial risk factors on health and safety outcomes. Data were collected over time using a randomized control trial design with 264 construction workers employed in an urban municipal department. The intervention involved family- and safety-supportive supervisor behavior training (computer-based), followed by two weeks of behavior tracking and a four-hour, facilitated team effectiveness session including supervisors and employees. A significant positive intervention effect was found for an objective measure of blood pressure at the 12-month follow-up. However, no significant intervention results were found for self-reported general health, safety participation, or safety compliance. These findings suggest that an intervention focused on supervisor support training and a team effectiveness process for planning and problem solving should be further refined and utilized in order to improve employee health with additional research on the beneficial effects on worker safety. PMID:26557703

  12. Are psychosocial factors associated with low back pain and work absence for low back pain in an occupational cohort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Donna M; Kelsall, Helen L; Hoe, Victor C W; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R

    2013-12-01

    To examine the relationship between individual and work-related psychosocial factors and low back pain (LBP) and associated time off work in an occupational cohort. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses working across 3 major public hospitals. Participants provided sociodemographic data and information on the occurrence of LBP, time off work, and psychosocial factors. One thousand one hundred eleven participants (response rate 38.6%) were included in the study. Fifty-six percent of participants reported LBP in the previous year. When individual psychosocial factors were examined in the same model, the relationship between somatization and LBP persisted (OR 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35, 2.01). Low job security was also significantly associated with LBP independent of the other work-related factors (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69, 0.98). Of those participants with LBP, 30% reported absence from work due to LBP. When absence from work was examined, negative beliefs (OR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94, 1.00) and pain catastrophizing (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.71) were independently associated with time off work, along with low job satisfaction (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51, 0.97) and high job support (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.75). Somatization and low job security were found to be independently associated with occupational LBP, whereas negative beliefs, pain catastrophizing, reduced job satisfaction, and high job support were independently related to time off work. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these individual and work-related psychosocial factors predict, or alternatively, are outcomes of pain and time off work associated with LBP.

  13. Psychosocial risk factors in home and community settings and their associations with population health and health inequalities: A systematic meta-review

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    Petticrew Mark

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of psychosocial risk factors on population health and health inequalities has featured prominently in epidemiological research literature as well as public health policy strategies. We have conducted a meta-review (a review of reviews exploring how psychosocial factors may relate to population health in home and community settings. Methods Systematic review (QUORUM of literature reviews (published in any language or country on the health associations of psychosocial risk factors in community settings. The literature search included electronic and manual searches. Two reviewers appraised included reviews using criteria for assessing systematic reviews. Data from the more robust reviews were extracted, tabulated and synthesised. Results Thirty-one reviews met our inclusion criteria. These explored a variety of psychosocial factors including social support and networks, social capital, social cohesion, collective efficacy, participation in local organisations – and less favourable psychosocial risk factors such as demands, exposure to community violence or anti-social behaviour, exposure to discrimination, and stress related to acculturation to western society. Most of the reviews focused on associations between social networks/support and physical or mental health. We identified some evidence of favourable psychosocial environments associated with better health. Reviews also found evidence of unfavourable psychosocial risk factors linked to poorer health, particularly among socially disadvantaged groups. However, the more robust reviews each identified studies with inconclusive findings, as well as studies finding evidence of associations. We also identified some evidence of apparently favourable psychosocial risk factors associated with poorer health. Conclusion From the review literature we have synthesised, where associations have been identified, they generally support the view that favourable psychosocial

  14. Medical and psychosocial factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in primary care: survey questionnaire and factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tau-Hong; Wong, Joshua Gx; Lye, David Cb; Chen, Mark Ic; Loh, Victor Wk; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lee, Linda K; Chow, Angela Lp

    2017-03-01

    Acute upper respiratory infections (AURI) are the leading causes of antibiotic prescribing in primary care although antibiotics are often not indicated. To gain an understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of GPs in Singapore and the associated latent factors to guide the implementation of an effective programme to reduce antibiotic use in primary care. An anonymous survey on the KAP of antibiotic use in AURI of GPs in Singapore. KAP survey questionnaires were posted to all GPs from a database. To ascertain the latent factors affecting prescribing patterns, exploratory factor analysis was performed. Among 427 responses, 351 (82.2%) were from GPs working in private practice. It was found that 58.4% of GPs in the private versus 72.4% of those in the public sector recognised that >80% of AURIs were caused by viruses (P = 0.02). The majority of GPs (353/427; 82.7%) felt that antibiotics were overprescribed in primary care. Significant factors associated with low antibiotic prescribing were good medical knowledge and clinical competency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4 to 4.3), good clinical practice (aOR 2.7 [95% CI = 2.0 to 3.6]), availability of diagnostic tests (aOR 1.4 [95% CI = 1.1 to 1.8]), and desire to improve clinical practice (aOR 1.5 [95% CI = 1.2 to 1.9]). The conservative practice of giving antibiotics 'to be on the safe side' is significantly less likely to be associated with low antibiotic prescribing (aOR 0.7 [95% CI = 0.5 to 0.9]). This is the first KAP survey on antibiotic prescribing for AURI among GPs in Singapore. With the latent factors identified, future interventions should be directed at addressing these factors to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  15. Are psychosocial factors, risk factors for symptoms and signs of the shoulder, elbow, or hand/wrist?: A review of the epidemiological literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; Kremer, A.M.; Laak, J. ter

    2002-01-01

    Background: In 1993, an extensive review on the role of psychosocial factors in the development of musculoskeletal problems was published by Bongers et al (1993). Since then, additional reviews on this topic have been published; however, none of these focussed on upper limb problems. Methods: In thi

  16. Psychopathology and Related Psychosocial Factors in Children with Office Discipline Referrals at School: Evidence from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Dursun, Onur Burak; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Baykara, Burak

    2015-10-01

    Many childhood psychiatric disorders present their first symptoms as challenging behaviors at school. Evidence from cross-national studies enhance the understanding of the biological and cultural variables underlying these behaviours. In this study, we aim to identify the psychopathology among children with office disciplinary referrals and assess psychosocial risk factors related to this situation. Forty-seven students who had received an office discipline referral and eighty-three controls who had never been given an office disciplinary referral participated in this study. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime, socio-demographic data form were administered to children to assess their respective psychopathologies and psychosocial risk factors. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were significantly higher in children with Office discipline referrals. Psychiatric assessment should be one of the first steps in the evaluation processes of assessing challenging behaviors at school.

  17. Contribution of material, occupational, and psychosocial factors in the explanation of social inequalities in health in 28 countries in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldabe, Bénédicte; Anderson, Robert; Lyly-Yrjänäinen, Maija; Parent-Thirion, Agnès; Vermeylen, Greet; Kelleher, C Cecily; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To analyse the associations between socioeconomic status (SES), measured using occupation, and self-reported health, and to examine the contribution of various material, occupational, and psychosocial factors to social inequalities in health in Europe. Methods This study was based on data from the European Quality of Life Survey (EQLS) carried out in 2003. The total sample consisted of 6038 and 6383 working men and women in 28 countries in Europe (response rates: 30.3–91.2%). Each set of potential material, occupational, and psychosocial mediators included between 8 and 11 variables. Statistical analysis was performed using multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results Significant social differences were observed for self-reported health, manual workers being more likely to be in poor health (OR=1.89, 95% CI: 1.46–2.46 for men, OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.71–2.77 for women). Strong social gradients were found for almost all potential mediating factors, and almost all displayed significant associations with self-reported health. Social differences in health were substantially reduced after adjustment for material, occupational, and psychosocial factors, material factors playing a major role. The four strongest contributions to reducing these differences were found for material deprivation, social exclusion, financial problems, and job reward. Taking all mediators into account led to an explanation of the social differences in health by 78–100% for men and women. Conclusion The association between SES and poor health may be attributed to differential distributions of several dimensions of material, occupational, and psychosocial conditions across occupational groups. Interventions targeting different dimensions might result in a reduction of social inequalities in health. PMID:20584725

  18. Musicianship and teaching : aspects of musculoskeletal disorders, physical and psychosocial work factors in musicians with focus on music teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are common among musicians at all levels of performance. Since music teachers train our future musicians it is important to understand their work environment. By creating good examples of a healthy work environment, they can teach their students how to stay healthy and to prevent pain. The aim of this thesis was to study the work environment of music teachers at municipal music schools, with regard to physical and psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders wi...

  19. Assessment of potential risk factors for new onset disabling low back pain in Japanese workers: findings from the CUPID (cultural and psychosocial influences on disability) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Mika; Matsudaira, Ko; Sawada, Takayuki; Koga, Tadashi; Ishizuka, Akiko; Isomura, Tatsuya; Coggon, David

    2017-08-02

    Most studies of risk factors for new low back pain (LBP) have been conducted in Western populations, but because of cultural and environmental differences, the impact of causal factors may not be the same in other countries. We used longitudinal data from the Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability (CUPID) study to assess risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP among Japanese workers. Data came from a 1-year prospective follow-up of nurses, office workers, sales/marketing personnel, and transportation workers, initially aged 20-59 years, who were employed in or near Tokyo. A baseline questionnaire included items on past history of LBP, personal characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. Further information about LBP was collected at follow-up. Analysis was restricted to participants who had been free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess baseline risk factors for new onset of disabling LBP (i.e. LBP that had interfered with work) during the 12 months of follow-up. Among 955 participants free from LBP during the 12 months before baseline, 58 (6.1%) reported a new episode of disabling LBP during the 12-month follow-up period. After mutual adjustment in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, which included the four factors that showed associations individually (p 3.0). When past history of LBP was excluded from the model, ORs for the remaining risk factors were virtually unchanged. Our findings suggest that among Japanese workers, as elsewhere, past history of LBP is a major risk factor for the development of new episodes of disabling back pain. They give limited support to the association with occupational lifting that has been observed in earlier research, both in Japan and in Western countries. In addition, they suggest a possible role of long working hours, which merits further investigation.

  20. Androgens and Psychosocial Factors Related to Sexual Dysfunctions in Premenopausal Women(∗): (∗)2016 ISSM Female Sexual Dysfunction Prize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wåhlin-Jacobsen, Sarah; Kristensen, Ellids; Pedersen, Anette Tønnes; Laessøe, Nanna Cassandra; Cohen, Arieh S; Hougaard, David M; Lundqvist, Marika; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2017-03-01

    The female sexual response is complex and influenced by several biological, psychological, and social factors. Testosterone is believed to modulate a woman's sexual response and desire, because low levels are considered a risk factor for impaired sexual function, but previous studies have been inconclusive. To investigate how androgen levels and psychosocial factors are associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD), including hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). The cross-sectional study included 428 premenopausal women 19 to 58 years old who completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and had blood sampled at days 6 to 10 in their menstrual cycle. Logistic regression models were built to test the association among hormone levels, psychosocial factors, and sexual end points. Five different sexual end points were measured using the Female Sexual Function Index and the Female Sexual Distress Scale: impaired sexual function, sexual distress, FSD, low sexual desire, and HSDD. Serum levels of total and free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and androsterone glucuronide were analyzed using mass spectrometry. After adjusting for psychosocial factors, women with low sexual desire had significantly lower mean levels of free testosterone and androstenedione compared with women without low sexual desire. None of the androgens were associated with FSD in general or with HSDD in particular. Relationship duration longer than 2 years and mild depressive symptoms increased the risk of having all the sexual end points, including FSD in general and HSDD in particular in multivariate analyses. In this large cross-sectional study, low sexual desire was significantly associated with levels of free testosterone and androstenedione, but FSD in general and HSDD in particular were not associated with androgen levels. Length of relationship and depression were associated with FSD including HSDD. Wåhlin-Jacobsen S, Kristensen E, Tønnes Pedersen A

  1. Relationship between Psychosocial Risk Factors and Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders among Public Hospital Nurses in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Nur Azma; Nordin, Rusli; Fatt, Quek Kia; Noah, Rahim M; Oxley, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between psychosocial work factors and risk of WRMSDs among public hospital nurses in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 660 public hospital nurses. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on the occurrence of WRMSDs according to body regions, socio-demographic profiles, occupational information and psychosocial risk factors. 468 questionnaires were returned (response rate of 71%), and 376 questionnaires qualified for subsequent analysis. Univariate analyses were applied to test for mean and categorical differences across the WRMSDs; multiple logistic regression was applied to predict WRMSDs based on the Job Strain Model's psychosocial risk factors. Over two thirds of the sample of nurses experienced discomfort or pain in at least one site of the musculoskeletal system within the last year. The neck was the most prevalent site (48.94%), followed by the feet (47.20%), the upper back (40.69%) and the lower back (35.28%). More than 50% of the nurses complained of having discomfort in region one (neck, shoulders and upperback) and region four (hips, knees, ankles, and feet). The results also revealed that psychological job demands, job strain and iso-strain ratio demonstrated statistically significant mean differences (p Malaysia.

  2. Psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems: a longitudinal study of the general working population in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, Håkon A; Sterud, Tom

    2017-04-20

    A growing number of longitudinal studies report associations between adverse psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. However, the evidence regarding the direction of these associations and the effects of changes in exposure across time is limited. This study examined the plausibility of normal, reverse, and reciprocal associations between ten psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems. In addition, we analyzed if reduced exposure across time had the anticipated result of reducing the risk of sleep problems. Randomly drawn from the general working-age population, the cohort comprised respondents with an active employee relationship in 2009 and 2013 (N = 5760). Exposures and outcome were measured on two occasions separated by 4 years. We computed several sex-stratified logistic regression models with adjustments for various plausible confounders. We found support for the commonly hypothesized unidirectional forward associations between psychosocial factors at work and sleep problems among women only. Among men, psychosocial stressors at work and sleep problems were reciprocally and reversely related. Nevertheless, reduced exposure levels across time pertaining to effort-reward imbalance (OR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.19-0.69) and lack of social support (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.32-0.93) among men, and work-family imbalance (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.15-0.46) among women were associated with a robust significant lower risk of sleep problems compared to those in the stable high exposure groups. The study results suggest that preventive measures targeting effort-reward imbalance and lack of social support among men, and work-family imbalance among women, might contribute to reduce the risk of troubled sleep among employees.

  3. The Skin Picking Impact Scale: Factor structure, validity and development of a short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snorrason, Ivar; Olafsson, Ragnar P; Flessner, Christopher A; Keuthen, Nancy J; Franklin, Martin E; Woods, Douglas W

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Skin Picking Impact Scale (SPIS; Keuthen, Deckersbach, Wilhelm et al., 2001), a 10 item self-report questionnaire designed to assess the psychosocial impact of skin picking disorder (SPD). Participants were 650 individuals who met criteria for SPD in an online survey. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated a unitary factor structure with high internal consistency (α = 0.94). Consequently, we constructed an abbreviated 4-item version that retained good internal consistency (α = 0.87) and a robust factor structure. Both the short and the full versions demonstrated discriminant and convergent/concurrent validity. In conclusion, the findings indicate that both versions are psychometrically sound measures of SPD related psychosocial impact; however, some potential limitations of the full scale are discussed.

  4. The relationship between abuse, psychosocial factors, and pain complaints among older persons in Europe

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    Kersti Danell Stén

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Abuse was related with certain pain complaints (e.g. headache, but other factors and in particular mental health and physical diseases impacted on all pain complaints. Medication and partly social support had a positive effect on the pain experience, i.e. the complaints interfered less with for instance the daily-life of the respondents.

  5. Risk and Protective Factors Contributing to the Longitudinal Psychosocial Well-Being of Adopted Foster Children

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    Simmel, Cassandra

    2007-01-01

    This study is based on a statewide longitudinal sample of adopted foster youth and explores the relationship between early pre-adoption risk factors and subsequent elevated levels of psychopathology symptomatology. One central goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of preadoption stressors (prenatal drug/nicotine exposure, early…

  6. Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV.

