Sample records for psychosocial development criminal

  1. The influence of brain abnormalities on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas


    The aim of this study was to investigate the number and type of brain abnormalities and their influence on psychosocial development, criminal history and paraphilias in sexual murderers. We analyzed psychiatric court reports of 166 sexual murderers and compared a group with notable signs of brain abnormalities (N = 50) with those without any signs (N = 116). Sexual murderers with brain abnormalities suffered more from early behavior problems. They were less likely to cohabitate with the victim at the time of the homicide and had more victims at the age of six years or younger. Psychiatric diagnoses revealed a higher total number of paraphilias: Transvestic fetishism and paraphilias not otherwise specified were more frequent in offenders with brain abnormalities. A binary logistic regression identified five predictors that accounted for 46.8% of the variance explaining the presence of brain abnormalities. Our results suggest the importance of a comprehensive neurological and psychological examination of this special offender group.

  2. Criminal decision making: the development of adolescent judgment, criminal responsibility, and culpability. (United States)

    Fried, C S; Reppucci, N D


    Theories of judgment in decision making hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired because the development of several psychosocial factors that are presumed to influence decision making lags behind the development of the cognitive capacities that are required to make mature decisions. This study uses an innovative video technique to examine the role of several psychosocial factors--temporal perspective, peer influence, and risk perception--in adolescent criminal decision making. Results based on data collected from 56 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented consequences of engaging in the depicted delinquent act and less likely to anticipate pressure from their friends than nondetained youth. Examination of the developmental functions of the psychosocial factors indicates age-based differences on standardized measures of temporal perspective and resistance to peer influence and on measures of the role of risk perception in criminal decision making. Assessments of criminal responsibility and culpability were predicted by age and ethnicity. Implications for punishment in the juvenile justice system are discussed.

  3. [Adolescent psychosocial development]. (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica


    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.


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    Scania Riendravi


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Family have an important role as a basic of emotional and social development. Friendships also influence the psychosocial development of the children. Psychosocial development of children will be improved with changes in their knowledge and understanding of the needs and regulations. Understand the psychosocial development of the children will help the parents and teachers educate their childrens / students and optimize the process of development in a proper way. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood. (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela


    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Issues of remedial development of forms in criminal proceedings

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    Tsyganenko Sergey, S.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main issues of the modern concept of the criminal proceeding differentiation in terms of new methodological and theoretical approaches - models of criminal justice and the theory of criminal procedural strategy. This draws attention to a trend to expand the scope of application in criminal proceedings, along with production and procedural forms of justice and law and technology. In connection with what is considered their place in the structure of modern criminal procedure, the application conditions and development prospects. For a long time in the theory of criminal systemology a key element in the process acted as a procedural form of normative-functional complex stages and phases of activity in the pre-trial and judicial parts of the criminal justice system. Its mission has been focused on the achievement of major milestones in the implementation of justice, which, ultimately, are expressed in establishing the truth in the case. Thus, there was a two-element mechanism consisting of pre-trial proceedings, due to the need to solve the crime and bringing charges and proceedings, consisting primarily of the trial based on the principles of justice. This order, established regulations, is unified - it is equally applied to all categories of criminal cases and with all the procedural authorities. Modern criminal procedure is a differentiated form in which, along with established procedural steps and process of production, and has been actively used legal procedural technology.

  7. Neurobiological and psychosocial conditionings of rationality of criminal behaviour – review

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    Przemysław Piotrowski


    Full Text Available The term “rationality” has been mentioned for ages in philosophical discourse, and later in science. No wonder that considerations regarding the reasons behind committing crimes involve the question of rationality of culprits. The article comprises a review of contemporary research on factors which, on a neurobiological, psychological or social level, modify the level of rationality of criminals. In case of the juveniles, factors such as not fully developed brain structures, the influence of hormonal changes resulting in emotional instability and peer pressure, should also be taken into account. Adult criminals often manifest a deficit of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, combined with increased activity in the subcortex, resulting in an increased propensity for violence. Neurophysiologic disorders may be accompanied by factors reducing the rationality, such as: errors in thinking, habitual use of neutralisation techniques or being lead by the, typical for street culture, perception of justice. All of the above should be taken into account as a part of a multi-aspect analyses of the causes of crime.

  8. The development of the penal system in Serbian criminal law

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    Jakšić Dušan


    Full Text Available The continuous development of the penal system in Serbia is reflected in significant changes within the criminal legislative solutions. The most important legal document of the medieval Serbia, 'Dušan's Code' was characterized by harsh corporal and death punishments taken from the Byzantine law. During the Ottoman period 'Dušan's Code' was no longer in use, and with the beginning of the First Serbian Uprising, the adoption of individual legislations began. The Criminal Code of the Principality of Serbia, adopted in 1860, introduced a novelty of major and minor penalties, including, most importantly, several types of detention. The Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was adopted in 1929 and it predicted different types of sanctions other than fines. The main feature of the Criminal Code of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was permanent abolition of the corporal punishment. After the Second World War, the newly formed government adopted new criminal codes and new forms of punishment, which remained unchanged from the Novel in 1959 up until the dissolution of the SFRY. Contemporary criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia is characterized by the abolition of the death penalty, seizure of property and the introduction of new penalties, which should, instead of short prison sentences, serve as an alternative. Throughout its statehood, from the Middle Ages up until today, Serbia has always had a continuity of the penal system development parallel with its development, primarily in Europe.

  9. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan


    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in

  10. Androgyny, Ego Development and Psychosocial Crisis Resolution. (United States)

    Prager, Karen J.; Bailey, John M.

    The present study examined the relationship of psychological androgyny with ego development in the context of Loevinger's theory, and with psychosocial crisis resolution from the perspective of Erikson's theory. A sample of 30 male and 30 female adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Washington University Sentence Completion Test and the…



    Santoso Santoso


    Development of national criminal law has long been a study and discussion for academics, practitioners and law enforcement in Indonesia. Development or renewal of criminal law would become ideals of the nation to realize laws for all society, because the Criminal Code at this time is considered not answer legal issues in Indonesia, in particular recent developments tends to evoke dissatisfaction of society in law enforcement. Renewal and development of criminal law can not be done on an ad-ho...

  12. Psychosocial and psychosexual aspects of disorders of sex development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.


    Psychosocial aspects of the treatment of disorders of sex development (DSDs) concern gender assignment, information management and communication, timing of medical interventions, consequences of surgery, and sexuality. Although outcome is often satisfactory, a variety of medical and psychosocial

  13. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood. (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph


    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.

  14. Do psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predict mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial, including criminal outcomes, over the subsequent 5 years? (United States)

    Hemphälä, Malin; Hodgins, Sheilagh


    To determine whether psychopathic traits assessed in mid-adolescence predicted mental health, psychosocial, and antisocial (including criminal) outcomes 5 years later and would thereby provide advantages over diagnosing conduct disorder (CD). Eighty-six women and 61 men were assessed in mid-adolescence when they first contacted a clinic for substance misuse and were reassessed 5 years later. Assessments in adolescence include the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), and depending on their age, either the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children or the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID). Assessments in early adulthood included the SCID, self-reports of psychosocial functioning, aggressive behaviour, and criminality and official criminal records. The antisocial facet score positively predicted the number of anxiety symptoms and likelihood of receiving treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). Lifestyle and antisocial facet scores negatively predicted Global Assessment of Functioning scores. By contrast, the interpersonal score and male sex independently and positively predicted the number of months worked or studied, as did the interaction of Lifestyle × Sex indicating that among men, but not women, an increase in lifestyle facet score was associated with less time worked or studied. Interpersonal and antisocial scores positively predicted school drop-out. Antisocial facet scores predicted the number of symptoms of antisocial personality disorder, alcohol and SUDs, and violent and nonviolent criminality but much more strongly among males than females. Predictions from numbers of CD symptoms were similar. Psychopathic traits among adolescents who misuse substances predict an array of outcomes over the subsequent 5 years. Information on the levels of these traits may be useful for planning treatment.

  15. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development. (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.


    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  16. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel


    Today, centres and programmes for the rehabilitation of torture victims are found all over the world. In Nepal, one of the world's poorest countries, the Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) has since 1990 provided advanced psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. These and similar psychosocial i....... On both a discursive and a technical-practical level, the psychosocial therapy offered by the CVICT is trying to make torture victims align their personal desires and freedom with the political objectives of turning Nepal into a liberal democracy....

  17. [Girls detained under civil and criminal law in juvenile detention centres; psychiatric disorders, trauma and psychosocial problems]. (United States)

    Hamerlynck, S M J J; Doreleijers, Th A H; Vermeiren, R R J M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T


    As from 2008, juveniles sentenced under civil law and juveniles sentenced under criminal law can no longer be assigned to the same juvenile detention centres. The reasoning runs as follows: the centres are unlikely to provide adequate treatment for the 'civil' group, and the 'criminal' group may exert a negative influence on the 'civil' group. Hitherto, there has been no research into the question of whether the problems and treatment requirements of girls in the two categories call for detention in the same detention centres or in different ones. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between the two groups of girls with regard to offence history, sociodemographic characteristics, contact with the social services, psychiatric disorders and trauma. Investigation of a representative sample of 211 female minors in three juvenile detention centres using standard instruments. results 82% of the girls were detained under civil law, 18% under criminal law. There were strong similarities between the groups. However, the 'criminal' group more often had a violent history of delinquency and a non-Dutch background, whereas the 'civil' group more often had a background of residential placements, oppositional-defiant disorder, suicidality and self-harm. Girls detained under civil and under criminal law differed in characteristics such as criminal record, but there were striking similarities in the girls' behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. It is argued that assignment to a particular type of detention centre should depend on treatment requirements rather than on measures imposed by civil or criminal law.

  18. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad


    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  19. What can China do to develop International Criminal Law and Justice further from the perspective of the International Criminal Court?

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    Hua Deng


    Full Text Available The Rome Statute, as well as the International Criminal Court (ICC, regarded as a worldwide mechanism for the fight for impunity and a better protection of human rights, has 124 State parties up to date. China, however, is still not a party to the Rome Statute, mainly because of five reasons. This article looks for promoting the academic research on the Rome Statute and the ICC to clarify some confusion, and strengthening the Chinese domestic legislation to make use of the principle of complementary jurisdiction to exclude the jurisdiction of the ICC at largest. It is possible for China to be ready to access to the Rome Statute and take part in the ICC club in the future, which is also a contribution of China to the development of the international criminal law and justice.

  20. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire. (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R


    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  1. [COMETE: a tool to develop psychosocial competences in patient education]. (United States)

    Saugeron, Benoit; Sonnier, Pierre; Marchais, Stéphanie


    This article presents a detailed description of the development and use of the COMETE tool. The COMETE tool is designed to help medical teams identify, develop or evaluate psychosocial skills in patient education and counselling. This tool, designed in the form of a briefcase, proposes methodological activities and cards that assess psychosocial skills during a shared educational assessment, group meetings or during an individual evaluation. This tool is part of a support approach for medical teams caring for patients with chronic diseases.

  2. Developing Scots criminal law: a shift in responsibility?


    Chalmers, James


    Notes that the Scottish courts have made few significant changes to the criminal law system in recent years while the Scottish Parliament has been more active in this area. Comments on how this law reform has mainly been triggered by particular cases or controversies instead of being proactive.

  3. Aspects of psychosocial development in infertile versus fertile men. (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Binaafar, Sima; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad


    Infertility is one of the most difficult life experiences that a couple might encounter. Infertility as a bio-psycho-social phenomenon, could influence all aspects of life. While paying special attention to the psychological aspects of infertility in couples; many studies have investigated the non-clinical aspects of infertility, however, they rarely have evaluated the psychosocial development of infertile versus fertile men. We aimed to study the effects of infertility on psychosocial development in men. In fact, we designed the study based on "Erikson's theory of psychosocial development". We focused on the relationship between psychosocial development and some self-conceived indices. For this purpose, we divided the participants volunteers into two groups of cases (80 infertile men) and controls (40 fertile men) and asked them to complete a 112 (questions questionnaire based on "self description"). The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 13) using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance. A p-value stages (p stages. Infertility as a phenomenon had its own effects on the psychosocial development of infertile men. However, good coping skills are powerful tools to manage these myriad of feelings surrounding infertile men.

  4. Tourist criminality


    Jakovlev, Zlatko; Koteski, Cane; Dimitrov, Nikola


    In this book expert processed chapters on the development of tourism, the conditions for the development of tourism, the definition of tourism, positive and negative effects of tourism, the necessity of defining tourism criminality and its component elements, narrower and wider tourist criminality , theories of crime, the structure of tourism crime, property crime in tourism, forest fires, sexual offenses, other tourist crimes stakeholders of tourism offenses, victims of tourist crime prevent...

  5. Psychosocial and Moral Development of PTSD-Diagnosed Combat Veterans (United States)

    Taylor, John G.; Baker, Stanley B.


    Two related studies were conducted in order to investigate whether psychosocial and moral development appeared to have been disrupted and arrested in veterans diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study 1 was devoted to developing a measure of late adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood stages of psychosocial…



    Natalia Romanova


    New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case), method of conversations with themembers of the...

  7. Taiwanese University Students' Perspectives on Experiential Learning and Psychosocial Development (United States)

    Lin, Yii-Nii; Lai, Pi-Hui; Chiu, Yi-Hsing Claire; Hsieh, Hui-Hsing; Chen, Yueh-Hua


    This study described the relations of experiential learning and psychosocial development of Taiwanese university students through the qualitative method of phenomenology. Thirty-six students, age ranged from 19 to 25 years, from three research-oriented universities in northern Taiwan were interviewed. Seven themes were delineated: (1) discovering…

  8. Bereavement: Applying Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development to College Students. (United States)

    Floerchinger, Debra S.

    One of the developmental challenges that a college student may have to face is the death of a significant other, friend, spouse, relative, child, or parent. This article reviews the literature on the potential effects of bereavement on a college student with respect to Erik Erikson's stage six of psychosocial development (intimacy versus…

  9. Psychosocial Development During Adulthood: Age and Cohort Comparisons. (United States)

    Whitbourne, Susan K.; Waterman, Alan S.

    Ontogenetic personality changes during adulthood were evaluated using the Inventory of Psychosocial Development (IPD) to yield scores corresponding to the first six stages of Erikson's developmental theory. Of the 166 males and 161 females whose undergraduate data from 1966 were available, 76 males and 71 females returned usable data. Analyses of…

  10. The Vocational Goals and Career Development of Criminally Involved Youth: Experiences That Help and Hinder (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.


    Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…


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    They are often burdened with exceedingly great parental expectations particularly ... the life span, Smarts sees human development as: The scientific .... existence which is balance, speed and coordination. Dance: A ... In every work of art especially dance, what makes it more effective is .... The Benefits of Dance. Owerri: Ata ...

  12. Psychosocial well-being in Dutch adults with disorders of sex development

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    de Neve-Enthoven, Nita G M; Callens, Nina; van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H.; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Dessens, Arianne B.


    OBJECTIVE: Atypical sex development is associated with psychosocial vulnerability. We investigated psychosocial well-being in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) and hypothesized that psychosocial well-being was related to degree of genital atypicality at birth. METHODS: 120 male

  13. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  14. Psychosocial factors and shoulder symptom development among workers. (United States)

    Smith, Caroline K; Silverstein, Barbara A; Fan, Z Joyce; Bao, Stephen; Johnson, Peter W


    Shoulder injuries are a common cause of pain and discomfort. Many work-related factors have been associated with the onset of shoulder symptoms. The psychosocial concepts in the demand-control model have been studied in association with musculoskeletal symptoms but with heterogeneous findings. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the psychosocial concepts of the demand-control model and the incidence of shoulder symptoms in a working population. After following 424 subjects for approximately 1 year, 85 incident cases were identified from self-reported data. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the associations between shoulder symptoms and demand-control model quadrants. Cases were more likely to be female and report other upper extremity symptoms at baseline (P determine demand-control quadrants was successful in identifying subjects at risk of developing work-related shoulder symptoms. Research is needed to determine if this relationship holds with clinically diagnosed shoulder and other upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. This may be part of a simple tool for assessing risk of developing these UEMSDs. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Criminal groups and criminal subculture


    Romanova N.M.


    The paper provides a classification of criminal groups, structured by the following parameters: a) operation mode (secret/open), b) law-enforcement and administrative support (presence/absence). We describe four types of criminal groups: a) legitimized criminal organization, b) secret criminal organization engaged in illegal business, c) secret general crime group, and d) general crime group operating openly. The four types differ in the content of criminal subculture. Modern criminal subcult...

  16. Psychosocial implications of disorders of sex development treatment for parents. (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B


    Historically, studies of caregivers of children with disorders of sex development (DSD) have been limited. Recent data reveal that parents of young children with DSD report increased stress, anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life in ways that are similar to parents of children with other types of chronic illnesses. Also similar to other chronic illnesses of childhood, parents of children with DSD exhibit overprotective parenting and perceive their child as being vulnerable. These emotions and behaviors exhibited by parents are concerning as they may limit an affected child's emotional and social development over time. Perhaps, more unique to the situation of DSD is the perceived, or real, child-focused stigma experienced by parents of children with DSD. Interventions to improve parents' psychosocial adaptation to their child's medical condition, including coaching in how to discuss their child's condition in a manner that makes them feel safe and supported, are needed to optimize outcomes for families.

  17. Institutions, Criminal Violence and Interdependence: The Narrow Path of Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

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    Rogelio Madrueño


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the complexities of economic and social change from a global perspective with a focus on Latin American and the Caribbean. The academic literature in this area has emphasized the importance of institutional change as a central factor underlying economic growth over the long term. However the thrust behind this literature has not fully incorporated the relevance of interdependence from a dynamic perspective. Interdependence emphasizes the integral nature of social, economic and institutional transformation over the short, medium and long terms. This article attempts to shed light on central aspects and factors of surrounding crime and development from a multi-dimensional perspective in which the relationship between criminal violence, institutions and interdependence are key factors. An analytical framework is presented in conjunction with an empirical analysis on the impacts of criminal delinquency and criminal violence on the dynamics of economic growth per capita of the global economy, underlining the case of the Latin American and Caribbean region between 1990-2010.

  18. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Mentoring program and Mentees’ psychosocial Development

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    Azman Ismail


    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between mentoring program and mentees’ psychosocial development using self-report questionnaires collected from undergraduate students in teaching based higher learning institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed two important findings: firstly, communication positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. Secondly, support positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. In sum, the result demonstrates that mentoring program does act as an important determinant of mentees’ psychosocial development in the organizational sample. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  19. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students. (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan


    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  20. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.


    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  1. Development and validation of a measure of criminal social identity within a sample of Polish recidivistic prisoners. (United States)

    Boduszek, Daniel; Adamson, Gary; Shevlin, Mark; Hyland, Philip


    Social identity is a well-established theoretical concept within psychological research; however, the role of criminal social identity has received far less research attention. One salient reason for the limited research relating to the concept of criminal social identity is the absence of a specific measure. To develop and test the construct validity of a new measure of criminal social identity (MCSI) and to provide additional evidence relating to Cameron's three-factor conceptualisation of social identity. The eight-item MCSI was used to collect data from recidivists incarcerated in high-security prison (N=312) to assess criminal social identification. These data were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. Three alternative models of criminal social identity were specified and tested in Mplus 6, and results revealed that the data were best explained by a three-factor model of criminal social identity (cognitive centrality, in-group affect and in-group ties). The current study is important in terms of future research in criminology and psychology because the MCSI provides the first reliable MCSI, which was developed and validated on a relatively large recidivistic prison sample. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Psychology and criminal justice


    Adler, Joanna R.


    This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...

  3. Recontextualizing Psychosocial Development in Young Children: A Model of Environmental Identity Development (United States)

    Green, Carie; Kalvaitis, Darius; Worster, Anneliese


    This article presents an Environmental Identity Development model, which considers the progression of young children's self-cognitions in relation to the natural world. We recontextualize four of Erikson's psychosocial stages, in order to consider children's identity development in learning in, about, and for the environment. Beginning with…

  4. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development. (United States)

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla


    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research.

  5. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete. (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.


    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  6. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang


    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  7. From Trust to Intimacy: A New Inventory for Examining Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Doreen A.; And Others


    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI), a self-report questionnaire, is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events. (Author/GK)

  8. Adolescent psychosocial development: A review of longitudinal models and research. (United States)

    Meeus, Wim


    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple developmental domains; (2) heterogeneous continuity of personal relationships; (3) good goes together with good, and bad with bad, across time in adolescence; (4) parents transmit values and behaviors to their adolescent children over time; (5) adolescent psychopathology leads to erosion of personal relationships with parents and peers; (6) adolescent psychopathology prevents adolescent independence from parents; (7) parental interference in personal issues of adolescents has counterproductive effects over time; (8) mood variability and (social and personal) uncertainty are mechanisms that maintain psychopathology in adolescence. Principles of life span developmental psychology are used to discuss adolescent maturation, and a developmental contextual perspective is used to discuss links between the various developmental patterns. Strengths and limitations of the various longitudinal models, and links between longitudinal and experimental research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Psychosocial risks assessment at hospital: development of a French questionnaire. (United States)

    Finger, Vincent; Baumstarck, Karine; Boufercha, Rafika; Lehucher-Michel, Marie Pascale; Loundou, Anderson; Auquier, Pascal; Sari-Minodier, Irene


    In order to improve the well-being, health, and performance of hospital workers, it should be important to focus on the psychosocial risk (PSR) factors in the work environment and on job satisfaction. Although many epidemiological questionnaires are used to measure PSR among healthcare workers, no specific existing model can be applied to all categories of hospital workers. To develop a short French self-administered instrument for measuring the PSR for hospital workers: the PSRH questionnaire. The content of the PSRH questionnaire was partly derived from the well-known and standardized questionnaires (Karasek Job Content and Siegriest effort-reward imbalance questionnaires). The validation process was carried out in all the departments of a large public university hospital (Marseille, France). Eligible workers were adult employees present on the day of the assessment: healthcare, administrative, and technical workers. A total of 2203 subjects were included from September 2012 to October 2013. The PSRH contains 24 items describing 6 dimensions (Management, cooperation and hierarchical support; Requirements, constraints and autonomy related to work; Support and relationship with the team; Complexity of the work and unforeseen factors; Meaning of work and recognition; and Conciliation work - work out). The six-factor structure presented satisfactory internal consistency and scalability. All the scores showed significant correlations with a well-being score. Acceptability was high. The PSRH is a self-administered instrument assessing PSR at hospital that presents satisfactory psychometric properties. Future studies should identify factors that determine low- and high-risk workers in order to implement appropriate preventing strategies.

  10. Money Now, Money Later: Linking Time Discounting and Criminal Convictions in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P; Jennings, Wesley G


    Two prominent criminological theories offer time discounting, or the preference for an immediate reward over a later one, as a central part of understanding involvement in criminal activity. Yet, there exist only a few studies investigating this issue, and they are limited in a few respects. The current study extends prior work in this area by using multiple measures of time discounting collected at three different periods of the life course to examine the link to criminal offending into late middle adulthood in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. Results show that greater time discounting is positively related to a higher number of criminal convictions by late middle adulthood, and this effect remains after controlling for early life-course individual and environmental risk in a multivariate framework. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  11. From trust on intimacy: A new inventory for examining erikson's stages of psychosocial development. (United States)

    Rosenthal, D A; Gurney, R M; Moore, S M


    A new inventory for examining the first six of Erikson's psychosocial stages is described. The self-report questionnaire, developed in a pilot study of 97 adolescents and tested in a study of 622 adolescents, has 12 items for each subscale. Measures of reliability and validity are reported. It is concluded that the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (EPSI) is a useful measure for researchers interested in development from early adolescence and in mapping changes as a function of life events.

  12. The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan H; Kristensen, Tage S


    for development (skill discretion), lower level of meaning of work, more role conflicts, decreased role clarity, reduced sense of community, less social support from colleagues, increased conflicts at work, more threats of violence and more slander and gossip. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial work environment......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elucidate the development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. METHODS: The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys (N1=1062; N2=3517) of randomly selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial...... Questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was described by 19 scales and 6 single items. RESULTS: Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace, less influence (job control), less possibilities...

  13. Sibship-constellation effects on psychosocial development, creativity, and health. (United States)

    Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J; Schubert, D S


    This contribution provides a summary and integration of the abundant research findings culled from over 2000 articles dealing with the effects of sibship variables on child development. The review covers the effects of each of the sibship variables: sibship size, ordinal position, and sibling age spacing with regard to intelligence, achievement, creativity, personality, and health. All descriptions included are based on at least 1 reported research finding. Speculative literature is consistently excluded. Each and all of the sibship variables have effects, from just demonstrable to uncommonly powerful, on intelligence, academic achievement, occupational success, creativity, emotional control, socialization, health, and longevity. Despite the fact that they are derived from variously oriented and designed investigations, the studies reviewed present overall amazingly consistent results. Intelligence and personality traits are powerfully influenced by parental behavior and sibling interaction, particularly during the child's 1st 3 years of life. Yet, both cognitive and conative characteristics lend themselves to improvement by positively altering parental behavior through psychotherapy, or better yet, by widespread open recognition of the importance and the intricacies of child rearing which has been almost totally left to parental whims and folklore The available basic knowledge needs to be used as a foundation for high school and college cources aimed at upgrading child rearing practies. Reseach and clinical evidence strongly and definitely indicate that socially desirable personality traits result from small families in which the children are spaced 3 or more years apart. Both the displaced and displacing child are seriously disturbed by close spacing -- the displaced child showing the greatest disturbance. Early displacement leads to early and persistent cognitive effects on intelligence and psychosocial development. Considering the effects of size of the family

  14. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population. (United States)

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru


    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Cognitive and Emotional Health in Late Life (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.


    Erikson’s (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one’s relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses prospective longitudinal data to examine how the quality of assessed Eriksonian psychosocial development in midlife relates to late-life cognitive and emotional functioning. In particular we were interested to see whether late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e., executive functioning and memory). Participants were 159 men from the over 75 year longitudinal Study of Adult Development. The sample was comprised of men from both higher and lower socio-economic strata. Eriksonian psychosocial development was coded from men’s narrative responses to interviews between the ages of 30–47 (Vaillant and Milofsky, 1980). In late life (ages 75–85) men completed a performance - based neuropsychological assessment measuring global cognitive status, executive functioning, and memory. In addition depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Our results indicated that higher midlife Eriksonian psychosocial development was associated with stronger global cognitive functioning and executive functioning, and lower levels of depression three to four decades later. There was no significant association between Eriksonian development and late-life memory. Late-life depression mediated the relationship between Eriksonian development and both global cognition and executive functioning. All of these results controlled for highest level of education and adolescent intelligence. Findings have important implications for understanding the lasting benefits of psychosocial engagement in mid-adulthood for late-life cognitive and

  16. Psychosocial Development of 5-year-old Children with Hearing Loss: Risks and protective factors (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise


    Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363

  17. Social Networks, Psychosocial Adaptation, and Preventive/Developmental Interventions: The Support Development Workshop. (United States)

    Todd, David M.

    The Support Development Group is an approach which explores and develops a theory for the relationship between network characteristics and notions of psychosocial adaptation. The approach is based on the assumption that teaching people to view their social world in network terms can be helpful to them. The Support Development Workshop is presented…

  18. Psychosocial Determinants of Nutritional Neglect in a Developing Country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisha Mehnaz, A.; Mala, A.; Rai, K.; Arif, F.; Raj, R.; Shah, N.


    Objective: To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. Methodology: All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. Results: A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Conclusion: Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues. (author)

  19. Criminal Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Antonella Andretta


    The article discusses the concepts of both compliance and criminal compliance, its main components and structure as well as the main rules relating to its global application, and finally his emergence in the Ecuadorian legal system.

  20. Development of a psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for Chinese patients with visual impairments. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-jie; Wang, Ai-ping


    To develop a psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for Chinese patients with visual impairments and to examine its reliability and validity. Psychosocial adaptation with disease has been studied, however, there have been few reports on the impact of visual impairment on psychosocial adaptation. An instrument has not been developed to assess psychosocial adaptation with visual impairment specifically for patients in China. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used. A questionnaire was developed based on the concept of psychosocial adaptation with visual impairment. Items for the questionnaire were developed by reviewing the literature and carrying out a semi-structured interview with 12 visually impaired patients. Five ophthalmologists and ten patients evaluated the content validity and face validity of the questionnaire, respectively. The method of convenient sampling was used to select 213 visually impaired patients in the Ophthalmology Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University to participate in the study. Discriminative index and item-total correlation analyses were used to delete items that were lower than a set criterion. Regarding construct validity, factor analysis was performed. The Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Self Acceptance Questionnaire (SAQ) were used to evaluate criterion validity. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used as an index of internal consistency. To evaluate test-retest reliability, 50 patients were re-evaluated after 24 hours. A total of 204 questionnaire items were created. 22 items were deleted by discriminative index and item-total correlation before factor analysis; 38 items were entered into the model for factor analysis. Seven factors were extracted by using principal factor analysis and varimax rotation, with a cumulative contribution of 59·18%. The correlation coefficients between the psychosocial adaptation questionnaire for visual impairment

  1. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients. (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose


    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. How empathy, egocentrism, Kohlberg's moral development, and Erikson's psychosocial development are related to attitudes toward war. (United States)

    Westman, A S; Lewandowski, L M


    In this exploratory study 91 students took a questionnaire which measured their feelings of oneness with all humanity, their egocentrism, level of moral development according to Kohlberg, psychosocial development according to Erikson, and their attitude toward war, diplomacy, the Gulf war, civilians and soldiers in the Gulf area, etc. The hypothesis that empathy with humankind leads to concern about those involved and opposition to war was supported. These individuals were more likely to endorse values expressed in Kohlberg's Level 6. Students endorsing Level 4, law-and-order mortality, especially if they had no friends overseas and used no news source other than the usual U.S. mass media, were more likely to be pro-war, believe President Bush and the military briefings, and opposite reliance on diplomacy. If people had experienced war, they were more frequently against it. However, hardship experienced, lack of egocentrism, believing in a greater good for a greater number of people (Kohlberg's Level 5), and Erikson's psychosocial development were not associated with students' orientation toward war. Further research is suggested.

  3. Relationships between Psychosocial Development and Personality Disorder Symptomatology in Late Adolescents. (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey G.


    Studied the extent to which psychosocial development thorough the first 5 stages of E. H. Erikson's theory of personality development is associated with personality disorder symptoms, using 106 undergraduates. Negative resolutions of stages one through five may predict the presence of personality disorder symptomatology during late adolescence.…

  4. Evaluating Self-Concept and Ego Development within Erikson's Psychosocial Framework: A Formulation. (United States)

    Hamachek, Don E.


    Suggests criteria developed within context of Erikson's first five psychosocial stages that may help in evaluating self-concept and ego development. To assess strengths and weaknesses in self's growth as it progresses through the stages, five behavioral expressions tables are presented, each illustrating possible behaviors and implicit attitudes…

  5. The Learning Disabled Adolescent: Eriksonian Psychosocial Development, Self-Concept, and Delinquent Behavior. (United States)

    Pickar, Daniel B.; Tori, Christopher D.


    Using a developmental perspective, this study contrasted learning and nonlearning disabled adolescents on three variables: Erikson's stages of psychosocial development; self-concept; and delinquent behavior. The results indicated that the learning disabled subjects, due to years of failing, were unable to develop a sense of industry and…

  6. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development? (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.


    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  7. Psychosocial well-being in Dutch adults with disorders of sex development. (United States)

    de Neve-Enthoven, Nita G M; Callens, Nina; van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B


    Atypical sex development is associated with psychosocial vulnerability. We investigated psychosocial well-being in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD) and hypothesized that psychosocial well-being was related to degree of genital atypicality at birth. 120 male (n=16) and female (n=104) persons with DSD, aged 14-60 years, participated in a follow-up audit on psychosocial well-being. They were stratified in: women with 1) 46,XY and female genitalia, 2) 46,XY or 46,XX and atypical genitalia, and 3) men with 46,XY and atypical genitalia. We used the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), Checklist Individual Strength (CIS8R), TNO-AZL Quality of Life questionnaire (TAAQOL), Adult Self-Report (ASR), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Data were compared to reference groups. Participants generally were coping well with DSD (ICQ). Women with DSD reported elevated levels of fatigue (CIS8R) and slightly more attention and memory problems (TAAQOL, ASR). Women with atypical genitalia reported more emotional and behavioral problems. On the ASR Rule-breaking Behavior and Antisocial Personality scales, these women had similar scores as reference men. Women with DSD reported a higher self-esteem (RSES). No differences in psychosocial well-being were found between men with DSD and reference men. Individuals with DSD across all diagnostic groups generally reported a good psychosocial well-being. The results further suggest involvement of prenatal androgens in the development of personality traits related to assertiveness and egocentricity. We recommend that individuals with a DSD and their families are involved in decision-making processes and have access to multidisciplinary care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease in Chinese population. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong


    To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson's disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively.

