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Sample records for psychosocial development criminal

  1. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychosocial rehabilitation in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Thara; Sujit, John

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) is an essential component in the management of schizophrenia. It is especially relevant in the improvement of functioning and the quality of life of these individuals. The scarcity of mental health personnel and lack of training in many low and middle income countries (LAMIC) has led to low priority being accorded to PSR. This paper describes some of the PSR initiatives in LAMIC, especially those undertaken after disasters, home-based interventions and community-based rehabilitation programmes.

  4. Neurobiological and psychosocial conditionings of rationality of criminal behaviour – review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Piotrowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The term “rationality” has been mentioned for ages in philosophical discourse, and later in science. No wonder that considerations regarding the reasons behind committing crimes involve the question of rationality of culprits. The article comprises a review of contemporary research on factors which, on a neurobiological, psychological or social level, modify the level of rationality of criminals. In case of the juveniles, factors such as not fully developed brain structures, the influence of hormonal changes resulting in emotional instability and peer pressure, should also be taken into account. Adult criminals often manifest a deficit of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, combined with increased activity in the subcortex, resulting in an increased propensity for violence. Neurophysiologic disorders may be accompanied by factors reducing the rationality, such as: errors in thinking, habitual use of neutralisation techniques or being lead by the, typical for street culture, perception of justice. All of the above should be taken into account as a part of a multi-aspect analyses of the causes of crime.

  5. Issues of remedial development of forms in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsyganenko Sergey, S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the main issues of the modern concept of the criminal proceeding differentiation in terms of new methodological and theoretical approaches - models of criminal justice and the theory of criminal procedural strategy. This draws attention to a trend to expand the scope of application in criminal proceedings, along with production and procedural forms of justice and law and technology. In connection with what is considered their place in the structure of modern criminal procedure, the application conditions and development prospects. For a long time in the theory of criminal systemology a key element in the process acted as a procedural form of normative-functional complex stages and phases of activity in the pre-trial and judicial parts of the criminal justice system. Its mission has been focused on the achievement of major milestones in the implementation of justice, which, ultimately, are expressed in establishing the truth in the case. Thus, there was a two-element mechanism consisting of pre-trial proceedings, due to the need to solve the crime and bringing charges and proceedings, consisting primarily of the trial based on the principles of justice. This order, established regulations, is unified - it is equally applied to all categories of criminal cases and with all the procedural authorities. Modern criminal procedure is a differentiated form in which, along with established procedural steps and process of production, and has been actively used legal procedural technology.

  6. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in le

  7. Psycho-Social Development of Child Labourers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaraudanjoki, Esa

    This paper examines the psychosocial development of Nepalese child laborers. The findings are discussed in relation to the questions of where and how learning occurs, whether transfer or generalizations occur from specific skills to other activities, and what role the socialization process plays in the psychological well-being of the Nepalese…

  8. Psychosocial development among adolescents with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huurre, T M; Aro, H M

    1998-06-01

    The psychosocial development of adolescents with visual impairment was studied in a group of 54 adolescents (40 boys, 14 girls) attending Finnish regular schools. Mean age was 14.0 (SD 0.87). The control group consisted of normally sighted adolescents of the same age level (N=385, 172 boys, 213 girls). Data were collected with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that the adolescent group with visual impairment did not differ from the control group in the frequency of depression, distress symptoms or in their relations with parents and siblings. Adolescents with visual impairment less often had many friends and dates with other young people than those without visual impairment. They also reported more often feelings of loneliness and difficulties in making friends. Self-esteem, school achievement and social skills were lower in girls with visual impairment than in the control girls. In summary, our results showed that the psychosocial developmental outcomes of many adolescents with visual impairment were similar to their peers without visual impairment. However, some adolescents with visual impairment, especially girls, need more support in their psychosocial development.

  9. Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H.

    1977-01-01

    This article outlines some of the contributions of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development in providing a developmental perspective on career behavior. A brief overview of Erikson's theory is presented and possible contributions of the theory towards enhancing understanding of career development are noted. (Author)

  10. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.

  11. Gifted Children and Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.

    2001-01-01

    After presenting an overview of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development, the theory is applied to the development of gifted children. The psychosocial crisis experienced by children when they are infants, toddlers, preschoolers, elementary-aged, and during adolescence are examined, along with ways parents and teachers can help at each…

  12. Examining Psychosocial Identity Development Theories: A Guideline for Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Erikson's psychosocial identity development theory, identifies prominent theorists who extended his work, examines the limitations of the theory and explains how this theory can be applied to student affairs practices. Furthermore, two different studies that clarify the relationship between psychosocial factors…

  13. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    interventions have made critics proclaim that Western psychosocial expertise subjects the bereaved of the Third World to repressive administrative power by objectifying and colonizing their minds. Meanwhile, advocates of psychosocial rehabilitation maintain that such criticisms fail to appreciate the ability...... of local healing strategies to actually empower torture victims through rehabilitation programmes. Inspired by Michel Foucault's concept of government, this article argues that both these assessments of torture rehabilitation overlook forms of power that work through the constitution of subjectivities...

  14. Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: development of the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widerszal-Bazyl, M; Cieślak, R

    2000-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor endangering workers' health. Thus it should be constantly monitored like other work hazards. The paper presents a newly developed instrument for stress monitoring called the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). Its structure is based on Robert Karasek's model of job stress (Karasek, 1979; Karasek & Theorell, 1990). It consists of 3 main scales Job Demands, Job Control, Social Support and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (Elo, Leppanen, Lindstrom, & Ropponen, 1992), Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, middle medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, government and self-government administration officers, computer scientists, public transport drivers, teachers, N = 3,669) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometrics parameters. Norms for the 8 groups were developed.

  15. Adolescent Psychosocial Development: A Review of Longitudinal Models and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple…

  16. Psychosocial and Moral Development of PTSD-Diagnosed Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.; Baker, Stanley B.

    2007-01-01

    Two related studies were conducted in order to investigate whether psychosocial and moral development appeared to have been disrupted and arrested in veterans diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study 1 was devoted to developing a measure of late adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood stages of psychosocial…

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Programmed Text in Criminal Law. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A.

    Two pieces of literature by Thomas A. Wills are contained in this document: (1) A complete programed text in law, "A Programmed Text in Criminal Law," and (2) a study comparing instruction with versus instruction without the use of programed texts, "Development and Evaluation of a Programed Text in Criminal Law." In the latter, six control and six…

  18. Development of Food Safety Psychosocial Questionnaires for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, C.; Wheatley, V.; Schaffner, D.; Bruhn, C.; Blalock, L.; Maurer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Food mishandling is thought to be more acute among young adults; yet little is known about why they may engage in risky food handling behaviors. The purpose of this study was to create valid, reliable instruments for assessing key food safety psychosocial measures. Development of the measures began by examining published studies and behavior…

  19. Taiwanese University Students' Perspectives on Experiential Learning and Psychosocial Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yii-Nii; Lai, Pi-Hui; Chiu, Yi-Hsing Claire; Hsieh, Hui-Hsing; Chen, Yueh-Hua

    2016-01-01

    This study described the relations of experiential learning and psychosocial development of Taiwanese university students through the qualitative method of phenomenology. Thirty-six students, age ranged from 19 to 25 years, from three research-oriented universities in northern Taiwan were interviewed. Seven themes were delineated: (1) discovering…

  20. Exploring gender issues in the development from conduct disorder in adolescence to criminal behaviour in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelsberg, Ellen; Friestad, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Using results from a large Norwegian follow-up study of former adolescent psychiatric in-patients we have traced the progression from mental disorders requiring hospitalisation in adolescence to registered criminal behaviour in adulthood, particularly highlighting gender differences. A nationwide representative sample of 1095 adolescent psychiatric inpatients (46% females) was followed up 15-33 years after admission to the National Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Oslo, Norway. In adolescence 45% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a disruptive behaviour disorder. At follow-up, 63% of the males and 39% of the females had a criminal record. Among females, psychoactive substance use disorder in adolescence seemed to be a sine qua non for later registered criminality, with intravenous drug use a potent risk factor for life-course-persistent criminality. The same strong association between drug use and criminality was not found in males. Factor analysis demonstrated that while the DSM-IV Conduct Disorder criteria structure was similar across genders, the prevalence of the various forms of expression was different in males and females. The differences between individuals with violent and non-violent crimes were more substantial in males than in females. There were marked gender differences in the criminal profiles observed, with the females' criminal career developing in a less serious manner than in males: females had later criminal debut, a lower number of acts on record, less diverse criminal behaviour, and an escalation in the severity of offences over time was less frequently encountered. However, secular trend analyses indicated that gender differences had diminished over the last several decades, with females "catching up" with their male counterparts. Overall, the results demonstrated important qualitative and quantitative gender differences in the criminal behaviour of former adolescent psychiatric in-patients. The results may be of use in prevention.

  1. Psychosocial constraints on the development of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold J; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    Although resilience is usually thought to reside in individuals, developmental research is increasingly demonstrating that characteristics of the social context may be better predictors of resilience. When the relative contribution of early resilience and environmental challenges to later child mental health and academic achievement were compared in a longitudinal study from birth to adolescence, indicators of child resilience, such as the behavioral and emotional self-regulation characteristic of good mental health, and the cognitive self-regulation characteristic of high intelligence contributed to later competence. However, the effects of such individual resilience did not overcome the effects of high environmental challenge, such as poor parenting, antisocial peers, low-resource communities, and economic hardship. The effects of single environmental challenges become very large when accumulated into multiple risk scores even affecting the development of offspring in the next generation.

  2. Development and validation of a physical and psychosocial job-exposure matrix among older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs, K.J.; Pas, S. van der; Geuskens, G.A.; Cozijnsen, R.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Beek, A.J. van der; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We developed a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM), including physical and psychosocial demands as well as psychosocial resources, applicable to older and retired workers and evaluated its validity by examining associations with health. Methods Physical and psychosocial work ex

  3. Development of scales for psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills

    OpenAIRE

    杉山, 佳生; 渋倉, 崇行; 西田, 保; 伊藤, 豊彦; 佐々木, 万丈; 磯貝, 浩久

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we developed scales for psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills (psychosocial skills in daily life) that can be used to evaluate any enhancements in psychosocial skills in physical education classes and their transfer to life skills. Nine items common to both psychosocial skills in physical education and life skills, which included decision-making and problem-solving skills (3 items), communication and interpersonal skills (4 items), and emotion and stress cop...

  4. [Psychosexual and psychosocial development of patients with hypospadias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureau, M A

    1997-01-25

    Recently results were published concerning the long-term effects of surgical correction of hypospadias on psychosexual and psychosocial development and on genital perception. Hypospadias patients (9-38 years) were compared with age-matched males operated for inguinal hernia. A semi-structured interview and standardised psychological questionnaires were used. Hypospadias patients did not show a disturbed psychosexual adjustment, but they reported significantly more inhibitions with seeking sexual contacts as a result of embarrassment about their penile appearance. Also, hypospadias patients were significantly less satisfied with their penile appearance, mostly because of the circumcised appearance and a smaller length. No differences were found between psychosocial functioning of hypospadias patients and the control males. Following the investigations 8% of the patients were reoperated because of a poor functional or cosmetic operative result. It is recommended that all hypospadias patients be seen at least once during adolescence as a standard therapeutic procedure, to give optimal care to the small group of patients with psychosexual or psychosocial problems.

  5. Tourist criminality

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovlev, Zlatko; Koteski, Cane; Dimitrov, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    In this book expert processed chapters on the development of tourism, the conditions for the development of tourism, the definition of tourism, positive and negative effects of tourism, the necessity of defining tourism criminality and its component elements, narrower and wider tourist criminality , theories of crime, the structure of tourism crime, property crime in tourism, forest fires, sexual offenses, other tourist crimes stakeholders of tourism offenses, victims of tourist crime prevent...

  6. The Vocational Goals and Career Development of Criminally Involved Youth: Experiences That Help and Hinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMINAL GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Romanova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available New types of criminal groups are emerging in modern society.  These types have their special criminal subculture. The research objective is to develop new parameters of classification of modern criminal groups, create a new typology of criminal groups and identify some features of their subculture. Research methodology is based on the system approach that includes using the method of analysis of documentary sources (materials of a criminal case, method of conversations with themembers of the criminal group, method of testing the members of the criminal group and method of observation. As a result of the conducted research, we have created a new classification of criminal groups. The first type is a lawful group in its form and criminal according to its content (i.e., its target is criminal enrichment. The second type is a criminal organization which is run by so-called "white-collars" that "remain in the shadow". The third type is traditional criminal groups.  The fourth type is the criminal group, which openly demonstrates its criminal activity.

  8. An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Mentoring program and Mentees’ psychosocial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between mentoring program and mentees’ psychosocial development using self-report questionnaires collected from undergraduate students in teaching based higher learning institutions in Sarawak, Malaysia. The outcomes of SmartPLS path model analysis showed two important findings: firstly, communication positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. Secondly, support positively and significantly correlated with psychosocial. In sum, the result demonstrates that mentoring program does act as an important determinant of mentees’ psychosocial development in the organizational sample. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion.

  9. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  10. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  11. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  12. The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Psychosocial Development on Major-Changing Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Karen E.; Smothers, Anthony W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we sought to determine whether psychosocial development and self-efficacy of major changers differ from those classified as relatively stable. Participants completed the "Life-Skills Inventory-College" (Picklesimer, 1991) form to measure psychosocial development and the "General Self-efficacy" (Schwarzer &…

  13. Recontextualizing Psychosocial Development in Young Children: A Model of Environmental Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie; Kalvaitis, Darius; Worster, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Environmental Identity Development model, which considers the progression of young children's self-cognitions in relation to the natural world. We recontextualize four of Erikson's psychosocial stages, in order to consider children's identity development in learning in, about, and for the environment. Beginning with…

  14. Recontextualizing Psychosocial Development in Young Children: A Model of Environmental Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carie; Kalvaitis, Darius; Worster, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Environmental Identity Development model, which considers the progression of young children's self-cognitions in relation to the natural world. We recontextualize four of Erikson's psychosocial stages, in order to consider children's identity development in learning in, about, and for the environment. Beginning with…

  15. Integrating and Analyzing Psychosocial and Stage Theories To Challenge the Development of the Injured Collegiate Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laura L.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated a psychosocial developmental theory (the Kubler-Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Ross Stage Theory) and a psychological stage theory (the Chickering and Reisser psychosocial and developmental theory) for challenging injured collegiate student-athletes' personal development. A search of online databases from…

  16. Psychosocial Development and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how psychosocial development and personality traits are related. In particular, the study investigates the predictive power of the successful resolution of the Eriksonian psychosocial crises for the Big Five personality traits beyond age and gender. Four hundred university students in mainland China responded to the Measures of…

  17. Psychosocial Development from College through Midlife: A 34-Year Sequential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Sneed, Joel R.; Sayer, Aline

    2009-01-01

    Two cohorts of alumni, leading-edge and trailing-edge baby boomers, first tested in their college years, were followed to ages 43 (N = 136) and 54 (N = 182) on a measure of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to model the trajectory of growth for each psychosocial issue across middle adulthood. As…

  18. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies Shapiro, Lauren A; Margolin, Gayla

    2014-03-01

    Since the advent of social networking site (SNS) technologies, adolescents' use of these technologies has expanded and is now a primary way of communicating with and acquiring information about others in their social network. Overall, adolescents and young adults' stated motivations for using SNSs are quite similar to more traditional forms of communication-to stay in touch with friends, make plans, get to know people better, and present oneself to others. We begin with a summary of theories that describe the role of SNSs in adolescents' interpersonal relationships, as well as common methodologies used in this field of research thus far. Then, with the social changes that occur throughout adolescence as a backdrop, we address the ways in which SNSs intersect with key tasks of adolescent psychosocial development, specifically peer affiliation and friendship quality, as well as identity development. Evidence suggests that SNSs differentially relate to adolescents' social connectivity and identity development, with sociability, self-esteem, and nature of SNS feedback as important potential moderators. We synthesize current findings, highlight unanswered questions, and recommend both methodological and theoretical directions for future research.

  19. Postcode Criminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  20. Development and Implementation of Sexual Assault Evidence and Criminal Records Retention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    No. DODIG-2014-082 J U LY 1 1 , 2 0 1 4 Development and Implementation of Sexual Assault Evidence and Criminal Records Retention Policy Report...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development and Implementation of Sexual Assault Evidence and

  1. Teacher Behaviours Related with Pupil Psychosocial Development in Physical Education: A Descriptive-Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Observation of 20 English physical education teachers giving lessons showed that they frequently used behaviors associated with positive psychosocial development (positive reinforcement, encouragement, technical instruction) and infrequently used those associated with negative development (nonreinforcement, punishment, ignoring mistakes, keeping…

  2. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  3. People-oriented Development and Human Rights Protection for Criminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YUQIAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ People-oriented development refers to the economic and social integrative development that regards human beings as the orientation and subject of economic and social development and considers the development of human beings the essence, objective, momentum and symbol of development.One of its important connotations is to protect human beings' rights and interests in all links and works of economic and social development.On December 10,2008, Hu Jintao, secretary general of the CPC Central Committee, clarified that "We will, as always, adhere to people-oriented principles in building a well-off society in an all-round way and accelerating the process of socialist modernization" in his letter to the China Society for Human Rights Studies.

  4. Psychosocial Strength Training: The Missing Piece in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    Great performance is a wonder to observe. We may notice creativity, excellent technique, or content mastery. What we may not notice is a set of mental and social skills that allow a person to show his or her best work. This article recommends that these psychosocial skills be explicitly and deliberately cultivated via programming, coaching, and…

  5. Developing a standard for psychosocial risk management: PAS 1010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Zolnierczyk-Zreda, D.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of work has changed dramatically due to globalisation, migration, technological advances and the emergence of the knowledge-based economy. These changes have been accompanied by the increased prevalence of new and emerging types of risk to workers' health and safety, such as psychosocial

  6. Developing a standard for psychosocial risk management: PAS 1010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Widerszal-Bazyl, M.; Zolnierczyk-Zreda, D.; Zwetsloot, G.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of work has changed dramatically due to globalisation, migration, technological advances and the emergence of the knowledge-based economy. These changes have been accompanied by the increased prevalence of new and emerging types of risk to workers' health and safety, such as psychosocial

  7. Psychosocial Strength Training: The Missing Piece in Talent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    Great performance is a wonder to observe. We may notice creativity, excellent technique, or content mastery. What we may not notice is a set of mental and social skills that allow a person to show his or her best work. This article recommends that these psychosocial skills be explicitly and deliberately cultivated via programming, coaching, and…

  8. The development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997 to 2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan H; Kristensen, Tage S

    2009-01-01

    for development (skill discretion), lower level of meaning of work, more role conflicts, decreased role clarity, reduced sense of community, less social support from colleagues, increased conflicts at work, more threats of violence and more slander and gossip. CONCLUSIONS: The psychosocial work environment......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to elucidate the development of the psychosocial work environment in Denmark from 1997-2005. METHODS: The analyses were based on two national questionnaire surveys (N1=1062; N2=3517) of randomly selected employees who completed the Copenhagen Psychosocial...... Questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was described by 19 scales and 6 single items. RESULTS: Quality of leadership and social support from supervisors were the only dimensions that saw improvements. The negative developments were: higher work pace, less influence (job control), less possibilities...

  9. Sibship-constellation effects on psychosocial development, creativity, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M E; Schubert, H J; Schubert, D S

    1979-01-01

    This contribution provides a summary and integration of the abundant research findings culled from over 2000 articles dealing with the effects of sibship variables on child development. The review covers the effects of each of the sibship variables: sibship size, ordinal position, and sibling age spacing with regard to intelligence, achievement, creativity, personality, and health. All descriptions included are based on at least 1 reported research finding. Speculative literature is consistently excluded. Each and all of the sibship variables have effects, from just demonstrable to uncommonly powerful, on intelligence, academic achievement, occupational success, creativity, emotional control, socialization, health, and longevity. Despite the fact that they are derived from variously oriented and designed investigations, the studies reviewed present overall amazingly consistent results. Intelligence and personality traits are powerfully influenced by parental behavior and sibling interaction, particularly during the child's 1st 3 years of life. Yet, both cognitive and conative characteristics lend themselves to improvement by positively altering parental behavior through psychotherapy, or better yet, by widespread open recognition of the importance and the intricacies of child rearing which has been almost totally left to parental whims and folklore The available basic knowledge needs to be used as a foundation for high school and college cources aimed at upgrading child rearing practies. Reseach and clinical evidence strongly and definitely indicate that socially desirable personality traits result from small families in which the children are spaced 3 or more years apart. Both the displaced and displacing child are seriously disturbed by close spacing -- the displaced child showing the greatest disturbance. Early displacement leads to early and persistent cognitive effects on intelligence and psychosocial development. Considering the effects of size of the family

  10. [Psychosocial intellectual development of children with infantile cystinosis and cerebral atrophy (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, J H; Wolff, G; Stoeppler, L; Heyer, R; Offner, G; Brodehl, J

    1979-09-01

    The psychosocial and intellectual development of 4 boys with nephropathic cystinosis and brain atrophy documented by cranial computerized tomography was investigated by use of biographical data and psychological tests (HAWIK, Deutscher Rechtschreibtest). Inspite of the brain atrophy the patients showed low-normal intellectual capacities and mainly average school performance. There were no psychosocial abnormalities correlated to the primary metabolic disease. However, renal dwarfism led to mascotism requiring psychotherapy.

  11. Factors influencing psychosocial development of preschool children in a rural area of Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Aggarwal, A K; Kaur, M; Iyengar, S D

    1997-12-01

    In a cross-sectional survey, 3746 children aged less than 6 years residing in 47 randomly selected villages of district Ambala (India), were studied to find out the environmental risk factors influencing psychosocial development. A culture appropriate test battery comprising 67 test items was administered, and psychosocial development score of each child was computed by scoring each test item passed as 1 and failed as 0. At each age level children having score in lower quartile were categorised as having slow psychosocial development and those in upper quartile were labelled as having accelerated development. Logistic regression revealed that per capita income, education of mother, nutritional status of the child, number of rooms and environmental hygiene in the house, presence of a high school within easy travel distance, availability of a caretaker when mother is busy, child attending a nursery (anganwadi), households having access to newspaper, child having toys or toy substitutes, TV, books, story telling by the mother were found to have a significant association with psychosocial development of preschool children. The risk factors identified in this survey can be used for screening families at risk in rural communities and for selection of interventions for promotion of psychosocial development of children.

  12. The Trajectory of Long-Term Psychosocial Development 16 Years following Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, Stefanie; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Hearps, Stephen; Catroppa, Cathy

    2015-07-01

    Childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is one of the most common causes of impairment in children and adolescents, with psychosocial difficulties found to be the most persisting. Given that the transition into adolescence and adulthood can be a stressful period, it is likely that young people who have sustained a CTBI will be more vulnerable to developing psychosocial problems. To date, most research has focused on psychosocial development up to five years following a CTBI and it is unclear how survivors develop in the long-term as young adults. The aim of this research was to track the long-term psychosocial outcomes of children with CTBI and compare them with healthy controls over a period of 16 years. Seventy-five participants with a CTBI and 29 control participants were followed up at five time-points over a period of 16 years. To measure psychosocial functioning (social skills, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms), questionnaires were completed by the primary caregiver acutely (pre-injury baseline), then six months, five years, 10 years, and 16 years post-injury. No significant group differences were found regarding the developmental trajectory of social skills, or internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the CTBI and control groups. The severe CTBI group demonstrated a trend of lower social skills, while the mild CTBI group showed a trend of higher internalizing and externalizing skills at six months, five years, and ten years post-CTBI event, compared with other groups. The mild CTBI group scored in the borderline range for externalizing symptoms six months post-CTBI; however, all other mean scores were within the normal range. Over a period of 16 years, young adults with CTBI showed similar developmental trajectories regarding psychosocial outcomes, compared with healthy controls. This study confirmed previous literature that CTBI is associated with increased levels of psychosocial problems.

  13. An Alternative Theoretical Model: Examining Psychosocial Identity Development of International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the plethora of college student identity development research, very little attention has been paid to the identity formation of international students. Rather than adopting existing identity theories in college student development, this exploratory qualitative study proposes a new psychosocial identity development model for international…

  14. Psychosocial determinants of nutritional neglect in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnaz, Aisha; Shah, Nusrat; Mala, Ashfaq; Rai, Krishan; Arif, Fehmina; Munnawar, Uzma; Raj, Rakesh; Tariq, Abida; Yasin, Shahnaz

    2014-05-01

    To determine the demographic features and psycho-social and economic determinants of nutritional neglect in order to suggest interventional strategies. Cross-sectional, observational study. Department of Paediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS) and Civil Hospital Karachi (CHK), from January 2009 to December 2010. All children suffering from nutritional neglect suggested by weight and height less than the third centile for age, and their mothers were recruited in the study through non-probability consecutive sampling. A team comprising of paediatrician, psychologist, medical social worker and social motivator interviewed the mothers and children suffering from nutritional neglect. Information about demographic, social, economic and psychological factors was obtained. The results were analyzed and described as frequency distribution and percentage. A total of 658 children suffering from nutritional neglect were inducted. Around 75% of children were below 5 years of age, 51% were females. Other determinants of nutritional neglect were, large family size (family of > 5 members (84%), young mother (60%), uneducated parents (67% father and 77% mothers being illiterate), low income (77% earning less than Rs. 7000/month), addiction (23%), tobacco smoking (50%) and non-nutritive substance use (51%). Psychological indicators identified in mothers were depression (70%), anxiety (73%), helplessness (70%), displaced aggression (50%) and insecurity (36%). Psychological factors identified in children as a secondary outcome were aggression (80%), rebellious behaviour (75%), lack of confidence (70%), lack of social interaction (70%) and paranoid tendencies (60%). Psycho-social and economic factors are important determinants of neglect. A holistic approach and intervention at multiple levels is required to address these issues.

  15. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  16. Teach the Children Well: A Holistic Approach to Developing Psychosocial and Behavioral Competencies through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of a positive youth development perspective is the promotion of healthy physical and psychosocial development in young people. This approach consists of social-contextual features (e.g., teacher behaviors, classroom structure, student activities) that help equip youth with attributes, skills, competencies, and values that will contribute…

  17. Growing up in Violent Communities: Do Family Conflict and Gender Moderate Impacts on Adolescents' Psychosocial Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M.; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert H.; Casey, Patrick H.; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A.; Barrett, Kathleen W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of family conflict and gender on the relationship between community violence and psychosocial development at age 18. The study sample consisted of 728 children and families who were part of the Infant Health and Development Program study of low-birth-weight, pre-term infants. In this sample, adolescent…

  18. How empathy, egocentrism, Kohlberg's moral development, and Erikson's psychosocial development are related to attitudes toward war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, A S; Lewandowski, L M

    1991-12-01

    In this exploratory study 91 students took a questionnaire which measured their feelings of oneness with all humanity, their egocentrism, level of moral development according to Kohlberg, psychosocial development according to Erikson, and their attitude toward war, diplomacy, the Gulf war, civilians and soldiers in the Gulf area, etc. The hypothesis that empathy with humankind leads to concern about those involved and opposition to war was supported. These individuals were more likely to endorse values expressed in Kohlberg's Level 6. Students endorsing Level 4, law-and-order mortality, especially if they had no friends overseas and used no news source other than the usual U.S. mass media, were more likely to be pro-war, believe President Bush and the military briefings, and opposite reliance on diplomacy. If people had experienced war, they were more frequently against it. However, hardship experienced, lack of egocentrism, believing in a greater good for a greater number of people (Kohlberg's Level 5), and Erikson's psychosocial development were not associated with students' orientation toward war. Further research is suggested.

  19. Psychiatric aspects of criminal responsibility: insanity and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Maureen; Reid, William H

    2011-11-01

    Forensic psychiatry expertise may be useful to criminal courts in several ways, including evaluating competence (e.g., to stand trial, waive Miranda rights, confess, plead, represent oneself, or be sentenced), assessing responsibility for alleged criminal behavior, and clarifying mental or psychosocial factors that may mitigate criminal charges or the form and severity of punishment. This column focuses on psychiatric/psychological aspects of mitigation in criminal matters.

  20. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both...

  1. Midlife Eriksonian Psychosocial Development: Setting the Stage for Late-Life Cognitive and Emotional Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C.; Liu, Sabrina R.; Vaillant, George E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Erikson's (1950) model of adult psychosocial development outlines the significance of successful involvement within one's relationships, work, and community for healthy aging. He theorized that the consequences of not meeting developmental challenges included stagnation and emotional despair. Drawing on this model, the present study uses…

  2. Erikson's Theory of Psycho-Social Development: The Socialization of Developmental Drama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Marci

    1982-01-01

    Juxtaposes Erikson's theory of psychosocial development with Goldberg's concept of developmental drama. Suggests that research in this area could (1) strengthen the skills of directors, playwrights, and pedagogues and (2) offer educators and administrators a scientifically valid case for the value of children's theater in the schools. (PD)

  3. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  4. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between

  5. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between parent-adol

  6. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  7. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  8. Changes in psychosocial well-being during stages of gay identity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpin, Sean A; Allen, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    The current study evaluated the stage theory of Homosexual Identity Formation (HIF) developed by Cass (1979), in terms of the relationship between stage of gay identity development and psychosocial well-being. Four hundred twenty-five males (12 to 64 years, M = 29.2) reporting sexual attraction to other men provided demographic information and completed psychosocial measures: the Happiness-Sadness Scale (McGreal & Joseph, 1993), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener, Emmons, Larsen & Griffin, 1985), the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau & Ferguson, 1978), the Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1982), and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (Brady & Busse, 1994). Correlation analysis and ANCOVAs controlling for age and nationality demonstrated that the 6 sequential stages of HIF were associated with a U-shaped function for the psychosocial variables. Well-being was high during the initial Confusion and Comparison stages of HIF, was reduced during the middle Tolerance and Acceptance stages, and was again high in the later Pride and Synthesis stages. Each of the psychosocial variables was significantly different according to stage of development (p <.001). Qualitative analysis of subjects' comments also revealed support for the U-shaped pattern.

  9. Developing employment services for criminal justice clients enrolled in drug user treatment programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Kathleen; Savitz, Barry; Thompson, William; Zanis, David A

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 80% of parolees have a history of substance abuse and nearly all are unemployed following release from prison. Common stipulations of parole require offenders to obtain employment and to not use mood-altering substances. This article explores a series of strategies implemented from 1999 to 2001 to help offenders paroled to substance user treatment to gain employment. A total of 245 paroled offenders enrolled in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program voluntarily agreed to participate in one of four different vocational intervention programs (Job Skill Development and Supported Work, Life Skill Development, Job Training, and Welfare to Work). Programmatic data (e.g., attendance, completion, job acquisition, and wage) were collected and reported for each of the vocational programs. Additionally, a 12-month pilot study examined criminal justice, substance use, and employment outcomes of 36 offenders referred to the job skill development and supported work project. Overall, 78% of the offenders enrolled in the vocational services completed the program and 134/245 (55%) were able to obtain employment. The data showed that completion of vocational services was strongly associated with obtaining employment 12 months postenrollment. Offenders identified the employment services as an integral part of their improved overall functioning. A series of practice recommendations and policy suggestions is offered to develop and manage vocational services for substance-using offenders. Employment services for parolees require considerable coordination of activities with parole officers, vocational programs, substance abuse treatment professionals, and funding systems.

  10. 英美刑法犯罪故意理论的源流与进展%Origins and Development Research on Criminal Intention Theory in Anglo-American Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜盼盼

    2015-01-01

    英美刑法中的犯罪故意理论旨在解决犯罪构成理论的实质理论内核问题.在犯罪构成理论架构上,英美刑法中的犯罪行为和犯罪心态是犯罪主体要件的抽象化,责任要件定格于排除合法辩护事由范围之内.犯罪故意作为规范性评价内容,对研究现代行为科学具有重要意义.因此,探究英美刑法的犯罪故意源流问题,并对英美刑法犯罪故意的理论脉络进行规范性阐释,分析其独有的理论构造、内容与特色,对研究英美刑法理论重要理论核心问题有不容忽视的价值,也为我国有关主观罪过的研究进展提供指导性借鉴.%Criminal intention theory in Anglo-American Criminal Law is available to find the essential problems of theoretical core. On the construction of theory of the Constitution of crime, the criminal ontology in Anglo-American Criminal Law is abstracted two elements of actus reus and mens rea and criminal liability element is limited to a scope of excluding legal defenses. Criminal intention research is very vital to modern conduct science as normative evaluation element. Therefore, probing into and interpreting criminal intention theoretical origins in Anglo-American Criminal Law normatively, for example, by analyzing its theoretical frame, contents and characteristics, is very important and ponderable to study core problems in Anglo-American Criminal Law and provide an instructional reference for development research of subjective guilt of criminal law in China.

  11. Maternal Weight Predicts Children's Psychosocial Development via Parenting Stress and Emotional Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Sarah; Schlesier-Michel, Andrea; Wendt, Verena; Grube, Matthias; Keitel-Korndörfer, Anja; Gausche, Ruth; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children's psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children's weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI), mother–child emotional availability (EA), and maternal parenting stress are associated with children's weight and psychosocial development (i.e., internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence) and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included three assessment points (~11 months apart). The baseline sample consisted of N = 194 mothers and their children aged 5–47 months (M = 28.18, SD = 8.44, 99 girls). At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother–child interactions, coding them with the EA Scales (fourth edition). We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI) short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI–SDS scores. Children's externalizing and internalizing problems (t1–t3) and social competence (t3, N = 118) were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL 1.5–5), Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior), and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3–6: social-emotional competence). Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM) and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI–SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence) in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to serve as

  12. Maternal weight predicts children’s psychosocial development via parenting stress and emotional availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bergmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maternal obesity has been shown to be a risk factor for obesity in children and may also affect children’s psychosocial outcomes. It is not yet clear whether there are also psycho-emotional mechanisms explaining the effects of maternal weight on young children’s weight and psychosocial development. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal body mass index (BMI, mother-child emotional availability (EA and maternal parenting stress are associated with children’s weight and psychosocial development (i.e. internalizing/externalizing symptoms and social competence and whether these predictors interact with each other. Methods: This longitudinal study included 3 assessment points (approx. 11 months apart. The baseline sample consisted of N=194 mothers and their children aged 5 to 47 months (M=28.18, SD=8.44, 99 girls. At t1, we measured maternal weight and height to calculate maternal BMI. We videotaped mother-child interactions, coding them with the Emotional Availability Scales (4th edition. We assessed maternal parenting stress with the Parenting Stress Index (PSI short form. At t1 to t3, we measured height and weight of children and calculated BMI-SDS scores. Children’s externalizing and internalizing problems (t1-t3 and social competence (t3, N=118 were assessed using questionnaires: Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL1, 5-5, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ: prosocial behavior and a checklist for behavioral problems at preschool age (VBV 3-6: social-emotional competence. Results: By applying structural equation modeling (SEM and a latent regression analysis, we found maternal BMI to predict higher BMI-SDS and a poorer psychosocial development (higher externalizing symptoms, lower social competence in children. Higher parenting stress predicted higher levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms and lower social competence. Better maternal EA was associated with higher social competence. We found parenting stress to

  13. The Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory: Development, Reliability, and Initial Validation of a New Scale for Assessing Criminal Thinking in a Japanese Offender Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Kaori; Takeda, Fumi; Nagata, Yuko; Suzuki, Junko; Monma, Takafumi; Asanuma, Tohru

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 116 Japanese men who had been placed under parole/probationary supervision or released from prison, the present study examined standardization, reliability, and validation of the Japanese Criminal Thinking Inventory (JCTI) that was based on the short form of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), a self-rating instrument designed to evaluate cognitive patterns specific to criminal conduct. An exploratory factor analysis revealed that four dimensions adequately captured the structure of the JCTI, and the resultant 17-item JCTI demonstrated high internal consistency. Compared with the Japanese version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ), the JCTI showed a favorable pattern of criterion-related validity. Prior criminal environment and drug abuse as the most recent offense also significantly correlated with the JCTI total score. Overall, the JCTI possesses an important implication for offender rehabilitation as it identifies relevant cognitive targets and assesses offender progress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Erik Erikson's Theory of Psychosocial Development and Vocational Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H.