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    Mast, T Christopher; Zhu, Xingshu; Demuro-Mercon, Carla; Cummings, Holly W; Sings, Heather L; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was > or =0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

  7. ASSOCIATION OF PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS WITH ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN PATIENTS FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

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    Sejal Bheda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety and depression are proven independent predictors of mortality, disability, and reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL. Hence, this study was undertaken with aim to find the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients following acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to find out its association with various psychosocial factors. Methods: Stable patients admitted during 3 month period in Cardiology Intensive care unit of tertiary care Hospital with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were included in this cross sectional study. Data was collected using a Semi- structured questionnaire. Anxiety and depression were assessed using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS .Scores were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 75 patients (73.3% men and 26.7% women with mean age 54.86 ± 9.91 years were included. Mean scores of anxiety and depression were 4.49 and 4.0 out of 21, respectively. Probable cases of anxiety and depression as per HADS were 29.33% and 21.33% respectively. There was a statistically significant association of Anxiety and depression with gender (P= 0.004(A, P= 0.002(D; education [P=0.018(A, P= 0.002 (D]; and pre-existing known stressor [P=<0.001 (A and P=0.002(D]. The association of anxiety and depression with age, addiction, presence of co-morbidies and previous history of AMI / stroke was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common after AMI. It was seen more in females, low literacy and those with pre-existing known cause of stress (stressor. Hence, psychological screening should be incorporated in routine assessment in patients with AMI during hospitalization to plan early intervention that could potentially improve recovery pattern.

  8. Psychosocial factors associated with adherence for self-management behaviors in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

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    Alcorso, Jessica; Sherman, Kerry A; Koelmeyer, Louise; Mackie, Helen; Boyages, John

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive and affective psychosocial factors have been found to underlie adherence to preventive behaviors in women at risk of developing lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if these factors are associated with adherence to self-management behaviors for women diagnosed with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Women with BCRL were recruited through a community-based breast cancer organization and three Australian lymphedema treatment clinics. Participants completed an online questionnaire assessing demographics, medical history, adherence to self-management behaviors, psychosocial variables (personal control, treatment control, consequences, distress, and self-regulation of affect), and knowledge about lymphedema self-management. A total of 166 women participated in the study. Participants reported adhering to a mean of five out of seven behaviors, with 19.5% of participants adhering to all seven behaviors. Adherence to individual behaviors ranged from 65% (self-lymphatic drainage) to 98.2% (skin care). Greater knowledge about lymphedema was significantly correlated with higher adherence. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only medical history factors (time since diagnosis and having undergone hormone replacement therapy) predicted a significant amount of the variance in adherence. These findings highlight the importance of patient knowledge for optimal adherence to a self-management regimen. In addition, medical history factors may identify if a patient is at risk of nonadherence. The lack of association of adherence with other psychosocial factors considered in this study indicates that factors underlying adherence in affected women differ considerably from those factors prompting preventive behavior adherence in the at-risk population.

  9. Resilience amongst Australian aboriginal youth: an ecological analysis of factors associated with psychosocial functioning in high and low family risk contexts.

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    Katrina D Hopkins

    Full Text Available We investigate whether the profile of factors protecting psychosocial functioning of high risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth are the same as those promoting psychosocial functioning in low risk exposed youth. Data on 1,021 youth aged 12-17 years were drawn from the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey (WAACHS 2000-2002, a population representative survey of the health and well-being of Aboriginal children, their families and community contexts. A person-centered approach was used to define four groups of youth cross-classified according to level of risk exposure (high/low and psychosocial functioning (good/poor. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the influence of individual, family, cultural and community factors on psychosocial outcomes separately for youth in high and low family-risk contexts. Results showed that in high family risk contexts, prosocial friendship and low area-level socioeconomic status uniquely protected psychosocial functioning. However, in low family risk contexts the perception of racism increased the likelihood of poor psychosocial functioning. For youth in both high and low risk contexts, higher self-esteem and self-regulation were associated with good psychosocial functioning although the relationship was non-linear. These findings demonstrate that an empirical resilience framework of analysis can identify potent protective processes operating uniquely in contexts of high risk and is the first to describe distinct profiles of risk, protective and promotive factors within high and low risk exposed Australian Aboriginal youth.

  10. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

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    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  11. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

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    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  12. Quantifying Multiple Work-Related Psychosocial Risk Factors: Proposal for a Composite Indicator Based on the COPSOQ II.

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    Stauder, Adrienne; Nistor, Katalin; Zakor, Tünde; Szabó, Anita; Nistor, Anikó; Ádám, Szilvia; Konkolÿ Thege, Barna

    2017-05-23

    To determine national reference values for the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II) across occupational sectors and develop a composite score to estimate the cumulative effect of multiple work-related stressors, in order to facilitate the implementation of occupational health directives on psychosocial risk assessment. Cross-sectional data was collected via an online questionnaire. The sample included 13,104 individuals and was representative of the general Hungarian adult working population in terms of gender, age, education, and occupation. Mean scores were calculated for 18 scales on work environment and for 5 outcome scales of the COPSOQ II across 18 occupational sectors. We analyzed the association between a composite psychosocial risk score (CPRS), reflecting severity of exposure to multiple risk factors, and high stress, burnout, sleep troubles, and poor self-rated health. We found occupation-related differences in the mean scores on all COPSOQ II scales. Scores on the "Stress" scale ranged from 47.9 to 56.2, with the highest mean score in accommodation and food services sector. Variability was greatest with respect to emotional demands (range 40.3-67.6) and smallest with respect to role clarity (range 70.3-75.7). The prevalence of negative health outcomes increased with the CPRS. Five risk categories were formed, for which the odds ratio of negative outcomes ranged from 1.6 to 56.5. The sector-specific psychosocial risk profiles covering 18 work environmental factors can be used as a reference in organizational surveys and international comparisons. The CPRS proved to be a powerful predictor of self-reported negative health outcomes.

  13. Interpersonal circumplex descriptions of psychosocial risk factors for physical illness: application to hostility, neuroticism, and marital adjustment.

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    Smith, Timothy W; Traupman, Emily K; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A

    2010-06-01

    Personality risk factors for physical illness are typically studied individually and apart from risk factors reflecting the social environment, potentially fostering a piecemeal understanding of psychosocial influences on health. Because it can be used to describe both personality and social relationship processes, the interpersonal circumplex (IPC) provides an integrative approach to psychosocial risk. In 301 married couples we examined IPC correlates of 3 risk factor domains: anger, hostility, and aggressiveness; neuroticism; and marital adjustment. Risk factors displayed IPC locations ranging from hostile dominance (e.g., verbal aggressiveness, marital conflict) to hostility (e.g., anger) to hostile submissiveness (e.g., anxiety, depression); protective factors (marital satisfaction and support) reflected warmth or friendliness in the IPC. Similar descriptions were found using self-reports and spouse ratings of IPC dimensions, indicating that interpersonal styles associated with risk factors do not simply reflect common method variance. Findings identify interpersonal processes reflecting low affiliation or high hostility as a common component of risk and indicate distinctions among risk factors along the dominance dimension.

  14. Psychosocial factors involved in memory and cognitive failures in people with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Attree EA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth A Attree,1 Megan A Arroll,1 Christine P Dancey,1 Charlene Griffith,1 Amolak S Bansal1,2 1Chronic Illness Research Team, School of Psychology, University of East London, London, UK; 2Department of Immunology and the Sutton CFS Service, St Helier Hospital, Carshalton, UK Background: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS is characterized by persistent emotional, mental, and physical fatigue accompanied by a range of neurological, autonomic, neuroendocrine, immune, and sleep problems. Research has shown that psychosocial factors such as anxiety and depression as well as the symptoms of the illness, have a significant impact on the quality of life of people with ME/CFS. In addition, individuals may suffer from deficits in memory and concentration. This study set out to explore the relationships between variables which have been found to contribute to cognitive performance, as measured by prospective and retrospective memory, and cognitive failures. Methods: Eighty-seven people with ME/CFS answered questionnaires measuring fatigue, depression, anxiety, social support, and general self-efficacy. These were used in a correlational design (multiple regression to predict cognitive function (self-ratings on prospective and retrospective memory, and cognitive failures. Results: Our study found that fatigue, depression, and general self-efficacy were directly associated with cognitive failures and retrospective (but not prospective memory. Conclusion: Although it was not possible in this study to determine the cause of the deficits, the literature in this area leads us to suggest that although the pathophysiological mechanisms of ME/CFS are unclear, abnormalities in the immune system, including proinflammatory cytokines, can lead to significant impairments in cognition. We suggest that fatigue and depression may be a result of the neurobiological effects of ME/CFS and in addition, that the neurobiological effects of the illness

  15. Psychosocial factors influencing preferences for food and nutritional supplements among people living with HIV in Bangkok, Thailand.

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    Rodas-Moya, Santiago; Pengnonyang, Supabhorn; Kodish, Stephen; de Pee, Saskia; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and HIV are often coincident and may lead to wasting, a strong predictor of mortality. However; ready to use therapeutic foods (RUTF) are showing promising results in restoring the nutritional status of adult people living with HIV (PLHIV) in resource constrained settings but, its acceptability seems low. This study aimed to identify the psychosocial factors influencing general preferences for food and responses to five potential nutritional supplements to guide the development of novel products to treat malnutrition among PLHIV. This is a qualitative research based on Grounded Theory. In-depth interviews (IDIs) with a triangulation of data from different participants (i.e. PLHIV and Peer Counselors (PCs) were used as methods for data collection. During February-March 2013, 27 IDIs were conducted in the Anonymous Clinic of the Thai Red Cross and AIDS Research Center in Bangkok, Thailand. Five themes emerged: 1) local food culture is an important motive underlying the nutritional supplements choice by PLHIV; 2) food and drinks should have self-perceptible positive impact on health status and should be perceived convenient; 3) a soft and easy to swallow texture, softer scents and flavors are the major sensory characteristics guiding food and beverages choice; 4) food packaging characteristics affect nutritional supplement preference; 5) PCs may support nutritional supplement consumption. Similar findings emerged among PLHIV and PCs. This study highlights the need to develop a nutritional supplement considering the Thai culture and PLHIV's sensory preferences. A slightly thick liquid supplement, packed in small containers may be well-accepted. A combination of sensory studies and formative research should accompany the development of an alternative nutritional supplement for PLHIV. Results of this study might be transferable to similar sociocultural contexts.

  16. Association of psychological distress and work psychosocial factors with self-reported musculoskeletal pain among secondary school teachers in Malaysia

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    Zamri, E. N.; Moy, F. M.; Hoe, V. C. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. Objectives To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. Results The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Conclusions Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work

  17. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

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    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1) evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2) investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs). Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women) were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205)=18.48, PScale, F(2, 205)=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205)=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199)=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and psychosocial factors, suggesting the need to take into account simultaneously physical and psychosocial components of human functioning. PMID:26811675

  18. Social inequalities in self-rated health in Ukraine in 2007: the role of psychosocial, material and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Loretta G; Gerry, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    Despite Ukraine's large population, few studies have examined social inequalities in health. This study describes Ukrainian educational inequalities in self-rated health and assesses how far psychosocial, material and behavioural factors account for the education gradient in health. Data were analyzed from the 2007 wave of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Education was categorized as: lower secondary or less, upper secondary and tertiary. In logistic regressions of 5451 complete cases, stratified by gender, declaring less than average health was regressed on education, before and after adjusting for psychosocial, material and behavioural factors. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, compared with those educated up to lower secondary level, tertiary education was associated with lower risk of less than average health for both men and women. Including material factors (income quintiles, housing assets, labour market status) reduced the association between education and health by 55-64% in men and 35-47% in women. Inclusion of health behaviours (physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index) reduced the associations by 27-30% in men and 19-27% in women; in most cases including psychosocial factors (marital status, living alone, trust in family and friends) did not reduce the size of the associations. Including all potential explanatory factors reduced the associations by 68-84% in men and 43-60% in women. The education gradient in self-rated health in Ukraine was partly accounted for by material and behavioural factors. In addition to health behaviours, policymakers should consider upstream determinants of health inequalities, such as joblessness and poverty.

  19. Psycho-Social Issues in Mine Emergencies: The Impact on the Individual, the Organization and the Community

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    Kathleen M. Kowalski-Trakofler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on research conducted in the past two decades examining issues related to the human element in mine disasters. While much of the emergency response community employs a systems approach that takes into account psychosocial issues as they impact all aspects of an emergency, the mining industry has lagged behind in integrating this critical element. It is only within the past few years that behavioral interventions have begun to be seen as a part of disaster readiness and resiliency in the industry. The authors discuss the potential applications of psychosocial studies and suggest ways to improve mine emergency planning, psychological support, and decision-making during a response, as well as actions in the aftermath of incidents. Topics covered, among others, include an economic rationale for including such studies in planning a mine emergency response, sociological issues as they impact such things as leadership and rescue team dynamics, and psychological issues that have an effect on individual capacity to function under stress such as during escape, in refuge alternatives, and in body recovery. This information is intended to influence the mine emergency escape curriculum and impact actions and decision-making during and after a mine emergency. The ultimate goal is to mitigate the trauma experienced by individuals, the organization, and the community.

  20. The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Bullying Involvement of Students with Disabilities

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    Rose, Chad A.; Forber-Pratt, Anjali J.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Aragon, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    The involvement of students with disabilities within the bullying dynamic has been recognized as a pressing issue within the nation's schools. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the psychosocial outcomes related to the bullying involvement of students with disabilities. However, involvement in bullying has been linked to negative short-…

  1. Influence of Various Lifestyle and Psychosocial Factors on Sleep Disturbances among the College Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from an Urban Area of India

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    Yugantara R. Kadam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep occupies nearly 1/3rd of our life and is essential for overall growth and stability. Sleep deprivation results weakening of physical functions, mental health problems like depression and lowering of productivity, thus resulting in loss to an individual and society. Aim and Objectives: Sleep is essential for physical and mental stability. Its deprivation lowers work productivity and results in mental problem like depression. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors may have impact on the sleep. In the western countries the subject is amply explored; however studies on student from developing countries like India are limited. Our objective was to study the extent of sleep disturbance and associated factors among the graduating college students. Material and Methods: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in Arts, Commerce and Science graduating college students from an urban area. The sampling technique was cluster random sampling with the sample size of 890. A pretested, selfadministered questionnaire was used as a study tool. Statistical Analysis was done using percentages, chisquare test and bi-variate logistic regression. Results: The mean duration of sleep reported by the 900 study subjects was 7.3 hours (std. deviation 1 hour. Any sleep disturbance was reported by 826 (91.8% subjects; with day time sleepiness (77.5% and difficulty in falling asleep (65.4% being the commonest complaint. Sleep disturbance score was associated with exercise, outdoor games and tea / coffee intake. It was also associated with nocturnal use of mobiles and feeling depressed. Conclusion: Sleep disturbances were present in majority of college students with day time sleepiness as its commonest manifestation. Various lifestyle and psychosocial factors had impact on the sleep. Proper lifestyle modification and good family environment areimportant to avoid sleep disturbances among the college students.

  2. Psychosocial Aspects of Bruxism: The Most Paramount Factor Influencing Teeth Grinding

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    Wieckiewicz, Mieszko; Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna; Wieckiewicz, Wlodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient's health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient's psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition. PMID:25101282

  3. The psychosocial impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities and independent living center staff living on the American Gulf Coast.

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    Fox, Michael H; White, Glen W; Rooney, Catherine; Cahill, Anthony

    2010-08-01

    To determine the impact of Hurricane Katrina on the psychosocial health of people with disabilities and on the ability of people with disabilities in the affected area to live independently. Transcribed conversations were analyzed for 56 survivors of Hurricane Katrina on the American Gulf Coast, all of whom were persons with disabilities or persons working with them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted either individually or in focus groups with participants. Qualitative analysis was undertaken using hermeneutic techniques. Six major themes emerged: faith, incredulousness, blaming others or oneself, family adaptation and resiliency, and work and professional responsibility. The resiliency of persons with disabilities to adapt to disasters can be better understood through factors such as these, providing an effective barometer of social capital that can help societies prepare for future disasters among those most vulnerable.