  9. Development and pilot of an international survey: 'Radiation Therapists and Psychosocial Support'. (United States)

    Elsner, Kelly L; Naehrig, Diana; Halkett, Georgia K B; Dhillon, Haryana M


    Up to one third of radiation therapy patients are reported to have unmet psychosocial needs. Radiation therapists (RTs) have daily contact with patients and can provide daily psychosocial support to reduce patient anxiety, fear and loneliness. However, RTs vary in their values, skills, training, knowledge and involvement in providing psychosocial support. The aims of this study were to: (1) develop an online survey instrument to explore RT values, skills, training and knowledge regarding patient anxiety and psychosocial support, and (2) pilot the instrument with RT professionals to assess content validity, functionality and length. An online cross-sectional survey, titled 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' was developed. Items included patient vignettes, embedded items from RT research, and the Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL5). Four radiation oncology departments volunteered to pilot the survey; each nominated four RT staff to participate. Survey data were analysed descriptively and qualitative feedback grouped and coded to determine whether the survey needed to be refined. Thirteen of sixteen RTs completed the pilot survey and feedback form. Median time to completion was 35 mins, with 54% of respondents stating this was too long. Respondents reported content, questions and response options were relevant and appropriate. Feedback was used to: refine the survey instrument, minimise responder burden and drop out and improve functionality and quality of data collection. This pilot of the 'Radiation therapists and psychosocial support' survey instrument demonstrated content validity and usability. The main survey will be circulated to a representative sample of RTs for completion. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  10. Perceptions of psychosocial hazards, work-related stress and workplace priority risks in developing countries. (United States)

    Kortum, Evelyn; Leka, Stavroula; Cox, Tom


    During the last few decades, major global developments in the world of work include an international trend to shift production to developing countries, with wide variations in working conditions and exposure to traditional and emerging occupational risks, such as psychosocial risks. The latter have rarely been addressed or explored in developing and economically-emerging country contexts while we find an abundant body of research from industrialized countries. The research presented, which is part of a larger study, explored the perception of multi-disciplinary experts from different regions, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), of the nature of psychosocial hazards, and work-related stress, as well as their views on workplace priorities that require urgent attention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 experts from developing countries which were subjected to thematic analysis. A two-tiered Delphi survey was completed by 74 experts in the first round with 53 of these experts completing the survey in the second round. Psychosocial hazards and work-related stress were mostly seen as interchangeable in terms of source and effect and all participants perceived them as concern to their workforce. Through the interviews and the Delphi surveys they allude to our contemporary understanding of psychosocial risks. Workplace risks of priority differed by region but primarily work-related stress, injury and accident prevention, and substance abuse and risk behaviors were reported to require urgent attention. The current lack of awareness and research in the area of psychosocial risks and work-related stress hampers action in developing countries. International experts should support the exchange of information and the development of interventions in workplaces in developing countries with a view to integrating these emerging risks into comprehensive occupational health and safety policy frameworks to make such approaches more effective.

  11. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Late-Life Cognitive and Emotional Health (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.


    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses…

  12. Development and Validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory for Divorced Individuals (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Joseph G.; Faul, Anna C.


    Objective: This study describes the development and validation of the Sorokin Psychosocial Love Inventory (SPSLI) measuring love actions toward a former spouse. Method: Classical measurement theory and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were utilized with an a priori theory and factor model to validate the SPSLI. Results: A 15-item scale…

  13. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.


    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between

  14. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko


    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  15. Erikson's Theory of Psycho-Social Development: The Socialization of Developmental Drama. (United States)

    Woodruff, Marci


    Juxtaposes Erikson's theory of psychosocial development with Goldberg's concept of developmental drama. Suggests that research in this area could (1) strengthen the skills of directors, playwrights, and pedagogues and (2) offer educators and administrators a scientifically valid case for the value of children's theater in the schools. (PD)

  16. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi


    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  17. Psychosocial Influences upon the Workforce and Professional Development Participation of Family Child Care Providers (United States)

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; Wiley, Angela R.; A. Koziol, Natalie; Magerko, Katherine A.


    Background: Family child care is commonly used in the US by families, including by those receiving child care subsidies. Psychosocial influences upon the workforce and professional development participation of family child care providers (FCCPs) have implications for the investment of public dollars that aim to improve quality and stability of…

  18. Changes in psychosocial well-being during stages of gay identity development. (United States)

    Halpin, Sean A; Allen, Michael W


    The current study evaluated the stage theory of Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) developed by Cass (1979), in terms of the relationship between stage of gay identity development and psychosocial well-being. Four hundred twenty-five males (12 to 64 years, M = 29.2) reporting sexual attraction to other men provided demographic information and completed psychosocial measures: the Happiness-Sadness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978), the Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982), and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (Brady & Busse, 1994). Correlation analysis and ANCOVAs controlling for age and nationality demonstrated that the 6 sequential stages of HIF were associated with a U-shaped function for the psychosocial variables. Well-being was high during the initial Confusion and Comparison stages of HIF, was reduced during the middle Tolerance and Acceptance stages, and was again high in the later Pride and Synthesis stages. Each of the psychosocial variables was significantly different according to stage of development (p <.001). Qualitative analysis of subjects' comments also revealed support for the U-shaped pattern.

  19. [The role of psychosocial work factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders in workers]. (United States)

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jedryka-Góral, Anna


    The aim of the study was to determine the role of psychosocial work factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders in workers. It should be stressed that over a decade these disorders have been the subject of studies because of complaints reported not only by workers performing heavy physical work or working in awkward, forced body posture. It has also been acknowledged that stress at work caused by various psychosocial work factors can significantly influence their development. One of the models, most popular nowadays, was used in the study. It takes into account various risk factors in the etiology of cervical spine disorders. Based on this model it was shown that certain psychosocial and cultural variables (e.g., work demands and control, individual variables, individual values, work group's culture) may constitute occupational stressors and, when combined with physical load factors, may lead to stress and musculoskeletal disorders. It was also indicated that such psychosocial work factors as excessive work demands (quantitative or qualitative), inadequate control at work or lack of social support are the most frequent sources of work-related stress. The article presents the results of some prospective studies in which the role of these factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders has been considered. Apart from work properties (factors), the role of other psychological variables was shown; these include: work involvement, perfectionism, negative affectivity or work style, which in numerous studies turned out to be important risk factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Finally, potential mechanisms underlying the relationships between psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal disorders were indicated. However, it was stressed that the majority of them still require to be confirmed in future descriptive or experimental studies.

  20. Association of Maternal Psychosocial Stress With Increased Risk of Asthma Development in Offspring (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Wright, Rosalind J; Røysamb, Espen; Parr, Christine L; Karlstad, Øystein; Page, Christian M; Nafstad, Per; Håberg, Siri E; London, Stephanie J; Nystad, Wenche


    Abstract Prenatal maternal psychosocial stress might influence the development of childhood asthma. Evaluating paternal psychosocial stress and conducting a sibling comparison could provide further insight into the role of unmeasured confounding. We examined the associations of parental psychosocial stress during and after pregnancy with asthma at age 7 years in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 63,626; children born in 2000–2007). Measures of psychosocial stress included lifetime major depressive symptoms, current anxiety/depression symptoms, use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and/or hypnotics, life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work stress, and social support. Childhood asthma was associated with maternal lifetime major depressive symptoms (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.30), in addition to symptoms of anxiety/depression during pregnancy (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.29) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.28). Maternal negative life events during pregnancy (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.13) and 6 months after delivery (aRR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.18) were also associated with asthma. These associations were not replicated when evaluated within sibling groups. There were no associations with paternal psychosocial stress. In conclusion, maternal anxiety/depression and negative life events were associated with offspring asthma, but this might be explained by unmeasured maternal background characteristics that remain stable across deliveries. PMID:29244063

  1. Parenting behaviors, perceptions, and psychosocial risk: impacts on young children's development. (United States)

    Glascoe, Frances Page; Leew, Shirley


    The goal of this study was to assess which parenting behaviors, perceptions, and risk factors were associated with optimal versus delayed development. A total of 382 families from the national Brigance Infant and Toddler Screens standardization and validation study participated. Data sources included parent questionnaires, child testing, and examiner observations of parent-child interactions. Parenting styles research was operationalized with the Brigance Parent-Child Interactions Scale, a brief measure of parenting behaviors and perceptions. Six positive parenting behaviors and perceptions predicted average to above-average development on the Brigance screens. Conversely, parenting behaviors and negative perceptions of children indicated child performance nearly 2 SDs below the mean on Brigance screens. Psychosocial risk factors associated with fewer positive parenting behaviors and with negative perceptions included >3 children in the home, multiple moves, limited English, and parental depression. A dearth of positive parenting behaviors plus negative perceptions of children, with or without psychosocial risk factors, negatively affect child development, which is apparent as early as 6 months of age. The older the child is, the greater the performance gaps are. Language development is particularly at risk when parenting is problematic. Findings underscore the importance of early development promotion with parents, focusing on their talking, playing, and reading with children, and the need for interventions regarding psychosocial risk factors.

  2. Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Vocational Behavior (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H.


    Stage resolution attitudes, derived from the first six stage crises outlined by Erikson, were explored as variables influencing problems in vocational choice and vocational maturity. Findings indicated students who made adjusted vocational choices and developed mature career attitudes had also been more successful resolving the first six…

  3. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability. (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M


    Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother-child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5-47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t 1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t 1 to t 3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t 1-t 3) and social competence (t 3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5-5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence). By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as a mediator in the association between

  4. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.


    Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as

  5. Maternal weight predicts children’s psychosocial development via parenting stress and emotional availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergmann


    Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to

  6. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.


    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc

  7. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.


    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  8. The Impact of Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing Experiences on Adolescent Psychosocial Development


    Huh, Kwisun


    Despite the number of teen pregnancy studies in the past, there is a dearth of empirical data relevant to the issue of psychosocial and/or developmental changes in adolescent mothers. Most previous studies have addressed the negative and devastating impact of teen pregnancy on adolescent development. The premise of these early studies was that adolescents have pathological reasons for becoming pregnant. Contrary to these studies, an underlying assumption of this study was that teen pregnancy ...

  9. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn


    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...... risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Lampusova


    Full Text Available Training is a form of active learning that is aimed at developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes. To improve operational security officers of Internal Affairs Agencies activity, we have schemed out training for the development of communication skills. This paper presents the exercises focusing on the professional communication skills of employees of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Interior development. Eight exercises are described, the main objectives of them are: learning to navigate the feelings of the partner, the ability to change the position of the interlocutor, the formation of the ability to listen to the end and not to interrupt, developing the ability to talk, improving the communicative competence and the development of the ability to accurately convey information.

  11. Psychosocial factors in the development of heart disease in women: current research and future directions. (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Thurston, Rebecca C; Matthews, Karen A


    To review the recent (1995-2009) literature on psychosocial risk and protective factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) among women, including negative emotions, stress, social relationships, and positive psychological factors. Articles for the review were identified using PubMed and bibliographies of relevant articles. Eligible studies included at least 100 women and either focused on a) exclusively female participants or b) both men and women, conducting either gender-stratified analyses or examining interactions with gender. Sixty-seven published reports were identified that examined prospective associations with incident or recurrent CHD. In general, evidence suggests that depression, anxiety disorders, anger suppression, and stress associated with relationships or family responsibilities are associated with elevated CHD risk among women, that supportive social relationships and positive psychological factors may be associated with reduced risk, and that general anxiety, hostility, and work-related stress are less consistently associated with CHD among women relative to men. A growing literature supports the significance of psychosocial factors for the development of CHD among women. Consideration of both traditional psychosocial factors (e.g., depression) and factors that may be especially important for women (e.g., stress associated with responsibilities at home or multiple roles) may improve identification of women at elevated risk as well as the development of effective psychological interventions for women with or at risk for CHD.

  12. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia. (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Khomsan, Ali; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal


    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P education (P = 0.002) and nutritional status based on the height index for age (P = 0.028) had a positive and significant effect on cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R(2), 0.434; P = 0.028).

  13. Using Increases in Criminal Deportees from the US to Estimate the Effect of Crime on Economic Growth and Development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garfield O. Blake


    Full Text Available Previous empirical studies have uncovered little evidence that crime hinders development, possibly due to simultaneity problems. This paper uses the increase in criminal deportees from the US as an instrumental variable to identify the causal effect of crime on economic growth and development. An increase in the number of criminal deportees received by a country is shown to substantially increase that country’s homicide rate. Using panel data for a sample of 30 Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC countries, I show that the increase in crime is becoming a major obstacle to growth and development in the region.

  14. Weight-related stigma is a significant psychosocial stressor in developing countries: Evidence from Guatemala. (United States)

    Hackman, Joseph; Maupin, Jonathan; Brewis, Alexandra A


    Weight-related stigma is established as a major psychosocial stressor and correlate of depression among people living with obesity in high-income countries. Anti-fat beliefs are rapidly globalizing. The goal of the study is to (1) examine how weight-related stigma, enacted as teasing, is evident among women from a lower-income country and (2) test if such weight-related stigma contributes to depressive symptoms. Modeling data for 12,074 reproductive-age women collected in the 2008-2009 Guatemala National Maternal-Infant Health Survey, we demonstrate that weight-related teasing is (1) experienced by those both underweight and overweight, and (2) a significant psychosocial stressor. Effects are comparable to other factors known to influence women's depressive risk in lower-income countries, such as living in poverty, experiencing food insecurity, or suffering sexual/domestic violence. That women's failure to meet local body norms-whether they are overweight or underweight-serves as such a strong source of psychological distress is particularly concerning in settings like Guatemala where high levels of over- and under-nutrition intersect at the household and community level. Current obesity-centric models of weight-related stigma, developed from studies in high-income countries, fail to recognize that being underweight may create similar forms of psychosocial distress in low-income countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential profile and treatment development of drug-addicted patients depending on violent behaviours and/or criminal acts. (United States)

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl


    This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry.

  16. 2016 President's Plenary International Psycho-Oncology Society: challenges and opportunities for growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide. (United States)

    Travado, Luzia; Bultz, Barry D; Ullrich, Andreas; Asuzu, Chioma C; Turner, Jane; Grassi, Luigi; Jacobsen, Paul


    Consistent with the International Psycho-Oncology Society's (IPOS) vision and goals, we are committed to improving quality cancer care and cancer policies through psychosocial care globally. As part of IPOS's mission, upon entering "Official Relations" for a second term with the World Health Organization (WHO), IPOS has dedicated much attention to reaching out to countries, which lack formalized psychosocial care programmes. One of IPOS's strategies to accomplish this goal has been to bring psycho-oncology training programmes to low- and middle-income countries and regions. To this end, the IPOS Board approved a new position on the Board of Directors for a member from a low- to middle-income country (LMIC). The IPOS 2016 President's Plenary focused on challenges and opportunities that exist in growing and developing psychosocial oncology programmes worldwide. The plenary presentations highlight how IPOS and WHO have aligned their goals to help LMICs support cancer patients as an essential element of cancer and palliative care. IPOS country representatives are strongly supported in liaising with national health authorities and with WHO Country Representatives in LMICs. The plenary speakers discussed the role IPOS Federation has taken in building a global network of psychosocial leaders and the impact this had in assisting LMICs in meeting IPOS's psychosocial care objectives. The plenary highlighted the challenges of expanding psychosocial reach into these countries. One significant question remains: Can psychosocial guidelines be adapted to LMICs and regions? Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Understanding the needs of professionals who provide psychosocial care for children and adults with disorders of sex development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessens, Arianne; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme; Kyriakou, Andreas


    Objective: Disorders in sex development (DSD) can be treated well medically, but families will encounter many psychosocial challenges. Promoting counselling to facilitate acceptance and coping is important yet equality of access is unknown. This study investigated the modalities of psychosocial...... care provided in centres of DSD care. Methods: An international survey conducted among 93 providers of psychosocial care, identified through clinical networks, registries and professional forums. Results: Forty-six respondents from 22 different countries filled out the survey (49%). Most respondents...... related confusion about gender (54%), acceptance of cross gender behaviour (50%), anxiety (43%) and sadness and depression (38%). Conclusions: Most psychosocial care is provided to parents. It is assumed that parental support is important as acceptance is conditional to become affectionate caretakers...

  18. Use of Simulated Psychosocial Role-Playing to Enhance Nursing Students' Development of Soft Skills. (United States)

    Liebrecht, Christina; Montenery, Susan


    Effective communication and interaction enable nurses to develop caring, empathetic, and respectful relationships with patients and families. However, most nurses feel a lack of preparation in the "soft" skills of communication, professionalism, and leadership. Nurse managers are seeking graduates with strong emotional quotient characteristics such as self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, empathy, and social skills. Assisting nursing students to develop these intangible, high-level skills presents an ongoing challenge to nurse educators. This creative teaching learning strategy examines the use of psychosocial role-playing skits to enhance nursing student development of the soft skills of nursing. In this strategy, senior level nursing students work in small groups to develop and present realistic 3- to 5-minute skits based on common nurse-patient, nurse-family, or nurse-health care team interactions that incorporate the concepts of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and/or professionalism, followed by a debriefing session. Student feedback suggests that confidence and competence related to the skills of therapeutic communication, interpersonal interaction, empathy, active listening, teamwork, delegation, and professionalism may improve by incorporating soft skill psychosocial role-playing into a nursing education course of study.

  19. Psychosocial factors at work and the development of mobility limitations among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Darsø, Lilie; Manty, Minna


    Aim: Psychosocial factors in the working environment have been shown to be associated with mobility limitations, but this has not yet been confirmed in a Danish population. We aimed to examine how psychosocial factors at work are related to developing mobility limitations in Denmark. Methods......: This study is based on data from 2952 middle-aged men and women without mobility limitations in 2000. Results: We found increased risk of incident mobility limitations during 6-year follow up among men who often perceived high work pace (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.21-24.52) vs. never, who only sometimes or....../never perceived the work to be meaningful (OR 6.54, 95% CI 1.55-27.55) vs. always, and who sometimes perceived high emotional demands at work (OR 7.85, 95% CI 1.78-34.65) vs. never. Among women, lower risk of incident mobility limitations was observed among those who in 2000 perceived high work pace sometimes (OR...

  20. Psychosocial aspects of hereditary cancer (PAHC) questionnaire: development and testing of a screening questionnaire for use in clinical cancer genetics. (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Kluijt, I; Sidharta, G N; Gundy, C; Aaronson, N K


    Up to three-quarters of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling and testing report psychosocial problems specifically related to that setting. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the screening properties of a questionnaire designed to assess specific psychosocial problems related to cancer genetic counseling. We adopted the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Group guidelines to develop the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, a 26-item questionnaire organized into six problem domains: genetics, practical issues, family, living with cancer, emotions, and children. The Distress Thermometer and a question per domain on the perceived need for extra psychosocial services were included as well. We administered the questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale to 127 counselees at the time of genetic counseling and 3 weeks after DNA test disclosure. As a gold standard to evaluate the screening properties of the questionnaire, participants underwent a semi-structured interview with an experienced social worker who assessed the presence and severity of problems per domain. A cutoff score representing responses of 'quite a bit' or 'very much' to one or more items within a given problem domain yielded moderate to high sensitivity across domains. A cutoff of 4 on the Distress Thermometer yielded high sensitivity. The questions regarding the perceived need for extra psychosocial services yielded high specificity and negative predictive values. The Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer questionnaire in combination with the Distress Thermometer can be used as a first-line screener for psychosocial problems within the cancer genetic counseling setting. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Assessment of the impact of psycho-social environment on toddlers' physical and neuropsychic development]. (United States)

    Petrariu, F D; Gavăt, Viorica; Amarandei, Magda Elena


    Psycho-social environment is influencing directly toddler's development, with a major impact in the first three years of life. Family is the first social environment for the infant, and later for toddler, and depending to the quality of this relation will evolve the adult. To assess the impact of psycho-social environment on the toddler's development. We have analyzed by using a questionnaire a number of 200 families, in order to assess their level of environmental risk and to correlate it with the toddlers' development. The highest risk scores were obtained by families who sent the toddler in a foster home, followed by the families who use a day care center, and at last by the families where toddler remains in the family's home till he is 3 years old. 51.66% of the toddlers who goes in a day care center and 85% of the toddlers who are sent to foster home are exposed to a relative risk lower by 2.7 times to be retarded compared to the situation of remaining in the natural home. On the other hand, in family environment with a mild risk there are significant more disharmonic children than in the families with a lower risk score (p = 0.0452). The toddler's chances to evolve, by physical perspective, negatively in institutional environment are significantly higher if he comes from a family with mild risk score than in a family with a lower risk score (p = 0.0157). In every life environment where lives a toddler, confronted with specific problems, should take immediate action the general practitioner, the child development specialist and the environmental health expert, in a coordinate manner, to identify and correct all the aspects who may disturb the normal evolution of the toddler's growth and development.

  2. Pathological gambling and criminality. (United States)

    Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela


    To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.

  3. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child psychosocial development at 6 years of age. (United States)

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Sharma, Andrea J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N


    Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children's health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother-child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children's development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80-11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10-8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09-4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33-2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5-24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child's birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. published in the public domain by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Interdisciplinary care in disorders/differences of sex development (DSD): The psychosocial component of the DSD-Translational research network. (United States)

    Sandberg, David E; Gardner, Melissa; Callens, Nina; Mazur, Tom


    Scientific discovery and clinical management strategies for Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD) have advanced in recent years. The 2006 Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders stated that a mental health component to care is integral to promote positive adaptation, yet the parameters of this element have not been described. The objective of this paper is threefold: to describe the psychosocial screening protocol adopted by the clinical centers of the DSD-Translational Research Network; to summarize psychosocial data collected at 1 of the 10 network sites; and to suggest how systematic behavioral health screenings can be employed to tailor care in DSD that results in better health and quality of life outcomes. Steps taken in developing the largely "noncategorical" screening protocol are described. These preliminary findings suggest that DSD, as one category of pediatric chronic conditions, is not associated with marked disturbances of psychosocial adaptation, either for the family or the child; however, screening frequently uncovered "risk factors" for individual families or patients that can potentially be addressed in the context of ongoing clinical care. Administration of the DSD-TRN psychosocial screening protocol was demonstrated to be feasible in the context of interdisciplinary team care and was acceptable to families on a longitudinal basis. The ultimate value of systematic screening will be demonstrated through a tailoring of psychosocial, medical and surgical services, based on this information that enhances the quality of patient and family-centered care and subsequent outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Pervasive influence of maternal and paternal criminal offending on early childhood development: a population data linkage study. (United States)

    Laurens, K R; Tzoumakis, S; Kariuki, M; Green, M J; Hamde, M; Harris, F; Carr, V J; Dean, K


    Parental criminal offending is an established risk factor for offending among offspring, but little evidence is available indicating the impact of offending on early childhood functioning. We used data from a large Australian population cohort to determine associations between exposure to parental offending and a range of developmental outcomes at age 5 years. Multi-generation data in 66 477 children and their parents from the New South Wales Child Development Study were combined using data linkage. Logistic and multinomial regressions tested associations between any and violent offending histories of parents (fathers, mothers, or both parents) obtained from official records, and multiple measures of early childhood developmental functioning (social, emotional-behavioural, cognitive, communication and physical domains) obtained from the teacher-reported 2009 Australian Early Development Census. Parental offending conferred significantly increased risk of vulnerability on all domains, particularly the cognitive domain. Greater risk magnitudes were observed for offending by both parents and by mothers than by fathers, and for violent than for any offending. For all parental offending exposures, vulnerability on multiple domains (where medium to large effects were observed) was more likely than on a single domain (small to medium effects). Relationships remained significant and of comparable magnitude following adjustment for sociodemographic covariates. The effect of parental offending on early childhood developmental outcomes is pervasive, with the strongest effects on functioning apparent when both parents engage in violent offending. Supporting affected families in early childhood might mitigate both early developmental vulnerability and the propensity for later delinquency among these offspring.

  6. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark


    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  7. Development of a Psychosocial Risk Screener for Siblings of Children With Cancer: Incorporating the Perspectives of Parents. (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Pariseau, Emily M; Muriel, Anna C; Chu, Andrea; Kazak, Anne E; Alderfer, Melissa A


    Although many siblings experience distress after a child's cancer diagnosis, their psychosocial functioning is seldom assessed in clinical oncology settings. One barrier to systematic sibling screening is the lack of a validated, sibling-specific screening instrument. Thus, this study developed sibling-specific screening modules in English and Spanish for the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT), a well-validated screener of family psychosocial risk. A purposive sample of English- and Spanish-speaking parents of children with cancer (N = 29) completed cognitive interviews to provide in-depth feedback on the development of the new PAT sibling modules. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, cleaned, and analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Items were updated iteratively according to participants' feedback. Data collection continued until saturation was reached (i.e., all items were clear and valid). Two sibling modules were developed to assess siblings' psychosocial risk at diagnosis (preexisting risk factors) and several months thereafter (reactions to cancer). Most prior PAT items were retained; however, parents recommended changes to improve screening format (separately assessing each sibling within the family and expanding response options to include "sometimes"), developmental sensitivity (developing or revising items for ages 0-2, 3-4, 5-9, and 10+ years), and content (adding items related to sibling-specific social support, global assessments of sibling risk, emotional/behavioral reactions to cancer, and social ecological factors such as family and school). Psychosocial screening requires sibling-specific screening items that correspond to preexisting risk (at diagnosis) and reactions to cancer (several months after diagnosis). Validated, sibling-specific screeners will facilitate identification of siblings with elevated psychosocial risk.

  8. Psychosocial aspects of nuclear developments: Psychiatric assessments of 100 prospective security inspectors for a nuclear establishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, J.R.


    This presentation has a dual purpose; (1) to encourage studies on psychosocial aspects of nuclear developments; and (2) to report conclusions made by the author during the course of more than 100 recent psychiatric assessments of applicants for security inspector positions at a nuclear establishment. An appreciable proportion of the applicants had prior military or police tactical experience. One conclusion involves the judgment of the applicants in handling a challenging security situation. Without additional training, personality structure as opposed to general knowledge, experience or intelligence may be the dominant factor in determining the use of an appropriate, nonviolent response in a security situation. A second conclusion involves the degree to which the applicants were uninformed about radiation

  9. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels


    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  10. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  11. Criminal Justice in America. (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  12. Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire: development and testing of a screening questionnaire for use in clinical cancer genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; Kluijt, I.; Sidharta, G.N.; Gundy, C.; Aaronson, N.K.


    Background: Up to three-quarters of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling and testing report psychosocial problems specifically related to that setting. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the screening properties of a questionnaire designed to assess specific

  13. Exploring the Use of Web 2.0 Technology to Promote Moral and Psychosocial Development: Can YouTube Work? (United States)

    Koh, Caroline


    This paper explores the use of the video sharing site, YouTube, as a platform for enhancing moral and psychosocial development through increased awareness of moral values and models of moral behavior. The research involved a qualitative design whereby video snippets illustrating moral issues were identified from YouTube. These video snippets were…

  14. Development of Psychosocial Scales for Evaluating the Impact of a Culinary Nutrition Education Program on Cooking and Healthful Eating (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Williams, Joel E.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Griffin, Sara F.


    Objective: Develop scales to assess the impact of the "Cooking with a Chef" program on several psychosocial constructs. Methods: Cross-sectional design in which parents and caregivers were recruited from child care settings (Head Start, faith-based, public elementary schools), and cooks were recruited from church and school kitchens. Analysis…

  15. [Parental socialization styles and psychosocial development in 16 to 19 year old adolescents]. (United States)

    Sepúlveda, G; Almonte, C; Valenzuela, C; Avendaño, A


    To study relationships between perceptions that 16 to 19 year old adolescents have about socialization styles and disciplinary methods used by their parents, with their view of the world, interpersonal relations, moral development, use of psychotropic substances and maladjusted behaviours, 241 adolescents--123 males--which belong to a follow up study on growth and development from northern metropolitan Santiago, Chile, were asked to answer a questionary of psychosocial development, previously elaborated by two of the authors (GS and CA). The most used socialization styles by these fathers and mothers were the negative power one (39.2% and 38.5%) and the inductive one (23.8% and 30.0%), while permissive styles occurred at much lower frequency (1.5% and 1.1%). Coincidence among parents in socialization styles was found in 47.7% and disagreement in 19.2% of cases. The inductive style and coincidence in it's use by both parents, were frequently associated to idealistic world views, autonomous and conventional moral development, satisfactory interpersonal relationships and low frequency of psychotropic consumption, and maladjusted behaviours while negative power based styles by both parents and disagreement of styles among them were rather related to realistic or negative world view, preconventional moral development, higher frequency of relational problems, psychotropic consumption and maladjusted behaviours.

  16. A proposed model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian


    Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Framing in criminal investigation (United States)


    Failures in criminal investigation may lead to wrongful convictions. Insight in the criminal investigation process is needed to understand how these investigative failures may rise and how measures can contribute to the prevention of this kind of failures. Some of the main findings of an empirical study of the criminal investigation process in four cases of major investigations are presented here. This criminal investigation process is analyzed as a process of framing, using Goffman's framing (Goffman, 1975) and interaction theories (Goffman, 1990). It shows that in addition to framing, other substantive and social factors affect the criminal investigation. PMID:29046594

  18. Criminal Trajectories of White-collar Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Onna, J.; van der Geest, V.R.; Huisman, W.; Denkers, A.J.M.


    Objectives:This article analyzes the criminal development and sociodemographic and criminal profile of a sample of prosecuted white-collar offenders. It identifies trajectory groups and describes their profiles based on crime, sociodemographic, and selection offence characteristics.Methods:The

  19. Biological and Psychosocial Processes in the Development of Children’s Appetitive Traits: Insights from Developmental Theory and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine G. Russell


    Full Text Available There has been increasing concern expressed about children’s food intakes and dietary patterns. These are closely linked to children’s appetitive traits (such as disinhibited eating and food fussiness/neophobia. Research has examined both biological and psychosocial correlates or predictors of these traits. There has been less focus on possible processes or mechanisms associated with children’s development of these traits and research that links biological and psychosocial factors. There is an absence of research that links biological and psychosocial factors. In the present article, we outline a model intended to facilitate theory and research on the development of appetitive traits. It is based on scholarship from developmental theory and research and incorporates biological factors such as genetic predispositions and temperament as well as psychosocial factors in terms of parent cognitions, feeding styles and feeding practices. Particular attention is directed to aspects such as emotional eating and feeding, self-regulation of energy intake, and non-shared family environments. We highlight the opportunity for longitudinal research that examines bidirectional, transactional and cascade processes and uses a developmental framework. The model provides a basis for connecting the biological foundations of appetitive traits to system-level analysis in the family. Knowledge generated through the application of the model should lead to more effective prevention and intervention initiatives.

  20. Development of psychosocial case studies by students to improve their ability to understand and analyze human behavior


    Saldaña, Omar; Rodríguez Carballeira, Álvaro; Espelt, Esteve; Jiménez, Yirsa; Porrúa, Clara; Escartín Solanelles, Jordi; Castrechini Trotta, Ángela; Codina, Núria (Codina Mata); Pestana, José Vicente; Vidal i Moranta, Tomeu


    This study presents an active learning methodology based on the development and analysis of case studies by college students and explores its effects on academic performance and on students' capacity of understanding and analysing human behaviour. A group of 54 students who were taking the course Social Psychology at the University of Barcelona developed written stories where psychosocial concepts were represented. Results showed that participants, after developing their own case studies, imp...

  1. Psychosocial Distress of Patients with Psoriasis: Protocol for an Assessment of Care Needs and the Development of a Supportive Intervention. (United States)

    Zill, Jördis Maria; Dirmaier, Jörg; Augustin, Matthias; Dwinger, Sarah; Christalle, Eva; Härter, Martin; Mrowietz, Ulrich


    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease that is often associated with a number of somatic and mental comorbidity. Patients with psoriasis show an increased risk of depression and (social) anxiety. The aims of this study are 1) to explore the psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis and to assess their care needs; and 2) to develop a supportive intervention based on the prior results. A multi-stage design with four phases combining quantitative and qualitative methodology will be used and conducted in two centers. 1) A scoping review and focus groups will be used to design a questionnaire to assess the psychosocial distress and care needs of the patients. 2) The questionnaire developed in phase 1 will be used in a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent of psychosocial distress and supportive care needs in 400 patients with psoriasis. 3) A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted to identify psychosocial and psychoeducational interventions for patients with psoriasis and to describe their effectiveness. 4) Based on the results of the phases 2 and 3 a manualized supportive intervention will be developed and the feasibility and acceptance of the intervention will be assessed. Currently, phase 1 of the project has been completed and the recruitment for phase 2 has been started. The systematic review and meta-analysis of phase 3 are conducted simultaneously to phase 2 and results are expected soon. Phase 4 has not been started yet. The expected results of this study will show the extent of psychosocial distress of patients with psoriasis in Germany and supplement previous research with findings about the supportive care needs of this patient group. Moreover, the developed intervention will help to address the psychosocial support needs of patients with psoriasis. Research shows that psychosocial support is strongly needed. ©Jördis Maria Zill, Jörg Dirmaier, Matthias Augustin, Sarah Dwinger, Eva Christalle, Martin Härter, Ulrich Mrowietz

  2. Adding insult to injury: The development of psychosocial stress in Ontario wind turbine communities. (United States)

    Walker, Chad; Baxter, Jamie; Ouellette, Danielle


    Though historically dismissed as not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) attitudes, reports of psychosocial stress linked to wind energy developments have emerged in Ontario, Canada. While the debate and rhetoric intensify concerning whether wind turbines 'actually' cause 'health' effects, less sincere attention has been given to the lived experience and mental well-being of those near turbines. Drawing on theories of environmental stress, this grounded theory, mixed-method (n = 26 interviews; n = 152 questionnaires) study of two communities in 2011 and 2012 traces how and why some wind turbine community residents suffer substantial changes to quality of life, develop negative perceptions of 'the other' and in some cases, experience intra-community conflict. Policy-related forces, along with existing community relationships may help explain much of these differences between communities. We suggest a move beyond debating simply whether or not 'annoyance' represents a 'health impact' and instead focus on ways to minimize and attenuate these feelings of threat (risk) and stress at the community level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The development of loneliness from mid- to late adolescence: trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning. (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E


    Although loneliness is a common problem across late adolescence, its developmental course has not been investigated in depth in this period of life. The present study aims to fill this gap by means of a five-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study spanning ages 15 to 20 (N = 389). Both variable-centered (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) and person-centered (i.e., latent class growth analysis) approaches were used. Variable-centered analyses showed that loneliness generally decreased over time. Person-centered analyses pointed to considerable inter-individual differences in the development of loneliness, and identified five trajectory classes (i.e., stable low, low increasing, moderate decreasing, high increasing, and chronically high). These five trajectory classes were differentially related to personality traits at age 15 (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and psychosocial functioning at age 20 (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anxiety, and perceived stress). These findings underscore the additional value of studying subgroups regarding the development of loneliness. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Late Onset Criminal Careers (United States)

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P.