    1975-01-01

    Stage resolution attitudes, derived from the first six stage crises outlined by Erikson, were explored as variables influencing problems in vocational choice and vocational maturity. Findings indicated students who made adjusted vocational choices and developed mature career attitudes had also been more successful resolving the first six…

  15. Development of an Integrated Psychosocial Treatment to Address the Medical Burden Associated with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    We developed an integrated psychosocial treatment for bipolar disorder to decrease the disproportionate medical burden associated with this illness. Three treatment modules, Nutrition/weight loss, Exercise, and Wellness Treatment (NEW Tx) were administered in twelve 60-minute group sessions over 14 weeks. After the first group (N = 4) had completed the treatment, it was revised, and then a second group (N = 6) completed the revised treatment. Participants completed all of the study assessment...

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARENTING PATTERN WITH PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCHOOL-AGE CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Ayu Erika, Kadek Ayu Erika

    2013-01-01

    - Background : The interaction of children in a family associated with parenting adopted by parents who are relatively consistent over time. Good parenting school age is very important to ensure the child's psychosocial development and to stimulate child's diligent behaviors. Failure in getting good parenting will lead a child to low self-esteem, feeling incompetent, unproductive and guilt. Objective : This study aimed at identifying the relationship between parenting pattern with psych...

  17. Psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Gledhill, A; Harwood, C; Forsdyke, D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a critical systematic review of recent research into psychosocial factors associated with talent development in football. Design: Systematic review informed by the PRISMA guidelines. Method: Literature was sourced from Science Direct, Sport Discus, Psycharticles and Psychinfo. This was followed by a detailed screening and sifting process to identify literature. Identified literature was independently appraised by multiple reviewers using the mixed-methods Appraisal Tool...

  18. Cognitive and psychosocial development concerns in children born small for gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P W

    Outcome information for infants born small for gestational age (SGA), whether term or premature, suggests poorer cognitive function compared with appropriate size for gestational age (AGA) infants. Poorer outcome is associated with smaller size for gestational age and with lack of catch-up growth after birth. Such data have been reported from early childhood to young adulthood. Diminished head circumference at birth and growth thereafter has also been associated with poor outcome. Based on available reports, the impact of SGA birth upon psychosocial development remains unclear. While it has not been shown that growth hormone (GH) therapy impacts either cognitive or psychosocial outcome, increased head circumference standard deviation scores have been shown to occur with GH therapy. These data need to be interpreted with caution since study populations do not define etiology of SGA and definitions of SGA vary. Further, generalized group data are not applicable to individuals.

  19. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R2, 0.434; P = 0.028). PMID:23198025

  20. Relationship between nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and cognitive development in preschool children in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsito, Oktarina; Khomsan, Ali; Hernawati, Neti; Anwar, Faisal

    2012-10-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyze nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation, and factors affecting the cognitive development of preschool-age children. This study was conducted in the Village of Babakan, Sub-District of Dramaga, Bogor Regency, West Java. This cross-sectionally designed study was conducted with mothers who had preschool children aged 3-5 years as respondents. Fifty-eight children were included. The distribution of mother's educational level was quite diverse, and the largest percentage (44.8%) had senior high school education. Approximately 78% of the family income per capita was classified into the non-poor category and 22.4% into the poor category. The average mother's nutritional knowledge score was 76.7 ± 2.5 (moderate category). Most of the preschool children (84.4%) had psychosocial stimulation scores in the moderate category (30-45). The nutritional status of children showed that 15.5% were underweight, 5.2% were wasted, 3.4% were severely wasted, and 19% of the children were in the short and very short categories (stunted). The stepwise regression results showed that psychosocial stimulation (P cognitive development of the preschool children (adjusted R(2), 0.434; P = 0.028).

  1. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Psychological detachment as moderator between psychosocial work conditions and low back pain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Mierswa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Recovery processes in leisure time influence the effect of psychosocial work factors on health issues. However, this function of recovery has been neglected in research regarding the influence of work-related risk factors on low back pain (LBP development. The aim of this prospective study was to examine the function of psychological detachment – a relevant recovery experience – concerning the influence of psychosocial work factors on LBP development. A moderating function of detachment for the interplay of work factors and LBP was assumed. Material and Methods: Sixty pain-free administrative employees of German universities completed an online survey 3 times during a 6-month period. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk-factors of LBP. Results: Analyses revealed an increased chance of LBP development for smokers and a decreasing chance when work resources were high. Detachment had no direct influence on LBP development, although it moderated the influence of work stressors and work resources on LBP. On the one hand, high detachment values seem to protect against an increased chance of LBP development when employees were confronted with high work stressors, while on the other hand high detachment values enhance the protective effect of high work resources. Conclusions: The results indicated a moderating role of detachment concerning the influence of psychosocial work factors on LBP development. Therefore, it is necessary to include recovery processes in future research regarding LBP development and consequently in LBP prevention concepts. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(2:313–327

  3. The Development of Criminal Style in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: Separating the Lemmings from the Loners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldweber, Asha; Dmitrieva, Julia; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Piquero, Alex R.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Despite broad consensus that most juvenile crimes are committed with peers, many questions regarding developmental and individual differences in criminal style (i.e., co-offending vs. solo offending) remain unanswered. Using prospective 3-year longitudinal data from 937 14- to 17-year-old serious male offenders, the present study investigates…

  4. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism, and other shocking events: Guideline development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brake, H. te; Dückers, M.; Vries, M. de; Duin, D. van; Rooze, M.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Internationally, several initiatives exist to describe standards for post-disaster psychosocial care. Objective: This study explored the level of consensus of experts within Europe on a set of recommendations on early psychosocial intervention after shocking events (Dutch guidelines),

  5. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

  6. Criminal Protection Of The Criminal Legal Proceedings Lawful Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Selina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the problem of criminal code provisions on crimes against justice and changes which happened in the procedure of justice for criminal cases implementation since the beginning of judicial reform discrepancy is researched. In spite of the fact that in the considered segment the last changes were made rather recently (Federal Law of December 28, 2013 No. 432-FZ, in general this sphere of regulation is not complete. Due to the corpus delicti "Attraction of the obviously innocent to criminal liability" the concept of criminal prosecution is analyzed. In regard to this author characterize that only court can make a decision that person is guilty for the crime. The concept of legal responsibility as a need to undergo deprivations or at least condemnation for made (if authentically established offense corresponds to it. Author outlines that it is only possible to release one from of responsibility only if one is subject to responsibility. Today it is possible to included cases when consent of the person with the termination of criminal case and prosecution exists. It is proven that in the meaning of the article 299 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation criminal prosecution is told as attraction for being accused. But other forms of criminal prosecution are not considered in full. Author analyze contradictions between the title and disposition of the article 307 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation concerning punishability for criminal acts: title covers the conclusion and disposition – only indications. Elimination of this contradiction lies in the plane of the criminal procedure form of obtaining conclusion and indications development and gnoseological nature of the new type of proofs study.

  7. Psychosocial Development and First Substance Use in Third and Fourth Grade Students: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Third and fourth grade students (=509 completed measures of psychosocial development, substance use, and intentions to use in January, and again in May, 1998. A revised Erikson Psychosocial Inventory Scale (EPSI was employed to assess psychosocial development while estimates of substance use and intentions were obtained from anonymous self-reports. The sample was split on the basis of change in substance use and intentions from January to May. Using this grouping scheme as an independent variable, scores on the EPSI subscales (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, and identity were compared over time. Interestingly, no differences in psychosocial development were evident for the initial substance use comparisons, but differences were evident five months later. Respondents who initiated substance use and/or increased intentions during the five-month interval exhibited small gains (averaging less than 2.0% on measures of trust, autonomy, and initiative and modest declines in industry and identity (−1.2%. Respondents who neither initiated substance use nor increased intentions during the five-month interval experienced significant gains (averaging 6.0% on all five of the EPSI subscales. These findings suggest that early substance use may impede psychosocial development, thus justifying prevention efforts in the earlier grades as well as efforts to delay onset.

  8. Defence counsel in international criminal law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temminck Tuinstra, J.P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The field of international criminal law is relatively new and rapidly developing. This dissertation examines whether international criminal courts enable defence counsel to conduct an effective defence. When the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda (the ad hoc Tribun

  9. Psychosocial factors at work and the development of mobility limitations among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Darsø, Lilie; Manty, Minna

    2014-01-01

    : This study is based on data from 2952 middle-aged men and women without mobility limitations in 2000. Results: We found increased risk of incident mobility limitations during 6-year follow up among men who often perceived high work pace (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.21-24.52) vs. never, who only sometimes or....../never perceived the work to be meaningful (OR 6.54, 95% CI 1.55-27.55) vs. always, and who sometimes perceived high emotional demands at work (OR 7.85, 95% CI 1.78-34.65) vs. never. Among women, lower risk of incident mobility limitations was observed among those who in 2000 perceived high work pace sometimes (OR......Aim: Psychosocial factors in the working environment have been shown to be associated with mobility limitations, but this has not yet been confirmed in a Danish population. We aimed to examine how psychosocial factors at work are related to developing mobility limitations in Denmark. Methods...

  10. Criminal Careers and "Career Criminals"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumstein, Alfred; Cohen, Jacqueline; Roth, Jeffrey A; Visher, Christy A

    1986-01-01

    ..., and Christy A. Visher, editors Panel on Research on Criminal Careers Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council National Academy Press Washington, D.C.1986 i Copyrighttrue Please breaks inserted. are Page files. accidentally typesetting be...

  11. [Psychosocial stress and cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houppe, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a major independent risk and prognostic factor of cardiovascular events. It includes psychological, sociological and socioeconomic factors. Cardiovascular diseases are important providers of psychosocial stress. The knowledge of the cerebral development throughout the time allows to a better understanding of the relationship between psychosocial stress and cardiovascular risk. Psychosocial stress leads, on top of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, to the development or to the worsening of an endothelial dysfunction, of an inflammatory response and prothrombotic phenomenon. Anxiolytics and antidepressors are not very effective against psychosocial stress. Physical activity and psychotherapy are much more indicated, particularly cognitve-behavioral therapy. The ESC recommends an evaluation of psychosocial stress through a short questionnaire.

  12. TRAINING OF DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION THE SECURITY OFFICER OF THE CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERNAL AFFAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Leonidovna Lampusova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Training is a form of active learning that is aimed at developing knowledge, skills, and attitudes. To improve operational security officers of Internal Affairs Agencies activity, we have schemed out training for the development of communication skills. This paper presents the exercises focusing on the professional communication skills of employees of the Criminal Investigation Department of the Interior development. Eight exercises are described, the main objectives of them are: learning to navigate the feelings of the partner, the ability to change the position of the interlocutor, the formation of the ability to listen to the end and not to interrupt, developing the ability to talk, improving the communicative competence and the development of the ability to accurately convey information.

  13. Ecuadorian Criminal Appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Flor Rubianes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents in a didactic way the thesis, the application procedure and the consequences of a criminal appeal in Ecuador. Develops carefully whether and in what areas it should bring this action. It also includes the historical evolution of the appeal in our penal system.

  14. Maternal Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Child Psychosocial Development at 6 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieve, Laura A.; Sharma, Andrea J.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. METHODS: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children’s health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother–child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children’s development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. RESULTS: Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26–3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24–3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80–11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10–8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18–3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09–4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33–2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5–24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child’s birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. CONCLUSIONS: Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. PMID:25917989

  15. Factors Affecting Psychosocial and Motor Development in 3-Year-Old Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Greg; Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Cupples, Linda; Marnane, Vivienne; Seeto, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between children's development of psychosocial and motor skills. This study evaluated the development of these skills in 301 three-year-old deaf and hard of hearing children (M: 37.8 months) and considered a range of possible predictors including gender, birth weight, age at first fitting with hearing…

  16. Gifted Education in Science and Chemistry: Perspectives and Insights into Teaching, Pedagogies, Assessments, and Psychosocial Skills Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad A. CHOWDHURY

    2016-01-01

    This article provides gifted education perspectives and creative insights with a particular focus on chemistry and science, and discusses associated teaching, learning, pedagogies, curriculum developments and assessments in the context of gifted education. The article emphasizes the cluster grouping approach, hidden curriculum, mentoring and proper counselling provisions in school that may significantly impact on gifted students’ developments. The article discusses gifted students’ psychosoci...

  17. Importance of personality traits and psychosocial factors for the development of coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Numerous studies have provided clear and convincing evidence that psychosocial factors contribute to the pathogenesis and expression of coronary heart disease (CHD. These factors have been related to the following psychosocial domains: personality factors and character traits, depression, anxiety, social isolation and chronic life stress. The aim of this study was to estimate the influence of personality traits and psychosocial risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease. Methods. The investigation was conducted as observational cross-sectional (case-control study. Based on medical records all subjects were divided into two groups: the group of patients with CHD (61 participants, and the control group of 41 healthy participants. All participants fulfilled the Eysenck Inventory Questionnaire, Paykel stress scale and Bortner scale of A-B self-estimation. Results. The participants with CHD were shown to have lower education than healthy participants, but were comparable by gender, age and place of residence. According to the Bortner scale, most participants with CHD expressed type A personality, whereas most healthy participants expressed types B and AB. The patients with CHD achieved higher scores on the Paykel stress scale of life events, and they had the higher level of neurotic and psychotic tendencies, as well as the lower level of extroversion compared to the healthy participants. Multivariate logistic regression model identified chronic stress (odds ratio 1.018; 95% confidence interval 1.007−1.028 as an important predictor for the occurrence of coronary heart disease, when adjusted for age, gender, nourishment and blood pressure. On the other side, the lower risk for the occurrence of CHD was observed among the participants who had the higher level of extroversion (odds ratio 0.859; 95% confidence interval 0.636−0.902. Conclusion. Chronic stress and introversion can be considered important risk factors for

  18. Development of an integrated psychosocial treatment to address the medical burden associated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Stange, Jonathan P; Peckham, Andrew D; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2011-05-01

    We developed an integrated psychosocial treatment for bipolar disorder to decrease the disproportionate medical burden associated with this illness. Three treatment modules, Nutrition/weight loss, Exercise, and Wellness Treatment (NEW Tx) were administered in twelve 60-minute group sessions over 14 weeks. After the first group (N=4) had completed the treatment, it was revised, and then a second group (N=6) completed the revised treatment. Participants completed all of the study assessments and attended 82% of the sessions. Both groups added over 100 minutes of weekly exercise to their baseline duration. Participants in the second group showed improvements in their quality of life, depressive symptoms, and weight. It appears that NEW Tx may be a feasible intervention with promising pilot data for reducing the medical burden in bipolar disorder, but future research is needed to further evaluate the efficacy of NEW Tx.

  19. Using personal and fictional documents to assess psychosocial development: a case study of Vera Brittain's generativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B E; Stewart, A J

    1990-09-01

    Adult diaries and novels written by the British feminist and pacifist Vera Brittain (1893-1970) were content analyzed for Eriksonian themes of identity, intimacy, and generativity. Brittain's concerns with identity and intimacy decreased over time, while her generative concerns increased, suggesting that she expressed the issue of generativity vs. stagnation in her mid-life diaries and fiction. The large number of identity themes relative to both intimacy and generativity provokes speculations about Brittain's personality, the characteristics of writers, the influence of gender, the impact of society, and the possibility that the crisis of identity vs. role confusion involves the last major structural change in personality development. This archival case study is consistent with Erikson's notion of a sequence of concerns with psychosocial issues, although directions for theoretical revision and elaboration are discussed.

  20. Height in mid childhood and psychosocial competencies in late childhood: evidence from four developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, Stefan; Sánchez, Alan

    2013-12-01

    We use longitudinal data from children growing up in four developing countries (Peru, India, Vietnam, Ethiopia) to study the relationship between height at the age of 7-8 and a set of psychosocial competencies measured at the age of 11-12 that are known to be correlated with earnings during adulthood: self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations. Results show that a one standard deviation increase in height-for-age tends to increase self-efficacy, self-esteem and aspirations by 10.4%, 6.4% and 5.1%, respectively. We argue that these findings are likely to be informing of an underlying relationship between undernutrition and the formation of non-cognitive skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  2. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship between...... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...... questionnaire (COPSOQ) has been used two times with two years in between. This allows us to build a model of the relationship between psychosocial work environment, selected context variables and performance data. The model proposes that good psychosocial work environment is a function of leadership which...

  3. Local food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation improve linear growth and cognitive development among Indonesian infants aged 6 to 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmizar, Helmizar; Jalal, Fasli; Lipoeto, Nur Indrawati; Achadi, Endang L

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of culturally-relevant food supplementation and psychosocial stimulation on infant growth and development. A community-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 40 clusters from 5 selected villages in Tanah Datar District of West Sumatera, Indonesia. We assessed 355 infants aged 6 to 9 months at the beginning of the study. The infants were divided into 4 groups: 1) Food Supplementation (FS); 2) Psychosocial Stimulation (PS); 3) Food Supplementation and Psychosocial Stimulation (FS+PS); and 4) Control Group (CG). The formula food supplement was comprised of a variety of local food sources (local MP-ASI) and adjusted for the local habits. The quality of psychosocial stimulation was assessed with the Infant HOME inventory method. Progress at 6 months was assessed by anthropometry and the Bayley scores of cognition, language and motor function. There were improvements in linear growth, cognitive and motor development of children in the FS (pcognitive development increased to 21.4±12.2 points (effect size 0.56) (pdevelopment increased to 20.7±18.4 points (effect size 0.50) (pcognitive and motor development.

  4. Childhood Behavior Problems as They Relate to a Dynamic Model of Psycho-Social Development. Volume 2, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James W.

    The paper relates the development of childhood behavior problems to a developmental theory of the acquisition of psycho-social skills in children. The influence of Eric Erikson (1950) on the ideas expressed is acknowledged. It is stated that each of the major types of behavior problems (withdrawal, impulsivity, dependence) results from a major…

  5. Exploring the Use of Web 2.0 Technology to Promote Moral and Psychosocial Development: Can YouTube Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the video sharing site, YouTube, as a platform for enhancing moral and psychosocial development through increased awareness of moral values and models of moral behavior. The research involved a qualitative design whereby video snippets illustrating moral issues were identified from YouTube. These video snippets were…

  6. Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire: development and testing of a screening questionnaire for use in clinical cancer genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; Kluijt, I.; Sidharta, G.N.; Gundy, C.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Up to three-quarters of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling and testing report psychosocial problems specifically related to that setting. The objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the screening properties of a questionnaire designed to assess specific psych

  7. Developing from child to adult: Risk factors for poor psychosocial outcome in adolescents and young adults with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, R.P.J.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Gottmer-Welschen, L.M.C.; With, P.H.N. de; Zinger, S.; Staa, A.L. van; Louw, A.J.A. de

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood-onset epilepsy during the years of transition to adulthood may affect normal social, physical, and mental development, frequently leading to psychosocial and health-related problems in the long term. Objective: This study aimed to describe the main characteristics of patients

  8. Development of Psychosocial Scales for Evaluating the Impact of a Culinary Nutrition Education Program on Cooking and Healthful Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Margaret D.; Williams, Joel E.; Catalano, Patricia Michaud; Griffin, Sara F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Develop scales to assess the impact of the "Cooking with a Chef" program on several psychosocial constructs. Methods: Cross-sectional design in which parents and caregivers were recruited from child care settings (Head Start, faith-based, public elementary schools), and cooks were recruited from church and school kitchens. Analysis…

  9. Psychosocial status of childhood cancer survivors who develop one or more secondary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Korenjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood cancer survivors can develop physical, emotionaland psychosocial adversities, a secondary malignancy (SM beingone of the most serious among them. Th e aim of our research was tostudy whether the development of SM was related to the psychosocialfunctioning of survivors, especially whether any psychic trauma fromthe first experience would be aggravated by SM. Patients and methods.Seventy – five childhood cancer survivors with SM were matched with75 survivors who did not develop SM, by sex, age, living environment,diagnosis, year of diagnosis and treatment of the first malignancy. They were compared regarding education, employment, marital status and, in the 35 women, childbirth data. Seventeen childhood survivors with an SM had had psychological evaluations at diagnosis of both their first and secondary cancers; the results of the two were compared. Results. Th ere were no differences in the schooling, education, social, marital status or birth specifics between survivors with SM and their controls, nor were there marked differences in measures of social or psychological status. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of these 75 subjects was not found to be related to the development of SM. Psychological evaluations showed no marked differences between those conducted aft er the first and the secondary malignancies.

  10. Cumulative Psychosocial and Medical Risk as Predictors of Early Infant Development and Parenting Stress in an African-American Preterm Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Margo A.; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Teti, Douglas M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined predictive linkages between cumulative psychosocial and medical risk, assessed neonatally, and infant development and parenting stress at 4 months of infant corrected age. Predominantly low-income, African-American mothers and their preterm infants served as participants. Cumulative psychosocial risk predicted early…

  11. [The development of criminal psychology in the work of Eugen Bleuler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, A; Hell, D

    1997-11-01

    The study refers to Eugen Bleuler's first systematic publications on "the natural born criminal" (1896) and his subsequent forensic-psychiatric expertise, written by Bleuler as Director of the psychiatric Department of Psychiatry of the University of Zurich ("Burghölzli"). It could be clearly shown that Bleuler was influenced by a deterministic understanding of human behaviour. He referred to the Anglo-American concept of "moral insanity" as a circumscribed defect of altruistic feelings despite other psychic functions being normal and tended to include this psychopathic deviation in psychiatry. Although this theoretic position remained unchanged, the elderly E. Beuler--under pragmatic points of view--accepted the traditional differentiation between mental illness in a narrower sense and "moral insanity" as a personality feature of most delinquents, falling under the responsibility of law and penal institutions. In his publications as emeritus (after 1927). Bleuler was influenced by the natural philosophic and vitalistic concept of the so-called "Minemism", which, however, still made him reject the postulate of "freedom of will".

  12. The development of loneliness from mid- to late adolescence: trajectory classes, personality traits, and psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhalst, Janne; Goossens, Luc; Luyckx, Koen; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-12-01

    Although loneliness is a common problem across late adolescence, its developmental course has not been investigated in depth in this period of life. The present study aims to fill this gap by means of a five-wave cohort-sequential longitudinal study spanning ages 15 to 20 (N = 389). Both variable-centered (i.e., latent growth curve modeling) and person-centered (i.e., latent class growth analysis) approaches were used. Variable-centered analyses showed that loneliness generally decreased over time. Person-centered analyses pointed to considerable inter-individual differences in the development of loneliness, and identified five trajectory classes (i.e., stable low, low increasing, moderate decreasing, high increasing, and chronically high). These five trajectory classes were differentially related to personality traits at age 15 (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) and psychosocial functioning at age 20 (i.e., depressive symptoms, self-esteem, anxiety, and perceived stress). These findings underscore the additional value of studying subgroups regarding the development of loneliness.

  13. Demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of the development of anxiety in adults with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Katie; Bramham, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate potential demographic, developmental and psychosocial predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD. Participants included 267 adults with a diagnosis of ADHD (168 males:99 females) and an age range of 18-70 years (M = 31 years; SD = 10.03 years). A background interview, parent questionnaire and rating scales were used to gather participant information. Correlations, independent t tests and one-way analysis of variances were used to identify variables associated with anxiety, and a stepwise multiple regression was used to identify potential predictors of anxiety. Variables associated with anxiety included childhood aggression, employment status, difficulties making friends, number of children and caffeine intake. Childhood aggression and caffeine intake were the potential predictors. Clinicians should be aware of these potential predictors of anxiety in the context of ADHD in order to minimise the likelihood of the development or maintenance of comorbid anxiety. Future research is needed in order to draw any conclusions on cause and effect.

  14. Positive youth development programs for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: evaluation based on program implementers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ng, Catalina S M; Law, Moon Y M

    2017-02-01

    As program implementers' views are seldom included in program evaluation and there are few related studies in different Chinese communities, this study examined the perceptions of the program implementers who implemented the Tier 2 Program of the P.A.T.H.S. Program in Hong Kong. The Tier 2 Program was designed to promote the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. In the community-based P.A.T.H.S. Project, 400 program implementers completed a subjective outcome evaluation form (Form D) for program implementers. Consistent with the previous findings, program implementers generally held positive views towards the program, implementers, and program effectiveness and their views towards these three domains did not differ across grades. In line with the hypotheses, perceived program quality and perceived implementer quality predicted program effectiveness. The present findings provided an alternative perspective showing that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the program implementers and they regarded the program to be beneficial to the program participants.

  15. Work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eller, Nanna H; Netterstrøm, Bo; Gyntelberg, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S; Nielsen, Finn; Steptoe, Andrew; Theorell, Töres

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease (IHD) was systematically reviewed: 33 articles presented 51 analyses of studies involving male participants, 18 analyses involving female participants, and 8 analyses with both genders. Twenty of the studies originated in the Nordic countries, and the major dimensions of the Demand-Control Model were the focus of 23 articles. A balanced evaluation of the studies indicates moderate evidence that high psychologic demands, lack of social support, and iso-strain are risk factors for IHD among men. Studies performed during recent years have not shown evidence for lack of control as a risk factor for IHD. Several studies have shown that job strain is a risk factor, but in the more recent ones, these associations can be fully explained by the association between demands and disease risk. Insufficient evidence was found for a relationship between IHD and effort-reward imbalance, injustice, job insecurity, or long working hours. Studies involving women are too few to draw any conclusion concerning women, work stress, and IHD.

  16. Development of the family symptom inventory: a psychosocial screener for children with hematology/oncology conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Cynthia W; Haynes, Stacey; Faith, Melissa A; Elkin, Thomas D; Smith, Maria L; Megason, Gail

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of literature has begun to underscore the importance of integrating family-based comprehensive psychological screening into standard medical care for children with oncology and hematology conditions. There are no known family-based measures designed to screen for clinically significant emotional and behavioral concerns in pediatric oncology and hematology patients. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the Family Symptom Inventory (FSI), a brief screener of patient and family member psychological symptoms. The FSI also screens for common comorbid physical symptoms (pain and sleep disturbance) and is designed for use at any point during treatment and follow-up. A total of 488 caregivers completed the FSI during regular hematology/oncology visits for 193 cancer, 219 sickle cell disease, and 76 hematology pediatric patients. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and tests of reliability and preliminary validity were conducted. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a 34-item, 4-factor solution, which was confirmed in an independent sample using confirmatory factor analysis (factor loadings=0.49 to 0.88). The FSI demonstrated good internal reliability (α's=0.86 to 0.92) and good preliminary validity. Regular psychosocial screening throughout the course of treatment and follow-up may lead to improved quality of care for children with oncology and hematology conditions.

  17. Effects of 6 Months ALL Treatment on Psychosocial Development and Emotional Status in Children Aged 1 to 3 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Kantarcıoğlu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: The aim of the current study was to evaluate possible effects of cancer treatment on psychosocial development and emotional state among children who was diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL before hospitalization and six months after treatment process.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients aged 1 to 3 years were screened before and six months after treatment. AGTE (Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory and BITSEA (Brief Infant Toddler Social Emotional Assessment were used for evaluating psychosocial development and social emotional status respectively. Spending time with play, peer groups and physical activity were evaluated twice and investaged with respect to possible relationship with psychosocial development.Results: According the current study results; six months after the diagnosis of ALL, children’s social emotional problems were increased, competence was decreased, fine motor and social development-self care ability were regressed.Conclusions: In early develomental stage, even 6 months after the diagnosis, ALL is a risk factor for psychosocial development and emotional state. Social isolation due to neutropenia seems to have important side effect on the behaviour. In the future studies there is a great need of longidutional research as if that side effect will be permanent. In the mean time during the hospitalization and isolation process, children need environmental stimulations. Care givers should be informed and guided about the ways which support development. If needed, children should be directed to special education programs. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2012; 10: 13-6

  18. The conception of guilt in criminal law and its importance in qualification of the criminal offences

    OpenAIRE

    Jānis Rozenbergs

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The research has been devoted to the study and assessment of the criminal law understanding of guilt, as well as the study of the role of the concept of guilt within the process of the qualification of a criminal offence. It is hard to overestimate the significance of the concept of guilt in criminal law science and criminal law practice. There is a basis for considering the principle of guilt and its use in criminal law as one of the indicators of the development o...

  19. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  20. 'Insane criminals' and the 'criminally insane': criminal asylums in Norway, 1895-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    This article looks into the establishment and development of two criminal asylums in Norway. Influenced by international psychiatry and a European reorientation of penal law, the country chose to institutionalize insane criminals and criminally insane in separate asylums. Norway's first criminal asylum was opened in 1895, and a second in 1923, both in Trondheim. Both asylums quickly filled up with patients who often stayed for many years, and some for their entire lives. The official aim of these asylums was to confine and treat dangerous and disruptive lunatics. Goffman postulates that total institutions typically fall short of their official aims. This study examines records of the patients who were admitted to the two Trondheim asylums, in order to see if the official aims were achieved.

  1. The Development of the Concept of the Crimes against Humanity in the Sources of International Criminal Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Zilinskas

    2001-01-01

      Crimes against Humanity is one of the most dynamic categories in the International Criminal Law since it first appearance in the Charter of Nuremberg Military Tribunal in 1945 as an outgrowth of the war crimes...

  2. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents......The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first 3 criteria....... The results of the 2 papers pointed in the same direction, namely that only the control dimension of job strain explained the excess risk for myocardial infarction for job strain. The large number of underpowered studies and the focus on psychosocial models, such as the job strain models, make it difficult...

  3. Developing and testing a model of psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Møller, Niels

    in turn influences individual workers understanding of their job function. These two mechanisms are reinforcing each other and lead to better performance, lower employee turnover and sick days compared to the other customer centers. The model is then tested statistically and verified....... psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. A substantial database covering the 45 customer centers over a period of 5 years has been gathered. In this period the Copenhagen psychosocial...

  4. Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program for Adolescents with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Integrated Views of Program Implementers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes was designed and implemented by school social workers and teachers. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (n = 2,542 in 49 schools, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings. With reference to 245 conclusions included in the 49 evaluation reports, secondary data analyses showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive. In addition, difficulties encountered and recommendations for program improvement were highlighted. In conjunction with previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received and was perceived to be beneficial to the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  5. Evaluation of a positive youth development program for adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: integrated views of program implementers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Ma, Cecilia M S; Sun, Rachel C F

    2010-10-01

    To help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) was designed and implemented by school social workers and teachers. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (n = 2,542) in 49 schools, program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings. With reference to 245 conclusions included in the 49 evaluation reports, secondary data analyses showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive. In addition, difficulties encountered and recommendations for program improvement were highlighted. In conjunction with previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received and was perceived to be beneficial to the development of adolescents with greater psychosocial needs.

  6. How effective are measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8?

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Eva; Penn, Helen; Barreau, Sofka; Burton, Veronica; Davis, Rosemary; Potter, Sylvia; Sayeed, Zahirun; Early Years Review Group

    2005-01-01

    This report looks at research that assesses the effectiveness of measures taken to mitigate the impact of direct experience of armed conflict on the psychosocial and cognitive development of children aged 0–8.

  7. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for

  8. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad

  9. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Participatory Design of Psychosocial and Physical Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…

  10. Developing a Conceptual Framework for Participatory Design of Psychosocial and Physical Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Tiina; Helfenstein, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows how the mixed-methods approach can be used in capturing and organising learning environment (LE) characteristics for the participatory design of psychosocial and physical LEs involving learners. Theoretical constructs were tested and further elaborated on in the analysis of two similar educational design research studies:…

  11. Dysarthria Impact Profile: Development of a Scale to Measure Psychosocial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, Margaret; Peach, Richard K.; Miller, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Background: The psychosocial impact of acquired dysarthria on the speaker is well recognized. To date, speech-and-language therapists have no instrument available to measure this construct. This has implications for outcome measurement and for planning intervention. This paper describes the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP), an instrument that has…

  12. The effects of internet communication on adolescents' psychosocial development: an assessment of risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss both the appeal and psychosocial consequences of different types of Internet communication, such as instant messaging and social network sites. We identify five characteristics of Internet communication that may explain both the attraction of Internet communication for ad

  13. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald

    2014-01-01

    were included in the original review: (1) STUDY: a prospective or case-control study if exposure was not self-reported (prognostic studies excluded); (2) OUTCOME: definite IHD determined externally; (3) EXPOSURE: psychosocial factors at work (excluding shift work, trauma, violence or accidents...

  14. The significance of psychosocial factors of the working environment in the development of sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Miškulin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sick building syndrome (SBS is a medical condition in which people in a certain buildings suffer from symptoms of illness or feeling unwell. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of exposure of the employees of public institutions from the city of Osijek to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment, to assess whether there is a connection between the exposure to these factors and the incidence of SBS symptoms and to clarify the nature of this connection.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2013 among 178 employees of public institutions in the city of Osijek. An anonymous questionnaire which contained questions relating to demographic data and working status of the participants, their exposure to various harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and occurrence of certain symptoms of SBS among them was used as a research tool.Results: 96.1 % (171/178 of participants were exposed to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment. Employees exposed to those factors more frequently expressed symptoms of SBS. The incidence and the number of symptoms of SBS among employees simultaneously grew with the increase of the number of harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment to which they were exposed.Conclusion: The study showed positive connection between the exposure to harmful psychosocial factors of the working environment and the incidence of SBS symptoms, highlighting this issue as a very important subject in the field of occupational medicine and health protection in the workplace.

  15. The Relation between Work-related Psychosocial Factors and the Development of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Conrad, Nicole; Bech, Per

    2008-01-01

    the evidence. Social support at work was associated with a decrease in risk for future depression, as all four studies dealing with this exposure showed  associations with relative risks of about 0.6. Even if this literature study has identified work-related psychosocial factors that in high......This review is based on a literature search made in January 2007 on request by the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries. The search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO resulted in more than 1,000 publications. This was reduced to 14 after the titles, abstracts, and papers were evaluated...... by using the following criteria: 1) a longitudinal study, 2) exposure to work-related psychosocial factors, 3) the outcome a measure of depression, 4) relevant statistical estimates, and 5) nonduplicated publication. Of the 14 studies, seven used standardized diagnostic instruments as measures...

  16. Parental involvement in primary school education and children's academic and psychosocial development in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sze-man; 黃思敏

    2015-01-01

    Researchers recognize the importance of parental practices at home and in school for children’s education. However, its effects on children’s psychosocial wellbeing remain unclear. Moreover, a majority of the extant literature focuses on western school-aged children. Cultural influences on parenting beliefs and strategies may give rise to different effects of parental involvement on academic performance and wellbeing among students in the Chinese culture. There is also a scant body of literat...

  17. Psychosocial Development in 5-Year-Old Children With Hearing Loss Using Hearing Aids or Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the psychosocial development and factors influencing outcomes of 5-year-old children with cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). It further examines differences between children with CIs and HAs with similar levels of hearing loss. Data were collected as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study—a prospective, population-based study. Parents/caregivers of children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 333), the Social Skills subscale from the Child Development Inventory (n = 317), and questionnaires on functional auditory behavior (Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children), and demographics. Children completed assessments of nonverbal cognitive ability (Wechsler Non-verbal Scale of Ability) and language (Preschool Language Scale - fourth edition). On average, parent-rated Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores on emotional or behavioral difficulties were within 1 SD of the normative mean; however, Child Development Inventory scores on social skills were more than 1 SD below the norm. Children with severe-to-profound hearing losses using HAs had significantly more behavioral problems than children with CIs. Regression analyses showed that non-verbal cognitive ability, language, and functional auditory behavior were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes for children with HAs, whereas outcomes for children with CIs were associated with functional auditory behavior and the presence of additional disabilities. Age at hearing intervention, severity of hearing loss, and communication mode were not associated with outcomes. The results suggest that even children who develop good language ability with the help of a HA or CI may have psychosocial problems if they exhibit difficulties with listening and communicating in everyday environments. The findings have implications for developing interventions for young children with hearing

  18. CBRC and psychosocial counselling: assessing needs and developing an ethical framework for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Eric; Thorn, Petra; Wischmann, Tewes

    2011-11-01

    Encountering infertility and involuntary childlessness and undergoing infertility treatment are acknowledged as stressful experiences that impact on individuals' psychological and emotional health – and for which access to psychosocial counselling by a skilled mental health professional may be beneficial. Evidence of patients', gamete donors' and surrogates' experiences indicates that utilization of infertility treatment in another country may not only exacerbate these psychosocial adversities, but may also pose additional risks to the psychological or physical health of participants, thus further emphasizing the need for competent psychosocial counselling services in cross-border reproductive care. However, this is a largely neglected topic in recent discussions of both CBRC itself and of infertility counselling practice. This paper extends the previous work undertaken by two of the authors to begin to map out practice issues within an ethical framework for counsellors when working with clients, donors, surrogates, individuals conceived following infertility treatment and existing children in clients', donor's and surrogates' families where cross-border reproductive treatment is considered or undertaken.