  4. Work-related psychosocial factors and onset of metabolic syndrome among workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraya, Asuka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Norito; Imamura, Kotaro; Ando, Emiko; Asai, Yumi; Eguchi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nishida, Norimitsu; Arima, Hideaki; Shimazu, Akihito; Tsutsumi, Akizumi

    2017-06-22

    Metabolic syndrome is an important public health target because of its high prevalence worldwide. Work-related psychosocial factors have been identified as determinants of metabolic syndrome components. However, there have been no systematic reviews or meta-analyses conducted to evaluate the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and metabolic syndrome as an aggregated cluster. The aim of this study is to examine this association from published prospective studies. The systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted using published studies that will be identified from electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES and Japan Medical Abstracts Society). Studies that (1) examined the association between work-related psychosocial factors and the onset of metabolic syndrome, (2) had a longitudinal or prospective cohort design, (3) were conducted among workers, (4) provided sufficient data for calculating ORs or relative risk with a 95% CI, (5) were published as original articles written in English or Japanese, and (6) having been published until the end of 2016 will be included. Study selection, data collection, quality assessment and statistical syntheses will be conducted based on discussions among investigators. Ethics approval was not required for this study because it was based on published studies. The results and findings of this study will be submitted and published in a scientific peer-reviewed journal. The findings from this study could be useful for assessing metabolic syndrome risk factors in the workplace, and determining approaches for prevention of metabolic syndrome in the future. PROSPERO CRD42016039096 (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO_REBRANDING/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42016039096). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

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    Liu Wei

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of

  6. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

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    Avanci Joviana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94, high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31, parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32 and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23. Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families.

  7. Malocclusion, psycho-social impacts and treatment need: A cross-sectional study of Tanzanian primary school-children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mtaya Matilda

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background studies on the relationship between children's malocclusion and its psycho-social impacts are so far largely unexplored in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malocclusion, reported dental problems and dissatisfaction with dental appearance among primary school children in Tanzania. The relationship of dissatisfaction with socio-demographic characteristics, clinically defined malocclusion and psychosocial impacts of dental anomalies was investigated. Orthodontic treatment need was estimated using an integrated socio-dental approach. Method One thousand six hundred and one children (mean age 13 yr attending primary schools in the districts of Kinondoni and Temeke completed face to face interviews and a full mouth clinical examination. The survey instrument was designed to measure a Kiswahili translated and culturally adapted Child Oral Impact on Daily Performance (Child-OIDP frequency score, reported dental problems, dissatisfaction with dental appearance/function and socio-demographic characteristics. Results The prevalence of malocclusion varied from 0.9% (deep bite to 22.5% (midline shift with a total of 63.8% having at least one type of anomaly. Moderate proportions of children admitted dental problems; ranging from 7% (space position to 20% (pain. The odds ratio of having problems with teeth position, spaces, pain and swallowing if having any malocclusion were, respectively 6.7, 3.9, 1.4 and 6.8. A total of 23.3% children were dissatisfied with dental appearance/function. Children dissatisfied with their dental appearance were less likely to be Temeke residents (OR = 0.5 and having parents of higher education (OR = 0.6 and more likely to reporting problem with teeth position (OR = 4.3 and having oral impacts (OR = 2.7. The socio-dental treatment need of 12% was five times lower than the normative need assessment of 63.8%. Conclusion Compared to the high prevalence of malocclusion, psycho

  8. Relevance of a Healthy Change Process and Psychosocial Work Environment Factors in Predicting Stress, Health Complaints, and Commitment Among Employees in a Ghanaian Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Quaye, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    This thesis was intended to examine the effect of the healthiness of change process and psychosocial work environment factors in predicting job stress, health complaints and commitment among employees in a Ghanaian bank (N=132), undergoing organizational change. The change process was measured in terms of dimensions from the Healthy Change Process Index (HCPI) and the psychosocial work environment was measured by the Demands-Control-Support (DCS) model. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal...

  9. The Iranian version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) for assessment of psychological risk factors at work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminian, Mohammad; Dianat, Iman; Miri, Anvar; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) is a widely used tool for evaluation of psychosocial risk factors at work. The aims of this study were to describe the short version of Farsi COPSOQ and to present its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 427 administrative health care staff participated in this descriptive methodological study. Forward–backward procedure was adopted to translate the questionnaire from English into Farsi. Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 experts. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed using Cronbach’s α and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC), respectively. The feasibility was assessed using ceiling and floor effect. Results: The short version of Farsi COPSOQ was configured with 16 dimensions (32 items).Content validity of the questionnaire was established. Factor analysis supported the conceptual multi-dimensionality (four factors), and therefore confirmed the construct validity of the Farsi COPSOQ. The internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranging between 0.75 and 0.89) and test retest reliability (ICC values ranged from 0.75 to 0.89) were both approved and the results showed no ceiling or floor effect. Conclusion: The results support the use of Farsi COPSOQ for evaluation of psychological risks and for research purposes in Iranian population. PMID:28058236

  10. The Psychosocial Consequences of Sports Participation for Individuals with Severe Mental Illness: A Metasynthesis Review

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Soundy; Paul Freeman; Brendon Stubbs; Michel Probst; Carolyn Roskell; Davy Vancampfort

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current metasynthesis review was to explore the psychosocial benefits of sport and psychosocial factors which impact on sports participation for individuals with severe mental illness. AMED, CINAHL Plus, Medline, EMBASE, ProQuest Nursing & Allied Health Source, and Science Citation Index were searched from inception until January 2014. Articles included use qualitative methods to examine the psychosocial effects of sports participation in people with severe mental illness. ...

  11. Perspectives on Next Steps in Classification of Orofacial Pain – Part 2: Role of psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Justin; Raphael, Karen G.; Benoliel, Rafael; Ceusters, Werner; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper was initiated by a symposium, in which the present authors contributed, organised by the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network in March 2013. The purpose of the paper is to review the status of biobehavioural research – both quantitative and qualitative – related to orofacial pain with respect to the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of orofacial pain conditions, and how this information can optimally be used for developing a structured orofacial pain classification system for research. In particular, we address: representation of psychosocial entities in classification systems, use of qualitative research to identify and understand the full scope of psychosocial entities and their interaction, and the usage of classification system for guiding treatment. We then provide recommendations for addressing these problems, including how ontological principles can inform this process. PMID:26257252

  12. Behavioral and Psychosocial Health of New Mothers and Associations With Contextual Factors and Perceived Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lorraine O; Xie, Bo; Hendrickson, Sherry G; Sterling, Bobbie S

    2016-01-01

    To test the association of behavioral and psychosocial health domains with contextual variables and perceived health in ethnically and economically diverse postpartum women. Mail survey of a stratified random sample. Southwestern community in Texas. Non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic women (N = 168). A questionnaire was sent to a sample of 600 women. The adjusted response rate was 32.8%. The questionnaire covered behavioral (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol use) and psychosocial (depression symptoms and body image) health, contextual variables (race/ethnicity, income, perceived stress, and social support), and perceived health. Hypotheses were tested using linear and logistic regression. Body image, dietary behaviors, physical activity behaviors, and depression symptoms were all significantly correlated (Spearman ρ = -.15 to .47). Higher income was associated with increased odds of higher alcohol use (more than 1 drink on 1 to 4 days in a 14-day period). African American ethnicity was correlated with less healthy dietary behaviors and Hispanic ethnicity with less physical activity. In multivariable regressions, perceived stress was associated with less healthy dietary behaviors, increased odds of depression, and decreased odds of higher alcohol use, whereas social support was associated with less body image dissatisfaction, more physical activity, and decreased odds of depression. All behavioral and psychosocial domains were significantly correlated with perceived health, with higher alcohol use related to more favorable perceived health. In regressions analyses, perceived stress was a significant contextual predictor of perceived health. Stress and social support had more consistent relationships to behavioral and psychosocial variables than race/ethnicity and income level. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in community and individual level psychosocial coronary risk factors in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-92

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Jorgensen, Torben; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik;

    2002-01-01

    of the study area. At the same time type A behaviours increased in both men and women, while there were no changes in reported personal problems. The proportion of women living alone increased, while the proportion of emotionally distressed decreased. In men there were no changes in cohabitation status...... or emotional distress. The changes in the psychosocial factors were the same in different educational groups. CONCLUSION: The socioeconomic position of the population improved at the individual and the community level during the study period. This was concurrent with the declining incidence of myocardial...

  14. 0069 Psychosocial work factors, occupational noise exposure, common mental disorders, and the risk of tinnitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther Frederiksen, Thomas; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A

    2014-01-01

    -2010. The study database contained information on individual short-term and long-term noise exposure levels, hearing levels and questionnaire information on common mental disorders and psychosocial work factors. Associations between noise exposure levels, hearing levels, depression, anxiety, burn-out symptoms...... the participants, 17% reported tinnitus, 16% had a hearing handicap (WHO-definition), 3% anxiety disorder, 14% burn-out symptoms, 4% depression, and 8% reported work-related stress. CONCLUSIONS: Tinnitus is expected to represent a heterogeneous group of underlying disorders. We aim at contributing to a better...

  15. Psycho-social factors are important for the perception of disease in patients with acute coronary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekke-Hansen, Sidsel; Weinman, John; Thastum, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    the role of socio-demographic, illness-related and psycho-social factors (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, General Self-Efficacy Scale and Life Orientation Test-Revised) for perceived consequences, controllability and causes (Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire) with standard...... important determinants of cardiac illness perceptions than present disease severity. FUNDING: This study was supported by unrestricted grants from The FOOD Study Group and The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries; The Beckett-Foundation; and The Augustinus Foundation. TRIAL REGISTRATION...

  16. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  17. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...... factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... force (2.3, 1.4-4.0). The strongest work-related psychosocial risk was high job demands (1.8, 1.2-2.7). Increased risk was also associated with neck/shoulder injury (2.6, 1.6-4.1), female gender (1.8, 1.2-2.8), and low pressure pain threshold (1.6, 1.1-2.3). Neck/shoulder pain was strongly associated...

  18. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and upp

  19. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and

  20. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  1. Psychosocial Aspects of Bruxism: The Most Paramount Factor Influencing Teeth Grinding

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    Mieszko Wieckiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, patients suffering from an occlusal parafunctional activity have increased. It can be observed that a negative influence of environment aggravates patient’s health. The aim of this paper is to present the impact of environment and development of human civilization on the prevalence of bruxism and the correlation between them. The authors grasp the most relevant aspects of psychological and anthropological factors changing over time as well as their interactions and describe a relationship between chronic stress and bruxism. Current literature shows how contemporary lifestyle, working environment, diet, and habits influence the patient’s psychoemotional situation and the way these factors affect the occluso-muscle condition.

  2. The impact of juveniles' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity on judges' opinions about adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer Mayer; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Dolores, John; Zelechoski, Amanda D; Messenheimer, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether defendants' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity would affect judges' ratings of juveniles' adjudicative competence in juvenile and criminal court. Three hundred forty two judges reviewed a forensic psychological report about a hypothetical defendant; only the defendant's age (12-17) and maturity level (mature, immature) varied across reports. Results revealed a main effect of age, with older juveniles generally deemed more competent, and a main effect of maturity, with mature juveniles generally deemed more competent. No interaction was found. Results suggest that age and maturity play major roles in judicial determinations of juvenile competency.

  3. [Structural analysis for psychosocial factors including health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) associated with lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Y; Nakamura, H; Nagase, H; Ogino, K; Ooshita, Y; Tsukahara, S

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify psychosocial characteristics associated with preventive health behavior for lifestyle-related diseases. The author performed objective health examinations and gave questionnaires to 289 men (39.7 +/- 11.8 years, mean +/- SD) and 80 women (32.8 +/- 10.4 years) engaged in office work. Psychosocial factors included lifestyle and perceived stress, as well as the health locus of control (HLC) and sense of coherence (SOC) as newly developed indicators for health behavior. The principal component analysis for men did not extract lifestyle from the psychosocial structures. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC (IHLC), chance HLC (CHLC), professional HLC (PHLC) and stress significantly contributed to SOC. Principal component analysis using psychosocial factors in women showed two psychosocial structures, i.e. the second principal (high SOC, high lifestyle, and low stress) and the 4th principal components (high supernatural HLC, and high PHLC). Both components were negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure. SOC was recognized to be negatively associated with age, stress, and total cholesterol, and positively with IHLC, FHLC, lifestyle, and gamma-GTP using multiple regression analysis for women. These results indicated a distinguishable sex difference regarding the involvement of psychosocial factors including HLC and SOC in objective health. SOC seems likely to be involved not in objective health, but closely with stress, suggesting a direct influence on mental health. Lifestyle should be divided into more detailed categories such as smoking and salt intake. Structural analysis of women suggests that SOC is involved directly or indirectly through lifestyle in objective health, different from men. To further clarify causal relationships between psychosocial factors and risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases, a longitudinal study is necessary based on these results.

  4. The impact of fathers' physical and psychosocial work conditions on attempted and completed suicide among their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Chen

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse employment experiences, particularly exposure to unemployment and the threat of unemployment, have been strongly associated with several adverse mental and physical health outcomes including suicide. However, virtually no research has been conducted on the trans-generational impact of parental working conditions on attempted or completed suicide among their children. Methods We conducted a nested case control study based on a cohort, gathered in the western Canadian province of British Columbia, of male sawmill workers and a second cohort of their children. Physical and psychosocial work conditions to which fathers were exposed during the first 16 years of their children's lives, measured using the demand/control model, were linked to hospital suicide records (attempted and completed among their children. Results Two hundred and fifty children in the cohort attempted or committed suicide between 1985 and 2001. Multivariate models, with partial control for father's mental health outcomes prior to their child's suicide demonstrate, 1 a strong association between low duration of father's employment at a study sawmill and attempted suicide for their male children, 2 elevated odds for attempted suicide among female children of fathers' employed in a sawmill job with low control and, 3 a strong association between fathers in jobs with low psychological demand and completed suicides among male children. Conclusion Exposure of fathers to adverse psychosocial work conditions during the first 16 years of their children's life was associated with greater odds for attempted and completed suicide among their children.

  5. Raising the awareness of undergraduate nurses to the psychosocial impact of living with cancer: A consumer engagement in teaching initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Zannettino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the development and implementation of a consumer engagement in teaching initiative by the authors. The authors highlight the challenges of engaging undergraduate nursing students on the psychosocial aspects of living with cancer and other chronic illnesses when students have very limited personal and professional experiences to draw on. The authors discuss how they have responded to these challenges by integrating the voices of consumers into their classrooms. Speakers from consumer advocacy organization, Cancer Voices SA, participated in a series of tutorials in a 1 st year topic in the Undergraduate Nursing Program at the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Flinders University. Student feedback from the implementation of the initiative indicated that students found consumers′ stories and experiences of living with cancer, "moving and powerful" and that they encouraged students to question their assumptions about the psychosocial impacts of cancer on individuals and families. The importance of good communication in reducing patient distress was identified by students as an important element of consumers′ experiences of the health care system as was the need for transparency and information sharing between health care providers across the health care system. For many students, consumers′ stories and experiences had reinforced students′ commitment to studying nursing and pursuing a career in nursing. The article concludes that involving consumers in the education of health care professionals encourages a much deeper understanding of and empathy for how patients experience disease, which is integral to the provision of patient-centered and holistic care.