    This study explores the emergence of a criminal career in adulthood. The main hypothesis tested is that late criminal onset (at age 21 or later) is influenced by early factors that delay antisocial manifestations. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) was used to examine early determinants of criminal behavior. 400 Inner London…

  5. Development of a prenatal psychosocial screening tool for post-partum depression and anxiety. (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila; Wall, Jennifer; Forbes, Kaitlin; Kingston, Dawn; Kehler, Heather; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne


    Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of pregnancy in developed countries, affecting 10-15% of new mothers. There has been a shift in thinking less in terms of PPD per se to a broader consideration of poor mental health, including anxiety after giving birth. Some risk factors for poor mental health in the post-partum period can be identified prenatally; however prenatal screening tools developed to date have had poor sensitivity and specificity. The objective of this study was to develop a screening tool that identifies women at risk of distress, operationalized by elevated symptoms of depression and anxiety in the post-partum period using information collected in the prenatal period. Using data from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women living in Calgary, Alberta (N = 1578), we developed an integer score-based prediction rule for the prevalence of PPD, as defined as scoring 10 or higher on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-months postpartum. The best fit model included known risk factors for PPD: depression and stress in late pregnancy, history of abuse, and poor relationship quality with partner. Comparison of the screening tool with the EPDS in late pregnancy showed that our tool had significantly better performance for sensitivity. Further validation of our tool was seen in its utility for identifying elevated symptoms of postpartum anxiety. This research heeds the call for further development and validation work using psychosocial factors identified prenatally for identifying poor mental health in the post-partum period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning. (United States)

    Meca, Alan; Sabet, Raha F; Farrelly, Colleen M; Benitez, Cynthia G; Schwartz, Seth J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Unger, Jennifer B; Zamboanga, Byron L; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Picariello, Simona; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Soto, Daniel W; Pattarroyo, Monica; Villamar, Juan A; Lizzi, Karina M


    This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. The sample consisted of 302 recent (identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions. (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail


    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (α's=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions.

  8. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong. (United States)

    Lo, T Wing


    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  9. [Psychosocial disintegration]. (United States)

    Köhler, S


    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  10. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra


    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  11. Criminal Justice Transitions


    McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan


    This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...

  12. Criminal aspects domestic violence


    Smetanová, Kristina


    Smetanová, Kristina. Criminal aspects of domestic violence The topic of this thesis is the criminal aspects of domestic violence. The aim of the thesis is to describe this dangerous and complicated social problem and focus on outlining the possibilities of protection under Czech criminal law. The thesis consists of eight chapters. The first chapter explains what the domestic violence is and which sources, types and characters does it have.The second chapter shows who can be the violent person...

  13. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D


    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  14. Psychosocial Adaptation of Fathers of Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Normal Development. (United States)

    Rodrigue, James R.; And Others


    This study compared fathers of 20 autistic, 20 Down's syndrome, and 20 developmentally normal children on measures of psychosocial adaptation. Groups differed on measures of intrapersonal and family functioning but not on social-ecological variables. There were few differences between fathers of children with autism and those of children with…

  15. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Participatory Design of Psychosocial and Physical Learning Environments (United States)

    Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha


    The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…

  16. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.


    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for

  17. Addressing the psychosocial and communication challenges posed by radiological/nuclear terrorism: key developments since NCRP Report No. 138. (United States)

    Becker, Steven M


    One of the most innovative aspects of NCRP Report No. 138 (Management of Terrorist Incidents Involving Radioactive Material) was the high priority it accorded to psychosocial and communication issues. While previous discussions of radiological and nuclear terrorism had occasionally referred to these topics, NCRP Report No. 138 was the first report of its kind to recognize the profound challenges posed by these issues and to place them at the heart of preparedness and response efforts. In the years since the report's release, a host of important developments have taken place in relation to psychosocial and communication issues. This paper reviews key changes and advances in five broad areas: (1) training exercises, (2) policy and guidance development, (3) findings on hospital and clinician needs, (4) survey research on public perceptions of radiological terrorism, and (5) risk communication for radiological and nuclear terrorism situations. The article concludes with a discussion of continuing psychosocial and communication challenges, including critical areas needing further attention as the nation moves to meet the threat of terrorism involving radioactive materials.

  18. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Jovašević


    Full Text Available The new juvenile (substantive, procedural and executive criminal law came into force at the beginning of 2006 in the Republic of Serbia.. In this way, by concluding its reform of criminal law, the Republic of Serbia followed the trends of modern criminal policies of other developed European countries (France, Germany, and Croatia. Therefore, in that special, specifi c way, it determined the criminal legal status of juveniles. That specifi city is refl ected in various directions : 1 Lex specialis was brought in – a special Act on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and the criminal legal protection of juveniles when juveniles in their criminal legal position are completely separate from the status of adults as perpetrators of criminal acts, 2 the special authority of district courts is determined for taking action in criminal cases of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts, 3 compulsory specialisation is provided for persons in the criminal judiciary taking part in criminal proceedings for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts ( with previous training and issuing of licences ‘certifi cates’ and 4 besides criminal sanctions, the law has provided for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts the possibility of sentencing specifi c measures sui generis – educational orders ( directions or recommendations – as means of restorative justice by which the commencement or carrying out of legal action is avoided. This paper precisely deals with this new criminal legal position of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and with the new institutions of restorative justice from theoretical, practical and comparative legal aspects.

  20. Quality of life and psycho-social development in children with otitis media with effusion. (United States)

    Bellussi, L; Mandalà, M; Passàli, F M; Passàli, G C; Lauriello, M; Passali, D


    Purpose of this study was to correlate results from a survey on otitis media and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test. This survey investigated prevalence of otitis media (OM) in our territory, influence on development of language and personality and social costs. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory is a suitable test to differentiate state anxiety caused by a specific event [in this case, otitis media with effusion (OME)] from a trait anxiety (anxious personality) in parents and caregivers. The otitis media study was conducted, retrospectively, in two primary public schools in Colle Val D'Elsa (Siena) on 252 children (6-11 years old). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test had been administered to the parents or caregivers of 20 paediatric outpatients (4-12 years, mean 6.8) at the ENT Department of Siena University. The results of the OM survey showed a correlation between OM and difficulties in speech and reading, delayed answering and limited vocabulary. All these problems improved as children grew up. On the other hand, psycho-social development appeared to be more problematic even in the 4th and 5th class, mostly due to persistent attention disturbances. In the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test, 50% of parents or caregivers had a high state-anxiety score and so were mostly concerned with health status of the children. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory results indicated that 50% of parents or caregivers had a high trait-anxiety score and thus had an anxious personality. These findings could be helpful in understanding the real severity of symptoms. The two proposed tests could provide complementary data to evaluate children with OME: the OM survey can be used as a screening test to detect children with non-symptomatic OME, to establish whether delayed language development may be associated with OME, to predict prognosis and children's quality of life as well as social costs of OME; the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory test can be used to reveal a state or a trait

  1. The significance of psychosocial factors of the working environment in the development of sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Miškulin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Sick building syndrome (SBS is a medical condition in which people in a certain buildings suffer from symptoms of illness or feeling unwell. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure of the employees of public institutions from the city of Osijek to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment, to assess whether there is a connection between the exposure to these factors and the incidence of SBS symptoms and to clarify the nature of this connection.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2013 among 178 employees of public institutions in the city of Osijek. An anonymous questionnaire which contained questions relating to demographic data and working status of the participants, their exposure to various harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and occurrence of certain symptoms of SBS among them was used as a research tool.Results: 96.1 % (171/178 of participants were exposed to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment. Employees exposed to those factors more frequently expressed symptoms of SBS. The incidence and the number of symptoms of SBS among employees simultaneously grew with the increase of the number of harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment to which they were exposed.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the exposure to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and the incidence of SBS symptoms, highlighting this issue as a very important subject in the field of occupational medicine and health protection in the workplace.

  2. Development, reliability and validity of the psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease in Chinese population (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Yin, Anchun; Sun, Xiaohong; Liu, Qigui; Song, Guirong; Li, Lianhong


    Objective: To develop psychosocial adaptation scale for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in Chinese population and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods: The items were designed by literature review, expert consultation and semi-structured interview. The methods of corrected item-total correlation, discrimination analysis and exploratory factor analysis were used for items selection. 427 valid scales from PD patients were collected in the study to test the reliability and validity. Results: The scale incorporated six dimensions: anxiety, self-esteem, attitude, self-acceptance, self-efficacy and social support, a total of 32 items. The scale possessed good internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficient was 0.99 and average content validation rate was 0.97. The Hoehn and Yahr stage were correlated with total score of the scale. Conclusions: The psychosocial adaptation scale in this study showed good reliability and validity, it can be used as a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate the psychosocial adaptation of PD objectively and effectively. PMID:26770638

  3. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald


    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents......, and social capital); and (4) Statistical power: acceptable to detect a 20% increased risk in IHD. Eleven new papers met the inclusion criteria 1-3; a total of 44 papers were evaluated regarding inclusion criteria 4. Of 169 statistical analyses, only 10 analyses in 2 papers had acceptable statistical power...... to determine to what extent psychosocial factors at work are risk factors of IHD. There is a need for considering statistical power when planning studies....

  4. Developing of health perception and psychosocial skills in disadventaged students: a school based interventional study from Canakkale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Cevizci


    CONCLUSION: Students with disadvantages gained physical, psychological and social skills (being interactive; sharing, communicating, enterprising features of leadership and social supporting as well as the development of health perception. Two students, who successfully completed these training activities in our study group, were chosen to the project camp. One of these two students, who successfully completed the activities in the project camp and past the final exam was accepted by science trip in the United Kingdom. In conclusion, professional group trainings at early ages may be helpful for developing characteristics of health perception, psychosocial skills, enterprising in disadvantaged students [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 39-48

  5. The development of a gender identity psychosocial clinic: treatment issues, logistical considerations, interdisciplinary cooperation, and future initiatives. (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott F; Spack, Norman P


    Few interdisciplinary treatment programs that tend to the needs of youth with gender nonconforming behaviors, expressions, and identities exist in academic medical centers with formal residency training programs. Despite this, the literature provides evidence that these youth have higher rates of poor psychosocial adjustment and suicide attempts. This article explores the logistical considerations involved in developing a specialized interdisciplinary service to these gender minority youth in accordance with the existing treatment guidelines.Demographic data will be presented and treatment issues will be explored. The impact that a specialized interdisciplinary treatment program has on clinical expansion, research development, education and training, and community outreach initiatives is discussed.

  6. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants. (United States)

    Wong, Cara L; Ching, Teresa Y C; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise


    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study-a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory ( n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents' Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  7. Criminal Attitudes of Ex-Prisoners: the Role of Personality, Anti-Social Friends and Recidivism


    Boduszek, Daniel; McLaughlin, Chris; Hyland, Philip


    Background: Previous research suggests that those who enter prison with a low level of criminal attitudes, tend to acquire more deviant attitudes during their sentence due to persistent contact with criminal others, and moreover, presence of criminal personality may be sufficient to develop criminal attitudes.\\ud Aim: To determine which of the independent variables: age, education level, marital status, number of children, location, recidivism, association with criminal friends, and personali...

  8. Procedural justice, legitimacy beliefs, and moral disengagement in emerging adulthood: Explaining continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development. (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D


    Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 1,142 young adult males (age range = 18 to 20) from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012). Results showed that as predicted, the target pathway (legitimacy → moral disengagement → offending) but none of the control pathways achieved a significant indirect effect. Hence, 1 way legitimacy beliefs reduce future offending and lead to desistance is by inhibiting moral disengagement. Besides the theoretical implications of these results, there is also the suggestion that legitimacy beliefs and moral disengagement should be considered for inclusion in secondary prevention and criminal justice intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Civil & Criminal Penalties (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  10. Dentistry and criminal law. (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N


    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...

  12. Developing and testing an internal audit tool of the psychosocial work environment in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestly Bergh, L.I.; Hinna, S.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss a pilot study for conducting internal psychosocial risk auditing in the oil and gas industry, focusing on offshore units. Psychosocial risk auditing is a proactive method for monitoring the status of psychosocial factors influencing the risk of

  13. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz


    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  14. Euthanasia and criminal law


    Ullrichová, Petra


    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  15. Characterizing Early Psychosocial Functioning of Parents of Children with Moderate to Severe Genital Ambiguity due to Disorders of Sex Development. (United States)

    Suorsa, Kristina I; Mullins, Alexandria J; Tackett, Alayna P; Reyes, Kristy J Scott; Austin, Paul; Baskin, Laurence; Bernabé, Kerlly; Cheng, Earl; Fried, Allyson; Frimberger, Dominic; Galan, Denise; Gonzalez, Lynette; Greenfield, Saul; Kropp, Bradley; Meyer, Sabrina; Meyer, Theresa; Nokoff, Natalie; Palmer, Blake; Poppas, Dix; Paradis, Alethea; Yerkes, Elizabeth; Wisniewski, Amy B; Mullins, Larry L


    We examined the psychosocial characteristics of parents of children with disorders of sex development at early presentation to a disorders of sex development clinic. Parental anxiety, depression, quality of life, illness uncertainty and posttraumatic stress symptoms were assessed. Additionally we evaluated the relationship of assigned child gender to parental outcomes. A total of 51 parents of children with ambiguous or atypical genitalia were recruited from 7 centers specializing in treatment of disorders of sex development. At initial assessment no child had undergone genitoplasty. Parents completed the Cosmetic Appearance Rating Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, SF-36, Parent Perception of Uncertainty Scale and Impact of Event Scale-Revised. A large percentage of parents (54.5%) were dissatisfied with the genital appearance of their child, and a small but significant percentage reported symptoms of anxiety, depression, diminished quality of life, uncertainty and posttraumatic stress. Few gender differences emerged. Although many parents function well, a subset experience significant psychological distress around the time of diagnosis of a disorder of sex development in their child. Early screening to assess the need for psychosocial interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.


    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  17. Developing an African youth psychosocial assessment: an application of item response theory. (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Yang, Frances; Bolton, Paul; Normand, Sharon-Lise


    This study aimed to refine a dimensional scale for measuring psychosocial adjustment in African youth using item response theory (IRT). A 60-item scale derived from qualitative data was administered to 667 war-affected adolescents (55% female). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determined the dimensionality of items based on goodness-of-fit indices. Items with loadings less than 0.4 were dropped. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the scale's dimensionality found under the EFA. Item discrimination and difficulty were estimated using a graded response model for each subscale using weighted least squares means and variances. Predictive validity was examined through correlations between IRT scores (θ) for each subscale and ratings of functional impairment. All models were assessed using goodness-of-fit and comparative fit indices. Fisher's Information curves examined item precision at different underlying ranges of each trait. Original scale items were optimized and reconfigured into an empirically-robust 41-item scale, the African Youth Psychosocial Assessment (AYPA). Refined subscales assess internalizing and externalizing problems, prosocial attitudes/behaviors and somatic complaints without medical cause. The AYPA is a refined dimensional assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in African youth with good psychometric properties. Validation studies in other cultures are recommended. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children. (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu


    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (United States)

    Nikaido, Takuya; Fukuma, Shingo; Wakita, Takafumi; Sekiguchi, Miho; Yabuki, Shoji; Onishi, Yoshihiro; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Konno, Shin-ichi


    Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL) were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was related to each patient’s social and psychological situation. These results suggest that interventions for patients with chronic pain may be personalized to account for each individual’s psychosocial situation. PMID:28814896

  20. Psychosocial development in a Danish population of children with cochlear implants and deaf and hard-of-hearing children. (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper


    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing abilities, and psychosocial difficulties were given to 334 children with hearing loss. Results show that the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties was 3.7 times greater compared with a group of hearing children. In the group of children with additional disabilities, the prevalence was 3 times greater compared with children without additional disabilities. If sign language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance of communication-no matter the modality or degree of hearing loss-for the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired children.

  1. The criminal law responsibility of officials under environmental criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkelbauer, W.


    The legal application of environmental criminal law has attributed to office-bearers of the environmental administration a determining function in the field of criminal protection of legal objects. Criminal law shall prevent the misuse of official authority. In this connection law has to observe the limits of admissible procedure of the administration. (CW) [de

  2. Motive Criminal Procedure Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Вапнярчук


    Full Text Available In the article the need for such a level of mental regulation of behavior of proving motivation. The latter refers to internal motivation conscious entity Criminal Procedure proof, due to specific needs, interests and goals that cause a person to act rishymist. Detailed attention is given to the first two determinants, namely the nature of needs and interests. In particular, analyzes highlighted in the literature variety of needs (physiological, ekzistentsionalni, social, prestige, cognitive, aesthetic and spiritual and the manifestation of some of them in the criminal procedural proof.

  3. Administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhat Akhnafovich Yunusov


    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research of formation and development of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and comparativelegal analysis of this institution as well as the longterm experience in crime investigation to trace the problems and trends of administrative prejudgment and prove the necessity to introduce or to be more precise legalize the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law. Methods the research is based on the general dialectic method of cognition comparative historical formaljuridical methods as well as special and privatelegal methods of research. Results analysis of the main problems and collisions of administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law the doctrine and the practice of implementation of this institution can become the basis for legalization of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and implementing it for the crimes stipulated in the Special part of the Russian Criminal Code if they are of low or middle gravity and committed intentionally those most often occurred. The article studies the institution of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law since 1922 until present. Various researchersrsquo opinions are given for and against returning of this institution. Taking into account the criminological indicators the authors express their own opinion on legalization of the administrative prejudgment. Scientific novelty having abandoned the formal approach to the institution of the administrative prejudgment both in the Russian criminal law and in the foreign laws the authors believe that the criminal personality should be the central factor of the administrative prejudgment legalization. In this context the authors state the direct connection between the personal features of a criminal including their inclination to immoral and illegal behavior and the crime committed by them. Practical value the theoretical conclusions formulated in the research

  4. Criminal aspects of domestic violence


    Váňová, Radka


    Criminal aspects of domestic violence SUMMARY Domestic violence is a serious social concern with high level of latency. The domestic violence victims protection is ensured by legal standarts of Civil, Administrative and Criminal Law and other legal standarts. Criminal Law is one of the important instruments for tackling of serious forms of domestic violence. However Criminal Law is an instrument "ultima ratio" which needs claiming of subsidiarity principal of the crime repression. The purpose...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin


    Full Text Available УДК 343.2A new institute of repressive measures applied outside the criminal liability in criminal law (including as a condition for exemption from criminal liability is forming now in Russian legislation. The author concludes that the provisions of the criminal law on monetary compensation and a court fine should be deleted because of the following reasons. 1 By their nature, and monetary compensation and a court fine, not being a formal punishment (and, therefore, a form of realization of criminal responsibility is a monetary penalty, i.e., penalty-punishment. Moreover, the rules of court fine destination identical rules of criminal sentencing. 2 Quantitatively court fine may exceed the minimum limits of criminal punish-ment in the form of fines. The dimensions of monetary compensation in the order of hours. Pt. 2, Art. 76.1 of the Criminal Code and at all close to the maximum values of fine-punishment. 3 Exemption from criminal liability requires states to refrain from prosecuting the person alleged to have committed a crime, which means that the nonuse of criminal repression. Regulatory standards analyzed, on the other hand, require mandatory use of repression, ie, virtually no exemption from criminal liability does not occur at all. 4 The use of a quasi-penalty in the form of monetary compensation and court fines are not an exemption from criminal responsibility, but on the contrary, the use of criminal repression (of responsibility, and in a simplified manner. 5 Contrary to the requirements of the Constitution and the Criminal Code of criminal repression is applied to persons whose guilt has not been established in the commission of a crime. Thus, in criminal law introduced a presumption of guilt. 6 Customization repression (in fact – of criminal responsibility in the application of the judicial penalty is substantially limited, and the application of monetary compensation is excluded at all, contrary to the requirement that the rough

  6. The role of psychosocial stress at work for the development of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review. (United States)

    Backé, Eva-Maria; Seidler, Andreas; Latza, Ute; Rossnagel, Karin; Schumann, Barbara


    A systematic review was carried out to assess evidence for the association between different models of stress at work, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A literature search was conducted using five databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PSYNDEX and PsycINFO). Inclusion criteria for studies were the following: self-reported stress for individual workplaces, prospective study design and incident disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, high blood pressure). Evaluation, according to the criteria of the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, was done by two readers. In case of disagreement, a third reader was involved. Twenty-six publications were included, describing 40 analyses out of 20 cohorts. The risk estimates for work stress were associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cardiovascular disease in 13 out of the 20 cohorts. Associations were significant for 7 out of 13 cohorts applying the demand-control model, all three cohorts using the effort-reward model and 3 out of 6 cohorts investigating other models. Most significant results came from analyses considering only men. Results for the association between job stress and cardiovascular diseases in women were not clear. Associations were weaker in participants above the age of 55. In accordance with other systematic reviews, this review stresses the importance of psychosocial factors at work in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases. Besides individual measures to manage stress and to cope with demanding work situations, organisational changes at the workplace need to be considered to find options to reduce occupational risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Unemployment and psychosocial outcomes to age 30: A fixed-effects regression analysis. (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F; Horwood, L John


    We aimed to examine the associations between exposure to unemployment and psychosocial outcomes over the period from 16 to 30 years, using data from a well-studied birth cohort. Data were collected over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977, who have been studied to age 30. Assessments of unemployment and psychosocial outcomes (mental health, substance abuse/dependence, criminal offending, adverse life events and life satisfaction) were obtained at ages 18, 21, 25 and 30. Prior to adjustment, an increasing duration of unemployment was associated with significant increases in the risk of all psychosocial outcomes. These associations were adjusted for confounding using conditional, fixed-effects regression techniques. The analyses showed significant (p unemployment and major depression (p = 0.05), alcohol abuse/dependence (p = 0.043), illicit substance abuse/dependence (p = 0.017), property/violent offending (p unemployment. The findings suggested that the association between unemployment and psychosocial outcomes was likely to involve a causal process in which unemployment led to increased risks of adverse psychosocial outcomes. Effect sizes were estimated using attributable risk; exposure to unemployment accounted for between 4.2 and 14.0% (median 10.8%) of the risk of experiencing the significant psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to unemployment had small but pervasive effects on psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  8. Criminal Justice Web Sites. (United States)

    Dodge, Timothy


    Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…

  9. Managing Criminal Investigations. (United States)

    Bloch, Peter B.; Weidman, Donald R.

    The report discusses many ways for police managers to improve the success of their departments' criminal investigation efforts. Management issues addressed include budgeting and allocating resources; improving relationships with the prosecutor; interacting with the public, especially victims and witnesses; improving relationships between…

  10. Development of a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikaido T


    Full Text Available Takuya Nikaido,1 Shingo Fukuma,2,3 Takafumi Wakita,4 Miho Sekiguchi,1 Shoji Yabuki,1 Yoshihiro Onishi,5 Shunichi Fukuhara,2,3 Shin-ichi Konno1 On behalf of the profile scoring system for multilateral assessment of social factors in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain study group 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Healthcare Epidemiology, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine and Public Health, Kyoto, 3Center for Innovative Research for Communities and Clinical Excellence (CIRC2LE, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, 4Department of Sociology, Kansai University, Osaka, 5Institute for Health Outcomes and Process Evaluation Research (iHope International, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: Chronic pain is a manifestation of interactions among physical, psychological, and social conditions, but the latter two, that is, the nonphysical correlates of chronic pain, are only rarely measured. This study aimed to develop a profile scoring system for assessing the psychosocial situation of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. An expert panel chose social and psychological domains considered to be relevant to patients with chronic pain and wrote questions asking about each of those domains. The questionnaire was completed by 252 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Factor analysis was used to select questionnaire items for each domain. Associations and interactions of pain severity and each domain score with pain-related quality of life (PRQOL were examined using linear regression models. Five domains were chosen: work, family, sleep, mental health, and PRQOL. Then, a total of 17 questions were created for the work, family, and sleep domains. Using the likelihood-ratio test, we found significant interactions with PRQOL in four pairs: severity–family, severity–mental, family–sleep, and work–mental. The association between pain severity and PRQOL was

  11. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper


    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  12. Application of the Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory: 25 Years in Review. (United States)

    Darling-Fisher, Cynthia S


    The Modified Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory (MEPSI) is an 80-item, comprehensive measure of psychosocial development based on Erikson's theory with published reliability and validity data. Although designed as a comprehensive measure, some researchers have used individual subscales for specific developmental stages as a measure; however, these subscale reliability scores have not been generally shared. This article reviewed the literature to evaluate the use of the MEPSI: the major research questions, samples/populations studied, and individual subscale and total reliability and validity data. In total, 16 research articles (1990-2011) and 28 Dissertations/Theses (1991-2016) from nursing, social work, psychology, criminal justice, and religious studies met criteria. Results support the MEPSI's global reliability (aggregate scores ranged .89-.99) and validity in terms of consistent patterns of changes observed in the predicted direction. Reliability and validity data for individual subscales were more variable. Limitations of the tool and recommendations for possible revision and future research are addressed.

  13. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub


    Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  14. FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS): development and feasibility of a psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. (United States)

    Salem, Hanin; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Wehner, Peder Skov; Hasle, Henrik; Rosthøj, Steen; Kazak, Anne E; E Bidstrup, Pernille


    We developed and tested the feasibility of a manualized psychosocial intervention, FAMily-Oriented Support (FAMOS), a home-based psychosocial intervention for families of childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the intervention is to support families in adopting healthy strategies to cope with the psychological consequences of childhood cancer. The intervention is now being evaluated in a nationwide randomized controlled trial (RCT). FAMOS is based on principles of family systems therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy, and is delivered in six sessions at home. Families were recruited from all four pediatric oncology departments in Denmark after the end of intensive cancer treatment. We evaluated the feasibility of the intervention and of a RCT design for comparing the intervention with usual care. The evaluation was conducted among families enrolled in the study by tracking procedures and parents' evaluations. A total of 68 families (68 mothers, 60 fathers, 68 children with cancer and 73 siblings) were enrolled, with a participation rate of 62% of families. Fathers were highly represented (88% of families); also families with single parents (12%) and parents with basic education (7-12 years of primary, secondary, and grammar school education) were represented (12%). The dropout rate was 12% of families (all in the control group), and two families did not complete the intervention because of relapse. Evaluation by parents in the intervention group showed overall satisfaction with the format, timing, and content of the intervention. The results indicate that the FAMOS intervention is feasible in terms of recruitment, retention, and acceptability. The effects of the intervention on post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, family functioning, and quality of life will be reported after the nationwide RCT has been completed.

  15. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Tofail, F; Rahman, A; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M


    Young children with severe malnutrition usually have poor mental development. Psychosocial stimulation may reduce their cognitive deficit, but it is not usually provided. The aim of the study was to incorporate stimulation into the routine treatment of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit and evaluate the impact on their growth and development. Time-lagged controlled study. Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) in ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital. Severely malnourished children, aged 6-24 months, admitted to the NRU were enrolled. All received standard nutritional care. A control group of 43 children was studied initially, followed by an intervention group of 54 children. The intervened mothers and children participated in daily group meetings and individual play sessions for 2 weeks in hospital and were visited at home for 6 months. Children's growth was measured and development assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Twenty-seven children were lost to the study. In the remaining children, both groups had similar developmental scores and anthropometry initially. After 6 months, the intervention group had improved more than the controls did by a mean of 6.9 (Pchildren in hospital, followed by home visits for 6 months, was effective in improving children's growth and development and should be an integral part of their treatment.

  16. The role of psychosocial stress in the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders: protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Buscemi, Valentina; Chang, Wei-Ju; Liston, Matthew B; McAuley, James H; Schabrun, Siobhan


    Psychosocial factors play an important role in chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. Although psychosocial stress is likely to contribute to the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain, investigations are limited to work-related stress or examination of specific conditions such as upper limb pain. The purpose of this review is to assess the evidence for an aetiological role of psychological stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted. Electronic databases will be searched using predefined search terms to identify relevant studies. Data will be extracted by two independent reviewers, and disagreement will be resolved by a third reviewer. Only prospective longitudinal studies that assess psychosocial stress at baseline will be included. The population of interest will be inception cohorts or cohorts of people who have not yet developed chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. The primary outcome measure will be the onset of chronic musculoskeletal pain. To our knowledge, this review will be the first to systematically explore the available evidence on the aetiological role of psychosocial stress for the development of chronic musculoskeletal pain disorders. This review has the capacity to inform clinical practice on the importance of an early identification and, consequently, treatment of individuals who present with acute musculoskeletal disorders accompanied by a high level of stress. PROSPERO CRD42017059949.

  17. 'Ballroom itself can either make you or break you' - Black GBT Youths' psychosocial development in the House Ball Community. (United States)

    Telander, Kyle; Hosek, Sybil G; Lemos, Diana; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane


    Social context plays a significant role in adolescent identity development, particularly for youth lacking traditional systems of support. Using ecological and symbolic interactionism perspectives, this study qualitatively explored the psychosocial identity development of Black gay, bisexual, or transgendered youth participating in the House Ball Community (HBC). The HBC is a diverse network of family-like structures called 'houses', as well as a glamorous social outlet via pageant-like 'balls' in which participants compete. A series of focus groups were conducted with youth and leaders from the HBC (n = 37; age range = 17-24). Via cross-case and comparative analyses, specific motivating factors related to entry into and continued involvement in the community were identified. Factors related to entry into the community included lack of safe spaces, opportunities for acceptance, means of subsistence, and allure of the scene. Factors related to continued involvement included resilience and coping skills development, sexual identity acceptance and pride, prevalence of risky behaviour, and risk of exploitation. Discussion of these factors provides insight on how self-constructed, supplementary social contexts may provide both unique supports and risks to members, allowing for more focused and well-informed interventions and policies to enhance healthy development in such communities while mitigating risk.

  18. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children With Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup


    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20 to 50 percent among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires...... disabilities, the prevalence was three times greater compared to children without additional disabilities. If sign-language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance...

  19. Criminal Justice History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Krause


    Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.

  20. 24 CFR 5.859 - When am I specifically authorized to evict other criminals? (United States)


    ... residing on the premises); or (2) Any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to... to evict other criminals? 5.859 Section 5.859 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse...