  19. Development and validation of psychosocial determinants measures of physical activity among Iranian adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faghihzadeh Soghrate

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed at assessing the psychometric properties of psychosocial determinants of physical activity-related measures in Iranian adolescent girls. Methods Several measures of psychosocial determinants of physical activity were translated from English into Persian using the back-translation technique. These translated measures were administered to 512 ninth and tenth-grade Iranian high school students. Results The results of a series of factor analysis showed that the self-efficacy scale contained a single factor, the social support scale contained two factors: family support and friend support, the physical activity 'pros & cons' scale contained two factors: physical activity pros scale and physical activity cons scale, the change strategies scale contained a single factor, the environment scale also contained a single factor. Chronbach's alphas, mean inter-item correlations and test-retest coefficients showed that these solutions were reliable. Conclusions These preliminary results provide support for using the mentioned scales to measure psychosocial determinants of physical activity in Iranian adolescent girls.

  20. The developmental psychopathology of perinatal depression: implications for psychosocial treatment development and delivery in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona

    2012-09-01

    Taking a developmental psychopathology perspective, our objective was to identify ways in which psychosocial treatment of depression during pregnancy may be enhanced. We first consider the state of evidence on psychosocial interventions for antenatal depression, next define key developmental psychopathology concepts that are relevant to antenatal depression, and finally discuss implications for clinical practice and research. We found a limited, but promising, evidence base for effective psychosocial interventions for depression during pregnancy. Examining antenatal depression from a developmental psychopathology perspective revealed suggestions for improving treatment. A developmental psychopathology perspective suggests that treatment of depression during pregnancy may be improved by attention to the continuum of depression, from subclinical to severe major depressive disorder; personalized care based on individual women's pattern of risk and resilience factors and correlated risks; consideration of the potential benefits of treating the couple's relationship, the mother's qualities of parenting, and infants' and children's mental health needs; and, including a detailed understanding of the developmental pathways to antenatal depression for each patient in treatment planning.

  1. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  2. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study......Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... of comparative criminal law....

  3. 32 CFR 635.5 - Police Intelligence/Criminal Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Police Intelligence/Criminal Information. 635.5... Intelligence/Criminal Information. (a) The purpose of gathering police intelligence is to identify individuals.... If police intelligence is developed to the point where it factually establishes a criminal...

  4. Developing and testing an internal audit tool of the psychosocial work environment in the oil and gas industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vestly Bergh, L.I.; Hinna, S.; Leka, S.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss a pilot study for conducting internal psychosocial risk auditing in the oil and gas industry, focusing on offshore units. Psychosocial risk auditing is a proactive method for monitoring the status of psychosocial factors influencing the risk of s

  5. 欧盟刑事一体化的起源与发展%The Origin and Development of European Integration for Resolving Criminal Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文沛

    2015-01-01

    Economic Integration is the first step of European Integration followed by Political Integration and Defense Integration.Integration for resolving criminal issues is a vital part of Political Integration.Based on a chronologic analysis,this paper is to summarize and describe the introduction,development,innovation and improvement of the European Integration for resolving criminal issues and to evaluate its significant roles in international cooperation and regional cooperation for resolving criminal issues.%欧洲一体化是在经济一体化基础上渐次开展的政治一体化,外交防务一体化,而刑事一体化则是政治一体化框架下的一项重要内容。以时间为发展脉络,归纳、描述欧洲刑事一体化的提出、发展、创新及逐步完善,并借以评价欧盟刑事一体化为国际刑事合作和区域间刑事合作所提供的范例作用。

  6. Psychosocial Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Watkins

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay advocates for a paradigm shift in psychology toward the activity and ethics of accompaniment. Accompaniment requires a reorientation of the subjectivity, interpersonal practices, and critical understanding of the accompanier so that (she can stand alongside others who desire listening, witnessing, advocacy, space to develop critical inquiry and research, and joint imagination and action to address desired and needed changes. The idea of “accompaniment” emerged in liberation theology in Latin America, and migrated into liberatory forms of psychology as “psychosocial accompaniment.” This essay explores accompaniment and its ethics from a phenomenological perspective, highlighting differences from mainstream stances in psychology. Attention is also given to the effects of accompaniment on the accompanier. Efforts to decolonize psychology require careful attention to the psychic decolonization of its practitioners and to the cultivation of decolonizing interpersonal practices that provide a relational and ethical foundation for joint research, restorative healing, and transformative action. Such practices endeavor through dialogue to build mutual respect and understanding, promote effective solidarity, and contribute to the empowerment of those marginalized. The decolonization of psychology should enable practitioners to be more effective in working for increased social, economic, and environmental justice; peace building and reconciliation; and local and global ecological sustainability.

  7. Update on work-related psychosocial factors and the development of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Jan Hyld; Burr, Hermann; Hannerz, Harald;

    2014-01-01

    The present review deals with the relationship between occupational psychosocial factors and the incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD) with special regard to the statistical power of the findings. This review with 4 inclusion criteria is an update of a 2009 review of which the first 3 criteria......, and social capital); and (4) Statistical power: acceptable to detect a 20% increased risk in IHD. Eleven new papers met the inclusion criteria 1-3; a total of 44 papers were evaluated regarding inclusion criteria 4. Of 169 statistical analyses, only 10 analyses in 2 papers had acceptable statistical power...

  8. Partnerships as knowledge encounters: a psychosocial theory of partnerships for health and community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Jovchelovitch, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a psychosocial theory of partnership, illustrated with case studies from Cambodia and Brazil. Partnerships are conceptualised as encounters with the knowledge of self and others, entailing processes of representation and communication between all stakeholders involved, and shaped by institutional and sociocultural contexts. We argue that partnership is an evolving practice that requires critical reflection and the creation of enabling institutional contexts. As such, it must be understood not as a tool for intervention, but as part of the intervention and definition of success.

  9. Substance abuse and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Motayne, G G

    1992-09-01

    As forensic psychiatry develops as a clinical subspecialty, clinical skill in understanding, treating, and predicting violent behavior will become more important. This article addresses the importance of understanding the relationship between substance abuse and violent behavior. This article also discusses morbidity and mortality in substance abuse, the demographics of substance abuse and criminality, and the clinical aspects of the forensic psychiatric evaluation.

  10. Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, T Christopher; Zhu, Xingshu; Demuro-Mercon, Carla; Cummings, Holly W; Sings, Heather L; Ferris, Daron G

    2009-11-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was > or =0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

  11. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.

  12. Development and implementation of a participative intervention to improve the psychosocial work environment and mental health in an acute care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, R; Brisson, C; Vinet, A; Vézina, M; Lower, A

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and implementation phases of a participative intervention aimed at reducing four theory grounded and empirically supported adverse psychosocial work factors (high psychological demands, low decision latitude, low social support, and low reward), and their mental health effects. Methods The intervention was realised among 500 care providers in an acute care hospital. A prior risk evaluation was performed, using a quantitative approach, to determine the prevalence of adverse psychosocial work factors and of psychological distress in the hospital compared to an appropriate reference population. In addition, a qualitative approach included observation in the care units, interviews with key informants, and collaborative work with an intervention team (IT) including all stakeholders. Results The prior risk evaluation showed a high prevalence of adverse psychosocial factors and psychological distress among care providers compared to a representative sample of workers from the general population. Psychosocial variables at work associated with psychological distress in the prior risk evaluation were high psychological demands (prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.27), low social support from supervisors and co‐workers (PR = 1.35), low reward (PR = 2.92), and effort‐reward imbalance (PR = 2.65). These results showed the empirical relevance of an intervention on the four selected adverse psychosocial factors among care providers. Qualitative methods permitted the identification of 56 adverse conditions and of their solutions. Targets of intervention were related to team work and team spirit, staffing processes, work organisation, training, communication, and ergonomy. Conclusion This study adds to the scarce literature describing the development and implementation of preventive intervention aimed at reducing psychosocial factors at work and their health effects. Even if adverse conditions in the psychosocial environment and

  13. Helping adolescents with greater psychosocial needs: evaluation of a positive youth development program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F

    2008-06-13

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes), designed and implemented primarily by school social workers, attempts to help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. After completion of the Tier 2 Program in the Full Implementation Phase (2006/07 school year), 10,255 Secondary 1 students in 207 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C) to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. Pearson correlation analyses showed that perceptions of the program and instructors were significantly correlated with perceived effectiveness of the program. Participants who joined volunteer training activities generally had higher global subjective outcome evaluation scores than did participants who attended programs without volunteer training activities.

  14. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unemployment and psychosocial outcomes to age 30: A fixed-effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F; Horwood, L John

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between exposure to unemployment and psychosocial outcomes over the period from 16 to 30 years, using data from a well-studied birth cohort. Data were collected over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977, who have been studied to age 30. Assessments of unemployment and psychosocial outcomes (mental health, substance abuse/dependence, criminal offending, adverse life events and life satisfaction) were obtained at ages 18, 21, 25 and 30. Prior to adjustment, an increasing duration of unemployment was associated with significant increases in the risk of all psychosocial outcomes. These associations were adjusted for confounding using conditional, fixed-effects regression techniques. The analyses showed significant (p unemployment and major depression (p = 0.05), alcohol abuse/dependence (p = 0.043), illicit substance abuse/dependence (p = 0.017), property/violent offending (p unemployment. The findings suggested that the association between unemployment and psychosocial outcomes was likely to involve a causal process in which unemployment led to increased risks of adverse psychosocial outcomes. Effect sizes were estimated using attributable risk; exposure to unemployment accounted for between 4.2 and 14.0% (median 10.8%) of the risk of experiencing the significant psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to unemployment had small but pervasive effects on psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  16. Leadership, mental health, and organizational efficacy in health care organizations. Psychosocial predictors of healthy organizational development based on prospective data from four different organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, Bengt; Blomkvist, Vanja

    2007-01-01

    Only a few studies of psychosocial determinants of employee health and organizational development have been prospective, involving more than one organization and applying standardized assessment tools. This limits the ability of providing evidence-based guidance as how to carry out healthy organizational transformations. A total of 6,000 employees responded twice to a validated psychosocial-leadership questionnaire within a 2-year period. The assessment focused on changes over time in the three outcome measures - mental health, efficacy, and leadership, determined to be important indicators of a healthy organization. Changes within and between organization were assessed statistically using regular t tests and general linear modeling. There were major differences between organizations in psychosocial measures, both at the baseline and over time. At the organizational level, changes between study periods in management performance feedback, participatory management, and work tempo were the most consistent predictors of improvements over time in the three outcome measures. Performance feedback and participatory management might be two common predictors of healthy workplaces. Some of the psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations suggested in previous research might not be universally valid. It is suggested that future research should to a larger degree make use of multiple departments and organizations in studies of psychosocial determinants of healthy organizations. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The International Criminal Court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Ciara Therése

    This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity.......This article considers whether acts of international terrorism can and should be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court as crimes against humanity....

  18. Positive youth development program targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Sun, Rachel C F; Tsui, Pik Fong

    2011-01-01

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from 2173 participants recruited in 52 schools, 257 conclusions were reported by the program implementers in the evaluation reports. These conclusions were further analyzed via secondary data analyses. Although most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 2 Program, instructors, and program effectiveness were positive in nature, there were also conclusions on the difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements. Consistent with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by different stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants in the first year of the Experimental Implementation Phase.

  19. Positive Youth Development Programs Targeting Students with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Subjective Outcome Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program, 2,173 students in 52 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C, assessing their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile of the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (N = 8, programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (N = 7, programs incorporating both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training elements (N = 30, and other programs with different foci (N = 7. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the experimental implementation phase.

  20. Helping Adolescents with Greater Psychosocial Needs: Evaluation of a Positive Youth Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, designed and implemented primarily by school social workers, attempts to help adolescents with greater psychosocial needs. After completion of the Tier 2 Program in the Full Implementation Phase (2006/07 school year, 10,255 Secondary 1 students in 207 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C to assess their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. Pearson correlation analyses showed that perceptions of the program and instructors were significantly correlated with perceived effectiveness of the program. Participants who joined volunteer training activities generally had higher global subjective outcome evaluation scores than did participants who attended programs without volunteer training activities.

  1. Positive youth development programs targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tak Lan; Shek, Daniel T L

    2010-02-12

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program (Secondary 1 Level), 9,931 participants in 212 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C) in order to assess their views of the program, workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a "reconstructed" overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 58), programs concentrating on volunteer training and services (n = 31), programs offering both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training activities (n = 91), and other programs with different foci (n = 32). Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the workers, and over four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the Full Implementation Phase.

  2. Positive youth development programs targeting students with greater psychosocial needs: subjective outcome evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Lee, Tak Yan; Sun, Rachel C F; Lung, Daniel W M

    2008-01-14

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program, 2,173 students in 52 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C), assessing their views of the program, instructors, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a "reconstructed" overall profile of the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (N = 8), programs concentrated on volunteer training and services (N = 7), programs incorporating both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training elements (N = 30), and other programs with different foci (N = 7). Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the instructors, and roughly four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the experimental implementation phase.

  3. Positive Youth Development Programs Targeting Students with Greater Psychosocial Needs: A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Yan Lee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes targets adolescents with greater psychosocial needs, and the related programs were designed and implemented by school social workers. After completion of the Tier 2 Program (Secondary 1 Level, 9,931 participants in 212 schools responded to the Subjective Outcome Evaluation Form (Form C in order to assess their views of the program, workers, and perceived effectiveness of the program. Based on the consolidated reports submitted by the agencies to the funding body, the research team aggregated the consolidated data to form a “reconstructed” overall profile on the perceptions of the program participants. Four major types of program were identified, including programs based on the adventure-based counseling approach (n = 58, programs concentrating on volunteer training and services (n = 31, programs offering both adventure-based counseling and volunteer training activities (n = 91, and other programs with different foci (n = 32. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the programs and the workers, and over four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. The present study provides support for the effectiveness of the Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong for the Full Implementation Phase.

  4. Effects of early psychosocial deprivation on the development of memory and executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J Bos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of early institutional care on memory and executive functioning. Subjects were participants in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP and included institutionalized children, children with a history of institutionalization who were assigned to a foster care intervention, and community children in Bucharest, Romania. Memory and executive functioning were assessed at the age of eight years using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test and Automated Battery (CANTAB. As expected, children with a history of early institutional care performed worse on measures of both visual memory and executive functioning compared to their peers without a history of institutional care. In comparing children randomly assigned to the foster care intervention with their peers who had continued care in the institution, initial comparisons did not show significant differences on any of the memory or executive functioning outcomes. However, for one of the measures of executive functioning, after controlling for birth weight, head circumference, and duration of time spent in early institutional care, the foster care intervention was a significant predictor of scores. These results support and extend previous findings of deficits in memory and executive functioning among school-age children with a history of early deprivation due to institutional care. This study has implications for the millions of children who continue to experience the psychosocial deprivation associated with early institutional care.

  5. Explanation of Loneliness in the Elderly and Comparison With Psychosocial Development Theory: A Quantitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Shamsaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Loneliness is universal, still very subjective feeling, natural to all human beings and a subjective experience of isolation. Many people may be ashamed of talking about it or admitting they feel lonely, because they are afraid of being stigmatized. The purpose of this study was to explore elderly experiences of loneliness and comparison with the Erikson’s theory. Materials and Methods: this study was a qualitative research with content analysis approach. The research population was twelve elderly, aged 68-85 years who lived in Hamadan city. Sampling began purposefully and continued until data saturation. To collect data, interview was used. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed immediately. Data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: In total, 187 primary codes, 7 subcategories and 3 main categories were obtained in which, the 3 main categories were feelings of alienation, separation of favorite activities, and fatigue and sadness. Core category or shared meaning was regret with heavy. Conclusion: Loneliness is common in elderly and associated with adverse health consequences both from a mental and physical health points of view. Therefore, appropriate intervention strategies to reduce isolation using the Erikson’s psychosocial theory can improve elderly quality of life to achieve Ego integrity throughout the life.

  6. Predisposition to criminality: Swedish adoption studies in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, M

    1996-01-01

    The predisposition to criminality was studied in 913 women and 862 men from the Stockholm Adoption Study. Different genetic and environmental antecedents influenced the development of criminality, depending on whether or not there was associated alcohol abuse. Male alcoholic criminals often committed repeated violent offences, whereas non-alcoholic criminals characteristically committed a small number of petty property crimes. These non-alcoholic petty criminals more often had biological fathers with histories of petty crime but no excess of alcohol abuse. The risk of criminality in alcohol abusers was correlated with the severity of their own alcohol abuse, but not with criminality in their biological or adoptive parents. Most explained variation in petty crime was due to differences between the genetic predispositions of the adoptees, but substantial contributions were also made by postnatal environment, either alone or in combination with specific genetic subtypes. There was no overlap between the congenital antecedents of alcoholism and non-alcoholic criminality, but some postnatal variables were common to this kind of criminality and type 2 or male-limited alcoholism. Low social status alone was not sufficient to lead to petty criminality, but did increase risk in combination with specific types of genetic predisposition. Unstable preadoptive placement contributed to the risks of both petty criminality and male-limited alcoholism.

  7. Important Development, Progress and Implementation of China's Criminal Defense System -Investigation and Analysis with Background of the New Criminal Procedural Law%我国刑事辩护制度的重要发展、进步与实施——以新《刑事诉讼法》为背景的考察分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾永忠

    2012-01-01

    The modification and perfection of criminal defense system in new Criminal Procedural Law isn't on- ly limited in Chapter Four - "Defense and Representation", but also runs and reflects entirely and thoroughly through many aspects in the Criminal Procedural Law. To some extent, this amendment of Criminal Procedural Law mainly focus on safeguarding human rights, perfecting criminal defense system and strengthening the criminal de- fense function. This paper combs comprehensively the development and progress of criminal defense system in four aspects: basic issues in the criminal defense system, conditional rights to defense, instrumental rights to defense, and protective rights to defense, predict the outstanding problems in the next stage's implementation and submit ex- pectations.%新《刑事诉讼法》关于刑事辩护制度的修改、完善不限于“第四章辩护与代理”的范围,而是整体性、全方位的,贯穿、体现于《刑事诉讼法》的诸多方面。从某种程度上讲,这次《刑事诉讼法》再修改主要是围绕保障人权、完善刑事辩护制度、强化刑事辩护职能而展开的。本文拟从刑事辩护制度的基础性问题、条件性的辩护权利、手段性的辩护权利、保障性的辩护权利四个方面对刑事辩护制度的发展、进步做一次全面的梳理,并对下一步实施中的突出问题作出预测,提出期望。

  8. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children With Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20 to 50 percent among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires...... measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing abilities, and psychosocial difficulties were given to 334 children with hearing loss. Results show that the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties was 3.7 times greater compared to a group of hearing children. In the group of children with additional...... disabilities, the prevalence was three times greater compared to children without additional disabilities. If sign-language and/or oral language abilities are good, the children do not have a substantially higher level of psychosocial difficulties than do hearing children. This study documents the importance...

  9. CRIMINAL TERRORIST GROUP IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian criminal law, there is a specialized regulation that defines criminal terrorist group, as variant of plurality of offenders. The present study presents this kind of criminal group by identifying the elements of differentiation compared to the organized crime group regulated by the Criminal Code.

  10. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C. H.; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S. Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent “perceived social mobility.” Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories. PMID:25932460

  11. Perceptions of social mobility: development of a new psychosocial indicator associated with adolescent risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterman Weintraub, Miranda Lucia; Fernald, Lia C H; Adler, Nancy; Bertozzi, Stefano; Syme, S Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent "perceived social mobility." Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic, and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1) projected future social status and (2) current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥4 h of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  12. Perceptions of Social Mobility: Development of a New Psychosocial Indicator Associated with Adolescent Risk Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Lucia Ritterman Weintraub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social class gradients have been explored in adults and children, but not extensively during adolescence. The first objective of this study was to examine the association between adolescent risk behaviors and a new indicator of adolescent relative social position, adolescent perceived social mobility. Second, it investigated potential underlying demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial determinants of this indicator. Data were taken from the 2004 urban adolescent module of Oportunidades, a cross-sectional study of Mexican adolescents living in poverty. Perceived social mobility was calculated for each subject by taking the difference between their rankings on two 10-rung ladder scales that measured (1 projected future social status and (2 current subjective social status within Mexican society. Adolescents with higher perceived social mobility were significantly less likely to report alcohol consumption, drinking with repercussions, compensated sex, police detainment, physical fighting, consumption of junk food or soda, or watching ≥ 4 hours of television during the last viewing. They were significantly more likely to report exercising during the past week and using a condom during last sexual intercourse. These associations remained significant with the inclusion of covariates, including parental education and household expenditures. Multiple logistic regression analyses show higher perceived social mobility to be associated with staying in school longer and having higher perceived control. The present study provides evidence for the usefulness of perceived social mobility as an indicator for understanding the social gradient in health during adolescence. This research suggests the possibility of implementing policies and interventions that provide adolescents with real reasons to be hopeful about their trajectories.

  13. Effects of psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Tofail, F; Rahman, A; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M

    2009-06-01

    Young children with severe malnutrition usually have poor mental development. Psychosocial stimulation may reduce their cognitive deficit, but it is not usually provided. The aim of the study was to incorporate stimulation into the routine treatment of severely malnourished children in a nutrition unit and evaluate the impact on their growth and development. Time-lagged controlled study. Nutritional Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) in ICDDR,B Dhaka Hospital. Severely malnourished children, aged 6-24 months, admitted to the NRU were enrolled. All received standard nutritional care. A control group of 43 children was studied initially, followed by an intervention group of 54 children. The intervened mothers and children participated in daily group meetings and individual play sessions for 2 weeks in hospital and were visited at home for 6 months. Children's growth was measured and development assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Twenty-seven children were lost to the study. In the remaining children, both groups had similar developmental scores and anthropometry initially. After 6 months, the intervention group had improved more than the controls did by a mean of 6.9 (Pchildren in hospital, followed by home visits for 6 months, was effective in improving children's growth and development and should be an integral part of their treatment.

  14. The failure of the insulation system and the development of a rational criminal policy based means probation in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, the proposal to reform the system by incorporating punishment the existing order of penal sanctions and measures the average power probation is wishful thinking, confirmed the need for its patency in the right voices representatives of science.There is, however, supporters of the department of the Ministry of Justice. However, based on the current catalog of criminal offenses, including taking into account the supervision of the conditional suspension, cancellation and premature release and independent supervision, can, in implementing rules create conditions for implementation of the first phase of that reform, assuming operation in the so-called guardianship as a prerequisite for clinical success of semi in Poland.

  15. Employers liability to the international criminal court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenifer Yiseth Suárez Díaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The constant changes in the social dynamics due to economic and technological development has brought along the need to dispose of a High Court, with competence over International Crimes. The above was the reason to establish the International Criminal Court, destined to prosecute and punish the maximum responsible for crimes of its jurisdiction. Nonetheless, despite the existence of individual criminal responsibility as an accomplice in the case of entrepreneurs who contribute to the crime, there is not an actual investigation or conviction as such in the Court fase for those individuals. Through a criminological study, the actions in the frame of the criminal policy in international law, in order to hold individual criminal responsibility towards entrepreneurs for international crimes, will be evaluated, from the dogmatic categories established in the international guidelines as well as from international doctrine.

  16. 宪法发展与刑法理念的更新——国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变%Constitutional Development and the Updating of the Concept of Criminal Law -- The Evolution o~ Country Rights Criminal Law to the Civil Rights Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛波

    2012-01-01

    As the enforcement of the constitution, criminal Law directly inherited the basic spirit of the constitution. Evolution on value, spirit and concept of the constitution will have a direct impact on the transmutation of the value, spirit and concept of criminal law. The transmutation can be reflected from country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law. Regulations about human rights protection and non - public economy in the constitution promote the evolution of country rights criminal law to the civil rights criminal law.%刑法作为宪法的实施法,直接传承着宪法中所蕴涵的基础精神。宪法的价值、精神、理念的嬗变会直接影响到刑法价值、精神及理念的嬗变,这种嬗变可体现为国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。宪法关于人权保障的规范和关于非公有制经济的规范直接推动国权刑法向民权刑法的嬗变。

  17. Criminality and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rob

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of climate change imply a reconceptualization of environment-related criminality. Criminology can offer insight into the definitions and dynamics of this behaviour, and outline potential areas of redress.

  18. Civil & Criminal Penalties

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...

  19. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  20. Cognitive and psychosocial development of HIV pediatric patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoridou Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The psychosocial development of pediatric HIV patients has not been extensively evaluated. The study objectives were to evaluate whether emotional and social functions are differentially associated with HIV-related complications. Methods A matched case-control study design was conducted. The case group (n = 20 consisted of vertically infected children with HIV (aged 3-18 years receiving HAART in Greece. Each case was matched with two randomly selected healthy controls from a school-based population. CNS imaging and clinical findings were used to identify patients with HIV-related neuroimaging abnormalities. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale III and Griffiths Mental Abilities Scales were applied to assess cognitive abilities. The age specific Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to evaluate emotional adjustment and social skills. The Fisher's exact test, student's t-test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare categorical, continuous, and ordinal scores, respectively, of the above scales between groups. Results HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities did not differ from patients with neuroimaging abnormalities with respect to either age at HAART initiation (p = 0.306 or months of HAART treatment (p = 0.964. While HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had similar cognitive development with their healthy peers, patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had lower mean General (p = 0.027 and Practical (p = 0.042 Intelligence Quotient scores. HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of both Abnormal Emotional Symptoms (p = 0.047 and Hyperactivity scores (p = 0.0009. In contrast, HIV patients with neuroimaging abnormalities had an increased likelihood of presenting with Abnormal Peer Problems (p = 0.033. Conclusions HIV patients without neuroimaging abnormalities are more likely to experience maladjustment with respect to their emotional and activity spheres

  1. Development of mental disorders one year after exposure to psychosocial stressors; a cohort study in primary care patients with a physical complaint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Lilli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders, common in primary care, are often associated with physical complaints. While exposure to psychosocial stressors and development or presence of principal mental disorders (i.e. depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders defined as multisomatoforme disorders is commonly correlated, temporal association remains unproven. The study explores the onset of such disorders after exposure to psychosocial stressors in a cohort of primary care patients with at least one physical symptom. Method The cohort study SODA (SOmatization, Depression and Anxiety was conducted by 21 private-practice GPs and three fellow physicians in a Swiss academic primary care centre. GPs included patients via randomized daily identifiers. Depression, anxiety or somatoform disorders were identified by the full Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, a validated procedure to identify mental disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. The PHQ was also used to investigate exposure to psychosocial stressors (before the index consultation and during follow up and the onset of principal mental disorders after one year of follow up. Results From November 2004 to July 2005, 1020 patients were screened for inclusion. 627 were eligible and 482 completed the PHQ one year later and were included in the analysis (77%. At one year, prevalence of principal mental disorders was 30/153 (19.6% CI95% 13.6; 26.8 for those initially exposed to a major psychosocial stressor and 26/329 (7.9% CI95% 5.2; 11.4 for those not. Stronger association exists between psychosocial stressors and depression (RR = 2.4 or anxiety (RR = 3.5 than multisomatoforme disorders (RR = 1.8. Patients who are “bothered a lot” (subjective distress by a stressor are therefore 2.5 times (CI95% 1.5; 4.0 more likely to experience a mental disorder at one year. A history of psychiatric comorbidities or psychological treatment was not a confounding factor for developing a principal mental

  2. THE SYSTEM OF CRIMINAL LAW OF RUSSIA: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irek Anasovich Bikkinin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The principle of socio-political and economic foundations of criminal law protection of the public relations and the need to improve its efficiency, requires a coherent and consistent criminal legislation. We have to admit that the basic characteristics of modern law-making process in the criminal justice field, demonstrate the lack of a shared vision of improvement of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation.The paper is exploratory in nature, reflected in the fact that it conducted a comprehensive analysis of the current criminal legislation and practice of the modernization of this legislation, conducted research, and expert surveys. On this basis, development of proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Purpose. Development of proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Methodology. A comprehensive analysis of the current criminal legislation and practice of the modernization of this legislation, conducted research, and expert surveys.Results. Proposals on optimization of the basic directions of development of the criminal law.Practical implications. Lawmaking.

  3. CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS AGAINST CHILD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Jovanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile criminal law is part of the criminal law of a country, it is set of rules and regulations governing the rights and obligations of the minors concerned. Criminal proceedings against a child will raise if there is a crime which has been committed by the child when the child or minor may be answerable for the deed pursuant to justice for children. When it comes to criminal proceedings against a child that is significantly different from the procedure against adult offenders because here we have a special category of people who still do not have sufficient mental maturity and procedures that would guide could have negative consequences child. What characterizes proceedings against a child is that the main emphasis is on offense but the offender. Another feature of the criminal proceedings against children that have some direct criminal proceeding in the direction of an alternative procedure , for example in front of Social Work or a procedure in which a whole would raise concerns about the child's personality , there are numerous variations and entire procedure is conducted in the best interest of the child.

  4. The Right not to Incriminate Oneself in Criminal Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Ņesterova, Irēna

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The doctoral thesis “The Right not to Incriminate Oneself in Criminal Procedure” is the first scientific work in Latvia exploring the right not to incriminate as a human right in criminal procedure. The objective of the thesis is to discover the meaning and content of the right not to incriminate oneself in criminal procedure and reveal key problems existing in the legal framework and practice in Latvia as well as to develop proposals on how to improve them. The doc...

  5. Between Relief and Development: Theories, Practice and Evaluation of Psycho-Social Projects in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimica, Jadranka; Stubbs, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches to humanitarian assistance are the relief model, responding to a temporary crisis; and the development model, in which refugee emergencies are also opportunities for long-term development. In Croatia, emphasis has been on psychological over social assistance; a social development response would contribute more to real recovery. (SK)

  6. The effect of maternal exposure to psychosocial job strain on pregnancy outcomes and child development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ann Dyreborg

    2015-02-01

    Psychological stress at work is a rising problem in Denmark. Nearly one third of the women reported in 2005 that they had difficulties completing their work tasks, and 17 % found that they had only limited or no influence on their work tasks. The corresponding numbers for 1987 were 18.3 % and 16 %, respectively. Work-related stress shortens the life expectancy and reduces the number of years without prolonged disease. For the society work-related stress amounts to more than 30,000 hospital admissions each year, half a million extra days on sick-leave for women, 500,000 contacts to general practitioners, 1600 early retirements for women, and an overuse of the health-care system. With the second highest employment rate in Europe for women - and many of them in the childbearing age - effects of psychological stress at work may extend beyond the exposed individual and affect pregnancy, birth and health of the child. Few studies on job stress relative to pregnancy have been carried out, but both animal and epidemiological studies have shown effect of exposure to stressful conditions during pregnancy and adverse effects on the offspring. The specific aims for the three studies included in this thesis were to investigate the association between maternal psychosocial job strain during pregnancy, measured as high demands and low control and the risk of: - Having a child born preterm or with low or high birth weight relative to gestational week (paper I + II) - Congenital malformations in offspring (paper III) - Asthma and atopic dermatitis in the children (paper IV). Furthermore, it was also the ambition to maximize and secure the quality of research and integrity of the data used by documenting the methods in a protocol that described the analyses before they were done and to keep transparency in the methods used following good epidemiological practices (GEP) for occupational and environmental epidemiological research. All analyses in this thesis are based on information

  7. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system.

  8. The irresponsible criminal in Norwegian medico-legal discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skålevåg, Svein Atle

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses discourses on criminal responsibility in Norway in the 19th and 20th centuries, in light of Michel Foucault's regimes of power and knowledge: the apparatuses of law, discipline and security. The passing of two criminal codes, in 1842 and 1902 marks a development from neo-classical law to a law influenced by positivist criminology. In these consecutive ways of thinking law, the figure of the irresponsible criminal constituted a contentious issue. From being a figure marking the limits of the law, the irresponsible criminal became an object to be disciplined and a security threat. This redefinition of criminal responsibility created or was created by new groups of experts speaking from positions increasingly close to the criminals. The most important professional group was of course the psychiatrists, that emerged in Norway as a distinct professional group in the second half of the 19th century, and whose influence in the legislative process culminated in the 1920s.

  9. Criminal policy: Basic concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary literature on law, politicology and security, there have been various attempts in both scientific and applied disciplines to define the notion and content of the crime suppression policy. The differences underlying these diverse views are based on the different starting points, i.e. whether the criminal policy is perceived as: 1] a scientific (academic] discipline; b] a practical daily activity of competent state authorities and other relevant bodies; 3] an activity of combating crime as a set of most dangerous human behaviors which imperil the most important personal assets and social values; and 4] an activity aimed at suppressing all types of illegal behavior (felonies, misdemeanors, delinquency, economic crimes, etc]. Some authors view the policy of crime suppression as a scientific discipline which provides for the appropriate use of existing tools in combating crime. Concurrently, on the basis of defined body of knowledge and analysis, the science (including some sciences outside the field of law] suggests relevant measures for efficient suppression of crime. Another conception is based on the idea that criminal policy has a dual meaning, i.e. that it may be understood as: 1] a practical social activity aimed at accomplishing the envisaged goals (also known as a practical dimension of crime policy], and 2] a scientific discipline which explores, analyses and proposes measures of social reaction towards criminal behavior. In practice, criminal policy encompasses a system of purposeful, consciously planned and coordinated social activities aimed at preventing crime and protecting the society at large. When perceived in this way, criminal policy is the basic element of the general public policy in a specific society. Just like the criminal law of an individual state, criminal policy is based on specific principles (governing rules].

  10. Psychological Empowerment among Urban Youth: Measure Development and Relationship to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J.; Schotland, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    Although there are an increasing number of youth development programs that aim to empower young people, there is a dearth of psychometrically sound measures that can be used to assess flexible youth-led organizing and participatory research approaches that tackle a wide range of social and community problems. This study developed and tested…

  11. INTOXICATION AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    ZGAGA SABINA

    2014-01-01

    The principle of actio libera in causa or the effect of a perpetrator's voluntary intoxication on the existence of a criminal act is controversial in international criminal law. The present legislation, as contained in the Rome Statute, is a compromise between different legal systems. It allows the exclusion of a criminal act based on the fact that the perpetrator was involuntarily intoxicated and he or she cannot be ascribed guilt for the act of intoxication and the criminal act. In the Rome...

  12. Brain development and cognitive, psychosocial, and psychiatric functioning in classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L

    2011-01-01

    The disturbance of the hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis characteristic of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD) is likely to affect brain development, yet neuroanatomic work is only beginning. Fetal hyperandrogenemia in 46, XX 21-OHD leads to masculinized brain organization and, consequently, at later stages of development, to masculinized gender-related behavior and cognitive function, including, although relatively uncommonly, gender identity. Genital masculinization as well as its surgical treatment has implications for social stigmatization and sexual functioning. CAH-associated electrolyte crises in infancy and later may result in severe cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are somewhat increased, especially in patients with severe degrees of CAH.

  13. Administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhat Akhnafovich Yunusov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective basing on the research of formation and development of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and comparativelegal analysis of this institution as well as the longterm experience in crime investigation to trace the problems and trends of administrative prejudgment and prove the necessity to introduce or to be more precise legalize the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law. Methods the research is based on the general dialectic method of cognition comparative historical formaljuridical methods as well as special and privatelegal methods of research. Results analysis of the main problems and collisions of administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law the doctrine and the practice of implementation of this institution can become the basis for legalization of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law and implementing it for the crimes stipulated in the Special part of the Russian Criminal Code if they are of low or middle gravity and committed intentionally those most often occurred. The article studies the institution of the administrative prejudgment in the Russian criminal law since 1922 until present. Various researchersrsquo opinions are given for and against returning of this institution. Taking into account the criminological indicators the authors express their own opinion on legalization of the administrative prejudgment. Scientific novelty having abandoned the formal approach to the institution of the administrative prejudgment both in the Russian criminal law and in the foreign laws the authors believe that the criminal personality should be the central factor of the administrative prejudgment legalization. In this context the authors state the direct connection between the personal features of a criminal including their inclination to immoral and illegal behavior and the crime committed by them. Practical value the theoretical conclusions formulated in the research

  14. The Psychosocial Benefits of Oral Storytelling in School: Developing Identity and Empathy through Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbin, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The oral re-telling of traditional tales, modelled by a storyteller and taught to children in school, can be understood as 'non-instrumental' practice in speaking and listening that emphasises oral language over the reading and writing of stories. While oral storytelling has significant benefits to children's education and development, it is…

  15. The Impact of Chronic Illness on Psychosocial Stages of Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, E. Virginia, Ed.; Shevlin, Kathleen M., Ed.