  6. Long-term impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality in adulthood and the mediating role of psychosocial resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustonen, Ulla; Huurre, Taina; Kiviruusu, Olli; Haukkala, Ari; Aro, Hillevi

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this 16-year prospective follow-up study was to investigate the association between parental divorce in childhood and intimate relationship quality in adulthood. The mediating role of psychosocial resources (parent-child relationships at 16 years, self-esteem and social support at 32 years) in this association was also studied. All 16 year olds of one Finnish city completed questionnaires at school and were followed up by postal questionnaires at 32 years of age (n = 1,471). Results showed that women and men from divorced families were more often divorced or separated at the age of 32 years than those from nondivorced families. However, parental divorce was associated with poorer intimate relationship quality only among women. Women from divorced families also had poorer relationships with their father and mother in adolescence, and they had lower self-esteem and satisfaction with social support in adulthood than women from intact families. No such associations were found among men. The impact of parental divorce on intimate relationship quality among women was partially mediated by mother-daughter relationship, self-esteem, and satisfaction with social support. The mediating role of mother-daughter relationship was not direct, however, but was mediated via self-esteem and satisfaction with social support. Our findings indicate that parental divorce affects daughters more than sons. In the context of parental divorce, the mother-daughter relationship in adolescence is important for the development of later psychosocial resources and, via them, for intimate relationship quality.

  7. Factores y riesgos laborales psicosociales: conceptualización, historia y cambios actuales Factors and occupational psychosocial risks: concept, history and current changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Moreno Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ha sido históricamente un riesgo para la salud. Las condiciones laborales han supuesto habitualmente una amenaza a la salud que han ocasionado accidentes y enfermedades relacionadas con la salud de todo tipo. La imagen popular l asociada al trabajo ha sido claramente negativa. Los tiempos han cambiado de forma muy importante, pero las condiciones laborales siguen siendo preocupantes. La preocupación por los riesgos laborales se ha centrado históricamente en los riesgos físicos y ambientales, pero se ha producido una atención creciente en los riesgos psicosociales que exigen un mayor esfuerzo de definición en sus diferentes formas. En los tiempos actuales, debido a la expansión del mercado de servicios y a la globalización los riesgos psicosociales se han incrementado e intensificado. Los datos actuales muestran que sus efectos sobre la salud son amplios e importantes. Por ello, una atención integral a la salud laboral necesita cuidar de forma especial atención a los factores y riesgos psicosociales.Work has been historically a health risk. Working conditions have usually been a threat to health causing accidents and many kind of health-related diseases. The popular image associated with work has clearly been negative. Times have changed very significantly, but working conditions remain a concern. Concern about occupational risks has historically focused on environmental and physical risks, but there has been increasing attention on psychosocial risks which require a greater effort to be defined. In modern times, due to services market expansion and globalization, psychosocial risks have increased and intensified. Current data show that psychosocial risks cause important health effects. Therefore, it is important make special attention to psychosocial factors and risks.

  8. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Véronneau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.

  9. Are Hospital Workers Healthy?: A Study of Cardiometabolic, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Factors Associated With Obesity Among Hospital Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shreela V; Upadhyaya, Mudita; Karhade, Mandar; Baun, William B; Perkison, William B; Pompeii, Lisa A; Brown, Henry S; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with weight status among hospital employees. A total of n = 924 employees across the six hospitals in Texas participated in this cross-sectional study, 2012 to 2013. Association between weight status and waist circumference, blood pressure, biomarkers, diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial factors was assessed. About 78.1% of employees were overweight/obese. Obese participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥30.0 kg/m) had higher consumption of potatoes, fats, sugary beverages, and spent more time watching television, playing computer games, and sitting than those having normal weight. Being obese was positively associated with blood pressure, blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein, and negatively associated with high-density lipoprotein. Finally, 78.8% of workers were dissatisfied with their worksite wellness with dissatisfaction being higher among obese employees. Being overweight (BMI 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m) was positively associated with blood pressure, but not other variables. Understanding the risk profile of hospital workers is critical to developing effective interventions.

  10. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  11. Influence of selected sociodemographic factors on psychosocial workload of nurses and association of this burden with absenteeism at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kowalczuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study has been to determine if sociodemographic factors: age, sex and duration of employment as well as the presence of chronic comorbidities exert significant effect on subjective assessment of psychosocial working conditions of nurses. Moreover, we analyzed whether the abovementioned variables influenced the level of absenteeism at work during a year preceding the study. Material and Methods: The study, conducted between December 2012 and January 2013, included 789 nurses employed at public and private healthcare institutions in Białystok. The participants were surveyed by means of the “Psychosocial Working Conditions” questionnaire. Results: Women accounted for significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Well-being Scale as compared to men. Respondents’ age and duration of employment correlated significantly with the scores of the Demands and Desired Changes Scales. Moreover, we documented significant inverse correlations between the age and tenure and the scores of the Social Support and Well-being Scales. Furthermore, duration of employment was inversely correlated with the results of the Control Scale. The respondents with chronic conditions showed significantly higher scores of the Desired Changes Scale and significantly lower values of the Control and Well-being Scales. We found an inverse correlation between the number of sick leave days and the value of the Well-being Scale, which was also the case with a subset of nurses without chronic conditions. Conclusions: Similar to other professional groups, a nursing team management requires the use of human resources management techniques and identification of a person being responsible for coordination of the group and diagnosis of its psychosocial needs. Med. Pr. 2015;66(5:615–624

  12. Relationships of work-related psychosocial risks, stress, individual factors and burnout - Questionnaire survey among emergency physicians and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Ivana M; Arandjelović, Mirjana Ž; Jovanović, Jovica M; Nešić, Milkica M

    2017-03-24

    Psychosocial risks represent a great challenge for safety and health protection at work in Europe. The purpose of this study has been to determine the relationships of psychosocial risks arising from work, stress, personal characteristics and burnout among physicians and nurses in the Emergency Medical Service (EMS). We performed a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey which contained the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). A total of 88 physicians and 80 nurses completed the survey. Physicians demonstrated higher emotional (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 74.57±16.85) and cognitive (M±SD = 75.95±13.74) demands as compared to nurses. Both groups had high sensory demands and responsibilities at work, in spite of the low degree of their autonomy. The meaning of work, commitment to the workplace, and insecurity at work were high for both groups. Among all participants, stressful behavior and reactions were within the limits of low values ( 60). Personal and patient-related burnout was high for both groups, where physicians were significantly affected by work-related burnout. The influence at work, degree of freedom at work, social support, sense of coherence, mental health, and problem-focused coping are negatively related to work-related burnout. Based on personal factors and coping styles, emergency physicians and nurses are representing a self-selective professional group that meets high work demands, great responsibility, strong commitment and insecurity at work. Burnout of physicians and nurses in the EMS tends to be ignored, although it has severe consequences on their mental and general health. Med Pr 2017;68(2):178-178.

  13. Musculoskeletal discomfort of music teachers: an eight-year perspective and psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjellman-Wiklund, A; Sundelin, G

    1998-01-01

    Musicians at all levels of performance, especially string players, are known to have a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The disorders seem to be most common in the neck, shoulders and low back. In 1988, a survey of the work-related musculoskeletal disorders of 36 music teachers was carried out at a music school in northern Sweden. In 1996, the teachers were reinvestigated. The study also included an investigation of the psychosocial work environment according to the Karasek demand-control theory, as well as measurements of upper-arm elevation during a working day in five violin teachers. The results showed that music teachers, like other professional musicians, often experience discomfort in the neck, shoulders, and low back. The discomfort tended to be of long duration, increasing over the years. The psychosocial work environment was characterized by high psychological demands and low authority over decisions. This was compensated for through good social support. The work required skill and creativity but was monotonous. The measurements of upper-arm elevation indicated considerable variations in shoulder positions between teachers. There were also differences in the work done with the right and left arms, with repetitive motions more commonly involving the right arm. Approximately a fourth of the working day was spent with the arm elevated 30-90 degrees. The relationships between upper-arm movements and ratings of discomfort were moderate.

  14. Musculoskeletal disorders and psychosocial risk factors among workers of the aircraft maintenance industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Helen Cristina; Diniz, Ana Carolina Parise; Barbieri, Dechristian França; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; de Oliveira, Ana Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    During the recent decades Brazil has experienced an exponential growth in the aviation sector resulting in an increasing workforce. The aircraft maintenance industry stands out, where the workers have to handle different kind of objects. The aim of this study was to evaluate psychosocial indicators as well as musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders among aircraft maintenance workers. One hundred and one employees were evaluated (32.69 ± 8.25 yr, 79.8 ± 13.4 kg, and 1.75 ± 0.07 m). Musculoskeletal symptoms and disorders were assessed through the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and a standardized physical examination. The Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial indicators. Results of the NMQ indicate the lower back as the most affected body region. On the other hand, the physical examination has shown clinical diagnosis of shoulder disorders. Neck, upper back and ankle/foot were also reported as painful sites. Most of workers have active work-demand profile and high work engagement levels. We suggest that musculoskeletal symptoms may be related to high biomechanical demand of the tasks performed by workers, what must be further investigated.

  15. Measuring psychosocial environments using individual responses: an application of multilevel factor analysis to examining students in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Jones, Stephanie M; Subramanian, S V; Koenen, Karestan C

    2015-07-01

    Interest in understanding how psychosocial environments shape youth outcomes has grown considerably. School environments are of particular interest to prevention scientists as many prevention interventions are school-based. Therefore, effective conceptualization and operationalization of the school environment is critical. This paper presents an illustration of an emerging analytic method called multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) that provides an alternative strategy to conceptualize, measure, and model environments. MLFA decomposes the total sample variance-covariance matrix for variables measured at the individual level into within-cluster (e.g., student level) and between-cluster (e.g., school level) matrices and simultaneously models potentially distinct latent factor structures at each level. Using data from 79,362 students from 126 schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (formerly known as the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health), we use MLFA to show how 20 items capturing student self-reported behaviors and emotions provide information about both students (within level) and their school environment (between level). We identified four latent factors at the within level: (1) school adjustment, (2) externalizing problems, (3) internalizing problems, and (4) self-esteem. Three factors were identified at the between level: (1) collective school adjustment, (2) psychosocial environment, and (3) collective self-esteem. The finding of different and substantively distinct latent factor structures at each level emphasizes the need for prevention theory and practice to separately consider and measure constructs at each level of analysis. The MLFA method can be applied to other nested relationships, such as youth in neighborhoods, and extended to a multilevel structural equation model to better understand associations between environments and individual outcomes and therefore how to best implement preventive interventions.

  16. Psychosocial impact of alternative management policies for low-grade cervical abnormalities: results from the TOMBOLA randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sharp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large numbers of women who participate in cervical screening require follow-up for minor cytological abnormalities. Little is known about the psychological consequences of alternative management policies for these women. We compared, over 30-months, psychosocial outcomes of two policies: cytological surveillance (repeat cervical cytology tests in primary care and a hospital-based colposcopy examination. METHODS: Women attending for a routine cytology test within the UK NHS Cervical Screening Programmes were eligible to participate. 3399 women, aged 20-59 years, with low-grade abnormal cytology, were randomised to cytological surveillance (six-monthly tests; n = 1703 or initial colposcopy with biopsies and/or subsequent treatment based on colposcopic and histological findings (n = 1696. At 12, 18, 24 and 30-months post-recruitment, women completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. A subgroup (n = 2354 completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES six weeks after the colposcopy episode or first surveillance cytology test. Primary outcomes were percentages over the entire follow-up period of significant depression (≥ 8 and significant anxiety (≥ 11; "30-month percentages". Secondary outcomes were point prevalences of significant depression, significant anxiety and procedure-related distress (≥ 9. Outcomes were compared between arms by calculating fully-adjusted odds ratios (ORs for initial colposcopy versus cytological surveillance. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 30-month percentages of significant depression (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.80-1.21 or anxiety (OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.81-1.16 between arms. At the six-week assessment, anxiety and distress, but not depression, were significantly less common in the initial colposcopy arm (anxiety: 7.9% vs 13.4%; OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.81; distress: 30.6% vs 39.3%, OR = 0.67 95% CI 0.54-0.84. Neither anxiety nor depression differed between arms at subsequent time

  17. Relationship of psychosocial risk factors, certain personality traits and myocardial infarction in Indians: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001. However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2, Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE over lifetime (P = 0.058 and subjective well-being (P = 0.987 were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001, dominant (P = 0.03, egoistic (P < 0.001 and introvert (P < 0.001 personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients.

  18. Musculoskeletal complaints among nurses related to patient handling tasks and psychosocial factors--based on logbook registrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, S; Precht, D H; Suadicani, P

    2008-01-01

    logbooks for three consecutive working days followed by a day off. Low back pain (LBP), neck/shoulder pain (NSP), knee pain (KP), psychosocial factors (time pressure, stress, conscience of the quality of work) and patient transfers and care tasks were reported. The logbook was reliable for both transfer...... and care tasks. The numbers of nurses reporting MSC and the level of pain increased significantly during the three working days (15%-30% and 17%-37%, respectively) and decreased on the day off. Stress and transfer task were associated with LPB and transfer tasks were associated with KP. Our results confirm...... a relationship between work factors and MSC and indicate that logs could be one way to obtain a better understanding of the complex interaction of various nursing working conditions in relation to MSC....

  19. Relationship of Psychosocial Risk Factors, Certain Personality Traits and Myocardial Infarction in Indians: A Case–control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajni; Kishore, Jugal; Bansal, Yogesh; Daga, MK; Jiloha, RC; Singal, Rajeev; Ingle, GK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship of psychosocial factors (lack of social support, stress and subjective well-being) and personality traits with myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: A case–control study involving 100 cases and 100 matched controls was conducted in Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi. Results: Stress over 1 year was significantly higher in cases (P < 0.001). However, difference was not significant when scores of social support (P = 0.2), Presumptive Stressful Life Event (PSLE) over lifetime (P = 0.058) and subjective well-being (P = 0.987) were compared. MI was significantly associated with hyperactive (P < 0.001), dominant (P = 0.03), egoistic (P < 0.001) and introvert (P < 0.001) personalities. Conclusion: Certain personality traits and recent stress may be important risk factors of MI, especially in Indians. The finding may have implications on the preventive strategies planned for MI patients. PMID:22090670

  20. Understanding the Impact of Brain Disorders: Towards a 'Horizontal Epidemiology' of Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcos Cieza

    Full Text Available To test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs, such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders.A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency. Information from these sources was harmonized and compiled, and after feedback from external experts, a data collection protocol including PSD and determinants common across these nine disorders was developed. This protocol was implemented as an interview in a cross-sectional study including a convenience sample of persons with one of the nine brain disorders. PSDs endorsed by at least 25% of patients with a brain disorder were considered associated with the disorder. PSD were considered common across disorders if associated to 5 out of the 9 brain disorders and if among the 5 both neurological and psychiatric conditions were represented.The data collection protocol with 64 PSDs and 20 determinants was used to collect data from a convenience sample of 722 persons in four specialized health care facilities in Europe.57 of the PSDs and 16 of the determinants included in the protocol were found to be experienced across brain disorders.This is the first evidence that supports the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology in brain disorders. This result challenges the brain disorder-specific or vertical approach in which clinical and epidemiological research about psychosocial difficulties experienced in daily

  1. The impact of environmental factors in severe psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eSchmitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, schizophrenia has been regarded as a developmental disorder. The neurodevelopmental hypothesis proposes schizophrenia to be related to genetic and environmental factors leading to abnormal brain development during the pre- or postnatal period. First disease symptoms appear in early adulthood during the synaptic pruning and myelination process. Meta-analyses of structural MRI studies revealing hippocampal volume deficits in first-episode patients and in the longitudinal disease course confirm this hypothesis. Apart from the influence of risk genes in severe psychiatric disorders, environmental factors may also impact brain development during the perinatal period. Several environmental factors such as antenatal maternal virus infections, obstetric complications entailing hypoxia as common factor or stress during neurodevelopment have been identified to play a role in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, possibly contributing to smaller hippocampal volumes. In major depression, psychosocial stress during the perinatal period or in adulthood is an important trigger. In animal studies, chronic stress or repeated administration of glucocorticoids have been shown to induce degeneration of glucocorticoid-sensitive hippocampal neurons and may contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Epigenetic mechanisms altering the chromatin structure such as histone acetylation and DNA methylation may mediate effects of environmental factors to transcriptional regulation of specific genes and be a prominent factor in gene-environmental interaction. In animal models, gene-environmental interaction should be investigated more intensely to unravel pathophysiological mechanisms. These findings may lead to new therapeutic strategies influencing epigenetic targets in severe psychiatric disorders.