  1. Prescription Drug Use among College Students: A Test of Criminal Spin Theory (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chun


    Criminal spin theory developed by Ronel intends to provide a more comprehensive explanation of criminal behavior. It includes wide-ranging factors that impact human behavior at an individual, group, and cultural level. According to criminal spin theory, an event or a set of events can impact human emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. With the…

  2. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Maria


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychosocial development of pediatric HIV patients has not been extensively evaluated. The study objectives were to evaluate whether emotional and social functions are differentially associated with HIV-related complications. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted. The case group (n = 20 consisted of vertically infected children with HIV (aged 3-18 years receiving HAART in Greece. Each case was matched with two randomly selected healthy controls from a school-based population. CNS imaging and clinical findings were used to identify patients with HIV-related neuroimaging abnormalities. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale III and Griffiths Mental Abilities Scales were applied to assess cognitive abilities. The age specific Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional adjustment and social skills. The Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare categorical, continuous, and ordinal scores, respectively, of the above scales between groups. Results HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities did not differ from patients with neuroimaging abnormalities with respect to either age at HAART initiation (p = 0.306 or months of HAART treatment (p = 0.964. While HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had similar cognitive development with their healthy peers, patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had lower mean General (p = 0.027 and Practical (p = 0.042 Intelligence Quotient scores. HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of both Abnormal Emotional Symptoms (p = 0.047 and Hyperactivity scores (p = 0.0009. In contrast, HIV patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of presenting with Abnormal Peer Problems (p = 0.033. Conclusions HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities are more likely to experience maladjustment with respect to their emotional and activity spheres

  3. Development of the 3-SET 4P questionnaire for evaluating former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems over time: a pilot study. (United States)

    Akerman, Eva; Fridlund, Bengt; Ersson, Anders; Granberg-Axéll, Anetth


    Current studies reveal a lack of consensus for the evaluation of physical and psychosocial problems after ICU stay and their changes over time. The aim was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a questionnaire for assessing physical and psychosocial problems over time for patients following ICU recovery. Thirty-nine patients completed the questionnaire, 17 were retested. The questionnaire was constructed in three sets: physical problems, psychosocial problems and follow-up care. Face and content validity were tested by nurses, researchers and patients. The questionnaire showed good construct validity in all three sets and had strong factor loadings (explained variance >70%, factor loadings >0.5) for all three sets. There was good concurrent validity compared with the SF 12 (r(s)>0.5). Internal consistency was shown to be reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.85). Stability reliability on retesting was good for the physical and psychosocial sets (r(s)>0.5). The 3-set 4P questionnaire was a first step in developing an instrument for assessment of former ICU patients' problems over time. The sample size was small and thus, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. Tailored and integrated Web-based tools for improving psychosocial outcomes of cancer patients: the DoTTI development framework. (United States)

    Smits, Rochelle; Bryant, Jamie; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Tzelepis, Flora; Henskens, Frans; Paul, Christine; Stevenson, William


    Effective communication with cancer patients and their families about their disease, treatment options, and possible outcomes may improve psychosocial outcomes. However, traditional approaches to providing information to patients, including verbal information and written booklets, have a number of shortcomings centered on their limited ability to meet patient preferences and literacy levels. New-generation Web-based technologies offer an innovative and pragmatic solution for overcoming these limitations by providing a platform for interactive information seeking, information sharing, and user-centered tailoring. The primary goal of this paper is to discuss the advantages of comprehensive and iterative Web-based technologies for health information provision and propose a four-phase framework for the development of Web-based information tools. The proposed framework draws on our experience of constructing a Web-based information tool for hematological cancer patients and their families. The framework is based on principles for the development and evaluation of complex interventions and draws on the Agile methodology of software programming that emphasizes collaboration and iteration throughout the development process. The DoTTI framework provides a model for a comprehensive and iterative approach to the development of Web-based informational tools for patients. The process involves 4 phases of development: (1) Design and development, (2) Testing early iterations, (3) Testing for effectiveness, and (4) Integration and implementation. At each step, stakeholders (including researchers, clinicians, consumers, and programmers) are engaged in consultations to review progress, provide feedback on versions of the Web-based tool, and based on feedback, determine the appropriate next steps in development. This 4-phase framework is evidence-informed and consumer-centered and could be applied widely to develop Web-based programs for a diverse range of diseases.

  5. Men, hearts and minds: developing and piloting culturally specific psychometric tools assessing psychosocial stress and depression in central Australian Aboriginal men. (United States)

    Brown, Alex; Mentha, Ricky; Howard, Michael; Rowley, Kevin; Reilly, Rachel; Paquet, Catherine; O'Dea, Kerin


    The health inequalities experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are well documented but there are few empirical data outlining the burden, consequences, experience and expression of depressive illness. This paper seeks to address the lack of accessible, culturally specific measures of psychosocial stress, depression or quality of life developed for, and validated within, this population. Building on an extensive qualitative phase of research, a psychosocial questionnaire comprising novel and adapted scales was developed and piloted with 189 Aboriginal men across urban and remote settings in central Australia. With a view to refining this tool for future use, its underlying structure was assessed using exploratory factor analysis, and the predictive ability of the emergent psychosocial constructs assessed with respect to depressive symptomatology. The latent structure of the psychosocial questionnaire was conceptually aligned with the components of the a priori model on which the questionnaire was based. Regression modelling indicated that depressive symptoms were driven by a sense of injury and chronic stress and had a non-linear association with socioeconomic position. This represents the first community-based survey of psychosocial stress and depression in Aboriginal men. It provides both knowledge of, and an appropriate process for, the further development of psychometric tools, including quality of life, in this population. Further research with larger and more diverse samples of Aboriginal people is required to refine the measurement of key constructs such as chronic stress, socioeconomic position, social support and connectedness. The further refinement, validation against criterion-based methods and incorporation within primary care services is essential.

  6. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development. (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg


    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  7. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree


    criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  8. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....

  9. Drones in (Slovene) criminal investigation


    Boštjan, Slak


    Unmanned aircrafts, also known as drones, are increasingly used in modern society. Their versatility allows them to be used in a range of different industries, sectors, spheres and activities, including in the area of policing and criminal investigation. In policing, drones are primarily used for the control of state borders, public events and traffic, while their use in criminal investigation is related all from assisting crime scene investigation to tracking suspects or criminal gangs. The ...

  10. The Relation of Exposure to Parental Criminal Activity, Arrest, and Sentencing to Children's Maladjustment (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Wilson, Laura C.


    We examined the psychosocial maladjustment of 32 children with an incarcerated parent from the child's perspective as well as from the perspective of their caregiver. We focused on the relation between the incarcerated parent's report of children's exposure to parental criminal activity, arrest, and sentencing and caregivers' and children's…

  11. Addiction between therapy and criminalization. (United States)

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin


    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  12. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  13. Coping With Diverse Sex Development: Treatment Experiences and Psychosocial Support During Childhood and Adolescence and Adult Well-Being. (United States)

    Schweizer, Katinka; Brunner, Franziska; Gedrose, Benjamin; Handford, Christina; Richter-Appelt, Hertha


    The purpose of this exploratory, retrospective, and correlational study was to examine the relationships between childhood treatment experiences, parental care, and social support, and outcome in adults with different diverse sex development (DSD). The data of 69 participants from an exploratory questionnaire were collected in a retrospective German study. The majority received medical treatment in relation to their DSD during childhood and adolescence. Seventy percent reported having had a best friend and 29% a confidant during childhood. Sixty-one percent showed clinically relevant psychological distress, and 45% reported suicidal thoughts at least at one point in their lives. Quality of parental care and having had a best friend correlated positively with adult outcome, whereas treatment experiences correlated with aspects of impaired adjustment. Social support and DSD-related treatment experiences appear to have an impact on adult well-being. Appropriate psychosocial care including peer-to-peer support should be made available to children with DSD and their families. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Victim-induced criminality. (United States)

    Fooner, M


    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  15. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.


    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  16. [The pedophilic criminal]. (United States)

    Heim, M; Morgner, J


    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome.

  17. Psychosocial development through Masters sport: What can be gained from youth sport models? (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; Stone, Rachael C; Gayman, Amy M


    Although sport participation is encouraged throughout the lifespan, little research has been conducted on the role of sport in development later in life. This qualitative study explored adults' experiences of development within the context of Masters sport. We interviewed 14 adults (nine men and five women) aged 46-61 years involved in Masters sport. Data was interpreted drawing upon frameworks from youth sport (i.e., Personal Assets Framework for Sport; Côté, J., Bruner, M., Strachan, L., Erickson, K., & Fraser-Thomas, J. (2010). Athletes' development and coaching. In J. Lyle & C. Cushion (Eds.), Sport coaching: Professionalism and practice (pp. 63-83). Oxford, UK: Elsevier, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Evans, M. B. (2014). The dynamic process of development through sport. Kinesiologia Slovenica, 20(3), 14-26, Côté, J., Turnnidge, J., & Vieerima, M. (2016). A personal assets approach to youth sport. In K. Green & A. Smith (Eds.), Routledge handbook of youth sport (pp. 243-255). New York, NY: Routledge; 4/5Cs of positive youth development; Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00113; Vierimaa, M., Erickson, K., Côté, J., & Gilbert, W. (2012). Positive youth development: A measurement framework for sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 7(3), 601-614. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.7.3.601), combined with past research on mid-life and older athletes. Six key themes emerged as contributing to adults' personal development through sport: competence and confidence, character, commitment, connection, cognition, and challenge. Masters sport contexts appeared to facilitate changes in assets (i.e., 6Cs) similar to those within youth sport, but assets often held different meanings within the context of later life. Applying frameworks from youth sport and developmental

  18. The Psychosocial Benefits of Oral Storytelling in School: Developing Identity and Empathy through Narrative (United States)

    Hibbin, Rebecca


    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as 'non-instrumental' practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children's education and development, it is…

  19. Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society. (United States)

    Berry, Gordon L.


    Television can be an important medium for the teaching and learning of the developing child. This article explores how social learning theory and the cross-cultural images and portrayals on television might influence the multicultural attitudes, values, and beliefs of children. (Contains 22 references.) (Author)

  20. The Impact of Chronic Illness on Psychosocial Stages of Human Development. (United States)

    Lapham, E. Virginia, Ed.; Shevlin, Kathleen M., Ed.

    This book addresses critical issues regarding the impact of chronic illness and disability on human development. It was written for health care professionals who help chronically ill and disabled persons deal with the psychological and social as well as the biological aspects of their illness or disability. An expanded version of Erik Erikson's…

  1. The psychosocial benefits of oral storytelling in school : developing identity and empathy through narrative


    Hibbin, Rebecca Alison


    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as ‘non-instrumental’ practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children’s education and development, it is under-utilised within Primary Education in the UK. This interview and library-based study explores participant perceptions of oral storytelling in relati...

  2. El impacto de la educación de la justicia criminal en el clima político-socio-económico de naciones de transición y desarrollo/The impact of the education of criminal justice in the socio–economic-politic climate of countries in transition and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Eskridge (Estados Unidos de América


    Full Text Available Se propone que los esfuerzos sean emprendidos para desarrollar los departamentos académicos de la Criminología y justicia criminal dentro de los sistemas educativos más altos de naciones desarrolladas y de transición. Es mi proposición que en tiempo, este plan estratégico reducirá el alcance y la extensión de la corrupción en estas naciones y moverá generalmente el crimen en un contexto más manejable. Esto en cambio rendirá una oportunidad aumentada para tales naciones como asegurar la inversión externa, darse cuenta de la estabilidad económica aumentada, y participar eventualmente en un grado más grande en la economía del mercado global. It is proposed that efforts be undertaken to develop the academic departments of Criminology and criminal justice within educational systems highest of developed nations and transition. It is my proposition that in time, this strategic plan will reduce the scope and extent of corruption in these Nations and generally move the crime in a more manageable context. This will instead pay a chance increased to such Nations as ensuring foreign investment, realizing increased economic stability, and eventually participate in a larger extent in the global market economy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González


    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  4. Hyubris as a factor of individual criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov


    Full Text Available Criminal personality for thousands of years is the object of philosophical research. For philosophical anthropology, in particular, it is important to understand which components of human nature can be regarded as criminal. The term “hubris” that appears in ancient Greek culture, today received its second wind. It is widely used (especially in the West to refer to the human outlook, which provokes too arrogant, defiant behavior, which is a public danger. The term “hubris” is often used in criticism of certain politicians. However, we propose to expand the scope of its application also in other spheres of public life. Іn the history of criminology there are many examples of people with hubris, especially among dangerous criminals. Therefore hubris can be considered as criminogenic factor that requires research and limitations of the society. In another case, there is a situation, by analogy with the term “intoxication of power”, can be called “intoxication of impunity”. This thesis is confirmed by authoritative theories developed in criminology, sociology, psychology too. It is also consistent with some modern philosophical views on the nature of the criminal personality. Analysis of factors that stimulate the emergence and growth of hubris, suggest that most are present in a mass society. It generates anomie (loss of values that щаеут manifests as hubris that can act as criminogenic factor. Therefore, hubris reducing requires changes in the organization of social life.

  5. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  6. Modern Interpretations of the Theory of Criminal Misdemeanor in Administrative Law of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii V. Kirin


    Full Text Available The article examines in historical retrospect the experience and tendencies of parallel development of criminal and administrative responsibility in domestic jurisprudence and legislation from the 19th century to the present day. The Authors criticize the attempts to return administrative offenses to a three-tier system of criminal delicts on the basis of the concept of the Criminal Code of 1903. It is condemned not so much as an attempt to “reanimate” criminal misdemeanor by representatives of criminal law science, but similar attacks on the independent species status of administrative responsibility on the part of individual colleagues-administrativists

  7. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials. (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth


    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  8. Drug Use and Criminal Behavior (United States)

    Fink, Ludwig; Hyatt, Murray P.


    An overview of addiction and crime is presented. Crimes of violence and sex crimes are contrasted with non-violent criminal behavior when drug-connected. It is suggested that alternative methods of dealing with drug abuse and criminal behavior be explored, and that several previously discarded methods be re-examined. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vislava Globelnik Velikonja


    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to find whether children conceived through ICSI and their families differ from the children conceived in normally fertile families. Methods. The study group (SG consisted of 41 children aged 3 years conceived through ICSI: 22 boys, 19 girls, 6 pairs of twins, and the control group (CG of 41 children matched for sex, age and twin pairs. Family characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire on family characteristics, conception, pregnancy, labour and delivery, and postpartum period. The children’s development was assessed using the Developmental Čuturić Scale, and the parents filled in the questionnaire from SPP-3 on signs of inadequate child’s adaptation. The mother’s personality was assessed using the BFQ. Differences between the groups were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. Results. Comparison between the SG and CG showed the following statistically significant differences: in the SG mothers were older, the ICSI child was more frequently the only child, the mean duration of infertility treatment was 4 years, in most couples pregnancy occurred by the 3rd ICSI attempt, the family had a better socio-economic status. During the pregnancy, the SG mothers were less ambivalent towards pregnancy and the relationship between the partners improved, after delivery their psychic condition deteriorated, they were more concerned whether their child would develop normally. In the SG parents’ opinion, the quality of life improved after their baby’s birth; they described their children as more demanding and more restless. More ICSI children were cared after by their grand parents than their CG peers that mostly attended kindergarten. The development of all children was normal. Although the sum of signs of inadequate adaptation was comparable between the groups, the ICSI children demonstrated stronger intensity of individual sings. Factor analysis showed very heterogenic latent structure

  10. Psychosocial factors and their role in chronic pain: A brief review of development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Stanley I


    Full Text Available Abstract The belief that pain is a direct result of tissue damage has dominated medical thinking since the mid 20th Century. Several schools of psychological thought proffered linear causal models to explain non-physical pain observations such as phantom limb pain and the effects of placebo interventions. Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area. They are gaining wider acceptance and some aspects are being integrated and implemented into a number of health care systems. The most notable of these is the concept of Yellow Flags. The research to validate the veracity of such programs has not yet been established. In this paper I seek to briefly summarize the development of psychological thought, both past and present, then review current cognitive-behavioural models and the available supporting evidence. I conclude by discussing these factors and identifying those that have been shown to be reliable predictors of chronicity and those that may hold promise for the future.

  11. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality. (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon


    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Academics for International Criminal Justice: The Role of Legal Scholars in Creating and Sustaining a New Legal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Jarle

    The article is a sociological investigation into the crucial role of legal academics in the professional mobilization that characterized the creation and development of international criminal justice. Analyzing the different stages in the evolution of international criminal law culminating...



    Persidskis, Ainārs


    The topic of the paper is the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. The conceptual aggregation of criminal offences is the most difficult type of all multiplicity types of criminal offences. This research paper provides an overview of the conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collision of the Criminal Law norms. In the paper is given analyses of conceptual aggregation of criminal offences separation from collisio...

  14. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.


    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  15. [Developing and testing the effects of a psychosocial intervention on stress response and coping in Korean breast cancer survivors: a pilot study]. (United States)

    Kim, Cho-Ja; Hur, Hea-Kung; Kang, Duck-Hee; Kim, Bo-Hwan


    The purpose of this study was to develop a socioculturally-appropriate psychosocial intervention program for Korean patients with breast cancer and test its effects on stress, anxiety, depression, and coping strategies. One group pretest and posttest design was used to test the effects of the intervention. A post-intervention interview was conducted to refine the nature of the intervention. A convenience sample of 10 breast cancer survivors was recruited from the outpatients clinics. Psychosocial intervention was developed to provide the health education, stress management, coping skill training and support weekly (90 min) for 6 weeks. There was a significant decrease in stress scores following the intervention (Z= -2.388, p=0.017). However, no significant changes were noted in the use of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, nor in the changes of anxiety and depression levels. Content analysis of interview data revealed six clusters; changes in perception, changes in problem solving approaches, changes in anger management, changes in life pattern, social support and reduction of perceived stress. Based on quantitative and qualitative data, we recommend the refinements of the intervention in the following areas for future studies: 1) duration, activities, and progression of psychosocial intervention; 2) research design and sample size; and 3) measurements.

  16. The ability of criminal law to produce gender equality: judicial discourses in the Swedish criminal legal system. (United States)

    Burman, Monica


    The main aim of the Swedish Women's Peace reform in 1998 was to enhance criminal legal protection for women exposed to violence in heterosexual relationships and to promote gender equality. However, these ambitions risk being contravened in a masculinist criminal legal system. One problem concerns how the victim is constructed in criminal legal cases. The author argues that moral balancing and discourses of responsibility and guilt in Swedish cases constrain the agency possible for women and suggest that a more comprehensive policy in Sweden must be developed to include violent men, their agency, and their responsibility for the violence.

  17. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour. (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A


    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  18. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov


    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  19. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz


    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.


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    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  1. Objective Truth Institution in Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltornist O. A.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the category of objective truth in criminal procedure, its importance for correct determination of criminal court procedure aims. The author analyzes also the bill draft offered by the RF Committee of Inquiry “On amending in the RF Criminal Procedure Code due to the implementation ofobjective truth institution in criminal procedure”


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kleymenov


    policy of the various states tends by globalist influence more or less. The desire for sovereignty in every sphere, including criminal justice, results the imposition of sanctions by the globalist structures. Reformist penal policy expresses the loss of a strategic, informed criminological development goals of criminal justice, and, as a rule, corresponds to the group, not the public interest. Experimental criminal policy demonstrates a high rate of development and takes a growing place in the globalist projects with an anti-Russian content.

  3. Criminal Law Study Guide (Revision)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... Correct application of principles of military criminal law. This study guide is the is the primary text for students in the course and may be also useful to practicing judge advocates as a starting point for research...

  4. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending. (United States)

    Bogaert, A F


    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  5. Profiling, Screening and Criminal Recruitment


    Christopher Cotton; Cheng Li


    We model major criminal activity as a game in which a law enforcement officer chooses the rate at which to screen different population groups and a criminal organization (e.g., drug cartel, terrorist cell) chooses the observable characteristics of its recruits. Our model best describes smuggling or terrorism activities at borders, airports and other security checkpoints. When the social costs of crime are high, law enforcement is most-effective when it is unconstrained in its ability to profi...

  6. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion


    Hartmanová, Leona


    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  7. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers? (United States)

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E


    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  8. Relationship between the criminal proceduer setting and the objectives of public prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem O. Gryaznov


    Full Text Available Objective on the basis of the doctrine legislation and practice to make conclusions about the degree of efficiency of such participants in the criminal proceedings as the detective investigator Prosecutor judge and to analyze the observance and implementation of such important principles as adversary equality of the parties and presumption of innocence from the point of view of the thorough study of their practical application. Methods dialectical method analysis synthesis deduction and induction and specific scientific methods of scientific cognition. Results the actual position was determined of the subjects of criminal proceedings from the point of view of feasibility of basic principles of criminal proceedings not in legislative but in practical aspect. Scientific novelty Often the position of criminal proceeding subjects their authority role and status are analyzed from the point of view of legislative norms. It also true for criminal proceedings. In the article an attempt is made to analyze with the new position the relationship of the criminal process setting and the objectives of public prosecution in the modern period of development of criminal procedural science. Practical value the criminal proceedings is an essential element in the aspect of the citizensrsquo rights protection thus it is obvious that the position of the criminal proceedings participants should objective and transparent and the criminal proceedings principles should be implemented. The article shows the problems and proposes was of their solution which are of objective interest. The research results can be applied in practice and taken into account when making changes in the legislation.

  9. Sex Work Criminalization Is Barking Up the Wrong Tree. (United States)

    Vanwesenbeeck, Ine


    There is a notable shift toward more repression and criminalization in sex work policies, in Europe and elsewhere. So-called neo-abolitionism reduces sex work to trafficking, with increased policing and persecution as a result. Punitive "demand reduction" strategies are progressively more popular. These developments call for a review of what we know about the effects of punishing and repressive regimes vis-à-vis sex work. From the evidence presented, sex work repression and criminalization are branded as "waterbed politics" that push and shove sex workers around with an overload of controls and regulations that in the end only make things worse. It is illustrated how criminalization and repression make it less likely that commercial sex is worker-controlled, non-abusive, and non-exploitative. Criminalization is seriously at odds with human rights and public health principles. It is concluded that sex work criminalization is barking up the wrong tree because it is fighting sex instead of crime and it is not offering any solution for the structural conditions that sex work (its ugly sides included) is rooted in. Sex work repression travels a dead-end street and holds no promises whatsoever for a better future. To fight poverty and gendered inequalities, the criminal justice system simply is not the right instrument. The reasons for the persistent stigma on sex work as well as for its present revival are considered.

  10. An inappropriate tool: criminal law and HIV in Asia. (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Dube, Siddharth


    Asian countries have applied criminal sanctions widely in areas directly relevant to national HIV programmes and policies, including criminalization of HIV transmission, sex work, homosexuality and drug injection. This criminalization may impede universal access to HIV prevention and treatment services in Asia and undermine vulnerable people's ability to be part of the HIV response. To review the status of application of criminal law in key HIV-related areas in Asia and analyze its impact. Review of literature and application of human rights norms to analysis of criminal law measures. Criminal laws in the areas considered here and their enforcement, while intended to reduce HIV transmission, are inappropriate and counterproductive with respect to health and human rights. Governments should remove punitive laws that impede the HIV response and should ensure meaningful participation of people living with HIV, people who use illicit drugs, sex workers and men who have sex with men in combating stigma and discrimination and developing rights-centered approaches to HIV.

  11. Psychosocial work characteristics of personal care and service occupations: a process for developing meaningful measures for a multiethnic workforce. (United States)

    Hoppe, Annekatrin; Heaney, Catherine A; Fujishiro, Kaori; Gong, Fang; Baron, Sherry


    Despite their rapid increase in number, workers in personal care and service occupations are underrepresented in research on psychosocial work characteristics and occupational health. Some of the research challenges stem from the high proportion of immigrants in these occupations. Language barriers, low literacy, and cultural differences as well as their nontraditional work setting (i.e., providing service for one person in his/her home) make generic questionnaire measures inadequate for capturing salient aspects of personal care and service work. This study presents strategies for (1) identifying psychosocial work characteristics of home care workers that may affect their occupational safety and health and (2) creating survey measures that overcome barriers posed by language, low literacy, and cultural differences. We pursued these aims in four phases: (Phase 1) Six focus groups to identify the psychosocial work characteristics affecting the home care workers' occupational safety and health; (Phase 2) Selection of questionnaire items (i.e., questions or statements to assess the target construct) and first round of cognitive interviews (n = 30) to refine the items in an iterative process; (Phase 3) Item revision and second round of cognitive interviews (n = 11); (Phase 4) Quantitative pilot test to ensure the scales' reliability and validity across three language groups (English, Spanish, and Chinese; total n = 404). Analysis of the data from each phase informed the nature of subsequent phases. This iterative process ensured that survey measures not only met the reliability and validity criteria across groups, but were also meaningful to home care workers. This complex process is necessary when conducting research with nontraditional and multilingual worker populations.

  12. Behavioral Genetics in Criminal and Civil Courts. (United States)

    Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S

    Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics. We then explore the extent to which behavioral genetic evidence has-and should-affect determinations of criminal responsibility and sentencing, as well as the possible ramifications of introducing such evidence in civil courts, with a focus on tort litigation and child custody disputes. We also consider two ways in which behavioral genetic evidence may come to court in the future-through genetic theft or the subpoena of a litigant's biospecimen data that was previously obtained for clinical or research purposes-and the concerns that these possibilities raise. Finally, we highlight the need for caution and for approaches to prevent the misuse of behavioral genetic evidence in courts.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  14. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov


    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  15. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.


    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  16. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse. (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans


    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  17. Murder in French criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.

  18. Children who face development risks due to maternal addiction during pregnancy require extra medical and psychosocial resources. (United States)

    Rangmar, Jenny; Lilja, Maria; Köhler, Marie; Reuter, Antonia


    This study examined medical and psychosocial risk factors in children born to women with addiction problems during pregnancy and the children's needs for extra medical and psychosocial resources. Swedish midwives routinely screen pregnant women for drugs and alcohol and refer women with addictions to the Maternity and Child Healthcare Resource Team. We investigated the medical records of 127 children (51% girls) whose mothers were referred to the Resource Team from 2009-2015. Additional data were obtained from local child healthcare services (CHS), which provide routine paediatric care. More than three-quarters (76%) of the children had prenatal exposure to alcohol and drugs and 17% were born with withdrawal symptoms. The mothers had a high rate of psychiatric diagnoses (38%) and were more likely to smoke after delivery and less likely to breastfeed than the general population. However, adherence to the CHS programme was generally high. Additional visits to the nurse, referrals to specialists, collaboration meetings and reports of concerns to social services decreased when the children began attending ordinary CHS centres. Children born to women with addictions during pregnancy faced a high risk of developmental problems and should be offered additional CHS resources to minimise negative long-term consequences. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosocial Treatments in Anorexia Nervosa

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    Necati Serkut Bulut


    Full Text Available Despite its severe morbidity and mortality, studies regarding the psychosocial treatments of anorexia nervosa are limited in number. This paper aims to present the general outlines of various psychosocial interventions developed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa and to provide an up-to-date review of the randomized-controlled studies on the effectiveness of these approaches. Reviewed studies were classified by age spectrum of samples under two main headings: adolescents and mixed samples of adults and adolescents. Specific issues about other variables were then discussed separately. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 329-345

  20. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB Care in Nepal.

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    Sudeepa Khanal

    Full Text Available Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25% and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB. While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68, four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011 framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  1. The overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence. (United States)

    Piquero, Alex R; Theobald, Delphine; Farrington, David P


    This article investigates the overlap between offending trajectories, criminal violence, and intimate partner violence (IPV) and the factors associated with these behaviors. Knowledge on these questions is relevant to theory and policy. For the former, this article considers the extent to which specific theories are needed for understanding crime, criminal violence, and/or IPV, whereas for the latter, it may suggest specific offense- and offender-based policies. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development that traces the offending, criminal violence, and IPV of males to age 50. Findings show that there is significant overlap between criminal violence and IPV, high-rate offending trajectories have increased odds of criminal violence and IPV, and early childhood risk factors have no additional effect on criminal violence and IPV in adulthood over and above the offending trajectories.

  2. Comparative review of the investigation and confiscation of criminal assets

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    Lajić Oliver


    Full Text Available In introduction author points to the necessity of adopting the institute of confiscation of criminal assets, supported by international experience, primarily due to the weakness of previously known institute confiscation of the proceeds of crime (for which the offender is being tried, showed in front of the phenomenon of organized crime. In doing so, he analyzes the modalities of confiscation of criminal origin present in modern legal systems and emphasizes the required standard of proof, as one of the key factors of their particularity. The following is a comparative review of the system for investigating and confiscation of criminal assets in Italy, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United States. There are emphasized the normative elements which affect to scope of application of this institute, especially in light of its connection to the criminal proceedings, as well as jurisdiction to realization of the investigation process and procedure of confiscation. In the final part, the author concludes that appropriate social and institutional responses are very important for the effective fight against crime, every time if there is a suspicion about illegally acquired wealth. In doing so, particular attention arouses organized crime, particularly in the light of contemporary global trends, which, unfortunately, significantly affect the possibility of the development of organized crime, and development and/or covering up its financial component. In this sense, the author emphasizes that the basic characteristics of the system for investigation and confiscation of criminal assets connected to the criminal proceedings, which are used in developed European countries and the United States: (1 changed the rules of evidence, which means less convenient role of suspects, (2 the application of this mechanism to a limited number of crimes, which often includes drug trafficking and other serious crimes or organized crime, and

  3. Methamphetamine use and criminal behavior. (United States)

    Gizzi, Michael C; Gerkin, Patrick


    This research seeks to broaden our understanding of methamphetamine's (meth's) place within the study of drugs and crime. Through extensive court records research and interviews with 200 offenders in local jails in western Colorado, this research contributes to the creation of a meth user profile and begins to identify the place of meth in the drug-crime nexus. The study compares the criminal behavior of meth users with other drug users, finding that meth users are more likely than other drug users to be drunk or high at the time of arrest and claim their crimes were related to drug use in other ways. A content analysis of criminal records demonstrates that meth users have more extensive criminal records and are more likely than other drug users to commit property crimes.

  4. Criminal Liability for Human Abduction​

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    Vyacheslav N. Voronin


    Full Text Available The Author considers the quality of the construction of the criminal law provision which is stipulated in article 126 of the Criminal Code of Russian Federation (Kidnapping. The Author signifies some application problems of the concerned article, researches judicial interpretations of the elements of crime characteristics and opinions of contemporary scientists who propose to redraft the article. The Author also analyses the law of Armenia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Latvia. On the basis of the research the Author concludes that a primitive disposition which doesn’t include elements of a criminal conduct doesn’t meet the requirements of legality and legal certainty, and, because of the above-mentioned reason, the Author proposes his own definition of the disposition of kidnapping.

  5. Neurologic disorder and criminal responsibility. (United States)

    Yaffe, Gideon


    Sufferers from neurologic and psychiatric disorders are not uncommonly defendants in criminal trials. This chapter surveys a variety of different ways in which neurologic disorder bears on criminal responsibility. It discusses the way in which a neurologic disorder might bear on the questions of whether or not the defendant acted voluntarily; whether or not he or she was in the mental state that is required for guilt for the crime; and whether or not he or she is deserving of an insanity defense. The discussion demonstrates that a just determination of whether a sufferer from a neurologic disorder is diminished in his or her criminal responsibility for harmful conduct requires equal appreciation of the nature of the relevant disorder and its impact on behavior, on the one hand, and of the legal import of facts about the psychologic mechanisms through which behavior is generated, on the other. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Complicity in International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina


    Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage...... in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form...... or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise....

  7. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model (United States)

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.


    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities. (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.


    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  9. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn


    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  10. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

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    Akeem Olajide Bello


    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  11. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system. (United States)

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge


    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychology and psychosocial practices: narratives and conceptions of psychologists from the psychosocial care centers

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    Thais Thomé Seni da Silva e Oliveira


    Full Text Available The psychosocial care, current care model in mental health in Brazil, emphasizes interdisciplinary, inter-sectoral and territorial actions. This paper aims to present conceptions of psychologists from the Centers for Psychosocial Care of a city on Parana state, about the psychosocial practices developed in their daily actions. Semi-structured individual interviews and group meetings were conducted, using the technique of Operating Group of Pichón-Rivière. The interviews and groups were recorded, transcribed and qualitatively analyzed. Results point the dichotomy between clinical and psychosocial practices in psychology and the professional identity of the participants tied to traditional clinical psychology model. Some psychosocial practices are gradually being recognized by professionals as legitimate practice of psychology, and could be considered amplified clinic in psychology. It is concluded that for the effectiveness of psychosocial practices, it is essential to improve graduation courses and permanent education strategies for mental health professionals.

  13. Developing young person’s Face IT: Online psychosocial support for adolescents struggling with conditions or injuries affecting their appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Williamson


    Full Text Available A participatory action approach with potential users and clinical experts was employed to design and evaluate the acceptability of young person’s Face IT (YP Face IT, an online intervention incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training for adolescents with appearance-related anxiety as a result of a visible difference. Workshops with adolescents and clinicians informed a prototype YP Face IT which underwent a usability analysis by 28 multidisciplinary health professionals and 18 adolescents, before 10 adolescents completed it at home. Acceptability data obtained online and via interview were analysed using content analysis. Participants found YP Face IT acceptable and believed it would provide much needed and easy access to psychosocial support. They requested that it should be made widely available either as a self-management tool requiring minimal supervision from a health professional or to compliment therapist-led care.

  14. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John


    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  15. Relation of criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of non-payment of withholding tax in Serbian criminal law


    Kulić, Mirko; Milošević, Goran


    Countries often resort to tightening of criminal sanctions against those who do not fulfill their tax obligations on time. Instead of more organized undertaking of measures to eliminate the causes of tax crime, Serbia seeks to solve the problem by upgrading the criminal legislation. There are six criminal offences which provide for criminal law protection of public revenues. Among these criminal offences, the central place belongs to the criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of...

  16. Interpreter in Criminal Cases: Allrounders First! (United States)

    Frid, Arthur


    The interpreter in criminal cases generally has had a purely linguistic training with no difference from the education received by his colleague interpreters. The position of interpreters in criminal cases is vague and their role depends to a large extent on individual interpretation of officials involved in the criminal procedure. Improvements on…

  17. Tax penalties : minor criminal charges?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baron, J.; Poelmann, Eric


    In European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 15 November 2016, No. 24130/11 and 29758/11, (A. and B. v. Norway) the Jussila-doctrine was repeated once again. The ECtHR seems to have taken the next step in the discussion whether the criminal-head guarantees of Article 6 ECHR and other fundamental rights

  18. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice. (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.


    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  19. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys]. (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel


    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  20. Formulation of Policy for Cyber Crime in Criminal Law Revision Concept of Bill Book of Criminal Law (A New Penal Code) (United States)

    Soponyono, Eko; Deva Bernadhi, Brav


    Development of national legal systems is aimed to establish the public welfare and the protection of the public. Many attempts has been carried out to renew material criminal law and those efforts results in the formulation of the concept of the draft Law Book of the Law of Criminal Law in the form of concept criminal code draft. The basic ideas in drafting rules and regulation based on the values inside the idology of Pancasila are balance among various norm and rules in society. The design concept of the New Criminal Code Act is anticipatory and proactive to formulate provisions on Crime in Cyberspace and Crime on Information and Electronic Transactions. Several issues compiled in this paper are whether the policy in formulation of cyber crime is embodied in the provisions of the current legislation and what the policies formulation of cyber crime is in the concept of the bill book of law - criminal law recently?.