    This book addresses critical issues regarding the impact of chronic illness and disability on human development. It was written for health care professionals who help chronically ill and disabled persons deal with the psychological and social as well as the biological aspects of their illness or disability. An expanded version of Erik Erikson's…

  16. Psychosocial predictors of alcohol consumption among undergraduate students: developing intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Atwell, Katie Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption among UK university students is well documented. Although alcohol use reduces over the time spent at university, drinking patterns of undergraduates have been associated with risk of alcohol dependence and abuse a decade following graduation. Consequently, UK universities should endeavour to promote responsible drinking among their drinking student population. This thesis presents four studies that aim to inform the development of feasible and ...

  17. PSYCHOSOCIAL ANALYSIS OF VIOLENCE Between conflict and social development

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Following recent events in our country, with the aim of improving the study and prevention of conflicts for a better economic and social development that contributes to the quality of life and mental health of individuals, this article begins by exploring the concepts of violence and aggression and outlines the conceptual distinction between them, also delves into issues such as intentionality and social value, basic budgets and components as the formal structure of the act, personal equation,...

  18. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    OpenAIRE

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, soci...

  19. Psychosocial aspects of strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablan Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Binocular vision is characterized by a harmonious relation between sensory and motor systems of both eyes. This relation enables directing visual axes toward the observed object simultaneously, fusing images from two eyes, and the sense of threedimensionality. Motility and binocular vision disorders occur in manifest and latent strabismus. The irregular position of eyes in strabismus is perceived by most people as an esthetic defect. Also, psychosocial consequences and the importance of treating strabismus are very superficially explained in this context. Bearing in mind the results of recent researches, which indicate that individuals of all ages with strabismus face different difficulties in psychosocial functioning, we believe that this issue in our surroundings should be dealt with. Strabismus leads to forming prejudices which usually have a negative impact on socialization and employment opportunities. Timely treatment of strabismus has a positive influence on the functionality of binocular vision, building self-esteem and self-satisfaction, being accepted by typically developing population, the quality and quantity of social interaction. The aim of this paper is to present the relation between strabismus and psychosocial reactions with regard to the available literature. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179025: Kreiranje Protokola za procenu edukativnih potencijala dece sa smetnjama u razvoju kao kriterijuma za izradu individualnih obrazovnih programa i br. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  20. PROBLEM OF CRIMINAL REPRESSION, APPLIED OUTSIDE OF CRIMINAL LIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.2A new institute of repressive measures applied outside the criminal liability in criminal law (including as a condition for exemption from criminal liability is forming now in Russian legislation. The author concludes that the provisions of the criminal law on monetary compensation and a court fine should be deleted because of the following reasons. 1 By their nature, and monetary compensation and a court fine, not being a formal punishment (and, therefore, a form of realization of criminal responsibility is a monetary penalty, i.e., penalty-punishment. Moreover, the rules of court fine destination identical rules of criminal sentencing. 2 Quantitatively court fine may exceed the minimum limits of criminal punish-ment in the form of fines. The dimensions of monetary compensation in the order of hours. Pt. 2, Art. 76.1 of the Criminal Code and at all close to the maximum values of fine-punishment. 3 Exemption from criminal liability requires states to refrain from prosecuting the person alleged to have committed a crime, which means that the nonuse of criminal repression. Regulatory standards analyzed, on the other hand, require mandatory use of repression, ie, virtually no exemption from criminal liability does not occur at all. 4 The use of a quasi-penalty in the form of monetary compensation and court fines are not an exemption from criminal responsibility, but on the contrary, the use of criminal repression (of responsibility, and in a simplified manner. 5 Contrary to the requirements of the Constitution and the Criminal Code of criminal repression is applied to persons whose guilt has not been established in the commission of a crime. Thus, in criminal law introduced a presumption of guilt. 6 Customization repression (in fact – of criminal responsibility in the application of the judicial penalty is substantially limited, and the application of monetary compensation is excluded at all, contrary to the requirement that the rough

  1. Psychosocial factors and their role in chronic pain: A brief review of development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innes Stanley I

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The belief that pain is a direct result of tissue damage has dominated medical thinking since the mid 20th Century. Several schools of psychological thought proffered linear causal models to explain non-physical pain observations such as phantom limb pain and the effects of placebo interventions. Psychological research has focused on identifying those people with acute pain who are at risk of transitioning into chronic and disabling pain, in the hope of producing better outcomes. Several multicausal Cognitive Behavioural models dominate the research landscape in this area. They are gaining wider acceptance and some aspects are being integrated and implemented into a number of health care systems. The most notable of these is the concept of Yellow Flags. The research to validate the veracity of such programs has not yet been established. In this paper I seek to briefly summarize the development of psychological thought, both past and present, then review current cognitive-behavioural models and the available supporting evidence. I conclude by discussing these factors and identifying those that have been shown to be reliable predictors of chronicity and those that may hold promise for the future.

  2. Public Security and Fundamental Principles of Criminal Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, Leonard F.M.

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this paper is “public security and constitutional principles of criminal law”. This paper presents some thoughts and formulates some questions concerning developments in the broad area of criminal law and public security which pose a challenge to constitutional law. The paper focuses no

  3. Is Early Ability Grouping Good for High-Achieving Students' Psychosocial Development? Effects of the Transition into Academically Selective Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; Neumann, Marko; Tetzner, Julia; Böse, Susanne; Knoppick, Henrike; Maaz, Kai; Baumert, Jürgen; Lehmann, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates school context effects on psychosocial characteristics (academic self-concept, peer relations, school satisfaction, and school anxiety) of high-achieving and gifted students. Students who did or did not make an early transition from elementary to secondary schools for high-achieving and gifted students in 5th grade…

  4. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  5. Criminal Network Investigation: Processes, Tools, and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    to the success of investigations. Basic criminal network investigation concepts have been developed and tested using proof-of-concept prototyping, resulting in generic software components for tool support of criminal network investigation. We have used these components to build CrimeFighter Investigator...... three challenges we formulated our hypothesis for tool support, and analyzed problems related to each individual challenge. Our response to these problems is a list of research focus requirements, to guide our development of new processes, tools, and techniques that ultimately would reduce the impact...... of the challenges and support the hypothesis. We propose hypertext as the key technology to bridge human and tool related requirements to provide integrated support for both, resulting in increased capabilities, that ultimately will create a synergy effect useful for criminal network investigation. We create...

  6. The criminal legal aid in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Changhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 347.965The subject of the article is the criminal legal aid in China.The main goal of this work is to introduce the current state of legal aid in criminal cases in China to Russian scholars and legal professionals.Results. Criminal Legal Aid in China appeared relatively recently, and in the last years of its operation was marked by a number of achievements and some problems. Legal assistance in criminal cases is an integral part of the institute of legal aid in China and plays an invalu-able role in ensuring due process, maintaining the balance between prosecution and de-fense, as well as in guaranteeing human rights. This study contains a general description of the current state of criminal legal aid in China, highlights inherent problems of this institu-tion and describes prospects of its development. This work is based on the Criminal Proce-dure Code of the PRC in version of 2013 year, and provides analysis of the Russian and Chi-nese special literature, Chinese law and practice, as well as the official Chinese statistics. The scope of legal assistance in criminal cases is extremely narrow, the funding is not enough, and the quality leaves much to be desired. These and other shortcomings already have become obstacles to the development of the Chinese criminal procedure law. Despite of a number of changes to the legal regulation of the institute in the 2013 edition of the PRC Criminal Procedure Code, a number of issues remained unresolved.Conclusions. The existing difficulties can be overcame by expanding the scope of legal aid, increase in funding and introduction of public defenders. To increase funding in the budgets proposed to establish minimum public funding of legal aid, to attract non-governmental and international funding, to strengthen control and to ensure openness and transparency of spending. To improve the quality of legal aid PRC government should rise up compensations for lawyers, introduce the institution of public

  7. Managing Criminal Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Peter B.; Weidman, Donald R.

    The report discusses many ways for police managers to improve the success of their departments' criminal investigation efforts. Management issues addressed include budgeting and allocating resources; improving relationships with the prosecutor; interacting with the public, especially victims and witnesses; improving relationships between…

  8. [Psychosocial aspects of preeclampsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Bernadett; Baji, Ildikó; Rigó, János

    2015-12-13

    Distress conditions during pregnancy may contribute to the development of preeclampsia by altering functions of the neuroendocrine and immune systems, e.g. activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and increase in plasma proinflammatory cytokines. Preeclampsia may also precipitate mental health problems due to long-term hospitalization or unpredictable and uncontrollable events such as preterm labor and newborn complications. Besides, preeclampsia may induce persistent neurocognitive complaints with a negative impact on patients' quality of life. As growing evidence indicates that poor maternal mental health has an adverse effect on pregnancy outcome and fetal development, psychosocial interventions may be beneficial for women with preeclampsia.

  9. "Blue flags", development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta

    2017-07-24

    Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and usefulness.

  10. Criminality of Black Youth in Inner-City Schools: "Moral Panic", Moral Imagination, and Moral Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Schools provide a context or moral space for youth to develop their identity; however, with the racialized ideology, language and practices that promote Black youth criminality, criminalized schools become a racialized, classed, and gendered moral space that feeds into the school-to-prison pipeline. The criminalization of schools refers to a…

  11. Analysis about Spirit of the Criminal Policy:Integration of Punishing Crime and Promoting Social Development%刑事政策的精神:惩治犯罪与促进社会发展的统一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭凤莲

    2012-01-01

    with mercy was put forward under the background of building harmonious society, whose spirit is combination of punishment with ensuring right and temper justice with mercy to build harmonious society. The three basic criminal policies developed one after another with time and the spirit, but the mainly spirit of them is to unite between punishing crime and promoting society.

  12. Association and Centrality in Criminal Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist

    Network-based techniques are widely used in criminal investigations because patterns of association are actionable and understandable. Existing network models with nodes as first class entities and their related measures (e.g., social networks and centrality measures) are unable to capture...... and analyze the structural richness required to model and investigate criminal network entities and their associations. We demonstrate a need to rethink entity associations with one specific case (inspired by \\textit{The Wire}, a tv series about organized crime in Baltimore, United States) and corroborated...... by similar evidence from other cases. Our goal is to develop centrality measures for fragmented and non-navigational states of criminal network investigations. A network model with three basic first class entities is presented together with a topology of associations between network entities. We implement...

  13. The psychiatric defence and international criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, John

    2007-01-01

    Following the development of the International Criminal Court (ICC) the mental state of the perpetrators of genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes will become a more important issue in regard to defence and mitigating factors. This article examines how the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in particular has dealt with the mental illness defence to date, and how its judgements can serve as guidance for the ICC as it becomes the major international court of the future. The absence of a mental health defence in the Statutes of the ICTY and the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has led to a reliance on the Rules of Procedure and Evidence of the two tribunals. There are major difficulties in using the mental health defence as it is defined in the Statutes of the ICC because of a requirement for the destruction of mental capacity as a valid defence. Fitness to plead and the defence of intoxication are also examined.

  14. Analysis of the Possibility and Limitation of Criminal Mediation in Rural Areas in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development in the theory and practice in the area of criminal law in China, a lot of creative views have been put into legal practice. Criminal mediation, which is cropping up in both practice and theory becomes a hot subject under discussion in the field of legislation. The newly modified criminal law formally prescribes the criminal mediation, which has been recognized in the level of law-making. It has become a basic policy in the procedure of law suit. This thesis emphasizes the possibility of criminal mediation in rural areas in China, discussing the disadvantages of the current criminal justice mode, the advantages of criminal mediation and the tradition in rural areas in China. Additionally, it attempts to set up the limitation of criminal mediation, based on the principle of law, principle of equality, principle of utility and principle of justice.

  15. Psychopathology and Related Psychosocial Factors in Children with Office Discipline Referrals at School: Evidence from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, İbrahim Selçuk; Dursun, Onur Burak; Acemoğlu, Hamit; Baykara, Burak

    2015-10-01

    Many childhood psychiatric disorders present their first symptoms as challenging behaviors at school. Evidence from cross-national studies enhance the understanding of the biological and cultural variables underlying these behaviours. In this study, we aim to identify the psychopathology among children with office disciplinary referrals and assess psychosocial risk factors related to this situation. Forty-seven students who had received an office discipline referral and eighty-three controls who had never been given an office disciplinary referral participated in this study. The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children--Present and Lifetime, socio-demographic data form were administered to children to assess their respective psychopathologies and psychosocial risk factors. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were significantly higher in children with Office discipline referrals. Psychiatric assessment should be one of the first steps in the evaluation processes of assessing challenging behaviors at school.

  16. CRIMINAL POLICY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Ivandić Zimić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of the criminal policy in the development of the integrated prevention-social policy related to drug addiction is highlyimportant because of the fact that it aims are reducing of the drug related crimes, protecting the victims and community. The paperconsiders interventions of the criminal policy into fi elds of treatment and prevention of drug addiction among youth. This relationrepresent challenge for policymakers because interconnections between different service, who do not always have the same point ofview how to approach to the problem, is strongly needed and expected. Thru the comparing of the implementation of prevention andcriminal policy in Great Britain, Netherlands, Sweden and Croatia, aim of the paper is to detected concepts and models of infl uenceof the criminal policy on the reducing use of drugs among youth and effectiveness of prevention programs. Lack of the support andsocial care for the drug addiction offenders within the criminal policy, have effects of the success of the social reintegration and appearanceof recidivism. There is a strong connection between prevention and criminal policy in the fi led of combating drug problem;on one side good prevention policy could infl uence on the reduction of number of youth who will committee drug crimes and enteredin the criminal justice system, but at the same time the criminal policy have the important role in the preventing of the drug abuse thruthe involving minor drug offenders in the treatment while there are in the criminal proceedings.

  17. The role of criminal law within the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhafaji, Yasmin

    2012-12-01

    Health is for most of us the most precious thing one can have. However, in practice situations occur where the patient is harmed within the healthcare institution. Traditionally, there are several ways to protect individuals in society: with civil, criminal and administrative procedures. Over the years in the Netherlands complaints procedures were established in which the complaints about healthcare providers' performance can be handled. Recently, there are some developments within the criminal law that concern the healthcare sector. Examples are: the establishment of the Public Prosecution Service's Expertise Center on Medical Matters, appointments of medical prosecutors. In addition, in legal literature suggestions are made that criminal law is nowadays applied in order to provide redress to the patients (relatives) and as a 'safety tool' that is to ensure security and to counter the risks within the healthcare sector. The article discusses the role of criminal law within the healthcare sector, and in particular, whether criminal procedure is suitable for handling complaints about healthcare.

  18. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  19. Sensation seeking, coping with stress, and readiness to engage in therapy: does ego development influence the psychosocial functioning of substance-abusing mothers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daryn H; McMahon, Thomas J; Luthar, Suniya L; Suchman, Nancy E

    2012-04-01

    Ego development, the capacity to derive coherent, nuanced meaning from one's life experiences, often has significant impact on psychosocial adjustment during adulthood. Research with nonclinical populations has indicated links between higher ego development and healthy emotional coping and interpersonal relationships. Emerging research with substance-abusing mothers suggests that higher levels of ego development are associated with improved parenting but also with increased rates of psychopathology. Less is known about how ego development is related to other psychosocial factors important for substance-abusing mothers' functioning and capacity to parent, including the proclivity to engage in risky behaviors, adaptive coping behaviors, and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. The present study examines these links. Participants included 182 methadonemaintained women who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of a relational parenting intervention for substance-abusing mothers (Luthar, Suchman, & Altomare, 2007). Data were analyzed using a series of MANCOVAs and ANCOVAs controlling for maternal IQ and depression. Mothers with higher levels of ego development reported more adaptive coping techniques and greater readiness to engage in psychotherapy but also reported a heightened desire for strong sensations. Findings are discussed in light of mothers' psychological processes and parenting capacities. The significance of findings for developing parenting interventions for substance-abusing mothers is also discussed.

  20. The Fundamental Concept of Crime in International Criminal Law: A Comparative Law Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchuk, Iryna

    This book examines the rapid development of the fundamental concept of a crime in international criminal law from a comparative law perspective in light of the catalyzing impact of the criminal law theory developed in major world legal systems on the crystallization of the substantive part...... of international criminal law. This study offers a critical overview of international and domestic jurisprudence in regards to the construal of the concept of a crime (actus reus, mens rea, defences, modes of liability) and exposes roots of confusion in international criminal law through a comprehensive...... comparative analysis of substantive criminal laws in selected legal jurisdictions....

  1. Ultima Ratio in European Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakari Melander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultima ratio principle is one of the most well known traditional principles of criminal law. The principle has emphasized the repressive nature of the criminal justice system and positioned it as the last resort of the legislator. The principle has been developed mainly in legal scholarship with a national undertone, while criminal law has traditionally been seen as a pronouncedly national branch of law. However, criminal law has recently been strongly internationalized and Europeanized. This development necessarily needs to affect the principles that legitimate the use of the criminal justice system. There is a need for developing principles that could legitimate criminal law (cooperation that surpasses the national level. The article, thus, examines whether there is a role for the ultima ratio principle in European criminal law. The main focus is on EU criminal law. The article suggests that there are several signs of recognizing the ultima ratio principle in EU criminal law. The principle is recognizable in the principle of subsidiarity, within which ultima ratio may have a federal dimension. Most of all, the principle of proportionality shares several similarities with the ultima ratio principle. If these dimensions were fully examined and utilized, there is a possibility that legitimizing principles for EU criminal law could be formulated at considerable depth. El principio de ultima ratio es uno de los principios tradicionales más conocidos del derecho penal. El principio ha puesto en relieve el carácter represivo del sistema de justicia penal y se ha convertido en el último recurso del legislador. El principio se ha desarrollado principalmente en la comunidad académica legal con un trasfondo nacional, mientras que el derecho penal se ha concebido tradicionalmente como una rama marcadamente nacional del derecho. En los últimos años, sin embargo, el derecho penal se ha internacionalizado y europeizado en gran medida. Esta evoluci

  2. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  3. Ten tendencies of criminal justice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jiahong

    2007-01-01

    A study of the global tendencies of criminal justice will help us design a more scientific and rational pathway for the reformation of existing criminal justice system of China. In the forthcoming several hundred years to come, theworld's criminal justice is to take on ten tendencies, that is, the tendency toward unity, civilization, science, rule of law, human rights, justice, efficiency,specialization, standardization and harmony.

  4. El comportamiento criminal en Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Samudio

    2001-01-01

    Se presentan los principales factores que influyen en el comportamiento criminal, que son de cuatro clases: precriminógenos (factores sociohistóricos y biológicos), criminógenos 1 (pautas de crianza), criminógenos 2 (en la pubertad y adolescencia) y citcunstanciales (condiciones que aumentan la probabilidad de la conducta criminal facilitándola). Se describen varios casos, incluyendo los "gamines" de Colombia, la llamada "cultura de la violencia", la migración, y otros. Se analiza...

  5. International Criminal Law & Its Paradoxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2017-01-01

    This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international crimi...... criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...

  6. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  7. JUDICIAL COOPERATION IN THE CRIMINAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Karceva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of crime throughout the eras has increased at an alarming rate. It has expanded, evolved and gone through many different forms and stages. With the formation of the EU and the expulsion of internal borders, as well as the insurance of greater liberty and freedom of movement, acts of crime and the number of criminals have drastically increased. Its enormous growth and expansion, especially in the form of crime betwixt country borders (within EU territory, has desperately called for change and development within the norms of criminal law. However, with the view that criminal law in most EU nations has its own specific and varied markings, and since a supranational criminal law does not exist, there has arisen a dire need for cooperation within this sphere. The globalization of transnational organized crime and its entry within the legal sector of these member countries has been the reason for the development of court cooperation within Europe. Cooperation between the courts was achieved through a tight collaboration between the court services and other regulatory organs/authorities of the member countries. This court cooperation is conducted through very varied activities carried out by the different countries, which are in turn guaranteed through different conventions, bilateral and multilateral agreements/treaties. There exist many other kinds of legal support when viewing court cooperation that one member country can provide to another member country, for which information will be provided further in the text.

  8. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  9. Criminal tendencies and psychological testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobchik L. N.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods of psychological diagnostics closer to the psychology main research areas, which involve measuring the accuracy and statistical reliability. A set of methods that includes questionnaires should be complemented with projective tests in which the stimulus material is verbal in nature. The article presents the results of surveys of different groups of persons in conflict with the law, as well as screening tests contingent of youth groups and adolescents. High performance, spontaneously manifested aggressiveness, traits, emotional immaturity, low self-control and primitive-the requirement of the hierarchy of values at statistically significant level are identified in the data psychodiagnostic study, thus allowing to allocate the risk of wrongful conduct and to develop preventive measures of psycho-pedagogical and social nature. Psychological testing is an effective tool in the study of criminal predisposici and gives the key to a science-based approach in the development of preventive measures aimed at reducing crime.

  10. Termination of pregnancy under French law: from criminalization to a right in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanamoothoo, Allane

    2011-12-01

    Termination of pregnancy is the premature exit of the products of conception, which include the placenta, bag of waters, embryo or fetus from the uterus. In general, the term "termination of pregnancy" refers to non-medical termination of pregnancy, which is requested for different reasons other than medical ones. When such a request is made in countries where it is lawful, women have access to induced termination of pregnancy under lawful and limited conditions. However, in countries where the practice is illegal, women tend to suffer and die of complications from unsafe termination of pregnancy. Nowadays, there seems to be a worldwide trend towards the legalization of termination of pregnancy. The impact of international developments on women's rights has played an increasing role in improving access to termination of pregnancy. This article aims at describing how legalization of termination of pregnancy in France has become a right which is in accordance with international developments on women's rights.

  11. Development of a Patient-Centred, Psychosocial Support Intervention for Multi-Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) Care in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Sudeepa; Elsey, Helen; King, Rebecca; Baral, Sushil C; Bhatta, Bharat Raj; Newell, James N

    2017-01-01

    Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) poses a major threat to public health worldwide, particularly in low-income countries. The current long (20 month) and arduous treatment regime uses powerful drugs with side-effects that include mental ill-health. It has a high loss-to-follow-up (25%) and higher case fatality and lower cure-rates than those with drug sensitive tuberculosis (TB). While some national TB programmes provide small financial allowances to patients, other aspects of psychosocial ill-health, including iatrogenic ones, are not routinely assessed or addressed. We aimed to develop an intervention to improve psycho-social well-being for MDR-TB patients in Nepal. To do this we conducted qualitative work with MDR-TB patients, health professionals and the National TB programme (NTP) in Nepal. We conducted semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with 15 patients (10 men and 5 women, aged 21 to 68), four family members and three frontline health workers. In addition, three focus groups were held with MDR-TB patients and three with their family members. We conducted a series of meetings and workshops with key stakeholders to design the intervention, working closely with the NTP to enable government ownership. Our findings highlight the negative impacts of MDR-TB treatment on mental health, with greater impacts felt among those with limited social and financial support, predominantly married women. Michie et al's (2011) framework for behaviour change proved helpful in identifying corresponding practice- and policy-level changes. The findings from this study emphasise the need for tailored psycho-social support. Recent work on simple psychological support packages for the general population can usefully be adapted for use with people with MDR-TB.

  12. Development and psychometric evaluation of a psychosocial quality-of-life questionnaire for individuals with autism and related developmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Leslie A; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A; Speer, Leslie L; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results indicated that the Child and Family Quality of Life measured six unique quality-of-life constructs (child, family/caregiver, financial, external support, partner relationship, and coping), had good reliability across score ranges and exhibited expected patterns of convergent validity. Caregivers of autism spectrum disorder-affected children reported reduced family quality of life prior to the time of diagnosis relative to caregivers of children with other developmental disabilities. The Child and Family Quality of Life is a brief, reliable measure for assessing psychosocial quality of life in families affected by developmental disability. This study is the first to demonstrate impairments in family quality of life early in the developmental course of autism spectrum disorder, prior to formal diagnosis. In addition to traditional child-focused intervention strategies, families with autism spectrum disorder-affected children require early, broad intervention strategies that positively impact the whole family.

  13. Victim-induced criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooner, M

    1966-09-02

    In summary, there are certain issues that need to be dealt with if a coherent system of victim compensation is to be created. 1) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation qualified by his behavior in connection with the crime? If a Texas tycoon visits a clip joint, flashes a fat roll of bills, and gets hit on the head and rolled, is he entitled to compensation? If a man enters into a liaison with another's wife and gets shot by the husband, should his dependents be compensated? If a woman goes walking alone in a disreputable neighborhood and is assaulted, is she entitled to compensation? Unless the answer to such questions is a flat "yes," the adjudication of victim compensation as a "right" would be embarkation upon a vast sea of confusion. On the surface it may seem simpler to bypass the issue of "right" and declare for victim compensation as a matter of social policy-a logical extension of the welfare state approach. But the apparent simplicity may quickly prove illusory, in light of the second issue. 2) Is the victim's entitlement to compensation on the basis of indigency to be qualified by the requirement that an offender be apprehended and his guilt determined by a court? There are two levels to this problem. First, if a severely injured man reports to police that he has been mugged and robbed and if the police cannot apprehend a suspect, how is the administrator of compensation to know that the man is in fact the victim of a crime? The administrator of compensation must determine whether the episode was a criminal act or an argument-and who started it, and who precipitated the violence. What shall be the role of the witnesses, and of investigators? More important is the second level of the problem: How will law-enforcement of ficials and the courts evaluate the testimony of the victim if compensation of the victim may be at stake? In the evaluation of proposals for victim compensation, criminologists may need to think very hard about such questions and

  14. El impacto de la educación de la justicia criminal en el clima político-socio-económico de naciones de transición y desarrollo/The impact of the education of criminal justice in the socio–economic-politic climate of countries in transition and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Eskridge (Estados Unidos de América

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se propone que los esfuerzos sean emprendidos para desarrollar los departamentos académicos de la Criminología y justicia criminal dentro de los sistemas educativos más altos de naciones desarrolladas y de transición. Es mi proposición que en tiempo, este plan estratégico reducirá el alcance y la extensión de la corrupción en estas naciones y moverá generalmente el crimen en un contexto más manejable. Esto en cambio rendirá una oportunidad aumentada para tales naciones como asegurar la inversión externa, darse cuenta de la estabilidad económica aumentada, y participar eventualmente en un grado más grande en la economía del mercado global. It is proposed that efforts be undertaken to develop the academic departments of Criminology and criminal justice within educational systems highest of developed nations and transition. It is my proposition that in time, this strategic plan will reduce the scope and extent of corruption in these Nations and generally move the crime in a more manageable context. This will instead pay a chance increased to such Nations as ensuring foreign investment, realizing increased economic stability, and eventually participate in a larger extent in the global market economy.

  15. The Criminality and its Psychological Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Dorel Popa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventing and fighting crime preoccupied and concerned humanity along its history. This concernis fully justified because the crime is serious harm of the human interests, endangering fundamental valuesand it is affecting the proper functioning of the social system. But what constitutes criminal behavior and howthe individual gets the specialized skills in the area of criminality? What is its specificity? Any societyappreciates the behavior of its members in terms of their compliance to the moral and legal rules. Failure tofollow these rules will lead to coercive or punitive measures. The collective programming of the mind givespattern for the individual behavior and about how the individual reacts. The reaction is observable in thediversity of cultural patterns of individuals forming a society. A study recently elaborated by the Journal ofthe Association for Psychological claims that people belonging to the different cultures perceive the aspectsof reality in a different way. The researchers found differences in how different cultures think about othercultures. The originality of this paper is consisting in understanding of criminality using the three factors thatdefine the formation and development of human personality. The added value of the paper come frominterdisciplinary presentation of the scourge of this age - criminality.

  16. Hyubris as a factor of individual criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Surkov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Criminal personality for thousands of years is the object of philosophical research. For philosophical anthropology, in particular, it is important to understand which components of human nature can be regarded as criminal. The term “hubris” that appears in ancient Greek culture, today received its second wind. It is widely used (especially in the West to refer to the human outlook, which provokes too arrogant, defiant behavior, which is a public danger. The term “hubris” is often used in criticism of certain politicians. However, we propose to expand the scope of its application also in other spheres of public life. Іn the history of criminology there are many examples of people with hubris, especially among dangerous criminals. Therefore hubris can be considered as criminogenic factor that requires research and limitations of the society. In another case, there is a situation, by analogy with the term “intoxication of power”, can be called “intoxication of impunity”. This thesis is confirmed by authoritative theories developed in criminology, sociology, psychology too. It is also consistent with some modern philosophical views on the nature of the criminal personality. Analysis of factors that stimulate the emergence and growth of hubris, suggest that most are present in a mass society. It generates anomie (loss of values that щаеут manifests as hubris that can act as criminogenic factor. Therefore, hubris reducing requires changes in the organization of social life.

  17. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  18. Cyber Forensics Ontology for Cyber Criminal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heum; Cho, Sunho; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

    We developed Cyber Forensics Ontology for the criminal investigation in cyber space. Cyber crime is classified into cyber terror and general cyber crime, and those two classes are connected with each other. The investigation of cyber terror requires high technology, system environment and experts, and general cyber crime is connected with general crime by evidence from digital data and cyber space. Accordingly, it is difficult to determine relational crime types and collect evidence. Therefore, we considered the classifications of cyber crime, the collection of evidence in cyber space and the application of laws to cyber crime. In order to efficiently investigate cyber crime, it is necessary to integrate those concepts for each cyber crime-case. Thus, we constructed a cyber forensics domain ontology for criminal investigation in cyber space, according to the categories of cyber crime, laws, evidence and information of criminals. This ontology can be used in the process of investigating of cyber crime-cases, and for data mining of cyber crime; classification, clustering, association and detection of crime types, crime cases, evidences and criminals.

  19. [The pedophilic criminal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, M; Morgner, J

    1985-02-01

    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome.

  20. [Features of occupational health nurse support for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and related factors: Focusing on required knowledge and skills, and measures to develop them].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tomoko; Nishikido, Noriko; Matsuki, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the support activities provided for occupational health nurses aimed at improving psychosocial working environments, related knowledge and skills, and learning environments as well as associations among these factors. In addition, we aimed to create correlated factor models to describe the support activities in order to identify ways to promote these activities among occupational health nurses. An anonymous mail-based questionnaire survey was conducted of occupational health nurses who were members of the Japan Society for Occupational Health and belonged to enterprises or independent health insurance societies. Among 356 returned questionnaires (response rate: 46.4%), all the main items were answered in 329 (valid response rate: 92.4%), and these questionnaires were analyzed. Factor analysis was performed for the seven items pertaining to support activities for the improvement of psychosocial working environments and models of each factor of the support activities were developed using covariance structure analysis. In the factor analysis, [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] and [Facilitating workplace involvement] were identified as support-related factors. The mean implementation rates for these approaches were approximately 50 to 80%, and less than 40%, respectively. [Clarifying a stress-related situation and providing advice] was associated with skills of "providing superiors with explanations to enhance their understanding" and "collecting and analyzing stress survey results by department", and knowledge of "personal stress questionnaires" and "common stress factors in working environments". The above-mentioned knowledge and skills were associated with self-learning of "examining and reporting daily activities for the improvement of working environments" and "reviewing related papers". [Facilitating workplace involvement] was associated with skills of "indirectly supporting discussions led by

  1. Undiscovered Country: Towards a History of the Criminal 'Underworld'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Shore

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the underworld is a central feature in popular histories of crime and criminal behaviour but one that has tended to be dismissed by academic historians as somewhat nebulous and indefinable. This article seeks to bridge this gap by suggesting that the construction of a chronological history or model of the underworld can further understandings of societal attitudes towards crime and criminality. Drawing on case studies and snapshots of deviant cultures and behaviours from the eighteenth century to the 1960s the discussion highlights the role of the underworld and its relationship with social panics and social network theories in the development of criminal justice.

  2. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  3. Racial Profiling and Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals are c...

  4. Prison as a Criminal School:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorinas, Cedric; Damm, Anna Piil

    We investigate peer effects on crime-specific recidivism using register data for the entire Danish prison population. We find that inmates strengthen criminal capital in prison due to exposure to offenders with the same field of specialisation (reinforcing peer effects). Our results accord...... are especially strong due to exposure to more experienced criminals and dropouts....

  5. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  6. INDIRECT INFLUENCE OF COMMUNITY LAW OVER NATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela GORUNESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of influence of Community law over national criminal law is difficult to be solved even now, because criminal law is very closely related to state sovereignty. However, at European level it is a series of unifying trends in the field of criminal law. This includes: the Corpus Juris Project to develop a number of guiding principles on the protection through criminal law of financial interests of EU, within the European judiciary space; the project of founding a European Prosecutor , which would have extended jurisdiction over the entire European judicial area; at the doctrinaire level the project called ”The Criminal Code of the European Union ” result of encoding the provisions relevant for the Community criminal law and published likewise. Romanian criminal law could not remain outside these trends and this paper reveal some internal acts that reflect the trends observed at European level. Some of this acts have a direct influence, and some of them an indirect influence. An example is represented by art. 3022 of the Romanian Penal Code, which, in the basic variant, besides any operations regarding the import of wastes and residue of any kind or other dangerous goods for public health and environment, incriminates the placing or transit operations on the country without observing the laws. In this text, the phrase "without observing the laws" must be reported to both national regulations and international legal instruments.

  7. Psychosocial intervention, as a contribution to local human development within Medellin’s public scope. Case study: project aps - “buenvivir” (good living into a family. sponsor: City hall of Medellin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information about a research held on the psychosocial intervention offered from social projects such as educational formative spaces. A critical analysis is made by means of a government project conducted by the local administration of the city of Medellin known as “APS Buenvivir en Familia, 2011”, compiled by the Social Welfare Town Council Office, in association with the Municipality’s Health Department. Its purpose was to examine the logic and approach of psychosocial intervention as an input to human development. It was carried out through a qualitative focusing, taking in consideration the following categories: The psychosocial intervention has a definite impact on local human development, psychosocial praxis from the point of view of a public action strategy, community involvement taken as a true political act. The results showed that the psychosocial as a public exercise makes a contribution to local human development starting from the social involvement of communities and, in its everyday doing, presents structural and formal contradictions between the way they are designed and how the projects are planned and implemented among the people. 

  8. Developing young person’s Face IT: Online psychosocial support for adolescents struggling with conditions or injuries affecting their appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Williamson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A participatory action approach with potential users and clinical experts was employed to design and evaluate the acceptability of young person’s Face IT (YP Face IT, an online intervention incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training for adolescents with appearance-related anxiety as a result of a visible difference. Workshops with adolescents and clinicians informed a prototype YP Face IT which underwent a usability analysis by 28 multidisciplinary health professionals and 18 adolescents, before 10 adolescents completed it at home. Acceptability data obtained online and via interview were analysed using content analysis. Participants found YP Face IT acceptable and believed it would provide much needed and easy access to psychosocial support. They requested that it should be made widely available either as a self-management tool requiring minimal supervision from a health professional or to compliment therapist-led care.

  9. Personality-related determinants of criminal recidivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to explore personality-related determinants of recidivism, with recidivism being defined as a the number of lawful sentences a person had (criminal legal recidivism, and b the number of prison sentences pronounced (penal recidivism. The study was carried out in two independent samples: a convicts from the Correctional Institution of Belgrade - Penitentiary of Padinska Skela (N=113, and b convicts from the Special Prison Hospital in Belgrade (N =112. The variables of the Five-Factor Model of Personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were measured, together with two additional basic personality traits: Disintegration (a broad dimension of psychosis-proneness, and Amorality (three factors representing a disposition to amoral forms of behavior. In addition, psychopathy (Manipulative and Antisocial tendencies - a psychological entity expected to most successfully predict criminal recidivism - was measured as well. The efficiency of prediction of the two criteria of recidivism was assessed separately in each of those two samples. The results revealed differences in the orchestration of predictors depending on the kind of recidivism as the criterion and the severity of offense. The most important predictors of both forms of recidivism in the sample of convicts with lower intensity of criminal behavior were psychopathic traits. However, in the sample of convicts with higher intensity and variety of criminal behavior, the most important predictors of the number of sentences were Antisociality and Amorality Induced by Frustration, while the most important predictors of the number of prison sanctions were Amorality Induced by Brutality and Disintegration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Criminality in Serbia: Phenomenology, Risks and Possibilities of Social Prevention i br. 179018: Identification, Measurement and Development of Cognitive and Emotional

  10. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  11. Age of Menarche and Psychosocial Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between age of menarche and psychosocial outcomes in early adulthood, including sexual behavior, mental health, criminal behavior, and education/employment, to identify the possible causal role of earlier age of menarche in increasing risks of adverse outcomes. Method: Data were gathered from 497 female…

  12. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology.

  13. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  14. Profiles of criminal-justice clients in drug treatment: implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, A

    1997-01-01

    Psychosocial differences between criminal-justice-referred and voluntary clients, using a sample of 996 men and women in residential drug treatment in northern New Jersey, were explored. Results suggest differences in demographic characteristics between the two groups as well as differences in attitudes and behaviors likely to impact on treatment outcome. Demographically, criminal-justice clients are younger, more likely to be male, and less likely to be Black than other clients. They also report better health status and better social and psychological adjustment, reporting less homelessness, fewer health problems, lower levels of psychological distress, better family adjustment, and fewer medical, social, and drug problems requiring intervention. Implications for treatment are discussed.

  15. Metacognition and general functioning in patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Kongerslev, Mickey; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Metacognitive difficulties have been linked to social dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, research examining the role of metacognition in the social functioning of patients with a history of violence and criminality is very limited. This research is especially important for this group given...... their relatively poor prognosis and their risk to reoffend, as well as the promising benefits of integrating metacognitive approaches in psychosocial treatments. In this study, the association between metacognition and global social functioning was examined in 79 patients with schizophrenia with a criminal...

  16. Environmental criminal offences - victimless crimes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrićević Ana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ecological criminal offences, the most serious forms of harming and threatening of environment or its integral parts, represents a global phenomenon of great social hazard. They are often connected with organized transnational criminality, criminal offences against life and bodily integrity, corruption, tax evasion and discrimination. Disputable nature of the subject these incriminations protect imposes a question: “Who are the victims of ecological criminal offences - individuals, social groups, entire society or environment as value per se?” Perceiving ecological criminal offences as victimless crimes diminishes their importance and the circle of subjects interested to unveil, prove, prevent, suppress and impose punishments for these offences. Therefore, the author discusses the sustainability of the traditional, anthropocentrically defined term of victim in the context of biocentrism and its growing influence on criminal law, criminology and victimology. Attempting to determine whether ecological criminal offences represent victimless crimes, the author analyzes their term, characteristics and significance. Starting from the traditional definition of victim, she analyzes the term of “victimless crimes“ and its (unsustainability in the context of environmental crime, focusing on its most frequent victims and the necessity of their protection.

  17. CRIMINAL PROTECTION OF PRIVATE LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU SLAVOIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is meant, first of all, to analyze the incriminations that the new Romanian Criminal Code sets for the protection of a person’s private life as a social value of maximum significance both for the human being and for any democratic society as a whole.There are two criminal offences treated in this study that are not to be found in the current criminal legislation: violation of private life and criminal trespassing of a legal person’s property. Likewise, the study will bring forth the novelties and the differences regarding the offences of criminal trespassing of a natural person’s property, disclosure of professional secret, violation of secret correspondence, illegal access to computerized system and illegal interception of electronic data transfer – acts that when, directly or indirectly, committed can cause harm to the intimacy of a person’s life.As an expression of the interdisciplinary nature of this subject, the study also sets out, as a subsidiary aspect, an evaluation of the circumstances under which the new criminal proceeding legislation allows public authorities to interfere with an individual’s private life. Thus, the emphasis is on the analysis of the circumstances under which special surveillance and investigation techniques can be used as evidence proceedings regulated by the new Romanian Criminal Procedure Code.

  18. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  19. La cosa criminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen del Rocio Moreno; Moreno

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la lectura de "La manzana en la oscuridad" de Clarice Lispector, el texto deriva una clínica del acto. Éste implica un movimiento de separación tanto del lenguaje como del lazo con los semejantes y provoca por ello mismo un acceso a lo real del goce, caracterizado por la perplejidad. El artículo retoma el concepto freudiano de cosa para designar la dimensión más ajena y refractaria de la relación con el prójimo y señala cómo en el acto criminal se trata de un empuje que apuntaría a acceder a esa dimensión causa de la subjetividad.

  20. Judocas olímpicos Brasileiros: fatores de apoio psicossocial para o desenvolvimento do talento esportivo Olympic judo athletes: psychosocial support elements to sports talent development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Massa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora no Brasil o judô possua tradição olímpica, pouco se conhece sobre os aspectos que contribuem para o desenvolvimento do talento no cenário nacional. Sendo assim, o objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os fatores de apoio psicossocial presentes no desenvolvimento de judocas brasileiros talentosos do sexo masculino. Para tanto, se utilizou uma amostra de seis judocas, pertencentes à seleção brasileira nos Jogos Olímpicos de Atenas, 2004. A pesquisa foi constituída através de um delineamento qualitativo, que utilizou como instrumento uma entrevista composta por três perguntas abertas. Para a análise dos resultados foi utilizado o "Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo". Os discursos indicaram a importância dos fatores relacionados : a ao apoio da família; b ao prazer pela prática; e c a determinação dos judocas, corroborando com a literatura internacional no que tange a relevância dos fatores psicossociais para o desenvolvimento do talento em diferentes domínios do conhecimento.Although judo is a traditional Olympic Sport in Brazil, little is known regarding the key aspects to develop talents at the national scenario. The objective of this study was to analyze the psychosocial supporting factors that are seen in the development of talented male Brazilian Judo athletes. A sample of 6 athletes that were in the Athens Olympic Games of 2004 was studied. Research was designed on qualitative basis and used a three open questions interview as investigative tool. Results were analyzed using the discourse of the collective subject. Discourses indicated as important, factors related to: a family support; b pleasure in practice; and c athletes determination, reinforcing the international scientific literature regarding the importance of psychosocial factors to talent development in several knowledge domains.

  1. Gender-affirming Surgeries in the Era of Insurance Coverage: Developing a Framework for Psychosocial Support and Care Navigation in the Perioperative Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-01-01

    Transgender people have a gender identity different from their birth-assigned sex. Transgender people may seek gender-affirming surgeries to align their body with their identified gender. With increasing visibility of transgender identities, and recognition of the importance of gender-affirming care, has come a policy shift toward mandated coverage or provision of blanket exclusions of these procedures by insurance companies and Medicaid. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health provides guidance to mental health professionals evaluating patients for gender-affirming surgeries, including making a diagnosis and assessing for capacity to consent. However the expansion of covered gender-affirming surgeries to safety-net populations has highlighted the need for an expanded presurgical process which includes a psychosocial assessment and care navigation. The proposed framework expands the preoperative assessment to include these components, and can be used to guide both health systems and insurance providers in the development of transgender medicine programs.

  2. Parent Management Training Program Developed by “Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network” for Education of Family with Children in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Arslan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Parent management training programme was prepared by Research Units on Pediatric Psychopharmacology and Psychosocial Interventions (RUPP Autism Network based on ABA (Applied Behavior Analysis. The programme aims to prevent or decrease the problem behavior and to bring the children with autism in positive behaviors by educating their families. The controlled randomized clinical research of RUPP has determined that Parent Managament Training (PMT have provided meaningful improvements on childrens’ function and family relationships. The group of children on which risperidone and PMT have implemented together had statistically meaningful improvements such as increase in adaptive skills and decrease in the aggressive behaviors when compared with the children who used only risperidone. There is no such programme in Turkey for the families with children in pervasive developmet disorder. This paper aims to introduce and show the potentials of the PMT programme that has been developed by RUPP Autism Network.

  3. Criminal Responsibility of Minors in the New Criminal Code Offences (Law No. 286/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Boroi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration and adoption of a new penal code represents a decisive moment in the evolution of any state laws. The decision to proceed in developing a new Criminal Code was not a simple demonstration of the political will, but represented a corollary matched of economic and social development, also to the doctrine and jurisprudence and it had as base a series of gaps existing in current regulation. Legislative changes concerning the minority represents one of the focal points of the reform proposed by the new Criminal Code (Law no. 286/2009. One of the major changes contemplated in this regard is the complete surrender to the punishment applicable to juveniles who are criminally responsible, in favor of educational measures. The model that inspired the current legislation is the Organic Law no. 5 / 2000 regarding the criminal liability of minors in Spain (as amended by Organic Law no. 8 / 2006, but have considered the provisions of French law (Order of 2 February 1945 with subsequent changes, German (Law juvenile courts in 1953 with subsequent amendments and the Austrian law (Juvenile Justice Act 1988.

  4. THE APPLICATION OF EPQ R/A IN MEASURING ADDICTION AND CRIMINALITY OF HEROIN DRUG ABUSERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out on N=234 opioid drug abusers (Nm=170, Nf=64 averaged age of M=25.72 with the aim of determing the average levels for addiction and criminality, and sex and age differences. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for Adults that contained Subscales of Addiction and Criminality was used (EPQ R/A, Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991. The average levels were determined: for Addiction scale in male (M=16.57; SD=5.12 and female (M=17.36; MD=4.82, and for Criminality scale in male (M=17.34; SD=5.18 and female (M=18.34; SD=5.17. The correlation analysis showed significant positive correlation between the level of addiction and criminality on whole sample (r=.851, p=.000. Unemployed male and female heroin addicts had significantly higher results on the Addiction scale, and unemployed male addicts on the Criminality scale, too. This last correlation was not established for female addicts, but the another one was: with the higher level of education there was lower possibility of antisocial and criminal behavior in female addicts. The findings were interpreted in the frame of psychosocial factors that were relevant for the treatment.

  5. Handedness, criminality, and sexual offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, A F

    2001-01-01

    A very large database was used to investigate whether men with a history of criminality and/or sexual offending have a higher incidence of nonright-handedness (NRH) relative to a control sample of nonoffender men. The sample (N>8000) comprised interviews by investigators at the Kinsey Institute for Sex and Reproduction in Indiana. The general offender group and a subsample of sex offenders (e.g. pedophiles) had a significantly higher rate of NRH relative to the control (nonoffender) men. In addition, evidence was found that the general criminality/NRH relationship might result from increased educational difficulties that some nonright-handers experience. In contrast, education was unrelated to the handedness/pedophilia relationship, suggesting that there may be a different mechanism underlying the handedness/pedophile relationship than the handedness/(general) criminality relationship. Finally, as a cautionary note, it is stressed that the effects are small and that NRH should not be used as a marker of criminality.

  6. Criminal Control and Evaluation of Extreme Nationalist Terrorist Crime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Hui

    2017-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, ter ̄rorist crimes have become more serious. Terrorism has become one of the worst problems of the mod ̄ern world and will continue to be a serious problem in the future. China is also facing the challenge of terrorist crime. Can the present criminal system accomplish the mission of legislative control of these crimes and fulfill the goal of penalising them? It seems that a review and evaluation of the rele ̄vant criminal legislation and policies is necessary. There are different definitions of terrorist crimes. American scholars Alex P. Schmid and Albert J. Jongman gave a review of 109 different definitions that appeared during the period from 1936 to 1983 , and proposed their own opinions in the book Political Terrorism. Chinese scholar Hu Lianhe analyzed 50 definitions that appeared after 1982, and proposed his own idea. On January 1 2016 , the third article of the Zhonghua renmin gongheguo fan kongbu zhuyi fa ( Anti -terrorism Law of the P. R. C) formally defines “terrorism”and “terrorist activities”. Generally speaking, both the academic and legal definitions have gener ̄alized three characteristics of “terrorist crime”from subjective and objective aspects: 1 ) taking social order, public security, personnel and prop ̄erty as the target of the ( terrorist ) behavior; 2 ) hurting the targets described above or threatening the state organs or international organizations by way of violence, destruction or intimidation; 3 ) taking the realization of some certain political or i ̄deological purpose and claims as the ultimate goal of the ( terrorist) behavior. Concerning the relation between extreme na ̄tionalism and terrorism, the general idea is that“there is no pure form of nationalism; it is always combined with some certain political or social pow ̄er, and characterized with social movement or his ̄torical process”. And seeing from the development course of terrorism,“nationalism is one of the most

  7. 拓展以正当程序为导向的刑事强制医疗路径%The Development of Criminal Compulsory Medical System Based on Legal Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝

    2014-01-01

    China’s criminal compulsory medical system goes through the three phases characterized by the policy,the substantive law and the procedural law respectively.It is important to develop a system in line with the legal procedure.How to protect mental criminal patients’basic rights depends on a sound and sci-entific procedural system,including identification,supervision,execution and termination.Thus mental criminal patients can be treated well without harming the social order and safety and the abuse of power by the related authorities can be prevented.%我国刑事强制医疗制度历经了以政策为主、以实体法为主、以程序法为主进行规制的三个阶段,其中尤以正当程序为导向,拓展刑事强制医疗路径。精神病人的基本权利如何得到维护和落实,关键在于设计和完善一整套科学、合理、正当的精神病人刑事强制医疗程序,包括强化鉴定程序,规范鉴定体制;落实监督程序,避免形式监督;规范执行程序;完善解除程序等,既能有效、及时地使精神病患者得到合理科学的治疗,同时也能预防和制止精神病患者危害社会公共秩序和人身财产安全,又能防止有关部门滥用权力侵害公民的合法权益。

  8. How to identify the person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev D.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current version of the resolution of the RF Supreme Court Plenum of June 10, 2010 N 12, clarifying the provisions of the law on liability for crimes committed by a person holding the highest position in the criminal hierarchy (Part 4 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, is criticized. Evaluative character of the considered aggravating circumstance doesn’t allow to develop clear criteria for identifying the leaders of the criminal environment. Basing on the theory provisions and court practice, the authors suggest three criteria. The first criterion is specific actions including: establishment and leadership of the criminal association (criminal organization; coordinating criminal acts; creating sustainable links between different organized groups acting independently; dividing spheres of criminal influence, sharing criminal income and other criminal activities, indicating person’s authority and leadership in a particular area or in a particular sphere of activity. The second is having money, valuables and other property obtained by criminal means, without the person’s direct participation in their acquisition; transferring money, valuables and other property to that person systematically, without legal grounds (unjust enrichment; spending that money, valuables and other property to carry out criminal activities (crimes themselves and conditions of their commission. The third is international criminal ties manifested in committing one of the crimes under Part 1 of Article 210 of the RF Criminal Code, if this crime is transnational in nature; ties with extremist and (or terrorist organizations, as well as corruption ties. The court may use one or several of these criteria.

  9. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  10. Towards a psychosocial psychoanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frosh, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    From its beginning, psychoanalysis has always been a 'personal' affair. This paper presents an autobiographical account of engagement with psychoanalysis as an academic discipline, exploring particularly how it has become central to my concerns in psychosocial studies.

  11. Criminalization of Social Protest: Future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolijn Terwindt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue of the Oñati Socio-Legal Series is dedicated to an exploration of particular features of and analytical approaches to the criminalization of social protest about natural resources. This epiloguehighlights four areas for future research: (1 the definition and use of the term ‘criminalization of social protest’and the development of an analytical apparatus; (2 patterns, typologies, and legal strategies of criminalization; (3 the embeddednessof processes of criminalization in the broader political decision-making procedures about natural resources;(4 counter-strategies. In the description of these areas, the author draws on the papers in this Special Issue and the collective reflection during the Workshop in 2012. Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-Legal Series busca explorar elementos particulares y métodos de análisis para la comprensión de la criminalización de la protesta social originada por la disputa de recursos naturales. Este epílogo destaca cuatro áreas para futuras investigaciones: (1 Definición y uso del término “criminalización de la protesta social” y desarrollo de sus respectivos marcos de análisis. (2 Patrones, tipologías y estrategias jurídicas de criminalización. (3 Inscripción de los procesos de criminalización dentro de un marco político más amplio que aborde la toma de decisiones en torno a los recursos naturales. (4 Contra estrategias. En la descripción de estas áreas, la autora hace referencia a los artículos de este número especial y a la reflexión colectiva generada durante el workshop celebrado en 2012.

  12. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

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    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  13. Comparative review of the investigation and confiscation of criminal assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In introduction author points to the necessity of adopting the institute of confiscation of criminal assets, supported by international experience, primarily due to the weakness of previously known institute confiscation of the proceeds of crime (for which the offender is being tried, showed in front of the phenomenon of organized crime. In doing so, he analyzes the modalities of confiscation of criminal origin present in modern legal systems and emphasizes the required standard of proof, as one of the key factors of their particularity. The following is a comparative review of the system for investigating and confiscation of criminal assets in Italy, Great Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the United States. There are emphasized the normative elements which affect to scope of application of this institute, especially in light of its connection to the criminal proceedings, as well as jurisdiction to realization of the investigation process and procedure of confiscation. In the final part, the author concludes that appropriate social and institutional responses are very important for the effective fight against crime, every time if there is a suspicion about illegally acquired wealth. In doing so, particular attention arouses organized crime, particularly in the light of contemporary global trends, which, unfortunately, significantly affect the possibility of the development of organized crime, and development and/or covering up its financial component. In this sense, the author emphasizes that the basic characteristics of the system for investigation and confiscation of criminal assets connected to the criminal proceedings, which are used in developed European countries and the United States: (1 changed the rules of evidence, which means less convenient role of suspects, (2 the application of this mechanism to a limited number of crimes, which often includes drug trafficking and other serious crimes or organized crime, and

  14. Effects of a community-based approach of food and psychosocial stimulation on growth and development of severely malnourished children in Bangladesh: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, B; Hossain, M I; Hamadani, J D; Ahmed, T; Huda, S N; Grantham-McGregor, S M; Persson, L A

    2012-06-01

    Psychosocial stimulation (PS) and food supplementation (FS) improve development of malnourished children. This study evaluates the effects of a community-based approach of PS and FS on growth and development of severely malnourished children. Severely underweight hospitalised children aged 6-24 months (n = 507) were randomly allocated on discharge to five groups: (i) PS, (ii) FS, (iii) PS+FS, (iv) clinic-control and (v) hospital-control. PS included play sessions and parental counselling on child development. This was done at each fortnightly follow-up visit, that is, every second week, for 6 months at community clinics. FS included distribution of cereal-based food packets (150-300 kcal/day) for 3 months. All groups received medical care, micronutrient supplementation, health-education and growth monitoring. Children's development was assessed using revised version of Bayley Scales of Infant Development at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of intervention. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedure. Comparing groups with any stimulation with those with no stimulation there was a significant effect of stimulation on children's mental development index (group*session interaction P = 0.037, effect size = 0.37 s.d.) and weight-for-age Z-score (group*session interaction P = 0.02, effect size=0.26 s.d.). Poor levels of development and nutritional status were sustained, however, due to their initial very severe malnutrition. There was no effect on motor development and linear growth. Children receiving any stimulation showed a significant benefit to mental development and growth in weight. More intensive intervention with longer duration is needed to correct their poor developmental levels and nutritional status.

  15. Turning research on the psychosocial working environment into regulatory practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Agnete Meldgaard; Nielsen, Klaus Tranetoft; Starheim, Liv

    The psychosocial working environment is an expanding field of research. Within the last decades a lot of knowledge has been developed in the field. The question however remains how this knowledge can be, and is being, utilized in the regulation of the psychosocial working environment. This question...... we understand this process as a translation of knowledge into policies, tools and actors dealing with the psychosocial working environment. Drawing on this understanding we develop a model that illustrates the utility of different types of research on the psychosocial working environment...... for a network of regulatory actors with different regulatory purposes....

  16. Criminal Law in Nigeria in the Last 53 Years: Trends and Prospects for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Olajide Bello

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The article is an overview of developments in substantive criminal law in Nigeria in the last 53 years. It examines the sharing of constitutional legislative powers to enact criminal laws between the federal (national government and the state (local governments. The examination of federal laws revealed proactive legislative activity responding to emerging local and international criminal law issues. The main development at the state level is the introduction by States in Northern Nigeria of Sharia Penal Codes and the enactment of the Criminal Law of Lagos State 2011. A common trend is the entrenchment of death penalty as punishment for some crimes. Implications: While federal criminal laws have responded to emerging realties, state criminal laws have generally failed to respond to emerging issues at the state level. Consequently, in most of the southern states criminal laws introduced in 1916 have continued to apply. Value: The paper demonstrates the need for southern States to reform their criminal laws to respond to emerging realties, the federal government to respond to some outstanding criminal law issues and calls for a suspension of death penalty and a revaluation of its continued relevance.

  17. El comportamiento criminal en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Samudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los principales factores que influyen en el comportamiento criminal, que son de cuatro clases: precriminógenos (factores sociohistóricos y biológicos, criminógenos 1 (pautas de crianza, criminógenos 2 (en la pubertad y adolescencia y citcunstanciales (condiciones que aumentan la probabilidad de la conducta criminal facilitándola. Se describen varios casos, incluyendo los "gamines" de Colombia, la llamada "cultura de la violencia", la migración, y otros. Se analiza el papel de los factores biológicos en el crimen. Se les concede gran importancia a las pautas de crianza, que en el caso de los criminales incluyen técnicas inapropiadas de educación, disciplina inconsistente, castigo, poca atención y poco interés por los hijos, comportamiento violento en el hogar, alcoholismo y/o abuso de drogas por parte al menos de uno de los padres. Se obtiene así un cuadro coherente de los orígenes del comportamiento criminal, aunque se enfatiza la necesidad de realizar más investigaciones sobre estos importantes temas.

  18. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation: A Prospective Study of Medical and Psychosocial Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José R; Sher, Yelizaveta; Lolak, Sermsak; Swendsen, Heavenly; Skibola, Danica; Neri, Eric; David, Evonne E; Sullivan, Catherine; Standridge, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may significantly affect post-transplant outcomes. The Stanford Integrated Psychosocial Assessment for Transplantation (SIPAT) was developed as an assessment tool to enhance the pre-transplant psychosocial evaluation. We identified heart, lung, liver, or kidney transplant recipients assessed with the SIPAT pre-transplantation and transplanted between June 1, 2008, and July 31, 2011, at our institution. We analyzed prospectively accumulated psychosocial and medical outcomes at 1 year of follow-up. 217 patients were identified and included in the analysis. The primary outcomes of organ failure and mortality occurred in 12 and 21 patients, respectively, and were not significantly associated with the pre-transplant SIPAT scores. On the other hand, SIPAT scores were significantly correlated with the probability of poor medical and psychosocial outcomes (secondary outcomes). In fact, higher SIPAT scores predicted higher rates of rejection episodes (Spearman ρ = 0.15, 95% 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02-0.28, p = .023), medical hospitalizations (ρ = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.16-0.41, p relationship with nonadherence suggested a trend, but no statistical significance was observed (area under the curve = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.50-0.71, p = .058). Study outcomes suggest that SIPAT is a promising pre-transplantation assessment tool that helps identify candidate's areas of psychosocial vulnerability and whose scores are associated with both psychosocial and medical outcomes after transplantation.

  19. Complicity in International Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksenova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Complicity is a criminal law doctrine that attributes responsibility to those who do not physically perpetrate the crime. It is an essential mode of liability for core international crimes because it reaches out to senior political and military leadership. These persons do not usually engage...... in direct offending, yet in the context of mass atrocities they are often more culpable than foot soldiers. The Statutes of the ad hoc tribunals, hybrid courts and the International Criminal Court expressly provide for different forms of complicity, and domestic legal systems recognize it in one form...... or another. This is in contrast with alternative modes of liability implied from the Statutes to address the situations with multiple accused removed from the scene of the crime / (in)direct co-perpetration, extended perpetration and the joint criminal enterprise....

  20. The European Union and National Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Vagn

    1995-01-01

    Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law......Beware of Punishment. Annika Snare (ed.) Beware of Punishment. On the Utility and Futility of Criminal Law...

  1. Post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe: The TENTS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witteveen, A. B.; Bisson, J. I.; Ajdukovic, D.

    2012-01-01

    of a cross-sectional web-based survey completed in 2008 by two hundred and eighty-six representatives of organizations involved in psychosocial responses to trauma and disaster from thirty-three different countries across Europe. The survey addressed planning and delivery of psychosocial care after disaster......, methods of screening and diagnosis, types of interventions used, and other aspects of psychosocial care after trauma. The findings showed that planning and delivery of psychosocial care was inconsistent across Europe. Countries in East Europe seemed to have less central coordination of the post......At present post-disaster activities and plans seem to vary widely. An adequate estimation of the availability of post-disaster psychosocial services across Europe is needed in order to compare them with recently developed evidence-informed psychosocial care guidelines. Here we report on the results...

  2. Formulation of Policy for Cyber Crime in Criminal Law Revision Concept of Bill Book of Criminal Law (A New Penal Code)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soponyono, Eko; Deva Bernadhi, Brav

    2017-04-01

    Development of national legal systems is aimed to establish the public welfare and the protection of the public. Many attempts has been carried out to renew material criminal law and those efforts results in the formulation of the concept of the draft Law Book of the Law of Criminal Law in the form of concept criminal code draft. The basic ideas in drafting rules and regulation based on the values inside the idology of Pancasila are balance among various norm and rules in society. The design concept of the New Criminal Code Act is anticipatory and proactive to formulate provisions on Crime in Cyberspace and Crime on Information and Electronic Transactions. Several issues compiled in this paper are whether the policy in formulation of cyber crime is embodied in the provisions of the current legislation and what the policies formulation of cyber crime is in the concept of the bill book of law - criminal law recently?.

  3. Latest Amendment to Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU ZONGJIE

    2011-01-01

    @@ On Feb.25, 2011,the 19th Session of the Standine Commlttee or the 11th National Peonle's Congress, the country's highest legislative body, approved the eighth amendment to the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China.This brought about the broadest changes ever made to the law-to be precise, to 50 items that involve 49 legal matters.While reducing the number of crimes punishable by death, the amended Criminal Law provides for additional instances of leniency for senior citizens and minors who are convicted of a crime.

  4. International criminal trials: A normative theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasiliev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the numerous works on international criminal procedure, there has been no study focusing on the international criminal trial as a socio-legal phenomenon and a phase of international criminal proceedings. This book seeks to cover this gap by systematically examining and analyzing the nature and

  5. 31 CFR 100.13 - Criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalties. 100.13 Section 100.13 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance EXCHANGE OF PAPER CURRENCY AND COIN Exchange of Coin § 100.13 Criminal penalties. Criminal penalties connected with...

  6. Can consumer choice replace trust in the National Health Service in England? Towards developing an affective psychosocial conception of trust in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotaki, Marianna

    2014-11-01

    Trust has long been regarded as a vitally important aspect of the relationship between health service providers and patients. Recently, consumer choice has been increasingly advocated as a means of improving the quality and effectiveness of health service provision. However, it is uncertain how the increase of information necessary to allow users of health services to exercise choice, and the simultaneous introduction of markets in public health systems, will affect various dimensions of trust, and how changing relations of trust will impact upon patients and services. This article employs a theory-driven approach to investigate conceptual and material links between choice, trust and markets in health care in the context of the National Health Service in England. It also examines the implications of patient choice on systemic, organisational and interpersonal trust. The article is divided into two parts. The first argues that the shift to marketisation in public health services might lead to an over-reliance on rational-calculative aspects of trust at the expense of embodied, relational and social attributes. The second develops an alternative psychosocial conception of trust: it focuses on the central role of affect and accounts for the material and symbolic links between choice, trust and markets in health care.

  7. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  8. The Timing of Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cortisol and Psychosocial Stress Is Associated with Human Infant Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia P.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2010-01-01

    The consequences of prenatal maternal stress for development were examined in 125 full-term infants at 3, 6, and 12 months of age. Maternal cortisol and psychological state were evaluated 5 times during pregnancy. Exposure to elevated concentrations of cortisol early in gestation was associated with a slower rate of development over the 1st year…

  9. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  10. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  11. Privacy and Security of Criminal History Information. An Analysis of Privacy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubow, George B.

    Policies and issues associated with the privacy and security of criminal history information are presented. The first chapter discusses general concepts regarding privacy and security of criminal justice information, including definitions of basic terms, considerations of interests requiring attention when developing policy, relevance of fair…

  12. Comparative study of victims' participation in special international criminal tribunals and the International Criminal Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Lal alizadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In special criminal tribunals before the establishment of the Court, in the first generation of tribunals, Nuremberg and Tokyo, Unfortunately, not only is there any notes to the rights and protections of victims, but also no mention of the term "victim" is seen. In the second generation trials, the former Yugoslavia, Rwanda and Sierra Leone, although there were some improvements compared to previous courts, but they did not dedicate a place more than witnesses to victims. International Criminal Court, influenced by the developments and experiences from previous international tribunals, has considered relatively broad participatory rights for victims in different stages and with different forms. Despite high limitations in victims' participation, the court jurisprudence has supported a broad interpretation of participatory rights. However, the judges are generally determining the deadlines, procedures and participation.

  13. [Criminal psychology in Franco's police].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrés, Javier; Llavona, Rafael; Zubieta, Eva

    2013-02-01

    Francisco J. de Echalecu (1897-1957) was a Spanish psychiatrist who held important positions, such as Psychology Professor at the Academia General de Policía and Neuropsychiatrist at the Dirección General de Seguridad. This work provides a brief biography of Echalecu and analyzes the transcriptions of his classes on Criminal Psychology of 1942, his Criminal Psychology from 1947 as well as his involvement in the case of the torture of Communist leader Heriberto Quiñones. We describe his project of a totalitarian Psychology and his proposal of social intervention, including eugenic methodologies as well as forced reclusion for those labeled as asocial. The adaptation in Spain of the totalitarian psychological project to the new international reality after the Second World War is also described. In Spain a "final solution" for criminals and political dissidents has been prepared, which was inspired by the Nazi criminal policies and promoted by Dr. Echalecu from Spain's higher police body, the DGS. This project was frustrated by the German defeat in the world war and the only thing left from the original project was the arbitrary application of the Ley de Vagos y Maleantes [an antivagrancy law] to those individuals labeled as "asocial".

  14. Social Change and Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  15. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  16. On Developing Investigative Awareness on the Background of Criminal Procedure Law Modification%论《刑事诉讼法》修改背景下侦查意识的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云武; 刘林昌

    2012-01-01

    On 14th March 2012, the 5th Round Meeting of the 1 lth National People's Congress has passed through the decision of modifying the Criminal Procedure Law of People's Republic of China. Developing a sense of investigation is in accordance with the objective requirement of the modified Criminal Procedure Law, which makes significant sense to establishing and strengthening the investigators" investigative awareness. Only with continuously enhanced consciousness of human rights, evidences, scientific technology-equipped investigation, legal procedure, time effectiveness, confidentiality, intelligence and etc. , can the investigators fit the development of current situation and accomplish the duty of cracking down crimes and protecting the people.%2012年3月14日,第十一届全国人民代表大会第五次会议通过决定,对《中华人民共和国刑事诉讼法》作出修改。侦查意识的培养是适应刑诉法修改的客观要求,对于侦查人员侦查意识的树立与强化具有重要意义。侦查人员只有不断树立与强化人权意识、证据意识、科技强侦意识、程序意识、时效意识、保密意识、情报意识等,才能更好地适应当前形势发展的需要,完成打击犯罪和保护人民的重任。

  17. Technical records as material evidence in criminal proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Shishani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, with the aid of technical records - recordings (audio, visual or combined audiovisual events and occurrences can be registered in the outside world in detail. The recording enables the creator or anyone who has it in disposal that at any moment of its reproduction, it can be found in detail how the recorded event has happened or how an occurrence seemed at the time of the recording. Among the current formats of technical records are included: photography, filming, magnetic, magnetoscope, and videophone recording etc. (Sahiti & Murati 2016, 295. The possibility provided by the rapid technical development is also of interest to criminal procedure because technical records containing any fact that may be proved in criminal proceedings may serve as a source of knowledge about facts. In other words, they may serve as evidence to establish facts in criminal proceedings. Given the extensive options that technical fact recordings provide, entities that use the aid of various devices from this fi eld, as well as the different purposes of the author of the recording which have led to the case of making the recording, there is a reasonable question of the permission on their use as evidence in criminal proceedings. In Kosovo, the situation is clear in terms of recordings made in the criminal procedure, as Kosovo CCP 1 provides the possibility of photographing, filming, sketching, etc., of the crime scene, audio visual recording etc. examination of persons (defendant, witness, expert or recordings of any action on judicial review.

  18. Sex attribution, gender identity and quality of life in disorders of sex development due to 45,X/46,XY mosaicism: methods for clinical and psychosocial assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Risso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of sex in newborns with genital ambiguity is challenging. Information concerning the satisfaction of subjects with disorders of sex development from childhood to adulthood is required in order to address sex attribution policies. This study focuses on the methods that enable clinicians to investigate the alignment of phenotypes with gender identity and quality of life in people with disorders of this kind. These methods are presented as tools for studying a cohort of ten subjects with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism examined between 1985 and 2014 in the Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Regina Margherita Children's Hospital, Turin: five children and five young adults, four reared as females and six as males. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of a clinical scoring system considering height, genital appearance, gonads and pubertal development. The Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and the World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment were adopted. The four male children strongly identified with their assigned sex: male attribution was satisfactory until pubertal age. In young adults the clinical scores ranged between 55-65% for both genders. In the young male, the reduced sexual activity and the poor body image perception strongly affected his quality of life. The clinical scores of the two young female adults (60% for both were not balanced with their quality of life scores (87.5% and 68.75% respectively: individual traits and social-familial context should be investigated in order to explain these differences. Clinical and psychosocial assessment in people with disorders of sex development is mandatory in order to plan care procedures; a detailed analysis requires adequate tools. Clinical scoring system, Gender Identity Questionnaire for Children and World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment can be used to investigate the alignment of physical phenotype with gender identity and quality of life.

  19. Focus on the Psychosocial Dimensions of Talent Development: An Important Potential Role for Consultee-Centered Consultants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, Jeffrey; Subotnik, Rena; Knotek, Steven; Rayhack, Kristin; Gorgia, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The American Psychological Association's Center for Gifted Education Policy (CGEP) reviewed the literature on current talent development models and conducted research on music conservatory students, high IQ students, and science-talented students as sources for a new developmental model called scholarly productivity/artistry (SP/A).The third stage…

  20. Factors That Affect Psycho-Social Development of Preschool Children in Terms of Art Activities: Family and Teacher of Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra; Akaroglu, E. Gulriz

    2011-01-01

    People living in a society need socialization. While maintaining social relations, they learn behaviors approved by the society. Through art education, which is applied in preschool education, planned studying habits, taking responsibilities, cooperating, helping, developing solidarity habit and building positive relations with others are taught…

  1. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, A. de; Baat, C. de; Horstman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with ha

  2. Development of a Suicidal Ideation Detection Tool for Primary Healthcare Settings: Using Open Access Online Psychosocial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Denny; Abbott, Jo-Anne; Rehm, Imogen; Bhar, Sunil; Barak, Azy; Deng, Gary; Wallace, Klaire; Ogden, Edward; Klein, Britt

    2017-04-01

    Suicidal patients often visit healthcare professionals in their last month before suicide, but medical practitioners are unlikely to raise the issue of suicide with patients because of time constraints and uncertainty regarding an appropriate approach. A brief tool called the e-PASS Suicidal Ideation Detector (eSID) was developed for medical practitioners to help detect the presence of suicidal ideation (SI) in their clients. If SI is detected, the system alerts medical practitioners to address this issue with a client. The eSID tool was developed due to the absence of an easy-to-use, evidence-based SI detection tool for general practice. The tool was developed using binary logistic regression analyses of data provided by clients accessing an online psychological assessment function. Ten primary healthcare professionals provided advice regarding the use of the tool. The analysis identified eleven factors in addition to the Kessler-6 for inclusion in the model used to predict the probability of recent SI. The model performed well across gender and age groups 18-64 (AUR 0.834, 95% CI 0.828-0.841, N = 16,703). Healthcare professionals were interviewed; they recommended that the tool be incorporated into existing medical software systems and that additional resources be supplied, tailored to the level of risk identified. The eSID is expected to trigger risk assessments by healthcare professionals when this is necessary. Initial reactions of healthcare professionals to the tool were favorable, but further testing and in situ development are required.

  3. THE PROCESS OF SEPARATION AND INDIVIDUATION AS THE RISK FACTOR IN PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Simona OZHEK

    2015-01-01

    The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Con­stancy) and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the dev...

  4. Criminal investigator stress: symptoms, syndromes, and practical coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Without the skill and dedication of criminal investigators, there could literally be no criminal justice system. This group of law enforcement professionals has its own special needs and requires its own special kind of support. The present article describes the special stresses and challenges of homicide and sex crime investigators, and the range of responses shown by these officers. Recommendations are provided for the proper selection and training of investigators, and the personal and professional characteristics of successful investigators are outlined. A variety of stress-coping strategies are then described, some developed by the officers themselves, others with the aid of mental health consultants. The importance of professionalism as a key feature of high-quality investigative work is highlighted, and the ways in which criminal investigators can best access the services of mental health clinicians for their own psychological well-being are discussed.

  5. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches.

  6. THE PROCESS OF SEPARATION AND INDIVIDUATION AS THE RISK FACTOR IN PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONS WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona OZHEK

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of separation and individuation is a developmental psychological process, which takes place at various phases of child development within his first three years of life. These phases include the Normal Autistic Phase, the Normal Symbiotic Phase, the Separation-Individuation Phase (with sub-phases Differentiation, Practicing and Rapprochement, On the Way to Object Con­stancy and the Final Separation and Psychological Birth of the Human Infant. Undisturbed transition through the developmental phases leads to the es­tablishment of psychological structure in the hu­man infant, which means that he reaches autonomy and independence, thus becoming an individual. For children which were born with physical dis­abilities and have their intellectual capacities pre­served (i.e. in cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy etc., the fulfillment of this process is endangered, because their development was stuck at the Nor­mal Symbiotic Phase due to two types of factors. The first group represents factors of physical dis­ability (i.e. impossibility to move, obtain inde­pendent experiences and, consequently, the inabil­ity to detach from the Object, while the second group represents reactions to this hindrance (i.e. over-protection, which further thwarts attempts to detach from the Object.

  7. Criminal prosecution and investigation of criminal acts against the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Pleić

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the issues related to the prosecution and investigation of environmental crime, especially in terms of legislative and practical activities of the EU bodies, Eurojust and Europol, in the field of legal protection of the environment. The legislative framework for environmental crime is extensive, complex and often of a technical nature and requires expertise and specialized knowledge of the prosecuting authorities in all stages of criminal proceedings. There are difficulties in detecting environmental crimes and in proving those crimes. Although Croatian criminal legislation sets a high level of environmental protection, there is lack of awareness leading to underestimation of this type of crimes. At EU level there is a need for better and more coordinated cross-border cooperation. The two prosecutorial networks – the ENPE and IMPEL - are very active in the field of environmental crime, inter alia, through the involvement and availability of independent experts for investigations and prosecutions.

  8. Identifying Early Childhood Personality Dimensions Using the California Child Q-Set and Prospective Associations With Behavioral and Psychosocial Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sylia; Schalet, Benjamin D; Hicks, Brian M; Zucker, Robert A

    2013-08-01

    The present study used an empirical, "bottom-up" approach to delineate the structure of the California Child Q-Set (CCQ), a comprehensive set of personality descriptors, in a sample of 373 preschool-aged children. This approach yielded two broad trait dimensions, Adaptive Socialization (emotional stability, compliance, intelligence) and Anxious Inhibition (emotional/behavioral introversion). Results demonstrate the value of using empirical derivation to investigate the structure of personality in young children, speak to the importance of early-evident personality traits for adaptive development, and are consistent with a growing body of evidence indicating that personality structure in young children is similar, but not identical to, that in adults, suggesting a model of broad personality dimensions in childhood that evolve into narrower traits in adulthood.

  9. Understanding criminal behavior: Empathic impairment in criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Melania; Pino, Maria Chiara; Peretti, Sara; Valenti, Marco; Mazza, Monica

    2016-05-09

    Criminal offenders (CO) are characterized by antisocial and impulsive lifestyles and reduced empathy competence. According to Zaki and Ochsner, empathy is a process that can be divided into three components: mentalizing, emotional sharing and prosocial concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate these competences in 74 criminal subjects compared to 65 controls. The CO group demonstrated a lower ability in measures of mentalizing and sharing, especially in recognizing the mental and emotional states of other people by observing their eyes and sharing other people's emotions. Conversely, CO subjects showed better abilities in prosocial concern measures, such as judging and predicting the emotions and behavior of other people, but they were not able to evaluate the gravity of violations of social rules as well as the control group. In addition, logistic regression results show that the higher the deficits in the mentalizing component are, the higher the probability of committing a crime against another person. Taken together, our results suggest that criminal subjects are able to judge and recognize other people's behavior as right or wrong in a social context, but they are not able to recognize and share the suffering of other people.

  10. Academics’ Criminals. The Discursive Formations of Criminalized Deviance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carrier

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward an analytic ordering of academics’ criminals, suggesting a sociology of sociology of deviance which seeks to grasp its modes of thinking. It is proposed that the totality of scientific utterances regarding criminalized deviance can be distributed in three sets, on the basis of the meaning given to crime. Pathology, choice and social construct are the three fundamental axiomatic principles organizing discursive regularities in academics’ works related to criminalized deviance and its control.Dans cet article, je propose un ordonnancement analytique des criminels des universitaires, principalement en tentant une sociologie de la sociologie de la déviance visant la compréhension des opérations de ses pensées. Les énoncés scientifiques sur l’objet déviance criminalisée peuvent être répartis en trois ensembles sur la base du sens ou de la signification qu’y prend la délinquance. La maladie, le choix et le construit social représentent les trois principes axiomatiques fondamentaux permettant d’établir des formes distinctes de régularités discursives dans les travaux entourant la question de la déviance criminalisée et de son contrôle.

  11. The consumer-driven development and acceptability testing of a website designed to connect rural cancer patients and their families, carers and health professionals with appropriate information and psychosocial support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, K M; Turnbull, D A; Bidargaddi, N; McWha, J L; Davies, M; Olver, I

    2016-07-13

    Websites offer new opportunities to provide health-related information to rural communities. However, how acceptable they are to this population is unknown. This paper describes the consumer-led development of a website that provides rural-specific information on psychosocial care for rural South Australians affected by cancer, and examines its acceptability to users. The Country Cancer Support website was developed with people affected by cancer living in rural South Australia (N = 11), using a Participatory Action Research Framework and evidence-based behaviour change strategies. There were 32,389 visits in the first 3 years. An online survey (N = 111) revealed that users found the website easy to use, helpful and relevant. Most rural cancer patients and supporters (98.11%) believed it had been written by people who understood what they were going through. Patients and supporters for whom it was relevant, reported feeling more motivated and confident in accessing psychosocial support services in their rural area (66.67%) and/or capital city (67.65%) and/or in travelling for medical treatment (75.86%). Many also felt less isolated (73.33%) and/or distressed (53.57%). All health professionals reported gaining new knowledge. This study shows that carefully designed websites can successfully address rural populations' health information needs and increase intentions to access psychosocial support.

  12. Assessing practice-based influences on adolescent psychosocial development in sport: the activity context in youth sport questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Bengoechea, Enrique; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wilson, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide initial evidence of validity and reliability of scores derived from the Activity Context in Youth Sport Questionnaire (ACYSQ), an instrument designed to offer a comprehensive assessment of the activities adolescents take part in during sport practices. Two studies were designed for the purposes of item development and selection, and to provide evidence of structural and criterion validity of ACYSQ scores, respectively (N = 334; M age = 14.93, SD = 1.76 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the adequacy of a 20-item ACYSQ measurement model, which was invariant across gender, and comprised the following dimensions: (1) stimulation; (2) usefulness-value; (3) authenticity; (4) repetition-boredom; and (5) ineffectiveness. Internal consistency reliability estimates and composite reliability estimates for ACYSQ subscale scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.91. In regression analyses, stimulation predicted enjoyment and perceived competence, ineffectiveness was significantly associated with perceived competence and authenticity emerged as a predictor of commitment in sport. These findings indicate that the ACYSQ displays adequate psychometric properties and the use of the instrument may be useful for studying selected activity-based features of the practice environment and their motivational consequences in youth sport.

  13. From psycho-social theory to sustainable classroom practice: developing a research-based teacher-delivered sex education programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, D; Abraham, C

    2000-02-01

    This paper describes the development of a theoretically based sex education programme currently undergoing a randomized controlled trial in the UK. It considers some of the practical difficulties involved in translating research-based conclusions into acceptable, replicable and potentially effective classroom lessons. The discussion acknowledges that the implications of social psychological research and the requirements of rigorous evaluation may conflict with accepted principles inherent in current sex education practice. It also emphasizes that theoretical ideas must be carefully embedded in lessons which are informed by an awareness of classroom culture, and the needs and skills of teachers. For example, the use of same-sex student groups to reflect on the gendered construction of sexuality may be problematic. Materials must be tailored to recipients' circumstances, which may require substituting for limited experience with the use of detailed scripts and scenarios. Furthermore, role-play techniques for sexual negotiation that work elsewhere may not be effective in the UK. The use of trigger video sessions and other techniques are recommended. Finally, the problems involved in promoting condom-related skills are discussed. The paper concludes that, if an intervention is to be sustainable beyond the research stage, it must be designed to overcome such problems while remaining theoretically informed.

  14. Testing the Difference between School Level and Academic Mindset in the Classroom: Implications for Developing Student Psycho-Social Skills in Secondary School Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janet

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between school level and the psychosocial construct of an academic mindset operationalized on the Likert-style Project for "Educational Research That Scales" (PERTS) instrument; widely used in testing academic mindset interventions at the classroom level. Analyses were conducted using existing school…

  15. Emotional intelligence and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2015-01-01

    A large body of research links criminality to cognitive intelligence and personality traits. This study examined the link between emotional intelligence (EI) and criminal behavior. One hundred Egyptian adult male offenders who have been sentenced for theft, drug dealing or murder and 100 nonoffenders were administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The offenders had lower levels of EI than the nonoffenders. In addition, EI varied as a function of the types of offenses. Namely, it decreased in magnitude with crime severity (lowest for murder, higher for drug dealing, and highest for theft). These results converged with the direct/ indirect aggression theory suggesting that indirect aggression requires more social intelligence than physical aggression. Forensic intervention programs should therefore include EI training, especially when violence is involved. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Psychosocial factors and the development of breast cancer%心理社会因素在乳腺癌发病中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛雪琴; 张志勉; 潘芳

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impacts of psychosocial factors on the development of breast cancer.Methods Thirty-seven patients with confirmed breast cancer and 37 healthy women were enrolled in this study to complete psychological assessment,including ENRICH marital inventory,Life Event Scale(LES),Social Support Rate Scale(SSRS),and Trait Copying Styles Questionnaire(TCSQ).Results In comparison with the healthy controls,the patients experienced more stress events and negative response,and lowered quality of marriage over the last 5 years.The logistic regressive analyses indicated that the important contributors to breast cancer were stress events,objective social support and negative coping styles.Conclusion Stress events,insufficient access to available psychosocial support and negative responses are important risk factors of breast cancer in women.%目的 探讨心理社会因素在乳腺癌发病中的作用.方法 分别对临床确诊的37例乳腺癌患者及37例正常对照组进行心理行为测试:Olson婚姻质量问卷(ENRICH)、生活事件问卷(LES)、社会支持评定量表(SSRS)和特质应对方式问卷(TCSQ).结果 与对照组相比,乳腺癌患者在确诊前5年内经历较多的应激性负性生活事件(L2)[(25.36±37.04)、(9.80±12.34)](P=0.014),其中与家庭有关的负性生活事件(L5)[(17.26 ±23.21)、(7.10±10.51)](P=0.015)和工作学习中的问题(L8)[(4.76±9.29)、(1.80±3.02)](P=0.046)为主;患者的婚姻满意度(H5)低于对照组[(34.88±5.58)、(37.13±5.32)](P =0.041);遇到应激性负性生活事件时患者多采用消极应对方式(NC)[(20.76±7.32)、(17.87±5.70)](P =0.040);缺乏客观社会支持(S2)[(9.09±0.93)、(14.87±0.96)](P =0.023).条件Logistic回归分析选人变量中,L5[OR=0.959,CI(0.921,0.998)]、S2[OR=0.825,CI(0.700,0.972)]和NC[OR=0.921,CI(0.847,1.002)]与乳腺癌的发病关系密切.结论 经历较多应激性负性生活事件、面对应激事件时缺乏客观社会支持和

  17. Beyond emotional benefits: physical activity and sedentary behaviour affect psychosocial resources through emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Candice L; Catalino, Lahnna I; Mata, Jutta; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is known to improve emotional experiences, and positive emotions have been shown to lead to important life outcomes, including the development of psychosocial resources. In contrast, time spent sedentary may negatively impact emotional experiences and, consequently, erode psychosocial resources. Two studies tested whether activity independently influenced emotions and psychosocial resources, and whether activity indirectly influenced psychosocial resources through emotional experiences. Using cross-sectional (Study 1a) and longitudinal (Study 1b) methods, we found that time spent physically active independently predicted emotions and psychosocial resources. Mediation analyses suggested that emotions may account for the relation between activity and psychosocial resources. The improved emotional experiences associated with physical activity may help individuals build psychosocial resources known to improve mental health. Study 1a provided first indicators to suggest that, in contrast, sedentary behaviour may reduce positive emotions, which could in turn lead to decrements in psychosocial resources.

  18. Psychosocial consequences of adolescents’ online communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.

    2016-01-01

    As a crucial part of psychosocial development, adolescents need to acquire adequate levels of self-esteem and social competence. Both are largely shaped in adolescents’ social interactions with peers, of which a substantial part takes place through online communication. The overarching aim of this

  19. Psychosocial consequences of adolescents’ online communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, M.

    2016-01-01

    As a crucial part of psychosocial development, adolescents need to acquire adequate levels of self-esteem and social competence. Both are largely shaped in adolescents’ social interactions with peers, of which a substantial part takes place through online communication. The overarching aim of this d

  20. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    criticises the reductionistic dichotomy - either own or parental choice - and appeals for broader concepts, which focus both on own choice and parental acceptance. The article also throws light on some strategic services dealing with ethnic minority youths' intimate partnership formation problems U.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  1. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  2. THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF EUROPEAN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamya - Diana AL-KAWADRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the case law of the ECJ and ECHR on the nature of administrative sanctions and their relation to criminal law. Also, some important criteria used by different Member States in their own legal systems in differentiating between criminal and administrative sanctions are presented. As it will be shown in this study, in establishing the difference between administrative and criminal offence sanctions, the case law of both the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union offer an indirect definition of criminal offence through its penalty. Thus, a certain behavior, if sanctioned in a procedure that could be labeled as ‘criminal procedure’, is necessarily a criminal offence.

  3. The debate on expanding criminal law towards upper class criminality and minimal criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Montáñez-Ruiz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día el debate sobre la pregunta de cuáles conflictos sociales deben ser castigados desde la óptica de la política criminal aún continúa. La batalla para imponer un particular discurso de criminalidad está relacionada con el hecho de que el marco de la criminalización depende del legislador que refleja la expansión punitiva. El propósito de este artículo es discutir sobre la lucha entre modelos de criminalización, los cuales, de una parte, tienden a la aplicación del sistema criminal persiguiendo a la criminalidad de las clases poderosas y, de otra, buscan el criterio de intervención mínima para prevenir la excesiva intervención del derecho penal.

  4. The invention of the psychosocial: An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rhodri

    2012-12-01

    Although the compound adjective 'psychosocial' was first used by academic psychologists in the 1890s, it was only in the interwar period that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers began to develop detailed models of the psychosocial domain. These models marked a significant departure from earlier ideas of the relationship between society and human nature. Whereas Freudians and Darwinians had described an antagonistic relationship between biological instincts and social forces, interwar authors insisted that individual personality was made possible through collective organization. This argument was advanced by dissenting psychoanalysts such as Ian Suttie and Karen Horney; biologists including Julian Huxley and Hans Selye; philosophers (e.g. Olaf Stapledon), anthropologists (e.g. Margaret Mead) and physicians (e.g John Ryle and James Halliday). This introduction and the essays that follow sketch out the emergence of the psycho-social by examining the methods, tools and concepts through which it was articulated. New statistical technologies and physiological theories allowed individual pathology to be read as an index of broader social problems and placed medical expertise at the centre of new political programmes. In these arguments the intangible structure of social relationships was made visible and provided a template for the development of healthy and effective forms of social organization. By examining the range of techniques deployed in the construction of the psychosocial (from surveys of civilian neurosis, techniques of family observation through to animal models of psychotic breakdown) a critical genealogy of the biopolitical basis of modern society is developed.

  5. Approaching Career Criminals With An Intelligence Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    including arrest statistics and “arrest statistics have been used as the main barometer of juvenile delinquent activity, (but) many juvenile...Policing Career Criminals: An Examination of an Innovative Crime Control Program,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 77, no. 4 (Winter 1986): 1159... Innovative Crime Control Program.” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 77, no. 4 (Winter 1986): 1159–1182. Martin, Susan, and Lawrence W. Sherman

  6. Male drug abuse, criminality and subcultural affiliation in a career perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byqvist, S; Olsson, B

    1998-01-01

    Degree of connection to the criminal underworld was the basis for typologic research on 698 male drug abusers; interviews as well as official records were used. Four types were distinguished: The addicted criminals seemed to resemble the groups dominant in Sweden from the 1950s to the 1970s. An early crime debut and criminal offenses in youthful years characterized their deviant careers. Drugs and criminal activities coexisted with an often very high intake of alcohol and the most difficult childhood and adolescence conditions compared to the other types. The criminal addicts had fewer recorded acts of juvenile delinquency. Their drug abuse was severe and occurred later in life, as criminality did, but tended to accelerate very rapidly. Their subcultural affiliation was probably as strong as that of the addicted criminals. A large group called low-crime addicts had a weak subgroup affiliation. The "normal" abuse pattern, with cannabis as the first substance used and a gradual shift to more severe opioid and CNS stimulant abuse, was most true of this type. Probably the drug abuse played a role in the development of the criminal pattern. Emotionally unstable addicts with little or no criminality had the best education, job situation and social relations. Multiple drug abuse and abuse of legal drugs were common. Mental ill-health was characteristic for this group. The results show that drug abusers in Sweden cannot be seen as a homogeneous group of individuals, that they do not commit crimes only in order to finance their habit, and that the history of narcotics use in Sweden, with its strong connection to a criminal subculture, is highly relevant to this sample.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF ROMANIAN CRIMINAL AND CRIMINAL PROCEDURAL RULES APPLICABLE TO JUVENILE OFFENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Lucian PUŞCAŞU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the evolution of societies, this trend to punish offenders has undergone substantial changes. Thus, ancient legislators began to gradually express concern for the adoption of a different criminal sanction regime for juvenile offenders. Through the given research we want to analyze the evolution of the criminal and criminal procedural rules applicable to Romanian juvenile offenders.

  8. Enduring Risk? Old Criminal Records and Predictions of Future Criminal Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlychek, Megan C.; Brame, Robert; Bushway, Shawn D.

    2007-01-01

    It is well accepted that criminal records impose collateral consequences on offenders. Such records affect access to public housing, student financial aid, welfare benefits, and voting rights. An axiom of these policies is that individuals with criminal records--even old criminal records--exhibit significantly higher risk of future criminal…

  9. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  10. Criminality or Monopoly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigneswaran, Darshan; Araia, Tesfalem; Hoag, Colin Brewster

    2010-01-01

    to tackle smuggling across the Zimbabwean border, limit access to immigration permits and police undocumented residence in the city of Johannesburg. The article suggests that these seemingly contradictory developments – corrupt circumvention and overzealous enforcement – are both products of a single......Zimbabwean displacement has significant implications for the evolution of state forms in Southern Africa. In South Africa, Zimbabwean migrants’ claims to residence confront exclusionary immigration laws. The South African government officials who are responsible for enforcing these laws have helped...... dynamic: the state’s monopolisation of legitimate movement. The ‘state’ is not being captured but is helping to generate parallel and informal orders alongside conventional immigration law....

  11. Figures of criminal offences that are committed through mass media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirvete Uka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of information technology created endless possibilities for the information and communication between people in the world. This made possible that within few seconds information could be elaborated. In the meantime that freedom of speech and opinion are protected with all international conventions and laws, this freedom and together with it also the possibilities and actual standards endanger to put in service of the persons which in one form or another, damage the general interest. The study seeks to explain cases, forms and methods of how the presence in media can be misused. Based in the Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo there are the range of criminal offenses which can be committed through mass communication in general and sometimes also through more serious media, written or electronic. The major number of them has to do with such acts that help terrorism, encourage race and religious hatred and in different forms, the use of children for pornography, risking in this manner the greater values of humanism anywhere in the world. The fact of abolition of special dispositions for criminal offenses that are committed through media does not mean that the danger from committing these acts does not exist. It is based in the fact that criminal responsibility lays directly on the crime committer and not on the director or publisher of certain media, in the meantime the last ones should be careful not to be in the service of crime instigators by giving space to publication.

  12. Criminal social identity and suicide ideation among Pakistani young prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagufta, Sonia; Boduszek, Daniel; Dhingra, Katie; Kola-Palmer, Derrol

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal behaviour is a common in prisoners, yet little is known about the factors that may protect against thoughts of ending one's life. The purpose of this paper is to specify and test a structural model to examine the relationship between three criminal social identity (CSI) dimensions (in-group affect, in-group ties, and cognitive centrality) and suicide ideation while controlling for period of confinement, age, criminal friends, and offense type (violent vs non-violent). Participants were 415 male juvenile offenders incarcerated in prisons in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. A structural model was specified and tested using Mplus to examine the relationships between the three factors of CSI and suicidal thoughts, while controlling for age, offender type, period of confinement, and substance dependence. The model provided an adequate fit for the data, explaining 22 per cent of variance in suicidal thoughts. In-group affect (the level of personal bonding with other criminals) was found to exert a strong protective effect against suicide ideation. The research contributes important information on suicide ideation in Pakistan, an Islamic country in which suicide is considered a sin and subsequently a criminal offence. Results indicate that Juvenile offenders' sense of shared identity may help to prevent the development of thoughts of death by suicide. Consequently, separating and isolating young prisoners may be ill advised.

  13. [DNA examination for criminal investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masanori

    2008-11-30

    The main purpose of DNA examination in a criminal investigation is identification from biological specimen material (sample). Occasionally, DNA genotyping of the sample in which decomposition, pollution, mixture, degeneration, etc., have progressed is requested for identification. In addition, in cases of a small amount of sample, it is not possible to conduct checks many times. The Police Agency in Japan introduced the multiplex PCR system that can detect 15 kinds of STR genotyping and perform sex determination simultaneously using only a small amount of DNA.

  14. Euthanasia in Iranian Criminal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Noori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mercy killing, euthanasia or killing a person who is terminally ill is not an allowable murder and all kinds of direct killings are in a sense of willful murder. Indirect mercy killing is considered as assisted suicide. According to Iranian criminal system, mercy killing is not allowable because human is a creature superior to an animal and will experience the result of their acts in the eternal world. A lot of efforts are done in many countries for the legalization of euthanasia or mercy killing.

  15. Psychosocial stress of the building construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tiwary

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Construction industry plays a vital role in development of infrastructure of a country. About 50% of the subjects of unorganised sector belonged to construction industry in our country. The questionnaire based cross sectional prospective study was undertaken to know the socio-economic status and the psychosocial stress & strain faced by the workers due to occupational exposure. The average age of the workers was 30.6±10.9 years. Majority of them (79.2% were literates and earned below Rs 5000/-. About 59% were smokers and 37% consumed alcohol. The mean duration of present occupational exposure was 8.6±8.0 years. The workers were victim of different health impairment like occupational health hazards, psychosocial stress & strain etc. The psychosocial stress & strain were due to long working hours (73.3%, lower wages (60.4%, job uncertainty (56.9%, poor communication among workers with supervisors (22.7%. Exploitation by labour contractor, gender discrimination, sexual harassment was observed. Low job satisfaction (42.4%, injuries & accidents (47% were also reported. About 94.6% of the workers were not aware of the different social security schemes. This occupationally exposed group of workers were victims of different psychosocial stresses & strains and other health impairments.

  16. Child Marriages and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of child abuse worldwide is child marriage. Underage marriages are going on to keep their commonness in countries such as Turkey although frequencies of them are decreasing in the world. Child marriage generally refers to the marriage of a child who is under 18 years of age. Because the majority of these marriages are performed without the conscious consent of the child, they are also defined as “early and forced marriages. Child marriages seperate children from their families and friends, expose them to domestic violence, jeopardize their development and the opportunities in educational, social and occupational areas. Early marriages may lead to psychologi-cal problems as well as depression and suicide. The aim of this article is to evaluate the frequency and causes of early marriage and its psychosocial consequences. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 410-420

  17. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction.

  18. Slavery Prosecutions in International Criminal Jurisdictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van der Wilt

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how the findings of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) in respect of enslavement as a form of system criminality can be translated for a proper assessment of slavery outside (armed) conflict. The author has found that, while ICTs are jurisdictionally limited to addressing

  19. The Dutch criminal justice system : third edition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, P.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This book covers both the organization of the present Dutch criminal justice system and the main procedures used within the system. It deals with the basic principles that guide the operation of the Dutch criminal justice system. The latest statistical information available is that of the year 2006.

  20. Youth: Criminal Involvement and Problems of Resocialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelekov, V. A.; Prokhorov, Iu. N.

    1995-01-01

    Reports on a survey of youth crime, youthful criminals, and efforts at resocialization in contemporary Russia. Asserts that political and social change have resulted in social stratification and criminal behavior. Maintains that the high level of recidivism is caused by a lack of coordinated efforts by public institutions. (CFR)

  1. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  2. 28 JURISDICTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Page | 29. EBOIBI: Jurisdiction of The International Criminal Court: Analysis, Loopholes and Challenges ... as it may be affected by the effects or passage of time. The right to ... force, the Court may exercise its jurisdiction only with ..... Statute that core criminal cases will be decided by a political body, the Security Council.

  3. 31 CFR 103.59 - Criminal penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal penalty. 103.59 Section 103.59 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.59 Criminal penalty. (a) Any...

  4. The Relative Ineffectiveness of Criminal Network Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijn, Paul A. C.; Kashirin, Victor; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-02-01

    Researchers, policymakers and law enforcement agencies across the globe struggle to find effective strategies to control criminal networks. The effectiveness of disruption strategies is known to depend on both network topology and network resilience. However, as these criminal networks operate in secrecy, data-driven knowledge concerning the effectiveness of different criminal network disruption strategies is very limited. By combining computational modeling and social network analysis with unique criminal network intelligence data from the Dutch Police, we discovered, in contrast to common belief, that criminal networks might even become `stronger', after targeted attacks. On the other hand increased efficiency within criminal networks decreases its internal security, thus offering opportunities for law enforcement agencies to target these networks more deliberately. Our results emphasize the importance of criminal network interventions at an early stage, before the network gets a chance to (re-)organize to maximum resilience. In the end disruption strategies force criminal networks to become more exposed, which causes successful network disruption to become a long-term effort.

  5. Interstitial Jurisprudence Illustrated in Teaching Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, David A.

    1975-01-01

    The incorporation of criminal law theory into the first-year criminal law course is discussed as an example of adding the jurisprudence of specific subject matters to standard courses. Jurisprudential issues appropriate for study are suggested along with guidelines for teaching techniques, selection of materials, and use of class time. (JT)

  6. [Expertise in the context of criminal law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermylen, Yvo

    2005-01-01

    The procedures of expert investigations in criminal law are different from those in civil law. Being an expert in criminal law investigations assumes thorough knowledge of dentistry, forensic investigations and of rules and procedures to follow. Adequate training and continuous education are mandatory.

  7. Association between Criminal Thinking and Reading Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintschel, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze a relationship between adult, male inmate's criminal attitudes and reading level. Data is derived from the secondary assessments, Criminal Sentiments Scale-Modified (CSS-M) and the reading scores from the Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE). The sample size is 112 adult, males incarcerated at California…

  8. The End of Doctrine?On the Symbolic Function of Doctrine in Substantive Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been various developments within Dutch substantive criminal-law doctrine that in some important ways suggest a shift towards a common-law conception of judicial interpretation in different topics which are central to substantive criminal law. The developments suggest that criminal-law doctrine in the Netherlands is becoming sketchier and is losing some theoretical profundity. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, Shapiro's planning theory of law, and Wittgenstein's considerations on rule-following, this article aims to contribute to a description of the independent function of doctrine in substantive criminal law, by addressing the question as to how, and in what sense, doctrine 'helps' the court in applying the statutory and non-statutory criminal-law norms. It is argued that the law constitutes a 'symbolic form' that is to some extent disassociated from the social life-world, and that is construed by way of sophisticated, shared forms of 'social planning'. These forms of social planning form parts of a 'practice' governed by a specific 'legal point of view'. It is further argued that criminal-law doctrine, in a radical sense, comprises a form of proceduralization, by means of which the adjudicating judge is 'directed' to a certain position within the criminal law's symbolically construed space. It is concluded that criminal-law doctrine fulfils an important function in 'situating' the judge, and in 'prompting' or 'compelling' the judge, from his subjective position, to apply a criminal-law norm in an objectively correct manner.

  9. The End of Doctrine?
    On the Symbolic Function of Doctrine in Substantive Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there have been various developments within Dutch substantive criminal-law doctrine that in some important ways suggest a shift towards a common-law conception of judicial interpretation in different topics which are central to substantive criminal law. The developments suggest that criminal-law doctrine in the Netherlands is becoming sketchier and is losing some theoretical profundity. Building on Cassirer's philosophy of symbolic forms, Shapiro's planning theory of law, and Wittgenstein's considerations on rule-following, this article aims to contribute to a description of the independent function of doctrine in substantive criminal law, by addressing the question as to how, and in what sense, doctrine 'helps' the court in applying the statutory and non-statutory criminal-law norms. It is argued that the law constitutes a 'symbolic form' that is to some extent disassociated from the social life-world, and that is construed by way of sophisticated, shared forms of 'social planning'. These forms of social planning form parts of a 'practice' governed by a specific 'legal point of view'. It is further argued that criminal-law doctrine, in a radical sense, comprises a form of proceduralization, by means of which the adjudicating judge is 'directed' to a certain position within the criminal law's symbolically construed space. It is concluded that criminal-law doctrine fulfils an important function in 'situating' the judge, and in 'prompting' or 'compelling' the judge, from his subjective position, to apply a criminal-law norm in an objectively correct manner.

  10. Joint Criminal Enterprise: The ICTY’s Contentious Addition to International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2008-01-01

    The ICTY does not merely represent a historical stage in the development of international criminal justice which can now be put aside and left to legal historians. It also has a lasting impact, due to the fact that its Rules of Procedure and Evidence are judge-made law, tested in the fire of court...... practice and frequently amended to take the latest developments into account. Finally, with the arrest of Slobodan Karadžić, a new chapter has been opened for the Court. This volume thus provides not only an account of all the debates revolving around the proper role of international criminal justice...... and a contribution to the developing academic discipline of “transitional justice”; it also opens up a perspective to the International Criminal Court and asks what procedural legacy the ad hoc tribunals for Yugoslavia and Ruanda provide for the future of international criminal procedure....

  11. Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pravina

    2002-05-01

    Social attitudes towards epilepsy cause more distress to the patient and his/her near and dear ones, than the disease itself. The major psychosocial issues related to epilepsy are: Quality of medical management, overprotection, education, employment, marriage and pregnancy. Inadequate treatment is the major reason involved in psychosocial issues. Constant overprotection and pampering leads to behavioural pattern which makes epileptic patient dependent for ever. Education is hampered in epileptic persons. Teachers and students should have proper information regarding seizures. If seizures are well controlled, job opportunities increase. Employers and employees need to be educated about epilepsy. Self-employment is the best in epileptic patients. Regarding marriage, each patient is to be judged on individual merits and type of epilepsy. Society needs to be educated about the facts and consequences of epilepsy. Risk of anti-epileptic drug's usage is very insignificant compared to risk of seizures in pregnancy. So girls are advised to seek medical advice before pregnancy and during follow-up. With more and more support from the society, persons with epilepsy will have the courage and confidence to speak about themselves and their illness. It is only then that we will realise that persons with epilepsy are 'normal' or 'near-normal' and this will break the vicious cycle of stigma.

  12. Partners or Partners in Crime? The Relationship Between Criminal Associates and Criminogenic Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whited, William H; Wagar, Laura; Mandracchia, Jon T; Morgan, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    Meta-analyses examining the risk factors for recidivism have identified the importance of ties with criminal associates as well as thoughts and attitudes conducive to the continuance of criminal behavior (e.g., criminogenic thinking). Criminologists have theorized that a direct relationship exists between the association with criminal peers and the development of criminogenic thinking. The present study empirically explored the relationship between criminal associates and criminogenic thinking in 595 adult male inmates in the United States. It was hypothesized that the proportion of free time spent with and number of criminal associates would be associated with criminogenic thinking, as measured by two self-report instruments, the Measure of Offender Thinking Styles-Revised (MOTS-R) and the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS). Hierarchal linear regression analyses demonstrated that the proportion of free time spent with criminal associates statistically predicted criminogenic thinking when controlling for demographic variables. The implications of these findings on correctional practice (including assessment and intervention) as well as future research are discussed.

  13. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  14. Psychosocial Aspects of Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszycki, Lee H.

    1988-01-01

    Presents an overview of medical and psychosocial aspects of heart transplantation, with a focus on the program at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Describes social workers' interventions which help patients and families to achieve optimal psychosocial functioning before and after transplantation. (Author/ABL)

  15. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on physi

  16. What Defines an International Criminal Court?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard-Pedersen, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... community’, and Sarah Williams, who 50 years later relied on the same factor in her definitions of ‘hybrid’ and ‘internationalized’ criminal tribunals. Through examples of rulings by the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, this article will demonstrate...

  17. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive......Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... significant correlation between performance and psychosocial work environment. A sample of 12 departments was selected for in-depth qualitative study based on their relative change in performance and psychosocial work environment between 2005 and 2007. Through the qualitative study we are able to identity...

  18. Impact of work-related and psychosocial factors on the development of ischemic heart disease among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1988-01-01

    From 1978 to 1985, 2,465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark were followed with regard to hospital admission due to myocardial infarction (MI) and death due to ischemic heart disease (IHD). In all 2,045 (83%) of these men responded in 1978 to a questionnaire on psychosocial well...... associated with the occurrence of MI. Smoking habits tended to be associated with the occurrence of MI, while stress symptoms and job dissatisfaction did not. The mental burden on bus drivers working in heavy traffic seems a possible explanation for the findings....

  19. Forms of the criminal environment counteraction to performing the function of state protection of participants in criminal proceedings and measures of its neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubonosov E.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal environment’s counteraction is considered as purposeful, active and intentional influence of its representatives on participants in criminal proceedings. It is directed at persons who, due to their professional duties, are involved in detection and investigation of crimes as well as court proceedings, or who possess evidentiary information (witnesses, victims, etc.. Counteraction may be expressed in different ways: discrediting operatives, investigators and judges; pressure on persons involved in the investigation and the trial through bribery, blackmail, threats to life and health of themselves and their family, etc. The administration of justice becomes inefficient due to the variety of forms and purposes of counteraction. The importance of operational units’ awareness of the activities of criminal environment representatives is shown. The importance of revealing the facts of unlawful influence on witnesses and victims of crime, who subsequently acquire procedural status of witnesses and victims, in order to prevent such facts is also stressed. It is proposed to suppress the counteraction of criminal environment by following ways: 1 identifying (with the help of informants and by crime detection actions the persons attempting to influence the preliminary investigation; 2 documenting the suspects actions aimed at illegal influence on participants in criminal proceedings for the purpose of conducting the procedural actions and decision making; 3 “in cell” (using an agent crime detection actions against detainees and arrestees throughout the whole process of covert operation; 4 creating investigative team to develop a common mechanism to neutralize criminal environment’s counteraction to crime investigation.

  20. 24 CFR 960.204 - Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... activity or drug abuse by household members. 960.204 Section 960.204 Housing and Urban Development... HOUSING Admission § 960.204 Denial of admission for criminal activity or drug abuse by household members. (a) Required denial of admission—(1) Persons evicted for drug-related criminal activity. The...

  1. Mental Illness, Your Client and the Criminal Law: A Handbook for Attorneys Who Represent Persons with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This handbook for attorneys represents part of an effort to improve legal representation for criminal defendants with mental illness. The handbook was developed and reviewed by both mental health professionals and attorneys experienced in criminal and mental health law. However, it is not a comprehensive guide on mental health law or on how to…

  2. 24 CFR 1000.150 - How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? 1000.150 Section 1000.150 Housing... receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? (a) As required by section 208...

  3. International consultation on the criminalization of HIV transmission: 31 October-2 November 2007, Geneva, Switzerland. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Geneva, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, some jurisdictions have applied criminal law to the transmission of HIV. In 2002, UNAIDS issued a policy options paper on this issue. In light of renewed calls for the application of criminal law to HIV transmission and concerns raised in this regard by the UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Humans Rights and others, UNDP and the UNAIDS Secretariat decided to bring together a number of legal experts and other concerned stakeholders to discuss this issue in the context of an effective human rights and public health response to HIV. The discussion would inform a UNAIDS/UNDP policy brief on this subject. It was clarified that the consultation would focus primarily on HIV transmission through sexual contact, although it was noted that concerns exist in relation to applying criminal law to HIV transmission in other contexts. This Bookshelf article consists of excerpts from the report of the meeting.

  4. Contributions of family violence research to criminal justice policy on wife assault: paradigms of science and social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, J

    1988-01-01

    Criminal justice policy on family violence has evolved over the past two decades, informed by political activism as well as theory and research from divergent and often competing perspectives. Experimental research on mandatory arrest of men who assault female partners, policy research on special prosecution programs, and the development of treatment programs for men who batter, typify the strategies for applying criminal sanctions to family violence. However, other critical research on family violence has not been integrated into criminal justice policy, limiting policy development and intervention strategies to practices which reflect contemporary models of sanctions and social control. The limited contributions of family violence research to criminal justice policy reflect competing paradigms of social science, the challenge of family violence cases to the normative processes and the social organization of the criminal courts, and divergent perspectives on social control of offenders in family and stranger violence cases. Strategies for an integrated policy development process are suggested.

  5. HUBUNGAN BEBAN KERJA, PENGETAHUAN IBU, DAN POLA ASUH PSIKOSOSIAL DENGAN PERKEMBANGAN KOGNITIF ANAK USIA 2-5 TAHUN PADA KELUARGA MISKIN (THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTHER’S WORKLOAD, KNOWLEDGE, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL STIMULATION WITH COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT OF 2-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimar Salimar

    2013-07-01

    , and the psycho-social stimulation with cognitive development of 2-5 years old among poor families in Kabupaten Bogor rural area. Methods: The study design was crossectional and located at Kabupaten Bogor. The number of the research samples were 200 mothers and their children, wich chosen randomly. Mother’s workload and knowledge was collected using questionnaire, psychosocial stimulation was collected using home inventory instrument  and cognitive development using questionnaire. Statistical analyses used in the study are correlation and logistic regression. Results: The result of this research shows that 25 percent of mother has heavy workload. Most of mothers have average knowledge about nutrition, health and child development (66.8%.The family psycho-social stimulation to induce their children development mostly is in average (62.1% and the low cognitive development of 2-5 years old become majority with 50 percent. Conclusions: Logistic regression analysis shows the factors that positively affect cognitive development of child are mother’s workload and psycho-social stimulation from the family. [Penel Gizi Makan 2011, 34(1: 39-49] Keywords: mother’s workload, psychosocial stimulation, cognitive development

  6. Personality correlates of criminals: A comparative study between normal controls and criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. To determine what makes a criminal “a criminal,” we must understand his/her personality. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad (Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors (PFs scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results: Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Conclusion: Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits.

  7. Original article Criminal thinking styles of minors. Social and personality correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Rode

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This paper presents an attempt to determine the predictors of criminal thinking styles of minors, based on the theory of Glenn Walters. The construct which is the subject of this study, that is, criminal thinking, is treated as a factor that initiates and supports anti-social behaviour. It manifests itself in eight thinking styles (patterns: mollification, cut-off, entitlement, sentimentality, power orientation, cognitive indolence, discontinuity, and superoptimism. Participants and procedure The study involved 114 people: 65 boys and 49 girls. The research group consisted of minors – boys and girls who were referred, by order of the court, to Diagnostic and Consultation Family Centres to receive a psychological opinion, the purpose of which was to determine the degree of demoralisation of the minor. The study was also attended by the guardians of minors. A criterion for including a minor in this study was committing an offence. Results For each criminal thinking style, a forward stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Variables describing minors and mothers were included in the regression model. The aim of this approach is to identify the configuration of predictors of criminal thinking styles. In each of the models the coefficient of determination, R2, and  coefficients were calculated. Conclusions The predictors of criminal thinking styles identified by the regression analysis show the complexity and heterogeneity of factors contributing to the emergence of these cognitive distortions. Predictors include both properties conditioning the psychosocial functioning of mothers and factors determining the personality of a minor (sense of control, low empathy, low self-esteem. There is a noticeable influence of factors attributable to the mothers – variables derived from the environment (demanding, rejecting, inconsistent attitude.

  8. Psychosocial staffing at National Comprehensive Cancer Network member institutions: data from leading cancer centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshields, Teresa; Kracen, Amanda; Nanna, Shannon; Kimbro, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is comprised of 25 National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers and arguably could thus set the standard for optimal psychosocial staffing for cancer centers; therefore, information was sought from NCCN Member Institutions about their current staffing for psychosocial services. These findings are put into perspective given the limited existing literature and consensus reports. The NCCN Best Practices Committee surveyed member institutions about their staffing for psychosocial services. The survey was administered electronically in the winter of 2012. The survey was completed by 20 cancer centers. Across institutions, case managers and mental health therapists, typically social workers, were utilized most frequently to provide psychosocial services (67% of full-time-equivalents (FTEs)), with other psychosocial professionals also represented but less consistently. Most psychosocial services are institutionally funded (ranging from 64 to 100%), although additional sources of support include fee for service and grant funding. Training of psychosocial providers is unevenly distributed across responding sites, ranging from 92% of institutions having training programs for psychiatrists to 36% having training programs for mental health therapists. There was variability among the institutions in terms of patient volume, psychosocial services provided, and psychosocial staff employed. As accreditation standards are implemented that provide impetus for psychosocial services in oncology, it is hoped that greater clarity will develop concerning staffing for psychosocial services and uptake of these services by patients with cancer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Psychosocial characteristics and social networks of suicidal prisoners: towards a model of suicidal behaviour in detention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Rivlin

    Full Text Available Prisoners are at increased risk of suicide. Investigation of both individual and environmental risk factors may assist in developing suicide prevention policies for prisoners and other high-risk populations. We conducted a matched case-control interview study with 60 male prisoners who had made near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (cases and 60 male prisoners who had not (controls. We compared levels of depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, aggression, hostility, childhood abuse, life events (including events occurring in prison, social support, and social networks in univariate and multivariate models. A range of psychosocial factors was associated with near-lethal self-harm in prisoners. Compared with controls, cases reported higher levels of depression, hopelessness, impulsivity, and aggression, and lower levels of self-esteem and social support (all p values <0.001. Adverse life events and criminal history factors were also associated with near-lethal self-harm, especially having a prior prison spell and having been bullied in prison, both of which remained significant in multivariate analyses. The findings support a model of suicidal behaviour in prisoners that incorporates imported vulnerability factors, clinical factors, and prison experiences, and underscores their interaction. Strategies to reduce self-harm and suicide in prisoners should include attention to such factors.

  10. European Criminal Law a! er the Lisbon Treaty, or Europeanization of European law, under the co-responsibility of the Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Riza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Same as EU Law, that presents a new area of law and that it is still in progress, the EU Criminal Law is developing. The development of EU criminal law, of course, is dictated by the development of European Law itself, or the EU itself. Depending on it, the EU will be a supranational structure, or will undergo changes and become a Federal State, or another unified form. Taking into consideration the importance of this area of law, which is created for cooperation among states to combat organized crime, and especially terrorism, we can have a Criminal Code European and a European code of Criminal Procedure certainly in the near future, namely, a codification of European criminal field. This paper aims to discuss the development of European criminal law, until the Treaty of Lisbon.

  11. Protecting Children Rights under International Criminal Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erinda Duraj (Male

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.

  12. Psychosocial work environment and retirement age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Jensen, Per H.; Bjorner, Jakob Bue

    2016-01-01

    . We used Cox proportional hazard regression to analyze the rate of early retirement. Results The study included 16 psychosocial work environment factors. The following 10 psychosocial factors were significant predictors of early retirement in covariate adjusted analyses: Low job satisfaction, low......, quantitative demands, emotional demands, role conflicts, social community between colleagues, and trust between colleagues. Conclusion Older employees with high job satisfaction, influence, possibilities for development, positive management relations, and jobs with no age discrimination remained longer...... influence in job, low possibilities for development, low role clarity, perceived age discrimination, low recognition from management, low workplace justice, poor trust in management, poor leadership quality, and poor predictability. No significant association with early retirement was found for work pace...

  13. Guidelines for the Psychosocial Evaluation of Living Unrelated Kidney Donors in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dew, M. A; Jacobs, C. L; Jowsey, S. G; Hanto, R; Miller, C; Delmonico, F.L

    2007-01-01

    ..., in Washington, DC, to develop guidelines for the psychosocial evaluation of prospective living kidney donors who have neither a biologic nor longstanding emotional relationship with the transplant candidate...

  14. Psychosocial Interventions and Children’s Rights: Beyond Clinical Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Doná, Giorgia

    2002-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in psychosocial interventions in the aftermath of ethno-political violence. Rwanda after genocide received sustained psychological attention and this paper critically examines the contribution of psychosocial interventions to the broader development agenda of reconstruction and rehabilitation. We undertake a brief psychologically informed analysis of the factors that contributed to genocide as a means of outlining the political and cultural context in whi...

  15. Criminality and Victimization in Oromia, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Jibat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed crime statistics of 2011/2012 with objectives to compare the characteristics of criminals based on correlates of crime such as age, gender, types of occupation, level of education, and marital status and to examine features of victimization by age and sex. The study was conducted in Oromia National Regional State. Police crime data of 2011/2012 were used. Furthermore, key informant interview was used. Descriptive statistics such as percentages, frequencies, and ratios were primarily used to analyze the aggregate police data. It is found that sociocultural and structural factors affect criminality and victimization patterns. The total number of criminals reported to and recorded by the police was 96,300, which constitute 85,100 male and 11,200 female offenders. About 37% of these criminals committed violent crime. The ratio of male to female offenders was 7.6:1. The dominance of male over female both in criminality and victimization is the extension of their social position in social structure and result of gender role socialization. Age group 19 to 30 was found to be the most criminal population with the criminal rate of 828 per 100,000 people. Unfortunately, the relationship between educational status, types of occupation/employment, and marital status on one hand and criminality on the other were less than conclusive mainly because of lack of adequate information on such variables for individual criminals and victims or the fact that the police data were only aggregate ones. Victimization rate was higher for males and 31 to 50 age category.

  16. Capital punishment, criminals and enemies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Right of life and life are different concept.The former is endowed w by state beforehand,which is proved through his behavior that he is deserved to own the right of life.The one who thoroughly offend the basic norm in the law is the enemy of our realistic world.If only the enemy still have danger to threaten the society,he should be executed to death penalty,and deprived of his life,but will not happen the problem of miscarriage of justice and inhumanity.The criminal's behavior just only denies part of norm in the law,however,who still is mankind and should possess of mankind's dignity,so we must abolish death penalty on them,miscarriage of justice is another reason of course.

  17. Academics for International Criminal Justice: The Role of Legal Scholars in Creating and Sustaining a New Legal Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Jarle

    The article is a sociological investigation into the crucial role of legal academics in the professional mobilization that characterized the creation and development of international criminal justice. Analyzing the different stages in the evolution of international criminal law culminating...... with the striking proliferation of the new ad hoc tribunals since the 1990s and the creation of the first permanent international criminal court (ICC) in 2002, the article highlights the pivotal role of legal academics in defining and championing this form of law by placing themselves in a double role as both legal...... consultants and scholarly experts in the nascent field of international criminal justice. Investing professionally in the creation and development of international criminal justice, this role as double agents allowed groups of academics to have a significant impact on the genesis and evolution...

  18. Managing psychosocial adjustment to aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, D

    1999-01-01

    This article argues for incorporating psychosocial adjustment into treatment plans for people with aphasia. It proposes that rehabilitation is a social rather than a medical construct and that by adopting a broad range of intervention strategies, more effective approaches to reintegration can be adopted. Outcome measures relating to self-esteem are judged to be central to evaluating the efficacy of treatment. The role of social factors in managing psychosocial adjustment are considered alongside individual and family approaches to counseling. It is concluded that clinicians need to broaden their treatment program to include psychosocial adjustment in rehabilitation.

  19. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  20. Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment of Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper; Petersen, Thomas Søbirk

    2013-01-01

    Whether it is morally acceptable to offer rehabilitation by CNS-intervention to criminals as a condition for early release constitutes an important neuroethical question. Bomann-Larsen has recently suggested that such interventions are unacceptable if the offered treatment is not narrowly targeted...... at the behaviour for which the criminal is convicted. In this article it is argued that Bomann-Larsen's analysis of the morality of offers does not provide a solid base for this conclusion and that, even if the analysis is assumed to be correct, it still does not follow that voluntary rehabilitation schemes...... targeting behaviour beyond the act for which a criminal is convicted are inappropriate....

  1. Childhood hyperactivity, physical aggression and criminality: a 19-year prospective population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Pingault

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research shows that children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder are at elevated risk of criminality. However, several issues still need to be addressed in order to verify whether hyperactivity in itself plays a role in the prediction of criminality. In particular, co-occurrence with other behaviors as well as the internal heterogeneity in ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention should be taken into account. The aim of this study was to assess the unique and interactive contributions of hyperactivity to the development of criminality, whilst considering inattention, physical aggression and family adversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We monitored the development of a population-based sample of kindergarten children (N = 2,741. Hyperactivity, inattention, and physical aggression were assessed annually between the ages of 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. Information on the presence, the age at first charge and the type of criminal charge was obtained from official records when the participants were aged 25 years. We used survival analysis models to predict the development of criminality in adolescence and adulthood: high childhood hyperactivity was highly predictive when bivariate analyses were used; however, with multivariate analyses, high hyperactivity was only marginally significant (Hazard Ratio: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.94-2.02. Sensitivity analyses revealed that hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor. High physical aggression was strongly predictive (Hazard Ratio: 3.44; 95% CI: 2.43-4.87 and its role was consistent in sensitivity analyses and for different types of crime. Inattention was not predictive of later criminality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the contribution of childhood hyperactivity to criminality may be detected in large samples using multi-informant longitudinal designs, our results show that it is not a strong predictor of later criminality. Crime prevention should instead target

  2. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  3. Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy

    This article, the second in a five-part series, explores leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system to effect change in service provision. The article discusses different leadership styles and distinguishes management from leadership. Factors that influence change are outlined, as is the need for emotional intelligence, teamwork and collaborative working. Change management, negotiating ability and conflict management are important skills that nurses should develop to become effective leaders.

  4. The invention of the psychosocial: An introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Rhodri

    2012-01-01

    Although the compound adjective ‘psychosocial’ was first used by academic psychologists in the 1890s, it was only in the interwar period that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers began to develop detailed models of the psychosocial domain. These models marked a significant departure from earlier ideas of the relationship between society and human nature. Whereas Freudians and Darwinians had described an antagonistic relationship between biological instincts and social forces, interwar authors insisted that individual personality was made possible through collective organization. This argument was advanced by dissenting psychoanalysts such as Ian Suttie and Karen Horney; biologists including Julian Huxley and Hans Selye; philosophers (e.g. Olaf Stapledon), anthropologists (e.g. Margaret Mead) and physicians (e.g John Ryle and James Halliday). This introduction and the essays that follow sketch out the emergence of the psycho-social by examining the methods, tools and concepts through which it was articulated. New statistical technologies and physiological theories allowed individual pathology to be read as an index of broader social problems and placed medical expertise at the centre of new political programmes. In these arguments the intangible structure of social relationships was made visible and provided a template for the development of healthy and effective forms of social organization. By examining the range of techniques deployed in the construction of the psychosocial (from surveys of civilian neurosis, techniques of family observation through to animal models of psychotic breakdown) a critical genealogy of the biopolitical basis of modern society is developed. PMID:23626408

  5. Methods of profiling of perpetrators of criminal offenses in criminal investigations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the term, objectives and methods of criminal profiling of perpetrators of criminal offenses. Generally, profiling implies techniques that enable cognition of the profile elements on the basis of analysis of criminal offense consequence, as a result of the offender operation and his interaction with the crime execution place. The goal of profiling is narrowing the circle of suspects. Profiling itself is based on two basic logical methods - inductive and deductive. The essen...

  6. Towards an American Model of Criminal Process: The Reform of the Polish Code of Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roclawska Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, the Polish Parliament passed an amendment to the Code of Criminal Procedure. The legislators decided to expand a number of adversarial elements present in current Polish criminal proceedings. When these changes come into effect (July 1, 2015, Polish criminal procedure will be similar to American regulations, in which the judge’s role is to be an impartial arbitrator, not an investigator.

  7. Original article Latent classes of criminal intent associated with criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Boduszek

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal intent that exist among prisoners and to look at the associations with recidivism, number of police arrests, type of offending (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, and age. Participants and procedure Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous subgroups of prisoners based on their responses to the 10 questions reflecting criminal intent. Participants were 309 male recidivistic prisoners incarcerated in a maximum security prison. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the association between recidivism and latent classes of criminal intent while controlling for offence type (robbery, violent offences, murder, and multiple offences, number of arrests, and age. Results The best fitting latent class model was a three-class solution: ‘High criminal intent’ (49.3%, ‘Intermediate criminal intent’ (41.3%, and ‘Low criminal intent’ (9.4%. The latent classes were differentially related to the external variables (recidivism, violent offences, and age. Conclusions Criminal intent is best explained by three homogeneous classes that appear to represent an underlying continuum. Future work is needed to identify whether these distinct classes of criminal intent may predict engagement in various types of criminal behaviour.

  8. The Gottfredson-Hirschi critiques revisited: reconciling self-control theory, criminal careers, and career criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G

    2008-10-01

    Revisiting Gottfredson and Hirschi's critiques of criminal career research, the current study views low self-control as being analogous to criminal propensity and examines its predictive validity of career criminality among 723 incarcerated delinquent youths. Four key findings emerged. Compared to noncareer offenders, career criminals had significantly lower levels of self-control. Second, youths scoring one standard deviation above the mean on the Self-Control Scale had an odds ratio of 5.36 of becoming a career criminal. Third, self-control predicted career criminal membership with receiver operator characteristic-area under the curve sensitivity accuracies between 74% and 87%, suggesting that self-control is a potentially useful screening device for chronic criminality. Fourth, low self-control was overwhelmingly the strongest predictor of career criminality and far exceeded the impact of age, race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, mental illness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, and trauma experience. Further integration between self-control and criminal career research is urged.

  9. 刑事诉讼中人权保障事业的发展与困境--以广东徐辉案为视角%The Development and the Dilemma of Human Rights Protection in Criminal Litigation from the Perspective of Xuhui False Case in Guangdong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱文杰

    2014-01-01

    新《刑事诉讼法》将人权保障规定在第2条,并对证据制度、辩护制度等具体法条作出修改和完善,在实践中积极贯彻和落实。近日,广东徐辉冤案的平反更是人权保障理念在刑事诉讼领域的深刻反映。文章以此案为视角,在分析人权保障基本理念基础上,探讨人权保障在我国刑事诉讼中的发展与困境,并反思人权保障的路径。%The human rights was stipulated in article 2 of new Criminal Procedural Law which modified and improved the evidence system, defense system and other specific legislation. It’s required to be carried out and implemented in practice actively. Recently, the Xuhui false case in Guangdong was rehabilitated which deeply reflected the concept of human rights protection in the field of criminal proceedings. In this article, based on the analysis of this case and the basic idea of human rights protection, it investigated the development and the dilemma of human rights protection in the criminal prosecution in China, and put forward some reflections on the way of human rights protection.

  10. Psychosocial characteristics of bullying personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bošković Milo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Violence as a traditional appearance of a criminal nature in modern conditions is expressed in certain specific circumstances, especially the type and application of funds. However, behind the phenomena are violent - offender and victim. Criminology, even in its infancy of science, as well as in the classical theories have always dealt with the issues of violent offender, classifying it in the first criminals of passion. The question is whether modern conditions with changes in the type and nature of violence in recent times this type of crime and became a rational motive, and therefore habitually delinquent or professional criminal. The work in this regard primarily engaged in matters of general (psychological, pathological and social characteristics and dispositions of perpetrators of violence in the area.

  11. Expertise as evidence in criminal proceedings from the Communist period until nowadays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saimir Fekolli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During their procedural activity, investigative and judicial bodies have the pressing need to make use of special knowledge in different scientific fields of technique and science in order to resolve outstanding issues related to the subject of verification, which the law has defined as subject of expertise in criminal trial. Experts’ opinion is conceived and implemented as a particular means of verification; experts help in discovering the facts that are important to finding out the truth in criminal proceedings. In addition, they ascertain the facts and give an opinion on them, as a result of specific skills they have in the field of technique, science or culture. Experts and the process conducted by them were given importance in the legislation of the Communist era particularly with the drafting of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1979 which provides in considerable detail both the functions and the importance of expertise to resolve a criminal case. Furthermore, nowadays expertise as evidence in criminal proceedings is becoming increasingly important and is emerging, especially in view of developments in the field of Technique and Science since many criminals are very good at using innovations as a priority means for escaping detection and punishment. But on the other hand, scientific developments are increasingly cooperating with law and justice institutions to resolve the events and to provide assistance for achieving quality results in a shorter time, something that probably was unthinkable before.

  12. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  13. Paediatric radiology from a psychosocial lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Sharbaugh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Globally, hospitals and medical centres have a reputation of causing individual patients an increased level of anxiety, stress and pain owing to their foreign environments, intimidating examinations and rigorous treatments. Because of children’s cognitive and developmental levels of understanding and communication, they are more susceptible to increased levels of stress and trauma associated with medical examinations and hospitalisation. Certified Child Life Specialists (CCLSs are professionals trained in child development and family systems expertise who work directly with children and families to meet their psychosocial and emotional needs in order to help them overcome some of life’s most challenging events, including hospitalisation, illness and trauma. This article aims to address the history of the child life profession and the significance of child life in a paediatric imaging unit, and to discuss the current and future status of psychosocial services in South Africa.

  14. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  15. Outlaw biker affiliations and criminal involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klement, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of being an outlaw biker on criminal involvement in Denmark. Using a unique dataset, 297 outlaw bikers are matched on various background characteristics with 181,931 control individuals and effects are estimated in difference-in-difference regressions. This appr......This study investigates the effect of being an outlaw biker on criminal involvement in Denmark. Using a unique dataset, 297 outlaw bikers are matched on various background characteristics with 181,931 control individuals and effects are estimated in difference-in-difference regressions....... This approach reduces the risk of selection bias and helps isolate the effect of affiliation on criminal involvement. The results suggest that affiliation with an outlaw motorcycle club may increase involvement in overall crime, specifically property crime, drug crime, and weapons crime. Results regarding...... violent crimes are inconclusive. It is concluded that an outlaw biker affiliation may increase criminal involvement....

  16. Internationalizing forensic assessments of criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynen, Gerben; Oei, Karel

    2011-12-01

    One of the important characteristics of current medicine is that it is an international endeavor. The fact that medicine is a global undertaking might even be one of its core strengths. However, the universal nature of medicine can be compromised when local issues become significant factors in medical practice. In this paper we identify criminal law as a relevant factor complicating the process of internationalizing a particular medical practice: the assessment of a defendant within the context of the question of criminal responsibility. Since criminal law--especially the laws relevant to assessments of criminal responsibility--may differ from country to country, or rather from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, forensic psychiatrists face the challenge of finding common ground and a common framework to advance these forensic psychiatric assessments. We describe the current situation and argue for internationalizing the discussion about this assessment, pointing to the example provided by assessments of competence.

  17. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed

  18. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  19. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  20. (De- criminalization of attempted suicide in India: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is a serious problem requiring mental health interventions, but it continues to be treated as a criminal offence under the section 309 of Indian Penal Code. The article reviews the international legal perspective across various regions of the world, discusses the unintended consequences of section 309 IPC and highlights the need for decriminalization of attempted suicide in India. The Mental Health Care Bill, 2013, still under consideration in the Rajya Sabha (upper house, has proposed that attempted suicide should not be criminally prosecuted. Decriminalization of suicidal attempt will serve to cut down the undue stigma and avoid punishment in the aftermath of incident, and lead to a more accurate collection of suicide-related statistics. From a policy perspective, it will further emphasize the urgent need to develop a framework to deliver mental health services to all those who attempt suicide.

  1. Commentary on the NewlyImplemented Amendment Ⅷ to the Criminal Law Concerning Children's Rights in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG NA

    2011-01-01

    Amendment Ⅷ to the Criminal Law of the PRC,which went into effect on May 1,2011,is not only in line with the basic spirit of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and relevant international human rights treaties,but also is related to the priority area of the Program for The Development of Chinese Children (2011- 2020).Thus,it helps to safeguard the rights of juveniles and strengthens criminal law protection of their rights and interests.In consideration of the weak position of juveniles and the criminal law means of protecting their rights and interests,this paper will evaluate the latest trends in criminal law protection of juvenile rights and interests at the legislative level in China.It is of great importance to survey the real gap in juvenile protection systems between China and international conventions,and start the new journey of comprehensive fulfillment of the criminal law protection of juvenile rights and interests.

  2. Ambiguity Aversion and the Criminal Process

    OpenAIRE

    Uzi Segal; Alex Stein

    2005-01-01

    This is the first article to examine the effects of ambiguity aversion on the criminal process. Ambiguity aversion is a person’s rational attitude towards probability's indeterminacy. When a person is averse towards such ambiguities, he increases the probability of the unfavorable outcome to reflect that fear. This observation is particularly true about a criminal defendant who faces a jury trial. Neither the defendant nor the prosecution knows whether the jury will convict the defendant. The...

  3. Behavioural Analysis of Criminal Law: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Harel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is a survey of behavioural analysis of criminal law. Behavioural analysis of criminal law exploits social science methodologies (behavioural economics, psychology and even sociology to explore the effects of criminal law norms and enforcement policy on criminals, judges, juries, lawyers and other decision-makers, to determine the optimal type and size of criminal sanctions, to identify the optimal design of the enforcement system and the rules of evidence. Unlike traditional economic analysis, the behavioural perspective is eclectic rather than unitary; it is composed of various psychological and sociological findings including cognitive biases and their effects, prospect theory, the effects of social norms, findings concerning the ways preferences and beliefs are being shaped and even studies concerning happiness. Behavioural theorists call for the understanding and at times exploitation of various cognitive misperceptions, biases and heuristics to increase the deterrent effect of criminal law prohibitions and sanctions and/or increase their effectiveness. This survey compares this approach to traditional retributive approach and to economic analysis of law. It also provides several examples in which behavioural insights were used and, last it evaluates the prospects that the behavioural approach will influence policy and legislation.

  4. Bullying by peers in childhood and effects on psychopathology, suicidality, and criminality in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Elonheimo, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Bullying is shown to be associated with adverse outcomes in cross-sectional studies, but only a few studies have prospectively examined the effects of childhood bullying on adult outcomes. Our Series paper focuses on prospective longitudinal studies that used large, population-based, community samples analysed through quantitative methods and published between 1960 and 2015. We describe the results of childhood bullying in adulthood in three of the most burdensome areas: psychopathology, suicidality, and criminality. We note that the different groups involved (ie, victims, bullies, and bully-victims) are at risk of difficulties later in life, but their risk profiles differ and the contributions are probably not independent. Controlling for confounders reduces the risk and sometimes eliminates it. Victims are at a high risk of internalising disorders. Bullies seem to be at risk of later externalising disorders and criminality, mainly violent crime and illicit drug misuse. Bully-victims seem to be at risk of internalising disorders, externalising disorders, and criminality, but not all studies examined bully-victims as a separate group. Boys and girls differ in their long-term outcomes. A dose effect exists in which frequent bullying involvement in childhood is most strongly associated with adult adversities. Future studies need to control for additional factors (including genetic, psychosocial, and environmental) to account for the mechanisms behind the reported longitudinal associations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Psychosocial aspects of halitosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jongh, A; de Baat, C; Horstman, M

    2012-09-01

    Using a representative sample from the Dutch population, some psychosocial aspects of halitosis were examined. The results of the survey showed that almost 90% of the Dutch population aged 16 years and older were regularly faced with halitosis. Forty percent reported to be exposed to someone with halitosis at least once a week, men significantly more frequently than women. Although less strongly than body odour, halitosis was reported as being one of the most severe 'let-downs' in social interactions. The greater the social distance between subjects, the less likely is the chance that a person's attention will be drawn to halitosis experienced. When it comes to an unknown person, the chance was no more than 7%, suggesting that it is problematic to draw a person's attention to the presence of halitosis. Considering the potential social consequences of halitosis is it important that dentists and dental hygienists draw patients' attention to the presence of halitosis, when this is the case, thereby encouraging them to seek adequate treatment.

  6. Psychosocial factors associated with in postsurgical prognosis of temporal lobe epilepsy related to hippocampal sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Neide Barreira; Mazetto, Lenon; de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas; Centeno, Ricardo Silva

    2015-12-01

    We examined the long-term psychosocial trajectory in a consecutive and homogeneous series of 120 patients followed up for five years after corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH). Evaluation of psychosocial variables at baseline and at five-year follow-up were compared. After five years of CAH, a significant improvement in educational level (p=0.004) and employment status (p0.05). A more favorable surgical outcome (Engel IA) was related to better psychiatric status (p=0.012). Poor psychosocial adjustment before surgery was the most important predictor of QOL outcome (p<0.05). Patients' trajectory after surgical treatment showed positive effects mainly in those with better seizure outcome. Our results emphasized the influence regarding baseline psychosocial functioning on postoperative psychosocial adjustment. Furthermore, many psychosocial gains and difficulties after surgery may be similar in developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Theoretical conception of classification of crimes against military service according to the existing criminal legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr S. Danilov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to implement a comprehensive theoretical analysis of the existing approaches to the definition of concept of crimes against military service their nature characteristics classifications and types. nbsp Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematic formallegal analysis synthesis comparison. Results on the basis of analysis of the norms of the Russian Criminal Code related to crimes against military service and the provisions of criminal and military criminal law doctrine the author has developed and proposed a new classification of crimes against military service depending on the object of crime. Scientific novelty the article substantiates the fact that the classification of crimes against military service is conducted exclusively within the doctrine of criminal and military criminal law on the basis of various criteria the direct object of crime the victim the objective aspect of crime the subject of crime the subjective aspect of crime etc. At the same time the authorrsquos classification of crimes against military service is proposed depending on the object of crimes under study 1 crimes against the established order of statutory relations between servicepersons Articles 332336 of the Russian Criminal Code 2 crimes against the established order of the general organization of military service Articles 337339 of the criminal code 3 crimes against the established order of carrying out special services stipulated by military regulations Articles 340344 of the Russian Criminal Code 4 crimes against the established procedure for the treatment of military property Articles 345348 of the Russian Criminal Code 5 crimes against the established procedure for the treatment of combat or potentially dangerous military equipment

  8. Feature Specific Criminal Mapping using Data Mining Techniques and Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttam Mande

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lot of research is projected to map the criminal with that of crime and it is observed that there is still a huge increase in the crime rate due to the gap between the optimal usage of technologies and investigation. This has given scope for the development of new methodologies in the area of crime investigation using the techniques based on data mining, image processing, forensic, and social mining. In this paper, presents a model using new methodology for mapping the criminal with the crime. This model clusters the criminal data basing on the type crime. When a crime occurs, based on the eye witness specified features, the criminal is mapped. Here we propose a novel methodology that uses Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model to map the features specified by the eyewitness with that of the features of the criminal who have committed the same type of the crime, if the criminal is not mapped, the suspect table is checked and the reports are generated

  9. Emergent authority and expert knowledge: psychiatry and criminal responsibility in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughnan, Arlie; Ward, Tony

    2014-01-01

    In the UK context, the rise of the discipline and practice of forensic psychiatry is intimately connected with the concurrent development of principles and practices relating to criminal responsibility. In this article, we seek to chart the relationship between psychiatry and the principles and practices of criminal responsibility in the UK over the early modern, modern and late modern periods. With a focus on claims about authority and expert knowledge around criminal responsibility, we suggest that these claims have been in a state of perpetual negotiation and that, as a result, claims to authority over and knowledge about criminal non-responsibility on the part of psychiatrists and psychiatry are most accurately understood as emergent and contingent. The apparent formalism of legal discourse has tended to conceal the extent to which legal policy has been preoccupied with maintaining the primacy of lay judgments in criminal processes of evaluation and adjudication. While this policy has been somewhat successful in the context of the trial - particularly the murder trial - it has been undermined by administrative procedures surrounding the trial, including those that substitute treatment for punishment without, or in spite of, a formal determination of criminal responsibility.

  10. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G. R.; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P.; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K.; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges. PMID:23869293

  11. Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease.

  12. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  13. National recommendations: Psychosocial management of diabetes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay; Sridhar, G R; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Sahay, Rakesh Kumar; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Baruah, Manash P; John, Mathew; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalkrishnan; Madhu, K; Verma, Komal; Sreedevi, Aswathy; Shukla, Rishi; Prasanna Kumar, K M

    2013-05-01

    Although several evidence-based guidelines for managing diabetes are available, few, if any, focus on the psychosocial aspects of this challenging condition. It is increasingly evident that psychosocial treatment is integral to a holistic approach of managing diabetes; it forms the key to realizing appropriate biomedical outcomes. Dearth of attention is as much due to lack of awareness as due to lack of guidelines. This lacuna results in diversity among the standards of clinical practice, which, in India, is also due to the size and complexity of psychosocial care itself. This article aims to highlight evidence- and experience-based Indian guidelines for the psychosocial management of diabetes. A systemic literature was conducted for peer-reviewed studies and publications covering psychosocial aspects in diabetes. Recommendations are classified into three domains: General, psychological and social, and graded by the weight they should have in clinical practice and by the degree of support from the literature. Ninety-four recommendations of varying strength are made to help professionals identify the psychosocial interventions needed to support patients and their families and explore their role in devising support strategies. They also aid in developing core skills needed for effective diabetes management. These recommendations provide practical guidelines to fulfill unmet needs in diabetes management, and help achieve a qualitative improvement in the way physicians manage patients. The guidelines, while maintaining an India-specific character, have global relevance, which is bound to grow as the diabetes pandemic throws up new challenges.

  14. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  15. Multiaxial evaluation of violent criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Blanca, Maria José; Sánchez, Luis Miguel; Morales, Inmaculada

    2007-06-01

    A multiaxial assessment and personality evaluation was performed on a group of 70 people (65 men and 5 women) who were recently incarcerated in Málaga, Spain for having committed violent crimes, such as murder and sex-based violence. Analysis of scores on the MCMI indicated that there were chiefly two clearly differentiated personality profiles related to two personality disorders present in the group, the antisocial and the dependent personality disorder with compulsive traits. The "antisocial-psychotic group" presented a clear relation with clinical syndromes, specifically alcohol and drug abuse with delusional disorder, and they had committed a higher proportion of murders. On the Big Five Questionnaire, the "dependent-compulsive group" scored higher than average on Emotional Stability and Agreeableness, whereas the antisocial-psychotic group scored lower than average on Emotional Stability. These findings are in accord with those of Megargee, who concluded that violent criminals can be divided into two categories, the undercontrolled (antisocial) and the overcontrolled (dependent).

  16. Cognitive fallacies and criminal investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrich, Hans

    2015-03-01

    The human mind is susceptible to inherent fallacies that often hamper fully rational action. Many such misconceptions have an evolutionary background and are thus difficult to avert. Deficits in the reliability of eye-witnesses are well known to legal professionals; however, less attention has been paid to such effects in crime investigators. In order to obtain an "inside view" on the role of cognitive misconceptions in criminalistic work, a list of fallacies from the literature was adapted to criminalistic settings. The statements on this list were rated by highly experienced crime scene investigators according to the assumed likelihood of these errors to appear and their severity of effect. Among others, selective perception, expectation and confirmation bias, anchoring/"pars per toto" errors and "onus probandi"--shifting the burden of proof from the investigator to the suspect--were frequently considered to negatively affect criminal investigations. As a consequence, the following measures are proposed: alerting investigating officers in their training to cognitive fallacies and promoting the exchange of experiences in peer circles of investigators on a regular basis. Furthermore, the improvement of the organizational error culture and the establishment of a failure analysis system in order to identify and alleviate error prone processes are suggested. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Criminal Acts according to Criminal Code of Republic of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bajram Ukaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the criminal offences against economy in the Criminal Code of Kosovo, which are increasingly becoming an important object of study, both at national and international levels. The criminal offences against economy are in principle blanket nature offences, guiding nature, since the vast majority of such norms are further delineated in other bylaws, while the criminal code provisions provide on criminal offences, thereby guiding towards another legal or sub-legal provision. Economic and financial crimes in Kosovo are already making a remarkable increase, as proven by statistical records of state authorities. The increased rate of economic crimes is a result of many factors and circumstances present in Kosovo, which may be different from regional countries. The inefficient fight and prevention of organized crime and corruption in the period between 1999-2010 was stimulated and favoured by several specific factors that are elaborated in this article.

  18. Seeing the Improvement of the criminal trial structure from China's criminal courtroom arrangements (tribunal design)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIAN Jianlin; LI Jingjing

    2006-01-01

    The setting of criminal court has become an important representation of the criminal trial structure due to its visual and vivid reflection of the legal position and relations among the three parties of litigation,i.e.the prosecuting party,the advocating party and the judge.As a result of the influence of ancient "inquest" centered trial mode,lack of the defendant's fight to silence and incomplete revolution of the criminal trial mode,the existing criminal court setting features an umbrella shaped structure.To reform the criminal trial structure in China,we should eliminate the air of "inquest" from the existing court interrogation mode,strengthen the hearing of evidence and set up a equiangular triangle shaped trial structure of neutral trial,equality between the prosecuting and advocating parties and litigant oriented.

  19. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-10-01

    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  20. Expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V

    2008-07-01

    In the day-to-day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine today, there is a growing need for forensic medical expertise in bodily injuries in criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying a bodily injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but s/he must also be aware of the legal requirements and norms of the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to the explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues relating to the bodily injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how an expert can be appropriately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 of the afore-mentioned Code, a way of analysing bodily injuries is defined; and finally, the definition of bodily injuries is explained through citing Articles 130 and 131 of the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, relating to bodily injury and grave bodily injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing this forensic medical expertise, i.e. by whom and when can expertise in bodily injuries be sought and, moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsibility of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion on the type of the bodily injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on the expert's requirements after examination of the injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expert assessment of bodily injuries in the case of criminal subjects; and providing oral statements and opinions during the criminal procedure.

  1. The impact of juveniles' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity on judges' opinions about adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer Mayer; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Dolores, John; Zelechoski, Amanda D; Messenheimer, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether defendants' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity would affect judges' ratings of juveniles' adjudicative competence in juvenile and criminal court. Three hundred forty two judges reviewed a forensic psychological report about a hypothetical defendant; only the defendant's age (12-17) and maturity level (mature, immature) varied across reports. Results revealed a main effect of age, with older juveniles generally deemed more competent, and a main effect of maturity, with mature juveniles generally deemed more competent. No interaction was found. Results suggest that age and maturity play major roles in judicial determinations of juvenile competency.

  2. Conflictos psico-sociales de la mujer delincuente en México/ Psycho-social conflict women offenders in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fabiola García Álvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of violence as cause and consequence of criminal behavior, same rooted arises on endogenous and exogenous factors. Also, theories studying female criminality, such as social, legal, criminological and psychological described, among others; that help us identify different points of view of researchers who have given importance to the issue. Once theories of female criminality analyzed, the reasons arise for conducting this research, as the crime rate growing, changing role of women and pretend to give a comprehensive explanation of the problem. Furthermore, the research objectives were established, one of them, analyzing female criminality in a multidisciplinary manner to achieve progress in this area. The main hypotheses are established: the causes of criminal behavior is policausal, mainly determined by its personality. Field work was conducted in the Women's Preventive and Rehabilitation Center in Puente Grande, Jalisco, Mexico (CPRF, were applied to the sample of 25% of the universe of the prison community of female offenders aged between 25 and 35, held on charges of murder and / or robbery; where they were analyzed psychosocial variables that influence female behavior, violent ones.

  3. A Reciprocal Turn in Criminal Justice? Shifting Conceptions of Legitimate Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rise of a fierce, ongoing controversy concerning the authority of criminal courts and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system as such. This article aims to provide some much needed conceptual clarity regarding the primal subjects under discussion: To what do we actually refer when we are using the words 'authority' and 'legitimacy'? What is 'legitimate authority'? For an answer to this question, reference is made to a number of theoretical developments within (political philosophy. The article investigates how developments within the doctrines of the general part of substantive criminal law are related to shifting contemporary views on the general conditions for a legitimate exercise of practical authority. An account of a number of interlocking developments within the doctrinal system of Dutch substantive criminal law serves as a starting point for the subsequent inquiry. It is argued that these developments exemplify shifts in the way authority is distributed over various agents involved in criminal proceedings. It is further argued that these shifts in the distribution of authority parallel notable movements within the philosophical literature on the concept of legitimate authority, that is: a movement from a rationalistic and top-down approach toward a reciprocal, bottom-up approach.

  4. Psychosocial work environment and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Møller, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Good psychosocial work environment has been assumed to result in good work performance. However, little documentation exists which support the claim and the same goes for the opposite claim. This paper reports the first findings from a combined quantitative and qualitative study of the relationship...... between psychosocial work environment and performance in a large Danish firm. The objects of the study were more than 45 customer centers’ with 9-20 employees each. Using a combination of the Copenhagen psychosocial questionnaire and data from the firms’ balanced scorecard system we show a positive...... and describe the mechanism underlying the observed relationship. It is observed that a specific leadership style is responsible for creating a good working environment which leads to good performance. The leadership style can be described as process oriented, supportive and consistent but also demanding....

  5. Units for the protection of child victims and witnesses in the criminal proceedings: Domestic legislation and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milosavljević-Đukić Ivana; Tankosić Bojana; Petković Jara; Marković Marija

    2017-01-01

    ... documents, including the Child Rights Convention. The purpose of this paper is to present Units for the Protection of Child Victims and Witnesses in the Criminal Proceedings that were developed within the IPA project...

  6. The Evolution of the Social Criminal Law on an International Wide Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Razvan Popescu

    2009-01-01

    Brought to maturity, the labor criminal law represents a real branch of the criminal law, as well as the business criminal law, fiscal criminal law or the environment criminal law. Notwithstanding labor criminal law cannot be considered merely as an accessory part of the corporate criminal law, but having an essential part such as an exhibit test, in order to determine new legal mechanisms, such as the ones regarding criminal liability of the legal persons. In the Romanian legislation, the la...

  7. Psychosocial background in incarcerated adolescents from Austria, Turkey and former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne Monika; Steiner, Hans; Feucht, Martha; Stompe, Thomas; Karnik, Niranjan; Kasper, Siegfried; Plattner, Belinda

    2011-01-30

    Adolescents with a migration background account for a substantial proportion of juveniles in custody. Psychosocial adversities pose a significant risk for criminal behaviour. So far, the nature of psychosocial adversities experienced by migrant youth is understudied. The aim of this study was to explore differences in psychosocial background in three ethnic groups (Turkish, former-Yugoslavian and Austrian) of detained juveniles in Austria. A semi-structured interview (Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles, MCSI) was used to assess psychosocial background (e.g., trauma, family background, forensic and psychiatric family history, school history, psychiatric treatment received and criminal history) in juveniles entering an Austrian pre-trial detention facility. Of the 370 eligible participants, the final study sample consisted of 278 juveniles. The ethnic distribution was as follows: 55.4% Austrian (mean age 16.88 years, S.D.=1.52), 14% Turkish (mean age 16.28 years, S.D.=1.23), 30.6% former-Yugoslavian (mean age 16.47 years, S.D.=1.41). In the Austrian sample, family dysfunction was significantly more prevalent than in the Turkish or former-Yugoslavian samples. Mental health services were significantly less used by juveniles with migration background. Turkish juveniles had a significantly poorer school performance than Austrians. Juveniles from former-Yugoslavia had significantly less often attended schools offering secondary education. The results suggest that detained juveniles with migration background are poorly integrated into the educational and mental health system of the host society. Family systems, even if substantially dysfunctional, seem to be perceived as more stable by migrant youth than by Austrian youth.

  8. Mentally Disordered Non-Psychotic Criminal Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Peter; Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kørner, Alex

    2013-01-01

    as sanctions in criminal cases, the court will request a psychiatric report. They may furthermore ask a medical expert consultation board, the Danish Medico-Legal Council, for an opinion on the mental status of the defendant. Aims: To describe a sample of offenders falling under §69 and the use of the section...... and the final verdicts on socio-demographic, health and criminal items, and the data were computerized. Results: The sample was characterized by severe criminality and mental disorder. Forty-six percent (138/298) were sentenced by the court to a psychiatric measure instead of punishment. Conclusions......: The results document that §69 of the Danish Penal Code is used as intended by the law....

  9. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  10. Conflicts of Jurisdiction in Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihail Silviu Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider the practical settlement of conflicts of jurisdiction both in relation to the forum for prosecution and transfer of proceedings. The corollary of free movement of people is free movement of judgments, sentences and related powers of investigation and prosecution. Cross border crime requires to be addressed by equipping law enforcement and prosecution authorities with mechanisms to ensure the public interest in the investigation and prosecution of crime is met. The starting point for any consideration is the place where the criminal conduct took place. Sometimes the crime is such that criminal jurisdiction will be fixed - such as theft of property, crimes of violence - where others have an impact or criminal conduct in more than one jurisdiction - drug importation, major transnational drug dealing, human trafficking, terrorism.

  11. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  12. International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice sc

  13. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  14. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  15. SECRECY IN THE SPANISH CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenno Gimenes Cesca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the secrecy in the Spanish Criminal Procedure, explaining, first, its constitutional matrix. Due to the amplitude of the subject, it was decided to focus on specific issues. So, at first, it was studied the secrecy in the criminal procedure phases (sumario and juicio oral, referring also to secrecy in judicial decisions. After, it was researched the secrecy as protection to witnesses and experts. Then, the secrecy in evidence collection means, such as search and seizure; mailing and telephone calls interceptions; undercover agent. Finally, the professional secrecy

  16. Crimonology, Final Cause and Criminal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Gutiérrez Hinojosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the dilemma posed between science and science explanation as causal or teleological explanation, the article proposes, under the challenge materialized in the complexity of the causal processes of actual crime, a comprehensive explanation of the phenomenon. Because of the function of essential auxiliary science of criminology etiological, for criminal science is crucial, so the paper presente the incorporation of the principle of final cause or motivating factor. Knowledge of the true origins of a phenomenon, enables is prediction and thus its prevention or control, only then will a possible task for criminal policy.

  17. Genetics and criminal behaviour: recent accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoa, Arlindo; Santos, Agostinho; Pinheiro, M Fátima; Magalhães, Teresa

    2009-10-01

    The past two decades have seen an explosion in research in the fields of violence and behavioural genetics. Advances in human genetics have raised the possibility that genetic mechanisms can explain various aspects of human criminal and aggressive behaviour. However, this new knowledge can pose enormous challenges concerning the moral and legal conceptions of free will and responsibility. This paper reviews the main aspects of behavioural genetics, focusing on criminal and aggressive behaviour and describes the most important genes known to influence this behaviour.

  18. Race, crime, and criminal justice in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Manuela Ivone P. da

    2010-01-01

    How is ‘difference’ reflected on crime and the criminal justice system in Portugal? The answers obtained depend on which notions we can translate ‘difference’ into: ‘race’, ‘ethnicity’, ‘foreigners’, ‘immigrants’, ‘minorities’. This, in turn, depends also on whether we focus on statistics, rates, or, from another angle, experiences of crime and of the criminal justice system. Quantitative and qualitative data highlight different but complementary aspects of a same landscape. This paper focus...

  19. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  20. From constraints to opportunities? Provision of psychosocial support in portuguese oncogenetic counseling services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Alvaro; Sousa, Liliana; Paneque, Milena

    2013-12-01

    Although available guidelines for familial cancer risk counseling clearly state the need to provide adequate psychosocial assessments and support, this feature of care is only available in part for individuals and families in oncogenetic counseling protocols in Portugal. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial aspects of oncogenetic counseling provided by a sample of Portuguese genetics professionals. We sought to ascertain perceived need for the provision of psychosocial services and ways to enhance the psychosocial focus in service delivery. A qualitative study was designed; semi-structured focus groups and individual interviews were performed with 30 professionals from Portuguese healthcare institutions where oncogenetic counseling is offered. Findings suggest: current practice is aligned with the teaching model, with a mainly information-based focus; use of psychosocial counseling techniques and psychosocial support is limited throughout the genetic counseling timeline; there is a limited workforce of adequately trained psychosocial professionals, who are disadvantaged by structural and organizational constraints. These factors are considered to be serious barriers for psychosocial delivery. Development of multidisciplinary teams working in oncogenetics, and need for further counselling skills and training for genetics healthcare professionals were identified as priorities. Implications for practice and policy are discussed. Portuguese genetic counselors who have recently completed their training, may therefore contribute to enhanced psychosocial services delivery.

  1. Psychosocial Factors in Severe Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booster, Genery D; Oland, Alyssa A; Bender, Bruce G

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness among children in the United States and can impact nearly all aspects of functioning. Most research suggests that children with severe asthma display more emotional and behavioral problems than their healthy peers. These psychological difficulties are associated with increased risk for functional impairments and problematic disease course. Multidisciplinary teams that assess and treat these psychosocial factors using psychoeducational and behavioral interventions are important for children whose asthma is poorly controlled. Future research should examine the ways in which stress, emotions, and immune functions interact, so as to develop more preventative interventions.

  2. Functional impairment, stress, and psychosocial intervention in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, David J

    2011-12-01

    The longitudinal course of bipolar disorder (BD) is highly impairing. This article reviews recent research on functional impairment in the course of BD, the roles of social and intrafamilial stress in relapse and recovery, and the role of adjunctive psychosocial interventions in reducing risk and enhancing functioning. Comparative findings in adult and childhood BD are highlighted. Life events and family-expressed emotion have emerged as significant predictors of the course of BD. Studies of social information processing suggest that impairments in the recognition of facial emotions may characterize both adult- and early-onset bipolar patients. Newly developed psychosocial interventions, particularly those that focus on family and social relationships, are associated with more rapid recovery from episodes and better psychosocial functioning. Family-based psychoeducational approaches are promising as early interventions for children with BD or children at risk of developing the disorder. For adults, interpersonal therapy, mindfulness-based strategies, and cognitive remediation may offer promise in enhancing functioning.

  3. Neural connectivity during reward expectation dissociates psychopathic criminals from non-criminal individuals with high impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, D.E.; Borries, K. von; Volman, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Criminal behaviour poses a big challenge for society. A thorough understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying criminality could optimize its prevention and management. Specifically,elucidating the neural mechanisms underpinning reward expectation might be pivotal to understanding crimi

  4. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2 Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. The Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division, is authorized to...

  5. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  6. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  7. 48 CFR 49.106 - Fraud or other criminal conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud or other criminal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.106 Fraud or other criminal conduct. If the TCO suspects fraud or other criminal conduct related to the settlement of a terminated contract...

  8. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  9. Communist Party of China and Human Rights Protection for Criminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN JIA; PEI JUNJIE

    2011-01-01

    Protection of criminals' human rights is an important issue that has received full attention at home and abroad.The Communlst Party of China (CPC) has always attached much importance to the protection of criminals' human rights.Since the founding of New China,the Party and the state have paid full attention to protecting the human rights of criminals.

  10. 48 CFR 449.106 - Fraud or other criminal conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud or other criminal... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 449.106 Fraud or other criminal conduct. (a) If the contracting officer suspects fraud or other criminal conduct a written report documenting the facts shall...

  11. 48 CFR 949.106 - Fraud or other criminal conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud or other criminal... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 949.106 Fraud or other criminal conduct. Any evidence of fraud or other criminal conduct in connection with the settlement of a contract termination...

  12. 48 CFR 649.106 - Fraud or other criminal conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud or other criminal... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles. 649.106 Fraud or other criminal conduct. If the Termination Contracting Officer (TCO) suspects fraud or other criminal conduct related to the settlement of...

  13. 48 CFR 849.106 - Fraud or other criminal conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud or other criminal... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 849.106 Fraud or other criminal conduct. (a) If the contracting officer suspects fraud or other criminal conduct related to the settlement of...

  14. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  15. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  16. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general popula

  17. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  18. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  19. Serious Adverse Events in Randomized Psychosocial Treatment Studies: Safety or Arbitrary Edicts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.; Stitzer, Maxine; Peirce, Jessica M.; Blaine, Jack; Kirby, Kimberly C.; McCarty, Dennis; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Human subjects protection policies developed for pharmaceutical trials are now being widely applied to psychosocial intervention studies. This study examined occurrences of serious adverse events (SAEs) reported in multicenter psychosocial trials of the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network. Substance-abusing participants (N =…

  20. Family psychosocial risk screening guided by the Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) using the Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E; Schneider, Stephanie; Didonato, Stephen; Pai, Ahna L H

    2015-05-01

    Although families of children with cancer and other serious medical conditions have documented psychosocial needs, the systematic identification of needs and delivery of evidence-based care remain challenges. Screening for multifaceted family psychosocial risk is a means by which psychosocial treatment needs for pediatric patients and their families can be identified in an effective and inclusive manner. The Pediatric Psychosocial Preventative Health Model (PPPHM) is a model that can guide systematic assessment of family psychosocial risk. The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) is a brief parent report screener of psychosocial risk based on the PPPHM that can be used for families of infants through adolescents. The PPPHM and the PAT are described in this paper, along with a summary of data supporting systematic risk assessment. The PPPHM outlines three tiers of family psychosocial risk - Universal (low), Targeted (medium), and Clinical (high). The PAT is a validated measure of psychosocial risk. Scores on the PAT, derived from multiple sites and disease conditions, map on to the PPPHM with indications that one-half to two-thirds of families score at the Universal level of risk based on the PAT. The PAT is a unique screener of psychosocial risk, both in terms of its breadth and underlying model (PPPHM), and its length and format. As an example of a means by which families can be screened early in the treatment process, PAT scores and corresponding PPPHM levels can provide direction for the delivery of evidence-based psychosocial care.

  1. 从刑事诉讼法的修改看我国少年司法制度的发展和完善%Overview on the Development and Perfection of the Juvenile Judicial System in Our Country from the Perspective of the Amendment of the Criminal Procedure Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宇; 张强

    2013-01-01

    我国的少年司法制度从产生至今已有近三十年的发展。[1]在这过程中,各地司法机关始终从国家未来、民族希望的高度,从促进未成年人健康成长出发,探索并建立了一系列独特的工作机制,为涉罪未成年人提供了有效的法律保护,体现了我国少年司法刑罚轻缓化的趋势和“教育、挽救”未成年犯罪人,促使其顺利实现再社会化的价值取向。修改后的《刑事诉讼法》对未成年人案件刑事诉讼程序的特别规定,使这些创新工作机制最终确立了下来,为完善具有中国特色的少年司法制度提供了法律保障。%The juvenile judicial system in our country has developed for approximately 30 years since its establishment. In the process, we have constantly targeted the prospect, national expectation and juveniles’ healthy growth to explore a series of unique working mechanisms so as to provide legal protection for the guilty juveniles. All this shows the gradual lenient penalty trend of our juvenile justice, desires to save juvenile criminals and stimulate them to readopt social values. The amended Criminal Procedure Law has special provisions for criminal trial procedure of cases involving minors, which has eventually established the innovative working mechanisms and offered legal guarantees for the perfection of juvenile judicial system with Chinese characteristics.

  2. The Role of the Criminal Law and The Criminal Process in Healthcare Malpractice in France and England

    OpenAIRE

    Melinee Kazarian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis seeks to contribute to the debate about the role of the criminal law in holding health professionals and health institutions to account for malpractice. The research attempts a critical comparison of the role of the criminal law and the criminal process in healthcare malpractice in France, a civil law jurisdiction, and England, a common law jurisdiction. In France, the criminal process is more readily invoked to address failings and malpractice in healthcare. The aim of this resea...

  3. Application in Mexico of psychosocial rehabilitation with schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marcelo; Rascon, Maria Luisa; Juarez, Francisco; Escamilla, Raul; Saracco, Ricardo; Liberman, Robert Paul

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether evidence-based, psychosocial treatments developed in the United States and England are applicable to Mexican outpatients with schizophrenia, the present study was carried out to evaluate the relative effectiveness of family psycho-education and psychosocial skills training added to customary treatment vs. customary treatment alone. Clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia participated in a 12-month randomized, controlled trial at the National Institute of Psychiatry in Mexico City. An experimental group (N = 47) received the combination of psychosocial skills training, family psycho-education and customary pharmacotherapy while the comparison group (N = 36) received customary treatment alone. Patients were assessed at baseline and one year after commencement of treatment. Significant differences favoring the group that received psychosocial rehabilitation were found in ratings of adherence to medication, attendance at appointments, symptoms, social functioning, relapse, and re-hospitalization. While some adaptations were made in the psychosocial treatments to resolve cultural differences, the results provide cross-national validation of evidence-based treatments for persons with schizophrenia.

  4. Shaping of psycho-social independence in neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Kazimiera; Lorencowicz, Regina; Rejszel, Elzbieta; Zajko, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of psycho-social independence among neurological patients. The study was conducted by means of the Neurological Patients' Psycho-Social Independence Scale developed by the author, and covered 120 patients--51 males and 69 females aged 21-72; unmarried--34 and married--86, with the level of education: elementary--33, secondary school--79 and university--8; who had cerebral stroke--67, multiple sclerosis--31, radicular syndrome--22. During the first stage of the study psycho-social independence remained primarily on the medium level with respect to the knowledge concerning life style, apart from the consumption of alcohol, strong tea and coffee, the patients showing a good knowledge of this problem prior to the implementation of the education programme. With respect to skills and the remaining psycho-social aspects (motivation, self-acceptance, social functioning, intellectual efficiency) the respondents represented primarily a very high or high level during the second study. Unfortunately, a considerable number of patients still showed a medium or low level. Population who represented a very high and high levels of psycho-social independence, increased by 25.0%.

  5. Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir: psychosocial countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During future long-duration space missions, countermeasures need to be developed to deal with psychosocial issues that might impact negatively on crewmember performance and well-being. METHODS: In our recently completed NASA-funded study of 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir program, we evaluated a number of important psychosocial issues such as group tension, cohesion, leadership role, and the displacement of negative emotions from crewmembers to people in mission control and from mission control personnel to management. RESULTS: Based on our findings, which are reviewed, a number of psychosocial countermeasures are suggested to help ameliorate the negative impact of potential psychosocial problems during future manned space missions. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers should be selected not only to rule out psychopathology but also to select-in for group compatibility and facility in a common language. Training should include briefings and team building related to a number of psychosocial issues and should involve both crewmembers and mission control personnel. During the mission, both experts on the ground and the crewmembers themselves should be alert to potential interpersonal problems, including the displacement of negative emotions from the crew to the ground. Supportive activities should consist of both individual and interpersonal strategies, including an awareness of changing leisure time needs. Finally, attention should be given to postmission readjustment and to supporting the families on Earth.

  6. Criminals, Prostitutes, Vagrants and Drunkards: 1920s Carlton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stagnitti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1920s the Melbourne suburb of Carlton was a squalid slum, a home to, amongst others, criminals, prostitutes, vagrants and drunkards. This essay locates three individuals whose lives were trapped within these depressing conditions. A mystery slowly unfolds in a boarding-house in Lygon Street… An alleged prostitute, Kathleen Price, is murdered by her partner, Charles Johnson, a cocaine addict… Kathleen’s daughter, Doris Price, and other boarding-house residents look on helplessly… In preparing this piece, the author has used the original records creatively to develop empathy with the characters and to highlight the drama of these extraordinary events.

  7. Bribery offences under Vietnamese criminal law in comparision with Swedish and Australian criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Dao Le, Thu

    2011-01-01

    There have been attempts, all over the world, to address bribery with recourse to criminal law. As many other countries, Vietnam has been doing activities that show the determination of combating and controlling corruption, including strengthening penal provisions in terms of bribery. However, the situation of bribery in Vietnam is still alarming. For Vietnamese law enforcement authorities, criminal provisions concerning bribery are neither adequate nor clear. Analysis starts with bot...

  8. Addressing Violations of International Criminal Procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, K.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the law and practice of the ICTY, ICTR and ICC with respect to procedural violations, including how such international criminal tribunals have dealt with the unique severity of the crimes falling within their jurisdiction in this context. The picture that emerges

  9. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  10. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Criminal Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in criminal justice. The report first outlines the information gathered in an interview with the program chairperson, conducted to determine program objectives and goals and how they were determined,…

  11. Criminal violence and displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Albuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rampant criminal violence, from direct coercion and physical threats to the erosion of the quality of life and livelihood opportunities, pushes people to move in a variety of ways. Not everyone forced to move has equal access to protection or asylum.

  12. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, Melissa van den; Hazelhorst, Monique; Zanger, Wouter de

    2011-01-01

    In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the

  13. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Zanger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the European Court of Human Rights, General Court of Instance andCourt of Justice of the European Communities the authors give an overview of the notion and possible qualification of assetfreezing as a criminal charge. The article further focusses on the consequenses of qualifying asset freezing as a criminal chargeunder ECHR and EC/EU law and concludes by answering the aforementioned question.This article is a rewrite of a research paper written under supervision of prof. dr. J.A.E. Vervaele and prof. dr. C.H. Brants(Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Utrecht University School of Law, whom the authors wouldlike to thank for their useful comments and supervision.

  14. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many

  15. An International Criminal Court of Public Opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Thijs Bastiaan

    2012-01-01

    In recent months, South Africa, Burundi and the Gambia have terminated their membership of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Observers and academics alike have narrowly portrayed this walkout as an ‘African’ exodus and an ‘African’ problem. But what about Vladimir Putin’s ‘unsigning’ of the Ro

  16. Legal Rights of the Criminally Accused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Young Lawyers Association, Austin.

    A brief review of the federal constitutional provisions and equivalent Texas Constitutional provisions for the criminally accused is provided in question and answer form. First Amendment rights related to such matters as freedom of the press, rights of students, picketing, distributing leaflets, state licensing, and obscenity are considered in the…

  17. Are Celebrities Criminally Responsible For Deceptive Advertising?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration for Industry and Commerce recently said it has suggested the addition of an article in the Advertising Law to make celebrities who represent fake products in deceptive advertising criminally responsible for their actions if it is confirmed as a crime.Up to now,those who have endorsed products have only been required to bear administrative and civil responsibilities.

  18. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many pub

  19. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes in relat...

  20. [The rights of criminally insane individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Ludmila Cerqueira; Lima, Isabel Maria Sampaio Oliveira; Alves, Vânia Sampaio

    2007-09-01

    The Psychiatric Reform Movement has supported proposals to reorient the hegemonic mental health care model. In Brazil, a facility for the criminally insane was created, called the Custody and Psychiatric Treatment Hospital (CPTH). The maintenance of such a structure, known as total institutionalization, has reinforced individual exclusion, limiting the patients' social rehabilitation. This article discusses the right to health in the CPTH from a human rights perspective. The advances achieved in Brazil under the National Mental Health Policy have failed to include reorientation of the care provided in such facilities for the criminally insane. The institution has remained an isolationist asylum, reflecting a historical denial of human rights. Progress in policy, per se, does not guarantee the materialization of recent strides gained through the Psychiatric Reform, particularly in relation to criminals with mental disorders. The state, through shared responsibility with society, should promote the effective reorientation of the health care model for these individuals, whose criminal responsibility should be acknowledged, while providing simultaneously for specialized care. Respect for human rights is not synonymous with impunity.

  1. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion: Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase in anxiety and depression among their patient populations, the psychosocial focus varied slightly for each disease. Overall, acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis can have negative psychosocial impact in different stages of life development. Keywords: psychosocial, acne, psoriasis, vitiligo

  2. The risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Smaglo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has explored the features of the risk assessment of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring. The author has grounded the necessity and importance of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by entities of initial financial monitoring as they can both directly carry out financial transactions for legalization of illegal proceeds, and also facilitate their implementation. The paper has proposed the method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceeds by a commercial bank. The method is based on the point scale and is characterized by the following advantages in comparison with the existing ones: it gives enough accurate assessment, it combines the evaluation of quantitative and qualitative indicators, it is simple and convenient in use. The developed method of the risk assessing of legalization of criminal proceed based on the point scale, can be used by a commercial bank to determine the effectiveness of the system of risk management legalization of proceeds or for the purpose of determining the comprehensive risk of legalization of criminal proceeds of a particular financial transaction, and by the National Bank of Ukraine to determine the frequency of inspections of commercial banks on the issues of financial monitoring.

  3. The Criminal Justice Doctorate: A Study of Doctoral Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkenes, George T.

    Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…

  4. 32 CFR Appendix A to Part 86 - Criminal History Background Check Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... include, but are not limited to: 1. Child Development Programs. a. Child development centers, part-day preschools, and enrichment programs. b. Family child care. c. Contracted Services, whether personal or non..., MILITARY AND CIVILIAN CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS ON INDIVIDUALS IN CHILD CARE SERVICES Pt. 86, App...

  5. Resolution of psychosocial crises associated with flying in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    Erikson (1959) proposed a theoretical basis for healthy psychosocial development. His theory posits eight critical conflict situations throughout one's lifetime, each of which can result in a favorable or unfavorable resolution. Autobiographies, memoirs, interviews, personal diaries, and oral histories of 97 international astronauts were content analyzed to assess reported resolutions of Erikson's psychosocial crises, regardless of chronological sequence. We made comparisons across flight phases (before, during, and after), gender, nationality of home space agency, and flight duration. Astronauts reported more favorable than unfavorable outcomes across flight phases and demographic variables. Differences across demographic variables and flight phases, as well as the changes as a result of the flight are discussed.

  6. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Juvenile sex-only and sex-plus offenders: an exploratory study on criminal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, A Ph; Mali, S R F; Bullens, R A R

    2007-08-01

    In this study, research was done on the criminal profiles of a large group of juvenile sex-only and sex-plus (sex and other offenses) delinquents (N = 4,430) in the Netherlands. Use was made of information from police records. Results show that sex-plus offenders start their careers earlier, that more of these offenders are of non-Dutch origin, that they commit more crimes, and will partly continue their criminal career after their adolescence. Juvenile sex-only offenders rarely go on committing crimes. In sex-plus offenders, sexual crimes play only a minor role in their total crime repertory. As time goes by, their criminal career will develop into the direction of property crimes. Finally, the implications and limitations of this study will be discussed.

  8. Some genetic aspects of alcoholism and criminality. A population of adoptees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohman, M

    1978-03-01

    The state criminal records and official registers of alcoholics were used in a study of 2,000 adoptees and their biological and adoptive parents. The frequency of registration for the adoptees were approximately the same as for the population in general, but for the biological parents it was two to three times greater. Very few adoptive parents appeared in the records. It is conceivable that to a large extent adoption neutralized the "social heritage" from the biological parents. There was, however, a significant correlation in the records between alcoholism in biological parents and in their adopted-out sons. On the other hand, the criminal records showed no such correlation between biological parents and their children. These results support the hypothesis that there is a genetic explanation for the development of alcoholism, but not for the manifestation of criminality.

  9. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities.

  10. Design of an instrument to measure alcohol-related psychosocial influences in the development of norms among 13-year-old to 17-year-old adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildebrand, Janina; Maycock, Bruce; Burns, Sharyn; Zhao, Yun; Allsop, Steve; Howat, Peter; Lobo, Roanna

    2013-01-01

    .... However, there is limited understanding of how social norms related to alcohol are developed and transmitted across social networks and a specific tool that measures these constructs has yet to be developed...

  11. Special investigative actions in the criminal procedural law of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and their purposefulness in law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, V.

    2017-05-01

    Special investigative actions are a novelty in the criminal procedure legislation BiH. In our legislation this has been introduced only in 2003. These are actions that need to assist prosecutors to effectively reveal the perpetrators and the evidence of serious and complex crimes, especially organized crime. There are criminal offenses in whose execution included a larger number of people in different locations and which are carried out with the help of new communication technologies, so that it is not possible to prove the classic means of evidence (documents, physical evidence, witnesses). Unfortunately, criminals are often better organized than the state and in their criminal activities are introduced various technological developments. Therefore, the legislator extended the powers of the prosecutor and gave them into the hands of more effective mechanisms for discovering the perpetrators of these crimes. Special investigative measures are listed in the Penal Code.

  12. Adolescent growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulani, Veenod L; Gordon, Lonna P

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage defined by physical and psychosocial maturation. This article reviews normal pubertal development and the evaluation and management of adolescents with suspected pubertal abnormalities and provides an overview of adolescent psychosocial development.

  13. Crime and Young Men: The Role of Arrest, Criminal Experience, and Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Using National Youth Survey (NYS) data, we examine the relationship of current criminal activity and past arrests using an ordered probit model with unobserved heterogeneity. Past arrests raise current criminal activity only for the non-criminal type, while past criminal experience raises current criminal activity for both types. Also, the age crime profile peaks at age 18 for non-criminal type individuals, but for criminal type individuals, it continues to rise with age. Past research indica...

  14. Commentary: the problem of agreement on diagnoses in criminal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Raymond F

    2010-01-01

    The authors present an important two-part study as they strive to provide an empirical analysis of psychiatric diagnoses in criminal case reports in Australia. In the first part, they compare the level of agreement or correlation of diagnoses between pairs of experts who prepared reports for either the prosecution or defense with other reports prepared for the same and opposing sides and by profession (i.e., psychiatrists and/or psychologists). In the second part, they compare the level of agreement or correlation between experts retained by either the prosecution or defense and treating practitioners. Psychiatric diagnoses are fundamental requirements that may affect the adjudication of criminal and civil cases. Both parts of the study focus on criminal cases and are very exciting in that they review not only the correlation of agreements in these areas but also address indirectly the concept of the so-called hired gun. The development of specialized expertise in the evaluation and assessment of defendants by designated opinion or expert witnesses has progressed over time. The nexus between psychiatry and the law (i.e., forensic psychiatry) has included the presentation of psychiatric diagnosis to the courts and the necessity for the expert or treating practitioner to address legal questions raised by the court. This study makes important steps in the direction of examining and analyzing the role of psychiatric diagnosis according to the responsibilities of the evaluator (i.e., as independent examiner or treating practitioner), as well as the possible influence of professional training and experience on differences in diagnoses between two evaluators. It is anticipated that there will be further work in these areas to address not only diagnoses but forensic recommendations and opinions.

  15. Feature Specific Criminal Mapping using Data Mining Techniques and Generalized Gaussian Mixture Model

    OpenAIRE

    Uttam Mande; Y. Srinivas; Murthy, J. V. R.

    2012-01-01

    Lot of research is projected to map the criminal with that of crime and it is observed that there is still a huge increase in the crime rate due to the gap between the optimal usage of technologies and investigation. This has given scope for the development of new methodologies in the area of crime investigation using the techniques based on data mining, image processing, forensic, and social mining. In this paper, presents a model using new methodology for mapping the criminal with the crime...

  16. Psychosocial Interventions in Depressive Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, improvements in effective psychosocial interventions in the prevention and treatment of depression are remarkable. The World Health Organization stated that major depression affects children, adults and the elderly and is the leading cause of approximately 12% of all disabilities around the World. Medical expenses, loss of workforce, suicide risk, the risk of relapse or recurrence are taken into account, depression is an issue that needs to be handled with utmost care for health care workers especially psychiatric nurses. The purpose of this literature review is to examine psychosocial interventions and effectiveness of these interventions for depressive disorders shows a gradual increase in prevalence in worlwide. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 1-15

  17. Insomnia and Psychosocial Crisis: Two Studies of Erikson's Developmental Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karen Dineen; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examines the role of internal stressors in the development of sleep disturbances in two studies of 122 older adults and 66 college students. Results confirmed Erikson's (1959) developmental theory. Failure to resolve the psychosocial crises of old age and adolescence were related to insomnia. (WAS)

  18. Elder Specialists: Psychosocial Aspects of Medical Education in Geriatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann-Stone, Nancy; Robinson, Sherry B.; Rull, Gary; Rosher, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an Elder Specialist Program developed by one school of medicine to sensitize medical students to geriatric psychosocial issues. Elder Specialists participate in panel discussions as part of each geriatric session. As an alternative to traditional senior mentoring programs, the Elder Specialist Program provides all students a…

  19. Stressful Segregation Housing and Psychosocial Vulnerability in Prison Suicide Ideators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocially vulnerable prisoners under stressful conditions of confinement are ill prepared to cope and at risk for developing suicide intention. The present study examined the relationships of depression, hopelessness, reasons for living, mental health problem history, suicide attempt lethality history, and stressful segregation housing with…

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Empirical Types of Multiple Drug Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucht, G. Nicholas; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined subgroups of people in relation to specific types of drugs. Multiple drug clusters identified here yielded six basic drug clusters. Typology of drug abusers was developed by proximity cluster analysis. Set of psychosocial measures was differentially related to use of types of drugs and drug abusers. (Author/BEF)