  2. Who practices yoga? A systematic review of demographic, health-related, and psychosocial factors associated with yoga practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Braun, Tosca; Siegel, Tamar

    2015-06-01

    Yoga has become increasingly popular in the US and around the world, yet because most yoga research is conducted as clinical trials or experiments, little is known about the characteristics and correlates of people who independently choose to practice yoga. We conducted a systematic review of this issue, identifying 55 studies and categorizing correlates of yoga practice into sociodemographics, psychosocial characteristics, and mental and physical well-being. Yoga use is greatest among women and those with higher socioeconomic status and appears favorably related to psychosocial factors such as coping and mindfulness. Yoga practice often relates to better subjective health and health behaviors but also with more distress and physical impairment. However, evidence is sparse and methodological limitations preclude drawing causal inferences. Nationally representative studies have minimally assessed yoga while studies with strong assessment of yoga practice (e.g., type, dose) are generally conducted with convenience samples. Almost all studies reviewed are cross-sectional and few control for potential confounding variables. We provide recommendations for future research to better understand the correlates of yoga practice.

  3. A qualitative evaluation of the psychosocial impact of family history screening in Australian primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gabrielle T; Walter, Fiona M; Emery, Jon D

    2015-04-01

    Whilst the family history is perceived as a routine part of the medical family history it is not used in a systematic way to tailor disease prevention in primary care. Family history questionnaires (FHQs) may have an important role in primary care as a screening tool to support tailored disease prevention. The potential harms and benefits of family history screening in primary care require investigation before routine adoption. This study aimed: first to explore the experience and impact of family history collection via a novel family history questionnaire and subsequent familial risk assessment, and secondly, to assess the acceptability and feasibility of using the questionnaire in Australian primary care. Twenty-eight semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with patients already enrolled in a family history screening study through their family physician. Qualitative constant comparative analysis was undertaken of transcript data. Common themes included the way in which the family unit, individual stage of life and a number of external triggers interact and contribute to how an individual comes to terms with familial disease risk. Unique findings emerged relating to the Australian perspective of participants. Living in Australia created a barrier to effective communication amongst family members about family health, and family history collection. In addition to the vast geographical distance both within Australia, and between Australia and other countries, there was an additional sense of isolation described within an historical context. The family history screening questionnaire was considered user-friendly and a worthwhile approach to supporting disease prevention in primary care, although some participants did not retain an accurate understanding of their familial cancer risk. In conclusion, a person's response to family history screening is reliant on a complex interplay of family, personal and external factors, which in turn are driven by their

  4. The role of burnout syndrome as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the intensity of musculoskeletal disorders: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.

  5. Combining psychosocial data to improve prediction of cardiovascular disease risk factors and events:: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Rutledge, Thomas; Johnson, B. Delia; Wawrzyniak, Andrew J.; Bittner, Vera; Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Eteiba, Wafia; Cornell, Carol E.; Pepine, Carl J.; Vido, Diane A.; Handberg, Eileen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2012-01-01

    Background There is overlap among psychosocial variables associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and utility of combining psychosocial variables as risk markers for understanding CVD is largely unknown. Methods Women (n=493) in the NHLBI Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study were evaluated. The predictive value for CVD events was determined for multivariate combination of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Social Network Index (SNI), and Cook-Medley hostility (Ho) scales. Principal components analysis of psychosocial scales revealed composite psychosocial risk markers, and their relationships to CVD events and risk factors were assessed. Results In a multivariate model, the block of SNI, Hostile Affect, STAI and BDI predicted CVD events (χ2[6]=27.8, p<0.001). Scale-wise factor analysis revealed two factors: Negative Affectivity (NA) and Hostility(explained variance 45.6% and 17.1%, respectively). SNI didn't load on either factor. NA was associated with BMI (β [SE] = 0.18[0.09], p=0.04), Hostility with metabolic syndrome (Exp(β)= 0.60[0.28], p=0.04), both factors with blood pressure (BP). NA with SBP β=2.53[1.04], p=0.02, DBP β=1.66[0.60], p=0.02; Hostility with SBP β=2.72[1.13], p=0.02, DBP β =1.83[0.65], p=0.005). Neither factor predicted CVD events. In multivariable analyses, original scales were associated with CVD events (lower SNI HR=0.74, CI=0.57–0.96), low Hostile Affect (HR=0.80, CI=0.56–1.03), and higher BDI(HR=1.33, CI=1.08–1.74). Conclusion In women with suspected ischemia, there is shared variance among psychosocial variables. Multivariate combination of psychosocial risk markers predicts CVD events; derived psychosocial factors were associated with CVD risk factors but not events. Measuring common and unique variance among psychosocial variables may be useful for understanding and predicting CVD. PMID:22434916

  6. Affects as central organising and integrating factors. A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciompi, L

    1991-07-01

    A new psychosocial/biological model of the psyche is proposed, in which the affects play a central role in organising and integrating cognition. The psyche is understood here as a complex hierarchical structure of affective/cognitive systems of reference (or 'programmes for feeling, thinking, and behaviour'), generated by repetitive concrete action. These systems store past experience in their structure, and provide the functional basis for further cognition and communication. Affects endow these programmes with a specific qualitative value (such as motivation), connect cognitive elements synchronically and diachronically, and contribute to their storage and mobilisation according to context. They also participate in differentiating cognitive systems at higher levels of abstraction. These assumptions are supported by recent findings on the role of the limbic and hypothalamic system for the regulation of emotion, on neuronal plasticity, and on the phenomenon of state-dependent learning and memory. Refutable hypotheses are formulated for further research on the interaction of emotion and cognition.

  7. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    that farm stressors (including perceived economic problems), stress symptoms, and safety behaviour were predictors of occupational farm accidents. Higher levels of stressors and stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour were all associated with an elevated risk of injury. In the case of stress symptoms...... be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......, the relation with accidents occurred via an interaction with safety behaviour. The combination of high levels of stress symptoms and poor safety behaviour was associated with a particularly high accident risk....

  8. Comparison of psychosocial factors between patients with benign fasciculations and those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this retrospective study, we compared the initial presentation of patients who were eventually diagnosed with either benign fasciculations (BF or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. We found a significantly higher number of patients with BF reporting a past history of psychiatric symptoms, life stressors, and concurrent psychosomatic symptoms. There was no difference between the two groups in patient report of current anxiety or depression symptoms. These findings support our hypothesis that BF are a manifestation of psychological distress due to somatization and that reviewing psychosocial history is important when patients are being evaluated for fasciculations. Patients seeking medical attention for fasciculations and who do not report a history of underlying psychiatric or psychosomatic disorders should be followed closely as fasciculations have been reported to be a presenting feature of ALS.

  9. Hospital safety climate, psychosocial risk factors and needlestick injuries in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek R; Muto, Takashi; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Sayama, Shizue; Yoshida, Atsushi; Townley-Jones, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the interactions between safety climate, psychosocial issues and Needlestick and Sharps Injuries (NSI), a cross-sectional study was undertaken among nurses at a university teaching hospital in Japan (89% response rate). NSI were correlated with various aspects of hospital safety climate including supporting one another at work, the protection of staff against blood-borne diseases being a high management priority, managers doing their part to protect staff from blood-borne disease, having unsafe work practices corrected by supervisors, having the opportunity to use safety equipment to protect against blood-borne disease exposures, having an uncluttered work area, and having minimal conflict within their department. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated the importance of hospital safety climate in Japanese health care practice, particularly its relationship with NSI. Although the provision of safer devices remains critical in preventing injuries, ensuring a positive safety climate will also be essential in meeting these important challenges for nurses' occupational health.

  10. Predicting outcome of gastric bypass surgery utilizing personality scale elevations, psychosocial factors, and diagnostic group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Scott B; Wechsler, Frederick S; Nademin, Mahsaw Elicia; Virden, Thomas B

    2010-10-01

    Researchers have traditionally relied upon various presurgical biopsychosocial measures to predict weight loss success following bariatric surgery. The present study proposed a diagnostic grouping system to predict postsurgical outcome. It was hypothesized that psychosocial and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)/Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) psychometric variables could be used to identify gastric bypass surgery candidates requiring additional preoperative and postoperative services. Of 143 candidates for surgical treatment of morbid obesity, 120 women and 23 men underwent psychological evaluation prior to approval for gastric bypass. Each was placed into one of four diagnostic groups based upon results of personality measures and a preoperative semistructured interview. Results support the K scale of the MMPI-2 as a significant predictor of postsurgical outcome; MCMI scores on the schizoid, schizotypal, and compulsive scales appeared to be better overall predictors of outcome.

  11. [Coping styles, psychosocial factors and adjustment processes in patients with type I and II diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerio, V; Merenda, M T; Congedo, M L

    2007-01-01

    Coping is defined by Perlin and Shooler as "... that behavior that protects people from psychological pressure due to social situations and problems". This intention Lazarus and Folkman affirm: "... the coping allows people to use different abilities to manage the difficulties (stressors) that they experience in daily existence..." When the stressor is diabetes, the requirements and pressures due to the illness and its physiological and psychosocial consequences are continuous and become chronic. In numerous studies, the coping, suitable or not, has been linked to different medical consequences of the diabetes: changes in glycosylated hemoglobin levels, in the physiological functionality, in the specific symptomatology, in body weight and body mass index. In other research, as in the present contribution, the coping and specific socio-cognitive dimensions have been correlated with the psychosocial consequences of the diabetes, particularly with quality of life and psychological and social adaptation (PSA). This last concept refers, within the illness process, to the attainment of the characteristic behavioral and psychological objectives of recovery. The purpose of the present work is to individualize the coping styles and to note the correlations with socio-cognitive dimensions in diabetic patients, and to measure their incidence on the APS, answering to a series of questions, such as: "What are the modalities of a more functional coping? Are they correlated with the socio-cognitive dimensions? Together do they influence the APS processes?". To 123 diabetic patients (51 with diabetes type 1; 72 with diabetes type 2), with a middle age of 63.7 and 54.9, respectively, have been administered, in sequence, two questionnaires: an adaptation of the Bernese Coping Modes (BECOMO) of Heim et coll. and the Multidimensional Diabetes Questionnaire (MDQ) of Talbot et coll. The results, by using descriptive statistics and data analysis techniques, seem to point out that, in the

  12. Predictive factors and psychosocial effects of Internet addictive behaviors in Cypriot adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critselis, Elena; Janikian, Mari; Paleomilitou, Noni; Oikonomou, Despoina; Kassinopoulos, Marios; Kormas, George; Tsitsika, Artemis

    2014-01-01

    Internet addictive behaviors are associated with a plethora of psychosocial adversities. The study objectives were to assess the determinants and psychosocial correlates associated with Internet addictive behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study design was applied among a random sample (n=805) of Cypriot adolescents (mean age: 14.7 years). Self-completed questionnaires, including Internet use characteristics, Young Internet Addiction Test, and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were utilized. Among the study population, the prevalence rates of borderline addictive Internet use (BIU) and addictive Internet use (AIU) were 18.4% and 2%, respectively. Adolescents with BIU had an increased likelihood of concomitantly presenting with abnormal peer relations (AOR: 5.28; 95% confidence interval, CI: 3.37-23.38), conduct problems (AOR: 4.77; 95% CI: 2.82-8.08), hyperactivity (AOR: 5.58; 95% CI: 2.58-12.10) and emotional symptoms (AOR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.53-5.32). Adolescent AIU was significantly associated with abnormal conduct (AOR: 22.31; 95% CI: 6.90-72.19), peer problems (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 1.36-37.50), emotional symptoms (AOR: 19.06; 95% 6.06-60.61), and hyperactivity (AOR: 9.49, 95% CI: 1.87-48.19). The determinants of BIU and AIU included accessing the Internet for the purposes of retrieving sexual information (AOR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.17-3.23) and participating in games with monetary awards (AOR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.15-3.14). Both BIU and AIU were adversely associated with notable behavioral and social maladjustment among adolescents.

  13. The association between exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health in older employees, a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Hoekstra, Trynke; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-09-18

    Unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors threatens older employees' mental health, and their sustained employment. This study assesses whether an improved compared to stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure to psychosocial work factors is associated with a change in mental health in older employees at 3-year follow-up. The current study used data from the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation (STREAM), in workers aged 45-65 years (n = 5249). Two-year (2010-2012) exposure was assessed for psychological demands, autonomy, support, mental load, and distributive justice. Linear regression analyses were performed to compare improved exposure to unfavourable psychosocial work factors with stable unfavourable and stable favourable exposure and mental health at follow-up (2013), corrected for confounders. Analyses were stratified for age groups (45-54 and 55-65 years) and gender. In certain subgroups, stable unfavourable exposure to psychological demands, autonomy, support, and distributive justice was associated with a significantly lower mental health score than improved exposure. Stable favourable exposure to support was associated with a higher mental health score than improved support, whereas stable favourable exposure to autonomy was associated with a lower mental health score compared to improved exposure. There is a longitudinal association between changes in exposure to psychosocial work factors and mental health. Improvement in unfavourable exposure to psychosocial work factors was associated with improved mental health. This is important information for organisations that consider deploying measures to improve the psychosocial work environment of older workers.

  14. Associations of frailty and psychosocial factors with autonomy in daily activities: a cross-sectional study in Italian community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulasso A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna Mulasso,1 Mattia Roppolo,1,2 Fabrizia Giannotta,3 Emanuela Rabaglietti1 1Department of Psychology, University of Torino, Torino, Italy; 2Department of Developmental Psychology, Rijksuniversiteit of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; 3Department of Psychology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden Abstract: Frailty has been recognized as a risk factor for geriatric adverse events. Little is known of the role of psychosocial factors associated with frailty in explaining negative outcomes of aging. This study was aimed at 1 evaluating the differences in psychosocial factors among robust, prefrail, and frail individuals and 2 investigating whether there was any interaction effect of frailty status with empirically identified clusters of psychosocial factors on autonomy in the activities of daily living (ADLs. Two-hundred and ten older adults (age 73±6 years, 66% women were involved in this study. Frailty was assessed using an adapted version of the frailty phenotype. The psychosocial factors investigated were depressive symptoms using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, social isolation using the Friendship Scale, and loneliness feeling using the eight-item UCLA Loneliness Scale. The autonomy in ADLs was measured with the Groningen Activity Restriction Scale. Thirty-one percent of participants were robust, 55% prefrail, and 14% frail. We performed an analysis of covariance which showed differences between robust, prefrail, and frail individuals for all the psychosocial variables: Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, F(2, 205=18.48, P<0.001; Friendship Scale, F(2, 205=4.59, P=0.011; UCLA Loneliness Scale, F(2, 205=5.87, P=0.003, controlling for age and sex. Using the same covariates, the two-way analysis of covariance indicated an interaction effect of frailty with psychosocial factors in determining ADLs, F(4, 199=3.53, P=0.008. This study demonstrates the close relationship between frailty and

  15. 心理社会因素对复发性口腔溃疡的影响%Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐柳云; 马梁红; 刘念邦

    2001-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of patients′ psychosocial background on the recurrence of aphthous ulcer (RAU). Methods: A total of 105 patients with RAU and 100 normal subjects of the control group were evaluated for psychosocial background. All subjects were required to complete the EPQ questionnaire, the SCL 90 questionnaire, and the enquired data were analyzed by using chi_square test.Results: Special personality and social factors in RAU patients might be reasons leading to the occurrence of this disease (P<0.01). Conclusion: Psychosocial disorder caused by stresses of social life events on the people with special personality could impact the occurrence of RAU.%目的:探讨心理社会因素对复发性口腔溃疡的影响。方法:选择门诊复发性口腔溃疡患者105例为实验组和健康正常人100例为对照组,采用艾森克人格问卷,社会支持评定量表及症状自评量表的方法进行调查分析。结果:艾森克个性问卷结果显示N量表分实验组明显高于对照组,差异有显著性(P<0.01);SCL-90结果显示强迫、人际敏感、抑郁、敌对等因子实验组与对照组差异有显著性(P<0.01);社会支持评定结果显示实验组与对照组在主观支持和对社会支持利用度两个程度上差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论:心理社会因素对复发性口腔溃疡有一定影响。

  16. Role of psychosocial work factors in the relation between becoming a caregiver and changes in health behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Head, Jenny; Hulvej Rod, Naja

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study tested the effects of becoming a caregiver combined with adverse working conditions on changes in health behaviours. METHODS: Participants were 5419 British civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study who were not caregivers at baseline (phase 3, 1991...... with average social support). There was no effect of caregiving on reducing exercise below recommended number of hours per week, or on drinking above recommended number of units per week, regardless of working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings underscore the importance of a well-balanced work environment......-1994). Psychosocial work factors were assessed at baseline. Phase 4 questionnaire (1995-1996) was used to identify participants who became caregivers to an aged or disabled relative. Smoking, alcohol consumption and exercise were assessed at baseline and follow-up (phase 5, 1997-1999). RESULTS: Those who became...