  1. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective. (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob


    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Criminal Responsibility, Free Will, and Neuroscience (United States)

    Hodgson, David

    This chapter identifies retributive and consequentialist purposes of the criminal law, and it outlines arguments that retribution should be abandoned, in cluding arguments, based on philosophy and neuroscience, that free will and re sponsibility are illusions. The author suggests that there are good reasons to retain retribution, and identifies ways in which this might be supported, including com patibilist and libertarian views of free will. The author gives reasons for preferring libertarian views, and concludes by considering the role that neuroscience may be expected to play in the future development of the law.

  3. Criminal psychological profiling of serial arson crimes. (United States)

    Kocsis, Richard N; Cooksey, Ray W


    The practice of criminal psychological profiling is frequently cited as being applicable to serial arson crimes. Despite this claim, there does not appear to be any empirical research that examines serial arson offence behaviors in the context of profiling. This study seeks to develop an empirical model of serial arsonist behaviors that can be systematically associated with probable offender characteristics. Analysis has produced a model of offence behaviors that identify four discrete behavior patterns, all of which share a constellation of common nondiscriminatory behaviors. The inherent behavioral themes of each of these patterns are explored with discussion of their broader implications for our understanding of serial arson and directions for future research.

  4. Variation in psychosocial influences according to the dimensions and content of children's unusual experiences: potential routes for the development of targeted interventions. (United States)

    Ruffell, Tamatha; Azis, Matilda; Hassanali, Nedah; Ames, Catherine; Browning, Sophie; Bracegirdle, Karen; Corrigall, Richard; Laurens, Kristin R; Hirsch, Colette; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Maddox, Lucy; Jolley, Suzanne


    The psychosocial processes implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis differ according to both the dimensional attributes (conviction, frequency, associated distress, adverse life impact) and the content or type (e.g. grandiosity, hallucinations, paranoia) of the psychotic symptoms experienced. This has informed the development of 'targeted' cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis (CBTp): interventions focusing on specific psychological processes in the context of particular symptom presentations. In adults, larger effect sizes for change in primary outcomes are typically reported in trials of targeted interventions, compared to those for trials of generic CBTp approaches with multiple therapeutic foci. We set out to test the theoretical basis for developing targeted CBTp interventions for young people with distressing psychotic-like, or unusual, experiences (UEs). We investigated variations in the psychosocial processes previously associated with self-reported UE severity (reasoning, negative life events, emotional problems) according to UE dimensional attributes and content/type (using an established five-factor model) in a clinically referred sample of 72 young people aged 8-14 years. Regression analyses revealed associations of conviction and grandiosity with reasoning; of frequency, and hallucinations and paranoia, with negative life events; and of distress/adverse life impact, and paranoia and hallucinations, with emotional problems. We conclude that psychological targets for intervention differ according to particular characteristics of childhood UEs in much the same way as for psychotic symptoms in adults. The development of targeted interventions is therefore indicated, and tailoring therapy according to presentation should further improve clinical outcomes for these young people.

  5. Entering the Forbidden Zone: the World Bank, Criminal Justice Reform and the Political Prohibition Clause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, R.


    Over the past 7 years or so, the World Bank has expanded its rule of law agenda by moving into the area of criminal justice reform. This turn to criminal justice reform, however obvious it may be from a development perspective, was — and still is — a controversial step. This is because the World

  6. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future. (United States)

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  7. The immunity of states and their officials in international criminal law and international human rights law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alebeek, R.


    * Provides an in-depth analysis of case law such as the Pinochet, Jones, Al-Adsani, the Arrest Warrant, and Taylor cases. * The first comprehensive treatment of the subject for both civil and criminal proceedings The development of international human rights law and international criminal law has

  8. Judocas olímpicos Brasileiros: fatores de apoio psicossocial para o desenvolvimento do talento esportivo Olympic judo athletes: psychosocial support elements to sports talent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Massa


    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o judô possua tradição olímpica, pouco se conhece sobre os aspectos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do talento no cenário nacional. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os fatores de apoio psicossocial presentes no desenvolvimento de judocas brasileiros talentosos do sexo masculino. Para tanto, se utilizou uma amostra de seis judocas, pertencentes à seleção brasileira nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas, 2004. A pesquisa foi constituída através de um delineamento qualitativo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista composta por três perguntas abertas. Para a análise dos resultados foi utilizado o "Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo". Os discursos indicaram a importância dos fatores relacionados : a ao apoio da família; b ao prazer pela prática; e c a determinação dos judocas, corroborando com a literatura internacional no que tange a relevância dos fatores psicossociais para o desenvolvimento do talento em diferentes domínios do conhecimento.Although judo is a traditional Olympic Sport in Brazil, little is known regarding the key aspects to develop talents at the national scenario. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychosocial supporting factors that are seen in the development of talented male Brazilian Judo athletes. A sample of 6 athletes that were in the Athens Olympic Games of 2004 was studied. Research was designed on qualitative basis and used a three open questions interview as investigative tool. Results were analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject. Discourses indicated as important, factors related to: a family support; b pleasure in practice; and c athletes determination, reinforcing the international scientific literature regarding the importance of psychosocial factors to talent development in several knowledge domains.

  9. Criminal characteristics of a group of primary criminals diagnosed with aspd: approach to criminal recidivis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Larrotta-Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD is commonly associated with the risk of criminal recidivism. Knowing more about the factors associated with this pattern of behaviour can help with the design of effective prevention strategies. The purpose of this article is to establish if there are differences in socio-criminogenic variables of a group of criminals sentenced for the first time and with APSD compared to another group of first-time offenders who do not present this disorder. Materials and methods: Analytical observation study of 70 men classified into 2 groups according to the presence of ASPD TPA (n=47; age: 29.98±7.8 years or absence of ASPD (n=23; age: 32.35±8.7 years. Results: The inmates with ASPD showed higher frequencies of current consumption of psychoactive substances (31.9%, criminal associations and simultaneous use of psychoactive substances (70.2%, having committed the crime under the effects of a psychoactive substance (55.3%, not having the possibility of distancing themselves from criminal associations (83% and a lack of legal resources for proceedings for defence and release (76.6%. Discussion: This sample contains a group of variables called dynamic that are more commonly present amongst first time offenders with ASPD; said variables have been associated as major predictors of recidivism. Given that they are regarded as dynamic, they may well be modifiable.

  10. The Execution of Criminal Fine Penalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Peneoașu


    Full Text Available This paper aims at dissecting the criminal provisions on criminal enforcement of fines in current Romanian criminal law with the goal of highlighting the new penal policy stated in the larger field of criminal penalties. In the new Criminal Code the fine penalty experience a new regulation, but also a wider scope compared to the Criminal Code from 1968, with an exponential growth of the number of offenses or variations of them, for which a fine may be imposed as a unique punishment, but, especially, as an alternative punishment to imprisonment. Consequently, to ensure the efficiency of this punishment, the effective enforcement manner of the fine takes a new dimension. The study aims both students and academics or practitioners in the making. Furthermore, throughout the approach of this scientific research, new matters that new criminal legislation brings, are emphasized regarding this institution, both in a positive, and especially under a critical manner.

  11. Technical records as material evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani


    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the aid of technical records - recordings (audio, visual or combined audiovisual events and occurrences can be registered in the outside world in detail. The recording enables the creator or anyone who has it in disposal that at any moment of its reproduction, it can be found in detail how the recorded event has happened or how an occurrence seemed at the time of the recording. Among the current formats of technical records are included: photography, filming, magnetic, magnetoscope, and videophone recording etc. (Sahiti & Murati 2016, 295. The possibility provided by the rapid technical development is also of interest to criminal procedure because technical records containing any fact that may be proved in criminal proceedings may serve as a source of knowledge about facts. In other words, they may serve as evidence to establish facts in criminal proceedings. Given the extensive options that technical fact recordings provide, entities that use the aid of various devices from this fi eld, as well as the different purposes of the author of the recording which have led to the case of making the recording, there is a reasonable question of the permission on their use as evidence in criminal proceedings. In Kosovo, the situation is clear in terms of recordings made in the criminal procedure, as Kosovo CCP 1 provides the possibility of photographing, filming, sketching, etc., of the crime scene, audio visual recording etc. examination of persons (defendant, witness, expert or recordings of any action on judicial review.

  12. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior? (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana


    Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers ( n  = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts ( n  = 103, 26.9%) to those with no criminal record ( n  = 279, 73.1%). Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states) and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one's goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.

  13. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Mestre-Bach


    Full Text Available Gambling disorder (GD is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382 and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26.9% to those with no criminal record (n = 279, 73.1%. Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one’s goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols.

  14. Gambling and Impulsivity Traits: A Recipe for Criminal Behavior? (United States)

    Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Talón-Navarro, María Teresa; Cuquerella, Àngel; Baño, Marta; Moragas, Laura; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Vintró-Alcaraz, Cristina; Magaña, Pablo; Menchón, José Manuel; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana


    Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition that was recently recategorized as a non-substance-related addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders. Criminal activity is commonly associated with gambling; however, few empirical studies to date have examined sociodemographic and psychological variables in this population. In this study, we explored criminal behavior history in a sample of consecutively recruited treatment-seeking gamblers (n = 382) and compared subjects with a history of illegal acts (n = 103, 26.9%) to those with no criminal record (n = 279, 73.1%). Impulsivity and personality traits were specifically explored, along with other gambling-related severity factors. We found that gamblers who engaged in illegal activity were more likely to endorse high levels of urgency (i.e., the tendency to act out when experiencing heightened emotional states) and increased lack of premeditation. Gamblers with a history of criminal behavior also had greater GD severity levels and gambling-related debts. Additionally, these gamblers reported lower levels of self-directedness, which is characterized by difficulty in establishing and redirecting behavior toward one’s goals. Likewise, gamblers who had conducted criminal acts showed a tendency to engage in greater risk-taking behavior. These results shed new light on this understudied population and provide insights for developing targeted harm-prevention interventions and treatment protocols. PMID:29434553


    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J


    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders. (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  17. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders. (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica


    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  18. The effect of ostomy surgery between the ages of 6 and 12 years on psychosocial development during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. (United States)

    Erwin-Toth, P


    To investigate the effect of ostomy surgery performed between the ages of 6 and 12 years on psychosocial development during subsequent childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Ethnographic. Six women and 4 men (mean age 30.7 years) who responded to a notice in a chapter newsletter of the United Ostomy Association. Spradley's Ethnographic interview format was used for this study. One interview was conducted with each informant over a 4-week period, and a second, more detailed interview was conducted with 2 subjects who were identified as key informants. The interviews were audiotaped and transcribed, and the transcripts were analyzed to detect shared patterns in the informants' language. The Ethnograph computer software program was used as an aid in analyzing the interview transcripts. The informants' subjective experiences during childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Nine of the 10 informants adjusted well in the first years after surgery. Key factors in good adjustment were support from family and a perception of "normalcy," including managing one's own ostomy care. All informants reported that their ostomy had a negative impact on their lives during adolescence and that they would have appreciated contact with other teens facing the same dilemma. The age at which an informant underwent ostomy surgery did not influence the difficulties reported during adolescence. Ostomy surgery performed between the ages of 6 and 12 years can have long-term effects on psychosocial development. Nurses should promote normalization, teach self-care of the ostomy as soon as possible after surgery, and refer children and parents to mutual support groups as appropriate.

  19. Assessing Psycho-social Barriers to Rehabilitation in Injured Workers with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Development and Item Properties of the Yellow Flag Questionnaire (YFQ). (United States)

    Salathé, Cornelia Rolli; Trippolini, Maurizio Alen; Terribilini, Livio Claudio; Oliveri, Michael; Elfering, Achim


    Purpose To develop a multidimensional scale to asses psychosocial beliefs-the Yellow Flag Questionnaire (YFQ)-aimed at guiding interventions for workers with chronic musculoskeletal (MSK) pain. Methods Phase 1 consisted of item selection based on literature search, item development and expert consensus rounds. In phase 2, items were reduced with calculating a quality-score per item, using structure equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis on data from 666 workers. In phase 3, Cronbach's α, and Pearson correlations coefficients were computed to compare YFQ with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy and the YFQ score based on data from 253 injured workers. Regressions of YFQ total score on disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy were calculated. Results After phase 1, the YFQ included 116 items and 15 domains. Further reductions of items in phase 2 by applying the item quality criteria reduced the total to 48 items. Phase factor analysis with structural equation modeling confirmed 32 items in seven domains: activity, work, emotions, harm & blame, diagnosis beliefs, co-morbidity and control. Cronbach α was 0.91 for the total score, between 0.49 and 0.81 for the 7 distinct scores of each domain, respectively. Correlations between YFQ total score ranged with disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy was .58, .66, .73, -.51, respectively. After controlling for age and gender the YFQ total score explained between R2 27% and R2 53% variance of disability, anxiety, depression and self-efficacy. Conclusions The YFQ, a multidimensional screening scale is recommended for use to assess psychosocial beliefs of workers with chronic MSK pain. Further evaluation of the measurement properties such as the test-retest reliability, responsiveness and prognostic validity is warranted.

  20. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M


    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Developing a community-based psycho-social intervention with older people and third sector workers for anxiety and depression: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Kingstone, Tom; Burroughs, Heather; Bartlam, Bernadette; Ray, Mo; Proctor, Janine; Shepherd, Thomas; Bullock, Peter; Chew-Graham, Carolyn Anne


    One-in-five people in the UK experience anxiety and/or depression in later life. However, anxiety and depression remain poorly detected in older people, particularly in those with chronic physical ill health. In the UK, a stepped care approach, to manage common mental health problems, is advocated which includes service provision from non-statutory organisations (including third/voluntary sector). However, evidence to support such provision, including the most effective interventions, is limited. The qualitative study reported here constitutes the first phase of a feasibility study which aims to assess whether third sector workers can deliver a psychosocial intervention to older people with anxiety and/or depression. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the views of older people and third sector workers about anxiety and depression among older people in order to refine an intervention to be delivered by third sector workers. Semi-structured interviews with participants recruited through purposive sampling from third sector groups in North Staffordshire. Interviews were digitally recorded with consent, transcribed and analysed using principles of constant comparison. Nineteen older people and 9 third sector workers were interviewed. Key themes included: multiple forms of loss, mental health as a personal burden to bear, having courage and providing/receiving encouragement, self-worth and the value of group activities, and tensions in existing service provision, including barriers and gaps. The experience of loss was seen as central to feelings of anxiety and depression among community-dwelling older people. This study contributes to the evidence pointing to the scale and severity of mental health needs for some older people which can arise from multiple forms of loss, and which present a significant challenge to health, social care and third sector services. The findings informed development of a psychosocial intervention and training for third sector

  2. Born criminal? Differences in structural, functional and behavioural lateralization between criminals and noncriminals. (United States)

    Savopoulos, Priscilla; Lindell, Annukka K


    Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour. Although the body of research is presently small, it appears consistent with Lombroso's proposal: criminal psychopaths' brains show atypical structural asymmetries, with reduced right hemisphere grey and white matter volumes, and abnormal interhemispheric connectivity. Functional asymmetries are also atypical, with criminal psychopaths showing a less lateralized cortical response than noncriminals across verbal, visuo-spatial, and emotional tasks. Finally, the incidence of non-right-handedness is higher in criminal than non-criminal populations, consistent with reduced cortical lateralization. Thus despite Lombroso's comparatively primitive and inferential research methods, his conclusion that criminals' lateralization differs from that of noncriminals is borne out by the neuroscientific research. How atypical cortical asymmetries predispose criminal behaviour remains to be determined.

  3. Psychological profile: the problem of modeling the unknown criminal personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. М. Гетьман


    Full Text Available The article investigates the problem of modeling an unknown person in the preparation of criminal psychological profile. Some approaches to the concept of "psychological profile" and "psychological portrait", in particular the proposed delineation of these terms. We consider the system steps in the development of the psychological profile of an unknown perpetrator.

  4. The debate on expanding criminal law towards upper class criminality and minimal criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montáñez-Ruiz


    Full Text Available Hoy en día el debate sobre la pregunta de cuáles conflictos sociales deben ser castigados desde la óptica de la política criminal aún continúa. La batalla para imponer un particular discurso de criminalidad está relacionada con el hecho de que el marco de la criminalización depende del legislador que refleja la expansión punitiva. El propósito de este artículo es discutir sobre la lucha entre modelos de criminalización, los cuales, de una parte, tienden a la aplicación del sistema criminal persiguiendo a la criminalidad de las clases poderosas y, de otra, buscan el criterio de intervención mínima para prevenir la excesiva intervención del derecho penal.

  5. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue


    Purpose Retention of senior employees is a challenge for most developed countries. We aimed to identify psychosocial work environment factors of importance for the retention of older employees by evaluating the association between the psychosocial work environment and voluntary early retirement i...... at the labor market. However, we found no evidence that low demands or good relations between colleagues could influence older employees’ decision on early retirement....

  6. Criminal Psychological Profiling (United States)


    went through on their way to establishing mental health . These stages are the oral, the anal, and the phallic. In each stage, the developing human will... health professionals. These professionals then provided psychological insights, based on the clinical or the academic point of view. The FBI was now...then ordered her to lie face down on the bed. He then pulled down her lower garments and then fondled and masturbated on her bare buttocks. The

  7. Psychopathological features in a sample of substance-abusing individuals with criminal history: Towards a definition of a personality prototype of an 'Addict with Criminal Conduct'. (United States)

    Gori, Alessio; Ponti, Lucia; Tani, Franca; Iraci Sareri, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia; Craparo, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Angelo; Caretti, Vincenzo; Cacioppo, Marco; Paterniti, Rolando; Schuldberg, David


    The relationship between substance use disorders and criminal activity is strong, and one that is not easily resolved in the criminal justice system. A better understanding of personality traits among substance misusers who commit offences could support better treatment efforts. The aim of this study is to explore associations between the psychopathology of people addicted to substances who have also committed crimes. We recruited 263 substance-dependent individuals (80% male, 20% female) from a cohort of people attending regional community services in Italy. They all completed an extensive evaluation of their current mental health and personality traits. Their official criminal records were obtained, and the psychopathology of those who had a criminal record compared with those who did not. The criminal group was more likely to perceive the external world as hostile and to consider others as responsible for their own problems and difficulties; in addition, substance-dependent individuals with criminal records showed more personality traits within the psychopathy range and fewer in the dependent personality range than the substance abusers who had never committed crimes. These findings allow us to hypothesise that substance abusers who also have criminal convictions may have a specific personality profile. If further research were to confirm this, then it could have important implications for identifying people for particular treatment pathways and developing more effective treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology (United States)

    Marcus, Joel


    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  9. The Rise of the Autonomous Cyber Criminal


    Rogers, Marcus


    Are we on the threshold of a new evolution of cyber crime? There has been numerous discussions and SciFi themes that have centered around truly autonomous online criminal behavior. This talk will look at the myths and realities surrounding the potential for automated systems to turn to the "dark side" and become uber cyber criminals, and what if anything we can do to prevent or at least detect this type of criminal behavior.

  10. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán


    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  11. Exploring Race Based Differences in Patterns of Life-Course Criminality (United States)

    Markowitz, Michael W.; Salvatore, Christopher


    A persistent issue facing criminologists is the challenge of developing theoretical models that provide comprehensive explanations of the onset and persistence of criminality. One promising theory to develop over the last 30 years has been life-course theory. Using multivariate analysis of variance the main question posed in this research, do elements of social development shape the trajectory of persistent offending in a race-neutral fashion, or are the dynamics shaping life-course criminality unique for people of color, was examined. The results provide a number of useful insights into the relationship between race, life-course transition factors, and longitudinal patterns of criminality. PMID:23436952

  12. Effects of a community-based approach of food and psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in Bangladesh: a randomised trial. (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hossain, M I; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Persson, L A


    Psychosocial stimulation (PS) and food supplementation (FS) improve development of malnourished children. This study evaluates the effects of a community-based approach of PS and FS on growth and development of severely malnourished children. Severely underweight hospitalised children aged 6-24 months (n = 507) were randomly allocated on discharge to five groups: (i) PS, (ii) FS, (iii) PS+FS, (iv) clinic-control and (v) hospital-control. PS included play sessions and parental counselling on child development. This was done at each fortnightly follow-up visit, that is, every second week, for 6 months at community clinics. FS included distribution of cereal-based food packets (150-300 kcal/day) for 3 months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplementation, health-education and growth monitoring. Children's development was assessed using revised version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedure. Comparing groups with any stimulation with those with no stimulation there was a significant effect of stimulation on children's mental development index (group*session interaction P = 0.037, effect size = 0.37 s.d.) and weight-for-age Z-score (group*session interaction P = 0.02, effect size=0.26 s.d.). Poor levels of development and nutritional status were sustained, however, due to their initial very severe malnutrition. There was no effect on motor development and linear growth. Children receiving any stimulation showed a significant benefit to mental development and growth in weight. More intensive intervention with longer duration is needed to correct their poor developmental levels and nutritional status.

  13. Criminal responsibility and predictability (United States)

    Siccardi, F.


    The Italian Civil Protection has developed a set of technologies and rules for issuing early warnings. The right to be protected from natural disasters is felt intensely by people. The evaluation of the size of the target areas and of the severity of events is subject to inherent uncertainty. Victims in areas and at times where early warnings are not provided for are possible. This causes, not always, but more and more frequently, people complaining in courts against civil protection decision makers. The concept of real time uncertainty and conditional probability is difficult to be understood in courts, where the timeliness and effectiveness of the alert is under judgement. A reflection on scientific and technological capabilities is needed.

  14. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  15. HIV is a virus, not a crime: ten reasons against criminal statutes and criminal prosecutions


    Cameron, Edwin; Burris, Scott; Clayton, Michaela


    Abstract The widespread phenomenon of enacting HIV-specific laws to criminally punish transmission of, exposure to, or non-disclosure of HIV, is counter-active to good public health conceptions and repugnant to elementary human rights principles. The authors provide ten reasons why criminal laws and criminal prosecutions are bad strategy in the epidemic.

  16. Supported exercise improves controlled eating and weight through its effects on psychosocial factors: extending a systematic research program toward treatment development. (United States)

    Annesi, James J


    Behavioral weight-loss treatments have been overwhelmingly unsuccessful. Many inadequately address both behavioral theory and extant research--especially in regard to the lack of viability of simply educating individuals on improved eating and exercise behaviors. The aim was to synthesize research on associations of changes in exercise behaviors, psychosocial factors, eating behaviors, and weight; and then conduct further direct testing to inform the development of an improved treatment approach. A systematic program of health behavior-change research based on social cognitive theory, and extensions of that theory applied to exercise and weight loss, was first reviewed. Then, to extend this research toward treatment development and application, a field-based study of obese adults was conducted. Treatments incorporated a consistent component of cognitive-behaviorally supported exercise during 26 weeks that was paired with either standard nutrition education (n = 183) or cognitive-behavioral methods for controlled eating that emphasized self-regulatory methods such as goal setting and caloric tracking, cognitive restructuring, and eating cue awareness (n = 247). Both treatment conditions were associated with improved self-efficacy, self-regulation, mood, exercise, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference; with improvements in self-regulation for eating, fruit and vegetable consumption, weight, and waist circumference significantly greater in the cognitive-behavioral nutrition condition. Changes in exercise- and eating-related self-efficacy and self-regulation were associated with changes in exercise and eating (R(2) = 0.40 and 0.17, respectively), with mood change increasing the explanatory power to R(2) = 0.43 and 0.20. Improved self-efficacy and self-regulation for exercise carried over to self-efficacy and self-regulation for controlled eating (β= 0.53 and 0.68, respectively). Development and longitudinal testing of a new and different

  17. A triangle model of criminality


    Nuno, J.C.; Herrero, M.A.; Primicerio, M.


    This paper is concerned with a quantitative model describing the interaction of three sociological species, termed as owners, criminals and security guards, and denoted by X, Y and Z respectively. In our model, Y is a predator of the species X, and so is Z with respect to Y . Moreover, Z can also be thought of as a predator of X, since this last population is required to bear the costs of maintaining Z. We propose a system of three ordinary differential equations to account for the time evolu...

  18. ‘The Very Foundations of Any System of Criminal Justice’: Criminal Responsibility in the Australian Model Criminal Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie Loughnan


    Full Text Available The Model Criminal Code (MCC was intended to be a Code for all Australian jurisdictions. It represents a high point of faith in the value and possibility of systematising, rationalising and modernising criminal law. The core of the MCC is Chapter 2, the ‘general principles of criminal responsibility’, which outlines the ‘physical’ and ‘fault’ elements of criminal offences, and defines concepts such as recklessness. This paper assesses the MCC as a criminal law reform project and explores questions of how the MCC came into being, and why it took shape in certain ways at a particular point in time. The paper tackles these questions from two different perspectives—‘external’ and ‘internal’ (looking at the MCC from the ‘outside’ and the ‘inside’. I make two main arguments. First, I argue that, driven by a ‘top down’ law reform process, the MCC came into being at a time when changes in crime and criminal justice were occurring, and that it may be understood as an attempt to achieve stability in a time of change. Second, I argue that the significance of the principles of criminal responsibility, which formed the central pivot of the MCC, lies on the conceptual level—in relation to the language through which the criminal law is thought about, organised and reformed.

  19. Editorial International Criminal Justice, Peace and Reconciliation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conference in July 2014 on the theme 'International Criminal Justice,. Reconciliation ... International Criminal Court (ICC) had come to occupy in discussions .... Pella, V. P., 1950, 'Towards an international criminal court', The American Journal.

  20. Strange but common bedfellows: the relationship between humanitarians and the military in developing psychosocial interventions for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. (United States)

    Kienzler, Hanna; Pedersen, Duncan


    This essay analyses how the relationships between Cold War and post-Cold War politics, military psychiatry, humanitarian aid and mental health interventions in war and post-war contexts have transformed over time. It focuses on the restrictions imposed on humanitarian interventions and aid during the Cold War; the politics leading to the transfer of the PTSD diagnosis and its treatment from the military to civilian populations; humanitarian intervention campaigns in the post-Cold War era; and the development of psychosocial intervention programs and standards of care for civilian populations affected by armed conflict. Viewing these developments in their broader historical, political and social contexts reveals the politics behind mental health interventions conducted in countries and populations affected by warfare. In such militarized contexts, the work of NGOs providing assistance to people suffering from trauma-related health problems is far from neutral as it depends on the support of the military and plays an important role in the shaping of international politics and humanitarian aid programs.

  1. Psycho-Sociological Review of Criminal Thinking Style


    Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip


    Criminal thinking has been long established as a very important predictor of criminal behaviour, however far less research effort has been undertaken to understand what variables can predict the emergence of criminal thinking. Considering the importance of criminal thinking, we feel it necessary to conduct a systematic review of the literature on criminal thinking in order to bring together what is currently known regarding the factors that relate to, and predict, habitual criminal thinking s...

  2. The psychosocial burden of psoriatic arthritis. (United States)

    Husni, M Elaine; Merola, Joseph F; Davin, Sara


    To assess the psychosocial impact of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), describe how health-related quality of life (QoL) is affected in patients with PsA, discuss measures used to evaluate the psychosocial impact of PsA, and review studies examining the effect of therapy on QoL. A targeted review on the impact of PsA on QoL and the role of tailored psychosocial management in reducing the psychosocial burden of the disease was performed. PubMed literature searches were conducted using the terms PsA, psychosocial burden, QoL, and mood/behavioral changes. Articles were deemed relevant if they presented information regarding the psychosocial impact of PsA, methods used to evaluate these impacts, or ways to manage/improve management of PsA and its resulting comorbidities. The findings of this literature search are descriptively reviewed and the authors׳ expert opinion on their interpretation is provided. The psychosocial burden of PsA negatively affects QoL. Patients suffer from sleep disorders, fatigue, low-level stress, depression and mood/behavioral changes, poor body image, and reduced work productivity. Additionally, each patient responds to pain differently, depending on a variety of psychological factors including personality structure, cognition, and attention to pain. Strategies for evaluating the burdens associated with PsA and the results of properly managing patients with PsA are described. PsA is associated with a considerable psychosocial burden and new assessment tools, specific to PsA, have been developed to help quantify this burden in patients. Future management algorithms of PsA should incorporate appropriate assessment and management of psychological and physical concerns of patients. Furthermore, patients with PsA should be managed by a multidisciplinary team that works in coordination with the patient and their family or caregivers. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...

  4. Is the Current System of Criminal Procedure of Iran Efficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Fazli


    Full Text Available This paper is a study about the efficiency of the criminal system designed in the new Criminal Procedure Code of Iran, that came into effect on June 22, 2015. Notwithstanding the notable legislator’s efforts, infrastructural and structural reforms have not been carried out. Accordingly, it is not expected to be as efficient as the previous laws due to the lack of fundamental reforms; reforms caused the improvement in “low-level efficiency” (saving resources in the economic sense rather than in the “high-level” one (saving resources plus developing more justice. The analysis of the efficiency of the Code and proposal of fundamental reforms for having a high-level efficient Criminal Law in Iran are the main objectives of this paper. After an introduction (Chapters I and II, we made a historical approach of the Iranian system in this matter (Chapter III. Then, we analyze three types of efficiency (Chapter IV, attending to some infrastructural elements, some structural factors and other procedural aspects. At last, we synthetize four conclusions (Chapter V. Main conclusion is that efficiency in the system of criminal procedure would be only on low-level.

  5. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka


    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  6. Criminal social identity and suicide ideation among Pakistani young prisoners. (United States)

    Shagufta, Sonia; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola-Palmer, Derrol


    Suicidal behaviour is a common in prisoners, yet little is known about the factors that may protect against thoughts of ending one's life. The purpose of this paper is to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationship between three criminal social identity (CSI) dimensions (in-group affect, in-group ties, and cognitive centrality) and suicide ideation while controlling for period of confinement, age, criminal friends, and offense type (violent vs non-violent). Participants were 415 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A structural model was specified and tested using Mplus to examine the relationships between the three factors of CSI and suicidal thoughts, while controlling for age, offender type, period of confinement, and substance dependence. The model provided an adequate fit for the data, explaining 22 per cent of variance in suicidal thoughts. In-group affect (the level of personal bonding with other criminals) was found to exert a strong protective effect against suicide ideation. The research contributes important information on suicide ideation in Pakistan, an Islamic country in which suicide is considered a sin and subsequently a criminal offence. Results indicate that Juvenile offenders' sense of shared identity may help to prevent the development of thoughts of death by suicide. Consequently, separating and isolating young prisoners may be ill advised.

  7. Criminal Misdemeanor: Novels of the Russian Criminal Legislation and Questions of Its Improvement​

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Irina A.


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of legally securing in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation the concept of a criminal misdemeanor. On the basis of doctrinal provisions, Russian and foreign criminal legislation, the concept of a criminal misdemeanor is investigated, its relation to an insignificant act is analyzed, and the category of administrative prejudice is analyzed. The Author justifies the position according to which criminal misdemeanor cannot be a kind of crime of little gravity. It is concluded that a group of crimes with administrative prejudice, regardless of their category, should be classified as a criminal misdemeanor. With regard to this type of socially dangerous acts, the criminal law proposes to use the term “criminal misdemeanor”. An approach is presented to the establishment in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation of a preferential criminal law regime for criminal misdemeanor: the unpunishable assassination and complicity in such a crime, the absence of aggregate and relapse, if one of the crimes is small, the reduction of the statute of limitations, the recognition of the person who committed such an act is unacceptable.

  8. Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mapping Criminal Governance in African Cities. This grant will allow the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), through its Organized Crime and Money Laundering Programme (OCML), to explore the causal links between weak state authority and the emergence of criminal governance ... Profile of crime markets in Dakar.

  9. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.


    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become ‘stronger’, after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort. PMID:24577374

  10. Child maltreatment and adult criminal behavior: does criminal thinking explain the association? (United States)

    Cuadra, Lorraine E; Jaffe, Anna E; Thomas, Renu; DiLillo, David


    Criminal thinking styles were examined as mediational links between different forms of child maltreatment (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, and physical neglect) and adult criminal behaviors in 338 recently adjudicated men. Analyses revealed positive associations between child sexual abuse and sexual offenses as an adult, and between child physical abuse/neglect and endorsing proactive and reactive criminal thinking styles. Mediation analyses showed that associations between overall maltreatment history and adult criminal behaviors were accounted for by general criminal thinking styles and both proactive and reactive criminal thinking. These findings suggest a potential psychological pathway to criminal behavior associated with child maltreatment. Limitations of the study as well as research and clinical implications of the results are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Video gaming and children's psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study


    Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.


    The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...

  12. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care. (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna


    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Judicial Functions in the Criminal Trial

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    Constantin Tănase


    Full Text Available The separation of judicial functions falls, indisputably, in the news gallery of the Romanian criminal trial current rules. The previous Criminal Procedure Code, namely that of 1968, as well as the older ones, hadn‟t enrolled in their content such a principle. However, the doctrine identified, under mentioned legal regulations, the existence of distinct procedural functions and their need to separate, in the idea of genuine criminal justice accomplishment. These procedural functions were: the indictment function (or charges, the defense function the trial function. In the new code, this principle proclaims the existence of four judicial functions that aim the efficiency and speed of the criminal trial, but also guarantee the presumption of innocence, equal opportunity of parties, protection of rights and fundamental freedoms. This research try to explain this principle and its connections with other institutions of the criminal trial.