  17. Association of Quadriceps Strength and Psychosocial Factors With Single-Leg Hop Performance in Patients With Meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Jung; George, Steven Z; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2016-12-01

    Clinicians use the single-leg hop test to assess readiness for return to sports after knee injury. Few studies have reported the results of single-leg hop testing after meniscectomy. Additionally, the contributions of impairments in quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors to single-leg hop performance are unknown. To compare single-leg hop performance (distance and landing mechanics) between limbs and to examine the association of single-leg hop performance with quadriceps strength and psychosocial factors in patients with meniscectomy. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 22 subjects who underwent meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears received either standard rehabilitation alone or with additional quadriceps strengthening. Testing was conducted immediately postrehabilitation and at 1 year postsurgery. A single-leg hop test was performed bilaterally, and hop distance was used to create a hop symmetry index. Landing mechanics (peak knee flexion angle, knee extension moment, and peak vertical ground-reaction force) were analyzed with a motion-capture system and a force plate. An isokinetic dynamometer (60 deg/s) assessed knee extensor peak torque and rate of torque development (RTD0-200ms and RTD0-peak torque). Questionnaires assessed fear of reinjury (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia [TSK-11]) and self-efficacy (Knee Activity Self-Efficacy [KASE]). Rehabilitation groups did not significantly differ in single-leg hop performance; therefore, groups were combined for further analyses. The mean hop symmetry index was 88.6% and 98.9% at postrehabilitation and 1 year postsurgery, respectively. Compared with the nonsurgical limb, the surgical limb showed decreased peak knee flexion angle at postrehabilitation and decreased knee extension moment at 1 year postsurgery. The hop symmetry index was positively associated with peak torque, RTD0-200ms, and the KASE score at postrehabilitation. Moreover, at postrehabilitation, the peak knee flexion angle was positively

  18. [Chronic disease, the chronic patient and his family. Psychosocial impact of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, L

    1992-07-01

    Concerning a revision about the mutual influence between the diabetes, the diabetic and his family, the author reviews the literature about the psychosocial area of the Family Physician content's work. It is also confirmed the high prevalency of the chronic disease and the importance of the family ecosystem, not only as support but also as problem to the bearing person of such type of disease. Studies of chronic disease indicate that family dysfunction is associated with poor health outcomes. The areas which more and better have been studied in this scope are reviewed. Thus, having as backdrop the diabetes management, the family's diabetic influence in general is reviewed, as well as the parental attitudes, the family organization and the family life events. Finally, the health care team role is reviewed and particulary the role of the family physician in the management of this type of patients. It is pointed out, as example of the Family Medicine specific contribution, the improving cooperation with medical treatment from the diabetic.

  19. Risk profiles associated with postnatal depressive symptoms among women in a public sector hospital in Mexico: the role of sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Filipa; Place, Jean Marie S; Billings, Deborah L; Rivera, Leonor; Frongillo, Edward A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the association between postnatal depressive symptoms and a set of demographic and psychosocial factors among 604 women attending a public hospital for postnatal care in Mexico City. Specific profiles of women that would indicate an increased probability for developing postnatal depression (PND) based on discrete combinations of risk and protective factors were generated. In a logistic model, followed by the estimation of predicted probabilities, we examined the association between depressive symptomatology and psychosocial factors: low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to moderate or severe intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy. Postnatal depressive symptomatology was reported by 10.6 % of the women, as measured by scores at 12 or above on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The cumulative probability of presenting PND in the simultaneous presence of the psychosocial factors was 67.0 %; however, this could be reduced to 5.5 % through preventive measures that work to eliminate low social support, unplanned pregnancy, and exposure to severe IPV during pregnancy. Early identification of psychosocial risk factors, specifically low social support, unplanned pregnancies, history of depression, and exposure to violence during pregnancy, is recommended.

  20. Psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking among Japanese early adolescent boys and girls: Cross-sectional study

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    Simons-Morton Bruce G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and drinking alcohol among early adolescents are serious public health concerns, but few studies have been conducted in Japan to assess their prevalence and etiology. A regional survey was conducted in eight schools in two Japanese school districts to identify psychosocial factors associated with smoking and drinking behaviors for boys and girls. Methods Junior high school students from seventh to ninth grades (N = 2,923 completed a self-reported questionnaire between December 2002 and March 2003. Relationships between psychosocial variables (i.e., self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment, and deviant peer influence and smoking and drinking were investigated using logistic regression analyses and path analyses. Results Smoking in the last six months was significantly more prevalent in boys (7.9% than girls (5.1%. The prevalence of drinking in the last six months was similar in boys (23.7% and girls (21.8%. Self-efficacy to resist peer pressure was negatively associated with both smoking and drinking among both boys and girls and provided both direct and indirect effects through deviant peer influence. Parental involvement showed indirect effects through school adjustment and/or deviant peer influence to both smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls, although parental involvement showed direct effects on smoking only for boys. School adjustment was negatively associated with smoking among both boys and girls and drinking among girls. Conclusion These findings suggest that self-assertive efficacy to resist peer pressure, parental involvement, school adjustment and deviant peer influence are potentially important factors that could be addressed by programs to prevent smoking and/or drinking among early adolescent boys and girls in Japan.

  1. Psychosocial factors and ageing in older lesbian, gay and bisexual people: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, James; Camic, Paul M

    2016-12-01

    To synthesise and evaluate the extant literature investigating the psychosocial influences on ageing as a lesbian, gay or bisexual person, to develop understanding about these influences and guide future research in the area. Research suggests there may be specific psychological and social factors relevant to ageing for individuals with a nonheterosexual identity. A systematic review was conducted on empirical research involving lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals aged 60 or above. The Cochrane Database, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched and 41 studies met inclusion criteria. The majority had not been reviewed in earlier review articles. Findings were within two domains: psychological, consisting of sub-themes relating to identity, mental health and body image; and social, consisting of relationships, social support, discrimination, caregiving and receiving, community, accessing services and housing. The results suggest lesbian, gay and bisexual individuals mostly adjust well to ageing identities, with mediating influences including self-acceptance and connection with peers. Challenges experienced included ageism and heteronormative health and social care services; intimate friendships, social support and respectful professionals mitigated such threats and facilitated successful ageing. Methodological issues related to sampling procedures, such as purposive sampling through the gay community and limited generalisability due to the homogeneity of participants. Additionally, there was a widespread lack of heterosexual control groups. However, most studies used appropriate measures and acknowledged inherent limitations. Psychosocial influences included the challenge of societal stigma, but also resilience individuals demonstrate through a positive attitude. These factors must continue to be investigated for services to best meet the needs of this population. Clinicians are well placed to assist individuals draw on resilience when

  2. Impact of Burnout and Psychosocial Work Characteristics on Future Long-Term Sickness Absence. Prospective Results of the Danish PUMA Study Among Human Service Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and

  3. Psychosocial Factors Associated with the Well-Being of Colombian Immigrants to Spain

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    Javier Murillo Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is an empirical study with quantitative methodology that studies the relationship of various psychosocial variables usually linked to migration processes, with life satisfaction and self-esteem of immigrants from Colombia in Spain. The sample (N = 281 was obtained through a non-probabilistic sampling, using the technique of snowball, carried out with the collaboration of Non Governmental Organizations dedicated to the support of immigrants in several Spanish cities. As was expected, life satisfaction is negatively related with perceived group prejudice and perceived personal discrimination, especially with the first. Life satisfaction is positively related with perceived material well-being. Self-esteem meanwhile is positively correlated with Colombian national identity. Self-esteem is also correlated significantly and negatively with perceived group prejudice and perceived personal discrimination, although the latter two variables could not explain statistically the first. These results support in general terms the formulated hypotheses, but with some caveats that are presented and explained. Those results are analyzed.

  4. Factors related to the psychosocial functioning of youth with neonatal brachial plexus injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentrikoski, Janelle M; Duncan, Christina L; Melanson, Andrea; Louden, Emily; Allgier, Allison; Michaud, Linda; Rinaldi, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the possible visible nature and functional impairments associated with neonatal brachial plexus injuries (NBPI), the current study investigated the relations of injury severity, social support, and coping strategies to social difficulties and self-concept in youth with NBPI. 88 children (aged 10-17 years) with NBPI and their parent(s) were recruited from a national organization and two brachial plexus clinics. Participants completed a variety of questionnaires during their scheduled clinic visits. More social support from classmates was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties. Less frequent use of negative coping strategies was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties and was a significant moderator of the relation between injury severity and self-concept. Clinicians who work with children with NBPI should consider peer support and coping strategies when promoting the psychosocial functioning of these youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Impact of psychosocial stress on airway inflammation and its mechanism in a murine model of allergic asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bei; DUAN Xiao-hong; WU Jin-feng; LIU Bao-jun; LUO Qing-li; JIN Hua-liang; DU Yi-jie

    2013-01-01

    Background It has already been recognized that psychosocial stress evokes asthma exacerbation; however,the mechanism of how stress gets inside the body is not clear.This study aimed to observe the impact of psychosocial stress on airway inflammation and its mechanism in the ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice combined with social disruption stress.Methods Thirty-six male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into:control group,asthma group (ovalbumin-induced),asthma plus social disruption stress group (SDR),and SDR group.The open field video tracking system was used to assess animal behaviors.The invasive pulmonary resistance (RL) and dynamic lung compliance (cdyn) test system from Buxco was applied to detect pulmonary function.The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was utilized to determine OVA-IgE,T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines (IL-4,IL-5,IL-13) and corticosterone in mouse serum,the Th2 cytokines (IL-4,IL-5,IL-13,IL-6,TNF-α) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF),and IL-6 and TNF-α levels in the supernatant of splenocytes cultured in vitro.Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining was used to assess airway inflammation in lung histology.The cell count kit-8 assay (CCK-8) was applied to evaluate the inhibitory effect of corticosterone on splenocyte proliferation induced by lipopolysacchadde (LPS).Real time-PCR and Western blotting were utilized to determine glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA and GR protein expression in lungs.Results The open field test showed that combined allergen exposure and repeated stress significantly shortened the time the mice spent in the center of the open field (P <0.01),increased ambulatory activity (P <0.01) and the count of fecal boli (P <0.01),but deceased vertical activity (P <0.01).Results from pulmonary function demonstrated that airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was enhanced by psychosocial stress compared with allergy exposure alone.The ELISA results showed that cytokines in serum and BALF were significantly increased (P <0

  6. The psychosocial impact of urinary incontinence on women aged 25 to 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerius, A J

    1997-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence and their impact on daily activities, and the degree of incontinence-related distress perceived by 25- to 45-year-old women. A second purpose was to identify differences, if any, in impact on daily life and degree of incontinence-related distress perceived among women with stress, urge, and mixed incontinence. Guided by Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) Stress, Appraisal and Coping Theory, a descriptive correlational prospective study (N = 35) was conducted using the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire. A significant moderate (r = 0.5701, p = 0.000) correlation was found between urinary incontinence symptoms and their impact on travel, social, physical, and emotional activities. No significant differences were found among women with stress, urge, and mixed urinary incontinence and the impact of incontinence symptoms on their daily activities or with their perceived degree of incontinence-related distress.

  7. A Community-Based, Environmental Chronic Disease Prevention Intervention to Improve Healthy Eating Psychosocial Factors and Behaviors in Indigenous Populations in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Erin L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Roache, Cindy; Corriveau, André; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are highly prevalent among indigenous populations in the Canadian Arctic. A community-based, multi-institutional nutritional and lifestyle intervention--Healthy Foods North--was implemented to improve food-related psychosocial factors and behaviors among Inuit and Inuvialuit in four intervention communities (with two…

  8. Participatory ergonomics to reduce exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain: Results of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.T.; Proper, K.I.; Anema, J.R.; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated the effectiveness of the Stay@Work participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers9 exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. Methods: 37 departments (n=3047 workers) from four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial

  9. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace f...

  10. Risk factors of workplace bullying for men and women: the role of the psychosocial and physical work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, Denise

    2015-02-01

    Workplace bullying has been shown to be a severe social stressor at work, resulting in high costs both for the individuals and organizations concerned. The aim of this study is to analyze risk factors in a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish employees (n = 4,392). The study makes three important contributions to the existing literature on workplace bullying: first, it demonstrates the role of the physical work environment alongside the psychosocial work environment - employees with a poor physical work environment are more likely than others to report having been subjected to or having observed bullying. Second, contrary to common assumptions, the results suggest that performance-based pay is associated with a lower, rather than higher risk of bullying. Third, the findings suggest that there are gender differences in risk factors, thereby constituting a call for more studies on the role of gender when identifying risk factors. Increased knowledge of risk factors is important as it enables us to take more effective measures to decrease the risk of workplace bullying.

  11. The Psychologic and Psychosocial Impact of Otoplasty on Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Niehaus, Richard; Keller, Emanuel; Henrich, Gerhard; Papadopoulos, Othon N; Staudenmaier, Rainer; Kovacs, Laszlo; Peter Herschbach; Pototschnig, Hanno; Machens, Hans-Günther

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies, our research group already evaluated the impact of aesthetic surgery on "quality of life" (QoL). This study evaluates QoL factors and perceptions of well-being after otoplasty as a single indication. Eighty-one patients who underwent otoplasty were divided into three age groups: Youth 1 (Y1) = 8-12 years (n = 17), Youth 1 (Y2) = 13-17 years (n = 13), and Adult ≥18 years (n = 51). For competitive analysis, 2 groups of tests were used: a standardized self-assessment test on life satisfaction (FLZ(M)), the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI), the standardized Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the standardized Freiburg Personality Inventory (FPI-R), the Patient Health Questionnaire 4 (PHQ-4), and a self-developed and indication-specific questionnaire for "Adult" group. The tools for the groups Y1 and Y2 were: PHQ-4, KINDL(R), the Glasgow Child Benefit Inventory (GCBI), and a self-developed and indication-specific questionnaire either. Our data bared numerous significant improvements on patients' QoL. In the items "friends" (P = 0.036) and "freedom of anxiety" (P = 0.034) of the FLZ(M), important improvements were found. In section "satisfaction with appearance" (body image), the items "hair" (P = 0.003) and "ear" (P = 0.034) were to point out. The RSES (P = 0.001) and the FPI-R (P = 0.035) data indicated a well-balanced emotional stability. The results of the GBI/GCBI (P = 0.000/P = 0.000) showed a higher QoL of postsurgery patients. The data of the KINDL questionnaire provided increasing values in the modules "friends" (P = 0.033) and "total score" (P = 0.040) for boys of the ages 8 to 12. For all age groups, there was a less affinity to depression (PHQ-4) and a high satisfaction with the aesthetical result (indication-specific questionnaire). This study showed higher QoL in all age groups by using standardized tools in comparison with the norm data. The knowledge of postoperative

  12. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  13. PREVALENCE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS OF ALCOHOL USE DISORDER– A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE OF ASSAM, INDIA

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    Pallab Kumar Bhattacharjee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence, also known as alcoholism or alcohol use disorder, is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in many diseases and various psychosocial problems. There are many complications in managing as well as critical treatment in the study area. The number of alcohol use disorder is increasing in Northeast India day by day. This study was conducted with an aim to study the prevalence and psychosocial factors of alcohol use disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS Present study was a hospital-based, cross-sectional study from 1st December, 2015 to 30th November, 2016. A mixed research method of both qualitative and quantitative approaches, nonprobability purposive sampling and three different types of standard scales were applied among cases of age 20 and above. RESULTS 100 alcohol use disorder patients were assessed. Most of the patients were of 20-39 years age group. Majority (96% of total respondents were male. 48 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from HSLC and HS standard, 98 percent of alcoholic dependence cases were from Hindu religion. Interestingly, 34 percent respondents were severely alcohol dependent, 48 percent of them suffered from high perceived stress, 66 percent of their families were problematic but the findings of hypotheses i.e., x2= 0.489 and x2= 0.097 depict there is no association between the levels of alcohol dependency and family functioning. It cannot be said ‘higher the level of stress higher the severity of alcohol dependency’. CONCLUSION There are many health and social problems which are related to alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder leads to mental illnesses such as problems of stress, depression, aggression, anxiety, alienation, revenge, shock, indifference, frustration and sleeplessness.

  14. Factores psicosociales asociados a la evaluación del docente1 Factores psicossociais associados á avaliagao do docente The Psycho-social Factors Associated with Teacher Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Páramo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo que se presenta a continuación recoge los principales hallazgos de la revisión del estado del arte sobre los factores extraacadémicos que afectan la evaluación del profesor, y se propone una modalidad de entrevista para identificar de forma libre conceptos que usan los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Mediante el empleo de una entrevista en la clasificación libre de tarjetas que contienen los nombres de los profesores evaluados, el estudio muestra la participación de factores psicosociales o conceptualizaciones de las que se valen los estudiantes para evaluar a sus profesores. Se cuestiona al final la objetividad y validez de las evaluaciones que se hacen de los profesores, a partir de cuestionarios estructurados.Este artigo recolhe os principáis achados do estado da arte acerca dos factores extra-académicos que afeitam a avaliagao do professor, e propóe urna modalidade de entrevista para identificar livremente conceitos usados pelos estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Aplicando urna entrevista na classificacáo livre de tarjetas que contém os nomes dos professo-res avahados, o estudo mostra a participando de factores psicosociais ou conceptualizacóes que aproveitam os estudantes para avahar os seus professores. Ao final, questiona-se a objetividade e a validez das avaliacóes aos professores com questionários estruturadosThe following paper outlines the major findings of a state-of-the-art review of non-academic factors that influence teacher evaluations, and proposes an interview technique to identify freely the concepts students use to evalúate their teachers. Through interview on classification without cards that contain the ñames of the teachers being assessed, the study shows the psycho-social factors or conceptualizations students employ when evaluating their teachers. In the end, doubts are expressed about the objectivity and validity of teacher evaluations based on structured questionnaires.

  15. Assessment of psychosocial factors and distress in women having adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: the relationship among emotional distress and patient and treatment-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozturk; Soylu, Cem; Babacan, Taner; Sarici, Furkan; Kertmen, Neyran; Allen, Deborah; Sever, Ali Riza; Altundag, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to comprehensively describe the psychosocial and medical characteristics of women who initiated tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors for breast cancer and to compare levels of emotional distress according to their medical (tumor demographics, treatment type, treatment duration) and psychosocial (self-esteem, perceived social support, sociodemographic) characteristics. A total of 104 women currently receiving tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors was recruited from outpatient clinics and they were asked to complete self-report questionnaires including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during their routine follow-up. Psychosocial and medical characteristics of the patients were first described and subsequently the score of emotional distress was compared with these. The patients' mean age was 52.49 ± 10.30 and they were being treated for an average of 24.3 months. Out of the patients' characteristics, educational and marital status, level of perceived social support and self-esteem were all significantly related with emotional distress. As for medical variables, the score of distress was relatively higher among patients in the first 2 years of their treatment than the patients who were in the second to fifth years of treatment, but this was not statistically significant. Given the results of this study, it appeared that patient variables, rather than the medical or treatment characteristics, were related with emotional distress in women undergoing endocrine treatment. For that reason it is critical that medical staff are aware of patient factors that relate to distress during a long period of adjuvant endocrine therapy.

  16. The psychosocial situation of obese children: Psychological factors and quality of life

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    U Korsten-Reck

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available U Korsten-Reck1, K Korsten1, K Haeberle1, K Kromeyer-Hauschild3, H H Dickhuth1, E Schulz21Department of Rehabilitative and Preventive Sports Medicine, University Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany; 3Institute of Human Genetics and Anthropology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena, GermanyAbstract: The psychosocial situation of obese children at the beginning of the Freiburg Intervention Trial for Obese Children (FITOC program influences the course and outcome of intervention therapy. At the beginning of FITOC, mothers of 30 children (12 M age 10.5 ± 1.4, 18 F; 10.2 ± 1.3 rated the psychopathological symptoms using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and the quality of life of their children (Inventar zur Erfassung der Lebensqualität [ILK]. 46.6% of mothers rated their children to be disturbed (normal population group, 2% disturbed. There was no correlation between the body mass index of the child and the CBCL score. On the ILK, the obese children themselves selected “good” while the mother’s view of their childrens’ quality of life varied around “poor”. The stress on the mother increased with the degree of the child’s obesity and number of critical life events (p = 0.030. The CBCL and the ILK at the beginning of treatment serve as a good screening instrument for psychopathology and distress in children with obesity.Keywords: obesity, childhood, screening instruments, therapy

  17. The influence of psychosocial factors on recovery following acute whiplash trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Tina Birgitte Wisbech

    2012-12-01

    gender, low educational level, unemployment and blue collar work before the collision predicted future self-reported affected work capacity. Pre-collision self-reported unspecified pain, high psychological distress, female gender and low educational level predicted future self-reported neck pain. Self-reported characteristics before the collision are shown to be important for recovery after acute whiplash trauma. Whiplash exposure was a major risk factor for future negative change in provisional situation as whiplash-exposed more than tripled their risk of negative change in provisional situation compared to matched controls in the general population. Being unemployed, sick-listed, and receiving social assistance pre-accident were all associated with future negative change in health-related provisional situation. Sick-listing before the accident not only predicted negative change in provisional situation, but future neck pain as well. Furthermore, as few as 1-18 weeks of sick-listing within the five years preceding the collision more than doubled the risk of future negative provisional situation. Coping strategies are shown to affect recovery after whiplash trauma, but little information is available about which strategies are adaptive or maladaptive at different times in recovery. However, there is evidence of catastrophizing and reinterpreting pain sensations being maladaptive for patients exposed to whiplash trauma. There was not enough evidence to draw conclusions on the possible impact of gender in the use of coping strategies in patients exposed to whiplash trauma as only six studies contributed with findings, and only two studies treated the subject at some length. No interaction between gender and the five examined coping subscales on future neck pain were found. That is, use of coping strategies three months post-collision did not explain the different prognosis observed in men and women. However, we found that distraction, reinterpreting, catastrophizing, and

  18. Multiple syndemic psychosocial factors are associated with reduced engagement in HIV care among a multinational, online sample of HIV-infected MSM in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Safren, Steven A; Rosenberger, Joshua G; Novak, David S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Latin America has some of the highest levels of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage of any developing region in the world. Early initiation and optimal adherence to ART are necessary for improved health outcomes and reduction in onward transmission. Previous work has demonstrated the role of psychosocial problems as barriers to uptake and adherence to ART, and recently, a syndemic framework has been applied to the role of multiple psychosocial syndemic factors and adherence to ART, in the USA. However, to our knowledge, these associations have not been investigated outside of the USA, nor in a multi-country context. To address these gaps, we assessed the association between multiple co-occurring psychosocial factors and engagement in HIV-related medical care and adherence to ART among a large, multinational sample of sexually-active HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Latin America. Among the 2020 respondents, 80.7% reported currently receiving HIV-related medical care, 72.3% reported currently receiving ART; among those, 62.5% reported 100% adherence. Compared with experiencing no psychosocial health problems, experiencing five or more psychosocial health problems is associated with 42% lower odds of currently receiving HIV-related medical care (adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.36, 0.95) and of currently receiving ART (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.38, 0.91). The number of psychosocial health problems experienced was associated with self-reported ART adherence in a dose-response relationship; compared to those with none of the factors, individuals with one syndemic factor had 23% lower odds (aOR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.60, 0.97) and individuals with five or more syndemic factors had 72% lower odds (aOR = 0.28, 95% CI 0.14, 0.55) of reporting being 100% adherent to ART. Addressing co-occurring psychosocial problems as potential barriers to uptake and adherence of ART in Latin America may improve the effectiveness of secondary prevention interventions.

  19. The Impact of Chronic Illness on Psychosocial Stages of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, E. Virginia, Ed.; Shevlin, Kathleen M., Ed.

    This book addresses critical issues regarding the impact of chronic illness and disability on human development. It was written for health care professionals who help chronically ill and disabled persons deal with the psychological and social as well as the biological aspects of their illness or disability. An expanded version of Erik Erikson's…

  20. Structural equation modeling: a study of the impact of the breast cancer psychosocial pathway (diagnosis, surgery and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Patrão

    Full Text Available Objective: Women diagnosed with breast cancer are confronted with different stressors throughout the illness trajectory, e.g. awaiting diagnosis, having surgery, anticipating the possibility that the cancer has spread and coping with side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the psychosocial pathway of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 360 women diagnosed with breast cancer were evaluated, on 3 separate occasions, regarding: distress, emotional control, neuroticism, social support, coping, quality of life (QoL and demographic characteristics. We used structural equation modeling (SEM to examine the relationships among all the variables. Results: The emotional, cognitive response, and the QoL suffered significant changes concerning diagnosis (time 1, surgery (time 2 and treatments (time 3. Furthermore, results indicate that an adapted emotional response is associated to efficient coping strategy, and satisfaction with the perceived social support and good QoL. This is particularly the case when women are undergoing a psychological intervention. Conclusion: To help breast cancer patients adjust to their situation the clinical psychologist should encourage the patient to adopt more efficient coping strategies. By doing so, patients may indeed experience less psychological distress and a higher quality of life, thereby increasing their overall sense of well-being.

  1. Attitudes toward and perceived psychosocial impact of female circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Krenawi, A; Wiesel-Lev, R

    1999-01-01

    The present pilot study examines attitudes toward and the perceived psychosocial impact of circumcision as practiced among the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev, Israel. A convenience sample of 24 women participated in the study: 12 who had experienced the ritual, and 12 who had not, but who had witnessed or been told about the practice of the ritual on women in their extended families. Two research instruments were used: a structured questionnaire, and a semi-structured open-ended interview. Data showed differences in subject responses depending on the research tools. The structured questionnaire revealed that women who had experienced the circumcision gave legitimization and cognitive rationalization to it. In contrast, the semi-structured interview revealed that these same subjects reported insult: traumatization, direct negative influences, and narcissistic insult, and described emotional difficulties during the research interviews. The findings indicated that they had difficulties in mother-daughter relationships and trust. Implications of the ritual on the continuity of polygamy and marital/sexual problems are discussed.

  2. The psychosocial impacts of fly-in fly-out and drive-in drive-out mining on mining employees: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkington, Amanda May; Larkins, Sarah; Gupta, Tarun Sen

    2011-06-01

    To explore how fly-in fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in drive-out (DIDO) mining affects the psychosocial well-being of miners resident in a rural north Queensland town as well as the sources of support miners identify and use in managing these effects. A descriptive qualitative study, using semistructured interviews. Charters Towers, a rural town in north Queensland, and a remote north-western Queensland mine. Eleven people, resident in or near Charters Towers, currently or formerly employed in FIFO or DIDO mining. Self-reported effects on psychosocial well-being and sources of support. Participants reported positive and negative psychosocial impacts across domains including family life, relationships, social life, work satisfaction, mood, sleep and financial situation. Concerns about the impact on participants' partners were described. Awareness of onsite support, such as Employee Assistance Programs, varied. Other supports included administration staff and nurses or medics. Trusted friends or colleagues at the mine site were considered a preferred means of support. Some, but not most, had experienced coworkers discussing problems with them. A reluctance to seek support was described, with a number of barriers identified. Those having problems might not recognise their own stress and thus not seek support. This study identifies numerous psychosocial impacts on FIFO/DIDO miners and their partners, and provides insights into preferences regarding support. Employee Assistance Programs cannot be relied upon as the sole means of support. Further studies exploring the impact upon and supports for FIFO/DIDO workers and their partners will assist in better understanding these issues. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  3. Where's the impairment: an examination of factors that impact sustained attention following a stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Welhaf, Matthew S

    2014-01-01

    The impact of stress on cognitive functioning has been examined across multiple domains. However, few studies investigate both physical and psychological factors that impact cognitive performance. The current study examined the impact of a physical and psychosocial stressor on sustained attention and identified factors related to sustained attention, including cortisol, salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and mind wandering. A total of 53 participants completed either the socially evaluated cold pressor task or a control task followed by the sustained attention to response task with mind wandering measures. Participants also provided saliva samples following the attention task. Results indicate the stressor task did not impact mind wandering or sustained attention but increased cortisol and sAA. Mind wandering was negatively related to sustained attention and mediated the relationship between cortisol and sustained attention. The findings highlight the importance of examining multiple sources of stress-related cognitive impairments.

  4. Reliability of journal impact factor rankings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Darren C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal impact factors and their ranks are used widely by journals, researchers, and research assessment exercises. Methods Based on citations to journals in research and experimental medicine in 2005, Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty associated with these journal performance indicators. Results Intervals representing plausible ranges of values for journal impact factor ranks indicated that most journals cannot be ranked with great precision. Only the top and bottom few journals could place any confidence in their rank position. Intervals were wider and overlapping for most journals. Conclusion Decisions placed on journal impact factors are potentially misleading where the uncertainty associated with the measure is ignored. This article proposes that caution should be exercised in the interpretation of journal impact factors and their ranks, and specifically that a measure of uncertainty should be routinely presented alongside the point estimate.

  5. Musculoskeletal pain in Arctic indigenous and non-indigenous adolescents, prevalence and associations with psychosocial factors: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhoff, Christian; Kvernmo, Siv

    2014-01-01

    Background Pain is common in otherwise healthy adolescents. In recent years widespread musculoskeletal pain, in contrast to single site pain, and associating factors has been emphasized. Musculoskeletal pain has not been examined in Arctic indigenous adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of widespread musculoskeletal pain and its association with psychosocial factors, with emphasis on gender- and ethnic differences (Sami vs. non-Sami), and the influence of pain rela...

  6. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  7. Validation of the English Version of the Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy and the Relationship with Mental Health, Quality of Life, and Self-Efficacy

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    Rebecca C. Knibb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Scale for Psychosocial Factors in Food Allergy (SPS-FA is based on the biopsychosocial model of health and was developed and validated in Chile to measure the interaction between psychological variables and allergy symptoms in the child. We sought to validate this scale in an English speaking population and explore its relationship with parental quality of life, self-efficacy, and mental health. Methods. Parents (n=434 from the general population in the UK, who had a child with a clinical diagnosis of food allergy, completed the SPS-FA and validated scales on food allergy specific parental quality of life (QoL, parental self-efficacy, and general mental health. Findings. The SPS-FA had good internal consistency (alphas = .61–.86. Higher scores on the SPS-FA significantly correlated with poorer parental QoL, self-efficacy, and mental health. All predictors explained 57% of the variance in SPS-FA scores with QoL as the biggest predictor (β=.52. Discussion. The SPS-FA is a valid scale for use in the UK and provides a holistic view of the impact of food allergy on the family. In conjunction with health-related QoL measures, it can be used by health care practitioners to target care for patients and evaluate psychological interventions for improvement of food allergy management.