  14. Genetics, criminal justice, and the minority community: An introduction for professionals in criminal justice. A report on the third annual convocation of the Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croatti, R.D.


    The Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society is an organization founded in 1984 to support minority professionals in the Massachusetts criminal justice system. The Society began the sponsorship of statewide Convocations in 1992. These events provide minority criminal justice professionals with the opportunity to focus on pertinent topics through expert presentations, panel discussions, and peer interactions. Because of its increasing importance in the criminal justice process at large, and growing significance to the minority community in particular, the committee determined that the 1994 Convocation would focus on DNA. A decision was made to concentrate both on the science and the ethical and moral considerations pertinent to its application. The committee determined that along with expert presentations, a large portion of each day`s program should be devoted to workshops, designed to provide participants with an opportunity to review, test and discuss the material in a small group environment. Overall objectives of the Convocation were to provide minority and non-minority criminal justice professionals with a basic foundation in the science of genetics as well as current developments in genetic diagnostic technology, to highlight the actual and potential application of DNA technology to the criminal justice system and elsewhere, and to underscore the implications of these developments for criminal justice policy and the law.

  15. Achievement Motivation Training's Effects on Psychosocial Self-Perceptions. (United States)

    Martin, Larry G.


    A study identified the psychosocial needs of low-literate adults by using an instrument based on Erikson's ego-stage development model. It also tested the effectiveness of Achievement Motivation Training in counterbalancing the negative impact of school experiences on students' psychosocial development. (Author/SK)

  16. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.


    At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...... of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post...

  17. Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables (United States)

    Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz


    People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

  18. The End of Doctrine?
    On the Symbolic Function of Doctrine in Substantive Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong


    Full Text Available Recently, there have been various developments within Dutch substantive criminal-law doctrine that in some important ways suggest a shift towards a common-law conception of judicial interpretation in different topics which are central to substantive criminal law. The developments suggest that criminal-law doctrine in the Netherlands is becoming sketchier and is losing some theoretical profundity. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, Shapiro's planning theory of law, and Wittgenstein's considerations on rule-following, this article aims to contribute to a description of the independent function of doctrine in substantive criminal law, by addressing the question as to how, and in what sense, doctrine 'helps' the court in applying the statutory and non-statutory criminal-law norms. It is argued that the law constitutes a 'symbolic form' that is to some extent disassociated from the social life-world, and that is construed by way of sophisticated, shared forms of 'social planning'. These forms of social planning form parts of a 'practice' governed by a specific 'legal point of view'. It is further argued that criminal-law doctrine, in a radical sense, comprises a form of proceduralization, by means of which the adjudicating judge is 'directed' to a certain position within the criminal law's symbolically construed space. It is concluded that criminal-law doctrine fulfils an important function in 'situating' the judge, and in 'prompting' or 'compelling' the judge, from his subjective position, to apply a criminal-law norm in an objectively correct manner.

  19. Joint Criminal Enterprise: The ICTY’s Contentious Addition to International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree


    The ICTY does not merely represent a historical stage in the development of international criminal justice which can now be put aside and left to legal historians. It also has a lasting impact, due to the fact that its Rules of Procedure and Evidence are judge-made law, tested in the fire of court...... practice and frequently amended to take the latest developments into account. Finally, with the arrest of Slobodan Karadžić, a new chapter has been opened for the Court. This volume thus provides not only an account of all the debates revolving around the proper role of international criminal justice...... and a contribution to the developing academic discipline of “transitional justice”; it also opens up a perspective to the International Criminal Court and asks what procedural legacy the ad hoc tribunals for Yugoslavia and Ruanda provide for the future of international criminal procedure....

  20. Childhood antecedents of incarceration and criminal justice involvement among homeless veterans. (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A


    Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Partners or Partners in Crime? The Relationship Between Criminal Associates and Criminogenic Thinking. (United States)

    Whited, William H; Wagar, Laura; Mandracchia, Jon T; Morgan, Robert D


    Meta-analyses examining the risk factors for recidivism have identified the importance of ties with criminal associates as well as thoughts and attitudes conducive to the continuance of criminal behavior (e.g., criminogenic thinking). Criminologists have theorized that a direct relationship exists between the association with criminal peers and the development of criminogenic thinking. The present study empirically explored the relationship between criminal associates and criminogenic thinking in 595 adult male inmates in the United States. It was hypothesized that the proportion of free time spent with and number of criminal associates would be associated with criminogenic thinking, as measured by two self-report instruments, the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised (MOTS-R) and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). Hierarchal linear regression analyses demonstrated that the proportion of free time spent with criminal associates statistically predicted criminogenic thinking when controlling for demographic variables. The implications of these findings on correctional practice (including assessment and intervention) as well as future research are discussed.

  2. Assessment of psychosocial risk factors for the development of non-specific chronic disabling low back pain in Japanese workers-findings from the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study. (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Inuzuka, Kyoko; Koga, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki


    To investigate the associations between psychosocial factors and the development of chronic disabling low back pain (LBP) in Japanese workers. A 1 yr prospective cohort of the Japan Epidemiological Research of Occupation-related Back Pain (JOB) study was used. The participants were office workers, nurses, sales/marketing personnel, and manufacturing engineers. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed twice: at baseline and 1 yr after baseline. The outcome of interest was the development of chronic disabling LBP during the 1 yr follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for the participants who experienced disabling LBP during the month prior to baseline. Logistic regression was used to assess risk factors for chronic disabling LBP. Of 5,310 participants responding at baseline (response rate: 86.5%), 3,811 completed the questionnaire at follow-up. Among 171 eligible participants who experienced disabling back pain during the month prior to baseline, 29 (17.0%) developed chronic disabling LBP during the follow-up period. Multivariate logistic regression analysis implied reward to work (not feeling rewarded, OR: 3.62, 95%CI: 1.17-11.19), anxiety (anxious, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 0.97-8.57), and daily-life satisfaction (not satisfied, ORs: 4.14, 95%CI: 1.18-14.58) were significant. Psychosocial factors are key to the development of chronic disabling LBP in Japanese workers. Psychosocial interventions may reduce the impact of LBP in the workplace.

  3. Rehabilitation and Re-socialization of Criminals in Iranian Criminal Law. (United States)

    Mollaei, Mohammad; Ghayoomzadeh, Mahmood; Mirkhalili, Seyed Mahmoud


    One of the concerns that always remain for the repentant criminal is the condition for his return to society. This concern may be so strong and effective that the criminal may seclude from the society due to the fear of its consequences and may return to crime. Therefore, paying attention to eliminating the social effect of the criminal conviction of criminals can return security to society and return the repentant criminals to normal life. So, all military and social institutions are effective in the re-socialization, in such a way that the re-socialization of criminals requires the provision of social platforms that starts with their own family and expands to society. The main concern of this research is how we can provide the favorable conditions for the re-socialization of repentant criminals that effectively realize the socialization goals. The Islamic Penal Code initiatives in 2013, despite the gaps in this regard, partly help to achieve such goals, but they are not enough. Therefore, the present article focused on the criminals' re-socialization and tried to raise the criminals' re-socialization both socially and criminally. The method was descriptive analytical. The result showed that the Islamic Penal Code, adopted in 2013 on the period of the subsequent effects, needs to be reformed, and the effective social institutions should be raised orderly in such a case.

  4. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals (United States)

    Sinha, Sudhinta


    Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand) and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs) scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. PMID:28163407

  5. Criminal Courts of Justice, Dublin

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    Jonathan Tooth


    Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.

  6. Development and testing of the Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) instrument to measure youth alcohol norms and psychosocial influences. (United States)

    Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce; Hildebrand, Janina; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Lobo, Roanna; Howat, Peter


    This study aimed to develop and validate an online instrument to: (1) identify common alcohol-related social influences, norms and beliefs among adolescents; (2) clarify the process and pathways through which proalcohol norms are transmitted to adolescents; (3) describe the characteristics of social connections that contribute to the transmission of alcohol norms; and (4) identify the influence of alcohol marketing on adolescent norm development. The online Youth Alcohol Norms Survey (YANS) was administered in secondary schools in Western Australia PARTICIPANTS: Using a 2-week test-retest format, the YANS was administered to secondary school students (n=481, age=13-17 years, female 309, 64.2%). The development of the YANS was guided by social cognitive theory and comprised a systematic multistage process including evaluation of content and face validity. A 2-week test-retest format was employed. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying factor structure of the instrument. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen's kappa. A five-factor structure with meaningful components and robust factorial loads was identified, and the five factors were labelled as 'individual attitudes and beliefs', 'peer and community identity', 'sibling influences', 'school and community connectedness' and 'injunctive norms', respectively. The instrument demonstrated stability across the test-retest procedure (ICC=0.68-0.88, Cohen's kappa coefficient=0.69) for most variables. The results support the reliability and factorial validity of this instrument. The YANS presents a promising tool, which enables comprehensive assessment of reciprocal individual, behavioural and environmental factors that influence alcohol-related norms among adolescents. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  7. Forms of the criminal environment counteraction to performing the function of state protection of participants in criminal proceedings and measures of its neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubonosov E.S.


    Full Text Available Criminal environment’s counteraction is considered as purposeful, active and intentional influence of its representatives on participants in criminal proceedings. It is directed at persons who, due to their professional duties, are involved in detection and investigation of crimes as well as court proceedings, or who possess evidentiary information (witnesses, victims, etc.. Counteraction may be expressed in different ways: discrediting operatives, investigators and judges; pressure on persons involved in the investigation and the trial through bribery, blackmail, threats to life and health of themselves and their family, etc. The administration of justice becomes inefficient due to the variety of forms and purposes of counteraction. The importance of operational units’ awareness of the activities of criminal environment representatives is shown. The importance of revealing the facts of unlawful influence on witnesses and victims of crime, who subsequently acquire procedural status of witnesses and victims, in order to prevent such facts is also stressed. It is proposed to suppress the counteraction of criminal environment by following ways: 1 identifying (with the help of informants and by crime detection actions the persons attempting to influence the preliminary investigation; 2 documenting the suspects actions aimed at illegal influence on participants in criminal proceedings for the purpose of conducting the procedural actions and decision making; 3 “in cell” (using an agent crime detection actions against detainees and arrestees throughout the whole process of covert operation; 4 creating investigative team to develop a common mechanism to neutralize criminal environment’s counteraction to crime investigation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona OZHEK


    Full Text Available The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Con­stancy and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the developmental phases leads to the es­tablishment of psychological structure in the hu­man infant, which means that he reaches autonomy and independence, thus becoming an individual. For children which were born with physical dis­abilities and have their intellectual capacities pre­served (i.e. in cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc., the fulfillment of this process is endangered, because their development was stuck at the Nor­mal Symbiotic Phase due to two types of factors. The first group represents factors of physical dis­ability (i.e. impossibility to move, obtain inde­pendent experiences and, consequently, the inabil­ity to detach from the Object, while the second group represents reactions to this hindrance (i.e. over-protection, which further thwarts attempts to detach from the Object.

  9. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male


    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  10. Identifying Early Childhood Personality Dimensions Using the California Child Q-Set and Prospective Associations With Behavioral and Psychosocial Development. (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Schalet, Benjamin D; Hicks, Brian M; Zucker, Robert A


    The present study used an empirical, "bottom-up" approach to delineate the structure of the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a comprehensive set of personality descriptors, in a sample of 373 preschool-aged children. This approach yielded two broad trait dimensions, Adaptive Socialization (emotional stability, compliance, intelligence) and Anxious Inhibition (emotional/behavioral introversion). Results demonstrate the value of using empirical derivation to investigate the structure of personality in young children, speak to the importance of early-evident personality traits for adaptive development, and are consistent with a growing body of evidence indicating that personality structure in young children is similar, but not identical to, that in adults, suggesting a model of broad personality dimensions in childhood that evolve into narrower traits in adulthood.

  11. Criminal groups and transnational illegal markets : A more detailed examination on the basis of Social Network Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, Gerben; Bernasco, Wim

    In the study of organised crime, the traditional view of criminal groups as centrally controlled organisations has been replaced by the notion of criminal networks. However, little use has been made of concepts and theories of social networks that have developed in other social sciences. This paper

  12. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (United States)


    ... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The PHA...

  13. The Ontario Psychosocial Oncology Framework: a quality improvement tool. (United States)

    Li, Madeline; Green, Esther


    To overview the newly developed Psychosocial Health Care for Cancer Patients and Their Families: A Framework to Guide Practice in Ontario and Guideline Recommendations in the context of Canadian psychosocial oncology care and propose strategies for guideline uptake and implementation. Recommendations from the 2008 Institute of Medicine standard Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial Health Needs were adapted into the Ontario Psychosocial Oncology (PSO) Framework. Existing practice guidelines developed by the Canadian Partnership against Cancer and Cancer Care Ontario and standards developed by the Canadian Association of Psychosocial Oncology are supporting resources for adopting a quality improvement (QI) approach to the implementation of the framework in Ontario. The developed PSO Framework, including 31 specific actionable recommendations, is intended to improve the quality of comprehensive cancer care at both the provider and system levels. Important QI change management processes are described as Educate - raising awareness among medical teams of the significance of psychosocial needs of patients, Evidence - developing a research evidence base for patient care benefits from psychosocial interventions, and Electronics - using technology to collect patient reported outcomes of both physical and emotional symptoms. The Ontario PSO Framework is unique and valuable in providing actionable recommendations that can be implemented through QI processes. Overall, the result will be improved psychosocial health care for the cancer population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The Criminal justice system in Northern Ireland


    Carr, Nicola


    As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...

  15. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  16. Measuring the impact of multiple sclerosis on psychosocial functioning: the development of a new self-efficacy scale. (United States)

    Airlie, J; Baker, G A; Smith, S J; Young, C A


    To develop a scale to measure self-efficacy in neurologically impaired patients with multiple sclerosis and to assess the scale's psychometric properties. Cross-sectional questionnaire study in a clinical setting, the retest questionnaire returned by mail after completion at home. Regional multiple sclerosis (MS) outpatient clinic or the Clinical Trials Unit (CTU) at a large neuroscience centre in the UK. One hundred persons with MS attending the Walton Centre for Neurology and Neurosurgery and Clatterbridge Hospital, Wirral, as outpatients. Cognitively impaired patients were excluded at an initial clinic assessment. Patients were asked to provide demographic data and complete the self-efficacy scale along with the following validated scales: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Impact, Stigma and Mastery and Rankin Scales. The Rankin Scale and Barthel Index were also assessed by the physician. A new 11-item self-efficacy scale was constructed consisting of two domains of control and personal agency. The validity of the scale was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha analysis of internal consistency (alpha = 0.81). The test-retest reliability of the scale over two weeks was acceptable with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. Construct validity was investigated using Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient resulting in significant correlations with depression (r= -0.52) anxiety (r =-0.50) and mastery (r= 0.73). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that these factors accounted for 70% of the variance of scores on the self-efficacy scale, with scores on mastery, anxiety and perceived disability being independently significant. Assessment of the psychometric properties of this new self-efficacy scale suggest that it possesses good validity and reliability in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  17. Justifying genetics as a possible legal defence to criminal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, jurisprudence of many criminal cases tends to question whether a person's inherited genes predispose him to violence and further determine his criminal responsibility in law. Under the Nigerian criminal law, the legal test of criminal responsibility is mainly whether the accused person intends the consequence of ...

  18. Methods and manners of interpretation of criminal norms | Assefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...

  19. [Prevention of psychosocial risks]. (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie


    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The psychosocial needs of gynaecological cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mette Linnet; Hansson, Helena; Ottesen, Bent


    PURPOSE: To develop and pilot test an intervention targeting the women's psychosocial needs during the follow-up period after surgical treatment for gynaecological cancer. METHODS: The project consisted of four phases. Phase 1 involved development of an intervention on the basis of meetings...

  1. A GUI Prototype for the Framework of Criminal Judicial Reasoning System


    Thammaboosadee, Sotarat; Silparcha, Udom


    This paper proposed a developed graphical user interface (GUI) prototype, whichis supported by the framework of data mining techniques-based criminal judicial reasoning system.The GUI sequences of the prototype are satisfied with criminal judicial procedure in civil lawsystem. Initially, user must build the model by input the existing incident and specifying the detail ofobjects, elements of crime, charge and judgment. After enough training, the prototype will be readyto determine judgments f...

  2. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age (United States)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.


    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  3. Testing the Difference between School Level and Academic Mindset in the Classroom: Implications for Developing Student Psycho-Social Skills in Secondary School Classrooms (United States)

    Hanson, Janet


    This study explored the relationship between school level and the psychosocial construct of an academic mindset operationalized on the Likert-style Project for "Educational Research That Scales" (PERTS) instrument; widely used in testing academic mindset interventions at the classroom level. Analyses were conducted using existing school…

  4. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.D.


    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  5. When Should Neuroimaging be Applied in the Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper


    When does neuroimaging constitute a sufficiently developed technology to be put into use in the work of determining whether or not a defendant is guilty of crime? This question constitutes the starting point of the present paper. First, it is suggested that an overall answer is provided by what i......-suited for delivering the sort of theoretical guidance that is required for assessing the desirability of using neuroimaging in the work of the criminal court....

  6. Mapping the criminal mind: idiographic assessment of criminal belief systems. (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D


    An idiographic procedure designed to assess the belief systems of criminal offenders is described, investigated, and clarified. This measure, the Cognitive Map of Major Belief Systems (CMMBS), assesses the five belief systems (self-view, world-view, past-view, present-view, future-view) held to occupy the higher echelons of human cognition. Modest to moderate test-retest reliability was achieved when 19 inmates, enrolled in one of three drug-counseling groups, completed the CMMBS on two separate occasions, 2 weeks apart. It was also ascertained that the drug treatment specialist who served as therapist for all three groups "blindly" matched the 19 CMMBS records to the inmates who produced them. A case study of one of the 19 participants was used to illustrate how the CMMBS is employed with individual offenders and how belief systems interact with major schematic subnetworks such as attributions, outcome expectancies, efficacy expectancies, goals, values, and thinking styles to create crime-supporting lifestyles.

  7. Dynamical analysis of a model of social behavior: Criminal vs non-criminal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Syed; Tripathi, Jai Prakash; Neha, A.A.


    Highlights: • A new social model of interaction between criminal and non-criminal population is proposed • The effect of law enforcement is studied • Many real life situations are analyzed • List of open problems is given for future work. - Abstract: In this paper, we construct a model motivated by the well known predator-prey model to study the interaction between criminal population and non-criminal population. Our aim is to study various possibilities of interactions between them. First we model it using simple predator-prey model, then we modify it by considering the logistic growth of non-criminal population. We clearly deduce that the model with logistic growth is better than classical one. More precisely, the role of carrying capacity on the dynamics of criminal minded population is discussed. Further, we incorporate law enforcement term in the model and study its effect. The result obtained suggest that by incorporating enforcement law, the criminal population reduces from the very beginning, which resembles with real life situation. Our result indicates that the criminal minded population exist as long as coefficient of enforcement l_c does not cross a threshold value and after this value the criminal minded population extinct. In addition, we also discuss the occurrence of saddle-node bifurcation in case of model system with law enforcement. Numerical examples and simulations are presented to illustrate the obtained results.

  8. Original article Latent classes of criminal intent associated with criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek


    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal intent that exist among prisoners and to look at the associations with recidivism, number of police arrests, type of offending (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, and age. Participants and procedure Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous subgroups of prisoners based on their responses to the 10 questions reflecting criminal intent. Participants were 309 male recidivistic prisoners incarcerated in a maximum security prison. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the association between recidivism and latent classes of criminal intent while controlling for offence type (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, number of arrests, and age. Results The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution: ‘High criminal intent’ (49.3%, ‘Intermediate criminal intent’ (41.3%, and ‘Low criminal intent’ (9.4%. The latent classes were differentially related to the external variables (recidivism, violent offences, and age. Conclusions Criminal intent is best explained by three homogeneous classes that appear to represent an underlying continuum. Future work is needed to identify whether these distinct classes of criminal intent may predict engagement in various types of criminal behaviour.

  9. Original article Criminal thinking styles of minors. Social and personality correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rode


    Full Text Available Background This paper presents an attempt to determine the predictors of criminal thinking styles of minors, based on the theory of Glenn Walters. The construct which is the subject of this study, that is, criminal thinking, is treated as a factor that initiates and supports anti-social behaviour. It manifests itself in eight thinking styles (patterns: mollification, cut-off, entitlement, sentimentality, power orientation, cognitive indolence, discontinuity, and superoptimism. Participants and procedure The study involved 114 people: 65 boys and 49 girls. The research group consisted of minors – boys and girls who were referred, by order of the court, to Diagnostic and Consultation Family Centres to receive a psychological opinion, the purpose of which was to determine the degree of demoralisation of the minor. The study was also attended by the guardians of minors. A criterion for including a minor in this study was committing an offence. Results For each criminal thinking style, a forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Variables describing minors and mothers were included in the regression model. The aim of this approach is to identify the configuration of predictors of criminal thinking styles. In each of the models the coefficient of determination, R2, and  coefficients were calculated. Conclusions The predictors of criminal thinking styles identified by the regression analysis show the complexity and heterogeneity of factors contributing to the emergence of these cognitive distortions. Predictors include both properties conditioning the psychosocial functioning of mothers and factors determining the personality of a minor (sense of control, low empathy, low self-esteem. There is a noticeable influence of factors attributable to the mothers – variables derived from the environment (demanding, rejecting, inconsistent attitude.

  10. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza


    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  11. A Framework for visualization of criminal networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasheed, Amer

    networks, network analysis, composites, temporal data visualization, clustering and hierarchical clustering of data but there are a number of areas which are overlooked by the researchers. Moreover there are some issues, for instance, lack of effective filtering techniques, computational overhead......This Ph.D. thesis describes research concerning the application of criminal network visualization in the field of investigative analysis. There are number of way with which the investigative analysis can locate the hidden motive behind any criminal activity. Firstly, the investigative analyst must...... have the ability to understand the criminal plot since a comprehensive plot is a pre-requisite to conduct an organized crime. Secondly, the investigator should understand the organization and structure of criminal network. The knowledge about these two aspects is vital in conducting an investigative...

  12. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ... adult criminal treatment among both Lagos and Enugu prisoners that summarized ... Keywords: Imprisonment, Sanctions, Crimes, Rehabilitation, Recidivism.

  13. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid


    that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... that ‘the involvement of the international community’ is at best an unhelpful criterion when it comes to resolving questions, e.g. regarding the immunity of state officials and the relevance of domestic law, that require a determination of the legal system in which the court operates. Instead, it is argued...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The criminal jurisdiction of a State's courts under international law is primarily territorial.25 Only under ..... Attorney General of the Government .... also P. Sands, ''After Pinochet : the role of national courts'' in P. Sands (ed) From Nuremberg to ...

  15. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  16. Violent and criminal manifestations in dementia patients. (United States)

    Cipriani, Gabriele; Lucetti, Claudio; Danti, Sabrina; Carlesi, Cecilia; Nuti, Angelo


    Although the older adults have been studied as victims of violence, geriatric patients can display violent behavior. The purpose of the present review was to explore the phenomenon of criminal violations and violent acts in people with dementia. The authors used PubMed to search the MEDLINE database and other sources for original research and review articles on criminal and violent manifestation in demented patients combining the terms "criminal manifestation," "violence, aggressive behavior," "homicide," "suicide" and "homicide-suicide" together with "dementia". Possible biomarkers of violence are considered. The present review highlights the risk factors for violence in patients suffering from dementia, and reviews the literature about criminal violations and homicidal/suicidal behavior in this patient group. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 541-549. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  18. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...

  19. International Criminal Law: Over-studied and Underachieving?


    Van Sliedregt, E


    In his recent review of Neil Boister's book, An Introduction to Transnational Criminal Law, Robert Currie praises the author for shedding light on a field of law that has suffered from inattention. Transnational criminal law (TCL), the 'other' branch of what was traditionally called international criminal law, has been overshadowed by international criminal law 'proper' (ICL). The establishment of international criminal tribunals after the end of the Cold War, culminating in the establishment...

  20. Discovering Cartels: Dynamic Interrelationships between Civil and Criminal Antitrust Investigations


    Ghosal, Vivek


    This paper focuses on the genesis, taxonomy and timeline of U.S. criminal antitrust investigations, and uses time-series data on enforcement to examine the interrelationships between the various criminal enforcement variables as well as the linkages between criminal and civil enforcement. The key findings are: (1) there appears to be considerable dynamic interplay between the criminal variables. For example, an increase in grand jury investigations or criminal cases initiated or the number of...

  1. Organising Data Exchange in the Dutch Criminal Justice Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip LANGBROEK


    Full Text Available Effective exchange of information in the criminal justice chain is crucial for effective law enforcement, but difficult to achieve. This article describes the case of the development and introduction of electronic data exchange in the Dutch Criminal Justice chain. Basic theories on the introduction of IT in justice organizations are tested by means of qualitative empirical research. Case flow management automation is technically feasible in the criminal justice chain but presupposes willingness of different organizations attached to that chain to adapt working processes for that purpose. The Dutch case shows a relative failure of the development and implementation of an integrated case flow management system for the entire chain (from the police via the public prosecutions office and the courts up to the prison service. It also shows a relative success of connecting xml-based data files to different reference indexes using intelligent agent software. Compared to the intended integrated case flow management system this solution for inter-organizational data exchange is much more simple and flexible because it does not demand a far reaching adaptation of internal organizational routines. It avoids the complexities of justice organizations and simplifies tasks related to data exchange. The data therefore are more accurate and are faster available. The most important advantage however is that risks of failure of development and implementation are reduced.

  2. Face recognition for criminal identification: An implementation of principal component analysis for face recognition (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurul Azma; Saidi, Md. Jamri; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Ab; Wen, Chuah Chai; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi A.


    In practice, identification of criminal in Malaysia is done through thumbprint identification. However, this type of identification is constrained as most of criminal nowadays getting cleverer not to leave their thumbprint on the scene. With the advent of security technology, cameras especially CCTV have been installed in many public and private areas to provide surveillance activities. The footage of the CCTV can be used to identify suspects on scene. However, because of limited software developed to automatically detect the similarity between photo in the footage and recorded photo of criminals, the law enforce thumbprint identification. In this paper, an automated facial recognition system for criminal database was proposed using known Principal Component Analysis approach. This system will be able to detect face and recognize face automatically. This will help the law enforcements to detect or recognize suspect of the case if no thumbprint present on the scene. The results show that about 80% of input photo can be matched with the template data.

  3. Criminal law and psychology: Connection points


    Drakić Dragiša


    In the paper the author discovers and analyzes areas which represent points of connection between criminal law and psychology, the areas in which cooperation between these two fields of science is possible and desirable. This article is divided into several sections. Firstly, the author talks about the emergence of psychology as a science and its definition. In the sections that follow the author offers analysis of initial contact between ways of thinking in primeval criminal law and psycholo...

  4. Colour revolutions: criminal-legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseyevich Gordeychik


    Full Text Available Objective basing on the analysis of colour revolution technologies in different countries to formulate propositions for improving criminal legislation aimed at counteraction against this phenomenon. Methods general scientific induction deduction analysis synthesis and specific scientific formaljuridical and comparativelegal. Results using the results of colour revolutionsrsquo research carried out by political scientists the author evaluates the character and level of public danger of colour revolutions. The author states that the colour revolutions threaten the normal existence of the country or several countries. The conclusion is made that the colour revolutions must be counteracted by criminallegal means. The article states the absence of norms in the existing criminal legislation which would impose criminal liability on organizers incendiaries and participants of colour revolutions. It is proposed to supplement the existing criminal law with the norm stipulating the liability for such deeds and to insert this norm into Art. 34 ldquoCrimes against peace and security of humanityrdquo thus equating organization preparation and implementing colour revolutions with planning preparation launching and conducting an aggressive war Art. 353 of the Russian Criminal Code. Scientific novelty basing on the existing legal norms modern politological and juridical scientific literature a conclusion is made that the colour revolutions are based on the abuse of law. This allows the organizers of colour revolutions to legally prepare and implement the subversion of undesirable political regimes. The author formulates proposals for supplementing the criminal legislation. Practical value the materials and conclusions of the article can be used in lawmaking activity when elaborating the drafts of legal acts for changing and supplementing the Russian Criminal Code for research activity when preparing monographs and dissertations tutorials and articles when

  5. Comparison of criminal procedure and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung, Sang Cheol


    While a criminal investigation and international inspection are similar in the purpose of identifying any possible violator, there are also differences between them. Especially in the case of a criminal procedure, the defendants are presumed to be innocent until he or she is convicted, but states must make efforts to prove their nuclear transparency. Let's compare both of them to find out the reason why these different points have happened

  6. Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk


    at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation schemes...... targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....

  7. Partial agonist therapy in schizophrenia: relevance to diminished criminal responsibility. (United States)

    Gavaudan, Gilles; Magalon, David; Cohen, Julien; Lançon, Christophe; Léonetti, Georges; Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure


    Pathological gambling (PG), classified in the DSM-IV among impulse control disorders, is defined as inappropriate, persistent gaming for money with serious personal, family, and social consequences. Offenses are frequently committed to obtain money for gambling. Pathological gambling, a planned and structured behavioral disorder, has often been described as a complication of dopamine agonist treatment in patients with Parkinson's disease. It has never been described in patients with schizophrenia receiving dopamine agonists. We present two patients with schizophrenia, previously treated with antipsychotic drugs without any suggestion of PG, who a short time after starting aripiprazole, a dopamine partial agonist, developed PG and criminal behavior, which totally resolved when aripiprazole was discontinued. Based on recent advances in research on PG and adverse drug reactions to dopamine agonists in Parkinson's disease, we postulate a link between aripiprazole and PG in both our patients with schizophrenia and raise the question of criminal responsibility. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Expertise as evidence in criminal proceedings from the Communist period until nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimir Fekolli


    Full Text Available During their procedural activity, investigative and judicial bodies have the pressing need to make use of special knowledge in different scientific fields of technique and science in order to resolve outstanding issues related to the subject of verification, which the law has defined as subject of expertise in criminal trial. Experts’ opinion is conceived and implemented as a particular means of verification; experts help in discovering the facts that are important to finding out the truth in criminal proceedings. In addition, they ascertain the facts and give an opinion on them, as a result of specific skills they have in the field of technique, science or culture. Experts and the process conducted by them were given importance in the legislation of the Communist era particularly with the drafting of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1979 which provides in considerable detail both the functions and the importance of expertise to resolve a criminal case. Furthermore, nowadays expertise as evidence in criminal proceedings is becoming increasingly important and is emerging, especially in view of developments in the field of Technique and Science since many criminals are very good at using innovations as a priority means for escaping detection and punishment. But on the other hand, scientific developments are increasingly cooperating with law and justice institutions to resolve the events and to provide assistance for achieving quality results in a shorter time, something that probably was unthinkable before.

  9. Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations. (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans


    The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime investigators. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene investigators according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the investigator to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal investigations. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting investigating officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of investigators on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Criminal sanctions for legal enties: An instrument of crime control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available Although contemporary criminal law accepts the system of subjective criminal liability for a committed crime, numerous European legal documents as well as criminal laws, especially those that have been adopted lately, envisage exceptions from this system. Thus, a new form of criminal liability is being introduced: objective liability based on the causation. One of the forms of objective liability is the criminal liability of legal entities, which has been considered disputable for a long time. Obviously, legal entities cannot be held accountable for all types of criminal offences. They cannot be held liable on the grounds of legal provisions regarding mental competence and culpability (as the elements of subjective criminal liability, nor can they be imposed all types of criminal sanctions recognized in criminal legislation in general. In their new or revised criminal legislation, many countries have recognized and inagurated the objective criminal liability of legal persons for committed criminal offences alongside with the predominant system of subjective liability (based on the perpetrator's mental competence and culpability. It is indisputable that some legal entities (such as state authorities cannot be prosecuted and held liable in criminal proceedings; consequently, there are some exemptions from criminal liability (particularly when it comes to the state and state bodies, but it does not exclude criminal liability of responsible officials (natural persons for causing the consequences of a criminal offence. Due to the specific character of legal and contractual capacity of legal entities, law in general and criminal legislations in particular prescribe special legal grounds for establishing criminal liability of legal entities, which differ from the subjective liability of a natural person (perceived as a conscious and reasonable human being acting on his/her own free will where the consequence of a criminal offence is a result of one

  11. Pattern and predictors of psychosocial disorders among overweight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial disorders negatively impact on children. Objectives. This study aims to ..... personality development in which they develop self-identity. This ..... esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior and delinquency. Psychol Sci.

  12. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan


    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  13. Psychosocial consequences of adolescents’ online communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.


    As a crucial part of psychosocial development, adolescents need to acquire adequate levels of self-esteem and social competence. Both are largely shaped in adolescents’ social interactions with peers, of which a substantial part takes place through online communication. The overarching aim of this

  14. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo


    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  15. Repercussions of modified procedural roles on determining the facts in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ivan


    Full Text Available The main characteristic of the new Code of Criminal Procedure, 2011, which is based on adversial principle, is changed position of the main subjects. The public prosecutor gets more active role. It is head of the pre-investigative procedure and the investigation. At trial, the role of the parties emphasized, while the role of the court passivated. The Court adjudicate and manage the process, while in the presentation of evidence, for the proper and complete determination of the facts, his role significantly diminished. The court is not obliged ex officio to determine the truth, and the principle of truth is omitted from the basic principles of criminal procedure. Evidentiary initiative is, largely, up to the parties, while the court granted subsidiary role. Basis of the work is the thesis that the Code of Criminal Procedure from 2011, based on the truth principle, which is also the goal of the procedure. In fact, while working on the development of the legal text, and after of the adoption, to the beginning of its application in full range, in professional community there were lots of papers, which cast doubt on the principle of truth existence, in the currently valid procedural law of Serbia. Although this principle is not actually explicitly stipulated in the text of the new CPC, the author proves his existence by analyzing of certain provisions of the law, which has significantly altered the position of the main criminal procedural subjects, in terms establishing the facts in criminal proceedings. The author argues that the truth about a criminal matter remains the highest goal of the procedure, despite the fact that the concept of criminal proceedings is set on the adversial model od criminal proceedings.

  16. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions. (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L


    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  17. Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K


    From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well...... associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings.......-being and work conditions. The respondents did not differ from the nonrespondents regarding hospital admissions and death in the follow-up period (1978-1984). Sixty-two cases of MI were registered among the 2,045 bus drivers in 1978-1984. On this basis relative risk for MI was calculated with a multiple...... regression model for independent variables regarding psychosocial well-being and work conditions. High work load (driving in heavy traffic) was significantly associated with the occurrence of MI. Of the psychosocial factors "no social contact with colleagues" and "increased work pace" were also significantly...

  18. Special Edition: Limits and Prospects of Criminal Law Reform – Past, Present, Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalia Anthony


    Full Text Available This special issue traces multifaceted readings of criminal law reform in the context of developments in Australia, North America and Europe. It addresses a range of criminal law legislative regimes, frameworks and issues confronting criminal law reform including as they relate to family violence, organisational liability for child sexual abuse, drug-driving and Indigenous under-representation on juries. In doing so, the articles variously assess the impacts of past criminal law reforms, current processes of reform, areas in need of future reform and the limitations of reform. It poses a number of challenges: Who does law reform serve? What principles should guide the work of criminal justice reform? What is the role and responsibility of universities in law reform? Who are the natural allies of academics in agitating for reform? Is reform of criminal law enough for progressive social change? Do public inquiries and law reform assist with progressive change or do they have the potential to undermine the struggle for more humane and equitable social responses?

  19. Criminal Sanction for Users of Pornographic Content on Internet Sites: A Pornographic Law Perspecive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Irawan Febriansyah


    Full Text Available Inside the internet, information becomes something very important and really life. Mobility is so fast and can be downloaded, produced, and then uploaded again. The internet network is one of the most popular information sources today. Many internet users access pornographic websites because these pornographic websites supported by the development of rapid internet. The purpose of this study is to review Pornographic Law related to cyberporn.  This criminal act is called Cyberporn. Given the enormous impact that is caused by the act of pornography, especially on the internet site, the government legalized the bill against pornography into pornography law with clear criminal provisions. This research method using normative law research method, with a normative juridical approach related to pornography. In relation to this type of research is a normative legal research, then the source of legal material used is the legislation. In accordance with this type of research, the analysis used is a normative juridical analysis that relies on the ability of legal argumentation, legal interpretation, and legal reasoning related to criminal provisions in pornography law. From the results of research have found that criminal provisions in the law number 44 of 2008 on pornography is quite clear that everyone who access on porn sites on the internet threatened with criminal sanctions. Juridically, criminal provisions in pornography law provide legal certainty is quite clear.

  20. Emergent authority and expert knowledge: psychiatry and criminal responsibility in the UK. (United States)

    Loughnan, Arlie; Ward, Tony


    In the UK context, the rise of the discipline and practice of forensic psychiatry is intimately connected with the concurrent development of principles and practices relating to criminal responsibility. In this article, we seek to chart the relationship between psychiatry and the principles and practices of criminal responsibility in the UK over the early modern, modern and late modern periods. With a focus on claims about authority and expert knowledge around criminal responsibility, we suggest that these claims have been in a state of perpetual negotiation and that, as a result, claims to authority over and knowledge about criminal non-responsibility on the part of psychiatrists and psychiatry are most accurately understood as emergent and contingent. The apparent formalism of legal discourse has tended to conceal the extent to which legal policy has been preoccupied with maintaining the primacy of lay judgments in criminal processes of evaluation and adjudication. While this policy has been somewhat successful in the context of the trial - particularly the murder trial - it has been undermined by administrative procedures surrounding the trial, including those that substitute treatment for punishment without, or in spite of, a formal determination of criminal responsibility. © 2013.

  1. Panel: challenging criminal charges for HIV transmission and exposure. (United States)

    Edwardh, Marlys; Adam, Barry; Joncas, Lucie; Clayton, Michaela


    Justice Edwin Cameron, of the Constitutional Court of South Africa, served as moderator. He said that this topic was particularly relevant for "an African/Canadian setting" because African countries may use Canadian developments as justification for their efforts to address HIV transmission and exposure through criminal law. Justice Cameron said that Canada is internationally perceived as a human rights-respecting state and, thus, sets an example, particularly for African nations, on how to comply with human rights issues. He added that in this particular case, however, Canada was sending the wrong message. This article contains summaries of the four presentations made during this panel. Marlys Edwardh reviews how the Supreme Court of Canada in Cuerrier interpreted the concepts of "endangering life" and "fraud". Barry Adam discusses the notion of a "duty to disclose" and how this affects HIV prevention. Lucie Joncas examines how the Supreme Court defined "fraud" in Cuerrier and describes a case before the Quebec Court of Appeal which may turn on whether the use of a condom or having a low viral load is considered not to constitute a significant risk of transmission. Finally, Michaela Clayton describes the trend in Southern African countries to adopt laws criminalizing HIV transmission or exposure, and explains that criminalization endangers women's health and lives.

  2. Mental incapacity and criminal liability: Redrawing the fault lines? (United States)

    Peay, Jill


    The proper boundaries of criminal liability with respect to those with questionable mental capacity are currently under review. In its deliberations in the areas of unfitness to plead, automatism and the special verdict of not guilty by reason of insanity the Law Commission for England and Wales have been cognizant of particular difficulties in fairly attributing criminal responsibility to those whose mental capacities may or may not have impinged on their decisions, either at the time of the offence or at trial. And they have referenced the potential breaches of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) posed by the state of our current laws. However, in their efforts to remedy these potential deficiencies is the Law Commission heading in a direction that is fundamentally incompatible with the direction embodied by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities (CRPD)? Whether one must cede sensibly to the other, or whether some compromise might emerge, perhaps through an extension of supportive services or through the development of disability-neutral criminal law, forms the subject of this paper. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde García


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  4. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer. (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, S M; Schepers, S A; van den Bergh, E M M; de Boer, Y; Streng, I; van Dijk-Lokkart, E M; Grootenhuis, M A; Verhaak, C M


    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare professionals blind to outcome of PAT assessment, and (ii) the match between PAT risk score and team risk estimation. Eighty-three families of children with cancer from four pediatric oncology centers in the Netherlands participated (59% response rate). The PAT and team risk estimation was assessed at diagnosis (M = 40.2 days, SD = 14.1 days), and the content of provided psychosocial care in the 5-month period thereafter resulting in basic or specialized care. According to the PAT, 65% of families were defined as having low (universal), 30% medium (targeted), and 5% high (clinical) risk for developing psychosocial problems. Thirty percent of patients from universal group got basic psychosocial care, 63% got specialized care, and 7% did not get any care. Fourteen percent of the families at risk got basic care, 86% got specialized care. Team risk estimations and PAT risk scores matched with 58% of the families. This study showed that families at risk, based on standardized risk assessment with the PAT, received more specialized care than families without risk. However, still 14% of the families with high risks only received basic care, and 63% of the families with standard risk got specialized care. Standardized risk assessment can be used as part of comprehensive care delivery, complementing the team. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intelligence as evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana


    Full Text Available The fight against modern forms of crime such as organized crime, terrorism and other very serious crimes caused not only modification of procedural principles and procedural rules, but also the necessity of re-examination of evidence in terms of introducing new evidence in criminal proceedings. Given that the prevention, detection and proving in cases of mentioned offenses represent the systemic issue and that the efficiency is caused by cohesion of preventive and repressive mechanisms in each strategy of preventing and combating serious crimes, the more often raised question, aroused from the practice, is the issue of the use of information gathered by the police or security services as evidence in criminal proceedings. In addition, there is the issue of use of illegal evidence, the ways in which these evidence are defined in some jurisdictions and which are the legal consequences of their use in judicial decision, whether it is based only on them, or on some other evidence beside them. The author addresses the issues of necessity and justification for use of information of security services as evidence in criminal proceedings, their definition and difference with respect to data, experiences and practices in other countries and of course their use as evidence in criminal proceedings of Serbia. Also, the paper addresses the Criminal Intelligence Analytics, exchange of information between the competent authorities at national and international level.

  6. Forensic DNA phenotyping in criminal investigations and criminal courts: assessing and mitigating the dilemmas inherent in the science. (United States)

    MacLean, Charles E; Lamparello, Adam


    Forensic DNA Phenotyping ("FDP"), estimating the externally visible characteristics ("EVCs") of the source of human DNA left at a crime scene, is evolving from science fiction toward science fact. FDP can already identify a source's gender with 100% accuracy, and likely hair color, iris color, adult height, and a number of other EVCs with accuracy rates approaching 70%. Patent applications have been filed for approaches to generating 3D likenesses of DNA sources based on the DNA alone. Nonetheless, criminal investigators, particularly in the United States, have been reticent to apply FDP in their casework. The reticence is likely related to a number of perceived and real dilemmas associated with FDP: is FDP racial profiling, should we test unknown and unseen physical conditions, does testing for behavioral characteristics impermissibly violate the source's privacy, ought testing be permitted for samples from known sources or DNA databases, and should FDP be limited to use in investigations only or is FDP appropriate for use in a criminal court. As this article explains, although those dilemmas are substantive, they are not insurmountable, and can be quite easily managed with appropriate regulation and protocols. As FDP continues to develop, there will be less need for criminal investigators to shy away from FDP. Cold cases, missing persons, and victims in crimes without other evidence will one day soon all be well served by FDP.

  7. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi


    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  8. [Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour]. (United States)

    Palmstierna, Tom


    Personality disorders, violence and criminal behaviour The importance of personality disorders for violent and criminal behaviour is illustrated by their high prevalence in prison populations. Especially antisocial personality disorder and antisocial personality traits are linked to violence. During diagnostic assessment of personality disorders, violence risk screening is recommended. Cognitive behaviour treatment focused on violent behaviour has some effect in criminal populations, but the antisocial personality traits are resistant to treatment. Evidence for pharmacological treatment of repetitive aggressive behaviour is weak. But, bensodiazepines seem to increase the risk of violent behaviour among patients with personality disorders. Antisocial personality traits diminish over time. This spontaneous decrease can be delayed by comorbidity such as other personality disorder, substance use disorder, psychosis and attention deficit disorders. Therefore it is recommended to actively treat these comorbid conditions.

  9. Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Silviu Pocora


    Full Text Available This paper will consider the practical settlement of conflicts of jurisdiction both in relation to the forum for prosecution and transfer of proceedings. The corollary of free movement of people is free movement of judgments, sentences and related powers of investigation and prosecution. Cross border crime requires to be addressed by equipping law enforcement and prosecution authorities with mechanisms to ensure the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of crime is met. The starting point for any consideration is the place where the criminal conduct took place. Sometimes the crime is such that criminal jurisdiction will be fixed - such as theft of property, crimes of violence - where others have an impact or criminal conduct in more than one jurisdiction - drug importation, major transnational drug dealing, human trafficking, terrorism.

  10. Self-conscious emotions and criminal offending. (United States)

    Tibbetts, Stephen G


    This study examined the relation of personality traits--shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and pride--on offending behavior. Using survey data from a sample of 224 college students, the construct and criterion-related validity of scales of the Shame Proneness Scale, the Test of Self-conscious Affect, and the Personality Feelings Questionnaire-2 were assessed. Regression analyses showed that self-conscious emotions are important in the etiology of criminal offending. Specifically, rated pride was positively correlated with self-reported criminal activity, whereas ratings of guilt were negatively associated with offending. The relation of shame with criminality varied depending on the type of measure used to indicate proneness to shame.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Mediation is an alternative means of conflict resolution, is designed as a flexible procedure whose utility was observed in contrast to the deficiencies of the judiciary system. In the field of criminal law, mediation is part of the larger concept of the restorative justice whose aim is restoring the main victim in its rights. From this perspective, to the criminal process is intended, in principal, repairing of the victim's prejudice and, subsequently, to encourage the delinquent in taking responsibility and to acknowledge his guilt, and also to determine him to actively participate in repairing the damage caused. The ultimate goal of the process is giving back the delinquent to society and consequently, reducing the relapse. Romanian legislator has not taken this concept, and how it is regulated mediation in criminal matters is hesitant, cautious and ultimately ineffective. Specifically, in situations that will actually occur, victim-delinquent mediation will only take the form of "assisted reconciliation."

  12. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36–59 Months in Honduras (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Contreras, Mariela; Matanda, Dennis Juma


    Optimal early childhood development (ECD) is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36–59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011–2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD. PMID:29735895

  13. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36⁻59 Months in Honduras. (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Contreras, Mariela; Matanda, Dennis Juma


    Optimal early childhood development (ECD) is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36⁻59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011⁻2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD.

  14. The Influence of Maternal and Household Resources, and Parental Psychosocial Child Stimulation on Early Childhood Development: A Cross-Sectional Study of Children 36–59 Months in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Bjørnøy Urke


    Full Text Available Optimal early childhood development (ECD is currently jeopardized for more than 250 million children under five in low- and middle-income countries. The Sustainable Development Goals has called for a renewed emphasis on children’s wellbeing, encompassing a holistic approach that ensures nurturing care to facilitate optimal child development. In vulnerable contexts, the extent of a family’s available resources can influence a child’s potential of reaching its optimal development. Few studies have examined these relationships in low- and middle-income countries using nationally representative samples. The present paper explored the relationships between maternal and paternal psychosocial stimulation of the child as well as maternal and household resources and ECD among 2729 children 36–59 months old in Honduras. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2011–2012 was used. Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that maternal psychosocial stimulation was positively and significantly associated with ECD in the full, rural, and lowest wealth quintile samples. These findings underscore the importance of maternal engagement in facilitating ECD but also highlight the role of context when designing tailored interventions to improve ECD.

  15. Criminal aspect of injuries in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja


    Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.

  16. Psychosocial reconstruction inventory : a postdictal instrument in aircraft accident investigation. (United States)


    A new approach to the investigation of aviation accidents has recently been initiated, utilizing a follow-on to the psychological autopsy. This approach, the psychosocial reconstruction inventory, enables the development of a dynamic, retrospective p...

  17. Criminal Policy Movements and Legal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thula Rafaela de Oliveira Pires


    Full Text Available The article's intention is to make an analyse of the emerging criminal policy movements in Brazil, especially after the 1980 decade, and their influence on legal education. Based on empirical research in Law Course UNIFESO (Teresópolis- Rio de Janeiro, it is sought to identify the political and criminal discourses prevalent in positions of hegemonic power among the Law scholars. Beyond the necessity of interdisciplinary approach, it is defended a more radical critique of the knowledge production process, with the affiliation of decolonial perspective, fundamental for the deconstruction of punitive normalization standards adopted by the modern States, of colonial slave matrix.

  18. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie


    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  19. Reforming China’s Criminal Procedure Law


    Winckler, Hugo


    Sources:- Wang Jianxun, “The provisions of the reform of criminal procedural law legalising secret investigations are a step backwards,” Caijing wang, 5 September 2011.- Chen Youxi, “The legalisation of secret investigations is an important violation of political integrity,” Zhongguo wangluo dianshitai – CNTV web site, Opinion section, 27 November 2011.- Wu Zhehua, “Chen Weidong discusses reform of the criminal procedure law: Behind each article there is a story,” Zhongguoguangbo wang, 8 Marc...

  20. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de


    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  1. 76 FR 44757 - Blocking Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations (United States)


    ... Property of Transnational Criminal Organizations By the authority vested in me as President by the... America, find that the activities of significant transnational criminal organizations, such as those... of international political and economic systems. Such organizations are becoming increasingly...

  2. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher


    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice

  3. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan


    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  4. Protection provided by criminal law against hazards of nuclear energy and the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.


    The subjects, principles and purpose of the atomic energy law and the radiation protection law are set out, and criminal offences under atomic energy law are outlined explaining the legal terminology applied. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy and radioactive materials are briefly discussed, primarily looking at the hazards involved and the protective role of criminal law principles that have been developed in connection with the atomic energy law and its application in practice. The draft version of the 16th criminal law amendment act - Act to combat environmental delinquency - is discussed, which aims at adoption of all criminal offences under atomic energy law by the Criminal Code. The book furthermore presents considerations about basic features of delinquency under atomic energy and radiation protection law, revealing elements and facts of offences defined, and particular problems resulting thereof. The question arises, e.g., whether an incorporation of the provisions into the Special Annex to the Criminal Code, in sections 27 and 28, is a wise and suitable decision. The book finally discusses the development of definition of criminal offences by a de lege feranda approach, referring to (1) the Chernobyl reactor accident, (2) the Nuclear Safeguards agreements, and (3) the definition of maximum permissible radiation dose. (HP) [de

  5. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective. (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob


    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation by a cluster randomised trial of a psychosocial intervention in children and teenagers experiencing diabetes: the DEPICTED study. (United States)

    Gregory, Jw; Robling, M; Bennert, K; Channon, S; Cohen, D; Crowne, E; Hambly, H; Hawthorne, K; Hood, K; Longo, M; Lowes, L; McNamara, R; Pickles, T; Playle, R; Rollnick, S; Thomas-Jones, E


    To develop and evaluate a health-care communication training programme to help diabetes health-care professionals (HCPs) counsel their patients more skilfully, particularly in relation to behaviour change. The HCP training was assessed using a pragmatic, cluster randomised controlled trial. The primary and secondary analyses were intention-to-treat comparisons of outcomes using multilevel modelling to allow for cluster (service) and individual effects, and involved two-level linear models. Twenty-six UK paediatric diabetes services. The training was delivered to HCPs (doctors, nurses, dietitians and psychologists) working in paediatric diabetes services and the effectiveness of this training was measured in 693 children aged 4-15 years and families after 1 year (95.3% follow-up). A blended learning programme was informed by a systematic review of the literature, telephone and questionnaire surveys of professional practice, focus groups with children and parents, experimental consultations and three developmental workshops involving a stakeholder group. The programme focused on agenda-setting, flexible styles of communication (particularly guiding) and a menu of strategies using web-based training and practical workshops. The primary trial outcome was a change in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels between the start and finish of a 12-month study period. Secondary trial outcomes included change in quality of life, other clinical [including body mass index (BMI)] and psychosocial measures (assessed at participant level as listed above) and cost (assessed at service level). In addition, patient details (HbA1c levels, height, weight, BMI, insulin regimen), health service contacts and patient-borne costs were recorded at each clinic visit, along with details of who patients consulted with, for how long, and whether or not patients consulted on their own at each visit. Patients and carers were also asked to complete an interim questionnaire assessing patient

  7. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.


    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on

  8. Psychosocial characteristics and social networks of suicidal prisoners: towards a model of suicidal behaviour in detention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Rivlin

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at increased risk of suicide. Investigation of both individual and environmental risk factors may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other high-risk populations. We conducted a matched case-control interview study with 60 male prisoners who had made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (cases and 60 male prisoners who had not (controls. We compared levels of depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, aggression, hostility, childhood abuse, life events (including events occurring in prison, social support, and social networks in univariate and multivariate models. A range of psychosocial factors was associated with near-lethal self-harm in prisoners. Compared with controls, cases reported higher levels of depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, and aggression, and lower levels of self-esteem and social support (all p values <0.001. Adverse life events and criminal history factors were also associated with near-lethal self-harm, especially having a prior prison spell and having been bullied in prison, both of which remained significant in multivariate analyses. The findings support a model of suicidal behaviour in prisoners that incorporates imported vulnerability factors, clinical factors, and prison experiences, and underscores their interaction. Strategies to reduce self-harm and suicide in prisoners should include attention to such factors.

  9. Criminal adjudication by state courts under the FDRE constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delegation power or as an original power. This article explores how the state courts are adjudicating federal criminal matters, and how the criminal adjudicative jurisdiction of the federal courts and state courts is compartmentalized. Keywords: jurisdiction, criminal adjudication, compartmentalization, constitution, federalism ...

  10. 30 CFR 208.14 - Civil and criminal penalties. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties. 208.14 Section... MANAGEMENT SALE OF FEDERAL ROYALTY OIL General Provisions § 208.14 Civil and criminal penalties. Failure to abide by the regulations in this part may result in civil and criminal penalties being levied on that...

  11. 33 CFR 401.205 - Civil and criminal penalties. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil and criminal penalties. 401... § 401.205 Civil and criminal penalties. (a) If the violation of the Seaway Regulations carries a... criminal proceedings shall not bar the initiation of civil penalty proceedings by the Associate...

  12. On the Issue of the Concept "Coercive Criminality"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestereva Y. S.


    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problems relating to the concept of coercive criminality. Here is determined the lexical scope of the concept "coercion"; the philosophical and criminal law contents of the researched term are compared; the types of the coercive criminality are determined.

  13. The right to a fair appeal in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Drazan


    The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,

  14. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal... Attorney General, Criminal Division. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized to exercise the power and authority of and to perform the functions vested in the Attorney General by the Act...

  15. 33 CFR 1.07-90 - Criminal penalties. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 1.07-90... GENERAL PROVISIONS Enforcement; Civil and Criminal Penalty Proceedings § 1.07-90 Criminal penalties. (a... death. (2) Marine Boards (46 CFR part 4). (3) Violations of port security regulations (33 CFR parts 6...

  16. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Records Administration § 635.5 Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals...

  17. 21 CFR 1405.625 - Criminal drug statute. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal drug statute. 1405.625 Section 1405.625 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1405.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means a...

  18. 46 CFR 5.69 - Evidence of criminal liability. (United States)


    ... INVESTIGATION REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Statement of Policy and Interpretation § 5.69 Evidence of criminal liability. Evidence of criminal liability discovered during an investigation or hearing conducted pursuant... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence of criminal liability. 5.69 Section 5.69...

  19. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty. (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  20. Mens Rea Principle and Criminal Jurisprudence in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the possibility or otherwise of the application of the common law doctrine of mens rea in Nigerian criminal jurisprudence. Our study discovers that the relevant provisions of the Criminal Code are exhaustive for considering and deciphering the criminal intent, if any, of an accused in view of conviction ...

  1. Civilisation of Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice amongst other strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Blad (John)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be

  2. 26 CFR 301.6231(c)-5 - Criminal investigations. (United States)


    ... criminal investigation for violation of the internal revenue laws relating to income tax will interfere... latest taxable year of the partner to which the criminal investigation relates shall be treated as... criminal investigation and written notification is sent by the Internal Revenue Service that the partner's...

  3. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing (United States)

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison


    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  4. The ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT): from 'what' to 'how' of psychosocial screening - a pilot study. (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Timmerman, Lotte; Ismail, Sohal Y; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Lopes, Alice; Maple, Hannah; Mega, Inês; Papachristou, Christina; Dobbels, Fabienne


    Thorough psychosocial screening of donor candidates is required in order to minimize potential negative consequences and to strive for optimal safety within living donation programmes. We aimed to develop an evidence-based tool to standardize the psychosocial screening process. Key concepts of psychosocial screening were used to structure our tool: motivation and decision-making, personal resources, psychopathology, social resources, ethical and legal factors and information and risk processing. We (i) discussed how each item per concept could be measured, (ii) reviewed and rated available validated tools, (iii) where necessary developed new items, (iv) assessed content validity and (v) pilot-tested the new items. The resulting ELPAT living organ donor Psychosocial Assessment Tool (EPAT) consists of a selection of validated questionnaires (28 items in total), a semi-structured interview (43 questions) and a Red Flag Checklist. We outline optimal procedures and conditions for implementing this tool. The EPAT and user manual are available from the authors. Use of this tool will standardize the psychosocial screening procedure ensuring that no psychosocial issues are overlooked and ensure that comparable selection criteria are used and facilitate generation of comparable psychosocial data on living donor candidates. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  5. Scaling behaviour in the number of criminal acts committed by individuals (United States)

    Cook, Will; Ormerod, Paul; Cooper, Ellie


    We examine the distribution of the extent of criminal activity by individuals in two widely cited data bases. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development records criminal convictions amongst a group of working class youths in the UK over a 14 year period. The Pittsburgh Youth Study measures self-reported criminal acts over intervals of six months or a year in three groups of boys in the public school system in Pittsburgh, PA. The range of the data is very substantially different between these two measures of criminal activity, one of which is convictions and the other self-reported acts. However, there are many similarities between the characteristics of the data sets. A power law relationship between the frequency and rank of the number of criminal acts describes the data well in both cases, and fits the data better than an exponential relationship. Power law distributions of macroscopic observables are ubiquitous in both the natural and social sciences. They are indicative of correlated, cooperative phenomena between groups of interacting agents at the microscopic level. However, there is evidence of a bimodal distribution, again in each case. Excluding the frequency with which zero crimes are committed or reported reduces the absolute size of the estimated exponent in the power law relationship. The exponent is virtually identical in both cases. A better fit is obtained for the tail of the distribution. In other words, there appears to be a subtle deviation from straightforward power law behaviour. The description of the data when the number of boys committing or reporting zero crimes are excluded is different from that when they are included. The crucial step in the criminal progress of an individual appears to be committing the first act. Once this happens, the number of criminal acts committed by an individual can take place on all scales.

  6. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie


    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for Reducing Criminal Violence among Athletes. (United States)

    Staffo, Donald F.


    Discusses the serious problem of criminal violence in the personal lives of athletes, suggesting strategies that physical educators, coaches, and school systems can implement with young athletes which could reduce the incidence and severity of violence later in life (e.g., teaching unconditional respect for others, continually reinforcing social…

  8. Criminal violence and displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Albuja


    Full Text Available Rampant criminal violence, from direct coercion and physical threats to the erosion of the quality of life and livelihood opportunities, pushes people to move in a variety of ways. Not everyone forced to move has equal access to protection or asylum.

  9. Challenging international criminal tribunals before domestic courts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d' Aspremont, J.; Brölmann, C.; Reinisch, A.


    International courts, despite the wide-ranging means that have been put at their disposal, need the cooperation of various domestic actors. The cooperation of States with international criminal tribunals has not always been without difficulty, as these tribunals have been the object of various

  10. 22 CFR 1101.16 - Criminal penalties. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Criminal penalties. 1101.16 Section 1101.16 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES... public notice of a system of records as required by 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4). ...

  11. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND... he or she: (1) Damages tangible property of another purposely, recklessly, or by negligence in the...

  12. 17 CFR 14.5 - Criminal conviction. (United States)


    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal conviction. 14.5 Section 14.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... felony or of a misdemeanor involving fraud or involving moral turpitude in matters related to the...

  13. The Hispanic Experience of Criminal Justice. (United States)

    Sissons, Peter L.

    This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…

  14. Criminal Justice Research Is about People. (United States)

    Conrad, John P.


    Suggests that the Golden Age of criminal justice research has ended with an impending era of austerity. Reviews the work done in the past forty years and recommends a return to the people-oriented research that characterized the Chicago School of the early '20s rather than systems research. (Author/JAC)

  15. Becoming Criminal: The Cultural Politics of Risk (United States)

    Armstrong, Derrick


    At the same time as youth crime in the UK is falling, there has been an increase in the numbers of young people in custody together with an explosion of social policy initiatives aimed at young people deemed to be "at risk" of becoming criminal and focused upon the prevention of future offending and inclusion in mainstream society. This…

  16. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen


    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many

  17. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...

  18. Keeping pace with criminals: An extended study of designing patrol allocation against adaptive opportunistic criminals


    Zhang, Chao; Gholami, Shahrzad; Kar, Debarun; Sinha, Arunesh; Jain, Manish; Goyal, Ripple; Tambe, Milind


    Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists) who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. I...

  19. Bribery offences under Vietnamese criminal law in comparision with Swedish and Australian criminal law


    Dao Le, Thu


    There have been attempts, all over the world, to address bribery with recourse to criminal law. As many other countries, Vietnam has been doing activities that show the determination of combating and controlling corruption, including strengthening penal provisions in terms of bribery. However, the situation of bribery in Vietnam is still alarming. For Vietnamese law enforcement authorities, criminal provisions concerning bribery are neither adequate nor clear. Analysis starts with bot...

  20. JPRS Report: East Asia, Southeast Asia, LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure. (United States)


    1941 - 1991 JPRS Repor East Asia Southeast Asia LPDR Criminal Code, Courts, and Criminal Procedure mom m £C QUALITY »ra^r...prostitution, will be impris- oned for three to five years. Article 124. Incest . Anyone who has sexual intercourse with parents, step- parents...This consists of facts which indicate whether there have been actions dangerous to society, the guilt of the per- sons who undertook the

  1. The Psychosocial Treadmill: the Road to Improving High-risk Behavior in Advanced Therapy Candidates. (United States)

    Newman, Laura


    The purpose of this review is to explore the evaluation and identification of psychosocial risk factors during the heart transplant evaluation process with the goal of improving psychosocial candidacy prior to transplant listing. Subsequently, more patients will be able to receive life-saving heart transplant and experience success after transplant. Evaluating and identifying psychosocial risk factors is an essential component of the transplant evaluation process. Less research exists demonstrating how patients may be able to reduce psychosocial risk factors over time to improve their candidacy for transplant. This review will describe a program developed for patients undergoing heart transplant evaluation at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center to improve their psychosocial risk. By implementing a comprehensive, multidisciplinary intervention to address psychosocial risk factors pre-transplant, patients can improve their psychosocial candidacy and go on to be listed for heart transplant.

  2. Criminal proceedings involving children in conflict with the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolocan-Holban Augustina


    Full Text Available At each stage of criminal procedure involving children (juveniles in conflict with the law, it is important to be ensured the fundamental rights provided by international standards, as well by national criminal legislation. Starting with the first contact of the child with criminal justice system until the pronunciation of the decision by the Court, including the enforcement of the punishment, the juvenile must be supervised by qualified professionals from criminal justice system, who could intervene in each moment with a purpose of providing pertinent information to criminal investigative body and to the Court, in order to establish a proportionate and equitable punishment.

  3. The Relevance of Criminal Courts in the Global South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leandro Ciocchini


    Full Text Available The literature on comparative law has a long and robust tradition, but studies comparing courts and judicial systems are scarce. Comparative studies in the Global South, following Shapiro’s institutional approach, have aimed to measure the involvement of courts in politics by assessing the power of the judiciary in society, the level of judicial independence, and their role in the context of the judicialization of politics. The focus was on the high courts, including either Constitutional or Supreme Courts. Criminal courts have not received similar attention despite the influence of their everyday decisions on people’s lives and their perception of the judicial system. This article argues that developing a comparative approach for criminal courts in the Global South is needed to help understand the role they play in the development of the rule of law and democratic life. This comparative study helps understand the impact of judicial reform programmes in the Global South. These reforms, inspired by a neoliberal paradigm, have focused on improving the efficiency of the courts. The reforms have promoted managerial techniques detrimental to the standards of due process. Any assessment of the impact of the reforms on the courts in the Global South should start by recognising the widely differing settings under which they operate. This context is characterised by serious economic constraints, such as a lack of material and human resources, and a democratic deficit legacy from the past authoritarian regimes, including widespread police abuse and corruption. Given this context, the role of the courts in ensuring due process and the legality of police procedures is crucial. The impact of the judicial reforms promoting managerial rationality in recent decades must be analysed. To examine the role courts are playing in criminal matters, two cases were explored where courts have undergone extensive judicial reforms, Argentina and the Philippines.

  4. Psychosocial characteristics of bullying personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Milo


    Full Text Available Violence as a traditional appearance of a criminal nature in modern conditions is expressed in certain specific circumstances, especially the type and application of funds. However, behind the phenomena are violent - offender and victim. Criminology, even in its infancy of science, as well as in the classical theories have always dealt with the issues of violent offender, classifying it in the first criminals of passion. The question is whether modern conditions with changes in the type and nature of violence in recent times this type of crime and became a rational motive, and therefore habitually delinquent or professional criminal. The work in this regard primarily engaged in matters of general (psychological, pathological and social characteristics and dispositions of perpetrators of violence in the area.

  5. The Role of Parenting in the Prediction of Criminal Involvement: Findings from a Nationally Representative Sample of Youth and a Sample of Adopted Youth (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Schwartz, Joseph A.; Connolly, Eric J.; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar


    The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological…

  6. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders. (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M


    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Criminal investigations in child protective services cases: an empirical analysis. (United States)

    Cross, Theodore P; Chuang, Emmeline; Helton, Jesse J; Lux, Emily A


    This study analyzed the frequency and correlates of criminal investigation of child maltreatment in cases investigated by child protective service (CPS), using national probability data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Criminal investigations were conducted in slightly more than 25% of cases. Communities varied substantially in percentage criminally investigated. Sexual abuse was the most frequent type of maltreatment criminally investigated followed by physical abuse. Logistic regression results indicated that criminal investigations were more likely when caseworkers perceived greater harm and more evidence; when CPS conducted an investigation rather than an assessment; when a parent or a legal guardian reported the maltreatment; and when cases were located in communities in which CPS and police had a memorandum of understanding (MOU) governing coordination. Most variation between communities in criminal investigation remained unexplained. The findings suggest the potential of MOUs for communities wanting to increase criminal investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Guilt and Choice in Criminal Law Theory – A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Hörnle


    Full Text Available The article discusses the Principle of Guilt and the Principle of Alternate Decisions, beginning with their central role in German law before moving on to the broader discussion. It argues that criminal law theory should not rely on the Principle of Alternate Decisions as it is not consistent with the most plausible, empirically founded model of how human beings make decisions. However, this does not lead to the conclusion that criminal punishment in the traditional sense, that is, as a practice involving blame, should be abandoned. Blame is compatible with a realistic view on decision-making. Compatibilism is not new to criminal law theory – several authors have developed such arguments. However, a simple version of compatibilism, arguing that substantive criminal law is not in need of major modifications, is insufficient. The main point in this paper is that several issues in criminal law doctrine, the place and scope of insanity defences, mitigations and intention as volition, need to be re-considered and re-conceptualized. 

  9. The Criminal Justice Doctorate: A Study of Doctoral Programs in the United States. (United States)

    Felkenes, George T.

    Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…

  10. Making Immigrants into Criminals: Legal Processes of Criminalization in the Post-IIRIRA Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisy Abrego


    Full Text Available During a post-election TV interview that aired mid-November 2016, then President-Elect Donald Trump claimed that there are millions of so-called “criminal aliens” living in the United States: “What we are going to do is get the people that are criminal and have criminal records, gang members, drug dealers, we have a lot of these people, probably two million, it could be even three million, we are getting them out of our country or we are going to incarcerate.” This claim is a blatant misrepresentation of the facts. A recent report by the Migration Policy Institute suggests that just over 800,000 (or 7 percent of the 11 million undocumented individuals in the United States have criminal records. Of this population, 300,000 individuals are felony offenders and 390,000 are serious misdemeanor offenders — tallies which exclude more than 93 percent of the resident undocumented population (Rosenblum 2015, 22-24.[1] Moreover, the Congressional Research Service found that 140,000 undocumented migrants — or slightly more than 1 percent of the undocumented population — are currently serving time in prison in the United States (Kandel 2016. The facts, therefore, are closer to what Doris Meissner, former Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS Commissioner, argues: that the number of “criminal aliens” arrested as a percentage of all fugitive immigration cases is “modest” (Meissner et al. 2013, 102-03. The facts notwithstanding, President Trump’s fictional tally is important to consider because it conveys an intent to produce at least this many people who — through discourse and policy — can be criminalized and incarcerated or deported as “criminal aliens.” In this article, we critically review the literature on immigrant criminalization and trace the specific laws that first linked and then solidified the association between undocumented immigrants and criminality. To move beyond a legal, abstract context, we also draw on

  11. The Use of Soil in Criminal Investigations (United States)

    Dawson, Lorna; Fitzpatrick, Robert


    Forensic soil science, as a newly developed discipline of soil science, has matured to the extent that well-defined questions and successful crime scene investigations are being addressed in increasingly refined ways to assist law enforcement agencies. Soils, rocks, regolith, minerals and man-made mineral particles such as bricks (i.e. referred to "human-made" soil materials) are being used in specialised forensic investigations to associate/disassociate a sample taken from an item, such as shoes, clothing, shovel or vehicle, with a specific location. The majority of forensic cases involving soil materials are usually overwhelmingly complex, and the challenges of associating relevant information from one source with another, often requires the use and development of sophisticated field and laboratory methods. Through examples from case studies, this presentation will demonstrate how advanced field and laboratory approaches have been critical in developing coherent, predictive, soil models, from landscape to microscopic scales, to help contribute to soil-based criminal investigations in both Australia and Scotland. To demonstrate the critical importance of soil materials in forensic investigations, the following 2 case studies, which tackle difficult problems at a range of scales involving highly complex issues, will be presented: •The use of soil evidence to help solve a double murder case. This investigation used morphological, chemical, physical and mineralogical properties to identify similarities between soil-regolith found on a shovel taken from the suspect's vehicle and wetland soil-regolith subsequently located in the bottom of a quarry (Fitzpatrick and Raven, 2012). •The use of soil and related material to help search and to provide evidence in a murder case. This investigation used soil mineralogical and organic properties to identify similarities between sand found on a shovel and sand subsequently located at a beach. Results illustrate the benefit of

  12. Several criminal, phenomenological and etiological features of criminal offences of counterfeiting money in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Milot Krasniqi


    Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo is making efforts as a young state to strengthen rule of law and efficiently combat criminality in general, and specifically organized crime, as a condition for its journey towards European integration perspectives.  For a normal functioning of the economic system, the safety and protection of controlled circulation of money are of vital importance. In this direction, the state takes actions and measures to ensure that manufacturing and emissions of banknotes and bonds are undertaken by competent authorities, such as the Central Bank, and render impossible the counterfeiting of money. In Kosovo, money counterfeiting is not widely studied. Consequently, there are no recent research papers over the time when these offences have marked rather high records. This circumstance, and especially the fact that these offences are rather frequent in Kosovo, made me enter the research of this type of criminality.    Apart from principles and rules stipulated by special laws of the field of economy, protection of the economic system is also helped by the Criminal Code, which incriminates the act of counterfeit money as a criminal offence against the economic system, thereby ensuring general prevention of potential offenders, and repressive measures against confirmed offenders. Protection of economic and monetary systems is also provided upon by numerous international acts.  The paper is permeated by conclusions, analysis and independent recommendations, which I believe will contribute de lege ferrenda to criminal policies in preventing and combating this type of crime. In researching the criminal offences of counterfeiting money, I have used the method of historical materialism, dogmatic law method, statistical methods, surveys and interviews, and studies of individual cases.    From the research of this type of crime, I have concluded that these criminal offences are a serious type of crime, which may result in major individual

  13. Language impairments in youths with traumatic brain injury: implications for participation in criminal proceedings. (United States)

    Wszalek, Joseph A; Turkstra, Lyn S


    As many as 30% of incarcerated juveniles have a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moderate or severe TBI is associated with a high risk of impairment in language comprehension and expression, which may have profound effects on juveniles' ability to understand and express themselves in criminal proceedings. In this article, we review common language impairments in youths with TBI and discuss potential effects of these impairments on 3 stages of US criminal proceedings: (1) initial encounter with law enforcement; (2) interrogation and Miranda rights; and (3) competence to undergo trial proceedings. We then describe language assessment tools and procedures that may be helpful in legal contexts. Our aim was to inform clinicians and legal staff working with juvenile defendants with TBI, with the long-term goal of developing empirically based guidelines to ensure that juvenile defendants with TBI can fully and effectively participate in criminal proceedings.

  14. Crime and Young Men: The Role of Arrest, Criminal Experience, and Heterogeneity


    Susumu Imai; Hajime Katayama; Kala Krishna


    Using National Youth Survey (NYS) data, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity and past arrests using an ordered probit model with unobserved heterogeneity. Past arrests raise current criminal activity only for the non-criminal type, while past criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. Also, the age crime profile peaks at age 18 for non-criminal type individuals, but for criminal type individuals, it continues to rise with age. Past research indica...

  15. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva


    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8......-fourth of the population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... in the population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  16. Psychosocial considerations about children and radiological events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemyre, L.; Corneil, W.; Johnson, C.; Boutette, P.


    Children are identified as a vulnerable population in the case of radiological events because of their increased physical sensitivity to radiation and its impact on critical development stages. Using a comprehensive integrated risk framework, psychosocial risk protective factors are discussed in a social ecology paradigm. Children have been shown to be both vulnerable and resilient; they are both easily impressionable and also quick to adapt and learn. Psychosocial interventions during, after and most efficiently before an event can improve outcome, especially if they involve parents and schools, media and work organisations. Public education through children should be encouraged to increase knowledge of radiation and strategies to minimise exposure and irradiation. Children can become vectors of prevention, preparedness and mitigation through information and behavioural rehearsal. Special consideration must therefore be given to education, school programmes, practice rehearsal and media exposure. (authors)

  17. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P


    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  18. Editorial: The researcher and the research in criminal sciences in contemporaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caíque Ribeiro Galícia


    Full Text Available This editorial presents a general analysis of the contemporary reality of the researcher and research in criminal sciences in Brazil. The researcher's profile is sought as an important component to understand the choices of criminal science research guidelines, with a focus on overcoming the false claim of impartiality of the subject-researcher. In this panorama, an analysis of legal research in Brazil is made, highlighting the most important role in the better understanding of legal science, but also as a factor of social, cultural, political and economic development.

  19. [Anarchists, Assassins and Revolutionaries. The Psychopathologization of "Political Criminals" between 1880 and 1920]. (United States)

    Hahn, Judith


    "Political criminals" of the early 20th century were adjudged to be psychopaths, a term which was generally accompanied by a negative moral judgement. However, other more positive appraisals were also made at this time. These contradictory moral judgements by psychiatrists expose the need for an examination of the historical development of concepts, traditions and moral debates associated with political criminals (anarchists, assassins, revolutionaries). This will be undertaken in the context of psychiatry/ criminology, security (and surveillance) policy as well as culture and the arts in German-speaking countries from 1880 to the early 1920s.

  20. The principle of guilt as a basis for criminal sanctions justification review in the Criminal Law in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorović Emir A.


    Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.

  1. Model(ing) Law: The ICTY, the International Criminal Justice Template, and Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree


    My project uses the case study of the ICTY and reconciliation in the Balkans to address the larger topic of the capacity of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) as transitional justice mechanisms. I argue that the ICTY operates under the (flawed) received wisdom of the IMT at Nuremberg, what I...... term the international criminal justice template. This template accords three transitional justice functions for ICTs beyond (and in conjunction with) their central judicial aim of adjudicating cases: as (1) articulators of progressive criminal law (2) historians and (3) reconcilers or storytellers. My...... and the development of international law and society studies, in order to better theorize and understand the structural and theoretical constraints governing the establishment of legitimacy for international criminal courts....

  2. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome. (United States)

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony


    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Criminal recidivism in sexual homicide perpetrators. (United States)

    Hill, Andreas; Habermann, Niels; Klusmann, Dietrich; Berner, Wolfgang; Briken, Peer


    Forensic psychiatric reports on 166 sexual homicide perpetrators in Germany were retrospectively analyzed for criminal risk factors. Follow-up information about release and reconvictions from federal criminal records was available for 139 offenders; 90 (64.7%) had been released. The estimated recidivism rate (Kaplan-Meier analyses) for 20 years at risk was 23.1% for sexual and 18.3% for nonsexual violent reoffences. Three men (3.3%) were reconvicted for attempted or completed homicide. Only young age at the time of sexual homicide resulted in higher sexual recidivism, whereas increased nonsexual violent recidivism was related to previous sexual and nonsexual delinquency, psychopathic symptoms, and higher scores in risk assessment instruments. Increased recidivism with any violent reoffence was associated with age-related factors: young age at first sexual offence, at homicide, and at release and duration of detention. The impacts of the results for risk assessment, relapse prevention, and supervision are discussed.

  4. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  5. Keeping Pace with Criminals: An Extended Study of Designing Patrol Allocation against Adaptive Opportunistic Criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang


    Full Text Available Game theoretic approaches have recently been used to model the deterrence effect of patrol officers’ assignments on opportunistic crimes in urban areas. One major challenge in this domain is modeling the behavior of opportunistic criminals. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists who execute a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing well-laid plans based on their knowledge of patrol officers’ assignments. In this paper, we aim to design an optimal police patrolling strategy against opportunistic criminals in urban areas. Our approach is comprised by two major parts: learning a model of the opportunistic criminal (and how he or she responds to patrols and then planning optimal patrols against this learned model. The planning part, by using information about how criminals responds to patrols, takes into account the strategic game interaction between the police and criminals. In more detail, first, we propose two categories of models for modeling opportunistic crimes. The first category of models learns the relationship between defender strategy and crime distribution as a Markov chain. The second category of models represents the interaction of criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN with the number of criminals as the unobserved hidden states. To this end, we: (i apply standard algorithms, such as Expectation Maximization (EM, to learn the parameters of the DBN; (ii modify the DBN representation that allows for a compact representation of the model, resulting in better learning accuracy and the increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications exploit the structure of the problem and use independence assumptions to factorize the large joint probability distributions. Next, we propose an iterative learning and planning mechanism that periodically updates the adversary model. We

  6. Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State


    Caballero, Juan


    My dissertation, titled "Transnational Crime Fictions and Argentina's Criminal State," proposes a new understanding of the dictatorship novels of Ricardo Piglia, Juan José Saer, and Manuel Puig grounded in their shared appropriation from popular crime fiction. Across the 1940's, 50's, and 60's, a wide range of popular crime fiction was translated, written, theorized, printed and reprinted in Argentina, and these popular genres grew steadily in readership, visibility, and cultural legitimacy....



    Ceyhan, Eyüp Burak; Sağıroğlu, Şeref; Cesur, Ramazan; Kermen, Ayten


    This paper proposes a new approach to determine potential criminals by performing content analysis on Tweets. The analysis is done with the help of machine learning technologies and big data analysis. In this study, we have utilized from the MLP algorithm. A dataset consisting of 384 words are used to make the classification process. Dataset consist of two classes that are organized crime and cyber-crimes. In the analysis process, date, time, location values of sent twitter sharings are also ...

  8. 12 CFR 1403.11 - Criminal penalties. (United States)


    ... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS § 1403.11 Criminal penalties. Section 552a(i)(3) of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i)(3)) makes it a misdemeanor, subject to a... from an agency under false pretenses. Sections 552a(i) (1) and (2) of the Act (5 U.S.C. 552a(i) (1), (2...

  9. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice


    Erinda Duraj (Male)


    Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...

  10. Criminal Homicide Because of Blood Feud


    Leyla Cak›c› Gercek; Jale Bafra


    Although so much progress going on in every field, the crimes of killing man impelled by blood feud carry on their existance. All jurisprudences and the decisions of the Court of Appeal about the criminal homicides connected with this type of crimes ha- ve been carefully examined. The required measures to prevent that, the criticisms againist the decisions of the Court of Appeal and the factors explained in the decisions of that Co- urt have been determined.

  11. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben


    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...... than imprison, individuals with schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that greater alertness is needed in the judicial system for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia....

  12. Conflictos psico-sociales de la mujer delincuente en México/ Psycho-social conflict women offenders in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabiola García Álvarez


    Full Text Available The problem of violence as cause and consequence of criminal behavior, same rooted arises on endogenous and exogenous factors. Also, theories studying female criminality, such as social, legal, criminological and psychological described, among others; that help us identify different points of view of researchers who have given importance to the issue. Once theories of female criminality analyzed, the reasons arise for conducting this research, as the crime rate growing, changing role of women and pretend to give a comprehensive explanation of the problem. Furthermore, the research objectives were established, one of them, analyzing female criminality in a multidisciplinary manner to achieve progress in this area. The main hypotheses are established: the causes of criminal behavior is policausal, mainly determined by its personality. Field work was conducted in the Women's Preventive and Rehabilitation Center in Puente Grande, Jalisco, Mexico (CPRF, were applied to the sample of 25% of the universe of the prison community of female offenders aged between 25 and 35, held on charges of murder and / or robbery; where they were analyzed psychosocial variables that influence female behavior, violent ones.

  13. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard


    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  14. The reaction to femicide in criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana


    Full Text Available Misogynous and sexist violence against women, which often results in death, represents a global problem. Numerous international and national legal instruments are dedicated to the prevention and sanctioning of violence against women. However, the reality implies that existing mechanisms of penal reaction to femicide, as its most extreme and brutal form, should be re-examined. Having in mind the frequency and severe consequences of this criminal offence and the discriminatory character of the message that the state sends by tolerating it or inadequately punishing its perpetrators, the author attempts to define femicide, to present basic forms of state reaction to femicide in comparative law as well as to analyze the features of femicide as an independent criminal offence. Arguing for the incrimination of femicide as an independent criminal offence, or as a special form of aggravated murder, the author points out that such solution could contribute to more precise observation of this form of crime, to a better estimation of the quality of the state‘ s reaction to it and to its more efficient suppression.

  15. Stalking: Criminological and criminal law aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko


    Full Text Available Starting from the historical aspects of stalking crime, the author first provides an overview of different definitions of this socially negative behavior in the legal documents of countries where such conduct was first criminalized. The author presents statistical data on the scope of stalking in the United States and Australia. The second part of the paper discusses different types of stalkers, whose distinctive features are analyzed in more detail. In particular, the author focuses on the causal link between the stalking crime and violence, as well as the victims' responses to their own victimization. In the next part of this article, the author provides a detailed analysis of a wide range of consequences of stalking crime. In some cases, the victim of stalking may become the perpetrator of a criminal act of murder, whereas the stalker becomes a victim of this serious form of homicide. Although these cases are not numerous, they call for further analysis and proposing new legal solutions related to the privileged forms of murder, which are aimed at improving the position of the victim of stalking who is the perpetrator of such homicide. Finally, the author argues in favour of incriminating a new type of felony - the crime of stalking (in line with the model envisaged in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Croatia, as well as a privileged homicide which may be designated as a murder of a stalker committed by a victim of stalking.

  16. Development of Adaptive Coping From Mid to Late Life: A 70-Year Longitudinal Study of Defense Maturity and Its Psychosocial Correlates. (United States)

    Martin-Joy, John S; Malone, Johanna C; Cui, Xing-Jia; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan; Hill, Kevin P; Rahman, M Omar; Waldinger, Robert J; Vaillant, George E


    The present study examines changes in defense maturity from mid to late life using data from an over 70-year longitudinal study. A sample of 72 men was followed beginning in late adolescence. Participants' childhoods were coded for emotional warmth. Defense mechanisms were coded by independent raters using the Q-Sort of Defenses (, Ego mechanisms of defense: A guide for clinicians and researchers 217-233) based on interview data gathered at approximately ages 52 and 75. We examined psychosocial correlates of defenses at midlife, late life, and changes in defense from mid to late life. Overall, defenses grew more adaptive from midlife to late life. However, results differed on the basis of the emotional warmth experienced in the participants' childhoods. In midlife, men who experienced warm childhoods used more adaptive (mature) defenses; yet by late life, this difference in defensive maturity had disappeared. Men who experienced less childhood warmth were more likely to show an increase in adaptive defenses during the period from mid to late life.

  17. Il crimine organizzato in Italia: analisi evolutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bianchini


    Full Text Available In Italy, organized crime presents today some specific characteristics : traditional for the existence of ancient roots from particular regions; new for the kind of illegal activities in which organized crime is involved and which is always changing and spreading making international alliances.In Italy, with specific attention to endogenous crime, the last Report on Crime underlines that “the more structured criminal alliances, such as cosa nostra, ‘ndrangheta, camorra and Apulian organized crime , keep on exerting an effective control effect in their original territories and so they are also a very serious threat for the development of relationships between the social components and also for the economy”. This is an alarming situation which requires urgent, preventive, istitutional and social action. The results from the present research are based on the reading and the analysis of the inaugural addresses of judicial years ( 2000-2007.Aujourd'hui en Italie, la criminalité organisée présente des caractéristiques particulières : traditionnelles, en raison de l'existence d'anciennes racines dans certains contextes régionaux ; nouvelles, à cause de la typologie d'activités illicites accomplies ; expansives, par l'aptitude à tisser des alliances transnationales. À propos de la criminalité endogène, le dernier Rapport sur la Criminalité en Italie souligne que "les associations criminelles les plus structurées, cosa nostra, 'ndrangheta, camorra et criminalité organisée des Pouilles, continuent à exercer une action de contrôle efficace des territoires d'origine et à menacer gravement le développement des relations parmi les différentes composantes sociales et de l'ordre économique". L'analyse ici présentée aussi, concernant les rapports inauguraux des années judiciaires (2000-2007, trace un cadre alarmant qui exige des interventions urgentes à niveau préventif, institutionnel et social.

  18. The national trajectory project of individuals found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder. Part 5: how essential are gender-specific forensic psychiatric services? (United States)

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles


    To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men's and women's treatment and management needs are different. Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder-accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services.

  19. Manufacturing white criminals: Depictions of criminality and violence on Law & Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Selepak


    Full Text Available This study examines exposure to the police drama television genre and its impact on perceptions of crime and racial criminality. Content analyses of three seasons of Law & Order were examined to evaluate the show’s portrayal of race and crime compared to actual crime statistics for New York City during the same periods. A survey was also conducted to examine perceptions of personal safety and the influence of television’s depiction of race and crime. Results suggest whites are disproportionately portrayed as criminals five to eight times more often on police dramas compared to actual crime statistics for the city of New York, exposure to police dramas increases beliefs of threats to personal safety, and exposure to police dramas leads to elevated perceptions of white criminality among non-whites. Results provide additional support for cultivation theory and “Mean World Syndrome,” and implications for delimitation and racial distrust.

  20. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig


    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  1. Juridical Perspective Of Credit Card Misuse Under Criminal Law A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Nugraha


    Full Text Available The development of the national economy shows the direction that increasingly integrated with the regional and international economy that can support both a negative and positive impacts. Meanwhile the development of national economy continues to move quickly to the increasingly complex challenges therefore necessary adjustments in economic policies including the banking sector which is expected to be able to improve and strengthen the national economy. Bank as a means that ease people with all benefit is also not released from the weakness. The type of this research is normative for making criminal legislation as an object of study while the approach used tends juridical as a point of reference the theories of law and the rules of law in view of the problem. The outcomes of the research indicate that the efforts should be made to address the misuse of credit cards in the enforcement of the Indonesians criminal law is to formulate the rules of criminal law with a comprehensive pattern of expansion of legal subjects the offender is to enter the legal entity recht persoon as the parties may be subject to liability and formulate formulation of criminal in order to reach the entire modus operandi is being or may develop in the future. Besides the expansion of sanctions should be accompanied by sanction renewal that oriented to the cumulative punishment is retaliation deterrence and development.

  2. The Social Cost of Criminalizing a Civil act: TRIPS Section 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intellectual property rights mandated by the World Trade Organization at the global level is meant to facilitate innovation through research and development. However, the underlying rationale for criminalizing copyright infringement is not clear. Against this backdrop the author weighs the cost and the benefit of the TRIPS ...

  3. Damaška and the faces of international criminal justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, B.


    Mirjan Damaška 's scholarly publications provide important insights for the analysis of systems of criminal justice at the international level. This is particularly true for his major book: The Faces of Justice and State Authority - A Comparative Approach to the Legal Process. The book develops

  4. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting (United States)

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert


    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social…

  5. Academic Disciplines and Debates: An Essay on Criminal Justice and Criminology as Professions in Higher Education. (United States)

    Morn, Frank T.

    Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…

  6. Psychosocial interventions and the demoralization of humanitarianism. (United States)

    Pupavac, Vanessa


    This paper critically analyses from a political sociology standpoint the international conceptualization of war-affected populations as traumatized and in need of therapeutic interventions. It argues for the importance of looking beyond the epidemiological literature to understand trauma responses globally. The paper explores how the imperative for international psychosocial programmes lies in developments within donor countries and debates in their humanitarian sectors over the efficacy of traditional aid responses. The aim of the paper is threefold. First, it discusses the emotional norms of donor states, highlighting the psychologizing of social issues and the cultural expectations of individual vulnerability. Second it examines the demoralization of humanitarianism in the 1990s and how this facilitated the rise of international psychosocial work and the psychologizing of war. Third, it draws attention to the limitations of a mental health model in Croatia, a country which has been receptive to international psychosocial programmes. Finally it concludes that the prevalent trauma approaches may inhibit recovery and argues for the need to re-moralize resilience.

  7. The Wicked Character of Psychosocial Risks: Implications for Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbo Jespersen


    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective in several countries, a better understanding of the nature of the challenges is still needed. It is necessary to accept the uncertain nature of psychosocial risks in the search for more efficient regulation. Achieving more effective regulation should involve stakeholders in the workplace who deal with the prerogatives of management, and should help develop the competencies of the inspectors and auditors in the field.

  8. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Dutch Families of a Child With Cancer: Reliability, Validity, and Usability of the Psychosocial Assessment Tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, Simone M.; Schepers, Sasja A.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Caron, Huib N.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Verhaak, Chris M.


    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk in families of a child diagnosed with cancer. The current study is the first describing the cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, validity, and usability of the PAT in an European country (Dutch translation).   A

  9. Criminal law aspects of assisted human reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan


    Full Text Available Numerous shortcomings of the Law on Infertility Treatment by Biomedically Assisted Fertilization culminate in provisions defining criminal offences. A question is raised regarding the possibility and results of the application of such criminal provisions due to the legislative technique used in the process of their creation, language, qualified forms of the offences, span of criminal sanctions, as well as having in mind the overlapping of such criminal offences with some of the misdemeanors punishable by the same Law. A possibility to provide for a criminal law protection in this highly sensitive area is put into question due to a very courageous action of the legislator reflected in the attempt to introduce criminal offences, punishable by long prison sentences.

  10. Economic Analysis of Criminal Law and Liberal Criminal Law: Confluences and Forks

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    Diego H. Goldman


    Full Text Available Not all economic analysis necessarily lead to a maximalist criminal law that threatens the fundamental rights, but on the contrary, can be found in economic science approaches perfectly compatible with the most liberal thought currents. This paper aims to make a critical study of economic theory usually associated with the Criminal EAL, its practical implications and its teleological budgets. Criticism will leave an openly liberal view, which defends the ideas and values that over the centuries have expressed such diverse thinkers as Adam Smith, Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozick or Juan Bautista Alberdi.

  11. Effects of structured group psychosocial support sessions on psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers: a descriptive study. (United States)

    Humeid, Jasem


    Children aged 7-12 years and their caregivers participated in a series of group psychosocial support sessions, using standard manuals specifically developed for facilitating such sessions such as Children Affected by Armed Conflict and Joint Sessions. The sessions used various activities, including drawing, storytelling, folk games, and other activities, to provide participants with opportunities to express their feelings, learn and practice new coping skills, and interact with others. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of structured psychosocial support sessions on the psychosocial wellbeing of children and their caregivers in the Gaza Strip. This descriptive study involved children and female caregivers selected from six locations using a stratified sampling technique. External numerators collected data before and after the group sessions. Two interview questionnaires with questions about psychological and social status were used, one for children and one for caregivers. The caregivers' questionnaire also assessed their psychosocial knowledge. Adult participants and caregivers of participating children provided verbal consent. Data were analysed with SPSS, and a p value less than 0·05 indicated significance. 155 children (77 [50%] boys and 78 [50%] girls) and 155 female caregivers were enrolled from a population of 1720 children (50% boys and 50% girls) and 1720 female caregivers. The sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in participants, with the average psychosocial wellbeing score increasing from 58% to 87% in children and from 69% to 84% in caregivers. Caregivers' knowledge increased from 70% to 82%. Improvement was found in the various aspects of psychosocial wellbeing. No differences were found with respect to location, sex, and age. Structured group sessions improved psychosocial wellbeing in children and caregivers and improved caregivers' knowledge. Given the design of this study, it is difficult to fully attribute these results to the

  12. Principle Mediation of Domestic Violence as Criminal Act


    Wijaya, Sandy Ari


    Penal mediation is a process of extra judicial settlement for criminal case. The application ofpenal mediation on criminal law is to give the justice and protection to the victims of which it isnot accommodate by legality aspect in Indonesia criminal law. The existence of penal mediationprinciple with legal certainty affect the domestic violence (KDRT). The inconsistence continueswhen the penal mediation process relevance is applied to serious domestic violence that violate thehuman rights. T...

  13. Profiling property criminals in Turkey. (United States)

    Içli, Tülin Günsen; Seydioğullari, Ibrahim; Tatlidil, Hüseyin; Coban, Sevgi; Sever, Hanifi; Süeroğlu, Unal


    The main aim of this research is to develop a profile of a thief. Through a comprehensive survey of property crime suspects arrested in the city of Ankara between 2004 and 2005, the authors have attempted to determine the socioeconomic qualities of those involved in these forms of property crimes. Results of the study show that property crimes are a consequence of low education, lack of occupational skills, and alcohol and drug addiction on the part of the offenders. Because of these factors, theft becomes a way of life for offenders after their first act of property crime.

  14. The reliability and validity of the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders. (United States)

    Cai, Weixiong; Zhang, Qingting; Huang, Fuyin; Guan, Wei; Tang, Tao; Liu, Chao


    In China, the criminal responsibility of the mentally disordered offenders is divided into three levels, there are the whole responsibility, diminished responsibility and irresponsibility. According to the Criminal Law, "If a mental disordered patient causes harmful consequences at a time when he is unable to recognize or control his own conduct, upon verification and confirmation through legal procedure, he shall not bear criminal responsibility." That means there are two standards of assessing criminal responsibility, namely volitional and cognitive capacity. It is as equal as the Mc'Naughton Rule and the Irresistible Impulse Test. But for a long time, the criminal responsibility was assessed mainly by experience because of lacking of standardized assessment instrument. Recently, we have developed "the rating scale of criminal responsibility for mentally disordered offenders (RSCRs)". The scale includes eighteen items, namely criminal motivation, aura before offense, inducement of crime, time and place and object and tool selectivity of crime, emotion during the crime, shirking responsibility after offense, concealing the truth during inquest, camouflage, understanding the nature of the offense, estimating the consequence of the offense, impairment of life ability, impairment of learning or work, impairment of insight, impairment of reality testing, and impairment of self-control. This scale can be applicable for all cases and easy to use. This scale had been tried out in several forensic psychiatry institutes, the Cronbach α of the scale is 0.93, and all items have high correlation with the total score of the scale (r=0.50-0.89). Two factors were extracted by the factorial analysis, and the cumulative squared loading was 68.62%. The scores of the three levels were 9.66 ± 5.11, 26.54 ± 5.21 and 40.08 ± 7.90 respectively and highly significant differences were observed among groups. By establishing discrimination analysis among three levels, classification

  15. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment. (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K


    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper aims to be a scientific approach to the issue of euthanasia, bringing into the debate current and future controversies raised by euthanasia, as a result of the introduction into the Romanian penal law of the criminal offence of homicide by request of the victim. The study represents an approach to moral, religious, constitutional, civil, criminal procedure debates and last but not least to criminal debates regarding the legalization of the euthanasia, as the most difficult task lies with the criminal law.

  17. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J


    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), substance use disorders, and criminality: a difficult problem with complex solutions. (United States)

    Knecht, Carlos; de Alvaro, Raquel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Balanza-Martinez, Vicent


    The association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and criminality has been increasingly recognized as an important societal concern. Studies conducted in different settings have revealed high rates of ADHD among adolescent offenders. The risk for criminal behavior among individuals with ADHD is increased when there is psychiatric comorbidity, particularly conduct disorder and substance use disorder. In the present report, it is aimed to systematically review the literature on the epidemiological, neurobiological, and other risk factors contributing to this association, as well as the key aspects of the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD among offenders. A systematic literature search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO) was conducted to identify potentially relevant studies published in English, in peer-reviewed journals. Studies conducted in various settings within the judicial system and in many different countries suggest that the rate of adolescent and adult inmates with ADHD far exceeds that reported in the general population; however, underdiagnosis is common. Similarly, follow-up studies of children with ADHD have revealed high rates of criminal behaviors, arrests, convictions, and imprisonment in adolescence and adulthood. Assessment of ADHD and comorbid condition requires an ongoing and careful process. When treating offenders or inmates with ADHD, who commonly present other comorbid psychiatric disorder complex, comprehensive and tailored interventions, combining pharmacological and psychosocial strategies are likely to be needed.

  19. The right to information in criminal proceedings in the light of proposed changes of the Criminal Law Codification Commission


    Andrzejewska, Marzena


    The article addresses the issue of the right to information from the point of view of the participants of criminal proceedings. The execution of the right contributes to the principle of equality between the parties, secure execution of the adversarial principle, transparency and to creating the image of law-abidingness and transparent jurisdiction in the mindset of society. Particular attention has been paid to the draft amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code, prepared by the Criminal Law ...

  20. GST – the idea and recommendations for the prevention of criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Agnew


    Full Text Available The article is a presentation of the main assumptions of the General Strain Theory (GST and the possibility to put theory into practice in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. The GST was created in the ‘90s by Robert Agnew as a continuation of previous structural theories (Merton, Cloward – Ohlin, Cohen. Up to this day it has been widely verified empirically and along with other criminology theories (the theory of social learning/theory of different relations, theory of social control, theories of interaction is both a fundamental but also alternative ground for interpreting social behaviour. Due to its universal assumptions, GST is now being developed also by Polish researchers. In the article are presented the fundamental strategies of prevention of criminal behaviour based on GST and examples of particular programs being carried out in the US and Poland. Pilot studies on building in Poland a pioneer local system of prevention, based on GST, are presented. In the conclusions the authors stress the importance of GST in the genesis of criminal behaviour. The content of this article is therefore a result of an American-Polish cooperation in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. It seems that international and based on mutual partnership approach is the hallmark of the current stage of the Polish resocialization system development.