  8. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  9. Psychosocial factors affecting medication adherence among HIV-1 infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Natalie T; Phiri, Kelesitse; Bussmann, Hermann; Gaolathe, Tendani; Marlink, Richard G; Wester, C William

    2010-06-01

    As increasing numbers of persons are placed on potentially life-saving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in sub-Saharan Africa, it is imperative to identify the psychosocial and social factors that may influence antiretroviral (ARV) medication adherence. Using an 87 question survey, the following data were collected from patients on cART in Botswana: demographics, performance (Karnofsky) score, perceived stigma and level of HIV disclosure, attitudes and beliefs concerning HIV/AIDS, substance and/or drug use, depression, and pharmacy and healthcare provider-related factors. Overall adherence rates were determined by patient self-report, institutional adherence, and a culturally modified Morisky scale. Three hundred adult patients were recruited between April and May 2005. The overall cART adherence rate was 81.3% based on 4 day and 1 month patient recall and on clinic attendance for ARV medication refills during the previous 3 months. Adults receiving cART for 1-6 months were the least adherent (77%) followed by those receiving cART for greater than 12 months (79%). Alcohol use, depression, and nondisclosure of positive HIV status to their partner were predictive of poor adherence rates (p value HIV disclosure to "at-risk" partners and provide ongoing counseling and education to help patients recognize and overcome HIV-associated stigma, alcohol abuse, and depression.

  10. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-06

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future.

  11. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan; Porter-Armstrong, Alison P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

  12. Impact of Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games upon the Psychosocial Well-Being of Adolescents and Young Adults: Reviewing the Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Scott

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For many people, the online environment has become a significant arena for everyday living, and researchers are beginning to explore the multifaceted nature of human interaction with the Internet. The burgeoning global popularity and distinct design features of massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs have received particular attention, and discourses about the phenomenon suggest both positive and negative impact upon gamer health. Aim. The purpose of this paper was to critically appraise the research literature to determine if playing MMORPGs impacts upon the psychosocial well-being of adolescents and young adults. Method. Initial searches were conducted on nine databases spanning the years 2002 to 2012 using key words, such as online gaming, internet gaming, psychosocial, and well-being, which, in addition to hand searching, identified six studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Results. All six studies strongly associated MMORPG playing with helpful and harmful impact to the psychosocial well-being of the populations under study; however due to the methodologies employed, only tentative conclusions may be drawn. Conclusion. Since both helpful and harmful effects were reported, further multidisciplinary research is recommended to specifically explore the clinical implications and therapeutic potentialities of this modern, growing phenomenon.

  13. Material, psychosocial, behavioural and biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality: evidence from the HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalická, Vera; van Lenthe, Frank; Bambra, Clare; Krokstad, Steinar; Mackenbach, Johan

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have assessed the relative importance of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality, but research into the contribution of biomedical factors has been limited. Our study examines the relative contribution of (i) material, (ii) psychosocial, (iii) behavioural and (iv) biomedical factors in the explanation of relative socio-economic (educational and income) inequalities in mortality. Cohort study--baseline data from the Norwegian total county population-based HUNT 2 study linked to mortality data (1995/97 to 2003). In this analysis, 18 247 men and 18 278 women aged 24-80 without severe chronic disease at baseline were eligible. No socio-economic inequalities in mortality among women were found. In men, educational- and income-related inequalities in mortality were found with a relative risk for the lowest educational group of 1.67 (1.29-2.15) and the lowest income quartile of 2.03 (1.57-2.70). Together, the four explanatory factors reduced the relative risk of mortality of the lowest educational group to 1.18 (0.90-1.55) and the relative risk of mortality in the lowest income quartile was attenuated to 1.17 (0.83-1.63). Known biomedical factors contributed least to both educational and income inequalities in mortality. Material factors were the most important in explaining income inequalities in mortality amongst men, whereas psychosocial and behavioural factors were the most important in explaining educational inequalities. This suggests that improving the material, psychosocial and behavioural circumstances of men might bring more substantial reductions in relative socio-economic inequalities in mortality.

  14. Health, alcohol and psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe study: dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors in the Lithuanian urban population of Kaunas city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksiene, Dalia Ieva; Baceviciene, Migle; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Daugeliene, Evelina; Kranciukaite, Daina

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main dietary patterns in the Lithuanian urban population and to determine their association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45-72 years was screened in 2006-2008. Factor analysis of the main dietary patterns revealed a five-factor solution, which accounted for 47.8% of the variance: "fresh vegetables and fruit"; "sweets"; "porridge and cereals"; "potatoes, meat, boiled vegetables and eggs"; "chicken and fish". "Fresh vegetables and fruits" factor and "sweets" factor were inversely associated with age both in men and women: older people consumed less frequent than average of the particular food groups. Dietary patterns of people with good self-rated health and university education were healthier than among people with lower education and poorer health. Nutrition education efforts should focus on improving food diversity, with particular targeting of lower educated, single and older people.

  15. Behavioral and psychosocial risk factors associated with first and recurrent cystitis in Indian women: A case-control study

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    Bharti Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk factors for urinary tract infections (UTIs from developed countries are not applicable to women from developing world. Objective: To analyze the behavioral practices and psychosocial aspects pertinent to women in our region and assess their association with acute first time or recurrent UTI. Materials and Methods: Sexually active premenopausal women with their first (145 and recurrent (77 cystitis with Escherichia coli as cases and women with no prior history of UTI as healthy controls (257 were enrolled at a tertiary care hospital in India, between June 2011 and February 2013. Questionnaire-based data was collected from each participant through a structured face-to-face interview. Results: Using univariate and multivariate regression models, independent risk factors for the first episode of cystitis when compared with healthy controls were (presented in odds ratios [ORs] with its 95% confidence interval [CI]: Anal sex (OR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.59-8.52, time interval between last sexual intercourse and current episode of UTI was 250 ml of tea consumption per day (OR = 4.73, 95% CI = 2.67-8.38, presence of vaginal infection (OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.85-5.62 and wiping back to front (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.45-4.38. Along with the latter three, history of UTI in a first-degree female relative (OR = 10.88, 95% CI = 2.41-49.07, constipation (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 1.97-11.92 and stress incontinence (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.18-5.06 were additional independent risk factors for recurrent cystitis in comparison to healthy controls. Conclusion: Most of the risk factors for initial infection are potentially modifiable but sufficient to also pose risk for recurrence. Many of the findings reflect the cultural and ethnic practices in our country.

  16. Demographic, clinical and psychosocial factors identify a high-risk group for depression screening among predominantly Hispanic patients with Type 2 diabetes in safety net care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi

    2015-01-01

    Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (pidentified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, pidentify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An overview of psychosocial and behavioral factors in neck-and-shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, S J

    1995-01-01

    Psychological factors are suspected to be pertinent in the etiology, maintenance, treatment and prevention of neck and shoulder pain problems. I present a broad overview of current knowledge and trends concerning cognitive-behavioral factors for these pain problems. Although there is a dire lack of research concerning cognitive-behavioral approaches and no psychological theory specific to neck and shoulder problems is currently available, a good deal is nevertheless known about musculoskeletal pain in general. Consequently, there is reason to believe that these factors may be involved in the etiology of neck-and-shoulder disorders. In particular, psychological factors appear to be important in the development and maintenance of subacute and chronic problems. Treatment techniques, adherence, and prevention are examined from a psychological perspective. The application of cognitive-behavioral factors to the treatment and prevention of neck and shoulder pain should provide new avenues which enhance results. It is concluded that while a lack of research precludes definite conclusions, there is ample reason to believe that research into psychological factors may well result in a better understanding of neck and shoulder pain and enhanced treatment and prevention outcomes.

  18. Can changes in psychosocial factors and residency explain the decrease in physical activity during the transition from high school to college or university?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte

    2015-04-01

    When students make the transition from high school to college or university, their physical activity (PA) levels decrease strongly. Consequently, it is of crucial importance to identify the determinants of this decline in PA. The study aims were to (1) examine changes in psychosocial factors in students during the transition from high school to college/university, (2) examine if changes in psychosocial factors and residency can predict changes in PA, and (3) investigate the moderating effects of residency on the relationship between changes in psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Between March 2008 and October 2010, 291 Flemish students participated in a longitudinal study, with baseline measurements during the final year of high school and follow-up measurements at the start of second year of college/university. At both time points, participants completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, active transportation, leisure-time sports, psychosocial variables, and residency. Repeated measures MANOVA analyses and multiple moderated hierarchic regression analyses were conducted. Modeling, self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and health-related, external and social barriers decreased, while health-related benefits and time-related barriers increased from baseline to follow-up. Decreases in modeling and time-related barriers were associated with a decrease in active transportation (adjusted R(2) = 3.2%); residency, decreases in self-efficacy, competition-related benefits, and increases in health- and time-related barriers predicted a decrease in leisure-time sports (adjusted R(2) = 29.3%). Residency only moderated two associations between psychosocial factors and changes in PA. Residency and changes in psychosocial factors were mainly important to explain the decrease in leisure-time sports. Other factors such as distance to college/university are likely more important to explain the decrease in active transportation; these are worth exploring in

  19. Explaining socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health: a systematic review of the relative contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioural factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Irene; Spallek, Jacob; Richter, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    Material, psychosocial and behavioural factors are important explanatory pathways for socioeconomic inequalities in health. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence on empirical studies and to analyse the relative contribution of these factors for explaining inequalities in self-rated health. The study was performed in compliance with PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science (1996-2016) as well as by screening of reference lists of obtained articles. Two reviewers performed the search and critical appraisal of the studies. All studies that focus on explaining socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health, including at least 2 of the 3 main pathways and analysing the relative contribution of these approaches in separate and joint models, were included. Eleven publications were included. Separate analyses showed that material, psychosocial and behavioural factors contribute to the explanation of socioeconomic inequalities in self-rated health. However, the combined analyses revealed that material factors contributed most to differences in self-rated health because of their higher independent (direct) effect and additional shared (indirect) effect (through psychosocial and behavioural factors). These results were largely independent of age, gender and indicator of socioeconomic status. The evidence presented might be used for policymakers to identify and to justify prioritisation in terms of prevention and health promotion. The findings show that multiple factors are important for tackling social inequalities in health. Strategies for reducing these inequalities should focus on material/structural living conditions as they shape conditions of psychosocial resources and health behaviour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. [Psychosocial risk factors in adolescent tobacco use: negative mood-states, peer group and parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià Cano, Albert; Escapa Solanas, Sandra; Marí-Klose, Marga; Marí-Klose, Pau

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple factors that can affect the risk of tobacco use in adolescence. By analyzing these factors together we can disentangle the specific relevance of each of them in shaping teenagers' individual behavior. The goal of this research study is to deepen our understanding of the relationship between tobacco use in adolescence and socio-demographic and socio-emotional variables. We worked with a representative sample of 2,289 Catalan teenagers (aged 15-18) who responded to a questionnaire drawn up by the Families and Children Panel. Regression models were developed to assess the statistical associations of different mood states (sadness, nervousness and loneliness), peer-group characteristics and parenting styles, with tobacco use. The results indicate that addictive behavior is more likely when teenagers show negative mood states, controlling for socio-demographic variables and other risk factors. Among these additional factors, authoritative parenting styles reduce the risk of tobacco use, compared to authoritarian, permissive and neglectful parenting. Extensive tobacco use within the peer group is the risk factor most strongly associated with teenagers' individual behavior.

  1. The Course and Impact of Poststroke Insomnia in Stroke Survivors Aged 18 to 65 Years: Results from the Psychosocial Outcomes In StrokE (POISE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Glozier

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insomnia symptoms are common in the population and have negative psychosocial and functional sequelae. There are no prospective studies of the course of such symptoms and their impact, if any, in stroke survivors. This prospective cohort study investigated insomnia after stroke in working-age adults and evaluated its impact on psychological and functional outcomes over the subsequent year. Methods: We prospectively recruited 441 young (<65 years consecutive stroke survivors from 20 public hospitals in the New South Wales Stroke Service network. Participants were assessed by self-report and interview at 28 days, 6 months, and 12 months after stroke. Insomnia was defined using a common epidemiological measure of sleep disturbance and daytime consequences. Depression, anxiety, disability, and return to work were assessed through standardized measures. Results: The point prevalence of insomnia at each time point in the year after stroke was stable at 30–37% and more common in females. Fifty-eight (16% of all participants reported “chronic” insomnia, with symptoms at both baseline and 6 months later. At 12 months, this group was more likely to be depressed (OR 6.75, 95% CI 2.78–16.4, anxious (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.54–7.09, disabled (OR 3.60, 95% CI 2.07–6.25, and not have returned to work, compared to those without insomnia over the same period. Conclusions: Chronic insomnia has a negative effect on disability and return to work 1 year after stroke even after adjusting for demographic, psychiatric, and disability factors. Identifying and appropriately targeting insomnia through known effective treatments may improve functional outcomes after stroke.

  2. Perceptions and management of psychosocial factors affecting type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Juliana; Halperin, Lucila; Ritholz, Marilyn D; Hsu, William C

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes has become a global pandemic and Chinese Americans are at least 60% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than White Americans, despite having lower body weight, due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Because of the increased risk, it is vitally important to address the issues of treatment adherence and diabetes self-management in the Chinese American population. Many factors affect an individual's ability to manage diabetes, including cultural beliefs, immigration experience, language abilities/health literacy, educational background, employment, and accessibility of healthcare services. In treating Chinese American patients, these factors must be considered to determine appropriate treatment. Eastern cultural and individual beliefs differ greatly from Western beliefs and, therefore, may affect the presentation of the patients. If left unacknowledged, these differences might be misinterpreted by healthcare providers as merely treatment non-adherence or unwillingness to change. Suggestions for providing culturally competent healthcare are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the effects of exercise participation on psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun; Cho, Byung-Jun; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to research the association of Type D personality with CVD risk factors and psychology through comparison of the association of exercise participation with CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D. [Subjects] This study included 416 middle-aged women. All participants completed the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14) to assess Type D personality. The DS14 consists of two subscales, NA and SI, both of which comprise 7 items. The research subjects were randomly assigned to four groups: Type D+Exercise (n=12), Type D+non-Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+Exercise (n=12), non-Type D+non-Exercise (n=10). The study consisted of 46 participants. [Methods] An aerobic exercise program and meditation were conducted in parallel for 10 months. Stretching was performed for 10 min as a warm-up, and then walking and running were performed on a treadmill at the HRmax 60-70% level for 40 min; this was done three times a week. Blood samples were processed according to standard laboratory procedures. The concentrations of TG and HDL-cholesterol were determined enzymatically on a clinical chemistry analyzer. Blood glucose was measured by the hexokinase method. [Results] Weight, percent fat, social support, and waist circumference showed a significant difference between times in the Exercise groups, and the values were significantly lower than those of the non-Exercise groups. Anxiety and depression showed a significant interaction effect between groups. The average number of CVD risk factors in subjects showed a significant difference between groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion, there were significant differences between groups in terms of CVD risk factors and psychological risk factors in women with Type D personality.

  4. Associations Between Pre-Implant Psychosocial Factors and Spinal Cord Stimulation Outcome: Evaluation Using the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Andrew R; Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Kukal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has variable effectiveness in controlling chronic pain. Previous research has demonstrated that psychosocial factors are associated with diminished results of SCS. The objective of this investigation is to examine associations between pre-implant psychological functioning as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF