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Sample records for psychosocial adjustment problems

  1. Psychosocial Adjustment over a Two-Year Period in Children Referred for Learning Problems: Risk, Resilience, and Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Lisa G.; Forbes, Peter W.; Bernstein, Jane H.; Weiler, Michael D.; Mitchell, William M.; Waber, Deborah P.

    2003-01-01

    A 2-year study evaluated the relationship among psychosocial adjustment, changes in academic skills, and contextual factors in 100 children (ages 7-11) with learning problems. Contextual variables were significantly associated with psychosocial adaptation, including the effectiveness of the clinical assessment, extent of academic support, and the…

  2. Electronic gaming and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2014-09-01

    The rise of electronic games has driven both concerns and hopes regarding their potential to influence young people. Existing research identifies a series of isolated positive and negative effects, yet no research to date has examined the balance of these potential effects in a representative sample of children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to explore how time spent playing electronic games accounts for significant variation in positive and negative psychosocial adjustment using a representative cohort of children aged 10 to 15 years. A large sample of children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment and reported typical daily hours spent playing electronic games. Relations between different levels of engagement and indicators of positive and negative psychosocial adjustment were examined, controlling for participant age and gender and weighted for population representativeness. Low levels (3 hours daily) of game engagement was linked to key indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Low engagement was associated with higher life satisfaction and prosocial behavior and lower externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas the opposite was found for high levels of play. No effects were observed for moderate play levels when compared with non-players. The links between different levels of electronic game engagement and psychosocial adjustment were small (Games consistently but not robustly associated with children's adjustment in both positive and negative ways, findings that inform policy-making as well as future avenues for research in the area. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  4. Correlational indicators of psychosocial adjustment among senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a significant joint contribution of the independent variables (sense of coherence, optimism and self-efficacy) to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment. This suggested that the three independent variables combined accounted for 30.4% (Adj.R2= .304) variation in the prediction of psychosocial adjustment.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment Needs of Menopausal Women | Dimkpa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment needs of menopausal women. The population of the study consisted of 623 menopausal women who were out-patients in Federal Medical Centre and a private hospital in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State of. Nigeria. The sample ...

  6. Adolescents conceived by IVF: parenting and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpin, H; Bossaert, G

    2008-12-01

    A follow-up study was conducted in mid-adolescence on parenting and the child's psychosocial development after in vitro fertilization (IVF). The first phase of the study had compared 31 IVF families and 31 families with a naturally conceived child when the children were 2 years old (Colpin et al., 1995). Of these, 24 IVF families and 21 control families participated again when the children were 15-16 years old. Fathers, mothers and adolescents completed questionnaires assessing parenting style and stress, and adolescent psychosocial adjustment. No significant differences were found in self- or adolescent-reported parenting style, or in parenting stress between IVF mothers and mothers in the control group, nor between IVF fathers and fathers in the control group. Neither did we find significant differences in self- or parent-reported behavioural problems between adolescents conceived by IVF and those conceived naturally. Comparison of behavioural problems between IVF adolescents informed or not informed about the IVF conception did not reveal significant differences. Parenting and 15-16-year-old adolescents' psychosocial adjustment did not differ significantly between IVF families and control families. This study is, to the best of our knowledge, the first psychosocial follow-up in mid-adolescence, and adds to the evidence that IVF children and their parents are well-adjusted. Large-scale studies in adolescence are needed to support these findings.

  7. Unhealthy behaviors in adolescents: multibehavioral associations with psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; De Leeuw, Johannes Robertus Josephus

    2014-06-01

    Several unhealthy behaviors are associated with psychosocial health in adolescents. Previous studies have shown that different adolescent health behaviors cluster, and, in order to understand these associations, it is important to investigate the relations between individual behaviors and psychosocial problems. This study addressed the research question "Are adolescent health behaviors associated with psychosocial problems, and to what extent do certain health behaviors confound the relations between other health behaviors and psychosocial problems in adolescents?" Self-reported questionnaire data on a broad range of health behaviors and demographics were collected from 2,690 high school students in the Netherlands in September 2012. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, nearly all unhealthy behaviors were found to be significantly associated with psychosocial problems. However, after correction for confounding by other behaviors, psychosocial problems were associated with fewer behaviors, namely compulsive internet use and videogame playing, smoking, cannabis use, and being bullied. These associations differed in boys and girls. In multibehavioral analyses adjusted for behavioral clustering, which can cause considerable interbehavioral confounding, several behaviors were associated with psychosocial problems in adolescents. This approach to behavior analysis provides a better insight into behaviors and psychosocial health, and the specific associations identified can be utilized when designing effective prevention programs, such as health-promoting school interventions.

  8. Longitudinal Psychosocial Adjustment of Women to Human Papillomavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Yun; Wang, Wei-Ming; Fetzer, Susan Jane; Cheng, Ya-Min; Hsu, Keng-Fu

    2018-05-29

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychosocial adjustment trajectory, focusing on psychological distress, sexual relationships and health care information, as well as factors which have an impact on adjustment on receiving a positive diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection. Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection in females. To date, knowledge of the longitudinal psychosocial response to the diagnosis of human papillomavirus is limited. A prospective longitudinal design was conducted with a convenience sample. Women aged 20-65 years old were followed at one, 6 and 12 months after a diagnosis of HPV. Participants completed measures of initial emotional distress and followed-up psychosocial adjustment. A mixed-effects model was applied to analyze the longitudinal changes in psychosocial adjustment. Seventy human papillomavirus positive women participated in the study with nearly 20% of the women reporting emotional distress during their first visit. Mixed-effects model analyses showed that a trajectory of psychosocial adjustment in health care orientation, sexual relationship and psychosocial distress occur from one to 6 months after HPV diagnosis. However, a declining trend from 6-12 months was significant in health care orientation. Initial emotional distress was associated with changes in psychological adjustment. Psychosocial adjustment to human papillomavirus was worse at one month compared with 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Healthcare providers should offer health information and psychosocial support to women according to their disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Psychosocial Adjustment and Coping Strategies Among Patients With Multiple Sclerosis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanli, Ayse; Tanriverdi, Derya; Ipek Coban, Gülay; Asi Karakaş, Sibel

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease with significant psychosocial adjustment challenges. The objective of the study was to assess the psychosocial adjustment and coping strategies in patients with MS and to put forth the relationships between them. The sample group comprised 85 outpatients with MS who were admitted to the Neurology Clinic of a university hospital for treatment between October 2007 and July 2008. Data were acquired via an information form and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale and Coping Strategy Indicator. It was determined that 55% of the patients had poor psychosocial adjustment levels. Statistically significant relationship was found between Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report and problem solving as well as seeking social support coping strategies ( p Psychosocial adjustment got worse with decreasing problem-solving and seeking-social support coping strategies of patients. The psychosocial adjustment to MS of patients is closely related with effective coping strategies. The results have emphasized the significant role of mental health and social services and coping strategies regarding the comprehensive care needs of these patients.

  10. [Psychosocial adjustment in colorectal cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Aguilar, Salvador; Guerra-Cruz, Hilda Griselda; Cupil-Rodríguez, Aura Lizbet; Calderillo-Ruiz, Germán; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial adaptation is a measurement that represents the patient's adjustment to those changes involved in their illness. We undertook this study to search for individual characteristics and clinical aspects associated with successful psychosocial adjustment in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing (CT) chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-five patients with CRC treated with CT or CRT in a cancer center were included. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale Self-Reporting (PAIS-SR) questionnaire was used as a measurement of psychosocial adjustment. Psychosocial adaptation was successful in 18 patients (24%) and unsuccessful in 57 patients (76%). Young patients, married patients and males showed lower psychosocial adaptation to disease. This is associated with the decrease in sexual relations, economic resources and psychological symptoms. Patients complained that they were unsatisfied due to the lack of disease and treatment information offered by the heath care team. In the process of adaptation, clinical features such as tumor location and treatment scheme are considered basic, as well as age, education, marital status. Areas such as sexuality, interpersonal and family relationships, economic status and emotional state of patients affected by the disease and treatments provide a deep complexity in the study of the psychosocial adaptation process in patients with CRC.

  11. Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1982-11-01

    This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.

  12. The Impact Of Family Structure On Psychosocial Adjustment Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper x-ray the psychosocial adjustment of adolescences based on their families structure, hence families were further revealed to include intact family, divorced family, separated family, psychological and none psychological broken homes, as it influence adolescence generally. Under the definition of terms ...

  13. Family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in overweight youngsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stradmeijer, M.; Bosch, J; Koops, W; Seidell, J

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between family functioning and psychosocial adjustment in Dutch overweight children and adolescents. METHOD: Seventy-three overweight (weight-for-height >P90) and 70 normal-weight youngsters between the ages of 10 and 16 years were recruited by school

  14. Research Paper Psychosocial adjustment of children affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was conducted to assess the psychosocial adjustment of children affected by HIV/AIDS in the eastern part of Ghana. Method: Four groups of children (children who lost their parents to AIDS, children who lost their parents through other causes, children living with HIV infected, alive parents and the ...

  15. Psychosocial Adjustment of College Students with Tattoos and Piercings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Storch, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between body modification practices and psychosocial adjustment. Participants were 198 undergraduate college students, 129 of whom had I or more piercings (other than in earlobe) or tattoos. Findings showed that individuals with body modifications reported more symptoms of depression and…

  16. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  17. Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with Short Stature (Achondroplasia): Social Competence, Behavior Problems, Self-Esteem, Family Functioning, Body Image, and Reaction to Frustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of 16 children (ages 7-12) with achondroplasia from Transkei, Hungary, and Nigeria found that, compared to controls, subjects had more behavior problems and less self-esteem. Subjects were socially withdrawn, internalized emotional problems, had lower academic performance, found less adaptive solutions to frustration, and faced…

  18. Psychosocial adjustment and adherence to dialysis treatment regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbridge, G; Fielding, D M

    1994-12-01

    Sixty children and adolescents in end-stage renal failure who were undergoing either haemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis at one of five United Kingdom dialysis centres were assessed on psychosocial adjustment and adherence to their fluid intake, diet and medication regimes. Parental adjustment was also measured and data on sociodemographic and treatment history variables collected. A structured family interview and standardised questionnaire measures of anxiety, depression and behavioural disturbance were used. Multiple measures of treatment adherence were obtained, utilising children's and parents' self-reports, weight gain between dialysis, blood pressure, serum potassium level, blood urea level, dietitians' surveys and consultants' ratings. Correlational analyses showed that low treatment adherence was associated with poor adjustment to diagnosis and dialysis by children and parents (P adherence than younger children, P dialysis (P treatment of this group of children. Future research should develop and evaluate psychosocial interventions aimed at improving treatment adherence.

  19. [Psychosocial problems and needs among cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlsen, Mimi Yung; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Zachariae, Bobby

    2007-04-30

    Cancer can have a serious impact on patient well-being and quality of life. The international literature reports a higher prevalence of psychosocial problems among cancer patients; primarily problems associated with difficulties in the family, duties in the household, work and leisure, sexuality and finances. The prevalence of these problems among Danish cancer patients is still unknown. A questionnaire assessing psychosocial problems and needs was mailed out to all patients who had been at the Department of Oncology, Aarhus Hospital in week 35, 2004. A total of 71%, i.e. 515 patients (34% men and 66% women) in active treatment and control returned the questionnaire. High levels of emotional distress were reported by 39% of the patients. High levels of distress were primarily related to problems with worries about their spouses, household duties, financial problems and experiences of insufficient collaboration between health care and social services. Between 19% and 25% of the patients required further help to handle emotional problems, legal and financial problems and practical problems in the home. A considerable proportion of oncology patients experience significant levels of distress. This group of distressed patients also report unmet needs for psychosocial support.

  20. Psychosocial adjustment among patients with ostomy: a survey in stoma clinics, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam S

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sital Gautam,1 Surya Koirala,2 Anju Poudel,1 Dipak Paudel,3 1Department of Nursing, Nepal Medical College, 2Department of Nursing, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Nursing Campus Maharajgunj, 3Department of Medicine, People’s Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal Background: Ostomy changes the overall lifestyle of a person, and ostomates have been identified as a chronic illness population frequently experiencing adjustment problems. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the psychosocial adjustment and its predictors among patients with ostomy in Nepal. Patients and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in two stoma clinics of Nepal. Patients who had a colostomy, ileostomy, or urostomy, visited the selected stoma clinics during the data collection period, and who had ostomy for at least 6 months before data collection were included in the study. A total of 130 patients were included in this study. Data on sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment score was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23. Results: A total of 130 patients (80 males and 50 females were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 51 years, ranging from 23 to 78 years. The study findings revealed that mean ±SD adjustment score was 41.49±13.57, indicating moderate impairment in the psychosocial adjustment among ostomates, and the mean ±SD scores of acceptance, anxious preoccupation, social engagement, and anger were 22.01±6.99, 8.75±3.89, 5.38±3.41, 5.35±1.62, respectively. Four variables contributed significantly to the final model, explaining 46.8% of variance in the psychosocial adjustment score (R2 =0.468, F(4, 125 =27.53, P<0.001. Perceived lack of family support (β=−0.367, P<0.001, total dependence on others to care for ostomy (ß=−0.357, P<0.001, and unemployment (ß=−0.144, P=0.032 significantly predicted lower psychosocial adjustment scores. However

  1. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claire Louise; Hunter, Simon Christopher; Jones, Siân Emily

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing) and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating). Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female) aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem) and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer). In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  2. Longitudinal Associations Between Humor Styles and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Louise Fox

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the concurrent and prospective associations between psychosocial adjustment and four humor styles, two of which are adaptive (affiliative, self-enhancing and two maladaptive (aggressive, self-defeating. Participants were 1,234 adolescents (52% female aged 11-13 years, drawn from six secondary schools in England. Self-reports of psychosocial adjustment (loneliness, depressive symptomatology, and self-esteem and humor styles were collected at two time points (fall and summer. In cross-lagged panel analyses, self-defeating humor was associated with an increase in both depressive symptoms and loneliness, and with a decrease in self-esteem. In addition, depressive symptoms predicted an increase in the use of self-defeating humor over time, indicating that these may represent a problematic spiral of thoughts and behaviors. Self-esteem was associated with an increase in the use of affiliative humor over the school year but not vice-versa. These results inform our understanding of the ways in which humor is associated with psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  3. Gender identity: a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, S K; Perry, D G

    2001-07-01

    This study examined the relations between components of gender identity and psychosocial adjustment. The aspects of gender identity assessed were (a) feelings of psychological compatibility with one's gender (i.e.. feeling one is a typical member of one's sex and feeling content with one's biological sex), (b) feelings of pressure from parents, peers, and self for conformity to gender stereotypes. and (c) the sentiment that one's own sex is superior to the other (intergroup bias). Adjustment was assessed in terms of self-esteem and peer acceptance. Participants were 182 children in Grades 4 through 8. Felt gender compatibility (when operationalized as either self-perceived gender typicality or feelings of contentment with one's biological sex) was positively related to adjustment, whereas felt pressure and intergroup bias were negatively associated with adjustment. The results provide new insights into the role of gender identity in children's well-being, help identify sources of confusion in previous work, and suggest directions for future inquiry.

  4. Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers--systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E; Rubin-Smith, Julia E; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children’s mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial...

  6. A systematic review of psychosocial factors associated with emotional adjustment in in vitro fertilization patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockliff, Helen E; Lightman, Stafford L; Rhidian, Emily; Buchanan, Heather; Gordon, Uma; Vedhara, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    IVF treatment is usually stressful for patients, but individual differences in emotional response do exist. Differences in the stress response may be related to reproductive outcomes as well as to the development of psychiatric problems. This review collates research exploring which psychosocial factors (e.g. personality traits and coping strategies) are associated with the emotional adjustment of IVF patients. The aim is to reveal what is currently known about risk and protective factors for coping with the stress of IVF treatment and where further enquiry would be most beneficial. The databases, MEDLINE/PUBMED (US National Library of Medicine), PsycINFO (American Psychological Association), Web of Science (Social Sciences Citation Index) and EMbase, were searched from 1978 to September 2012 using relevant key words. All published peer-reviewed studies exploring associations between psychosocial factors and emotional adjustment outcomes were considered for inclusion. There were 23 studies identified for review. One-third of the psychosocial factors explored were found to be significantly related to emotional adjustment outcome measures. Neuroticism and the use of escapist coping strategies were positively associated with distress by multiple studies. Social support was negatively associated with distress by several studies. A number of other psychosocial variables appear to be associated with distress, including self-criticism, dependency, situation appraisals and attachment style, but these have only been explored by one or two studies at most. There is a paucity of research using positive emotional outcome measures (e.g. well-being, positive affect, happiness or life satisfaction) to quantify emotional adjustment. Whilst some psychosocial variables appear to be consistently associated with distress for IVF patients, two-thirds of the variables tested to date do not appear to be associated with emotional adjustment. This review highlights key psychosocial factors

  7. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Bleiker, E.M.A.; Hahn, D.E.E.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to

  8. Work-Family Balance and Psychosocial Adjustment of Married International Students

    OpenAIRE

    Gökçe Bulgan; Ayşe Çiftçi

    2018-01-01

    The authors investigated how work-family balance mediated the relationship between personality traits, gender roles, social support, and psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected from 243 married international graduate students (MIGSs) studying in the United States. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that personality traits influence the psychosocial adjustment process. In addition, being extraverted, agreeable, and conscientious contributed to balanc...

  9. A Qualitative Examination of the Psychosocial Adjustment of Khmer Refugees in Three Massachusetts Communities

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    Leakhena Nou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a sociological stress process model to explore the Khmer adult refugees' experience in Massachusetts. The analysis is based on the responses of three focus groups in the Khmer communities of Lowell, Lynn, and Revere, Massachusetts. The focus groups provided an in-depth understanding of sources of stress, stress mediators, and psychosocial adjustment/adaptational patterns for Khmer refugees who had experienced the Cambodian genocide. Symptoms and reactions associated with underlying causes of mental health problems had culturally specific relevance to physical illness and mental health.

  10. A Qualitative Examination of the Psychosocial Adjustment of Khmer Refugees in Three Massachusetts Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leakhena Nou

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a sociological stress process model to explore the Khmer adult refugees' experience in Massachusetts. The analysis is based on the responses of three focus groups in the Khmer communities of Lowell, Lynn, and Revere, Massachusetts. The focus groups provided an in-depth understanding of sources of stress, stress mediators, and psychosocial adjustment/adaptational patterns for Khmer refugees who had experienced the Cambodian genocide. Symptoms and reactions associated with underlying causes of mental health problems had culturally specific relevance to physical illness and mental health.

  11. Prevalence and detection of psychosocial problems in cancer genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, W; Bleiker, E M A; Hahn, D E E; Van der Kolk, L E; Sidharta, G N; Aaronson, N K

    2015-12-01

    Only a minority of individuals who undergo cancer genetic counseling experience heightened levels of psychological distress, but many more experience a range of cancer genetic-specific psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of such psychosocial problems, and to identify possible demographic and clinical variables associated significantly with them. Consenting individuals scheduled to undergo cancer genetic counseling completed the Psychosocial Aspects of Hereditary Cancer (PAHC) questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Distress Thermometer (DT) prior to or immediately following their counseling session. More than half of the 137 participants reported problems on three or more domains of the PAHC, most often in the domains 'living with cancer' (84%), 'family issues' (46%), 'hereditary predisposition' (45%), and 'child-related issues' (42%). Correlations between the PAHC, the HADS and the DT were low. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having a personal history of cancer were associated significantly with HADS scores, but explained little variance (9%). No background variables were associated significantly with the DT. Previous contact with a psychosocial worker, and having children were significantly associated with several PAHC domains, again explaining only a small percentage of the variance (2-14%). The majority of counselees experience specific cancer genetic counseling-related psychosocial problems. Only a few background variables are associated significantly with distress or psychosocial problems. Thus we recommend using the PAHC or a similar problem-oriented questionnaire routinely in cancer genetic counseling to identify individuals with such problems.

  12. Psychosocial development and the development of problem behaviour during adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezinga, Menno Arnold Jan

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does psychosocial development have an effect on problem behaviour development? And does the effect of this development of psychosocial maturity differ for boys and girls? This thesis focuses on answering these questions. The research that is presented aims to identify relations in

  13. The mediating role of shame in the relationship between childhood bullying victimization and adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Felix, Erika; Thoresen, Siri

    2018-01-01

    Background : Psychological distress following experiencing bullying victimization in childhood has been well documented. Less is known about the impact of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment problems in young adulthood and about potential pathways, such as shame. Moreover, bullying victimization is often studied in isolation from other forms of victimization. Objective : This study investigated (1) whether childhood experiences of bullying victimization and violence were associated with psychosocial adjustment (distress, impaired functioning, social support barriers) in young adulthood; (2) the unique effect of bullying victimization on psychosocial adjustment; and (3) whether shame mediated the relationship between bullying victimization and these outcomes in young adulthood. Method : The sample included 681 respondents (aged 19-37 years) from a follow-up study (2017) conducted via phone interviews derived from a community telephone survey collected in 2013. Results : The regression analyses showed that both bullying victimization and severe violence were significantly and independently associated with psychological distress, impaired functioning, and increased barriers to social support in young adulthood. Moreover, causal mediation analyses indicated that when childhood physical violence, sexual abuse, and sociodemographic factors were controlled, shame mediated 70% of the association between bullying victimization and psychological distress, 55% of the association between bullying victimization and impaired functioning, and 40% of the association between bullying victimization and social support barriers. Conclusions : Our findings support the growing literature acknowledging bullying victimization as a trauma with severe and long-lasting consequences and indicate that shame may be an important pathway to continue to explore. The unique effect of bullying victimization, over and above the effect of violence, supports the call to integrate the two

  14. Adjustment and mental health problem in prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhinta Sinha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : "Crime" is increasing day by day in our society not only in India but also all over the world. In turn, the number of prisoners is also increasing at the same rate. They remain imprisoned for a long duration or in some cases for the whole life. Living in a prison for long time becomes difficult for all inmates. So they often face adjustment and mental health problems. Recent findings suggest that mental illness rate in prison is three times higher than in the general population. Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the adjustment and the mental health problem and its relation in the prisoners. Materials and Methods : In the present study, 37 male prisoners of district jail of Dhanbad District of Jharkhand were selected on purposive sampling basis. Each prisoner was given specially designed Performa - Personal Data Sheet, General Health Questionnaire-12 and Bell Adjustment Inventory. Appropriate statistical tools were used to analyze the data. Results: The results obtained showed poor adjustment in social and emotional areas on the adjustment scale. The study also revealed a significant association between adjustment and mental health problem in the prisoners. Conclusion: The prisoners were found to have poor social and emotional adjustment which has strong association with their mental health.

  15. The Interplay of Work-Family Life and Psychosocial Adjustment for International Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayşe

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critically review the literature on the interplay of work-family life and psychosocial adjustment of married international graduate students to the United States, provide evidence for a complicated and integrated support mechanism for married international graduate students, and make specific recommendations. Empirical studies on student and expatriate work-family life and psychosocial adjustment are reviewed. Studies indicated a significant negative relationsh...

  16. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently g...

  17. Beyond preadoptive risk: The impact of adoptive family environment on adopted youth's psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Juye; Brooks, Devon; Barth, Richard P; Kim, Hansung

    2010-07-01

    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors--such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements--that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption.

  18. Research Review: Psychosocial adjustment and mental health in former child soldiers – a systematic review of the literature and recommendations for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Borisova, Ivelina; Williams, Timothy P.; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah E.; Rubin-Smith, Julia E.; Annan, Jeannie; Kohrt, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims and scope This article reviews the available quantitative research on psychosocial adjustment and mental health among children (age reintegration in CAAFAG. Abduction, age of conscription, exposure to violence, gender, and community stigma were associated with increased internalizing and externalizing mental health problems. Family acceptance, social support, and educational/economic opportunities were associated with improved psychosocial adjustment. Conclusions Research on the social reintegration and psychosocial adjustment of former child soldiers is nascent. A number of gaps in the available literature warrant future study. Recommendations to bolster the evidence base on psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers and other war-affected youth include more studies comprising longitudinal study designs, and validated cross-cultural instruments for assessing mental health, as well as more integrated community-based approaches to study design and research monitoring. PMID:23061830

  19. Emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and psychosocial adjustment in children with nonverbal learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsala, Jamie L; Galway, Tanya M; Ishaik, Galit; Barton, Veronica E

    2017-07-01

    Nonverbal learning disability is a childhood disorder with basic neuropsychological deficits in visuospatial processing and psychomotor coordination, and secondary impairments in academic and social-emotional functioning. This study examines emotion recognition, understanding, and regulation in a clinic-referred group of young children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). These processes have been shown to be related to social competence and psychological adjustment in typically developing (TD) children. Psychosocial adjustment and social skills are also examined for this young group, and for a clinic-referred group of older children with NLD. The young children with NLD scored lower than the TD comparison group on tasks assessing recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and tasks assessing understanding of how emotions work. Children with NLD were also rated as having less adaptive regulation of their emotions. For both young and older children with NLD, internalizing and externalizing problem scales were rated higher than for the TD comparison groups, and the means of the internalizing, attention, and social problem scales were found to fall within clinically concerning ranges. Measures of attention and nonverbal intelligence did not account for the relationship between NLD and Social Problems. Social skills and NLD membership share mostly overlapping variance in accounting for internalizing problems across the sample. The results are discussed within a framework wherein social cognitive deficits, including emotion processes, have a negative impact on social competence, leading to clinically concerning levels of depression and withdrawal in this population.

  20. Psychosocial adjustment in preschool children with atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, L R; Garralda, M E; David, T J

    1993-12-01

    Atopic eczema is a chronic skin disorder that is most common in early childhood, an important stage in the child's social and emotional development. The psychiatric adjustment and mother-child attachment in 30 preschool children with severe atopic eczema was compared with 20 matched controls. Patients with eczema had a significant increase in behaviour symptoms, 7/30 (23%) v 1/20 (5%); with significant excess of dependency/clinginess, 15/30 (50%) v 2/20 (10%); fearfulness, 12/30 (40%) v 2/20 (10%); and sleep difficulty, 19/30 (63%) v 9/20 (45%), but there was no significant difference between the two groups in the security of attachments, 25/29 (86%) v 14/20 (70%). Significantly fewer mothers of children with atopic eczema were in outside employment, 8/29 (27%) v 13/20 (65%), or felt supported socially, 10/29 (34%) v 13/20 (65%). Significantly more of them, 9/30 (30%) v 1/20 (5%), felt particularly stressed in relation to their parenting and less efficient in their disciplining of the affected child. In spite of this and at variance with earlier reports in the literature, they did not display negative attitudes towards their child. On the contrary mothers had a positive empathic attitude towards the child, 7/14 (50%) v 2/16 (12%). Child behaviour problems, 7/14 (50%) v 2/16 (12%), and maternal distress, 12/14 (85%) v 5/16 (31%), were significantly more common in the more severely affected children. Minor behaviour problems and parenting distress are important features of severe atopic eczema in early childhood but atopic eczema does not lead to insecurity of the mother-child attachment.

  1. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-05-01

    Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  2. Effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sital; Poudel, Anju

    2016-12-01

    Stoma can pose extensive challenges for colorectal cancer survivors. Identifying the psychological and social adjustment among them and how it differs by gender will aid in identifying those particularly at risk of having poor adjustment and in planning programs to improve their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the stoma clinic of B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A purposive sample of 122 patients with ostomy was taken from the above mentioned setting. Selection criteria included colorectal cancer survivors having ostomy for at least 6 months. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23). A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Mean time since ostomy surgery was 2.53 and 1.98 years for men and women respectively. Both men and women had significant impairment in the psychosocial adjustment, however, men had significantly lower psychosocial adjustment score (37.68±12.96 vs . 43.45±12.81, t=-2.47, P=0.015) at 95% CI as compared to women and they reported more negative emotions. Furthermore, men significantly predicted low acceptance {β=-3.078, P=0.023, ΔR 2 =0.036, F [4,117] =7.90, Postomy should be monitored for psychosocial concerns in regular basis and health care providers should tailor care based on their need. Approaches of survivorship care and psychosocial interventions in colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should take into account gender specific concerns and requirements to aid adjustment.

  3. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  4. Psychosocial characteristics of adolescent problem gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Ramsay Wright

    2017-01-01

    Problem gambling among adolescents has emerged as a significant area of research interest. Youth gambling problems are associated with a range of interpersonal, familial, economic, psychological and legal problems. However, because not all adolescents who gamble will develop gambling problems, the research literature has begun to emphasise potential factors that may increase or ameliorate the risk of developing such difficulties. Those characteristics associated with higher levels of severity...

  5. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research.

  6. Steps in the construction and verification of an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arantzazu Rodríguez-Fernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to empirically test an explanatory model of psychosocial adjustment during adolescence, with psychosocial adjustment during this stage being understood as a combination of school adjustment (or school engagement and subjective well-being. According to the hypothetic model, psychosocial adjustment depends on self-concept and resilience, which in turn act as mediators of the influence of perceived social support (from family, peers and teachers on this adjustment. Participants were 1250 secondary school students (638 girls and 612 boys aged between 12 and 15 years (Mean = 13.72; SD = 1.09. The results provided evidence of: (a the influence of all three types of perceived support on subject resilience and self-concept, with perceived family support being particularly important in this respect; (b the influence of the support received from teachers on school adjustment and support received from the family on psychological wellbeing; and (c the absence of any direct influence of peer support on psychosocial adjustment, although indirect influence was observed through the psychological variables studied. These results are discussed from an educational perspective and in terms of future research

  7. Psychosocial stressors at work and musculoskeletal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.; Bongers, P.M.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Objectives - This paper examines the relationship between work stressors and the following health indicators: psychosomatic complaints, health behavior, and musculoskeletal problems. Methods - Secondary analyses were performed on data from the National Work and Living Condition Survey, which

  8. Psycho-social correlates of adjustment in adult amputees | Ajala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collection was done by using structured questionnaire which contained the locus of control, self-concept, social support and coping scales. Multiple Regressions was used to test the independent and joint influence of these factors on adjustment. The result revealed significant influence of self-concept (t = 0.07, â = 0.03 ...

  9. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  10. Demography, Psychosocial Factors, and Emotional Problems of Korean American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sangmi; Bae, Sung-Woo

    2005-01-01

    This study attempted to identify emotional problems and examine the related demographic and psychosocial factors of 340 Korean American adolescents in a major metropolitan area. Results revealed that lower GPA, longer length of residence in the United States, subjects' poor self-esteem, greater severity of conflict with parents, and poor…

  11. A cohort study on psychosocial adjustment and psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Isabela Ribeiro; Castro, Marta; Sarmento, Sofia Lourenço; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Our purpose was to study psychosocial adjustment and psychiatric morbidity of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Design All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion. Clinical data was obtained through the patient's clinical records. Setting A teaching and tertiary care facility in Porto, Portugal. Participants We evaluated 110 CHD patients (62 male) aged from 12 to 26 years (mean=18.00±3.617), 58 cyanotic. All assessment measures were obtained on a single occasion in a tertiary hospital. Demographic information and clinical history were collected. Primary and secondary outcome measures Questionnaires regarded topics such as social support, family educational style, self-image and physical limitations, a standardised psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Lifetime version (SADS-L), and a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial adjustment, youth self-report or adult self-report. One of the relatives completed an observational version of the same questionnaire (child behaviour checklist (CBCL) or ABCL (adult behaviour checklist)). Results We found a 21.8% lifetime prevalence of psychopathology, 31.3%, in females, 14.5% in males, showing a somewhat increased proneness in CHD patients. Females also showed worse psychosocial adjustment, with more somatic complaints (u=260 000; p=0.011), anxiety/depression (u=984 000; p=0.002), aggressive behaviour (u=920 500; p=0.001), attention problems (u=1123 500; p=0.027), thought problems (u=1069 500; p=0.010), internalisation (u=869 000; p=0.0) and externalisation (u=1163 000; p=0.05). Patients with severe CHD (u=939 000; p=0.03) and surgical repair (u=719 000; p=0.037) showed worse psychosocial adjustment. Those with poor social support showed more withdrawal (u=557 500; p=0.0) and social problems (u=748 500; p=0.023), and patients with unsatisfactory school performance revealed more anxiety/depression (u=916

  12. Psychosocial adjustment in adolescents who have used cochlear implants since preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Jean S; Geers, Ann E; Gustus, Christine H; Brenner, Christine A

    2011-02-01

    world was not associated with personal or social adjustment problems but was associated with better speech perception and English language skill. Ninety-four percent were active participants in high school activities and sports, and 50% held part-time jobs (a rate similar to that documented for hearing teens). The majority of these early-implanted adolescents reported strong social skills, high self-esteem, and at least mixed identification with the hearing world. However, these results must be viewed in light of possible sources of sample selection bias and may not represent the psychosocial characteristics of the entire population of children receiving CIs.

  13. Factors Related to Healthy Siblings' Psychosocial Adjustment to Children With Cancer: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegaczewski, Tara; Chang, Karen; Coddington, Jennifer; Berg, Abby

    2016-01-01

    To identify factors related to the psychosocial adjustment of healthy siblings of children with cancer (HSCC). An integrative review was conducted. Controlled vocabularies relevant to siblings, pediatrics, children, neoplasms, and psychosocial adaptation were used to search Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and PubMed. Articles that met inclusion criteria (eg, quantitative studies related to HSCC's psychosocial adjustment; had sample sizes of at least 30; and HSCC age between 1 and 19 years) were reviewed. Key findings of selected articles were analyzed according to sibling characteristics, social support, and contextual factors. Seven nonexperimental and 5 quasi-experimental studies were reviewed. HSCC's characteristics (eg, age, gender), perceived social support from family and summer camp, and perceived contextual factors (eg, role overload, family adaptability) were significant factors that correlated with HSCC's psychosocial adjustment. When caring for a child diagnosed with cancer, nurses need to include HSCC in the assessment of a family unit's adaptation to cancer distress and provide appropriate interventions to promote HSCC's psychosocial well-being. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  14. Being Bullied and Psychosocial Adjustment among Middle School Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yulan; Newman, Ian M.; Qu, Ming; Mbulo, Lazarous; Chai, Yan; Chen, Yan; Shell, Duane F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Using the Chinese version of the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), this article describes the prevalence of being bullied among a nationally representative sample of Chinese students in grades 6-10 and explores the relationships between being bullied and selected indicators of psychosocial adjustment. Methods: A total of 9015…

  15. Family Relationships and the Psychosocial Adjustment of School-Aged Children in Intact Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakvoort, Esther M.; Bos, Henny M. W.; Van Balen, Frank; Hermanns, Jo M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized instruments (i.e., Marital Satisfaction Scale,…

  16. Life-Course Pathways and the Psychosocial Adjustment of Young Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined 7 life-course pathways from adolescence through the early adult years and their links with general health and psychosocial adjustment among 2,290 women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Young women who followed a pathway involving college attendance to full-time employment with no family-formation transitions…

  17. Social Capital in Promoting the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children: Interaction across Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiaobing; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; He, Xuesong

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study investigated how the interactions of social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Results of multiple-group structural equation…

  18. Gender-Nonconforming Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: School Victimization and Young Adult Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M.; Card, Noel A.; Russell, Stephen T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research documents that both adolescent gender nonconformity and the experience of school victimization are associated with high rates of negative psychosocial adjustment. Using data from the Family Acceptance Project's young adult survey, we examined associations among retrospective reports of adolescent gender nonconformity and adolescent…

  19. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  20. Family relationships and the psychosocial adjustment of school-aged children in intact families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hakvoort, E.M.; Bos, H.M.W.; van Balen, F.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the quality of three family relationships (i.e., marital, parent-child, sibling) in intact families are associated with each other and with children's psychosocial adjustment. Data were collected by means of maternal and child reports (N = 88) using standardized

  1. Ketogenic diet effects on cognition, mood, and psychosocial adjustment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, D.A.; Bovens, M.J.; Parra, de la N.; Hendriksen, J.G.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Majoie, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible adverse effects of the diet on cognition, behavior, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents. Method Fifteen

  2. Applied Behavior Analysis Programs for Autism: Sibling Psychosocial Adjustment during and Following Intervention Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither…

  3. Psychosocial Adjustment and Life Satisfaction until 5 Years after Severe Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorbo, Ann K.; Blomqvist, Maritha; Emanuelsson, Ingrid M.; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe psychosocial adjustment and outcome over time for severely brain-injured patients and to find suitable outcome measures for clinical practice during the rehabilitation process and for individual rehabilitation planning after discharge from hospital. The methods include a descriptive, prospective,…

  4. Psychosocial Variables as Predictors of School Adjustment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, O. A.; Oyedokun, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considered several psychosocial variables as predictors of school adjustment of 40 gifted students with learning disabilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikenne Local Government Council Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposeful random sampling was employed to select four schools from 13 junior secondary schools in the area, six…

  5. The Role of Ego Development in Psychosocial Adjustment among Boys with Delayed Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfors, Kaj; Elovainio, Marko; Wickman, Sanna; Vuorinen, Risto; Sinkkonen, Jari; Dunkel, Leo; Raappana, Aleksi

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of ego development, as measured with the Washington University sentence completion test, in the relationship between pubertal maturation and psychosocial adjustment (self-image and depression) in adolescent boys. The data consisted of 73 boys between 14 and 16 years of age. The results indicated that late maturing boys…

  6. A Survey on Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Dalvandi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The impact of alcohol and other drugs increase dramatically in adolescent's lives when their parents are dependent drug users. Not only the children are at risk of developing drug users, but also they are at risk of developing drug related problems later in their life. They may also suffer other social and psychological problems. Matetials & Methods: The present study focusing on psychosocial problems of adolescents with addicted father, Uses the (s.c.l-90 and educational conditions Questionnaires.  It is a "Case-control" study. Our samples include 40 adolescents with "addicted father" and 80 with "non-addicted father". The addicted fathers were chosen randomly from Gharchak rehabilitation center. The adolescents ages were between 12-18 years old chosen randomly and matched by variables such as sex, age, education. Results: The result of the study shows a significant differences between the psychosocial problems of adolescents with "addicted father" and "non-addicted" ones, (p<0.05. So such that in our case group we see a higher drop in school subject anxiety and interactional disorders. Conclusion: It seems that there is a correlation between the addiction of father and psychosocial problems of their children.

  7. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes-Costa, Rui; Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children’s physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Sources: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articl...

  8. Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes-Costa, Rui A; Lamela, Diogo J P V; Figueiredo, Bárbara F C

    2009-01-01

    To review the literature on the effects of parental divorce over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children's physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004). Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007) databases, selecting the most representative articles on the subject. Special attention was paid to contributions by internationally renowned investigators on the subject. Divorce may be responsible for a decline of physical and psychological health in children. The developmental maladjustment of children is not triggered by divorce itself, but rather by other risk factors associated with it, such as interparental conflict, parental psychopathology, decline in socio-economic level, inconsistency in parenting styles, a parallel and conflicting co-parenting relationship between parents and low levels of social support. Such risk factors trigger maladjusted developmental pathways, marked by psychopathological symptoms, poor academic performance, worst levels of physical health, risk behavior, exacerbated psychophysiological responses to stress and weakening of the immune system. Clear links were observed between experiencing parental divorce and facing problems of physical and psychological maladjustment in children. Divorce is a stressor that should be considered by health professionals as potentially responsible for maladjusted neuropsychobiological responses and for decline in children's physical health.

  9. Effects of a 7-Month Exercise Intervention Programme on the Psychosocial Adjustment and Decrease of Anxiety among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas; Sipaviciene, Saule

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial adjustment and anxiety of adolescents during a 7-month exercise intervention programme. In addition, extensive research on the psychosocial adjustment of adolescents during intense physical activity was performed. The experimental group included adolescent girls (n = 110) and boys (n = 107) aged between 14…

  10. Psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the availability of better treatment regimen, life span of thalassemic patients is increasing. Chronic nature of thalassemia and its intensive and demanding treatment result in significant psychologic burden on the patients and their families. A lot has been studied about beta-thalassemia major but little attention has been paid to the psychological aspect of this disease. Hence, the study was planned to analyse the psychosocial problems in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, conducted from January 2007 to March 2008 in thalassemic day-care centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Fifty four thalassemic children and controls above 9 years of age were enrolled. Psychosocial assessment done with assessment of Finer Psychopathology using ICMR Symptom checklist (ICMR task force, 1983. The prevalence of various problems was calculated and compared with controls. Student′s t-test and Chi-square test were used for testing differences in variables. Results: Patients were divided into three groups - Group A (10-15 years, 30 patients; Group B (15-20 years, 18 patients, and Group C (20-25 years, 6 patients. In group A, behavior problems were common (12 patients -40% (P< 0.001, significant. In group B, mood disorders were common (8 patients, 44% (P< 0.001, significant. In group C, psychotic symptoms were common (3 patients, 50% (P< 0.05, significant. Conclusion: Our findings support the hypothesis that psychosocial problems are more in thalassemic adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial aspects need to be addressed in the overall treatment of children with thalassemia.

  11. [Psychosocial adjustment in children with a cleft lip and/or palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Ineke H C; Kraaimaat, Floris W; Admiraal, Ronald J C; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the psychosocial health of children aged 9 to 12 years with a cleft lip and/or palate; to determine the relation between their health and the nature and severity of the cleft as well as other individual characteristics. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Questionnaires completed by parents, teachers and children were used to obtain information about the psychosocial health, nature and severity of the cleft lip and/or palate, and individual characteristics of 80 children. The interrelationship between these parameters was assessed using chi-square tests, single-factor analysis of variance and correlational analysis. In general, the psychosocial health of children with a cleft lip and/or palate did not differ from that of the norm groups. Parents of children with a cleft lip/and or palate reported more withdrawn or depressive behaviour in their child than parents from the norm groups. Children with a cleft lip and/or palate exhibited less rule-breaking behaviour. Teachers reported relatively more social problems. One-third of the children had learning problems. A better psychosocial health was associated with fewer speech problems but not with a more or less abnormal physical appearance. Self-image showed a negative correlation with psychosocial health problems, while learning problems showed a positive correlation. In general, the psychosocial health of children with a cleft lip and/or palate does not differ from children without this condition. However, children with a cleft lip and/or palate do exhibit more learning problems.

  12. Bullying, psychosocial adjustment, and academic performance in elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glew, Gwen M; Fan, Ming-Yu; Katon, Wayne; Rivara, Frederick P; Kernic, Mary A

    2005-11-01

    Over the past decade, concerns about bullying and its role in school violence, depression, and health concerns have grown. However, no large studies in the United States have examined the prevalence of bullying during elementary school or its association with objective measures of school attendance and achievement. To determine the prevalence of bullying during elementary school and its association with school attendance, academic achievement, disciplinary actions, and self-reported feelings of sadness, safety, and belonging. Cross-sectional study using 2001-2002 school data. Urban, West Coast public school district. Three thousand five hundred thirty (91.4%) third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Self-reported involvement in bullying. Twenty-two percent of children surveyed were involved in bullying either as a victim, bully, or both. Victims and bully-victims were more likely to have low achievement than bystanders (odds ratios [ORs], 0.8 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-0.9] and 0.8 [95% CI, 0.6-1.0], respectively). All 3 bullying-involved groups were significantly more likely than bystanders to feel unsafe at school (victims, OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1-4.2]; bullies, OR, 2.5 [95% CI, 1.5-4.1]; bully-victims, OR, 5.0 [95% CI, 1.9-13.6]). Victims and bully-victims were more likely to report feeling that they don't belong at school (ORs, 4.1 [95% CI, 2.6-6.5] and 3.1 [95% CI, 1.3-7.2], respectively). Bullies and victims were more likely than bystanders to feel sad most days (ORs 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 1.8 [95% CI, 1.2-2.8], respectively). Bullies and bully-victims were more likely to be male (ORs, 1.5 [95% CI, 1.2-1.9] and 3.0 [95% CI, 1.3-7.0], respectively). The prevalence of frequent bullying among elementary school children is substantial. Associations between bullying involvement and school problems indicate this is a serious issue for elementary schools. The research presented herein demonstrates the need for evidence-based antibullying curricula in the

  13. The influence of psychosocial factors in veteran adjustment to civilian life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Margaret A; Ferreira, Nuno; Henderson, Mike

    2018-03-25

    Although most veterans have a successful transition to civilian life when they leave the military, some struggle to cope and adjust to the demands and challenges of civilian life. This study explores how a variety of psychosocial factors influence veteran adjustment to civilian life in Scotland, UK, and which of these factors predict a poor adjustment. One hundred and fifty-four veterans across Scotland completed a set of questionnaires that measured veteran adjustment difficulty, quality of life, mental health, stigma, self-stigma, attitude towards help-seeking, likelihood of help-seeking, experiential avoidance, reappraisal and suppression. Veteran adjustment difficulty and quality of life were significantly correlated to a number of psychosocial factors. Mental health, experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal were found to be predictors of veteran adjustment difficulty, and experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal partially mediated the relationship between mental health and veteran adjustment, with experiential avoidance being the stronger mediator. Our findings suggest that early assessment of experiential avoidance and cognitive reappraisal and the provision of relevant emotion regulation skills training could potentially reduce the veteran's need for more complex (and costly) psychological interventions in the future. Implications for veterans, as well as the services and professionals involved with veteran transition and health care are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Psychosocial dimensions of solving an indoor air problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari

    2002-03-01

    This investigation focuses on the psychological and social dimensions of managing and solving indoor air problems. The data were collected in nine workplaces by interviews (n = 85) and questionnaires (n = 375). Indoor air problems in office environments have traditionally utilized industrial hygiene or technical expertise. However, indoor air problems at workplaces are often more complex issues to solve. Technical questions are inter-related with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the solving process are also put to the test. In the present study, the interviewees were very critical of the process of solving the indoor air problem. The responsibility for coordinating the problem-managing process was generally considered vague, as were the roles and functions of the various parties. Communication problems occurred and rumors about the indoor air problem circulated widely. Conflicts were common, complicating the process in several ways. The research focused on examining different ways of managing and resolving an indoor air problem. In addition, reference material on the causal factors of the indoor air problem was also acquired. The study supported the hypothesis that psychosocial factors play a significant role in indoor air problems.

  15. Parental palliative cancer: psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life in adolescents participating in a German family counselling service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühne Franziska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental palliative disease is a family affair, however adolescent's well-being and coping are still rarely considered. The objectives of this paper were a to identify differences in psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL among adolescents and young adults with parents suffering from palliative cancer or cancers in other disease stages, b to relate psychosocial adjustment and health-related quality of life to adolescent coping, and c to explore significant mediator and predictor variables. Methods Cross-sectional data were derived from a multi-site research study of families before child-centered counselling. N=86 adolescents and young adults were included, their mean age 13.78 years (sd 2.45, 56% being female. Performed analyses included ANCOVA, multiple linear regression, and mediation analysis. Results Adolescents with parents suffering from palliative cancers reported significantly less total psychosocial problems, and better overall HRQoL. There were no significant group differences regarding coping frequency and efficacy. Our set of coping items significantly mediated the effect of parental disease stage on psychosocial problems and HRQoL. Further, parental disease status and general family functioning predicted psychosocial problems (R2adj =.390 and HRQoL (R2adj =.239 best. Conclusion The study indicates distress among adolescents throughout the entire parental disease process. Our analysis suggests that counselling services could offer supportive interventions which focus particularly on adolescent coping as well as family functioning.

  16. Psychosocial Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment in Brazil – Perception of Parenting Style, Stressful Events and Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between measures of exposure to violence, stressful events, family socialization practices, and demographic characteristics in a group of adolescents from a Southern region of Brazil. Three hundred adolescents were investigated in a case-control study. The results showed that adolescents with emotional and behavioral problems had significant higher stressful events, violence exposure, and negative parental practices, compared with controls. However, exposure to violence was the most deteriorating condition associated with the adolescents’ clinical internalization and externalization behaviors. Findings suggest the benefit of targeting actions geared to strengthen the quality of family interactions as well as to implement preventive programs to reduce community violence impact and to enhance support in the community.

  17. Psychological adjustment and psychosocial stress among Japanese couples with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagami, M; Maruyama, T; Koizumi, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about the effects of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) on the psychological adjustment of couples. The aim of this study was to elucidate psychological adjustment and RPL-associated psychosocial stress affecting Japanese couples with a history of RPL, focusing on gender....... CONCLUSIONS Women were significantly more distressed than men. Poor quality of the marital relationship was significantly associated with impaired psychological adjustment among women, but not among men. These gender discrepancies may foster a mutual worsening of psychological adjustment and marital...... relationships in RPL couples. The need to seek help not only in women but also in a substantial portion of men suggests the importance of couple-based psychological care in the management of RPL....

  18. When Women with Cystic Fibrosis Become Mothers: Psychosocial Impact and Adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L. Cammidge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the treatment and life expectancy of cystic fibrosis (CF patients mean that motherhood is now a realistic option for many women with CF. This qualitative study explored the psychosocial impact and adjustments made when women with CF become mothers. Women with CF (n=11 were recruited via an online forum and participated in semistructured telephone interviews about their experiences of becoming a mother. Transcriptions were analysed using Grounded Theory. Analysis revealed three core categories: (i “Living with CF”: how becoming a mother impacted on health and treatment adherence, requiring a change in support from the CF team, (ii “Becoming a Mother”: balancing issues common to new mothers with their CF, and (iii “Pooling Personal Resources”: coping strategies in managing the dual demands of child and CF care. Participants experienced a variety of complex psychosocial processes. Most participants acknowledged an initial negative impact on CF care; however over time they reported successful adaptation to managing dual commitments and that adherence and motivation to stay well had improved. This study highlights the need for preconceptual psychosocial counselling and postpartum adjustment to CF care.

  19. Risk and protection factors in the peer context: how do other children contribute to the psychosocial adjustment of the adolescent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Véronneau

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As children become adolescents, peers assume greater importance in their lives. Peer experiences can either help them thrive or negatively affect their psychosocial adjustment. In this review article definitions for the types of peer experiences are provided followed by an overview of common psychosocial issues encountered by adolescents. Past research that has pointed to risk and protection factors that emerge from peer experiences during adolescence and the role of peer influences in the context of current issues relevant to adolescent education are discussed. Research suggests that friendships with deviant peers, involvement in bullying and the experience of rejection from the overall peer group are related to adjustment problems, whereas friendships with prosocial and academically oriented peers and social acceptance in the peer group are related to healthy development. Friendship quality, popularity among peers, and involvement in friendship cliques cannot be clearly categorized as either positive or negative influences, because they interact with other factors in shaping the development of adolescents. The promotion of social skills and positive youth leadership as an integral part of the student's learning process in school is recommended.

  20. Psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Barata

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study whether patients with HIV-1 associated lipodystrophy (LD on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART have more psychopathology and worse psychosocial adjustment than a similar group without this syndrome. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, observational study we compared 47 HIV-1 infected patients with LD (LD group with 39 HIV-1 infected patients without LD (non-LD group. All participants were on HAART. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and the Goldberg Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60 were administered. Levels of familial, work and social adjustment and adjustment to stressful events were evaluated in a semi-structured interview. Clinical information was extracted from the clinical records. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis patients with LD showed higher state anxiety scores (p = 0.009 and worse work adjustment (p = 0.019 than those without LD. A total of 45.3% of LD patients scored above the cut-off point on the trait anxiety scale, and over 33.3% scored above the cut-off point on the BDI, GHQ and state anxiety scales. However, in multivariate analyses LD was not independently associated with psychopathology or with worse adjustment in the studied areas. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LD was not a predictor of greater psychopathology or worse psychosocial adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients, despite the high scores found, suggests that factors not taken into account in this study, such as LD severity and self-perception should have been included in the analysis. Further studies including a greater number of variables and a larger sample size will advance our understanding of this complex condition.

  1. Exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment among urban school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purugganan, Oscar H; Stein, Ruth E K; Silver, Ellen Johnson; Benenson, Blanch S

    2003-12-01

    This study determines the relationship between psychosocial adjustment in school-aged children and one aspect of exposure to violence, the proximity of exposure, in terms of (1) "physical" proximity and (2) "emotional" proximity to the victims of violence. A convenience sample of 175 children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary care clinic of a large urban hospital were interviewed about their exposure to violence using the Children's Report of Exposure to Violence. Psychosocial adjustment was measured through maternal reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Personal Adjustment and Role Skills Scale (PARS III). Children were categorized into three groups according to their closest proximity to exposure to violence ("victim" > "witness" > exposure through other people's "report") and two groups according to emotional proximity (victim was a "familiar person" or "stranger"). All children (23/175) who scored above the CBCL clinical cutoff (T score > 63) were witnesses or victims of violence. The CBCL total T scores (higher score = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 52.4) scored significantly higher than the "witness" group (mean 50.0) and "report" group (mean 47.4). The PARS III total scores (lower scores = more maladjustment) showed that the "victims" group (mean 87.5) scored significantly lower than the "witness" group (mean 93.1) and "report" group (mean 98.2). The relationship of the child to the victim was not associated with significantly different CBCL and PARS III scores. Children exposed to more proximal forms of violence as victims or witnesses exhibited more psychosocial maladjustment.

  2. Problems of state adjustment the telecommunications industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tregub Ilona Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the mechanism of state adjustment of the telecommunications industry companies, providing the additional mobile services (VAS-services, by determining the optimal rates of tax and non-tax payments to the budget. Method is based on the approach of A. Laffer, who showed the possibility of existence an optimal tax rate, which provides, on the one hand, the maximum flow of funds in the budget, on the other hand, preserves the incentives of entrepreneurship. In the present paper, we study the dependence of revenues to the Reserve Fund on the size of the contribution rate and the coefficient of profitability of enterprises providing VAS-services.

  3. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping strategies, and psychosocial adjustment following kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanti, Renato; Lombardo, Caterina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Poli, Luca; Bennardi, Linda; Giordanengo, Luca; Berloco, Pasquale Bartolomeo; Violani, Cristiano

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the relations between appraisal of transplant-related stressors, coping, and adjustment dimensions following kidney transplantation (KT). Two models were tested: (1) the main effects model proposing that stress appraisal and coping strategies are directly associated with adjustment dimensions; and (2) the moderating model of stress proposing that each coping strategy interacts with stress appraisal. Importantly, there is a lack of research examining the two models simultaneously among recipients of solid organ transplantation. A total of 174 KT recipients completed the questionnaires. Predictors of post-transplant adjustment included appraisal of transplant-related stressors and coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused). Adjustment dimensions were psychological distress, worries about the transplant, feelings of guilt, fear of disclosure of transplant, adherence, and responsibility for the functioning of the new organ. The main and moderating effects were tested with regression analyses. Appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping were related to all adjustment dimensions, except of adherence and responsibility. Task-oriented coping was positively related to responsibility. Avoidance-oriented coping was negatively correlated with adherence. Only 1 out of 18 hypothesized interactive terms was significant, yielding a synergistic interaction between appraisal of transplant-related stressors and emotion-oriented coping on the sense of guilt. The findings have the potential to inform interventions promoting psychosocial adjustment among KT recipients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The relationship between spiritual well-being and psychosocial adjustment in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer and a colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Chun; Rew, Lynn; Hwang, Shiow-Li

    2012-01-01

    We examined relationships among demographic and clinical characteristics, spiritual well-being, and psychosocial adjustment in Taiwanese patients with colorectal cancer and a colostomy. A descriptive, cross-sectional, exploratory study design was used to answer research questions. Participants were recruited from the outpatient ambulatory clinic in the gastrointestinal surgical department at the medical center of National Taiwan University. Forty-five Taiwanese patients aged 42 to 83 years who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and underwent colostomy surgery participated in the study. Participants completed a personal data questionnaire designed for this study, along with 2 validated instruments, the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self Report. Forty-five persons participated in the study; 69% reported a moderate level of spiritual well-being. Participants reported strong adjustment to extended family relationships, but poor adjustment in sexual relationships. Spiritual well-being was significantly associated with psychosocial adjustment (r = -0.52, P spiritual well-being) accounted for 53% of the variance in psychosocial adjustment. Spiritual well-being plays an important role for Taiwanese patients when faced with psychosocial adjustment related to life with colorectal cancer and a colostomy.

  5. Perfectionism dimensions and dependency in relation to personality vulnerability and psychosocial adjustment in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkley, David M; Schwartzman, Deborah; Looper, Karl J; Sigal, John J; Pierre, Andrena; Kotowycz, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    The present study sought to illuminate self-criticism and personal standards dimensions of perfectionism and dependency as specific cognitive-personality vulnerability factors that might contribute to a better understanding of numerous psychosocial problem areas that are relevant to coronary artery disease (CAD). One hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with clinically significant CAD completed self-report questionnaires. Zero-order correlations and factor analysis results revealed that self-criticism was primarily related to personality vulnerability (aggression/anger/hostility, Type D negative affectivity) and psychosocial maladjustment (depressive symptoms, worry, avoidant coping, support dissatisfaction), whereas personal standards was primarily related to adaptive coping (problem-focused coping, positive reinterpretation) and dependency was primarily related to worry. Hierarchical regression results demonstrated the incremental utility of self-criticism, personal standards, and dependency in relation to (mal)adjustment over and above aggression/anger/hostility, negative affectivity, and social inhibition. Continued efforts to understand the role of perfectionism dimensions and dependency in CAD appear warranted.

  6. Influence of Solo and Double Parenting on the Adjustment Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of solo and double parenting on the adjustment problems of secondary school adolescents. Adolescents\\' adjustment problems were studied under four groups. These include social, family, personal and academic categories. The sample for the study consisted of 630 adolescents made ...

  7. Applied behavior analysis programs for autism: sibling psychosocial adjustment during and following intervention use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebula, Katie R

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in siblings of children with autism whose families were using a home-based, applied behavior analysis (ABA) program was compared to that of siblings in families who were not using any intensive autism intervention. Data gathered from parents, siblings and teachers indicated that siblings in ABA families experienced neither significant drawbacks nor benefits in terms of their behavioral adjustment, sibling relationship quality and self-concept compared to control group siblings, either during or following intervention use. Parents and siblings perceived improvements in sibling interaction since the outset of ABA, with parents somewhat more positive in their views than were siblings. Social support was associated with better sibling outcomes in all groups. Implications for supporting families using ABA are considered.

  8. Gender Differences in the Expressed Problems and Adjustment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... their biological parents are not able to provide food, shelter and safety. Objective: To investigate the problems and adjustment needs of in-school orphans in ... economic/financial, emotional, psychological and social aspects of their lives.

  9. Assessing Major Adjustment Problems of Freshman Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences ... The data was analyzed by using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods. ... in Jimma University experience social adjustment problems than educational and personalpsychological, ...

  10. Do adolescent delinquency and problem drinking share psychosocial risk factors? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcio, Angela L; Mak, Anita S; George, Amanda M

    2013-04-01

    Despite the prevalence and damaging effects of adolescent problem drinking, relative to delinquency, far less research has focused on drinking using an integrated theoretical approach. The aim of the current research was to review existing literature on psychosocial risk factors for delinquency and problem drinking, and explore whether integrating elements of social learning theory with an established psychosocial control theory of delinquency could explain adolescent problem drinking. We reviewed 71 studies published post-1990 with particular focus on articles that empirically researched risk factors for adolescent problem drinking and delinquency in separate and concurrent studies and meta-analytic reviews. We found shared risk factors for adolescent delinquency and problem drinking that are encompassed by an extension of psychosocial control theory. The potential of an extended psychosocial control theory providing a parsimonious theoretical approach to explaining delinquency, problem drinking and other adolescent problem behaviours, along with suggestions for future investigations, is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A structural model for stress, coping, and psychosocial adjustment: A multi-group analysis by stages of survivorship in Korean women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Miyoung; Kim, Jiyoung

    2018-04-01

    Prospective studies have examined factors directly affecting psychosocial adjustment during breast cancer treatment. Survivorship stage may moderate a direct effect of stress on psychosocial adjustment. This study aimed to examine relationships between stress, social support, self-efficacy, coping, and psychosocial adjustment to construct a model of the effect pathways between those factors, and determine if survivorship stage moderates those effects. Six hundred people with breast cancer completed questionnaires. Examined stages of survivorship after treatment were as follows: acute (i.e., 5 years). Stress (Perceived Stress Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), self-efficacy (New General Self Efficacy Scale), coping (Ways of Coping Checklist), and psychosocial adjustment (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report-Korean Version) were measured. Self-efficacy significantly correlated with psychosocial adjustment in the acute survival stage (γ = -0.37, P psychosocial adjustment was greater in the acute (γ = -0.42, P psychosocial adjustment was stronger in the lasting survival stage (β = 0.42, P psychosocial adjustment of female breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do Substance Use, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Sexual Experiences Vary for Dating Violence Victims Based on Type of Violent Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one…

  13. New Prof Omeje Pornography Addiction as Correlate of Psychosocial and Academic Adjustment of Students in Universities in Lagos State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuakanwa, Chijioke Ephraim; Omeje, Joachim Chinweike; Eskay, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the relationship between pornography addiction and psychosocial and academic adjustment of students in universities in Lagos State. In order to achieve this objective, five research questions were formulated and two hypotheses postulated. The subjects for the study consisted of 616 full-time third-year undergraduate…

  14. Explaining the adjustment of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: Role of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, J.A.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - The aim of this study was to explain adjustment (diabetes-related quality of life, general well-being, and psychopathology) in adolescents with type 1 diabetes by testing the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of diabetes-specific and psychosocial factors, using an adapted version

  15. Influence of cognition, premorbid adjustment and psychotic symptoms on psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Norma; Rubio-Abadal, Elena; Usall, Judith; Barajas, Ana; Butjosa, Anna; Dolz, Montserrat; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Rodríguez, Maria José; Peláez, Trinidad; Sammut, Stephanie; Carlson, Janina; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-08-30

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between psycho-social functioning and symptoms, cognitive function, and premorbid adjustment, in patients with a first-episode psychosis. Clinical data were obtained from 90 patients, who were assessed with the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS-sv), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS-S) and with a battery of cognitive tests including Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA- B), Continous Performance Test (CPT), some subscales of the Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), and the Verbal Learning Test España-Complutense (TAVEC). The results of the study suggest that psycho-social functioning in first-episode psychosis is significantly related to: positive, negative, excitative, affective and disorganized symptoms, social premorbid adjustment, cognitive flexibility, working memory, short term and long term memory. Of these, those which best explained psycho-social functioning are the positive and excitative symptoms, premorbid adjustment, flexibility and memory. These findings highlight the importance early intervention on cognitive and clinical variables to help provide a better psycho-social functioning in people with a first-episode of psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growing up with adversity: From juvenile justice involvement to criminal persistence and psychosocial problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Husbands' or Male Partners' Support on Women's Psychosocial Adjustment to Having an Ostomy Resulting from Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Methods Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global HRQOL quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Results Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The non-partnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but each of these cases, women reported serious current co-morbidities. Conclusions These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short- and long-term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to spouses/partners. PMID:19448512

  18. The influence of husbands' or male partners' support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy resulting from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Andrea; Ramirez, Michelle; Grant, Marcia; Wendel, Christopher; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa; Krouse, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Some patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) require a permanent ostomy, which changes bodily function and can create psychosocial distress. However, little is known about the influence of men's support on women's psychosocial adjustment to having an ostomy as a result of CRC. Participants initially completed the City of Hope-CRC Quality of Life questionnaire. We then conducted in-depth interviews with 30 female participants. Interview questions focused on body image, gender, and sexuality. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. We used qualitative methods to analyze the interview data and compared global health-related quality of life (HRQOL) quartile scores to the overall ways that women discussed husbands' or partners' support regarding psychosocial adjustments to having ostomies. Of 30 participants, 22 were married or partnered at the time of surgery and 8 were single. The nonpartnered respondents are not included in this analysis. Of the 22 married/partnered women, 17 described positive support from husbands being central to their psychosocial adjustment, 3 described a lack or withdrawal of support negatively affecting adjustment, and 2 described support as neither positive nor negative. In 17 cases, women's high or low quantitative HRQOL scores matched the positive or negative qualitative findings. There were 3 cases in which there were positive qualitative data and low HRQOL scores, but in each of these cases, women reported serious current comorbidities. These findings suggest that the provision or withdrawal of husbands' or partners' support can have a considerable impact on the psychosocial adjustment of female CRC patients with ostomies. These findings appear to be both short term and long term. Survivorship assessments should include appraisals of women's relationships to their spouses/partners.

  19. Joint association of sleep problems and psychosocial working conditions with registered long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida E. H.; Larsen, Ann D.; Thorsen, Sannie V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep problems and adverse psychosocial working conditions are associated with increased risk of long-term sickness absence. Because sleep problems affect role functioning they may also exacerbate any effects of psychosocial working conditions and vice versa. We examined whether sleep...... problems and psychosocial working conditions interact in their associations with long-term sickness absence. Methods: We linked questionnaire data from participants to two surveys of random samples of the Danish working population (N=10 752) with registries on long-term sick leave during five years after...... questionnaire response. We defined sleep problems by self-reported symptoms and/or register data on hypnotics purchases of hypnotics. Psychosocial working conditions included quantitative and emotional demands, influence, supervisor recognition and social support, leadership quality, and social support from...

  20. Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale: Factor structure, reliability, and validity assessment in a sample of Greek breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokotroni, Philippa; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Missitzis, Ioannis

    2017-07-01

    The study and measurement of psychosocial adjustment is important for evaluating patients' well-being, and assessing the illness's course, treatment's success, and patients' recovery. In this study, internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Greek version of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale-Self-Report (PAIS-SR) were examined. Demographic and psychosocial data were collected from a sample of 243 women with breast cancer, recruited from September 2011 to December 2012. With some exceptions in specific items, the original conceptually-derived PAIS-SR subscales emerged in a seven-factor solution. Social Environment, Job and Household Duties, and Psychological Distress accounted for more of the total variance than other subscales. PAIS-SR showed good internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients >0.62. Correlations of PAIS-SR domains with measures of quality of life and posttraumatic stress symptoms supported the convergent validity of the PAIS-SR and its significance for cancer research. The Greek version of the PAIS-SR has acceptable internal consistency reliability and construct validity, as well as satisfactory convergent validity. Results provide some suggestions for the development of programs to evaluate adjustment status and implement psychosocial interventions among breast cancer survivors.

  1. A longitudinal study about the body image and psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients during the course of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2010-09-01

    The research of body image among breast cancer patients is characterized by some limitations, such as the lack of longitudinal studies or the absence of a multidimensional perspective of body image. This study intends to overcome these limitations, by examining the evolution of body image dimensions (investment, emotions and evaluations) from the period of surgery (T1) to 6-months after the treatment's ending (T2). It also aims to explore the predictors of body image at T2 and, simultaneously, the predictive role of initial body image to psychosocial adjustment at T2. A total of 56 breast cancer patients participated in both assessments and completed a battery of instruments that included measures of body image dimensions (appearance investment, self-consciousness of appearance, shame and appearance satisfaction) and psychosocial adjustment (quality of life and emotional distress). Within the dimensions of body image, only shame increased over time. In general, initial levels of investment predicted subsequent body image dimensions and having a mastectomy done was associated with higher shame and lower appearance satisfaction at T2. Initial body image did not predict later adjustment, with the exception of depression, where appearance investment played a relevant role. Our findings contributed to the advance of knowledge in this area, providing relevant data about the evolution of body image dimensions, its predictors and its predictive role on psychosocial adjustment among breast cancer patients. This study also suggested some clinical implications that can assist health professionals to implement strategies focused on body image throughout the disease.

  2. Psychosocial Problems Syndemically Increase Adolescent Substance Use: Findings From a Cross-sectional Survey of 82,812 Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Deng, Jianxiong; Gao, Xue; Xu, Yan; Huang, Guoliang; Huang, Jinghui; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of studies have indicated the associations between substance use and psychosocial problems in adolescents. However, few of them have examined whether these psychosocial problems form a syndemic, which means the co-occurrence of psychosocial problems accompanied by additional effects on substance use.We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 82,812 Chinese adolescents who were selected using a multistage random procedure. Bivariate associations were estimated between selected syndemic indicators and adolescent substance use. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between the syndemic indicator count score (the count of syndemic indicators) and adolescent substance use. In addition, cluster analysis was used to partition participants reporting at least one of syndemic indicators to assess associations between resolved cluster memberships and adolescent substance use.All selected syndemic indicators were associated with each other and with adolescent substance use. As the number of syndemic indicators increases, stronger associations with substance use were found in our analysis: the range of adjusted OR was from 1.57 (95% CI: 1.38-1.79) for 1 syndemic indicator to 9.45 (95% CI: 7.60-11.76) for 5 or 6 syndemic indicators. There was no effect modification of gender on these additive associations. The multivariate logistic regression indicated that the cluster membership of nonlow SES academic failures has the highest odds of using substance (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 2.12-2.41), compared to students reporting none syndemic indicators.Our findings support the syndemic hypothesis that adolescents bearing multiple psychosocial problems experience additive risks of using substance. Our findings support that a comprehensive approach to substance use prevention in adolescents would necessitate the involvement of a variety of providers.

  3. Positive and negative meanings are simultaneously ascribed to colorectal cancer: relationship to quality of life and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Aldo Aguirre; Garland, Sheila N; Martopullo, Celestina; Pelletier, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Experiencing cancer can give rise to existential concerns causing great distress, and consequently drive individuals to make sense of what cancer may mean to their lives. To date, meaning-based research in the context of cancer has largely focused on one possible outcome of this process, the emergence of positive meanings (e.g. post-traumatic growth). However, negative meanings may also be ascribed to cancer, simultaneously with positive meanings. This study focused on the nature of the co-existence of positive and negative meanings in a sample of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer to find out whether negative meaning had an impact on quality of life and psychosocial adjustment above and beyond positive meaning. Participants were given questionnaires measuring meaning-made, quality of life, and psychological distress. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a subgroup from the original sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that negative meaning-made (i.e. helplessness) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life and increased levels of depression/anxiety above and beyond positive meaning-made (i.e. life meaningfulness, acceptance, and perceived benefits). Correlational analyses and interview data revealed that negative meaning-made was mainly associated with physical and functional disability, while positive meaning-made was mostly related to emotional and psychological well-being. Meanings of varying valence may simultaneously be ascribed to cancer as it impacts different life dimensions, and they may independently influence quality of life and psychosocial adjustment. The presence of positive meaning was not enough to prevent the detrimental effects of negative meaning on psychosocial adjustment and quality of life among individuals taking part in this study. Future attention to negative meaning is warranted, as it may be at least as important as positive meaning in predicting psychosocial adjustment and quality of

  4. Do Substance Use, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Sexual Experiences Vary for Dating Violence Victims Based on Type of Violent Relationships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela

    2016-12-01

    We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one physically violent and controlling perpetrator) and those who reported experiencing situational couple violence (physical dating violence absent the dynamics of power and control). This was a cross-sectional survey of 3745 dating youth from 10 middle and high schools in the northeastern United States, one third of whom reported physical dating violence. In general, teens experiencing no dating violence reported less frequent substance use, higher psychosocial adjustment, and less sexual activity than victims of either intimate terrorism or situational couple violence. In addition, victims of intimate terrorism reported higher levels of depression, anxiety, and anger/hostility compared to situational couple violence victims; they also were more likely to report having sex, and earlier sexual initiation. Youth who experienced physical violence in their dating relationships, coupled with controlling behaviors from their partner/perpetrator, reported the most psychosocial adjustment issues and the earliest sexual activity. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  5. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokić-Begić, Nataša; Jurin, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS). A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia. PMID:24790589

  6. Psychosocial Adjustment to Sex Reassignment Surgery: A Qualitative Examination and Personal Experiences of Six Transsexual Persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Jokić-Begić

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, transgender individuals face numerous social and medical obstacles throughout the process of transition. The aim of this study was to depict the factors contributing to the psychosocial adjustment of six transsexual individuals living in Croatia following sex reassignment surgery (SRS. A combination of quantitative and qualitative self-report methods was used. Due to the specificity of the sample, the data were collected online. Standardized questionnaires were used to assess mental health and quality of life alongside a series of open-ended questions divided into 4 themes: the decision-making process regarding SRS; social and medical support during the SRS process; experience of discrimination and stigmatizing behaviors; psychosocial adjustment after SRS. Despite the unfavorable circumstances in Croatian society, participants demonstrated stable mental, social, and professional functioning, as well as a relative resilience to minority stress. Results also reveal the role of pretransition factors such as high socioeconomic status, good premorbid functioning, and high motivation for SRS in successful psychosocial adjustment. During and after transition, participants reported experiencing good social support and satisfaction with the surgical treatment and outcomes. Any difficulties reported by participants are related to either sexual relationships or internalized transphobia. The results also demonstrate the potentially protective role that a lengthier process of transition plays in countries such as Croatia.

  7. PERSONAL COMPETENCIES, SOCIAL RESOURCES, AND PSYCHOSOCIAL ADJUSTMENT OF PRIMIPAROUS WOMEN OF ADVANCED MATERNAL AGE AND THEIR PARTNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Maryse; Canavarro, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) characterize the personal competencies, the social resources, and the psychosocial adjustment (psychological distress, quality of life, and parenting self-perceptions) during the early postpartum period of primiparous women of advanced age (≥35 years at the time of delivery) and their partners (older parents) compared with that of younger first-time mothers (20-34 years) and their partners (younger parents); and (b) explore the role of personal competencies and social resources in couples' psychosocial adjustment, depending on the age group. Older (n = 74) and younger parents (n = 71) completed self-report measures to assess personal competencies and social resources (third trimester of pregnancy), psychological distress, and quality of life (third trimester of pregnancy and 1-month' postpartum) and parenting self-perceptions (1-month' postpartum). Older parents were more similar than different from younger parents regarding personal competencies, social resources, and psychosocial adjustment during the first postnatal month. Regardless of the age group, higher personal competencies and social resources predicted lower anxiety and more positive parenting self-perceptions in women. Beyond higher personal competencies, older maternal age also predicted higher quality of life. In men, higher personal competencies were protective against anxiety, but only at older maternal age. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Psychosocial and Mental Health Problems of Older People in Postearthquake Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Ramesh P; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Paudel, Sasmita; Pokhrel, Ruja; Bhandari, Nagendra; Cole, Laura; Koirala, Suraj

    2017-03-01

    To identify community perceptions on psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in postearthquake situation in Nepal. A qualitative methodology was adopted to explore the experience and opinions of older people, social workers, school teachers, health workers, and nongovernmental organization workers on the psychosocial and mental health problems of older people in Nepal, using key informant interviews. Major local vocabulary for older peoples' psychosocial and mental health problems were "bichalan" (variation in mood and feeling), "ekohoro" (becoming single minded), "athmabiswasko kami" (low self-esteem), and "bina karan rune" (crying without any reason). The major causes attributed to older people's problems were physical injury, disability, family conflict, and economic problems. Forgetfulness, tiredness, loss of concentration, restlessness, and isolation were observed in older people since the 2015 earthquake. The findings suggest that earthquake had negative impact on older people's psychosocial well-being; however, little support or treatment options have been made available to these individuals. The tailor-made community-based psychosocial and mental health programs for older people are needed.

  9. Estimating Rates of Psychosocial Problems in Urban and Poor Children with Sickle Cell Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Oscar A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adjustment problems for children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Parents provided information on social, emotional, academic, and family adjustment of 327 children with SCA. Over 25% of children had emotional adjustment problems in form of internalizing symptoms (anxiety and depression); at least 20% had problems related to…

  10. Reliability and Validity of the KIPPPI: An Early Detection Tool for Psychosocial Problems in Toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kruizinga (Ingrid); W. Jansen (Wilma); C.L. de Haan (Carolien); H. Raat (Hein)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study

  11. An accurate and efficient identification of children with psychosocial problems by means of computerized adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, Antonius G. C.; Jacobusse, Gert W.; Reijneveld, Symen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Questionnaires used by health services to identify children with psychosocial problems are often rather short. The psychometric properties of such short questionnaires are mostly less than needed for an accurate distinction between children with and without problems. We aimed to assess

  12. Children with bronchial asthma assessed for psychosocial problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    help protect them and their families from avoidable suffering. ... problems, family dysfunction, stigma, parental distress, ... cial problems constitute a barrier to self management ..... were categorised under the following: praying, seeking help ...

  13. [Psychosocial adjustment, psychiatric morbidity and quality of life in adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Rosália; Teixeira, Flávio; Silva, Ana Margarida; Vaz, Cláudia; Vieira, Daniela; Proença, Cidália; Moura, Cláudia; Viana, Victor; Areias, José Carlos; Areias, Maria Emília Guimarães

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to study the psychosocial adjustment (PSA), psychiatric morbidity and quality of life of adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) to determine which demographic and clinical variables negatively affect adjustment and which increase resilience. The study included 74 patients with CHD, 41 male and 33 female, aged between 12 and 26 years (mean 18.76±3.86). Demographic information and a complete clinical history were obtained. The participants were interviewed regarding social support, family environment, self-image and physical limitations. A standardized psychiatric interview was conducted, and self-report questionnaires were administered for assessment of PSA (Youth Self Report and Adult Self Report) and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life - Short Version). A caregiver completed an observational version of the PSA questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist or Adult Behavior Checklist). Female participants showed more feelings of anxiety and depression (U=952.500; p=0.003), thought problems (U=929.500; p=0.005) and aggressive behavior (U=999.000; p=0.000). They also showed a higher rate of psychopathology. Patients with complex forms of CHD reported more thought problems (U=442.000; p=0.027) and internalization (U=429.000; p=0.021). Compared to the Portuguese population as a whole, participants showed better quality of life in the domains of social relationships (t=2.333; p=0.022) and environment (t=3.754; p=0.000). Patients who had undergone surgery had worse quality of life in physical terms (t=-1.989; p=0.050), social relationships (t=-2.012; p=0.048) and general quality of life (U=563.000; p=0.037), compared to those who were not operated. Better social support was associated with better quality of life in physical terms (t=3.287; p=0.002) and social relationships (t=3.669; p=0.000). Better school performance was also associated with better overall quality of life (U=457.000; p=0.046), less withdrawn behavior

  14. Psycho-Trauma, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Symptomatic Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Internally Displaced Persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Taiwo Lateef; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Agunbiade, Samuel; Ike, Joseph; Ebiti, William N; Adekeye, Oluwatosin

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment. Cross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose "symptomatic PTSD," composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2%) had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1%) had poor living conditions, and only 12 (4.7%) had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%), been evacuated from their town (96%) and witnessing violence (88%). More than half (58%) of IDPs had experienced 11-15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (adjusted odds ratios 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.7-7.5; p = 0.001) and witnessing death of a family member (3.7, 1.2-11.5; p = 0.0259). We concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.

  15. Family environment and adolescent psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior: a pioneer study in a Chinese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1997-03-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 365) responded to instruments measuring their family environment, psychological well-being, school adjustment, and problem behavior. Measures of the family environment include perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles, family functioning, and conflict with father and mother. Results from bivariate and canonical correlation analyses showed that in general, adolescents' perceptions of parenting styles, family functioning, and parent-adolescent conflict were significantly related to scores on measures of psychological well-being (general psychiatric morbidity, life satisfaction, purpose in life, hopelessness, and self-esteem), school adjustment (perceived academic performance and school conduct), and problem behavior (smoking and psychotropic drug abuse). The findings suggest that family factors play an important role in influencing the psychosocial adjustment, particularly the positive mental health, of Chinese adolescents.

  16. Number of Psychosocial Strengths Predicts Reduced HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Above and Beyond Syndemic Problems Among Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Trevor A; Noor, Syed W; Adam, Barry D; Vernon, Julia R G; Brennan, David J; Gardner, Sandra; Husbands, Winston; Myers, Ted

    2017-10-01

    Syndemics research shows the additive effect of psychosocial problems on high-risk sexual behavior among gay and bisexual men (GBM). Psychosocial strengths may predict less engagement in high-risk sexual behavior. In a study of 470 ethnically diverse HIV-negative GBM, regression models were computed using number of syndemic psychosocial problems, number of psychosocial strengths, and serodiscordant condomless anal sex (CAS). The number of syndemic psychosocial problems correlated with serodiscordant CAS (RR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92; p = 0.001). When adding the number of psychosocial strengths to the model, the effect of syndemic psychosocial problems became non-significant, but the number of strengths-based factors remained significant (RR = 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86; p = 0.002). Psychosocial strengths may operate additively in the same way as syndemic psychosocial problems, but in the opposite direction. Consistent with theories of resilience, psychosocial strengths may be an important set of variables predicting sexual risk behavior that is largely missing from the current HIV behavioral literature.

  17. Psycho-trauma, psychosocial adjustment and symptomatic Post-traumatic stress disorder among internally displaced persons in Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Lateef Sheikh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background In April 2011, a post election violent conflict in Northern Nigeria led to resettlement of internally displaced persons (IDPs in a camp in Kaduna, the worst affected state. We set out to determine prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among IDPs. We also determined types of psycho-trauma experienced by the IDPs and their psychosocial adjustment.MethodsCross-sectional systematic random sampling was used to select 258 adults IDPs. We used Harvard trauma questionnaire to diagnose symptomatic PTSD, composite international diagnostic interview for diagnosis of depression, and communal trauma event inventory to determine exposure to psycho-trauma. We assessed social adjustment using social provision scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of PTSD. Results Of the 258 IDPs, 109 (42.2% had a diagnosis of PTSD, 204 (79.1% had poor living conditions, and only12 (4.7% had poor social provision. The most frequent psycho-traumas were destruction of personal property (96.1%, been evacuated from their town (96% and witnessing violence (88%. More than half (58% of IDPs had experienced 11 – 15 of the 19 traumatic events. Independent predictors of PTSD among respondents were, having a CIDI diagnosis of depression (Adjusted Odd Ratio [AOR]3.5, 95% CI 1.7 – 7.5; p= 0.001 and witnessing death of a family member ( 3.7, 1.2 – 11.5; p=0.0259.ConclusionWe concluded that exposure to psycho-trauma among IDPs in Kaduna led to post conflict PTSD. Death of a family member and co-morbid depression were independent predictors of PTSD among IDPs. Though their living condition was poor, the IDPs had good psychosocial adjustment. We recommended a structured psychosocial intervention among the IDP targeted at improving living condition and dealing with the psychological consequences of psycho-trauma.Key words Post traumatic stress disorder, psychosocial adjustment

  18. [Psychosocial adjustment in children with a cleft lip and/or palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, I.H.; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Admiraal, R.J.C.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into the psychosocial health of children aged 9 to 12 years with a cleft lip and/or palate; to determine the relation between their health and the nature and severity of the cleft as well as other individual characteristics. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study.

  19. Psychosocial work factors and sleep problems: findings from the French national SIP survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazelle, Emilie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed at exploring the cross-sectional and prospective associations between psychosocial work factors and sleep problems. The study population consisted of a national representative sample of the French working population (SIP survey). The sample sizes were 7506 and 3555 for the cross-sectional and prospective analyses. Sleep problems were defined by either sleep disturbances or insufficient sleep duration at least several times a week. Psychosocial work factors included classical (job strain model factors) and emergent factors (recognition, insecurity, role/ethical conflict, emotional demands, work-life imbalance, etc.). Occupational factors related to working time/hours and physical work environment were also included as well as covariates related to factors outside work. Statistical analyses were performed using weighted Poisson regression analysis. In the cross-sectional analyses, psychological demands, low social support, low recognition, emotional demands, perception of danger, work-life imbalance and night work were found to be associated with sleep problems. In the prospective analyses, psychological demands and night work were predictive of sleep problems. Using a less conservative method, more factors were found to be associated with sleep problems. Dose-response associations were observed, showing that the more frequent the exposure to these factors, the higher the risk of sleep problems. No effect of repeated exposure was found on sleep problems. Classical and emergent psychosocial work factors were associated with sleep problems. More prospective studies and prevention policies may be needed.

  20. Identification of children with psychosocial problems differed between preventive child health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogels, A.G.C.; Jacobusse, G.W.; Hoekstra, F.; Brugman, E.; Crone, M.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether differences between individual Preventive Child Health Care (PCH) professionals in the percentage of children they identify as having psychosocial problems are larger than expected based on chance and whether such differences can be explained by differences in

  1. Lack of motivation for treatment associated with greater care needs and psychosocial problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbe, J.; Wierdsma, A.I.; Kok, R.M.; Kroon, H.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Roosenschoon, B.J.; Mulder, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the care needs and severity of psychosocial problems in older patients with severe mental illness (SMI) between those who were and were not motivated for treatment. Methods: Cross-sectional study in which we enrolled 141 outpatients with SMI aged 55 and older. Needs were

  2. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  3. Prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in rural areas of District Muzaffarnagar, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav Jain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescence is a period of transition between childhood and adulthood. It is a phase of life marked by special attributes including rapid physical growth and development; physical, social and psychological maturity. Aims & Objectives: The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problems among adolescents in a rural area of District Muzaffarnagar. Materials & Methods: The study subjects were 210 adolescent girls and boys (10-19 years old selected using multistage random sampling technique. The subjects were interviewed & detailed information was collected on a structured and pre-tested questionnaire after taking consent from the subject/ parents. The clinical diagnosis was generated as per the criteria laid down in ICD-10. The data was entered in Epi Info statistical software package Version 3.4.3 and suitable statistical methods were applied. Results: The overall prevalence of psychosocial problems amongst adolescent was found to be 41.43%. Most of them had conduct disorder (40.51% males & 35.88% females followed by depression (30.38% males & 26.72% females. Conclusions: There are significant psychosocial problems amongst the adolescents. So, enough emphasis should be given to this component of adolescent health and thus it is recommended that a holistic approach to the underlying causes of psychosocial problems of adolescents should be undertaken.

  4. Going Through the Motions? Development of Parent-Adolescent Relationships and Psychosocial Problems during Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental phase that is marked by profound transformations in parent-adolescent relationships and it is a rather sensitive period for the development of psychosocial problems. The purpose of the current dissertation was to understand longitudinal associations between

  5. Dialog about Psychosocial Issues in Problem-Based Learning Sessions in Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was two-fold: to investigate the dialog about psychosocial aspects of health care in problem based learning (PBL) groups in a single medical school; and to describe the factors that learners and PBL facilitators identify as influencing dialog about these issues in PBL groups. Medical education is a…

  6. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; de Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  7. Early Findings of Preventive Child Healthcare Professionals Predict Psychosocial Problems in Preadolescence: The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, M.; De Winter, A.F.; de Meer, G.; Stewart, R.E; Verhulst, F.C.; Ormel, J.; Reijneveld, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a prediction model for psychosocial problems in preadolescence using data on early developmental factors from routine Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH). Study design The data come from the 1692 participants who take part in the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives

  8. Parenting and child psychosocial problems : Effectiveness of parenting support in Preventive Child Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial problems (e.g. aggressive behaviour, fear, anxiety) frequently occur in children and may lead to serious restrictions in daily functioning currently and in later life, and are the major cause of long-term work disability in young adults. Ineffective and inconsistent parenting styles may

  9. Primary health care physicians' treatment of psychosocial problems: implications for social work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, R.; Rabinowitz, J.; Feldman, D.; Boerma, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which primary care physicians serve as gatekeepers for the treatment of psychosocial problems and the extent to which they have contact with social workers. We also attempted to identify physician variables related to gatekeeping and amount of contact with social

  10. Assessing the Psychosocial Problems In Parenting Sickle-Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the psycho social problems encountered in parenting sickle-cell children in Enugu. Method: The subjects include all parents, guardian, foster parents of sickle cell children who have the responsibility of caring for sickle-cell children and who have attended the sickle-cell clinic of the UNTH between June to ...

  11. Associations of health behaviors, school performance and psychosocial problems in adolescents in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Vincent; Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus

    2017-04-01

    School-based health-promoting interventions show promising results in improving various health outcomes of adolescents. Unfortunately, much is still unknown about the relations between health behaviors and school performances, while improving these would give schools a stronger incentive to invest in health promotion. This paper presents the associations of several health behaviors with school performances and studies the mediating effects of psychosocial problems. Health behavior and socio-demographic data were gathered from 905 Dutch high school students via an online survey, completed in-class. These data were matched with school records of the students' overall grade average (GA) on the three core subjects in Dutch high schools (Dutch, English and Math). The associations between health behaviors and school performances, and the potentially mediating effects of psychosocial problems, were studied via mixed-effects regression models. Smoking, being bullied, compulsive and excessive internet use and low physical activity were directly associated with lower school grades. Additionally, being bullied, bullying, smoking, excessive and compulsive internet use were associated with students' grades via mediation of psychosocial problems. This means that lower school grades were (also) associated with those behaviors through the effects of psychosocial problems in those students. This study showed the strong links between health behaviors and academic achievements among adolescents. Schools and health promoters should be educated more on these relations, so that they are aware of this common interest to get more support for health-promoting interventions. Additionally, the role of psychosocial problems in the relations between behaviors and school performances should be studied further in future research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Psychosocial problems in families of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajajee, Sarala; Ezhilarasi, S; Indumathi, D

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of diagnosis of cancer on the parents, to study the coping response adopted by the child and the family and to evolve counseling strategies. Prospective questionnaire based. Thirty-four parents of children suffering from cancer were included, of which 15 belonged to joint families and 19 to nuclear families. The family support played an important role in giving emotional sustenance, besides shared care of the child, the sibling and the household. Emotional and psychological impact was maximum on the mothers. Siblings of the cancer child were also affected both by way of behaviour problems and school performance. Behaviour problems in the cancer child included temper tantrums, as also verbal and physical abuse of mothers. Group therapy was useful for sharing emotional trauma and exchanging day to day problems of childcare. Positive outlook helped in better care of the cancer child. The family structure was the foundation for emotional and psychological security. Psychological support by professional tumour support group would enhance this.

  13. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a

  14. The patient–body relationship and the "lived experience" of a facial burn injury: a phenomenological inquiry of early psychosocial adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean LM

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Loyola M McLean,1–3 Vanessa Rogers,3–4 Rachel Kornhaber,5–7 Marie-Therese Proctor,8 Julia Kwiet,3–4 Jeffrey Streimer,3–4 John Vanderord6 1Brain and Mind Centre and Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Westmead Psychotherapy Program, Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney and Western Sydney Local Health District, Parramatta, NSW, Australia; 3Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4Discipline of Psychiatry, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Alexandria, NSW, Australia; 6Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 7School of Nursing, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia; 8Graduate School of Counselling, Excelsia College, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Throughout development and into adulthood, a person's face is the central focus for interpersonal communication, providing an important insight into one's identity, age, sociocultural background, and emotional state. The face facilitates important social, including nonverbal, communication. Therefore, sustaining a severe burn, and in particular a facial burn, is a devastating and traumatizing injury. Burn survivors may encounter unique psychosocial problems and experience higher rates of psychosocial maladjustment, although there may be a number of potentially mediating factors. Objectives: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the early recovery experience of patients with a facial burn. In particular, this study focused on how the injury impacted on the participants’ relationship with their own body and the challenges of early psychosocial adjustment within the first 4 months of sustaining the injury. Methods: In 2011, six adult participants encompassing two females and four males

  15. Memory problems in dementia: adaptation and coping strategies and psychosocial treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dröes, Rose-Marie; van der Roest, Henriëtte G; van Mierlo, Lisa; Meiland, Franka J M

    2011-12-01

    Memory problems are generally quite prominent in dementia and they have a significant impact on everyday functioning. Medication developed for Alzheimer's disease, for example, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, can slow down the increase of cognitive impairment for a while. In addition to pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment methods are also used, some of which have a positive effect on cognition, for example, cognitive rehabilitation, cognitive stimulation therapy and movement therapy. However, more research is needed. This article first describes the consequences of memory problems on the everyday life of people with dementia and summarizes research findings on how people with dementia experience and cope with their illness. We then discuss the most frequently applied psychosocial treatments for cognitive problems in dementia.

  16. Psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arim, Rubab G; Kohen, Dafna E; Garner, Rochelle E; Lach, Lucyna M; Brehaut, Jamie C; MacKenzie, Michael J; Rosenbaum, Peter L

    2015-01-01

    This study examines psychosocial functioning in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and/or externalizing behavior problems (EBPs) as compared to children with neither condition. The longitudinal sample, drawn from the Canadian National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, included children who were 6 to 9 years old in Cycle 1 who were followed-up biennially in Cycles 2 and 3 (N = 3476). The associations between NDDs and/or EBPs, child and family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors (consistency and ineffective parenting), were examined across several measures of child psychosocial functioning: peer relationships, general self-esteem, prosocial behavior and anxiety-emotional problems. Children with NDDs, EBPs, and both NDDs and EBPs self-reported lower scores on general self-esteem. Children with NDDs and both NDDs and EBPs reported lower scores on peer relationships and prosocial behavior. Lastly, children with both NDDs and EBPs self-reported higher scores on anxiety-emotional behaviors. After considering family socio-demographic characteristics and parenting behaviors, these differences remained statistically significant only for children with both NDDs and EBPs. Child age and gender, household income and parenting behaviors were important in explaining these associations. Psychosocial functioning differs for children with NDDs and/or EBPs. Children with both NDDs and EBPs appear to report poorer psychosocial functioning compared to their peers with neither condition. However, it is important to consider the context of socio-demographic characteristics, parenting behaviors and their interactions to understand differences in children's psychosocial functioning. Implication for Rehabilitation: Practitioners may wish to consider complexity in child health by examining a comprehensive set of determinants of psychosocial outcomes as well as comorbid conditions, such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) and externalizing

  17. Parental divorce during early adolescence in Caucasian families: the role of family process variables in predicting the long-term consequences for early adult psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, P; Forehand, R; Armistead, L; Tannenbaum, L

    1998-04-01

    The relationship between parental divorce occurring during adolescence and young adult psychosocial adjustment was examined, as was the role of family process variables in clarifying this relationship. Participants were young Caucasian adults from divorced (n = 119) and married (n = 123) families. Assessments were conducted during adolescence and 6 years later during early adulthood. Young adults from married families reported more secure romantic attachments than those from divorced families; however, differences were not evident in other domains of psychosocial adjustment after demographic variables were controlled. Three family process variables (parent-adolescent relationship, interparental conflict, and maternal depressive symptoms) were examined as potential mediators and moderators of the association between parental divorce and young adult adjustment. No evidence supporting mediation or moderation was found; however, the parent-adolescent and parent-young adult relationships, particularly when the identified parent was the father, emerged as significant predictors of young adult psychosocial adjustment.

  18. Longitudinal Associations between Keeping a Secret and Psychosocial Adjustment in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2009-01-01

    Increasing bodies of evidence suggest that keeping secrets may be detrimental to well-being and adjustment, whereas confiding secrets may alleviate the detriments of secrecy and benefit well-being and adjustment. However, few studies have addressed the consequences of keeping and confiding secrets simultaneously, and even fewer have done so…

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Adjustment among First Year College of Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Samuel O.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of psychological and social factors to the prediction of adjustment to college. A total of 250 first year students from colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria, completed measures of self-esteem, emotional intelligence, stress, social support and adjustment. Regression analyses…

  20. Motivational goals, group identifications, and psychosocial adjustment of returning migrants: The case of Jews returning to Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartakovsky, Eugene; Patrakov, Eduard; Nikulina, Marina

    2017-12-01

    The present study investigated the motivational goals, group identifications, and psychosocial adjustment of Jews who returned to Russia after emigrating from the republics of the Former Soviet Union to different countries (n = 151). To gain a deeper understanding of these returning migrants, their traits were compared with those of Jews living in Russia who did not emigrate (n = 935). Compared to locals, returnees reported a higher preference for the openness to change and self-enhancement values and a lower preference for the conservation values; there was no difference in the self-transcendence values. Returning migrants had a relatively weak affiliation with the home country: they had a weaker identification with the home country than with the country of emigration, their identification with Russians was weaker than that among Jews who did not emigrate from Russia, and their intention to emigrate (again) from Russia was greater than that among locals. However, the Jewish identification of returning migrants was similar to that of locals. The adjustment of returning migrants varied across different dimensions: their economic adjustment was better than that of locals; however, the interpersonal adjustment of returnees was less successful than among locals. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Bridging the divide: openness in adoption and postadoption psychosocial adjustment among birth and adoptive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Martin, David M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John B; Reiss, David

    2008-08-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents' postadoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N = 112), an understudied sample, were also explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers' postplacement adjustment, as indexed by birth mothers' self-reports and the interviewers' impression of birth mothers' adjustment. Birth fathers' report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better postadoption adjustment.

  2. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle EMC; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID...

  3. The syndemic condition of psychosocial problems and HIV risk among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.

  4. An asthma-related quality of life instrument is unable to identify asthmatic children with major psychosocial problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibosch, M.M.; Reidsma, C.; Landstra, A.; Hugen, C.A.C.; Gerrits, P.; Brouwer, M.; Gent, R. van; Merkus, P.J.F.M.; Verhaak, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that psychosocial problems among children and adolescents with asthma interfere with adherence to treatment and therefore need attention in asthma care. It is unknown whether the already frequently implemented asthma-related quality of life (QoL) instruments reflect psychosocial

  5. Psychosocial adjustment of children with chronic illness: an evaluation of three models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartstein, M A; Short, A D; Vannatta, K; Noll, R B

    1999-06-01

    This study was designed to assess social, emotional, and behavioral functioning of children with chronic illness and to evaluate three models addressing the impact of chronic illness on psychosocial functioning: discrete disease, noncategorical, and mixed. Families of children with cancer, sickle cell disease, hemophilia, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis participated, along with families of classroom comparison peers without a chronic illness who had the closest date of birth and were of the same race and gender (COMPs). Mothers, fathers, and children provided information regarding current functioning of the child with chronic illness or the COMP child. Child Behavior Checklist and Children's Depression Inventory scores were examined. Results provided support for the noncategorical model. Thus, the mixed model evaluated in this study requires modifications before its effectiveness as a classification system can be demonstrated.

  6. Intellectual disability among Dutch homeless people: prevalence and related psychosocial problems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Van Straaten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a higher prevalence of intellectual disability (ID among homeless people than in the general population. However, little is known about the additional psychosocial problems faced by homeless people with ID. We describe the prevalence of ID in a cohort of homeless people in the Netherlands, and report relationships between ID and psychosocial problems in terms of psychological distress, substance (misuse and dependence, as well as demographic characteristics in this cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is part of a cohort study among homeless people in the four major cities of the Netherlands. Data were derived from 387 homeless people who were interviewed and screened for ID six months after the baseline measurement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ2 tests were performed to analyze relationships between ID, psychosocial problems and demographic characteristics. FINDINGS: Of all cohort members, 29.5% had a suspected ID. Participants with a suspected ID had a higher mean age, were more likely to be male and to fall in the lowest category of education than participants without a suspected ID. Having a suspected ID was related to general psychological distress (OR  = 1.56, p<0.05, somatization (OR  = 1.84, p<0.01, depression (OR  = 1.58, p<0.05 and substance dependence (OR  = 1.88, p<0.05. No relationships were found between a suspected ID and anxiety, regular substance use, substance misuse and primary substance of use. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ID among Dutch homeless people is higher than in the general population, and is related to more psychosocial problems than among homeless people without ID. Homeless people with a suspected ID appear to be a vulnerable subgroup within the homeless population. This endorses the importance of the extra attention required for this subgroup.

  7. The correlation between ostomy knowledge and self-care ability with psychosocial adjustment in Chinese patients with a permanent colostomy: a descriptive study .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang; Meng, Ai-feng; Yang, Li-Fang; Zhang, Yi-nan

    2013-07-01

    A colostomy can have a negative impact on patient quality of life. Research suggests that psychosocial adaptation is positively associated with quality of life, but few reports address this adaptation and its related factors in patients with a permanent colostomy. A 4-month, descriptive study was conducted to assess the impact of ostomy knowledge and ability to self-care on the psychosocial adjustment of 54 Chinese outpatients (47 men, 14 participants 40 to 50 years old, 40 participants 50 to 70 years old) with a permanent colostomy to investigate the correlation between stoma knowledge, self-care ability, and psychosocial adjustment. Assessment instruments included a sociodemographic data questionnaire and a Chinese translation of the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 that comprises 20 items in three domains (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life). Participants rated statements on a scale from 0 (totally disagree) to 4 (totally agree); a score of 40 indicates a low level of psychosocial adjustment. Participants also completed the Stoma-related Knowledge Scale, comprising 14 5-point Likert scale questions where low scores indicate low knowledge, and they answered one question regarding self-care ability. Data were analyzed using statistical software for social science. The average stoma-related knowledge score suggested moderate levels of knowledge (45.112 ± 13.358). Twenty (20) participants managed all stoma care aspects independently, 30 required some assistance, and four (4) required care by someone else. The three domains of psychosocial adjustment scores (positive emotions, negative emotions, and social life) were 17.60 ± 4.093,12.92 ± 3.440, and 19.15 ± 6.316, respectively. Knowledge and the three domains of psychosocial adjustment were positively correlated with positive emotion (r = .610, P = 0.001), negative emotion (r = .696, P = 0.000), and social life adjustment (r = .617, P = 0.001). A significant difference in psychosocial adjustment

  8. Crack users show high rates of antisocial personality disorder, engagement in illegal activities and other psychosocial problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim Kessler, Felix Henrique; Barbosa Terra, Mauro; Faller, Sibele; Ravy Stolf, Anderson; Carolina Peuker, Ana; Benzano, Daniela; Pechansky, Flavio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three groups of Brazilian psychoactive substance (PAS) abuse patients (crack cocaine users, cocaine snorters, and non-cocaine PAS users) in terms of psychiatric comorbidities and severity of psychosocial problems. A cross-sectional, multi-center study was conducted at five Brazilian research centers. A total of 738 current PAS abusers seeking specialized treatment (outpatient and inpatient clinics) were assessed using the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6): 293 patients using crack cocaine were compared with 126 using powder cocaine and 319 using non-cocaine PAS (mostly alcohol and marijuana). Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed in a smaller sample (290 cases), originating from three of the centers, using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI-Plus). Crack and powder cocaine users were significantly younger than non-cocaine PAS users (31.1 ± 8.1 and 32.9 ± 8.8 vs. 42.4 ± 12, respectively; p antisocial personality disorder (25%) than powder cocaine (9%) and non-cocaine PAS users (9%), even when adjusted for confounding factors (Pr = 2.6; 95% CI 1.10-6.40). According to ASI-6 summary scores, crack users presented a significantly higher rate of occupational, family, and legal problems and reported more illegal and violent activities such as burglary and theft (23%) and threatening or assaulting (32%) than non-cocaine PAS users. Our findings, combined with the recent increase observed in the prevalence of crack use in Brazil, highlight the severity of psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial problems related to this powerful drug and corroborate the already suggested association between crack/cocaine, violence, and legal problems. Treatment programs for crack users should routinely consider the possibility of associated psychiatric comorbidities, such as antisocial personality disorder, which may affect treatment outcomes. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. In Vitro Fertilization and the Family: Quality of Parenting, Family Functioning, and Child Psychosocial Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Chun-Shin; DiPietro, Janet A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined associations between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and parenting quality, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral adjustment of 3- to 7-year-olds. Found that IVF mothers reported greater protectiveness than mothers of naturally conceived children. Teachers rated IVF mothers as displaying greater warmth but not overprotective or…

  10. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  11. Youth Psychosocial Adjustment Following Wildfire: The Role of Family Resilience, Emotional Support, and Concrete Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Caryll M.; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Felix, Erika; Afifi, Tamara; Reyes, Gilbert; Afifi, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural disasters can have a significant impact on youth and family mental health and well-being. However, the relationship between family protective factors and youth adjustment in the aftermath of disaster remains unclear. Objective: In order to address the present gaps in the field, this study investigated perceived disaster-related…

  12. Relation between Assertiveness, Academic Self-Efficacy, and Psychosocial Adjustment among International Graduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyrazli, Senel; Arbona, Consuelo; Nora, Amaury; McPherson, Robert; Pisecco, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, Academic Self-Efficacy Scale, The Inventory for Student Adjustment Strain, and UCLA Loneliness Scale were used to examine a total of 122 graduate international students. Findings indicate that English proficiency, assertiveness, and academic self-efficacy contributed uniquely to the variance in students' general…

  13. Psychosocial Influences on College Adjustment in Division I Student-Athletes: The Role of Athletic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Mickey C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, graduation rates have been employed as a primary measure of college success for student-athletes. However, other sport related factors influencing college success and adjustment have yet to be adequately researched in the literature. The purpose of this study was to examine more closely the impact of race, gender, and athletic…

  14. Emotion Regulation Profiles, Temperament, and Adjustment Problems in Preadolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wilson, Anna C.; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal relations of emotion regulation profiles to temperament and adjustment in a community sample of preadolescents (N = 196, 8-11 years at Time 1) were investigated using person-oriented latent profile analysis (LPA). Temperament, emotion regulation, and adjustment were measured at 3 different time points, with each time point…

  15. Good practices in managing work-related indoor air problems: a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahtinen, Marjaana; Huuhtanen, Pekka; Vähämäki, Kari; Kähkönen, Erkki; Mussalo-Rauhamaa, Helena; Reijula, Kari

    2004-07-01

    Indoor air problems at workplaces are often exceedingly complex. Technical questions are interrelated with the dynamics of the work community, and the cooperation and interaction skills of the parties involved in the problem solving process are also put to the test. The objective of our study was to analyze the process of managing and solving indoor air problems from a psychosocial perspective. This collective case study was based on data from questionnaires, interviews and various documentary materials. Technical inspections of the buildings and indoor air measurements were also carried out. The following four factors best differentiated successful cases from impeded cases: extensive multiprofessional collaboration and participative action, systematic action and perseverance, investment in information and communication, and process thinking and learning. The study also proposed a theoretical model for the role of the psychosocial work environment in indoor air problems. The expertise related to social and human aspects of problem solving plays a significant role in solving indoor air problems. Failures to properly handle these aspects may lead to resources being wasted and result in a problematic situation becoming stagnant or worse. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. An accurate and efficient identification of children with psychosocial problems by means of computerized adaptive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Symen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Questionnaires used by health services to identify children with psychosocial problems are often rather short. The psychometric properties of such short questionnaires are mostly less than needed for an accurate distinction between children with and without problems. We aimed to assess whether a short Computerized Adaptive Test (CAT can overcome the weaknesses of short written questionnaires when identifying children with psychosocial problems. Method We used a Dutch national data set obtained from parents of children invited for a routine health examination by Preventive Child Healthcare with 205 items on behavioral and emotional problems (n = 2,041, response 84%. In a random subsample we determined which items met the requirements of an Item Response Theory (IRT model to a sufficient degree. Using those items, item parameters necessary for a CAT were calculated and a cut-off point was defined. In the remaining subsample we determined the validity and efficiency of a Computerized Adaptive Test using simulation techniques, with current treatment status and a clinical score on the Total Problem Scale (TPS of the Child Behavior Checklist as criteria. Results Out of 205 items available 190 sufficiently met the criteria of the underlying IRT model. For 90% of the children a score above or below cut-off point could be determined with 95% accuracy. The mean number of items needed to achieve this was 12. Sensitivity and specificity with the TPS as a criterion were 0.89 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion An IRT-based CAT is a very promising option for the identification of psychosocial problems in children, as it can lead to an efficient, yet high-quality identification. The results of our simulation study need to be replicated in a real-life administration of this CAT.

  17. Parent’s Mentally Retarded Child Psycho-Social Problems Covered by Welfare Centers Khorramabad 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Malekshahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background :Mentally retarded child, the family put in a lot of trouble that most of the parents felt. Therefore, understanding and correct identification of problems and related factors are essential to help and support them. Therefore, this study cross sectional analytical descriptive carried out to determine parent’s mentally retarded  child psycho-social problems under covering welfare centers Khorramabad 2013. Materials and Methods: In this study samples were collected from parents of all mental retarded children. The data collection tools were including demographic questionnaires, mental and social problems. 144 questionnaires were completed by every parent. Validity and reliability were got by content validity and were gathered of data in the one stage and data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results: The results showed that all parent had psycho-social problems, but the mothers of the large number of roles in the family had an average of more mother’s emotional and social problems1/46±0/55, 1/54±0/69 and father’s 1/43±0/74, 1/36±0/55. There was significant relationship between parental education and disable child gender. Discussion: The effect of disability on parents depends on their potency and capacity. It seems to reduce of parents of children with mental retarded, they need to services and full support.

  18. Observed and perceived parental overprotection in relation to psychosocial adjustment in preadolescents with a physical disability: the mediational role of behavioral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbeck, Grayson N; Johnson, Sharon Z; Wills, Karen E; McKernon, Wendy; Rose, Brigid; Erklin, Shannon; Kemper, Therese

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to tes a mediational model of associations between parental overprotectiveness (OP), behavioral autonomy. and psychosocial adjustment in 68 families with 8- and 9-year-old preadolescents with spipa bifida and a demographically matched sample of 68 families with able-bodied children. Measures included questionnaire and observational assessments of parental OP; parent and child reports of behavioral autonomy; and parent, child, and teacher reports of preadolescent adjustment. On the basis of both questionnaire and observational measures of OP, mothers and fathers of children with spina bifida were significantly more overprotective than their counterparts in the able-bodied sample, although this group difference was partially mediated by children's cognitive ability. Across samples, mothers were more likely to be overprotective than fathers. Both questionnaire and observational measures of parental OP were associated with lower levels of preadolescent decision-making autonomy as well as with parents being less willing to grant autonomy to their offspring in the future. For the questionnaire measure of OP, and only for the spina bifida sample. the mediational model was supported such that parental OP was associated with less behavioral autonomy, which was, in turn, associated with more externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in relation to the literature on parenting, autonomy development, and pediatric psychology.

  19. Effect of operative treatment on psychosocial problems of men with gynaecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasielska, Anna; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2011-11-01

    Gynaecomastia is defined as a hyperplasia of the breast tissue in men, bilateral or unilateral, usually not associated with the presence of malignant lesions.The aim of the study was to explore the psychosocial problems of men with gynecomastia and the effect of operative breast reduction on these problems.Material and methods. The survey was conducted in a group of 47 men who were treated surgically for gynaecomastia in the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery. The mean age of the respondents was 25.6±3.5 years. For survey purposes, a questionnaire was developed with questions about the age of onset of gynaecomastia, coexisting disorders and medicines taken and also various aspects of the psychosocial life of the respondents. The questionnaire was completed by patients before surgery and at minimum 6 months after surgery.Results. The findings showed that in almost all patients gynaecomastia had caused emotional discomfort and limitation of everyday activity. In many patients, enlarged breasts caused difficulties in entering into social relationships. More than a half of the surveyed men admitted that their problems were ridiculed by others and they felt isolated. A comparison of the respondents' answers before and after the surgery showed statistically significant differences in all of the analysed questionnaire items.Conclusions. Gynaecomastia causes considerable emotional discomfort and limitation of everyday activity in young men, and that is why it constitutes a psychosocial problem. Surgical treatment of gynaecomastia significantly contributes to an increase in social activity and an improvement of social acceptance and emotional comfort, and thus significantly improves satisfaction from personal life in the men who underwent this intervention.

  20. Past horrors, present struggles: The role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E.; Williams, David R.; Ellis, B. Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups–commonly referred to as child soldiers–often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  1. Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Gilman, Stephen E; Williams, David R; Ellis, B Heidi

    2010-01-01

    Upon returning to their communities, children formerly associated with armed forces and armed groups--commonly referred to as child soldiers--often confront significant community stigma. Much research on the reintegration and rehabilitation of child soldiers has focused on exposure to past war-related violence and mental health outcomes, yet no empirical work has yet examined the role that post-conflict stigma plays in shaping long-term psychosocial adjustment. Two waves of data are used in this paper from the first prospective study of male and female former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. We examined the role of stigma (manifest in discrimination as well as lower levels of community and family acceptance) in the relationship between war-related experiences and psychosocial adjustment (depression, anxiety, hostility and adaptive behaviors). Former child soldiers differ from one another with regard to their post-war experiences, and these differences profoundly shape their psychosocial adjustment over time. Consistent with social stress theory, we observed that post-conflict factors such as stigma can play an important role in shaping psychosocial adjustment in former child soldiers. We found that discrimination was inversely associated with family and community acceptance. Additionally, higher levels of family acceptance were associated with decreased hostility, while improvements in community acceptance were associated with adaptive attitudes and behaviors. We found that post-conflict experiences of discrimination largely explained the relationship between past involvement in wounding/killing others and subsequent increases in hostility. Stigma similarly mediated the relationship between surviving rape and depression. However, surviving rape continued to demonstrate independent effects on increases in anxiety, hostility and adaptive/prosocial behaviors after adjusting for other variables. These findings point to the complexity of psychosocial adjustment and

  2. Applying the Transactional Stress and Coping Model to Sickle Cell Disorder and Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus: Identifying Psychosocial Variables Related to Adjustment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    This review paper examines the literature on psychosocial factors associated with adjustment to sickle cell disease and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in children through the framework of the transactional stress and coping (TSC) model. The transactional stress and coping model views adaptation to a childhood chronic illness as mediated by…

  3. Adjustment problems in the family and school contexts, attitude towards authority, and violent behavior at school in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musitu Ochoa, Gonzalo; Estévez Lopez, Estefania; Emler, Nicholas P

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using structural equation modeling. The model accounted for 32% of the variance in school violence. Results showed a direct association between quality of communication with father and teacher's expectations of the student with the adolescent's involvement in violent behavior at school. Moreover, findings showed indirect paths by which adolescents' self-concept (family and school domains), acceptance by peers, and attitude toward authority, seemed to be influenced by the quality of interactions with parent and teachers, and also were closely associated with violent behavior at school. Findings are discussed in relation to previous research on adolescent psychosocial adjustment and behavioral problems at school.

  4. Exploring the Adjustment Problems among International Graduate Students in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Stephanie; Salzman, Michael; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Due to the advance of technology, the American society has become more diverse. A huge population of international students in the U.S. faces unique issues. According to the existing literature, the top-rated anxieties international student faces are generally caused by language anxiety, cultural adjustments, and learning differences and barriers.…

  5. Internet addiction and physical and psychosocial behavior problems among rural secondary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Kamer; Yurt, Seher; Bulduk, Serap; Atagöz, Sinem

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine secondary school students' levels of Internet addiction and the physical and psychosocial behavior problems they face while using the Internet. This descriptive study was conducted in three state secondary schools in a rural area in the western part of Turkey. This study's sample consisted of 549 students who agreed to participate, with the consent of their families, and who had an Internet connection at home. The data were evaluated using t-tests and variance analyses. In this study the students' score of Internet addiction was at medium level (mean addiction score 44.51 ± 17.90). There were significant differences between the students' Internet addiction scores and the presence of physical behavior problems (going to bed late, skipping meals, eating meals in front of the computer) and psychosocial behavior problems (suffering from conditions such as restlessness, anger, heart palpitations, or tremors when they could not connect to the Internet, decreased relationships with family and friends, feelings of anger, arguing with parents, and finding life boring and empty without an Internet connection). © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN ROOIJ, ANTONIUS J.; KUSS, DARIA J.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.; SHORTER, GILLIAN W.; SCHOENMAKERS, M. TIM; VAN DE MHEEN, DIKE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Results: Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. Conclusions: It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers – specifically boys – showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming. PMID:25317339

  7. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Rooij, Antonius J; Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D; Shorter, Gillian W; Schoenmakers, M Tim; VAN DE Mheen, Dike

    2014-09-01

    The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, education performance, and use of cannabis, alcohol and nicotine (smoking). Findings confirmed problematic gaming is most common amongst adolescent gamers who play multiplayer online games. Boys (60%) were more likely to play online games than girls (14%) and problematic gamers were more likely to be boys (5%) than girls (1%). High problematic gamers showed higher scores on depressive mood, loneliness, social anxiety, negative self-esteem, and self-reported lower school performance. Nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis using boys were almost twice more likely to report high PVG than non-users. It appears that online gaming in general is not necessarily associated with problems. However, problematic gamers do seem to play online games more often, and a small subgroup of gamers - specifically boys - showed lower psychosocial functioning and lower grades. Moreover, associations with alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis use are found. It would appear that problematic gaming is an undesirable problem for a small subgroup of gamers. The findings encourage further exploration of the role of psychoactive substance use in problematic gaming.

  8. Adjustment of the problems of landslide GIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, S.; Doshida, S.; Oyagi, N.; Shimizu, F.; Inokuchi, T.

    2012-12-01

    Information on the distribution of landslides is a basic type of data used by countries for disaster prevention. Since 1972, 1:50,000 landslide maps have been produced at the Japanese National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention. From October 2000, the institute has been producing landslide GIS data and transmitting these data over the web. The area that has been published so far covers over 80% of Japan. Presently, the number of diagrams printed are 980 (March 2012). In addition, 350,000 landslide GIS data graphs have been digitized with the same diagrams as a base. Twelve years have passed since this GIS data acquisition program was launched, and in that time, several problems have been identified. These problems are listed below. 1) Scarps do not become polygonized. 2) Landslides which extend over the boundaries of the printed graphs are divided into separate elements. 3) When the time taken to read and interpret the landslide data differs, the shape of the landslides can vary between diagrams. 4) There have been cases of inaccurate positions and shapes in landslide GIS data produced since 2005. 5) Obvious mistakes are present in the attribute data. The causes of such problems are as follows: 1) Lack of technical examination at the time of the start of the production of the landslide GIS data. 2) Limitations of the landslide GIS data editing systems which were developed separately. 3) Program bugs which occur during the conversion of information input to an individual editing system into general-purpose GIS data. 4) Problems which arise during the process of the production of landslide GIS data. This project at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention is planned to be completed in 2013. By the end of the project, we hope to present a catalogue of all identified problems and formulate a plan to resolve them, and pass them on to the next generation.; Problems: For the diagram, scarps are presented by

  9. Area deprivation and child psychosocial problems - A national cross-sectional study among school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Brugman, E; Verhulst, FC; Verloove-Vanhorick, SP

    Background We examined the association of area deprivation with the occurrence of psychosocial problems among children aged 4-16 in a representative national sample of children based on standardised measures of parent-reported problems and diagnoses made by doctors and nurses working in child

  10. Assessing the Possibility of Leadership Education as Psychosocial-Based Problem Behavior Prevention for Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Theodore L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine theoretical connections between adolescent leadership education and problem behavior prevention. Both the problem behavior prevention literature and the leadership education literature were reviewed for studies pertaining to the development of psychosocial traits. In the leadership education literature this…

  11. Promoting Psychosocial Adjustment and Stress Management in First-Year College Students: The Benefits of Engagement in a Psychosocial Wellness Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Colleen S.; Travers, Lea V.; Bryant, Fred B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective/Methods: This research evaluates the effectiveness of a psychosocial wellness seminar for first-year college students, from 2009 to 2011, using an 8-month prospective quasi-experimental design. Participants/Results: Compared with controls ("n" = 22) involved in an alternative seminar, intervention participants ("n" =…

  12. [Identification of psychosocial problems in patients with Hansen's disease by analysis of computerized resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helene, L M; Rocha, M T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify leprosy patients' psychosocial problems experienced after they were informed about their diagnosis. We focused attention upon concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. Data were obtained by a two opened questions interview and they were analysed with the aid of artificial intelligence techniques. These intelligence tools were used to discover the most frequent words, phrases and concepts existing in the interview reports. The results showed that after being informed about their diagnosis, the majority of the patients referred some concerns and behavioral changes related to their families, friends, jobs and to themselves. The main concerns of the population were related to the disease (transmission, the treatment extension, the possibility of hospitalization, the uncertainty about the cure). These facts induced some of the patients to avoid telling people about the disease they have.

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment of Low-Income African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: The Role of the Youth-Coparent Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Jones, Deborah J.; Kincaid, Carlye

    2009-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes are at greater risk for internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their peers from two-parent homes. Although the predominance of psychosocial research on these youth has focused on maternal parenting and mother-child relationship quality, far less attention has been devoted to the quality…

  14. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbrecht Evelyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also

  15. Priorities in the communication needs of adolescents with psychosocial problems and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Margot; De Winter, Andrea F; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-12-01

    In patient-centred care, professionals should recognize their patient's needs and adapt their communication accordingly. Studies into patients' communication needs suggest priorities vary depending on sociodemographic characteristics, and type and severity of the complaints. However, evidence lacks on priorities in the communication needs of adolescents in psychosocial care and their parents. To assess adolescents' and parents' importance ratings concerning affective communication, information provision, shared decision-making, interprofessional communication and the degree to which client and care characteristics determine these. Adolescents aged 12-18 (n = 403) and one of their parents (n = 403) rated the importance of communication before the psychosocial care process started. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which characteristics were associated with the 25% lowest importance ratings for communication aspects. Adolescents and parents considered affective communication to be the most important, with shared decision-making the least important. For adolescents, lower importance ratings were associated with dissatisfaction with prior care (OR 1.8), negative expectations (ORs 1.9-2.4), emotional problems (ORs 0.2-0.5) and low prosocial behaviour skills (ORs 2.0). For parents, low education (ORs 1.7-1.8), negative expectations (OR 0.4), adolescent's hyperactivity/inattention (ORs 0.4-0.5) and low prosocial behaviour skills (ORs 1.8-2.6) determined lower importance ratings. Affective communication has highest priority for adolescents and their parents. Client and care characteristics are associated with client priorities in communication. Being attentive to clients' educational level, previous care experiences, current expectations and specific problem types might help professionals to adapt better to their clients' communication needs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Early Childhood Profiles of Sleep Problems and Self-Regulation Predict Later School Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Walker, Sue; Berthelsen, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children's sleep problems and self-regulation problems have been independently associated with poorer adjustment to school, but there has been limited exploration of longitudinal early childhood profiles that include both indicators. Aims: This study explores the normative developmental pathway for sleep problems and self-regulation…

  17. [Psychosocial adjustment of the handicapped child--possibilities and problems of rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulitz, R

    1989-01-01

    A successful childhood is to be striven after particularly for a handicapped child. Habilitation and rehabilitation, only carefully adapted to one another referring to medical specialties in colaboration with the family, may rise to the demand of the individuality of every one handicapped child. On prior conditions children with chiefly physical handicaps may be integrated into the polytechnical secondary school providing general education in the home town. The total-body examination of these children remains to be the basis for all paediatric actions.

  18. The adaptive problems of female teenage refugees and their behavioral adjustment methods for coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhaidat F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatin Mhaidat Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Abstract: This study aimed at identifying the levels of adaptive problems among teenage female refugees in the government schools and explored the behavioral methods that were used to cope with the problems. The sample was composed of 220 Syrian female students (seventh to first secondary grades enrolled at government schools within the Zarqa Directorate and who came to Jordan due to the war conditions in their home country. The study used the scale of adaptive problems that consists of four dimensions (depression, anger and hostility, low self-esteem, and feeling insecure and a questionnaire of the behavioral adjustment methods for dealing with the problem of asylum. The results indicated that the Syrian teenage female refugees suffer a moderate degree of adaptation problems, and the positive adjustment methods they have used are more than the negatives. Keywords: adaptive problems, female teenage refugees, behavioral adjustment

  19. Yoga--A Boon to the Adjustment Problems and Behavioural Disorders of Adolescent Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilselvi, B.; Mala, V.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence period is the most important stage of a human being and it is the stage between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence is a time of storm and stress. They cannot adjust to their new role in life. They can have mental, emotional, adjustment, and behavioural problems known as "disorders". Behavioural patterns that emerge in…

  20. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is in a general practice trial setting to identify predictive factors for weight loss after 1 year among young adults who are over-weight or obese and who have several psychosocial problems. METHODS: Twenty-eight general practitioners recruited 495 patients aged 20...

  1. The Come Back Programme: a rehabilitation programme for patients with brain injury with psychosocial problems despite previous rehabilitatio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, Alexander C.; Rulkens, Marc P.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Maathuis, Carel G.B.

    2002-01-01

    In 1994 the Come Back Programme (CBP) started in the rehabilitation centre, Groot Klimmendaal, in Arnhem, The Netherlands. The CBP is a rehabilitation programme for (young) adults with brain injury (BI) having problems with their psychosocial functioning despite having undergone a rehabilitation

  2. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: Does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.E.; Lanctot, N.; de Ruiter, C.; van Vugt, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n = 231), physically abused (n = 1,568), neglected (n = 1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n = 1,767), and non-victims (n = 8,492). In addition,

  3. Psychological Adjustment in Bullies and Victims of School Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Estefania; Murgui, Sergio; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined psychosocial adjustment in the following four groups of students: victims, bullies, bully/victims and a control group of adolescents not involved in bullying or victimization problems. Psychosocial adjustment was measured considering as indicators: level of self-esteem, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress,…

  4. [Cyber-bullying in adolescents: associated psychosocial problems and comparison with school bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiszewski, V; Fontaine, R; Huré, K; Rusch, E

    2013-04-01

    " bullying had higher scores for insomnia and perceived social disintegration than victims of "cyber only" bullying or students "non-involved". Higher general aggressiveness scores were observed for "school only" bullies and "school and cyber" bullies than for bullies in "cyber only" bullying or students "non-involved". Regarding antisocial behavior, "school only" bullies, "cyber only" bullies, "school and cyber" bullies had higher scores than students "non-involved". This study highlights the importance of investigating both school and cyber-bullying as many psychosocial problems are linked to these two specific and highly prevalent forms of bullying. Copyright © 2012 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The usefulness and feasibility of a screening instrument to identify psychosocial problems in patients receiving curative radiotherapy: a process evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeken, Anna PBM; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; Eekers, Daniëlle; Gils, Francis CJM van; Houben, Ruud MA; Lechner, Lilian

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial problems in cancer patients are often unrecognized and untreated due to the low awareness of the existence of these problems or pressures of time. The awareness of the need to identify psychosocial problems in cancer patients is growing and has affected the development of screening instruments. This study explored the usefulness and feasibility of using a screening instrument (SIPP: Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems) to identify psychosocial problems in cancer patients receiving curative radiotherapy treatment (RT). The study was conducted in a radiation oncology department in the Netherlands. Several methods were used to document the usefulness and feasibility of the SIPP. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires completed by seven radiotherapists and 268 cancer patients. Regarding the screening procedure 33 patients were offered to consult a psychosocial care provider (e.g. social worker, psychologist) during the first consultation with their radiotherapist. Of these patients, 31 patients suffered from at least sub-clinical symptoms and two patients hardly suffered from any symptoms. Patients' acceptance rate 63.6% (21/33) was high. Patients were positive about the content of the SIPP (mean scores vary from 8.00 to 8.88, out of a range between 0 and 10) and about the importance of discussing items of the SIPP with their radiotherapist (mean score = 7.42). Radiotherapists' perspectives about the contribution of the SIPP to discuss the different psychosocial problems were mixed (mean scores varied from 3.17 to 4.67). Patients were more positive about discussing items of the SIPP if the radiotherapists had positive attitudes towards screening and discussing psychosocial problems. The screening procedure appeared to be feasible in a radiotherapy department. In general, patients' perspectives were at least moderate. Radiotherapists considered the usefulness and feasibility of the SIPP generally to be lower, but their

  6. Psychosocial problems of pre-clinical students in the University of Ibadan Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O

    2003-06-01

    Recent changes in the psychosocial environment of the university campus such as the steep rise in student numbers, the high cost of living standards and the increase in violence and cult activities has prompted the need to assess the impact of these changes on the students. A cross sectional study was carried out among pre-clinical medical students to identify their psychosocial problems. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about socio-demographic variables including age, sex, sources of financial support, type of accommodation, smoking and drinking habits and use of recreational facilities. Causes of insecurity and depression among students were also recorded. The General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12 was used to assess their mental health status. One hundred and seventy-six students responded to the enquiry, 94 males (53%) and 80 females (45%). One hundred and thirty-seven (79%) live on the campus while 37 (21%) live off campus. Only 9 of the students (5%) were smokers and 28 (16%) were drinkers. Monthly pocket money ranged from Naira 1,000 to Naira 25,000. Forty-one (23%) thought their pocket money was adequate, 92 (52%) thought it was fair and 39 (22%) thought it was inadequate. Causes of insecurity on the campus were cultism 34 (19%), lack of money 27 (15%), lack of textbooks 13 (7%) and stealing 10 (6%). Causes of depression include fear of failure of examinations, 62 (35%), lack of money, 48 (27%) and family problems 17 (10%). Mental health scores ranged from 1 to 10. Using a cut off point of 3 to delineate those with traits of poor mental health, 35 (21%) fell into the category 15 boys and 20 girls. Mean mental health score were higher for females, those living on campus, smokers and drinkers but this was not statistically significant. Fear of failure of examinations, cultism and lack of money are major concerns among medical students on the main university campus. Counselling services should be provided to assist students with

  7. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with

  8. Longitudinal Links Between Identity Consolidation and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescence: Using Bi-Factor Latent Change and Cross-Lagged Effect Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Kai; Sugimura, Kazumi; Schwartz, Seth J

    2018-04-01

    Most previous identity research has focused on relationships between identity synthesis, confusion, and psychosocial problems. However, these studies did not take into account Erikson's notion of identity consolidation, that is, the dynamic interplay between identity synthesis and confusion. This study aimed to examine longitudinal relationships and the directionality of the effects between identity consolidation and psychosocial problems during adolescence, using two waves of longitudinal data from 793 Japanese adolescents (49.7% girls; ages 13-14 and 16-17 at Time 1). A bi-factor latent change model revealed that levels and changes in identity consolidation were negatively associated with levels and changes in psychosocial problems. Furthermore, a bi-factor cross-lagged effects model provided evidence that identity consolidation negatively predicted psychosocial problems, and vice versa. Our study facilitates a better understanding of the importance of identity consolidation in the relations between identity components and psychosocial problems.

  9. Benefit of Problem-Based Learning for Psychosocial Medicine: first experiences at the medical faculty of berne

    OpenAIRE

    Laederach-Hofmann, Kurt; Stadelmann, Barbara; Isenschmid, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    Aim: Presentation of skills and knowledge of medical students in psychiatry or psychosocial medicine in basic study (year 1 to 3) after the introduction of a problem oriented learning curriculum at the Medical Faculty of Berne.Method: Description of the curriculum with the different teaching units, and the evaluation by means of formative tools used by students and tutors.Results: With reference to qualitative comparison students of the problem based learning track showed a better preparation...

  10. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Effects of Ethnic Identity and Experiences of Discrimination on Psychosocial Adjustment of Navajo Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliher, Renee V.; Jones, Matthew D.; Dahl, Angie

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing…

  12. Ajuste psicosocial en agresores, víctimas puras y víctimas agresivas en la escuela. Psychosocial adjustment in aggressors, pure victims and aggressive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Estévez

    2008-07-01

    secondary schools in Valencia (Spain. Analyses of variance revealed significant differences between the four categories of students. Thus, adolescents not involved showed general better psychosocial adjustment; they had higher levels of self-esteem and satisfaction with life, and lower levels of depressive symptomatology, perceived stress and feeling of loneliness. The scores for this group were equivalent to those of aggressors with respect to self-esteem, depressive symptomatology and loneliness. However, aggressors perceived more stress and expressed less satisfaction with life, as did the other two groups, namely pure victims and aggressive victims. Victims reported the strongest feelings of loneliness.

    Key words: Aggressor, victim, aggressive victim, school violence, psychosocial adjustment.

  13. Suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Belinda; Hawton, Keith; Simkin, Sue; Mellanby, Richard J

    2012-02-01

    Rates of suicide are elevated among veterinary surgeons in several countries, yet little is known about contributory factors. We have conducted a systematic review of studies investigating suicidal behaviour and psychosocial problems in veterinary surgeons. A systematic search of the international research literature was performed in May 2008. Data from 52 studies of non-fatal suicidal behaviour, mental health difficulties, stress and burnout, occupational difficulties, and psychological characteristics of veterinary surgeons were extracted by two independent reviewers and analysed. Studies were rated for quality and greater emphasis placed on findings from higher quality studies. The majority of studies were of stress and occupational difficulties experienced by veterinary surgeons. Occupational stressors included managerial aspects of the job, long working hours, heavy workload, poor work-life balance, difficult client relations, and performing euthanasia. Few studies investigated suicidal behaviour or mental health difficulties in the profession. Some studies suggested that young and female veterinarians are at greatest risk of negative outcomes such as suicidal thoughts, mental health difficulties, and job dissatisfaction. The review highlights the difficulties faced by veterinary surgeons that may contribute to poor mental wellbeing and suicidal behaviour. Future research might include further examination of the influence of euthanasia on attitudes towards suicide and more direct examination of the impact that occupational risk factors might have on suicidal behaviour. Suggestions about the review's implications for suicide prevention in this group are also made.

  14. Psychosocial health problems associated with increased HIV risk behavior among men who have sex with men in Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshab Deuba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM are marginalized, hidden, underserved and at high risk for HIV in Nepal. We examined the association between MSM sub-populations, psychosocial health problems and support, access to prevention and non-use of condoms. METHODS: Between September-November of 2010, a cross-sectional survey on HIV-related risk behavior was performed across Nepal through snowball sampling facilitated by non-governmental organizations, recruiting 339 MSM, age 15 or older. The primary outcomes were: (a non-use of condoms at least once in last three anal sex encounters with men and (b non-use of condoms with women in the last encounter. The secondary outcome was participation in HIV prevention interventions in the past year. RESULTS: Among the 339 MSM interviewed, 78% did not use condoms at their last anal sex with another man, 35% did not use condoms in their last sex with a woman, 70% had experienced violence in the last 12 months, 61% were experiencing depression and 47% had thought of committing suicide. After adjustment for age, religion, marital status, and MSM subpopulations (bisexual, ta, meti, gay, non-use of condoms at last anal sex with a man was significantly associated with non-participation in HIV interventions, experience of physical and sexual violence, depression, repeated suicidal thoughts, small social support network and being dissatisfied with social support. Depression was marginally associated with non-use of condoms with women. The findings suggest that among MSM who reported non-use of condoms at last anal sex, the ta subgroup and those lacking family acceptance were the least likely to have participated in any preventive interventions. CONCLUSIONS: MSM in Nepal have a prevalence of psychosocial health problems in turn associated with high risk behavior for HIV. Future HIV prevention efforts targeting MSM in Nepal should cover all MSM subpopulations and prioritize psychosocial health interventions.

  15. Psychosocial problems of clinical students in the University of Ibadan Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Gureje, O

    2003-03-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out among medical students in the University of Ibadan to identify their socio economic and psychological problems. Three hundred and sixteen students, 159 males and 157 females participated in the study. The questionnaire, which was self-administered, sought information about sources of financial support, type of accommodation, use of recreational facilities, smoking and drinking habits and sources of stress and insecurity on the campus. The GHQ-12 was used to assess their mental status. Ninety-four percent of students were sponsored by their parents. Average monthly income as pocket money ranged from N800-N15,000. Sixty-three (20%) reported that their pocket money was inadequate and 11 (3.5%) engage in business ventures to supplement their income. Two hundred and fifty-seven (81%) live on the campus, 11 (3.5%) were current smokers and 54 (18%) were current drinkers. Stealing and lack of money were the commonest causes of insecurity on the campus. Lack of money, fear of failure of examinations, family problems and broken relationships were reported as causes of depression among this study population. GHQ scores ranged from 1 to 9 using a cut-off point of 3 scores, 38 students (12.0%) were categorised as having traits of poor mental health. GHQ scores were not associated with age, sex, smoking or drinking status or students' assessment of the adequacy of their pocket money. However, living off campus and poor self-perception were associated with poor mental health (p < 0.01). Counseling services should be provided in the medical school to assist students to handle issues that constitute a source of stress in their psychosocial environment.

  16. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors’ awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijzenga, Willem; Aaronson, Neil K; Hahn, Daniela E E; Sidharta, Grace N; van der Kolk, Lizet E; Velthuizen, Mary E; Ausems, Margreet G E M; Bleiker, Eveline M A

    2014-09-20

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics–specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family cancer clinics in The Netherlands were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. All participants completed the psychosocial questionnaire before counseling. In the intervention group, the counselors received the results of this questionnaire before the counseling session. All sessions were audiotaped for content analysis. Primary outcomes were the frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed, the genetic counselors’ awareness of these problems, and their management. Secondary outcomes included cancer worries and psychological distress, duration and dynamics of the counseling, and satisfaction. The frequency with which psychosocial problems were discussed with 246 participating counselees was significantly higher in the intervention group (n = 127) than in the control group (n =119; P = .004), as was the counselors’ awareness of psychosocial problems regarding hereditary predisposition (P cancer (P = .01), and general emotions (P cancer worries (p = .005) and distress (p = .02) after counseling. The routine assessment of psychosocial problems by questionnaire facilitates genetic counselors’ recognition and discussion of their clients’ psychosocial problems and reduces clients’ distress levels.

  17. The motivation paradox: higher psychosocial problem levels in severely mentally ill patients are associated with less motivation for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Cornelis L; Jochems, E; Kortrijk, H E

    2014-04-01

    Lack of motivation for treatment makes a subgroup of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) difficult to engage in psychiatric treatment. Such difficult-to-engage patients may also be the most in need of treatment. We hypothesized that the level of psychosocial problems would be inversely related to motivation for treatment. Cross-sectional study in two independent samples. The first sample (n = 294) included SMI patients who participated in a randomized controlled trial and were assessed using the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) and self-rated and clinician-rated motivation-for-treatment scales. The second sample (n = 1,170) included SMI patients who were treated in Assertive Outreach Teams and were routinely assessed with the HoNOS and a motivation-for-treatment scale. In both samples, patients also self-rated their quality of life. In both samples, patients with HoNOS scores of 16 and higher had lower motivation scores on all motivation scales than patients with lower HoNOS scores, and also a lower quality of life. A motivation paradox seems inherent to this association between higher psychosocial problems levels, less motivation for treatment, and lower quality of life. Such a paradox has clinical relevance, as it may provide an ethical basis for outreach services which aim to engage marginally motivated SMI patients with severe psychosocial problems into mental health care.

  18. [Co-construction of a program to promote community participation among seniors living with psychosocial issues, with or without mental health problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisien, Manon; Nour, Kareen; Belley, Anne-Marie; Aubin, Ginette; Billette, Véronique; Dallaire, Bernadette

    Objectives A significant proportion of Quebec seniors are living with mental health problems or psychosocial issues such as isolation, bereavement, and psychological distress. These people face many forms of exclusion and are likely to have limited social participation. This paper describes the co-construction steps of a program aimed at promoting community participation among this population.Methods A method for the co-construction of innovative practices in health promotion was used to develop a program that is relevant, rigorous and feasible in diverse settings. The process included several steps, notably: need analysis among seniors and practitioners, development of a logical model for the program, preparation of the leader's manual, validation of the manual by experts, and pilot testing of the program among groups of seniors.Results The goal of the Count me in! program is to promote utilization of the resources of the community that can provide seniors living with mental health conditions or psychosocial issues with activities and positive social contact. The intervention is based on the Strength Model. It includes an individual interview, an eight-meeting workshop, visits to community resources, and collective production of media communication.Conclusion A co-construction process allowed the program to be continuously adjusted in response to stakeholders' feedback. The most important lever for the co-construction was the reconciliation of the partners' practical, conceptual, and experiential expertise. However, contextual factors such as the organization and the availability of mental health services for seniors constituted important barriers to the process.

  19. Benefit of Problem-Based Learning for Psychosocial Medicine: first experiences at the medical faculty of berne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laederach-Hofmann, Kurt

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Presentation of skills and knowledge of medical students in psychiatry or psychosocial medicine in basic study (year 1 to 3 after the introduction of a problem oriented learning curriculum at the Medical Faculty of Berne.Method: Description of the curriculum with the different teaching units, and the evaluation by means of formative tools used by students and tutors.Results: With reference to qualitative comparison students of the problem based learning track showed a better preparation of the different teaching units than did traditional students. Moreover, compared to classical teaching, students in problem based learning rated the commitment of the teachers higher. The formative results showed a better adherence to the teaching modules, a higher effort in self learning and a higher interest in psychological or psychiatric learning items.Discussion: The higher commitment of teachers and the explicit structuring of the teaching contents in psychiatry and psychosocial medicine showed positive effects in the learning strategy of students. Beside the fact that exams have been adapted to the new curriculum one can assume that the learning style has changed. This might be a result of the better learning environment in the new curriculum. However, there is not clear how and to what extent these changes will remain active until the final exams of the medical curriculum when psychosocial contents will be reexamined.Conclusions: The intense commitment of the teachers and the better structuring of the subject matter may lead to a better integration of psychosocial and psychiatric issues into the medical curriculum.

  20. Reliability and validity of the KIPPPI: an early detection tool for psychosocial problems in toddlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Kruizinga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI. METHODS: Parents of 5959 2-year-old children in the Rotterdam area, the Netherlands, were invited to participate in the study. Parents of 3164 children (53.1% of all invited parents completed the questionnaire. The internal consistency was evaluated and in subsamples the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity with regard to the Child Behavioral Checklist (CBCL. Discriminative validity was evaluated by comparing scores of parents who worried about their child's upbringing and parent's that did not. Screening accuracy of the KIPPPI was evaluated against the CBCL by calculating the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curves. The clinical application was evaluated by the relation between KIPPPI scores and the clinical decision made by the child health professionals. RESULTS: Psychometric properties of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale and Autonomy scale were respectively: Cronbach's alphas: 0.88, 0.86, 0.83, 0.58. Test-retest correlations: 0.80, 0.76, 0.73, 0.60. Concurrent validity was as hypothesised. The KIPPPI was able to discriminate between parents that worried about their child and parents that did not. Screening accuracy was high (>0.90 for the KIPPPI Total score and for the Wellbeing scale. The KIPPPI scale scores and clinical decision of the child health professional were related (p<0.05, indicating a good clinical application. CONCLUSION: The results in this large-scale study of a diverse general population sample support the reliability, validity and clinical application of the KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale and Competence

  1. Psychosocial Adjustment and Sibling Relationships in Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Risk and Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Katherine M.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared sibling adjustment and relationships in siblings of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-Sibs; n = 69) and siblings of children with typical development (TD-Sibs; n = 93). ASD-Sibs and TD-Sibs demonstrated similar emotional/behavioral adjustment. Older male ASD-Sibs were at increased risk for difficulties. Sibling…

  2. Transitioning to adolescence: how changes in child personality and overreactive parenting predict adolescent adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Prinzie, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how changes in child Big Five personality characteristics and overreactive parenting during the transition from childhood to adolescence predict adolescent adjustment problems. The sample included 290 children, aged 8-9 years. At three moments, with 2-year intervals, mothers, fathers, and a teacher reported on the child's personality, and mothers and fathers reported on their parenting behavior. At the third measurement moment, mothers, fathers, and children reported on the child's adjustment problems. Rank-order stability of the personality dimensions and overreactive parenting were high. Univariate latent growth models revealed mean-level decreases for extraversion, conscientiousness, and imagination. Mean levels of benevolence, emotional stability, and overreactive parenting were stable. Multivariate latent growth models revealed that decreases in extraversion and emotional stability predicted internalizing problems, whereas decreases in benevolence, conscientiousness, and emotional stability predicted externalizing problems. Increases in overreactive parenting predicted externalizing, but not internalizing problems. The associations were similar for boys and girls. The results indicate that changes in child personality and overreactive parenting during the transition to adolescence are associated with adolescent adjustment problems. Overall, child personality was more important than overreactive parenting, and children were more likely to "act out" than to "withdraw" in reaction to overreactive parenting.

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  4. Bridging the Divide: Openness in Adoption and Post-adoption Psychosocial Adjustment among Birth and Adoptive Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Martin, David; Leve, Leslie; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Shaw, Daniel S.; Villareal, Georgette; Scaramella, Laura; Reid, John; Reiss, David

    2008-01-01

    Using 323 matched parties of birth mothers and adoptive parents, this study examined the association between the degree of adoption openness (e.g., contact and knowledge between parties) and birth and adoptive parents’ post-adoption adjustment shortly after the adoption placement (6 to 9 months). Data from birth fathers (N=112), an understudied sample, also were explored. Openness was assessed by multiple informants. Results indicated that openness was significantly related to satisfaction with adoption process among adoptive parents and birth mothers. Increased openness was positively associated with birth mothers’ post-placement adjustment as indexed by birth mothers’ self reports and the interviewers’ impression of birth mothers’ adjustment. Birth fathers’ report of openness was associated with their greater satisfaction with the adoption process and better post-adoption adjustment. PMID:18729667

  5. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Put, Claudia E; Lanctôt, Nadine; de Ruiter, Corine; van Vugt, Eveline

    2015-08-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n=231), physically abused (n=1,568), neglected (n=1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n=1,767), and non-victims (n=8,492). In addition, the moderating effect of gender in the association between type of maltreatment and offending behavior/psychosocial problems was examined. Results showed that violent offenses were more common in victims of physical abuse and victims of multiple forms of abuse than in non-victims, both in boys and girls. In boys, sexual offenses were far more common in victims of sexual abuse than in victims of other or multiple forms of maltreatment or in non-victims. In girls, no group differences were found in sexual offending behavior. For both boys and girls, externalizing problems were relatively common in victims of physical abuse and neglect whereas internalizing problems were relatively common in victims of sexual abuse. In victims of multiple forms of maltreatment, both internalizing and externalizing problems were relatively common. Implications for clinical practice are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. helth problems and psychosocial and physical factors of work environment of employees working in the companies of sales chain X in Kaunas

    OpenAIRE

    Šukaitienė, Deimantė

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the work – to determine and evaluate the health problems and the psychosocial and physical factors of work environment of employees working in sales chain X in Kaunas. Objectives: 1. To determine the peculiarities of health problems among sales chain employees‘ according to the sociodemografic characteristics. 2. To determine and evaluate the psychosocial and physical factors of work environment of Kaunas sales chain employees‘. 3. To evaluate the relations between the he...

  7. Psychosocial profile of pediatric brain tumor survivors with neurocognitive complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marieke Anna; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Yvonne Narda; van Vuurden, Dannis Gilbert; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Gidding, Corrie; Beek, Laura Rachel; Granzen, Bernd; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Grootenhuis, Martha Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    With more children surviving a brain tumor, neurocognitive consequences of the tumor and its treatment become apparent, which could affect psychosocial functioning. The present study therefore aimed to assess psychosocial functioning of pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) in detail. Psychosocial functioning of PBTS (8-18 years) with parent-reported neurocognitive complaints was compared to normative data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), self-esteem, psychosocial adjustment, and executive functioning (one-sample t tests) and to a sibling control group on fatigue (independent-samples t test). Self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires were included, where appropriate, providing complementary information. Eighty-two PBTS (mean age 13.4 years, SD 3.2, 49 % males) and 43 healthy siblings (mean age 14.3, SD 2.4, 40 % males) were included. As compared to the normative population, PBTS themselves reported decreased physical, psychological, and generic HRQOL (d = 0.39-0.62, p psychosocial adjustment seemed not to be affected. Parents of PBTS reported more psychosocial (d = 0.81, p psychosocial adjustment problems for female PBTS aged 8-11 years than for the female normative population (d = 0.69, p psychosocial problems, as reported by PBTS, parents, and teachers. Systematic screening of psychosocial functioning is necessary so that tailored support from professionals can be offered to PBTS with neurocognitive complaints.

  8. Less reduction of psychosocial problems among adolescents with unmet communication needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Margot; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Almansa, Josue; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J; De Winter, Andrea F

    Patient-professional communication has been suggested to be a major determinant of treatment outcomes in psychosocial care for children and adolescents. However, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown and no longitudinal studies have been performed. Our aim was, therefore, to assess over the

  9. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Kuss, D.J.; Griffiths, M.D.; Shorter, G.W.; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Mheen, D. van de

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a

  10. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Rooij (Antonius); O. Kuss (Oliver); M. Griffiths (Mark); G.W. Shorter (Gillian); T.M. Schoenmakers (Tim); H. van de Mheen (Dike)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to

  11. The Psychosocial Problems of Children with Narcolepsy and Those with Excessive Daytime Sleepiness of Uncertain Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stores, Gregory; Montgomery, Paul; Wiggs, Luci

    2007-01-01

    Background: Narcolepsy is a predominantly rapid eye movement sleep disorder with onset usually in the second decade but often in earlier childhood. Classically it is characterized by combinations of excessive sleepiness especially sleep attacks, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. The psychosocial effects of this lifelong…

  12. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Dollard (Maureen); A.B. Bakker (Arnold)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety.

  13. The (co-)occurrence of problematic video gaming, substance use, and psychosocial problems in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rooij, AJ; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Shorter, GW; Schoenmakers, TM; Van de Mheen, D

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The current study explored the nature of problematic (addictive) video gaming (PVG) and the association with game type, psychosocial health, and substance use. Methods: Data were collected using a paper and pencil survey in the classroom setting. Three samples were aggregated to achieve a total sample of 8478 unique adolescents. Scales included measures of game use, game type, the Video game Addiction Test (VAT), depressive mood, negative self-esteem, loneliness, social anxiety, educati...

  14. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome – A Medical Condition but also an Important Psychosocial Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Eggers, S.; Kirchengast, S.

    2001-01-01

    PCOS, the leading cause of anovulatory infertility that affects up to one fifth of the female population, is a complex chronic disease of genetic as well as environmental determination, but still unclear etiology. Besides of infertility, PCOS leads to menstrual dysfunctions, hirsutism and obesity – symptoms that are known to cause profound psychosocial distress. The present paper review the problematic of etiology and symptom expression of PCOS, which is not only a disease need...

  15. Psychosocial safety climate as a precursor to conducive work environments, psychological health problems, and employee engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Dollard, Maureen; Bakker, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe constructed a model of workplace psychosocial safety climate (PSC) to explain the origins of job demands and resources, worker psychological health, and employee engagement. PSC refers to policies, practices, and procedures for the protection of worker psychological health and safety. Using the job demands-resources framework, we hypothesized that PSC as an upstream organizational resource influenced largely by senior management, would precede the work context (i.e., job demand...

  16. Girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior predict adjustment problems in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Elsa; Blokland, Arjan A. J.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; Doreleijers, Theo A.H.; Loeber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that early onset of disruptive behavior is linked to a variety of detrimental outcomes in males later in life. In contrast, little is known about the association between girls’ childhood trajectories of disruptive behavior and adjustment problems in early adolescence. Methods The current study used 9 waves of data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study. A semi-parametric group based model was used to identify trajectories of disruptive behavior in 1,513 girls from age 6 to 12 years. Adjustment problems were characterized by depression, self-harm, PTSD, substance use, interpersonal aggression, sexual behavior, affiliation with delinquent peers, and academic achievement at ages 13 and 14. Results Three trajectories of childhood disruptive behavior were identified: low, medium, and high. Girls in the high group were at increased risk for depression, self-harm, PTSD, illegal substance use, interpersonal aggression, early and risky sexual behavior, and lower academic achievement. The likelihood of multiple adjustment problems increased with trajectories reflecting higher levels of disruptive behavior. Conclusion Girls following the high childhood trajectory of disruptive behavior require early intervention programs to prevent multiple, adverse outcomes in adolescence and further escalation in adulthood. PMID:25302849

  17. Influence of psychosocial risk factors on the trajectory of mental health problems from childhood to adolescence: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatori Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal epidemiological studies involving child/adolescent mental health problems are scarce in developing countries, particularly in regions characterized by adverse living conditions. We examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the trajectory of child/adolescent mental health problems (CAMHP over time. Methods A population-based sample of 6- to 13-year-olds with CAMHP was followed-up from 2002–2003 (Time 1/T1 to 2007–2008 (Time 2/T2, with 86 out of 124 eligible children/adolescents at T1 being reassessed at T2 (sample loss: 30.6%. Outcome: CAMHP at T2 according to the Child Behavior Checklist/CBCL’s total problem scale. Psychosocial factors: T1 variables (child/adolescent’s age, family socioeconomic status; trajectory of variables from T1 to T2 (child/adolescent exposure to severe physical punishment, mother exposure to severe physical marital violence, maternal anxiety/depression; and T2 variables (maternal education, child/adolescent’s social support and pro-social activities. Results Multivariate analysis identified two risk factors for child/adolescent MHP at T2: aggravation of child/adolescent physical punishment and aggravation of maternal anxiety/depression. Conclusions The current study shows the importance of considering child/adolescent physical punishment and maternal anxiety/depression in intervention models and mental health care policies.

  18. Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Robert J; Arbeau, Kimberley A; Armer, Mandana

    2008-04-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the moderating role of maternal personality and parenting characteristics in the links between shyness and adjustment in kindergarten. Participants were 197 children enrolled in kindergarten programs (and their mothers and teachers). Multisource assessment was employed, including maternal ratings, behavioral observations, teacher ratings, and individual child interviews. Results indicated that shyness was associated with a wide range of socio-emotional and school adjustment difficulties in kindergarten. Moreover, support for the moderating role of parenting was also found. Relations between shyness and certain indices of maladjustment were stronger among children with mothers characterized by higher neuroticism, BIS sensitivity, and an overprotective parenting style, and weaker for mothers characterized by high agree-ableness and an authoritative parenting style.

  19. The effectiveness of the Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: design of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeken, Anna PBM; Lechner, Lilian; Gils, Francis CJM van; Houben, Ruud MA; Eekers, Daniëlle; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM

    2009-01-01

    The Screening Inventory of Psychosocial Problems (SIPP) is a short, validated self-reported questionnaire to identify psychosocial problems in Dutch cancer patients. The one-page 24-item questionnaire assesses physical complaints, psychological complaints and social and sexual problems. Very little is known about the effects of using the SIPP in consultation settings. Our study aims are to test the hypotheses that using the SIPP (a) may contribute to adequate referral to relevant psychosocial caregivers, (b) should facilitate communication between radiotherapists and cancer patients about psychosocial distress and (c) may prevent underdiagnosis of early symptoms reflecting psychosocial problems. This paper presents the design of a cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT) evaluating the effectiveness of using the SIPP in cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. A CRCT is developed using a Solomon four-group design (two intervention and two control groups) to evaluate the effects of using the SIPP. Radiotherapists, instead of cancer patients, are randomly allocated to the experimental or control groups. Within these groups, all included cancer patients are randomised into two subgroups: with and without pre-measurement. Self-reported assessments are conducted at four times: a pre-test at baseline before the first consultation and a post-test directly following the first consultation, and three and 12 months after baseline measurement. The primary outcome measures are the number and types of referrals of cancer patients with psychosocial problems to relevant (psychosocial) caregivers. The secondary outcome measures are patients' satisfaction with the radiotherapist-patient communication, psychosocial distress and quality of life. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be carried out. Data of the effect-evaluation will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and data regarding the types of referrals to health care providers and patient

  20. Emotional and Meta-Emotional Intelligence as Predictors of Adjustment Problems in Students with Specific Learning Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Antonella; Guastaferro, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual's level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and…

  1. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents' vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants' increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 290% (AOR: 3.9 (1

  2. Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.

  3. Fluid Intelligence and Psychosocial Outcome: From Logical Problem Solving to Social Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huepe, David; Roca, María; Salas, Natalia; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro A.; Zamorano, Leandro; Concepción, Aimée; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    Background While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized. Methodology/Principal Findings A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM) and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire), domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale), drug intake (ONUDD), self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale) and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation). Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher. Conclusions/Significance Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts. PMID:21957464

  4. Fluid intelligence and psychosocial outcome: from logical problem solving to social adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huepe

    Full Text Available While fluid intelligence has proved to be central to executive functioning, logical reasoning and other frontal functions, the role of this ability in psychosocial adaptation has not been well characterized.A random-probabilistic sample of 2370 secondary school students completed measures of fluid intelligence (Raven's Progressive Matrices, RPM and several measures of psychological adaptation: bullying (Delaware Bullying Questionnaire, domestic abuse of adolescents (Conflict Tactic Scale, drug intake (ONUDD, self-esteem (Rosenberg's Self Esteem Scale and the Perceived Mental Health Scale (Spanish adaptation. Lower fluid intelligence scores were associated with physical violence, both in the role of victim and victimizer. Drug intake, especially cannabis, cocaine and inhalants and lower self-esteem were also associated with lower fluid intelligence. Finally, scores on the perceived mental health assessment were better when fluid intelligence scores were higher.Our results show evidence of a strong association between psychosocial adaptation and fluid intelligence, suggesting that the latter is not only central to executive functioning but also forms part of a more general capacity for adaptation to social contexts.

  5. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  6. Twins conceived using IVF: a follow-up of the family environment and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K N; Connor, J J; Koerner, A F; Rueter, M A

    2016-12-01

    Compared to families with IVF singletons, what are parental depressive, parent-adolescent interaction and adolescent adjustment outcomes in families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins? No differences were detected for any measured outcome between families with 11-17-year-old IVF twins and those with IVF singletons, despite high statistical power. When IVF twins are younger than 5-years-old, parents tend to have more mental health difficulties and poorer parent-child interactions relative to IVF singletons. By middle childhood, these differences may no longer exist and available studies with middle childhood-aged IVF twins challenge the expected long-term implications of the early concerns. IVF twins may even have more optimum adjustment than IVF singletons in middle childhood. Study of 280, 11-17-year-old IVF children (n = 122 twins and n = 158 singletons) from 195 families at a US reproductive endocrinology clinic. At Wave 1, clinic patients with an IVF child born between 1998 and 2004 were invited to participate in an online survey. In this follow-up study, mothers and fathers provided information on each of their 11-17-year-old IVF adolescents. There were no differences between 11- and 17-year-old IVF twins and IVF singletons in parent depressive symptoms, parent-adolescent interactions or adolescent adjustment outcomes. Although the family demographics are representative of IVF patients, participants were drawn from one US clinic. Study results provide reassurance that by adolescence IVF twins and their families function as well as IVF singletons and their families. University of Minnesota (UMN) Agriculture Experiment Station (MN-52-107), UMN Grant-in-Aid of Research, Artistry and Scholarship, UMN College of Education and Human Development Research Development Investment Grant, UMN Women's Philosophic Leadership Circle Award, UMN Eva Miller Endowed Fellowship. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  7. Subtype differences in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with regard to ADHD-symptoms, psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, Esther; Brüggemann, Daniel; Alm, Barbara; Kern, Sebastian; Philipsen, Alexandra; Schmalzried, Hannah; Hesslinger, Bernd; Waschkowski, H; Rietschel, Marcella

    2008-03-01

    To date, nearly all research of subtype differences in ADHD has been performed in children and only two studies, with conflicting results, have covered this subject in adults with ADHD. This study examined subtype differences in the clinical presentation of ADHD-symptoms, related psychopathological features, psychosocial functioning and comorbid psychiatric disorders in adults with ADHD. One hundred and eighteen adults with ADHD, diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and a population based control group underwent diagnostic evaluations with clinical interviews for ADHD, DSM-IV disorders and demographic features. Comparisons were made between ADHD combined type (n=64), predominantly inattentive type (n=30) and predominantly inattentive type, anamnestically combined type (n=24), relative to each other and to a community control group (n=70). The four groups did not differ in age and gender composition. All ADHD groups had significantly less education, were significantly more often unemployed and reported significantly more lifetime psychiatric comorbidity than controls. In comparison to each other, the three ADHD groups differed mainly in core symptoms and the pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders, whereas no prominent differences in associated psychopathological features and most of the assessed psychosocial functions could be found. Patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type both presented with significantly more hyperactive symptoms and also showed more impulsive symptoms than those with the predominantly inattentive type. With a similar overall lifetime psychiatric comorbidity in the three groups, patients with ADHD combined type and inattentive, anamnestically combined type suffered significantly more from lifetime substance use disorders than patients with predominantly inattentive type. Our results clearly show impaired psychosocial adjustment and elevated risk for additional psychiatric disorders in adults with all

  8. A Cross-Section Adjustment Method for Double Heterogeneity Problem in VHTGR Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTGRs) draw strong interest as candidates for a Gen-IV reactor concept, in which TRISO (tristructuralisotropic) fuel is employed to enhance the fuel performance. However, randomly dispersed TRISO fuel particles in a graphite matrix induce the so-called double heterogeneity problem. For design and analysis of such reactors with the double heterogeneity problem, the Monte Carlo method is widely used due to its complex geometry and continuous-energy capabilities. However, its huge computational burden, even in the modern high computing power, is still problematic to perform wholecore analysis in reactor design procedure. To address the double heterogeneity problem using conventional lattice codes, the RPT (Reactivityequivalent Physical Transformation) method considers a homogenized fuel region that is geometrically transformed to provide equivalent self-shielding effect. Another method is the coupled Monte Carlo/Collision Probability method, in which the absorption and nu-fission resonance cross-section libraries in the deterministic CPM3 lattice code are modified group-wise by the double heterogeneity factors determined by Monte Carlo results. In this paper, a new two-step Monte Carlo homogenization method is described as an alternative to those methods above. In the new method, a single cross-section adjustment factor is introduced to provide self-shielding effect equivalent to the self-shielding in heterogeneous geometry for a unit cell of compact fuel. Then, the homogenized fuel compact material with the equivalent cross-section adjustment factor is used in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation for various types of fuel blocks (or assemblies). The procedure of cross-section adjustment is implemented in the MCNP5 code

  9. Do problem-solving interventions improve psychosocial outcomes in vision impaired adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Edith E; Xie, Jing; Sturrock, Bonnie A; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Rees, Gwyneth

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of problem-solving interventions on psychosocial outcomes in vision impaired adults. A systematic search of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published between 1990 and 2013, that investigated the impact of problem-solving interventions on depressive symptoms, emotional distress, quality of life (QoL) and functioning was conducted. Two reviewers independently selected and appraised study quality. Data permitting, intervention effects were statistically pooled and meta-analyses were performed, otherwise summarised descriptively. Eleven studies (reporting on eight trials) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis showed problem-solving interventions improved vision-related functioning (standardised mean change [SMC]: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.04-0.27) and emotional distress (SMC: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.19). There was no evidence to support improvements in depressive symptoms (SMC: -0.27, 95% CI: -0.66 to 0.12) and insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of problem-solving interventions on QoL. The small number of well-designed studies and narrow inclusion criteria limit the conclusions drawn from this review. However, problem-solving skills may be important for nurturing daily functioning and reducing emotional distress for adults with vision impairment. Given the empirical support for the importance of effective problem-solving skills in managing chronic illness, more well-designed RCTs are needed with diverse vision impaired samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Child behaviour problems, parenting behaviours and parental adjustment in mothers and fathers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Wells, Michael B; Sarkadi, Anna

    2014-11-01

    We aim to examine the relationship between child behavioural problems and several parental factors, particularly parental behaviours as reported by both mothers and fathers in a sample of preschool children in Sweden. Participants were mothers and fathers of 504 3- to 5-year-olds that were recruited through preschools. They completed a set of questionnaires including the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, Parenting Scale, Parent Problem Checklist, Dyadic Adjustment Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale. Correlational analyses showed that parent-reported child behaviour problems were positively associated with ineffective parenting practices and interparental conflicts and negatively related to parental competence. Regression analyses showed that, for both mothers and fathers, higher levels of parental over-reactivity and interparental conflict over child-rearing issues and lower levels of parental satisfaction were the most salient factors in predicting their reports of disruptive child behaviour. This study revealed that swedish parents' perceptions of their parenting is related to their ratings of child behaviour problems which therefore implies that parent training programs can be useful in addressing behavioural problems in Swedish children. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Social problem-solving and social adjustment in paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa M; Bigler, Erin; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the predictors of social deficits that occur following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study sought to investigate social problem solving (SPS) and its relationship to social adjustment after TBI. Participants included 8-13 year old children, 25 with severe TBI, 57 with complicated mild-to-moderate TBI and 61 with orthopaedic injuries (OI). Children responded to scenarios involving negative social situations by selecting from a fixed set of choices their causal attribution for the event, their emotional reaction to the event and how they would behave in response. Parent ratings of social behaviours and classmate friendship nominations and sociometric ratings were obtained for a sub-set of all participants. Children with severe TBI were less likely than children with OI to indicate they would attribute external blame or respond by avoiding the antagonist; they were more likely to indicate they would feel sad and request adult intervention. Although several SPS variables had indirect effects on the relationship between TBI and social adjustment, clinical significance was limited. The findings suggest that, while children with TBI display atypical SPS skills, SPS cannot be used in isolation to accurately predict social adjustment.

  12. Syndemics of psychosocial problems and HIV risk: A systematic review of empirical tests of the disease interaction concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Alexander C; Burns, Bridget F O

    2015-08-01

    In the theory of syndemics, diseases co-occur in particular temporal or geographical contexts due to harmful social conditions (disease concentration) and interact at the level of populations and individuals, with mutually enhancing deleterious consequences for health (disease interaction). This theory has widespread adherents in the field, but the extent to which there is empirical support for the concept of disease interaction remains unclear. In January 2015 we systematically searched 7 bibliographic databases and tracked citations to highly cited publications associated with the theory of syndemics. Of the 783 records, we ultimately included 34 published journal articles, 5 dissertations, and 1 conference abstract. Most studies were based on a cross-sectional design (32 [80%]), were conducted in the U.S. (32 [80%]), and focused on men who have sex with men (21 [53%]). The most frequently studied psychosocial problems were related to mental health (33 [83%]), substance abuse (36 [90%]), and violence (27 [68%]); while the most frequently studied outcome variables were HIV transmission risk behaviors (29 [73%]) or HIV infection (9 [23%]). To test the disease interaction concept, 11 (28%) studies used some variation of a product term, with less than half of these (5/11 [45%]) providing sufficient information to interpret interaction both on an additive and on a multiplicative scale. The most frequently used specification (31 [78%]) to test the disease interaction concept was the sum score corresponding to the total count of psychosocial problems. Although the count variable approach does not test hypotheses about interactions between psychosocial problems, these studies were much more likely than others (14/31 [45%] vs. 0/9 [0%]; χ2 = 6.25, P = 0.01) to incorporate language about "synergy" or "interaction" that was inconsistent with the statistical models used. Therefore, more evidence is needed to assess the extent to which diseases interact, either at the

  13. Problem coping skills, psychosocial adversities and mental health problems in children and adolescents as predictors of criminal outcomes in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Giger, Joël; Plattner, Belinda; Metzke, Christa Winkler; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test child and adolescent psychosocial and psychopathological risk factors as predictors of adult criminal outcomes in a Swiss community sample. In particular, the role of active and avoidant problem coping in youths was analysed. Prevalence rates of young adult crime convictions based on register data were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyse the prediction of adult criminal convictions 15 years after assessment in a large Swiss community sample of children and adolescents (n = 1,086). Risk factors assessed in childhood and adolescence included socio-economic status (SES), migration background, perceived parental behaviour, familial and other social stressors, coping styles, externalizing and internalizing problems and drug abuse including problematic alcohol consumption. The rate of any young adult conviction was 10.1 %. Besides externalizing problems and problematic alcohol consumption, the presence of any criminal conviction in young adulthood was predicted by low SES and avoidant coping even after controlling for the effects of externalizing problems and problematic alcohol use. The other predictors were significant only when externalizing behaviours and problematic alcohol use were not controlled. In addition to child and adolescent externalizing behaviour problems and substance use, low SES and inadequate problem-solving skills, in terms of avoidant coping, are major risk factors of young adult criminal outcomes and need to be considered in forensic research and criminal prevention programs.

  14. Parental adjustment, parenting attitudes and emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyanak, Behiye; Kılınçaslan, Ayşe; Harmancı, Halime Sözen; Demirkaya, Sevcan Karakoç; Yurtbay, Tülin; Vehid, Hayriye Ertem

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated emotional and behavioral problems in children with selective mutism (SM) along with the psychological adjustment and parenting attitudes of their mothers and fathers. Participants included 26 children with SM (mean age = 8.11 ± 2.11 years), 32 healthy controls (mean age = 8.18 ± 2.55 years) and the parents of all children. Children with SM displayed higher problem scores than controls in a variety of emotional and behavioral parameters. They predominantly displayed internalizing problems, whereas aggressive and delinquent behavior was described among a subsample of the children. Significant differences existed between the SM and control groups only in paternal psychopathology, which included anxiety and depression. They did not differ with respect to maternal psychological distress or mother or father reported parental attitudes. Another important result of the present study was that the severity of emotional and behavioral problems of children with SM was correlated with maternal psychopathology but not paternal psychopathology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Problem Behaviour and Psychosocial Functioning in Young Children with Williams Syndrome: Parent and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Tasman, B. P.; Lee, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is sparse literature about problem behaviour in young children with Williams syndrome (WS) and little consideration of the perspectives of multiple respondents. Methods: Problem behaviour of 35 children with WS ages 2 to 6 was examined based on both parent and teacher report using the Achenbach preschool forms. Results: The most…

  16. Alexithymia and psychosocial problems among Italian preadolescents. A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Stefania; Balottin, Laura; Toldo, Irene; Gatta, Michela

    2016-10-01

    The study, conducted on Italian preadolscents aged 11 to 13 belonging to the general population, aims to investigate the relationship between the emotional functioning, namely, alexithymia, and the risk of developing behavioral and emotional problems measured using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire. The latent class analysis approach allowed to identify two latent variables, accounting for the internalizing (emotional symptoms and difficulties in emotional awareness) and for the externalizing problems (conduct problems and hyperactivity, problematic relationships with peers, poor prosocial behaviors and externally oriented thinking). The two latent variables featured two latent classes: the difficulty in dealing with problems and the strength to face problems that was representative of most of the healthy participants with specific gender differences. Along with the analysis of psychopathological behaviors, the study of resilience and strengths can prove to be a key step in order to develop valuable preventive approaches to tackle psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Development of the 3-SET 4P questionnaire for evaluating former ICU patients' physical and psychosocial problems over time: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Eva; Fridlund, Bengt; Ersson, Anders; Granberg-Axéll, Anetth

    2009-04-01

    Current studies reveal a lack of consensus for the evaluation of physical and psychosocial problems after ICU stay and their changes over time. The aim was to develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a questionnaire for assessing physical and psychosocial problems over time for patients following ICU recovery. Thirty-nine patients completed the questionnaire, 17 were retested. The questionnaire was constructed in three sets: physical problems, psychosocial problems and follow-up care. Face and content validity were tested by nurses, researchers and patients. The questionnaire showed good construct validity in all three sets and had strong factor loadings (explained variance >70%, factor loadings >0.5) for all three sets. There was good concurrent validity compared with the SF 12 (r(s)>0.5). Internal consistency was shown to be reliable (Cronbach's alpha 0.70-0.85). Stability reliability on retesting was good for the physical and psychosocial sets (r(s)>0.5). The 3-set 4P questionnaire was a first step in developing an instrument for assessment of former ICU patients' problems over time. The sample size was small and thus, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  18. Memory problems in dementia: adaptation and coping strategies and psychosocial treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, R.M.; van der Roest, H.G.; van Mierlo, L.D.; Meiland, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Memory problems are generally quite prominent in dementia and they have a significant impact on everyday functioning. Medication developed for Alzheimer's disease, for example, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, can slow down the increase of cognitive impairment for a while. In addition to

  19. Barriers to the Identification and Management of Psychosocial Problems: Changes from 2004 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Sarah McCue; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Szilagyi, Moira; Garner, Andrew; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stein, Ruth E.K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pediatricians report many barriers to caring for children with mental health (MH) problems. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has focused attention on MH problems but the impact on perceived barriers is unknown. We examined whether perceived barriers and their correlates changed from 2004 to 2013. Methods In 2004, 832/1600 (52%) and in 2013, 594/1617 (36.7%) of randomly selected AAP members surveyed responded to Periodic Surveys, answering questions about socio-demographics, practice characteristics, and 7 barriers to identifying, treating/managing and referring child/adolescent MH problems. To reduce non-response bias, weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Lack of training in treatment of child MH problems (~65%) and lack of confidence treating children with counseling (~60%) did not differ across surveys. Five barriers (lack of training in identifying MH problems, lack of confidence diagnosing, lack of confidence treating with medications, inadequate reimbursement and lack of time) were less frequently endorsed in 2013 (all p<.01), although lack of time was still endorsed by 70% in 2013. In 2004, 34% of pediatricians endorsed 6 or 7 barriers compared to 26% in 2013 (p<.005). Practicing general pediatrics exclusively was associated with endorsing 6 or 7 barriers in both years (p <.001). Conclusion Although fewer barriers were endorsed in 2013, most pediatricians believe that they have inadequate training in treating child MH problems, a lack of confidence to counsel children, and limited time for these problems. These findings suggest significant barriers still exist, highlighting the need for improved developmental and behavioral pediatrics training. What’s New This study compares reported barriers from the 2004 and 2013 Periodic Surveys. Although pediatricians report fewer barriers in 2013, 66% continue to report lack of training in counseling or medication of children with MH problems, suggesting

  20. The role of coparents in African American single-mother families: the indirect effect of coparent identity on youth psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Jones, Deborah J; Forehand, Rex; Cuellar, Jessica; Shoulberg, Erin K

    2013-04-01

    The majority (67%) of African American youth live in single-parent households, a shift in the family structure that has been linked to increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors. Although the majority of single mothers endorse the assistance of another adult or family member in child rearing, relatively little is known about who is engaged in this nonmarital coparenting role (i.e., grandmother, father/social father, aunt, and female family friend) and how it relates to coparenting quality, maternal parenting, and youth psychosocial outcomes (i.e., internalizing and externalizing problems). This question, which is critical to the advancement of family focused programming for youth in these families, is addressed in this study. The participants examined in the current study were 159 African American single-mother child dyads. Adolescents' maternal grandmothers constituted the largest proportion of coparents in the sample (37.2%), followed by the mothers' female family friends (22.5%), adolescents' maternal aunts (12.7%), and adolescents' fathers/social fathers (11%). Differences emerged among groups of coparents in support and conflict with the mother. Specifically, grandmothers, aunts, and female family friends provided significantly more instrumental support than fathers. Furthermore, grandmothers and fathers had more conflict with the mother, both generally and specifically in front of the child, than aunts or female family friends. In turn, these differences were associated directly and indirectly through maternal parenting with internalizing and externalizing problems. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Does a parental history of cancer moderate the associations between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems in teenagers: a HUNT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Elisabeth; Bjelland, Ingvar; Fosså, Sophie D; Loge, Jon H; Sørebø, Oystein; Dahl, Alv A

    2014-08-01

    Severe disease in a parent is associated with increased psychosocial problems in their children. However, moderating factors of such associations are less studied. In this cross-sectional population-based controlled study we examined the moderating effects of a history of parental cancer on the association between impaired health status in parents and psychosocial problems among their teenagers. Among families with both parents responding to the adult Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag County of Norway (the HUNT-2 study) 71 couples were identified with primary invasive cancer in one parent. Their 81 teenage children took part in the Young-HUNT study. These families were compared to 322 cancer-free families with 328 teenagers. Based on self-report data the relations between three variables of parental impaired health and six psychosocial problems in teenagers were analyzed family wise by structural equation modeling. Significant associations between parental and teenagers' variables were observed in eight of 18 models. A history of parental cancer was a significant moderator which decreased four of eight significant associations. Such a history significantly weakened the associations between parental poor self-rated health and teenagers' anxiety/depression and school problems. A similar association of a history of parental cancer was found between psychological distress in parents and teenagers' feelings of loneliness and poor self-rated health. This study confirmed strong associations between impaired parental health and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. A history of parental cancer weakened several of the significant associations between parental impaired health variables and psychosocial problems in their teenagers. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effect of routine assessment of specific psychosocial problems on personalized communication, counselors' awareness, and distress levels in cancer genetic counseling practice: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijzenga, W.; Aaronson, N.K.; Hahn, D.E.E.; Sidharta, G.N.; van der Kolk, L.E.; Velthuizen, M.E.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bleiker, E.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the efficacy of a cancer genetics-specific questionnaire in facilitating communication about, awareness of, and management of psychosocial problems, as well as in lowering distress levels. Methods: Individuals referred to genetic counseling for cancer at two family

  3. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  4. Psychosocial problems and barriers to improved diabetes management: results of the Cross-National Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN) Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Skovlund, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To examine patient- and provider-reported psychosocial problems and barriers to effective self-care and resources for dealing with those barriers. Methods: Cross-sectional study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with diabetic patients and health-care providers in 13 countries in Asia,

  5. Talking about psychosocial problems: an observational study on changes in doctor–patient communication in general practice between 1977 and 2008.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butalid, L.; Bensing, J.M.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether GPs’ communication styles have changed since the introduction and implementation of clinical guidelines for psychosocial problems in Dutch general practice in the 1990s. Methods: From a database of 5184 consultations videotaped between 1977 and 2008, 512 consultations

  6. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P parenting support in parents of children with borderline to mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Stewart, Roy E; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2014-10-28

    Children with borderline to mild intellectual disability (BMID) have been shown to be at increased risk for psychosocial problems. The presence of these psychosocial problems leads to parenting stress. Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) is a parenting support program to support parents with children with BMID and psychosocial problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SSTP compared to Care as Usual (CAU) in reducing psychosocial problems in children with BMID. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in the Northern provinces of the Netherlands. Parents of children aged 5 to 12 with borderline (IQ 70 to 85) or mild (IQ 70 to 50) ID and psychosocial problems were invited. Psychosocial problems were identified using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) parent report (≥14). Measurements were assessed before the intervention (T0), immediately after the intervention (T1) and after a follow-up of six months (T2). SSTP takes 8 to 10 individual sessions of 40-90 minutes, provided over 10 to 12 weeks. CAU concerned any service, except SSTP. Primary outcomes were the child's psychosocial problems (SDQ parent and teacher forms and the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory, ECBI). Secondary outcomes were parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index, PSI) and parenting skills (Alabama Parenting Questionnaire, APQ). In total 209 parents of children aged 5 to 12 with BMID were allocated blindly to either SSTP (n =111) or CAU (n =98). In the intention to treat analyses, SSTP achieved no significantly better effect than CAU for the SDQ parent report, the ECBI and the APQ on the short- and long- term. In the short term, SSTP was significantly more effective than CAU for the SDQ teacher report (B = -2.25, 95% CI -3.79 to -0.71) and the PSI (B = -7.06, 95% CI -12.11 to -2.01). For both SDQ teacher report and PSI, there was no statistically significant effect in the long term. Dropout from SSTP was considerable (49%), with the effects being

  7. Trajectories of Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents Predicted by Findings From Early Well-Child Assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F.; Huisman, Mark; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan; Stewart, Roy E.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe trajectories of emotional and behavioral problems in adolescents and to identify early indicators of these trajectories using data from routine well-child assessments at ages 0-4 years. Methods: Data from three assessment waves of adolescents (n = 1,816) of the TRAILS were used

  8. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  9. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  10. The presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder worsen psychosocial and educational problems in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    been teased, and 61.8% withheld themselves from taking part in social activities because of Tourette syndrome-related problems. There were significantly more psychosocial and educational problems in children with Tourette syndrome compared with healthy controls. A higher rate of these problems was also...... seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present. It is very important for the physicians, teachers, and other professionals to be aware of the high prevalence of these social and educational problems to be able to deal......We assessed the psychosocial and educational consequences of Tourette syndrome using a structured interview and child behavior checklist in 314 children with Tourette syndrome and 81 healthy controls. Of the children with Tourette syndrome, 59.0% needed some kind of educational support, 44.7% had...

  11. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Huic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862, 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers, with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers. In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling

  12. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia-The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime ( n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys-cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  13. Problem Gambling among Adolescent Girls in Croatia—The Role of Different Psychosocial Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huic, Aleksandra; Dodig Hundric, Dora; Kranzelic, Valentina; Ricijas, Neven

    2017-01-01

    Although, compared to boys, adolescent girls gamble less often and less problematically, prevalence studies still show significant numbers of at risk/problem gamblers among girls. However, girl gambling has been on the sidelines of adolescent gambling research. The available studies usually focus only on a narrow set of correlates often ignoring that adolescent gambling is a complex phenomenon determined by various factors. Also, they often measure gambling related consequences with instruments that are not specifically developed for use on adolescents. In order to contribute to a better understanding of adolescent gambling this study focuses on problem gambling among girls. We consider different social, cognitive, motivational and behavioral factors as predictors of girl problem gambling. A total of 1,372 high-school girls from 7 Croatian cities participated in the study. They provided data on their gambling activities, peer gambling, cognitive distortions related to gambling, motivation for gambling, and levels of general risky behavior. As the only instrument developed specifically for use on adolescents, the Canadian Adolescent Gambling Inventory was used to examine adverse gambling consequences. Results show 7.4% of girls can be considered regular gamblers, and out of those who gambled at least once in their lifetime (n = 862), 11.2% already experience mild adverse consequences because of their gambling (at risk gamblers), with 3.2% experiencing serious consequences (problem gamblers). In general, girls seem to prefer lotto and scratch cards, but sports betting seems to be the preferred game of choice among regular girl gamblers. A hierarchical regression model confirmed the importance of much the same factors identified as risky for the development of problem gambling among adolescent boys—cognitive distortions, motives to earn money, to be better at gambling and to relax, the experiences of winning large and the drive to continue gambling, together with

  14. Long-term psychosocial adjustments, satisfaction related to gender and the family equations in disorders of sexual differentiation with male sex assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepika; Bhardwaj, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpa; Ammini, A C; Gupta, Devendra K

    2010-10-01

    The varied management and counseling in disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD) depends a lot on the socioeconomic structure. A follow-up study was designed to evaluate the outcome in terms of patient satisfaction with strong socio-cultural issues. Of the 1,134 DSD patients being followed up in pediatric intersex clinic, 60 adolescents and adults assigned male sex in childhood were called for follow-up. They were interviewed for psychosocial and family adjustments including level of acceptance of gender, social relationships and future expectations. The ages ranged from 15 to 25 years (mean, 19.3 ± 3.7 years). The disorders were male pseudo hermaphrodite (MPH)-43, mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD)-3, true hermaphrodite (TH)-7 and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)-7. Of all patients, 85% (51/60) felt satisfied with their gender assignment; 76.9% (46/60) did not feel comfortable with the opposite sex. Penile erections; ejaculation and masculine voice were present in 53, 44 and 47 patients. Facial hair was normal; sparse and absent in 16, 26 and 18 patients, respectively. Stretched penile length was 2.5-9 cm (median, 5.5 cm) and 16/60 patients were satisfied with their penile length; 28 patients required redo surgeries for scrotum diverticulum (1), proximal penile diverticulum (1), stricture urethra (2), hair in the urethra (3), vaginal pouch dilatation (1), orchiopexy (2), residual chordee correction (3), distal urethroplasty (4), urethral fistula repair (21), mastectomy (6) and testicular prosthesis (4). Family support was available to all 85% (51/60) of the patients who had good family relationships. However, only 15% (9/60) felt that they fitted into society. Peer relationships were considered 'good' by 43/60 and poor by 17/60. Two patients had got married and 44.8% (26/58) patients would consider marriage in future. Most patients (42/60) were worried about the smaller size of the phallus and lack of adequate semen, leading to apprehension before marriage. As

  15. Psychological problems and psychosocial predictors of cigarette smoking behavior among undergraduate students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Heidhy, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers. In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers. The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure. Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.

  16. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents: A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Vermulst, A.A.; Rooij, A.J. van; Scholte, R.H.J.; Mheen, H. van de

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  17. The Bidirectional Relationships Between Online Victimization and Psychosocial Problems in Adolescents : A Comparison with Real-Life Victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnden, Regina; Vermulst, Ad; van Rooij, Antonius J.; Scholte, Ron; van de Mheen, Dike

    2014-01-01

    Although peer victimization is of major concern and adolescents spend increasing amounts of time on the Internet, relatively little is known about the psychosocial antecedents and consequences of online victimization. The main aim of this study was to compare the psychosocial antecedents and

  18. The general practitioner as the first contacted health professional by patients with psychosocial problems: a European study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.G.W.; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: there are considerable differences between and within countries in the involvement of general practitioners (GPs) in psychosocial care. This study aimed to describe the self-perceived role of GPs in 30 European countries as the first contacted professional for patients with psychosocial

  19. Communicating psychosocial problems in German well-child visits. What facilitates, what impedes pediatric exploration? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippeit, Lorena; Belzer, Florian; Martens-Le Bouar, Heike; Mall, Volker; Barth, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To examine whether, and if so, how psychosocial topics are discussed between parents and pediatricians. Thirty well-child visits at eight pediatricians' practices in southwest Germany were video recorded. Conversations were analyzed. Although psychosocial topics were frequently touched upon, they were rarely thoroughly explored. Pediatricians pursued a rather reserved conversation style. Especially when parents withdraw and psychosocial stressors are less baby-related, pediatricians hardly explore the psychosocial situation. In summary, the pediatrician's conversation style, the nature of the stressors and the parents' openness are paramount in determining the depth of psychosocial exploration. In order to ensure a good and fair quality of care to all parents, pediatricians should be provided with tailored communicative skills training allowing them to create a climate in which parents may open up and build trust toward their pediatrician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Siblings exposed to intimate partner violence: linking sibling relationship quality & child adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Caroline C; Tailor, Ketan; Cormier, Damien C

    2014-01-01

    Although the majority of families that experience intimate partner violence (IPV) have more than one child, most research to date has focused upon a single child within these families. A significant body of research has indicated siblings play an important role in children's adjustment and well-being. To address this gap, the three main goals of the present study were to compare the adjustment of older and younger siblings exposed to IPV, to describe and compare the quality of these sibling relationships from multiple perspectives, and to investigate how sibling adjustment and relationship quality influence children's adjustment. Forty-seven sibling pairs and their mothers were recruited from the community. Mothers self-reported on their violent experiences using the Conflict Tactics Scale, and also estimated the length of time their children were exposed to IPV. Mothers and children completed assessments of child adjustment and the quality of sibling relationships. Observers also assessed the quality of sibling interaction. Results indicated that adjustment between siblings was highly inter-related. On average, mothers reported sibling relationships as less positive but also as less hostile than did siblings themselves. Higher levels of sibling hostility, lower levels of sibling warmth and higher levels of disengagement each significantly predicted child adjustment; however, these effects were predicated upon the adjustment of the other sibling. The sibling relationships of children exposed to IPV made a difference in their individual adjustment, and their adjustment issues influenced how they feel about and interacted with their sibling. Sibling hostility played a stronger role in adjustment issues than sibling warmth. The nature of sibling influences and the direction of future research were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects of multi-disciplinary psycho-social care on socio-economic problems in cancer patients: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Susanne; Roick, Julia; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Schiefke, Franziska; Briest, Susanne; Dietz, Andreas; Papsdorf, Kirsten; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Niederwieser, Dietger; Keller, Annette; Kersting, Anette; Danker, Helge

    2018-06-01

    We examined whether multi-disciplinary stepped psycho-social care decreases financial problems and improves return-to-work in cancer patients. In a university hospital, wards were randomly allocated to either stepped or standard care. Stepped care comprised screening for financial problems, consultation between doctor and patient, and the provision of social service. Outcomes were financial problems at the time of discharge and return-to-work in patients financial problems at baseline were less likely to have financial problems at discharge when they had received stepped care (odds ratio (OR) 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1, 0.7; p = 0.01). There was no evidence for an effect of stepped care on financial problems in patients without such problems at baseline (OR 1.1, CI 0.5, 2.6; p = 0.82). There were 399 patients Financial problems can be avoided more effectively with multi-disciplinary stepped psycho-social care than with standard care in patients who have such problems.

  2. Longitudinal Relationships between Sibling Behavioral Adjustment and Behavior Problems of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Siblings of children with developmental disabilities were assessed twice, 2 years apart (N = 75 at Time 1, N = 56 at Time 2). Behavioral adjustment of the siblings and their brother or sister with developmental disability was assessed. Comparisons of adjustment for siblings of children with autism, Down syndrome, and mixed etiology mental…

  3. Psychosocial interventions for disruptive behavioural problems in children living in low- and middle-income countries: study protocol of a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, Matthew D; Hosein, Megan; Purgato, Marianna; Adi, Ahmad; Morton, Isabella; Kohrt, Brandon A; Tol, Wietse A

    2015-05-20

    Disruptive behaviour disorders (DBDs) are among the most common forms of child psychopathology and have serious long-term academic, social, and mental health consequences worldwide. Psychosocial treatments are the first line of evidence-based treatments for DBDs, yet their effectiveness often varies according to patient sociodemographic characteristics, practice setting, and implementation procedures. While a large majority of the world's children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), most studies have evaluated psychosocial treatments for DBDs in high-income Anglo countries. The primary objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of psychosocial treatments for DBDs in children and adolescents (under age 18) diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, or other disruptive behavioural problems living in LMIC. The secondary objectives are to: (1) describe the range and types of psychosocial treatments used to address DBDs in LMIC and (2) identify key dissemination and implementation factors (adaptation processes, training/supervision processes, and financial costs). All controlled trials comparing psychosocial treatments versus waiting list, no treatment, or treatment as usual in children living in LMIC will be included. Studies will be identified using the methods outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines without restrictions on language, publication type, status, or date of publication. The primary outcome measures will be disruptive behavioural problems (eg, oppositionality, defiance, aggression or deceit). Secondary outcomes will be positive mental health outcomes (eg, prosocial behaviour), function impairment, institutionalisation (or hospitalisation), academic outcomes and caregiver outcomes. This study uses data from published studies; therefore ethical review is not required. Findings will be presented in a published manuscript. PROSPERO CRD42014015334

  4. The relationship between frequency of family dinner and adolescent problem behaviors after adjusting for other family characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bisakha

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary variable of interest is self-reported FFD in a typical week. Problem behaviors studied are substance-use, physical violence, property-destruction, ...

  5. Emotional and meta-emotional intelligence as predictors of adjustment problems in students with Specific Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella D’Amico

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse adjustment problems in a group of adolescents with a Specific Learning Disorder (SLD, examining to what extent they depend on the severity level of the learning disorder and/or on the individual‟s level of emotional intelligence. Adjustment problems,, perceived severity levels of SLD, and emotional and meta-emotional intelligence were examined in 34 adolescents with SLD. Results demonstrated that emotional beliefs, emotional self-concept and emotional intelligence are very important factors in the psychological adjustment of adolescents with SLD. These results provide evidence for the importance of considering meta-emotional intelligence in both diagnostic and intervention protocols, as well as in the inclusive education of students with SLD.

  6. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  7. Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Mental Health Problems: Behaviour, Self-Concept, Quality of Life and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, R. A.; Hunter, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the adjustment of siblings of children with mental health problems. The participants had brothers or sisters receiving treatment at a Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service within the Hunter New England Health Service, New South Wales, Australia. Seventy-five siblings completed questionnaires on their self-concept, quality…

  8. The Relationship between Frequency of Family Dinner and Adolescent Problem Behaviors after Adjusting for Other Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between frequency of family dinners (FFD) and selected problem behaviors for adolescents after adjusting for family connectedness, parental awareness, other family activities, and other potentially confounding factors. Methods: Data are drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997. The primary…

  9. Initiation and Maintenance of Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding. The role of Outcome Expectation and Satisfaction with the Psychosocial Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Larsen, J.K.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Ramshorst, B. van; Geenen, R.

    2009-01-01

    A premise of this study was that different psychological processes would predict the initiation and maintenance of weight loss after surgery for morbid obesity. Our aim was to examine whether more favorable preoperative expectations of psychosocial outcomes predict weight loss in the first year

  10. A linguistic approach to solving of the problem of technological adjustment of combines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila V. Borisova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article deals with a linguistic approach to the technological adjustment of difficult harvesters in field conditions. The short characteristic of subject domain is provided. The place of the task of adjustment of the combine harvester working bodies in harvesting is considered. Various groups of signs of the considered task are allocated: external signs of violation of quality of work, regulated parameters of the machine, and parameters of technical condition. The numerical data characterizing interrelations between external signs and parameters of the machine are provided. Materials and Methods: A combine harvester is the difficult dynamic system functioning under constantly changing external conditions. This fact imposes characteristics on the used methods of technological adjustment. Quantitative and qualitative information is used to control harvesting. Availability of different types of uncertainty in considering semantic spaces of factors of the external environment and parameters of the machine allows offering the method of technological adjustment based on an indistinct logical conclusion for the solution of the task. Results: As the analysis result, the decision making methodology for indistinct environment conditions is adapted for the studied subject domain. The generalized scheme of indistinct management of process is offered to technological adjustment of the machine. Models of the studied semantic spaces are considered. Feasibility of use of deductive and inductive conclusions of decisions for various tasks of preliminary setup and adjustment of technological adjustments is shown. The formal and logical scheme of the decision making process based on indistinct expert knowledge is offered. The scheme includes the main stages of the task solution: fazzifikation, composition and defazzifikation. The question of the quantitative assessment of expert knowledge coordination is considered. The examples of the formulation

  11. Mental health and psychosocial problems in the aftermath of the Nepal earthquakes: findings from a representative cluster sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J C; Luitel, N P; Jordans, M J D; Kohrt, B A; Weissbecker, I; Tol, W A

    2018-06-01

    Two large earthquakes in 2015 caused widespread destruction in Nepal. This study aimed to examine frequency of common mental health and psychosocial problems and their correlates following the earthquakes. A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design was employed to randomly select 513 participants (aged 16 and above) from three earthquake-affected districts in Nepal: Kathmandu, Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk, 4 months after the second earthquake. Outcomes were selected based on qualitative preparatory research and included symptoms of depression and anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25); post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist-Civilian); hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT-C); symptoms indicating severe psychological distress (WHO-UNHCR Assessment Schedule of Serious Symptoms in Humanitarian Settings (WASSS)); suicidal ideation (Composite International Diagnostic Interview); perceived needs (Humanitarian Emergency Settings Perceived Needs Scale (HESPER)); and functional impairment (locally developed scale). A substantial percentage of participants scored above validated cut-off scores for depression (34.3%, 95% CI 28.4-40.4) and anxiety (33.8%, 95% CI 27.6-40.6). Hazardous alcohol use was reported by 20.4% (95% CI 17.1-24.3) and 10.9% (95% CI 8.8-13.5) reported suicidal ideation. Forty-two percent reported that 'distress' was a serious problem in their community. Anger that was out of control (symptom from the WASSS) was reported by 33.7% (95% CI 29.5-38.2). Fewer people had elevated rates of PTSD symptoms above a validated cut-off score (5.2%, 95% CI 3.9-6.8), and levels of functional impairment were also relatively low. Correlates of elevated symptom scores were female gender, lower caste and greater number of perceived needs. Residing in Gorkha and Sindhupalchowk districts and lower caste were also associated with greater perceived needs. Higher levels of impaired functioning were associated with greater odds of depression and anxiety symptoms; impaired

  12. Examining Differences in Psychological Adjustment Problems among Children Conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Boivin, Jacky; Hay, Dale; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Rice, Frances J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Thapar, Anita

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there was variation in levels of psychological adjustment among children conceived through Assisted Reproductive Technologies using the parents' gametes (homologous), sperm donation, egg donation, embryo donation and surrogacy. Information was provided by parents about the psychological functioning of…

  13. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging among Persons of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…

  14. The Problem of Socio-Psychological Adjustment of Personality in the Scientists' Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakova, ?atyana A.; Morozova, Lyudmila B.; Kochneva, Elena M.; Zharova, Darya V.; Skitnevskaya, Larisa V.; Kostina, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Instability and unpredictability of the present stage of social development make the study of social and psychological adjustment of personality to the social environment a highly topical issue. The article presents the results of an empirical research on social personality adaptation. Evident is the close relations between social and…

  15. Children of South Sea Island immigrants to Australia: factors associated with adjustment problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M W; Fua, C

    1995-01-01

    Social-delinquent problem youth of South Sea Island immigrant to Australia parents, were compared to non-problem youth from the same circumstances, on family, sociocultural, personality, and substance abuse variables. Interviews and testing were done by members of their own community. A consistent pattern of differences most pronounced for males was found between the two groups although not all reached statistical significance. The problem youth compared to the non-problem youth tended to come from families somewhat lower in socioeconomic level, somewhat less traditional in culture, and notably more prone to discipline by physical punishment than by verbal reasoning. The problem youth had significantly lower self-esteem, significantly higher maladjustment test scores, and significantly greater use and problems with alcohol and drugs. They were more alienated and had less clearly established direction for their future. Recommendations for remediation are considered.

  16. Symptom and Problem Focused Coping Strategies of Business Women Expatriates and their Socio-Cultural Adjustment in Hong Kong

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selmer, Jan; Leung, Alicia S.M.

    2007-01-01

    strategies may make them less well adjusted to a host location. Originality/value - Women still represent a relatively untapped source for expatriation and the research on female business expatriates is still inadequate in many respects.  An important issue examined by this study is how women cope......Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore coping strategies of female business expatriates and to examine how these strategies are associated with the women's international adjustment. Design/methodology/approach - Data were collected through mail surveys to Western female business...... in Hong Kong could have contributed to the unanticipated findings that there was no association between problem focused coping strategies and any type of adjustment studied. Through cross-cultural training, female business expatriates could benefit from being informed that applying symptom focused coping...

  17. The Role of Marital Discord and Parenting in Relations between Parental Problem Drinking and Child Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research suggests that children exposed to parental drinking problems are at risk for maladjustment. However, the potential impact of drinking problems in a community sample and the processes involved in the relationship between parental drinking and child outcomes have rarely been examined. Method: A community sample of 235 mothers…

  18. Parenting and Children's Adjustment Problems: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem and Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Nicos A.; Stavrinides, Panayiotis; Georgiou, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of parental and personal characteristics on children's internalizing/externalizing problems. Further, this study aimed to examine personal characteristics (self-esteem, peer relations) as mediators in the relation between parenting and internalizing/externalizing problems. In order to address…

  19. Proximal Alternating Direction Method with Relaxed Proximal Parameters for the Least Squares Covariance Adjustment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of seeking a symmetric positive semidefinite matrix in a closed convex set to approximate a given matrix. This problem may arise in several areas of numerical linear algebra or come from finance industry or statistics and thus has many applications. For solving this class of matrix optimization problems, many methods have been proposed in the literature. The proximal alternating direction method is one of those methods which can be easily applied to solve these matrix optimization problems. Generally, the proximal parameters of the proximal alternating direction method are greater than zero. In this paper, we conclude that the restriction on the proximal parameters can be relaxed for solving this kind of matrix optimization problems. Numerical experiments also show that the proximal alternating direction method with the relaxed proximal parameters is convergent and generally has a better performance than the classical proximal alternating direction method.

  20. Impact of Psychological Problems and Marital Adjustment of Iranian Veterans on Their Children's Quality of Life and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq war during the 1980-1988 has left many consequences on veterans and their families that persist long after the war ended. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of psychological problems and marital adjustment of Iranian veterans on their children's quality of life and happiness 24 years after the war ended. Patients and Methods: The sample was all children of veterans in Isfahan city that registered by Veterans and Martyrs Affair Foundation (VMAF). One hundred sixty-three veterans were selected by systematic randomized sampling and the symptom checklist-90-revised (SCL-90-R) and dyadic adjustment scale (DAS) were administered for them. Their wives filled out the DAS and their children answered to World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI). The data from questionnaires completed by 149 families were analyzed using the multiple regressions analysis. Results: Global Severity Index (GSI) scores of veterans and veteran's age were inversely correlated with the scores of children's quality of life, while marital adjustment of parents and number of rooms in house were positively correlated. Mother's age was inversely correlated with the scores of children's happiness, while marital adjustment of the parents, the number of rooms in their house and the number of children were positively correlated. Conclusions: In veterans' family, psychological health of the veterans and marital adjustment of the parents have a significant relationship with their children's quality of life and happiness. PMID:25599063

  1. The Relations of Temperament Reactivity and Effortful Control to Children’s Adjustment Problems in China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Lengua, Liliana J.; Wang, Yun

    2014-01-01

    The relations of parents’ and teachers’ reports of temperament anger-irritability, positive emotionality, and effortful control (attention focusing and inhibitory control) to children’s externalizing and internalizing problems were examined in Chinese (N = 382) and U.S. (N = 322) samples of school-age children. Results suggested that in both cultures, low effortful control and high anger–irritability were associated with high externalizing problems, although the relations were stronger in the Chinese sample than in the U.S. sample. Low positive emotionality was associated with high internalizing problems in both cultures. However, high positive emotionality was associated with noncomorbid externalizing problems (teachers’ reports) in the Chinese sample but not in the U.S. sample. These findings suggest that there are considerable cross-cultural similarities in the temperament-adjustment associations, although some cross-cultural differences might exist. Implications of the findings for the detection and intervention of adjustment problems in Chinese children are discussed. PMID:19413428

  2. Relations between work and upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP) and the moderating role of psychosocial work factors on the relation between computer work and UEMSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Stock, Susan R; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Kline, Rex; Messing, Karen

    2017-11-01

    Computer work has been identified as a risk factor for upper extremity musculoskeletal problems (UEMSP). But few studies have investigated how psychosocial and organizational work factors affect this relation. Nor have gender differences in the relation between UEMSP and these work factors  been studied. We sought to estimate: (1) the association between UEMSP and a range of physical, psychosocial and organizational work exposures, including the duration of computer work, and (2) the moderating effect of psychosocial work exposures on the relation between computer work and UEMSP. Using 2007-2008 Québec survey data on 2478 workers, we carried out gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression modeling and two-way interaction analyses. In both genders, odds of UEMSP were higher with exposure to high physical work demands and emotionally demanding work. Additionally among women, UEMSP were associated with duration of occupational computer exposure, sexual harassment, tense situations when dealing with clients, high quantitative demands and lack of prospects for promotion, and among men, with low coworker support, episodes of unemployment, low job security and contradictory work demands. Among women, the effect of computer work on UEMSP was considerably increased in the presence of emotionally demanding work, and may also be moderated by low recognition at work, contradictory work demands, and low supervisor support. These results suggest that the relations between UEMSP and computer work are moderated by psychosocial work exposures and that the relations between working conditions and UEMSP are somewhat different for each gender, highlighting the complexity of these relations and the importance of considering gender.

  3. Psychopathological status, behavior problems, and family adjustment of Kuwaiti children whose fathers were involved in the first gulf war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohaeri Jude U

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives Following the end of the Gulf War that resulted in the liberation of Kuwait, there are no reports on the impact of veterans' traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on their children. We compared the severity of anxiety, depression, deviant behavior and poor family adjustment among the children of a stratified random sample of four groups of Kuwaiti military men, viz: the retired; an active -in-the-army group (AIA (involved in duties at the rear; an in-battle group (IB (involved in combat; and a prisoners -of- war (POWs group. Also, we assessed the association of father's PTSD/combat status and mother's characteristics with child psychosocial outcomes. Method Subjects were interviewed at home, 6 years after the war, using: the Child Behavior Index to assess anxiety, depression, and adaptive behavior; Rutter Scale A2 for deviant behavior; and Family Adjustment Device for adjustment at home. Both parents were assessed for PTSD. Results The 489 offspring (250 m, 239 f; mean age 13.8 yrs belonged to 166 father-mother pairs. Children of POWs tended to have higher anxiety, depression, and abnormal behavior scores. Those whose fathers had PTSD had significantly higher depression scores. However, children of fathers with both PTSD and POW status (N = 43 did not have significantly different outcome scores than the other father PTSD/combat status groups. Mother's PTSD, anxiety, depression and social status were significantly associated with all the child outcome variables. Parental age, child's age and child's level of education were significant covariates. Although children with both parents having PTSD had significantly higher anxiety/depression scores, the mother's anxiety was the most frequent and important predictor of child outcome variables. The frequency of abnormal test scores was: 14% for anxiety/depression, and 17% for deviant behavior. Conclusion Our findings support the impression that child emotional

  4. Adjustment, Sibling Problems and Coping Strategies of Brothers and Sisters of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Penelope; Cuskelly, Monica

    2006-01-01

    Background: Siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) express more problem behaviours and experience more difficulties in their relationships than do children in families where all children are developing typically. We know little about what contributes to these difficulties. Method: Mothers of a child with ASD completed the…

  5. Older Adolescents and Parental Divorce: Adjustment Problems and Mediators of Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Stephanie S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Explores the problems associated with parental divorce for adolescents of college age. Analyses of the responses of 83 clinical directors of college mental health counseling centers revealed that adolescents of parental divorce seen for counseling displayed greater behavioral and affective difficulties than counterparts from intact families. (JAC)

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Teacher Ratings of Child Adjustment and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Ellen W.; Rivers, Lanee; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines similarities and differences in teacher ratings of behavioral problems and adaptive skills between a sample of 320 students from Anguilla, BWI and 315 children from the United States of America using the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992). The study also compared teacher ratings of…

  7. Bayesian neural adjustment of inhibitory control predicts emergence of problem stimulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlé, Katia M; Stewart, Jennifer L; Zhang, Shunan; Tapert, Susan F; Yu, Angela J; Paulus, Martin P

    2015-11-01

    Bayesian ideal observer models quantify individuals' context- and experience-dependent beliefs and expectations about their environment, which provides a powerful approach (i) to link basic behavioural mechanisms to neural processing; and (ii) to generate clinical predictors for patient populations. Here, we focus on (ii) and determine whether individual differences in the neural representation of the need to stop in an inhibitory task can predict the development of problem use (i.e. abuse or dependence) in individuals experimenting with stimulants. One hundred and fifty-seven non-dependent occasional stimulant users, aged 18-24, completed a stop-signal task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. These individuals were prospectively followed for 3 years and evaluated for stimulant use and abuse/dependence symptoms. At follow-up, 38 occasional stimulant users met criteria for a stimulant use disorder (problem stimulant users), while 50 had discontinued use (desisted stimulant users). We found that those individuals who showed greater neural responses associated with Bayesian prediction errors, i.e. the difference between actual and expected need to stop on a given trial, in right medial prefrontal cortex/anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, anterior insula, and thalamus were more likely to exhibit problem use 3 years later. Importantly, these computationally based neural predictors outperformed clinical measures and non-model based neural variables in predicting clinical status. In conclusion, young adults who show exaggerated brain processing underlying whether to 'stop' or to 'go' are more likely to develop stimulant abuse. Thus, Bayesian cognitive models provide both a computational explanation and potential predictive biomarkers of belief processing deficits in individuals at risk for stimulant addiction. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  8. Longitudinal study of self-regulation, positive parenting, and adjustment problems among physically abused children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation and positive parenting behaviors to the development of externalizing and internalizing symptomatology spanning from preschool to 1st grade. Methods Data were collected on a total of 95 physically abused children (58% boys); our longitudinal analyses involved 43 children at Time 1 (preschool), 63 children at Time 2 (kindergarten), and 54 children at Time 3 (1st grade). Children's self-regulation was measured by parent report, and their externalizing and internalizing symptomatology was evaluated by teachers. Parents completed self-report measures of positive parenting. Results Our structural equation modeling analyses revealed positive parenting as a protective factor that attenuated the concurrent association between low self-regulation and externalizing symptomatology among physically abused children. Our findings regarding longitudinal changes in children's externalizing symptomatology supported the differential susceptibility hypothesis: Physically abused children who were at greater risk due to low levels of self-regulation were more susceptible to the beneficial effects of positive parenting, compared to those with high levels of self-regulation. Conclusions Findings suggest that although physical abuse presents formidable challenges that interfere with the development of adaptive self-regulation, positive parenting behaviors may ameliorate the detrimental effects of maladaptive self-regulation on the development of externalizing symptomatology. In addition, the positive and negative effects of caregiving behaviors were more prominent among physically abused children at great risk due to low self-regulation. Practice

  9. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P : the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Danielle E. M. C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems

  10. Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain (PATH-Pain): A Psychosocial Intervention for Older Adults with Chronic Pain and Negative Emotions in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiosses, Dimitris N; Ravdin, Lisa D; Stern, Amy; Bolier, Ruth; Kenien, Cara; Reid, M Carrington

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is highly prevalent in older adults, contributes to activity restriction and social isolation, disrupts family and interpersonal relationships, and poses a significant economic burden to society. Negative emotions such as sadness, anxiety, helplessness, and hopelessness are associated with chronic pain and contribute to poor quality of life, impaired interpersonal and social functioning, and increased disability. Psychosocial interventions for older adults with chronic pain have been historically developed for, and are almost exclusively delivered to, cognitively intact patients. Therefore, many older adults with chronic pain and comorbid cognitive deficits have limited treatment options. Our multidisciplinary team developed Problem Adaptation Therapy for Pain in Primary Care (PATH-Pain), a psychosocial intervention for older adults with chronic pain, negative emotions, and a wide range of cognitive functioning, including mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. In the current article, we describe the principles underlying PATH-Pain, review the steps taken to adapt the original PATH protocol, outline the treatment process, and present a case illustrating its potential value.

  11. Coping in the World of Work. Practice in Problem Solving. Presentation Scripts. Filmstrip No. 1: Problems on the Job; and Filmstrip No. 2: Work Entry and Job Adjustment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational Education.

    Presentation scripts for two sound filmstrips are contained in this document, which accompanies a career development unit on coping in the world of work designed to assist students in developing coping strategies to deal with work entry and job adjustment problems. (Other components of the unit--instructor's handbook, student guide, and…

  12. Screening for psychosocial problems in children attending the pediatric clinic at king Khalid university hospital (KKUH in Riyadh (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H Al-Ayed

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed the feasibility of screening for behavioral problems of children in an outpatient setting. It is necessary to implement screening procedures for psycho-behavioral problems, and train pediatricians to screen children presenting at clinics.

  13. The Role of Labour Inspectorates in Tackling the Psychosocial Risks at Work in Europe: Problems and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Toukas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the past year have taken place in the world of work that are bringing new challenges with regard to employee safety and health. These changes have led to emerging psychosocial risks (PSRs at work. The risks are primarily linked to how work is designed, organized, and managed, and to the economic and social frame of work. These factors have increased the level of work-related stress and can lead to serious deterioration in mental and physical health. In tackling PSRs, the European labor inspectorates can have an important role by enforcing preventive and/or corrective interventions in the content and context of work. However, to improve working conditions, unilateral interventions in the context and content of work are insufficient and require adopting a common strategy to tackle PSRs, based on a holistic approach. The implementation of a common strategy by the European Labor Inspectorate for tackling PSRs is restricted by the lack of a common legislative frame with regard to PSR evaluation and management, the different levels of labor inspectors' training, and the different levels of employees' and employers' health and safety culture.

  14. A Three-Stage Optimization Algorithm for the Stochastic Parallel Machine Scheduling Problem with Adjustable Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a parallel machine scheduling problem with random processing/setup times and adjustable production rates. The objective functions to be minimized consist of two parts; the first part is related with the due date performance (i.e., the tardiness of the jobs, while the second part is related with the setting of machine speeds. Therefore, the decision variables include both the production schedule (sequences of jobs and the production rate of each machine. The optimization process, however, is significantly complicated by the stochastic factors in the manufacturing system. To address the difficulty, a simulation-based three-stage optimization framework is presented in this paper for high-quality robust solutions to the integrated scheduling problem. The first stage (crude optimization is featured by the ordinal optimization theory, the second stage (finer optimization is implemented with a metaheuristic called differential evolution, and the third stage (fine-tuning is characterized by a perturbation-based local search. Finally, computational experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Sensitivity analysis and practical implications are also discussed.

  15. Psychosocial working conditions and cognitive complaints among Swedish employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia U D Stenfors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751 and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. CROSS/SECTIONAL RESULTS: High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT demands, under qualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and over qualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. PROSPECTIVE RESULTS: Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and under qualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively

  16. Psychosocial problems of children whose parents visit the emergency department due to intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E M M; van der Lee, J H; Teeuw, A H; Lindeboom, R; Brilleslijper-Kater, S N; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, T; van Goudoever, J B; Lindauer, R J L

    2017-05-01

    High levels of maltreatment are found in children who are identified because their parents visit the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt. However, it is unknown if these children experience psychosocial problems. This study aims to assess their levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted in six hospitals. All consecutive families of which a parent visited the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt between 1 July 2012 and 1 March 2014 with children aged 1.5-17 years were approached for participation. Parents and children aged 8 years and older filled out questionnaires measuring post-traumatic stress [13-item version of Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES-13)], anxiety, depression (Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale), behavioural problems [Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and Youth Self-Report (YSR)] and health-related quality of life (PedsQL). Scores of participants were compared with reference data obtained in children in similar age ranges from representative Dutch community samples (CRIES-13, Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, PedsQL and CBCL) and to a normed cutoff score (CRIES-13). Of 195 eligible families, 89 (46%) participated in the study. Participating children did not score different from community children, both on child-reported and parent-reported instruments. Standardized mean differences of total sum scores were 0 (CRIES-13 and CBCL 1.5-5), 0.1 (YSR), 0.2 (CBCL 6-18) and -0.3 (PedsQL) and not statistically different from community children. Thirty-five percent of the participating children scored above the cutoff score on the CRIES-13, indicating post-traumatic stress disorder, but this difference was not statistically significant from community children (mean difference 8%; 95% CI -4-22%). We found no differences in psychosocial

  17. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. Methods/Design The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14) will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P) or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. Discussion This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community-based population of

  18. The effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle E M C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2011-08-30

    Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14) will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P) or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community-based population of children with a mild intellectual

  19. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Daniëlle EMC

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effectiveness of parenting counselling using Stepping Stones Triple P compared to Care as Usual. Methods/Design The effects of Stepping Stones Triple P will be studied in a Randomised Controlled Trial. Parents of children aged 5-12 years with an IQ of 50-85 will be recruited from schools. Prior to randomisation, parents complete a screening questionnaire about their child's psychosocial problems and their parenting skills. Subsequently, parents of children with increased levels of psychosocial problems (score on Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ≥ 14 will be invited to participate in the intervention study. After obtaining consent, parents will be randomised either to the experimental group (Stepping Stones Triple P or to Care as Usual. The primary outcome is a change in the child's psychosocial problems according to parents and teachers. The secondary outcome is a change in parenting skills. Data will be collected before the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and six months after. Discussion This paper presents an outline of the background and design of a randomised controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Stepping Stones Triple P, which aims to decrease psychosocial problems in children with a mild intellectual disability. Stepping Stones Triple P seems promising, but evidence on its effectiveness for this population is still lacking. This study provides evidence about the effects of this intervention in a community

  20. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: the added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. BACKGROUND: Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show

  1. Assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes and their families: The added value of using standardised questionnaires in addition to clinical estimations of nurses and paediatricians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, E.A.; Damhuis, A.M.A.; Alfen-van der Velden, A.A.E.M. van; Steeghs, M.C.C.H.; Noordam, C.; Verhaak, C.M.; Vermaes, I.P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives: To investigate the assessment of psychosocial problems in children with type 1 diabetes by means of clinical estimations made by nurses and paediatricians and by using standardised questionnaires. Background Although children with type 1 diabetes and their parents show increased

  2. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents' externalizing problems: Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anna Roos E; Ormel, Johan; Dietrich, Andrea; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A

    2018-04-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey population-based cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort. As hypothesized, more chronic stressors predicted more externalizing problems in vulnerable individuals with high resting HR but not in those with low resting HR, suggesting high vs. low sensitivity, respectively, to adverse environmental influences. Low sensitivity to adverse environmental influences in vulnerable individuals exposed to high stressor levels was additionally confirmed by high heart rate variability (Root Mean Squared Successive Difference; RMSSD). In adolescents with low vulnerability, in contrast, the association between chronic stressors and externalizing problems did not substantially differ by resting HR and RMSSD. Future research may demonstrate whether our findings extend to other adverse, or beneficial, influences. Notwithstanding their theoretical interest, the effects were small, only pertained to parent-reported externalizing problems, refer to a small subset of respondents in our sample, and are in need of replication. We conclude that HR and RMSSD are unlikely to be strong moderators of the association between stressors and externalizing problems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gambling Type, Substance Abuse, Health and Psychosocial Correlates of Male and Female Problem Gamblers in a Nationally Representative French Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaire, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Guignard, R; Richard, J B; du Roscoät, E; Beck, F

    2017-06-01

    Many studies carried out on treatment-seeking problem gamblers (PG) have reported high levels of comorbid substance use disorders, and mental and physical health problems. Nevertheless, general population studies are still sparse, most of them have been carried out in the United States or Canada, and gender differences have not always been considered. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the type of games, and psychological and physical correlates in male and female PG in a nationally representative French sample. The total sample studied involved 25,647 subjects aged 15-85 years, including 333 PG and 25,314 non-problem gamblers (NPG). Data were extracted from a large survey of a representative sample of the French general population. They were evaluated for sociodemographic variables, gambling behavior, type of gambling activity, substance use, psychological distress, body mass index, chronic disease, and lack of sleep. Overall, there were significant differences between PG and NPG in gender, age, education, employment and marital status, substance use disorders (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine and heroin), psychological distress, obesity, lack of sleep and type of gambling activity. Although male and female PG had different profiles, the gambling type, especially strategic games, appeared as an important variable in the relationship between gender and problem gambling. This research underlines the importance of considering gender differences and gambling type in the study of gambling disorders. Identifying specific factors in the relationship between gender, gambling type and gambling problems may help improve clinical interventions and health promotion strategies.

  4. Sensitivity to psychosocial chronic stressors and adolescents’ externalizing problems : Combined moderator effects of resting heart rate and parental psychiatric history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandstra, A.R.E.; Ormel, J.; Dietrich, A.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.

    2018-01-01

    From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining

  5. The effectiveness of Stepping stones Triple P: the design of a randomised controlled trial on a parenting programme regarding children with mild intellectual disability and psychosocial problems versus care as usual

    OpenAIRE

    Kleefman, Marijke; Jansen, Daniëlle EMC; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Children with an intellectual disability are at increased risk of psychosocial problems. This leads to serious restrictions in the daily functioning of the children and to parental stress. Stepping Stones Triple P aims to prevent severe behavioural, emotional and developmental problems in children with a (intellectual) disability by enhancing parenting knowledge and skills, and the self-confidence of parents. This paper aims to describe the design of a study of the effecti...

  6. [Girls detained under civil and criminal law in juvenile detention centres; psychiatric disorders, trauma and psychosocial problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, S M J J; Doreleijers, Th A H; Vermeiren, R R J M; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2009-01-01

    As from 2008, juveniles sentenced under civil law and juveniles sentenced under criminal law can no longer be assigned to the same juvenile detention centres. The reasoning runs as follows: the centres are unlikely to provide adequate treatment for the 'civil' group, and the 'criminal' group may exert a negative influence on the 'civil' group. Hitherto, there has been no research into the question of whether the problems and treatment requirements of girls in the two categories call for detention in the same detention centres or in different ones. The aim of this study is to investigate differences between the two groups of girls with regard to offence history, sociodemographic characteristics, contact with the social services, psychiatric disorders and trauma. Investigation of a representative sample of 211 female minors in three juvenile detention centres using standard instruments. results 82% of the girls were detained under civil law, 18% under criminal law. There were strong similarities between the groups. However, the 'criminal' group more often had a violent history of delinquency and a non-Dutch background, whereas the 'civil' group more often had a background of residential placements, oppositional-defiant disorder, suicidality and self-harm. Girls detained under civil and under criminal law differed in characteristics such as criminal record, but there were striking similarities in the girls' behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders. It is argued that assignment to a particular type of detention centre should depend on treatment requirements rather than on measures imposed by civil or criminal law.

  7. Leaving the Parental Nest: Adjustment Problems, Attachment Representations, and Social Support during the Transition from High School to Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Miri; Mayseless, Ofra; Kivenson-Baron, Inbal

    2011-01-01

    Adjustment to the transition from high school to military service in Israel was examined in a longitudinal study with a sample of 120 late-adolescent girls. During their senior year in high school (Time 1) the young women were administered the Adult Attachment Interview. Their coping and adjustment to the new environment were assessed (at two…

  8. [Effectiveness of School-based Interventions for the Prevention and/or Reduction of Psychosocial Problems among Children and Adolescents: A Review of Reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, S; Landgraf-Rauf, K; Brand, T; Zeeb, H; Pischke, C R

    2017-04-01

    Objective: To summarize the current evidence on the effectiveness of school-based interventions for the maintenance of mental health and the prevention of psychosocial problems among pupils. Methods: A systematic literature search of reviews published between 2007 and 2015 was carried out. Databases searched included Medline, PsycINFO, Campbell Library, Cochrane Library, NICE, ERIC, and Web of Science. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment (using AMSTAR criteria) were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Results: 6 reviews covering 331 primary studies were included in this review of reviews. Findings of three reviews with a focus on the maintenance and/or promotion of mental health and general well-being suggested that interventions aimed at changes in the social and the school environment were more effective than those that only targeted individual behavior change among pupils. Interventions for the reduction of mobbing/bullying were most effective if they comprised organizational changes at schools, such as playground and schoolyard supervision, and disciplinary measures. One review suggested strong evidence for the effectiveness of classroom management to reduce violent behavior among pupils. Conclusions: Participation in interventions promoting changes in the school environment, in addition to individual behavior change, appears to be associated with improved mental health among pupils and reductions in mobbing/bullying and violent behavior at schools. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Psychosocial Adjustment Needs of Menopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The sample consisted of 226 menopausal women selected through the random sampling technique. .... The research design adopted was the descriptive survey. It involves both quantitative and qualitative methods. This method was preferred ...

  10. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  11. The Role of Culture in Relational Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems in Japanese and US School-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.; Hamaguchi, Yoshikazu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate psychometric properties that assess forms of aggression (i.e., relational and physical aggression) across cultures (i.e., Japan and the United States) and (2) to investigate the role of culture in the associations between forms of aggression and social-psychological adjustment problems such as…

  12. The Psychosocial Improvement after Strabismus Surgery in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guita Ghiasi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the psychosocial status before and after successful strabismus surgery on Iranian strabismic patientsMethods: One hundred twenty-four strabismic patients, older than 15 years were evaluated between 2009 and 2010. They were asked to complete a questionnaire about their psychosocial experiences, before and three months after successful strabismus surgery. Effects of strabismus on self-esteem, self-confidence, and self-assessment of intelligence, employment and interpersonal relationships were compared.Results: Fifty-six percent of patients had problems in adjusting to society, and 71% had developed a mannerism to camouflage their misalignment before surgery. The preoperative scores of self-esteem, self-confidence, and interpersonal relationship were 4.33±2.07, 4.23±2.53 and 6.06±2.33 which changed to 8.33±3.02, 7.29±2.89 and 6.72±3.17 after surgery, respectively (p<0.001 for all of values. More esotropic patients reported to be discriminated against compared to exotropic patients. Postoperatively, 79% of patients reported improvements in their ability to meet new people, and 82% in interpersonal relationships. Scores of self-confidence and self-esteem increased up to three and four units, respectively (p<0.001 for both values.Conclusion: Patients with strabismus have psychosocial problems and successful strabismus surgery improves their psychosocial status.

  13. Children’s Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men’s Severe Violence Toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children’s adjustment problems in families characterized by men’s severe violence toward women. Methods Participants were 258 children and their mothers recruited from domestic violence shelters. Mothers and children completed measures of men’s IPV, women’s IPV, partner-child aggression, and mother-child aggression. Mothers provided reports of children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior problems; children provided reports of their appraisals of threat in relation to interparent conflict. Results After controlling for sociodemographics and men’s IPV: 1) each of the additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, women’s IPV) was associated with children’s externalizing problems; 2) partner-child aggression was associated with internalizing problems; and 3) partner-child aggression was associated with children’s threat appraisals. The relation of mother-child aggression to externalizing problems was stronger for boys than for girls; gender differences were not observed for internalizing problems or threat appraisals. Conclusions Men’s severe IPV seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence, and these other forms appear to contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Parent-child aggression, and partner-child aggression in particular, are especially important. Systematic efforts to identify shelter children who are victims of parental violence seem warranted. Practice implications Men’s severe intimate partner violence seldom occurs in the absence of other forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women’s intimate partner violence), and these different forms of family violence all contribute to children’s adjustment problems. Treatment programs for

  14. The relations of Arab Jordanian adolescents' perceived maternal parenting to teacher-rated adjustment and problems: the intervening role of perceived need satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ikhlas; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Soenens, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Although the effects of important parenting dimensions, such as responsiveness and psychological control, are well documented among Western populations, research has only recently begun to systematically identify psychological processes that may account for the cross-cultural generalization of these effects. A first aim of this study was to examine whether perceived maternal responsiveness and psychological control would relate differentially to teacher ratings of adolescent adjustment in a vertical-collectivist society (i.e., Jordan). The most important aim of this study was to examine, on the basis of self-determination theory, whether these associations would be accounted for by perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Results in a large sample of Jordanian adolescents (N = 545) showed that perceived maternal psychological control and responsiveness yielded, respectively, a positive and negative association with teacher-rated problems, whereas psychological control was negatively related to teacher-rated adjustment. Further, these 2 parenting dimensions related to adjustment and problems via perceived satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy and competence (but not relatedness). The findings are discussed in light of the ongoing debate between universalistic and relativistic perspectives on parenting and adolescent adjustment.

  15. Associations between maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and early child behavior problems: Testing a mutually adjusted prospective longitudinal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Martina K; Nærde, Ane

    2016-05-15

    While there is substantial empirical work on maternal depression, less is known about how mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms compare in their association with child behavior problems in early childhood. In particular, few studies have examined unique relationships in the postpartum period by controlling for the other parent, or looked at longitudinal change in either parent's depressive symptoms across the first living years as a predictor of child problems. We examined depressive symptoms in parents at 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 months following childbirth, and child behavior problems at 48 months. Linear growth curve analysis was used to model parents' initial levels and changes in symptoms across time and their associations with child outcomes. Mothers' depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted behavior problems at 48 months for all syndrome scales, while fathers' did not. Estimates for mothers' symptoms were significantly stronger on all subscales. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms over time was a significantly larger predictor of child aggressive behavior than corresponding change in mothers'. No interaction effects between parents' symptoms on behavior problems appeared, and few child gender differences. Child behavior was assessed once precluding tests for bidirectional effects. We only looked at linear change in parental symptoms. Mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms are a stronger predictor for early child behavior problems than fathers'. Change in fathers' depressive symptoms across this developmental period was uniquely and strongly associated with child aggressive problems, and should therefore be addressed in future research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Psychosocial disintegration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, S

    1994-08-01

    Among the patients referred for rehabilitation in the latter half of their working life, many are notable due to considerable discrepancies between their objectively ascertainable performance and its subjectively perceived decline. In these cases, the "substantial threat to earning capacity" cannot be explained by measurable organ deficiencies. Similarly, treatment efforts focussed solely at improved somatic functioning remain inefficient in terms of stabilization of earning capacity, because they do not bring about changes in the cause of subjective performance deterioration. The author in these circumstances assumes the presence of an independent syndrome, called "psychosocial disintegration". He describes the full picture of this disease entity, and suggests causal mechanisms as well as potential for remedial intervention. On account of the considerable social dimension of the disorder outlined, early identification of these gradually developing changes as well as qualified care of the insurants are indispensable. All those involved in treatment and care of the patients or working in some branch of the social security system should be familiar with this psychosocial disintegration syndrome in order to avoid the guidance and counselling mistakes that are frequently the case. As rehabilitation is impossible in case of inhibiting personal attitudes of an insurant, it is advisable to verify the individual's readiness for rehabilitation and/or to strengthen it by appropriate measures before engaging in costly in-patient service provision. If the needed motivation is to be achieved during participation in a rehabilitation measure, extended service provision will invariably be required.

  17. The impact of training problem-solving skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls who have irresponsible parents or no parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahgholy Ghahfarokhi, F; Moradi, N; Alborzkouh, P; Radmehr, S; Zainali, M

    2015-01-01

    Proper psychological interventions are of great importance because they help enhancing psychological and public health in adolescents with irresponsible parents or no parents. The current research aimed to examine the impact of training problem-solving experiment on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents. Methodology: The approach of the present research was a semi-test via a post-test-pre-test model and a check team. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with irresponsible parents or no parents were chosen by using the Convenience modeling, and they were classified into 2 teams: control and experiment. Both groups were pre-tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, both groups were post-tested, and the obtained data were examined by using inferential and descriptive methods through SPSS 21. Findings: Findings indicated that the training problem-solving skills significantly increased the self-esteem and the behavioral adjustment in teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents (P < 0/ 001). Conclusion: The conclusion of this research was that training problem-solving methods greatly helps endangered people such as teenage girls with irresponsible parents or no parents, because these methods are highly efficient especially when they are performed in groups, as they are cheap and accepted by different people.

  18. The Family Psychosocial Characteristics of Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with or without Oppositional or Conduct Problems in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Keiko

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether the correlates of family psychosocial characteristics among Japanese children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ according to the comorbid condition of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or conduct disorder (CD). Three groups of children (12 ADHD, 15 ADHD + ODD/ CD, and 14 control) were compared on…

  19. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: Psychosocial and personal risk factors (Part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, P.M.; IJmker, S.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and

  20. Barriers against psychosocial communication: oncologists' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerlind, Hanna; Kettis, Åsa; Glimelius, Bengt; Ring, Lena

    2013-10-20

    To explore oncologists' psychosocial attitudes and beliefs and their perceptions regarding barriers against psychosocial communication. A questionnaire was distributed to oncologists in Sweden (n = 537). Questions covered demography, the Physician Psychosocial Beliefs Scale (PPBS), and barriers against psychosocial communication. Stepwise multiple regression was used to determine what factors contribute the most to the PPBS score and the total number of barriers and barriers affecting clinical practice, respectively. Spearman rank-order correlation was used to determine correlation between PPBS score and number of barriers. Questionnaire response rate was 64%. Mean PPBS value was 85.5 (range, 49 to 123; SD, 13.0). Most oncologists (93%) perceived one or more barriers in communicating psychosocial aspects with patients. On average, five different communication barriers were perceived, of which most were perceived to affect clinical practice. These barriers included insufficient consultation time, lack of resources for taking care of problems discovered, and lack of methods to evaluate patients' psychosocial health in clinical practice. There was a positive correlation (rs = 0.490; P barriers (ie, less psychosocially oriented oncologists perceived more barriers). Oncologists with supplementary education with a psychosocial focus perceived fewer barriers/barriers affecting clinical practice (P barriers affecting psychosocial communication in clinical practice. Interventions aiming to improve psychosocial communication must therefore be multifaceted and individualized to clinics and individual oncologists. It is important to minimize barriers to facilitate optimal care and treatment of patients with cancer.

  1. Brief report: Teen sexting and psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A; Temple, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Brief Report: Teen Sexting and Psychosocial Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeff R.; Le, Vi Donna; van den Berg, Patricia; Ling, Yan; Paul, Jonathan A.; Temple, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines whether adolescents who report sexting exhibit more psychosocial health problems, compared to their non-sexting counterparts. Participants included 937 ethnically diverse male and female adolescents recruited and assessed from multiple high schools in southeast Texas. Measures included self-report of sexting, impulsivity, alcohol and drug use, and depression and anxiety symptoms. Teen sexting was significantly associated with symptoms of depression, impulsivity, and substance use. When adjusted for prior sexual behavior, age, gender, race/ethnicity, and parent education, sexting was only related to impulsivity and substance use. While teen sexting appears to correlate with impulsive and high-risk behaviors (substance use), we did not find sexting to be a marker of mental health. PMID:24331302

  3. How Interdisciplinary Teamwork Contributes to Psychosocial Cancer Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daem, Michiel; Verbrugghe, Mathieu; Schrauwen, Wim; Leroux, Silvian; Van Hecke, Ann; Grypdonck, Maria

    2018-03-30

    The organization of psychosocial care is rather complex, and its provision diverse. Access is affected by the acceptance and attitude of patients and professional caregivers toward psychosocial care. The aims of this study were to examine when patients with cancer experience quality psychosocial care and to identify circumstances in collaboration that contribute to patient-perceived positive psychosocial care. This study used a qualitative design in which semistructured interviews were conducted with patients, hospital workers, and primary health professionals. Psychosocial care is often requested but also refused by patients with cancer. Based on this discrepancy, a distinction is made between psychosocial support and psychosocial interventions. Psychosocial support aims to reduce the chaos in patients' lives caused by cancer and is not shunned by patients. Psychosocial interventions comprise the formal care offered in response to psychosocial problems. Numerous patients are reluctant to use psychosocial interventions, which are often provided by psychologists. Psychosocial care aims to assist patients in bearing the difficulties of cancer and its treatment. Patients prefer informal support, given often in conjunction with physical care. This study confirms the important role of nurses in promoting psychosocial care. Patients perceive much support from nurses, although nurses are not considered to be professional psychosocial caregivers. Being perceived as approachable and trustworthy offers nurses a significant opportunity to bring more intense psychosocial interventions within reach of cancer patients.

  4. Adjustment Problems in the Family and School Contexts, Attitude towards Authority, and Violent Behavior at School in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Gonzalo Musitu; Lopez, Estefania Estevez; Emler, Nicholas P.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed the role of different but interrelated variables in the family and school contexts in relation to problems of violent behavior at school during adolescence. Participants were 1,068 students aged 11 to 16 (47% male) drawn from secondary schools in the Valencian Community (Spain). Statistical analyses were carried out using…

  5. Children Changing in Context: Child Temperament and Personality Development as Interrelated with Parenting in the Etiology of Adjustment Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this dissertation was to examine how child temperament and personality change, what the role of parenting is in explaining these changes, and how child temperament/personality and parenting together predict child internalizing and externalizing problems. In this dissertation, we

  6. Building Psychosocial Programming in Geriatrics Fellowships: A Consortium Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelman, Ronald D.; Ansell, Pamela; Breckman, Risa; Snow, Caitlin E.; Ehrlich, Amy R.; Greene, Michele G.; Greenberg, Debra F.; Raik, Barrie L.; Raymond, Joshua J.; Clabby, John F.; Fields, Suzanne D.; Breznay, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    Geriatric psychosocial problems are prevalent and significantly affect the physical health and overall well-being of older adults. Geriatrics fellows require psychosocial education, and yet to date, geriatrics fellowship programs have not developed a comprehensive geriatric psychosocial curriculum. Fellowship programs in the New York tristate area…

  7. Psychosocial aspects of androgenetic alopecia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van der Donk (Jos)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of the studies described in this thesis is to study the psychosocial problems of men and women with androgenetic alopecia who applied for treatment. In chapter 2, the psychological characteristics of 59 men with androgenetic alopecia from a sample of the general

  8. A delicate adjustment: Wallace and Bates on the Amazon and "the problem of the origin of species".

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyhe, John

    2014-01-01

    For over a century it has been believed that Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry Walter Bates set out for the Amazon in 1848 with the aim of "solving the problem of the origin of species". Yet this enticing story is based on only one sentence. Bates claimed in the preface to his 1863 book that Wallace stated this was the aim of their expedition in an 1847 letter. Bates gave a quotation from the letter. But Wallace himself never endorsed or repeated this story. Many writers have acknowledged that this letter still survives. Yet the wording is different from that quoted by Bates and the letter says nothing of an expedition. It is argued that the sentence given by Bates is not a genuine quotation from this or any other Wallace letter but was modified by Bates to promote his own reputation. More significantly, this leads to the conclusion that there was a very sudden and dramatic shift in the way species were thought of and discussed after Darwin's Origin of species appeared. Something called "the problem of the origin of species" (and similar variants) never occurred before Darwin's book but exploded in frequency immediately after it. A profound change in how species origins were discussed happened which no one seemed to notice.

  9. Psychological and social adjustment to blindness: understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Ayinmode, Mosunmola F; Akande, Tanimola M; Ademola-Popoola, Dupe S

    2011-01-01

    Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often personalized and depends on nature and quality of prevailing psychosocial support and rehabilitation opportunities. This study was aimed at identifying the pattern of psychosocial adjustment in a group of relatively secluded and under-reached totally blind people in Ilorin, thus sensitizing eye doctors to psychosocial morbidity and care in the blind. A cross-sectional descriptive study using 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) and a pro forma designed by the authors to assess the psychosocial problems and risk factors in some blind people in Ilorin metropolis. The study revealed that most of the blind people were reasonably adjusted in key areas of social interaction, marriage, and family. Majority were considered to be poorly adjusted in the areas of education, vocational training, employment, and mobility. Many were also considered to be psychologically maladjusted based on the high rate of probable psychological disorder of 51%, as determined by SRQ. Factors identified as risk factors of probable psychological disorder were poor educational background and the presence of another medical disorder. Most of the blind had no access to formal education or rehabilitation system, which may have contributed to their maladjustment in the domains identified. Although their prevailing psychosocial situation would have been better prevented yet, real opportunity still exists to help this group of people in the area of social and physical rehabilitation, meeting medical needs, preventive psychiatry, preventive ophthalmology, and community health. This will require the joint efforts of medical community, government and nongovernment organizations to provide the framework for delivery of these services directly to the communities.

  10. Association between psychosocial disorders and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amita Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a fact that mind and body share an intimate relationship. There are many ways in which mental and physical health impact each other. Psychosocial factors play a part in the pathogenesis of physical health, and oral health is no exception. Chronic and painful oral symptoms lead to psychosocial disorder and at the same time, some patients with psychosocial disorders experience painful oral and facial symptoms. Several investigators have concluded that psychosocial factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of an array of oral problems, ranging from poor oral hygiene to chronic pain disorders, such as temporomandibular joint disorders, burning mouth syndrome, and atypical pain. This review aims at the in-depth analysis of the correlation between psychosocial disorders and various oral symptoms.

  11. Application of adjustment calculus in the nodeless Trefftz method for a problem of two-dimensional temperature field of the boiling liquid flowing in a minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.

  12. Psychosocial Assessment as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Abrams, Annah N.; Banks, Jaime; Christofferson, Jennifer; DiDonato, Stephen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Kabour, Marianne; Madan-Swain, Avi; Patel, Sunita K.; Zadeh, Sima; Kupst, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evidence for a standard of care for psychosocial assessment in pediatric cancer. An interdisciplinary group of investigators utilized EBSCO, PubMed, PsycINFO, Ovid, and Google Scholar search databases, focusing on five areas: youth/family psychosocial adjustment, family

  13. Cervical Cancer: A Review of the Psychosocial Factors Following Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, Kevin Clark

    Cervical cancer is a diagnosis that has a profound psychosocial impact, constituting a physical and emotional crisis for patients as well as family. In general, research indicates that the choice of treatment and the stage of the disease are instrumental in determining the psychosocial adjustment. Disruptions are likely to occur in self-esteem,…

  14. Contours of a causal feedback mechanism between adaptive personality and psychosocial function in patients with personality disorders: a secondary analysis from a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klungsøyr, Ole; Antonsen, Bjørnar; Wilberg, Theresa

    2017-06-05

    Patients with personality disorders commonly exhibit impairment in psychosocial function that persists over time even with diagnostic remission. Further causal knowledge may help to identify and assess factors with a potential to alleviate this impairment. Psychosocial function is associated with personality functioning which describes personality disorder severity in DSM-5 (section III) and which can reportedly be improved by therapy. The reciprocal association between personality functioning and psychosocial function was assessed, in 113 patients with different personality disorders, in a secondary longitudinal analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, over six years. Personality functioning was represented by three domains of the Severity Indices of Personality Problems: Relational Capacity, Identity Integration, and Self-control. Psychosocial function was measured by Global Assessment of Functioning. The marginal structural model was used for estimation of causal effects of the three personality functioning domains on psychosocial function, and vice versa. The attractiveness of this model lies in the ability to assess an effect of a time - varying exposure on an outcome, while adjusting for time - varying confounding. Strong causal effects were found. A hypothetical intervention to increase Relational Capacity by one standard deviation, both at one and two time-points prior to assessment of psychosocial function, would increase psychosocial function by 3.5 standard deviations (95% CI: 2.0, 4.96). Significant effects of Identity Integration and Self-control on psychosocial function, and from psychosocial function on all three domains of personality functioning, although weaker, were also found. This study indicates that persistent impairment in psychosocial function can be addressed through a causal pathway of personality functioning, with interventions of at least 18 months duration.

  15. Psychosocial coping strategies in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprah, L.; Sostaric, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background. The aim of this review is to present common psychosocial problems in cancer patients and their possible coping strategies. Cancer patients are occupied with many psychosocial problems, which are only partially related to their health state and medical treatments. They are faced with a high social pressure, based on prejudices and stereotypes of this illness. The review presents the process of confrontation with the cancer diagnosis and of managing the psychological consequences of cancer. The effects of specific coping styles, psychosocial interventions and a social support on initiation, progression and recurrence of cancer are also described. Conclusions. Although some recent meta-analysis could not provide scientific evidence for the association between coping strategies and the cancer initiation, the progression or the recurrence (neither have studies rejected the thesis of association), the therapeutic window for the psychosocial intervention is still wide and shows an important effect on the quality of lives of many cancer patients. (author)

  16. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera, Eva M; Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy) could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34). The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire , the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  17. The Mediating Role of Psychological Adjustment between Peer Victimization and Social Adjustment in Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Romera

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive scientific evidence of the serious psychological and social effects that peer victimization may have on students, among them internalizing problems such as anxiety or negative self-esteem, difficulties related to low self-efficacy and lower levels of social adjustment. Although a direct relationship has been observed between victimization and these effects, it has not yet been analyzed whether there is a relationship of interdependence between all these measures of psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between victimization and difficulties related to social adjustment among high school students. To do so, various explanatory models were tested to determine whether psychological adjustment (negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy could play a mediating role in this relationship, as suggested by other studies on academic adjustment. The sample comprised 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age = 14.34. The instruments used were the scale of victimization from European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire, the negative scale from Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and a general item about social self-efficacy, all of them self-reports. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The results confirmed the partial mediating role of negative self-esteem, social anxiety and social self-efficacy between peer victimization and social adjustment and highlight the importance of empowering victimized students to improve their self-esteem and self-efficacy and prevent social anxiety. Such problems lead to the avoidance of social interactions and social reinforcement, thus making it difficult for these students to achieve adequate social adjustment.

  18. Psychosocial adaptation to stoma surgery: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Knippenberg, F.C.E. van; Borne, H.W. van den; Poen, H.; Bergsma, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade strong improvements have been made in the medical care of patients with a digestive tract stoma, particularly with regard to nursing skills and to the quality of collecting material for faecal products. Scientific investigation into the psychosocial adjustment of patients

  19. Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychologica and social adjustment to blindness: Understanding from two groups of blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria. ... Background: Blindness can cause psychosocial distress leading to maladjustment if not mitigated. Maladjustment is a secondary burden that further reduces quality of life of the blind. Adjustment is often ...

  20. Psychosocial Issues in Geriatric Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo M

    2017-11-01

    Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation. An argument is made for the importance of comprehensive geriatric assessment in older adults to identify salient issues that may impact rehabilitation and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Convexity Adjustments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M. Gaspar, Raquel; Murgoci, Agatha

    2010-01-01

    A convexity adjustment (or convexity correction) in fixed income markets arises when one uses prices of standard (plain vanilla) products plus an adjustment to price nonstandard products. We explain the basic and appealing idea behind the use of convexity adjustments and focus on the situations...

  2. Job dissatisfaction as a contributor to stress-related mental health problems among Japanese civil servants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the association of job dissatisfaction with mental health have been conducted in the past, few studies have dealt with the complicated links connecting job stress, job dissatisfaction, and stress-related illness. This study seeks to determine how job dissatisfaction is linked to common mental health issues. This study surveyed 3,172 civil servants (2,233 men and 939 women) in 1998, taking poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance as stress-related mental health problems. We examine how psychosocial risk factors at work and job dissatisfaction are associated independently with poor mental functioning, fatigue, and sleep disturbance after adjustment for other known risk factors, and how job dissatisfaction contributes to change in the degree of association between psychosocial risk factors at work and mental health problems. In general, psychosocial risk factors were independently associated with mental health problems. When adjusted for job dissatisfaction, not only was job satisfaction independently associated with mental health problems but it was also found that the association of psychosocial risk factors with mental health problems declined. Our results suggest that, although longitudinal research is necessary, attitudes toward satisfaction at work can potentially decrease the negative effects of psychosocial risk factors at work on mental health.

  3. Bully/Victim Problems among Preschool Children: A Review of Current Research Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Maria; Andreou, Eleni; Botsoglou, Kafenia; Didaskalou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with negative short- and long-term effects on children's psychosocial adjustment (Smith 1999; Ttofi and Farrington, "Aggressive Behav" 34(4):352-368, 2008). Entering kindergarten is a crucial developmental step in many children's lives mainly because it…

  4. The Multivariate Roles of Family Instability and Interparental Conflict in Predicting Children's Representations of Insecurity in the Family System and Early School Adjustment Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jesse L; Davies, Patrick T; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the moderating role of family instability in relations involving destructive interparental conflict, children's internal representations of insecurity in the family system, and their early school maladjustment. Two hundred forty-three preschool children (M age = 4.60 years; 56 % girls) and their families participated in this multi-method (i.e., observations, structured interview, surveys) multi-informant (i.e., observer, parent, teacher), longitudinal study. Findings indicated that the mediational role of children's insecure family representations in the pathway between destructive interparental conflict and children's adjustment problems varied significantly depending on the level of family instability. Interparental conflict was specifically associated with insecure family representations only under conditions of low family instability. In supporting the role of family instability as a vulnerable-stable risk factor, follow up analyses revealed that children's concerns about security in the family were uniformly high under conditions of heightened instability regardless of their level of exposure to interparental conflict.

  5. The Multivariate Roles of Family Instability and Interparental Conflict in Predicting Children’s Representations of Insecurity in the Family System and Early School Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jesse L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the moderating role of family instability in relations involving destructive interparental conflict, children’s internal representations of insecurity in the family system, and their early school maladjustment. Two hundred forty-three preschool children (M age = 4.60 years; 56% girls) and their families participated in this multi-method (i.e., observations, structured interview, surveys) multi-informant (i.e., observer, parent, teacher), longitudinal study. Findings indicated that the mediational role of children’s insecure family representations in the pathway between destructive interparental conflict and children’s adjustment problems varied significantly depending on the level of family instability. Interparental conflict was specifically associated with insecure family representations only under conditions of low family instability. In supporting the role of family instability as a vulnerable-stable risk factor, follow up analyses revealed that children’s concerns about security in the family were uniformly high under conditions of heightened instability regardless of their level of exposure to interparental conflict. PMID:27146062

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among middle-aged adults and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors: evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Diego Alberto; Davidsen, Michael

    2017-02-16

    The goal of this analysis was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in dental health among Spanish middle-aged adults, and the role of behavioral and psychosocial factors in explaining these inequalities. This cross-sectional study used survey data from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey and focused on adults ages 30 - 64. The outcome was dental health status based on the presence of self-reported dental problems. We used education, income, and occupational class as indicators of socioeconomic position and applied logistic regression analysis to estimate associations. We included behavioral and psychosocial variables in the models and compared non-adjusted to adjusted estimates to assess their potential role in explaining socioeconomic gradients. Results showed clear socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults. The percentage of people who reported more dental problems increased among those with lower levels of education, income, and occupation. These gradients were statistically significant (p socioeconomic position. Substantial unexplained associations remained significant after adjusting the model by behavioral and psychosocial variables. This study shows significant socioeconomic gradients in dental health among middle-aged adults in Spain. Behavioral and psychosocial variables were insufficient to explain the inequalities described, suggesting the intervention of other factors. Further research should incorporate additional explanations to better understand and comprehensively address socioeconomic inequalities in dental health.

  7. Video gaming and children's psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of video games on children?s psychosocial development remain the focus of debate. At two timepoints, 1 year apart, 194 children (7.27?11.43 years old; male?=?98) reported their gaming frequency, and their tendencies to play violent video games, and to game (a) cooperatively and (b) competitively; likewise, parents reported their children?s psychosocial health. Gaming at time one was associated with increases in emotion problems. Violent gaming was not associated with psychosocial ...

  8. Associations between chewing and swallowing problems and physical and psychosocial health status of long-term care residents in taiwan: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tze-Fang; Chen, I-Ju; Li, I-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    Oral health is often overlooked in institutional elder care but may have an impact on general health and ability to communicate. We aimed to determine the factor associated with chewing and swallowing problems among long-term care residents in Taiwan. Staff nurses trained to evaluate oral health assessed 781 residents using relevant sections of the Minimum Data Set 2.1 for nursing homes (Chinese version), including the Cognitive Performance Scale, Index of Social Engagement, and Activities of Daily Living Scale. Individuals with chewing and swallowing problems (n = 345) tended to be women (odds ratio [OR] = 1.51, P = .019) in smaller facilities (OR = 4.18, P broken, loose, or carious teeth (OR = 1.74, P = .042); and with more frequently inflamed gums (OR = 2.72, P = .025) than residents without chewing and swallowing problems (n = 436). Residents' chewing and swallowing problems were significantly associated with parenteral/enteral intake, oral health status, nutritional status, concomitant disease and infection, cognitive function, and social engagement. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder worsen psychosocial and educational problems in Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    seen if the comorbidities attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or obsessive compulsive disorder were present. It is very important for the physicians, teachers, and other professionals to be aware of the high prevalence of these social and educational problems to be able to deal...

  10. Sleep dysfunction and psychosocial adaptation among women undergoing treatment for non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Sara; Wohlgemuth, William K; Antoni, Michael H; Lechner, Suzanne C; Holley, Heather A; Carver, Charles S

    2010-06-01

    The current study aimed to determine the frequency of sleep disturbances in women prior to adjuvant therapy for breast cancer (BCa), and whether greater sleep dysfunction uniquely predicts poorer functional outcomes. We assessed subjective sleep reports and associated them with multiple indicators of psychosocial adaptation in 240 women with Stage I-III BCa before they had begun adjuvant treatment. The average global score on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was 8.49 (SD=4.16); 54% scoring above the suggested adjusted cutoff for cancer populations of 8.0. Controlling for various medical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial covariates, multiple regression analyses revealed that higher global PSQI score was significantly associated with poorer functional well-being, greater fatigue intensity, greater disruptions in social interactions, and lower positive states of mind. Specifically, a poorer 'sleep efficiency' PSQI component was associated with poorer functional quality of life and the SIP-Social Interactions subscale, while a poorer 'sleep quality' (SQ) PSQI component was associated with all of the outcomes except for the SIP-Recreations and Pastimes subscale. Results indicate consistent associations between a clinical indicator of sleep dysfunction, particularly those subscales of the PSQI comprising the 'SQ' component, and multiple indicators of psychosocial adaptation among women treated for BCa, independent of anxiety and depression, and suggest the value of comprehensive psychosocial interventions that consider sleep problems. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial determinants of outcomes in knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Edelstein, David; Pak, Chong; Kallen, Michael A; Stanley, Melinda; Zhang, Hong; Robinson, Kausha C; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2011-10-01

    To identify potential psychosocial and educational barriers to clinical success following knee replacement. The authors evaluated 241 patients undergoing total knee replacement, preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Outcomes included the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) scale and the Knee Society rating system (KSRS). Independent variables included: the medical outcome study-social support scale; depression, anxiety and stress scale; brief COPE inventory; health locus of control; arthritis self-efficacy scale and the life orientation test-revised. Multiple regression models evaluated associations of baseline demographic and psychosocial variables with outcomes at 6 months, controlling for body mass index, comorbidities and baseline outcome scores. Patients' mean age was 65 ± 9 years; 65% were women. Most patients improved outcomes after surgery. Several psychosocial variables were associated with outcomes. Regression analyses indicated lower education, less tangible support, depression, less problem-solving coping, more dysfunctional coping, lower internal locus of control were associated with worse WOMAC scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables for pain 0.07; for function, 0.14). Older age, lower education, depression and less problem-solving coping were associated with poorer total KSRS scores (R(2) contribution of psychosocial variables to total KSRS model 0.09). Psychosocial variables as a set contributed from 25% to 74% of total explained variance across the models tested. Patients' level of education, tangible support, depression, problem-solving coping, dysfunctional coping and internal locus of control were associated with pain and functional outcomes after knee replacement. The findings suggest that, in addition to medical management, perioperative psychosocial evaluation and intervention are crucial in enhancing knee replacement outcomes.

  12. Bilateral giant inguinoscrotal Hernia: psychosocial issues and a new ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bilateral giant inguinoscrotal hernias pose challenging psychosocial problems to the patient. The engulfed phallus and hernia size are socially embarrassing and may make penetration during coitus increasingly difficult and uncomfortable. This paper presents a classification and the psychosocial aspects of ...

  13. The Family Environment as a Moderator of Psychosocial Outcomes Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether the family environment moderates psychosocial outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in young children. Method Participants were recruited prospectively from consecutive hospital admissions of 3-6 year old children, and included 19 with severe TBI, 56 with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 99 with orthopedic injuries (OI). They completed four assessments across the first 18 months post-injury. The initial assessment included measures of parenting style, family functioning, and the quality of the home. Children’s behavioral adjustment, adaptive functioning, and social competence were assessed at each occasion. Mixed model analyses examined the relationship of the family environment to psychosocial outcomes across time. Results The OI and TBI groups differed significantly in social competence, but the family environment did not moderate the group difference, which was of medium magnitude. In contrast, group differences in behavioral adjustment became more pronounced across time at high levels of authoritarian and permissive parenting; among children with severe TBI, however, even those with low levels of permissive parenting showed increases in behavioral problems. For adaptive functioning, better home environments provided some protection following TBI, but not over time for the severe TBI group. These three-way interactions of group, family environment, and time post injury were all of medium magnitude. Conclusions The findings indicate that the family environment moderates the psychosocial outcomes of TBI in young children, but the moderating influence may wane with time among children with severe TBI. PMID:20438212

  14. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  15. The impact of long working hours on psychosocial stress response among white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Suh, Chunhui; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jae Oh

    2017-02-07

    This study examined the association between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In total, 1,122 white-collar workers from a company in Korea completed self-administered questionnaires following a lecture about the study aim, procedures, and confidentiality. Psychosocial stress responses were evaluated using the Psychosocial Well-being Index - Short Form (PWI-SF), and psychosocial working conditions were evaluated with the Korean Occupational Stress Scale - Short Form (KOSS-SF). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions to examine associations between long working hours and psychosocial stress responses. In comparison with the reference group, which worked 40-44 hours per week, the crude odds ratio (OR) of the respondents who worked 60 or more hours was 4.56 (95% confidence interval (CI), 2.55-8.15) in terms of psychosocial stress responses. After adjusting for demographic variables, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 5.61 (95% CI, 3.01-10.47). After adjusting for both demographic variables and psychosocial working conditions, the adjusted OR of those working ≥60 hours was 3.25 (95% CI, 1.56-6.79). This study found that long working hours are significantly related to psychosocial stress responses among white-collar workers in one Korean company.

  16. Psychosocial Issues in Pediatric Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial oncology, a relatively new discipline, is a multidisciplinary application of the behavioral and social sciences, and pediatric psychosocial oncology is an emerging subspecialty within the domain of psychosocial oncology. This review presents a brief overview of some of the major clinical issues surrounding pediatric psychosocial oncology. PMID:23049457

  17. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilje, Stina C; Skillgate, Eva; Anderberg, Peter; Berglund, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Pain is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking health care, and is thus a public health problem. Although there is a progressive increase in pain and impaired physical function with age, few studies are performed on older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are associations between musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults and physical and psychosocial workloads through life. The association of heavy physical workload and negative psychosocial workload and musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (SF 12) was analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The model was adjusted for eight background covariates: age, gender, growing-up environment, educational level, if living alone or not, obesity, smoking, and leisure physical activity. Negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads were independently associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life (adjusted OR: 4.44, 95% CI: 2.84-6.92), and (adjusted OR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.20-2.93), respectively. The background covariates female gender and higher education were also associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life, and physical leisure activity was inversely associated. The findings suggest that negative psychosocial and heavy physical workloads are strongly associated with musculoskeletal pain interfering with normal life in older adults. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  18. Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and body mass index in European children: longitudinal findings from the IDEFICS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hunsberger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative impact of childhood overweight on psychosocial well-being has been demonstrated in a number of studies. There is also evidence that psychosocial well-being may influence future overweight. We examined the bidirectional association between childhood overweight and psychosocial well-being in children from a large European cohort. The dual aim was to investigate the chronology of associations between overweight and psychosocial health indicators and the extent to which these associations may be explained by parental education. Methods Participants from the IDEFICS study were recruited from eight countries between September 2007 and June 2008 when the children were aged 2 to 9.9 years old. Children and families provided data on lifestyle, psychosocial well-being, and measured anthropometry at baseline and at follow-up 2 years later. This study includes children with weight, height, and psychosocial well-being measurements at both time points (n = 7,831. Psychosocial well-being was measured by the KINDL® and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire respectively. The first instrument measures health-related quality of life including emotional well-being, self-esteem, parent relations and social relations while the second measures well-being based on emotional symptoms, conduct problems and peer-related problems. Logistic regression was used for modeling longitudinal associations. Results Children who were overweight at baseline had increased risk of poor health-related quality of life (odds ratio (OR = 1.23; 95 % confidence interval (CI:1.03–1.48 measured 2 years later; this association was unidirectional. In contrast to health-related quality of life, poor well-being at baseline was associated with increased risk of overweight (OR = 1.39; 95 % CI:1.03–1.86 at 2 year follow-up; this association was also only observed in one direction. Adjustment for parental education did not change our findings

  19. Bullying Behaviors among Macanese Adolescents-Association with Psychosocial Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xue; Chui, Wing Hong; Liu, Liu

    2017-08-07

    Bullying is a widespread public health problem among school students. Using a large sample of Macanese school adolescents, the present study examines psychosocial conditions and demographic characteristics in discriminating the following four subgroups of students: victims; bullies; bully-victims; and a comparison group of adolescents. Participants included 2288 adolescents from 13 primary and secondary schools in Macau whose ages ranged from 10 to 20 years. Statistical results revealed significant differences among the groups and indicated that adolescents who are involved in school bullying experience worse psychosocial adjustment. Specifically, among the four subgroups of students, bully-victims reported the strongest feelings of anxiety, depression, and negative affectivity, and expressed the lowest satisfaction with life. Compared with students who were not involved in bullying and victimization, bullies experienced more anxiety and depression and victims had lower levels of satisfaction with life. In addition, boys were more likely to engage in bullying behaviors and younger students had a greater probability of being victimized by their peers at school. Implications for future research and practice on bullying perpetration and the prevention of peer victimization are discussed.

  20. Obesity, appearance, and psychosocial adaptation in young African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Hyman, Deborah; Schlundt, David G; Herman-Wenderoth, Leanna; Bozylinski, Khristine

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of weight status, skin tone, peer teasing, and parental appraisals of child's size to self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment in overweight African American children. Overweight to very obese 5- to 10-year-old African American children (N = 117) completed measures of self-esteem, skin tone satisfaction, peer teasing, and body size perception. Caregivers completed the Child Behavior Checklist and rated their child's body size. Overweight was associated with low appearance self-esteem, and body size dissatisfaction with low global self-worth and low appearance self-esteem in children 8 and older. Appearance self-esteem but not global self-worth was lower in girls than boys. Parental perception of child's size as heavier than average was associated with low child appearance self-esteem. Heavier children also had more parental report of behavior and psychosocial problems, but their scores were in the nonclinical range. Child skin tone dissatisfaction was associated with low global self-worth. Weight-related peer teasing was associated with low self-esteem. The relationship between obesity and self-esteem in African American children depends upon age, gender, and children's experiences with teasing and parental evaluation of their size. Other factors, like skin tone satisfaction, contribute to a child's sense of self-worth.

  1. Psychosocial cancer care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members to cancer is an increasing interest in education, ... all stages of the cancer journey and is passionate about enabling more professionals in South Africa to provide psychosocial cancer .... therapeutic support together with more.

  2. Culture and psychosocial function in british and Japanese people with an ostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Kingsley L; Maekawa, Atsuko; Smith, Jane A

    2011-01-01

    We compared social and psychological adjustment to surgery ending with an ostomy in British and Japanese patients. In response to a postal survey, 948 ostomy patients (464 British and 484 Japanese), selected at random from respective national databases, provided assessable data on the Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23), a validated scale for measurement of psychosocial adjustment to an ostomy. Analysis of variance revealed that country of residence (F1,876 = 50.9, P ostomy. British persons with an ostomy experienced higher psychosocial adjustment to an ostomy than did Japanese respondents. Multivariate analysis based on acceptance, social engagement, anxious-preoccupation, and anger also found that country of residence and time since surgery influenced psychosocial adjustment (Pillai's Trace: V = 0.22, F = 67.15, P ostomy, suggesting that culture influences psychosocial adjustment to life with an ostomy. These findings support the need for culturally informed ostomy care.

  3. The Adolescents' Psychosocial Functioning Inventory (APFI): Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0 while all three factors/subscales: Optimism and Coping Strategy (OCS), Behaviour and Relationship Problems (BRP), and General Psychosocial Dysfunctions (GPD) had moderate to high reliability (α = 0.59 for OCS, α = 0.57 for BRP and α = 90. 0 for GPD). The CGF yielded X2/df <3 =1.58 while all other fit indices were in ...

  4. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Promoting psychosocial adaptation of youths in residential care through animal-assisted psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Amiano, Nora; Caldentey, Miguel A

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the influence of animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) on the psychosocial adaptation of a group of adolescents in residential care who had suffered traumatic childhood experiences and who presented with mental health problems. This study recruited 63 youths (mean age=15.27, SD=1.63) who were divided into two groups: a treatment group of 39 youths (19 female and 20 male; mean age=15.03, SD=0.51) and a control group of 24 (five female and 19 male; mean age=15.67, SD=1.63). The youths who underwent the AAP program had higher school adjustment in comparison to their peers who did not receive treatment. Their hyperactive behavior decreased, and they showed better social skills, more leadership, and fewer attention problems. They also showed a more positive attitude toward their teachers in comparison to controls. No differences were observed in other variables associated with clinical symptoms or personal adjustment. These results suggest that AAP can be effective with teenagers who have suffered childhood traumas and who present with problems of psychosocial adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychosocial functioning and risk factors among siblings of children with cancer: An updated systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A; Lehmann, Vicky; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Carpenter, Aubrey L; Marsland, Anna L; Alderfer, Melissa A

    2018-06-01

    Siblings' psychosocial adjustment to childhood cancer is poorly understood. This systematic review summarizes findings and limitations of the sibling literature since 2008, provides clinical recommendations, and offers future research directions. MEDLINE/Pubmed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycINFO were searched for articles related to siblings, psychosocial functioning, and pediatric cancer. After systematic screening, studies meeting inclusion criteria were rated for scientific merit, and findings were extracted and synthesized. In total, 102 studies were included (63 quantitative, 35 qualitative, 4 mixed-methods). Methodological limitations are common. Mean levels of anxiety, depression, and general adjustment are similar across siblings and comparisons, but symptoms of cancer-related posttraumatic stress are prevalent. School-aged siblings display poorer academic functioning and more absenteeism but similar peer relationships as peers. Quality of life findings are mixed. Adult siblings engage in higher levels of risky health behaviors and may have poorer health outcomes than comparisons. Risk factors for poor sibling adjustment include lower social support, poorer family functioning, lower income, non-White race, and shorter time since diagnosis, but findings are inconsistent. Qualitative themes include siblings' maturity, compassion, and autonomy, but also strong negative emotions, uncertainty, family disruptions, limited parental support, school problems, altered friendships, and unmet needs. Despite methodological limitations, research indicates a strong need for sibling support. Clinical recommendations include identifying at-risk siblings and developing interventions to facilitate family communication and increase siblings' social support, cancer-related knowledge, and treatment involvement. Future longitudinal studies focusing on mechanisms and moderators of siblings' adjustment would inform timing and targets of

  7. Asymmetric adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A method of adjusting a signal processing parameter for a first hearing aid and a second hearing aid forming parts of a binaural hearing aid system to be worn by a user is provided. The binaural hearing aid system comprises a user specific model representing a desired asymmetry between a first ear

  8. Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with sickle cell disease who are experiencing psychosocial problems concurrently with their mothers: a Nigerian study. ... you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader.

  9. Psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousino, Melissa K; Schumacher, Kurt R; Rea, Kelly E; Eder, Sally; Zamberlan, Mary; Jordan, Jessica; Fredericks, Emily M

    2018-03-01

    Across pediatric organ transplant populations, patient and family psychosocial functioning is associated with important health-related outcomes. Research has suggested that pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families are at increased risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes; however, recent investigation of psychosocial functioning in this population is lacking. This study aimed to provide a contemporary characterization of psychosocial functioning in pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families. Associations between psychosocial function, demographic variables, and transplant-related variables were investigated. Fifty-six parents/guardians of pediatric heart transplant recipients completed a comprehensive psychosocial screening measure during transplant follow-up clinic visits. Descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, and independent samples t tests were performed. Forty percent of pediatric heart transplant recipients and their families endorsed clinically meaningful levels of total psychosocial risk. One-third of patients presented with clinically significant psychological problems per parent report. Psychosocial risk was unassociated with demographic or transplant-related factors. Despite notable improvements in the survival of pediatric heart transplant recipients over the past decade, patients and families present with sustained psychosocial risks well beyond the immediate post-transplant period, necessitating mental health intervention to mitigate adverse impact on health-related outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Adaptação psicossocial e saúde física em crianças de pais separados Psychosocial adjustment and physical health in children of divorce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui A. Nunes-Costa

    2009-10-01

    over the psychological maladjustment and physical health problems in children of divorced parents, thus contributing to the integration of existing scientific knowledge based on the biopsychosocial model of the impact of divorce on children's physical health as proposed by Troxel and Matthews (2004. SOURCES: Review of the literature using MEDLINE and PsycInfo (1980-2007 databases, selecting the most representative articles on the subject. Special attention was paid to contributions by internationally renowned investigators on the subject. SUMMARY PF THE FINDINGS: Divorce may be responsible for a decline of physical and psychological health in children. The developmental maladjustment of children is not triggered by divorce itself, but rather by other risk factors associated with it, such as interparental conflict, parental psychopathology, decline in socio-economic level, inconsistency in parenting styles, a parallel and conflicting co-parenting relationship between parents and low levels of social support. Such risk factors trigger maladjusted developmental pathways, marked by psychopathological symptoms, poor academic performance, worst levels of physical health, risk behavior, exacerbated psychophysiological responses to stress and weakening of the immune system. CONCLUSIONS: Clear links were observed between experiencing parental divorce and facing problems of physical and psychological maladjustment in children. Divorce is a stressor that should be considered by health professionals as potentially responsible for maladjusted neuropsychobiological responses and for decline in children's physical health.

  11. Psychosocial screening and assessment in oncology and palliative care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eGrassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric and psychosocial disorders among cancer patients have been reported as a major consequence of the disease and treatment. The problems in applying a pure psychiatric approach have determined the need for structuring more defined methods, including screening for distress and emotional symptoms and a more specific psychosocial assessment, to warrant proper care to cancer patients with psychosocial problems. This review examines some of the most significant issues related to these two steps, screening and assessment of psychosocial morbidity in cancer and palliative care. With regard to this , the many different variables, such as the factors affecting individual vulnerability (e.g. life events, chronic stress and allostatic load, well-being, and health attitudes and the psychosocial correlates of medical disease (e.g. psychiatric disturbances, psychological symptoms, illness behavior, and quality of life which are possibly implicated not only in classical psychiatric disorders but more broadly in psychosocial suffering. Multidimensional tools (e.g. and specific psychosocially oriented interview (e.g. the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research - DCPR represent a way to screen for and assess emotional distress, anxiety and depression, maladaptive coping, dysfunctional attachment, as well as other significant psychosocial dimensions secondary to cancer, such as demoralization and health anxiety. Cross-cultural issues, such as language, ethnicity, race, and religion, are also discussed as possible factors influencing the patients and families perception of illness, coping mechanisms, psychological response to a cancer diagnosis.

  12. Coping styles and locus of control as predictors for psychological adjustment of adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global

  13. Psychosocial problems in children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, V; Thastum, M; Schiøtz, P O

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare the well-being of children (7-14 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 43) with the well-being of healthy controls (n = 1121). METHODS: The self-report questionnaire Beck Youth Inventories (BYI) was used to study depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behaviour and self-concept in......AIM: To compare the well-being of children (7-14 years) with cystic fibrosis (CF) (n = 43) with the well-being of healthy controls (n = 1121). METHODS: The self-report questionnaire Beck Youth Inventories (BYI) was used to study depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behaviour and self......-concept in children with CF. A measure of social desirability was included as well as body mass index (BMI) and percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) as measures of health status. RESULTS: The children with CF did not differ from the norm group concerning depression, disruptive...... behaviour and self-concept. Young children with CF (7-10 years) and boys with CF scored significantly higher on anxiety. Girls with CF scored significantly lower on anger than controls. BMI was not associated with any of the BYI subscales. In patients aged 11-14 years, there was a significant correlation...

  14. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, following elements do not increase: a) Family Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3). b) Reimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be implemented, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and the rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  15. Salary adjustments

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with decisions taken by the Finance Committee and Council in December 2007, salaries are adjusted with effect from 1 January 2008. Scale of basic salaries and scale of stipends paid to fellows (Annex R A 5 and R A 6 respectively): increased by 0.71% with effect from 1 January 2008. As a result of the stability of the Geneva consumer price index, the following elements do not increase: a)\tFamily Allowance, Child Allowance and Infant Allowance (Annex R A 3); b)\tReimbursement of education fees: maximum amounts of reimbursement (Annex R A 4.01) for the academic year 2007/2008. Related adjustments will be applied, wherever applicable, to Paid Associates and Students. As in the past, the actual percentage increase of each salary position may vary, due to the application of a constant step value and rounding effects. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  16. Health problems associated with international business travel. A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H L; Reilly, S M

    2000-08-01

    1. Few studies examine the travel related health problems of international business travelers (IBTs). Research exists for other travelers, such as tourists, which begins to help clinicians understand the potential health problems faced by IBTs. 2. A review of the literature reveals 36% to 54% of travelers experience physical health problems such as traveler's diarrhea, insomnia, respiratory problems, and skin problems; 6% to 18% report accidents and injuries while abroad. 3. Psychosocial data are equally limited, but support the idea that IBTs may experience stress, anxiety, culture shock, and adjustment problems while overseas. 4. Multiple factors likely contribute to the physical and psychosocial health experiences of IBTs. The historical lack of data for this population of workers combined with the trend towards globalization confirm the need for further study from an occupational health perspective.

  17. Shaft adjuster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  18. Adjustable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Covic, J.; Leininger, G.

    1981-01-01

    In a rotating fan beam tomographic scanner there is included an adjustable collimator and shutter assembly. The assembly includes a fan angle collimation cylinder having a plurality of different length slots through which the beam may pass for adjusting the fan angle of the beam. It also includes a beam thickness cylinder having a plurality of slots of different widths for adjusting the thickness of the beam. Further, some of the slots have filter materials mounted therein so that the operator may select from a plurality of filters. Also disclosed is a servo motor system which allows the operator to select the desired fan angle, beam thickness and filter from a remote location. An additional feature is a failsafe shutter assembly which includes a spring biased shutter cylinder mounted in the collimation cylinders. The servo motor control circuit checks several system conditions before the shutter is rendered openable. Further, the circuit cuts off the radiation if the shutter fails to open or close properly. A still further feature is a reference radiation intensity monitor which includes a tuning-fork shaped light conducting element having a scintillation crystal mounted on each tine. The monitor is placed adjacent the collimator between it and the source with the pair of crystals to either side of the fan beam

  19. Internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Betül; Ayaz Alkaya, Sultan

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the internet use and psychosocial health of school aged children. Children in grades 4-7 and their parents were invited to participate. The study group consisted of 737 children. Data were collected using a descriptive form and Pediatric Symptom Checklist-17. Majority of children used internet, one of each five children had psychosocial problem risk. Risk of psychosocial problem was higher in males, children who have 'not working father', use internet 5 years and over, use internet for 3h and over per day. These results suggest that families should be informed about associations between internet use and psychosocial problems that measures should be taken for providing controlled internet use for children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Parents' psychosocial adjustment in families of children with Spina Bifida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaes, Ignatius Petrus Renatus

    2007-01-01

    Spina bifida is the most common, congenital, neurological disorder. Children with spina bifida live with a range of impairments depending on the severity and the location of the spinal defect. Medical treatment of the disorder is very complex and can involve decision-making processes around

  1. Psychosocial job quality and mental health among young workers: a fixed-effects regression analysis using 13 waves of annual data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Krnjack, Lauren; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Entry into employment may be a time when a young person's well-being and mental health is challenged. Specifically, we examined the difference in mental health when a young person was "not in the labor force" (NILF) (ie, non-working activity such as participating in education) compared to being in a job with varying levels of psychosocial quality. Method The data source for this study was the Household Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) study, and the sample included 10 534 young people (aged ≤30 years). We used longitudinal fixed-effects regression to investigate within-person changes in mental health comparing circumstances where individuals were NILF to when they were employed in jobs of varying psychosocial quality. Results Compared to when individuals were not in the labor force, results suggest a statistically significant decline in mental health when young people were employed in jobs with poor psychosocial working conditions and an improvement in mental health when they were employed in jobs with optimal psychosocial working conditions. Our results were robust to various sensitivity tests, including adjustment for life events and the lagged effects of mental health and job stressors. Conclusions If causal, the results suggest that improving the psychosocial quality of work for younger workers will protect and promote their wellbeing, and may reduce the likelihood of mental health problems later on.

  2. Coping and emotional adjustment following traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    To examine the association between coping style and emotional adjustment following traumatic brain injury. Thirty three individuals who had sustained a traumatic brain injury (mean duration of posttraumatic amnesia = 32 days) between 1(1/2) months and almost 7 years previously. Coping Scale for Adults, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, and the Sickness Impact Profile. Approximately 50% of the sample reported clinically significant levels of anxiety and depression. Coping characterized by avoidance, worry, wishful thinking, self-blame, and using drugs and alcohol was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression, and psychosocial dysfunction and lower levels of self-esteem. Coping characterized by actively working on the problem and using humor and enjoyable activities to manage stress was associated with higher self-esteem. Lower premorbid intelligence (measured via the National Adult Reading Test) and greater self-awareness (measured via the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview) were associated with an increased rate of maladaptive coping. The strong association between the style of coping used to manage stress and emotional adjustment suggests the possibility that emotional adjustment might be improved by the facilitation of more adaptive coping styles. It is also possible that improving emotional adjustment may increase adaptive coping. The development and evaluation of interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and decreasing emotional distress represent important and potentially fruitful contributions to enhancing long-term outcome following brain injury.

  3. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Illness perception in eating disorders and psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Terol Cantero, Ma Carmen; Romero Escobar, Cristina; Pagán Acosta, Gonzalo

    2007-09-01

    The current study is based on the framework of the Self-Regulatory Model of Illness (SRM). The aim of this work was to examine perception of illness in eating disorder (ED) patients and investigate whether illness perception is related to psychosocial adaptation in these patients. A total of 98 female ED patients completed the specific eating disorders Spanish version of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R) and a range of adjustment variables including the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale (PAIS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD). ED patients reported a moderate number of physical symptoms, and perceived their illness as controllable, treatable, highly distressing, as a chronic condition and with serious consequences. Emotional representation was the most significant dimension related to emotional adjustment. Illness identity and cure dimensions were the most significant dimensions associated with psychosocial adaptation. This study shows that patients' illness perceptions are related to illness adaptation. Illness identity was associated with emotional and psychosocial adjustment, and having faith that treatment may control the illness was related to positive benefits for ED. These results suggest that a psychological intervention, which addresses patients' illness representations, may assist in their adjustment to ED. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association

  5. Long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseth, Trond H; Emblem, Ragnhild

    2017-10-01

    Surgical congenital malformations often represent years of treatment, large number of hospital stays, treatment procedures, and long-term functional sequels affecting patients' psychosocial functioning. Both functional defects and psychosocial difficulties that occur commonly in childhood may pass through adolescence on to adulthood. This overview presents reports published over the past 3 decades to elucidate the long-term psychosocial consequences of surgical congenital malformations. Literature searches conducted on PubMed database revealed that less than 1% of all the records of surgical congenital malformations described long-term psychosocial consequences, but with diverse findings. This inconsistency may be due to methodological differences or deficiencies; especially in study design, patient sampling, and methods. Most of the studies revealed that the functional deficits may have great impact on patients' mental health, psychosocial functioning, and QoL; both short- and long-term negative consequences. Factors other than functional problems, e.g., repeated anesthesia, multiple hospitalization, traumatic treatment procedures, and parental dysfunctioning, may also predict long-term mental health and psychosocial functioning. Through multidisciplinary approach, pediatric surgeons should also be aware of deficits in emotional and psychosocial functioning. To achieve overall optimal psychosocial functioning, the challenge is to find a compromise between physically optimal treatment procedures and procedures that are not psychologically detrimental. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. [Prevention of psychosocial risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie

    2018-02-01

    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial work environment and emotional exhaustion among middle-aged employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saastamoinen Peppiina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the associations of job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace with emotional exhaustion. This was done by adjusting firstly for age and occupational class, secondly physical work factors, thirdly mutually adjusting for the three psychosocial factors and fourthly adjusting for all studied variables simultaneously. Data were derived from the Helsinki Health Study baseline surveys conducted in 2001 and 2002, including 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%. Exhaustion was measured with a six-item subscale from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI. Psychosocial factors included Karasek's job control, organizational justice and bullying at the workplace. Logistic regression analysis was used. Results Among women 23% and among men 20% reported symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Among women all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for age and occupational class as confounders. When physical work factors were additionally adjusted for, the associations slightly attenuated but remained. When psychosocial work factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, their associations with exhaustion attenuated but remained. Among men all psychosocial factors were associated with exhaustion when adjusted for confounders only. When adjusted for physical work factors the associations slightly attenuated. When psychosocial factors were simultaneously adjusted for each other, associations of organizational justice and bullying with exhaustion attenuated but remained whereas job control lost its association. Conclusions Identifying risk factors for emotional exhaustion is vital for preventing subsequent processes leading to burnout. Psychosocial factors are likely to contribute to exhaustion among female as well as male employees. Thus management and occupational health care should devote more attention to the psychosocial work environment

  9. Can they recover? An assessment of adult adjustment problems among males in the abstainer, recovery, life-course persistent, and adolescence-limited pathways followed up to age 56 in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G; Rocque, Michael; Fox, Bryanna Hahn; Piquero, Alex R; Farrington, David P

    2016-05-01

    Much research has examined Moffitt's developmental taxonomy, focusing almost exclusively on the distinction between life-course persistent and adolescence-limited offenders. Of interest, a handful of studies have identified a group of individuals whose early childhood years were marked by extensive antisocial behavior but who seemed to recover and desist (at least from severe offending) in adolescence and early adulthood. We use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to examine the adult adjustment outcomes of different groups of offenders, including a recoveries group, in late middle adulthood, offering the most comprehensive investigation of this particular group to date. Findings indicate that abstainers comprise the largest group of males followed by adolescence-limited offenders, recoveries, and life-course persistent offenders. Furthermore, the results reveal that a host of adult adjustment problems measured at ages 32 and 48 in a number of life-course domains are differentially distributed across these four offender groups. In addition, the recoveries and life-course persistent offenders often show the greatest number of adult adjustment problems relative to the adolescence-limited offenders and abstainers.

  10. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850

  11. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sint Nicolaas, S M; Schepers, S A; van den Bergh, E M M; de Boer, Y; Streng, I; van Dijk-Lokkart, E M; Grootenhuis, M A; Verhaak, C M

    2017-12-01

    The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare professionals blind to outcome of PAT assessment, and (ii) the match between PAT risk score and team risk estimation. Eighty-three families of children with cancer from four pediatric oncology centers in the Netherlands participated (59% response rate). The PAT and team risk estimation was assessed at diagnosis (M = 40.2 days, SD = 14.1 days), and the content of provided psychosocial care in the 5-month period thereafter resulting in basic or specialized care. According to the PAT, 65% of families were defined as having low (universal), 30% medium (targeted), and 5% high (clinical) risk for developing psychosocial problems. Thirty percent of patients from universal group got basic psychosocial care, 63% got specialized care, and 7% did not get any care. Fourteen percent of the families at risk got basic care, 86% got specialized care. Team risk estimations and PAT risk scores matched with 58% of the families. This study showed that families at risk, based on standardized risk assessment with the PAT, received more specialized care than families without risk. However, still 14% of the families with high risks only received basic care, and 63% of the families with standard risk got specialized care. Standardized risk assessment can be used as part of comprehensive care delivery, complementing the team. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stable Roles, Changed Skills: Teacher Candidate Responses to Instruction about Adolescent Psychosocial Support Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippo, Kate; Blosser, Allison

    2017-01-01

    By virtue of their day-to-day contact with students, teachers are uniquely positioned to notice and respond to student psychosocial issues, both mental health problems and issues like peer harassment that can contribute to mental health problems. Yet, teachers' opportunities to learn about providing psychosocial support remain scattered. The…

  13. Psychological Adjustment of Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J Yn; Lai, K Yc

    2016-12-01

    Findings about the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have been inconsistent in western literature and little is known among non-western societies. This study explored the psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder in Hong Kong. A total of 116 families with siblings of children with autism spectrum disorders co-morbid with learning disability were included in the study. Parents completed questionnaires about sibling emotional and behavioural adjustment, and their own mental well-being, quality of life, and family functioning. Siblings completed a questionnaire on their relationship with the autistic proband. Parent ratings did not reveal any significant negative impact on the emotional and behavioural adjustment of the typically developing siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder, but there were concerns about their peer relationships and weak prosocial behaviours. When cut-off scores were used to screen for risk of mental health problems, a quarter of the siblings warranted further assessment. Parents' quality of life and family functioning were significant predictors of sibling adjustment. In managing children with autism spectrum disorder, it is necessary to bear in mind the adjustment of their siblings, especially their peer relationships and prosocial behaviour. Adopting a holistic approach to address the psychosocial needs of the parents can facilitate sibling adjustment.

  14. Correlates of Bio-Psychosocial Factors on Perceived Body Image ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    person's psychosocial adjustment experiences, feelings and attitudes that is ... Brogowicz (1990) reported that 90% of university students in their study said that they ... studies have focused on the issue of body weight as it relates to body image body ... boost feelings of self-mastery, increase social support, bolster feelings of ...

  15. Assessing Emotional and Behavioural Problems with the Child Behaviour Checklist: Exploring the Relevance of Adjusting the Norms for the Flemish Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Braet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL is one of the most frequently used dimensional instruments for screening behavioural and emotional problems in children. In this study the psychometric properties of the CBCL 2001-version and the usefulness of existing US norms within a Flemish community sample were explored. Mothers of young children ('N' = 170 and school-aged children and adolescents ('N' = 718 completed the CBCL and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Reliability of both the CBCL/1½-5 and CBCL/6-18 was excellent. There were substantial correlations between the SDQ and CBCL scales, indicating a good concurrent validity. Significant differences were found when comparing the mean CBCL raw scores of the different subsamples (for different ages and gender groups with the US norms. Generally spoken, the mean CBCL raw scores as well as the clinical and borderline clinical cutpoints for Flemish children were mostly lower, specifically for the Total Problems score and the Externalising scales.

  16. Normal Stress or Adjustment Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder is a type of stress-related mental illness that can affect your feelings, thoughts and behaviors. Signs and symptoms of an adjustment disorder can include: Anxiety Poor school or work performance Relationship problems Sadness ...

  17. Psychosocial stressors and cigarette smoking among African American adults in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Lewis, Tené T; Bennett, Gary G; Ryff, Carol D; Albert, Michelle A

    2012-10-01

    Psychosocial stress is a significant risk factor for smoking, and Blacks experience higher levels of psychosocial stress relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Limited research has comprehensively examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking among Blacks. We examined psychosocial stressors in relation to smoking status (current, previous, and never) in middle-aged Blacks (34-85 years, n = 592) from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a subset of the Midlife in the United States Study II (2004-2006). Eleven stressor domains were assessed, including psychological and physical work stress, work-family conflict, perceived inequality, relationship stress, neighborhood stress, discrimination, financial stress, recent problems, stressful events, and childhood adversity. We also calculated a cumulative score. Multinomial models were adjusted for age, gender, education, and income. Seven of the 11 stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a current smoker compared with a never-smoker: neighborhood, financial, relationship, and psychological work stress, perceived inequality, stressful events, childhood adversity (p values <.05; ORs ranged from 1.28 to 1.77). Three stressors and the cumulative score were associated with higher odds of being a previous smoker versus a never-smoker (p < .05). Individuals who scored in the top quartile on 5 or more stressors were 3.74 (95% CI = 2.09-6.71) times as likely to be current smokers, and more than twice as likely to be previous smokers, compared with individuals with no high stressors. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between stress and smoking among urban middle-aged Blacks and suggest that cessation programs should address modifiable individual and community-level stressors.

  18. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  19. [Adolescent psychosocial development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly necessary that pediatricians have greater knowledge of adolescent health. To begin with they should be familiar with the psychosocial development of this period, an issue which is imperative for the health care of the age group. With that purpose, this article reviews the normal adolescent psychosocial development. Adolescence is a stage that has been progressively prolonged, during which fast and big changes occur, that lead human beings to become biologically, psychologically and socially mature, and potentially able to live independently. Developmental tasks of this period are the establishment of identity and the achievement of autonomy. Although it is a process of high individual variability in terms of its beginning and end, the progression through stages, the synchrony of development between the various areas, and in other aspects, the psychosocial development of this period usually have common characteristics and a progressive pattern of 3 phases: early, middle and late adolescence. Psychological, cognitive, social, sexual and moral development of young people in each of them are described in this article. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescent bullying involvement and psychosocial aspects of family and school life: a cross-sectional study from Guangdong Province in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School bullying is an emerging problem in China. The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among Chinese adolescents and to examine the association of bullying and being bullied with family factors, school factors and indicators of psychosocial adjustment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 8,342 middle school students were surveyed in four cities in the Guangdong Province. Self-reports on bullying involvement and information regarding family factors, school factors and psychosocial adjustment were collected. Descriptive statistics and multi-level logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the prevalence of school bullying and explore potentially influential factors. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 20.83% (1,738 reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 18.99% were victims of bullying, 8.60% were bullies and 6.74% both bullied themselves and bullied others. Factors that were determined to be correlated with bullying behaviors included grade, parental caring, consideration of suicide, running away from home, time spent online per day and being in a physical fight. CONCLUSION: Bullying was determined to be prevalent among Chinese adolescents. Given the concurrent psychosocial adjustment, family and school factors associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, this issue merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.

  1. Changes in psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms: a prospective study in junior physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Weigl, Matthias; Glaser, Jürgen; Petru, Raluca; Siegrist, Johannes; Angerer, Peter

    2013-12-01

    We examined the impact of changes in the psychosocial work environment on depressive symptoms in a sample of junior physicians, a high risk group for stress and mental disorders. This is a three-wave prospective study in 417 junior physicians during their residency in German hospitals. The psychosocial work environment was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire at Waves 1 and 2, and the depressive symptoms were assessed with the State-Trait Depression Scales at all three waves. Multivariate linear regression was applied for prospective associations between ERI across Waves 1 and 2, and baseline-adjusted depressive symptoms at Wave 3. Compared with the ERI scores at Wave 1, at Wave 2, and mean scores between the two waves, the baseline-adjusted ERI change scores between the two waves showed slightly better statistical power, predicting depressive symptoms at Wave 3 (β = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.38-1.18 for increased ERI per SD, β = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.22-1.06 for increased effort per SD, β = -0.65, 95% CI = -1.06 to -0.24 for increased reward per SD, and β = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.27-1.09 for increased overcommitment per SD). Negative changes in the psychosocial work environment, specifically increased ERI, are associated with depressive symptoms in German junior physicians. Reducing the non-reciprocity of working life, particularly improving reward at work, may have beneficial effects on prevention of mental health problems in the hospital workplace. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Marshall L; Mavrolefteros, George; Close, David

    2002-01-01

    To examine the relationship between premorbid adjustment and neuropsychological deficit in schizophrenia, this report examined retrospective ratings of social and school adjustment during three age epochs (childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence) as predictors of neurocognitive performance in 61 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized schizophrenia outpatients. Results indicated greater cognitive deficits when premorbid adjustment was unfavorable, particularly for measures of attention and executive functions. Premorbid number and quality of peer relationships and psychosocial adaptation to the school environment were more closely related to neuropsychological performance during adulthood than were premorbid withdrawal and premorbid academic performance. Early onset of poor premorbid adjustment rather than deterioration from childhood to adolescence was associated with greater neuropsychological disturbance in adulthood. It is suggested that childhood onset of premorbid deficits in selective areas of social and academic adjustment appears to influence the cognitive performance seen in adult schizophrenia. This study is consistent with findings from other related reports; it extends these findings to a larger and clinically stabilized sample.

  3. Psychosocial impact of dysthymia: a study among married patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subodh, B N; Avasthi, A; Chakrabarti, S

    2008-07-01

    Unlike major depression, the psychosocial impact of dysthymia has received far less research attention. This study attempted to assess the psychosocial consequences of dysthymia. The sample consisted of 30 married patients with DSM-IV dysthymic disorder and a matched control group of 30 married patients with recurrent major depressive disorder (RDD), diagnosed using structured interviews. Apart from ratings of severity of depression, assessments of psychosocial impact included quality of life (QOL), disability, perceived social support and marital adjustment. Psychosocial parameters were evaluated using vernacular versions of well-validated scales previously used in similar populations. Matched normal/medically ill controls were derived from Indian studies which had assessed the same parameters using the same instruments. Patients with dysthymia were significantly impaired on measures of QOL, disability, social support and marital adjustment compared to normal/medically ill controls. On the other hand, the two groups of dysthymia and RDD were comparable on these measures apart from significantly lower social support among patients with dysthymia. Duration of illness and severity of depression emerged as the most important correlates, particularly of impaired QOL and disability levels. Small hospital-based sample, normal/medically ill controls derived from other studies and cross-sectional assessments were the major limitations. Dysthymia had considerable adverse psychosocial impact in terms of QOL, functioning (disability), social support and marital adjustment. Severity and chronicity appeared to be important mediators of this negative psychosocial impact. Increased awareness, improved recognition and adequate treatment might help negate some of the untoward social consequences of this condition.

  4. A systematic review of studies on psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer: structures of society and methodological pitfalls may challenge the conclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Rechnitzer, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    High survival rates after childhood cancer raise attention to possible psychosocial late effects. We focus on predictors of psychosocial outcomes based on diagnosis, treatment, demography, somatic disease, and methodological problems. Overall, survivors evaluate their health-related quality of life...

  5. [Psychosocial disadvantages in incarcerated girls and boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Bessler, Cornelia; Vogt, Gunnar; Linhart, Susanne; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Aebi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies found that criminal behavior in juveniles often concurs with neighborhood disadvantage and family dysfunction, especially in girls. In this study we assessed the psychosocial background in incarcerated juveniles and analyzed the data for each gender separately. The Multidimensional Clinical Screening Inventory for delinquent juveniles (MCSI) was used to assess school history, psychiatric history, family background, abuse and neglect and motive for crime. The sample consisted of 294 juveniles (46 females and 248 males). Innerfamilial abuse/neglect was reported by 91% (girls) and 79% (boys). 76% (girls) and 88% (boys) reported school-problems. 57% (girls) and 29% (boys) reported to have recieved psychiatric pretreatment. In girls we found significantly higher prevalence rates for parental divorce, incarceration of mother, abuse/neglect and psychiatric pretreatment. Significantly more girls reported a co-occurrence of school-problems and experiences of separation and loss and abuse (65.2% vs. 46.4%, χ²=5.51, df=1, p<.05). Incarcerated juveniles, especially females, are and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial burdens. Therefore it is necessary to implement prevention programs for psychosocially stressed families. Forensic intervention in and after detention has to include a family centered approach.

  6. Burnout in the working population: relations to psychosocial work factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Karin M; Linton, Steven J; Fedeli, Cecilia; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated levels of burnout in the general population irrespective of occupation and relations between burnout and psychosocial work factors. A cross-sectional survey featuring sleep problems, psychological distress, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey), and psychosocial factors at work, was mailed to a random sample of 3,000 participants, aged 20-60. Response rate was 61%. A high level (18%), a low level (19%), and an intermediate group (63%) for burnout were constructed. The high level group was associated with those who were > 50 years old, women, those experiencing psychological distress, and those with a poor psychosocial work climate. The analyses on variables significant in previous analyses showed that the high level group was strongly related to high demands, low control, lack of social support, and disagreeing about values at the workplace even when accounting for age, gender, and psychological distress. We conclude that psychosocial work factors are important in association to burnout regardless of occupation.

  7. Psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation in rural South African adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; van den Borne, Bart; James, Shamagonam; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a prevalent problem among young people in Southern Africa, but prevention programs are largely absent. This survey aimed to identify the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Limpopo. A two-stage cluster sample design was used to establish a representative sample of 591 adolescents. Bivariate correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Findings show that suicidal ideation is prevalent among adolescents. The psychosocial factors perceived social support and negative feelings about the family and the behavioral factors forced sexual intercourse and physical violence by the partner were found to increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Depression mediated the relationship between these psychosocial and behavioral risk factors and suicidal ideation. This study increased our understanding of the psychosocial and behavioral predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation. The findings provide target points for future intervention programs and call for supportive structures to assist adolescents with suicidal ideation.

  8. Parent-training programmes for improving maternal psychosocial health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J; Coren, E

    2004-01-01

    Mental health problems are common and there is evidence to suggest that the origins of such problems lie in infancy and childhood. In particular, there is evidence from a range of studies to suggest that maternal psychosocial health can have a significant effect on the mother-infant relationship, and that this in turn can have consequences for both the short and long-term psychological health of the child. The use of parenting programmes is increasing in the UK and elsewhere and evidence of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for children has been provided. Evidence is now required of their effectiveness in improving outcomes for mothers. The objective of this review is to address whether group-based parenting programmes are effective in improving maternal psychosocial health including anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. A range of biomedical, social science, educational and general reference electronic databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE CINAHL, PsychLIT, ERIC, ASSIA, Sociofile and the Social Science Citation Index. Other sources of information included the Cochrane Library (SPECTR, CENTRAL), and the National Research Register (NRR). Only randomised controlled trials were included in which participants had been randomly allocated to an experimental and a control group, the latter being a waiting-list, no-treatment or a placebo control group. Studies had to include at least one group-based parenting programme, and one standardised instrument measuring maternal psychosocial health. A systematic critical appraisal of all included studies was undertaken using a modified version of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published criteria. The treatment effect for each outcome in each study was standardised by dividing the mean difference in post-intervention scores for the intervention and treatment group, by the pooled standard deviation, to produce an effect size. Where appropriate the results were then combined in a meta

  9. Psychosocial Intervention Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    The article is based on a research project drawing upon survey data (N=628) and qualitative interviews (N=60) of youth and their parents belonging to the five largest ethnic minority groups in Denmark i.e. Turkey, former Yugoslavia, Pakistan, Lebanon and Somalia, along with the experiences of psy.......K. as well as Nordic countries. Finally a model for psychosocial intervention is presented which directs attention to the issues of ageism, sexism as well as racism at personal, interpersonal and structural levels....

  10. Developing an African youth psychosocial assessment: an application of item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Yang, Frances; Bolton, Paul; Normand, Sharon-Lise

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to refine a dimensional scale for measuring psychosocial adjustment in African youth using item response theory (IRT). A 60-item scale derived from qualitative data was administered to 667 war-affected adolescents (55% female). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) determined the dimensionality of items based on goodness-of-fit indices. Items with loadings less than 0.4 were dropped. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to confirm the scale's dimensionality found under the EFA. Item discrimination and difficulty were estimated using a graded response model for each subscale using weighted least squares means and variances. Predictive validity was examined through correlations between IRT scores (θ) for each subscale and ratings of functional impairment. All models were assessed using goodness-of-fit and comparative fit indices. Fisher's Information curves examined item precision at different underlying ranges of each trait. Original scale items were optimized and reconfigured into an empirically-robust 41-item scale, the African Youth Psychosocial Assessment (AYPA). Refined subscales assess internalizing and externalizing problems, prosocial attitudes/behaviors and somatic complaints without medical cause. The AYPA is a refined dimensional assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in African youth with good psychometric properties. Validation studies in other cultures are recommended. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sex differences in psychological adjustment from infancy to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Smart, D; Sanson, A; Oberklaid, F

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore sex differences in development from infancy to 8 years of age in a community sample. Measures of biological, social, interactive, and parental functioning as well as teacher reports were obtained. There were minimal differences in infancy, but major psychosocial differences emerged with increasing age. In the biological sphere boys were disadvantaged only in ratings of language and motor skills at 3 to 4 years old. They showed greater temperamental "difficulty" and low persistence factor scores from 5 years onward. Boys were significantly more likely to have problems with adaptive behavior and social competence and to show behavior problems of the hyperactive and aggressive type, as rated by mothers. Parent and family functioning measures did not differentiate between the sexes. Teachers rated boys as having more problems in academic and behavioral domains the first 3 years of school. Path analyses combining data sets gathered when the children were 3 to 8 years old demonstrated the differential courses of development for boys and girls although temperamental flexibility was the best predictor of behavioral adjustment for both sexes. A social learning explanation of the increased incidence of problems among males is supported, although biological influences are not ruled out.

  12. Psychosocial and Physical Workload of Hotel’s Shift Worker In Yogyakarta Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Luciana Triani; Yuniartha, Deny Ratna; Purnama, Ign. Luddy Indra

    2014-01-01

    Shift works are common in hospitality industries, such as hotel industries. Shift work can cause many human problems for worker, e.g. circadian rhythms, fatigue, health effects, individual factors, social and family factors, etc. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the psychosocial and physical workload on employees working as hotel’s shift worker in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) which covers 18 aspects of psychosocial workloa...

  13. [Social cognition of schizophrenia: bridging gap between brain science and psychosocial intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikebuchi, Emi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Ikezawa, Satoru; Miura, Sachie; Yamasaki, Syudo; Nemoto, Takahiro; Hidai, Shin-Ichi; Mogami, Tamiko

    2012-01-01

    The concept and assessment tools for social cognition of schizophrenia were reviewed in order to bridge the gap between brain cognitive science and psycho-social intervention. Social cognition as well as neuro-cognition strongly influences social functioning, and the impact of neuro-cognition is mediated by social cognition. Neuronal networks of personal identification, facial perception, emotional identification, eye contact, "theory of mind", mutual communication, and the decision-making process have been clarified recently. The results of face discrimination and emotion recognition tasks show impairment in persons with schizophrenia as compared with healthy controls, especially fear, dislike, and sad recognition tasks. It might be difficult for them to link ambiguous stimuli with specific emotions, and they have a tendency to recognize uncomfortable emotions easily. "Jumping to conclusions" tendency (JTC) was identified in previous research on delusion. JTC develops from information uptake bias and confidence bias, and they might be thought to be trait and state. Social problem-solving is the skill to use social cognition to comprehensively adjust to specific social situations, and processing skills of social problem-solving are related to divergent thinking. Rating scales and the results of previous studies on emotion recognition, social perception, attribution style, and "theory of mind" were summarized. Furthermore, psycho-social interventions to improve emotion recognition directly, JTC, and divergent thinking were reported. Interventions aiming at improving social cognition or meta-cognition directly have been recently developed, which might improve some components of social functioning that used to be difficult to improve. These concepts of social cognition and researches on brain science, assessment tools, and intervention methods would clarify the mechanisms of the effects of psycho-social interventions, improve their methodology, and help to develop new

  14. Delivery of care consistent with the psychosocial standards in pediatric cancer: Current practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialla, Michele A; Canter, Kimberly S; Chen, Fang Fang; Kolb, E Anders; Sandler, Eric; Wiener, Lori; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    With published evidence-based Standards for Psychosocial Care for Children with Cancer and their Families, it is important to know the current status of their implementation. This paper presents data on delivery of psychosocial care related to the Standards in the United States. Pediatric oncologists, psychosocial leaders, and administrators in pediatric oncology from 144 programs completed an online survey. Participants reported on the extent to which psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was implemented and was comprehensive and state of the art. They also reported on specific practices and services for each Standard and the extent to which psychosocial care was integrated into broader medical care. Participants indicated that psychosocial care consistent with the Standards was usually or always provided at their center for most of the Standards. However, only half of the oncologists (55.6%) and psychosocial leaders (45.6%) agreed or strongly agreed that their psychosocial care was comprehensive and state of the art. Types of psychosocial care provided included evidence-based and less established approaches but were most often provided when problems were identified, rather than proactively. The perception of state of the art care was associated with practices indicative of integrated psychosocial care and the extent to which the Standards are currently implemented. Many oncologists and psychosocial leaders perceive that the delivery of psychosocial care at their center is consistent with the Standards. However, care is quite variable, with evidence for the value of more integrated models of psychosocial services. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Psychosocial complaints and physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Valk, R.W.A. van der; Verhaak, P.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the disorders and the treatment of patients whose complaints were evaluated as being solely somatic in nature, as being somatic and having psychosocial consequences, or as being (at least partially) of a psychosocial origin. Data were used from a survey on

  16. Psychosocial health and quality of life among children with cardiac diagnoses: agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavika J; Lai, Lillian; Goldfield, Gary; Sananes, Renee; Longmuir, Patricia E

    2017-05-01

    Psychosocial health issues are common among children with cardiac diagnoses. Understanding parent and child perceptions is important because parents are the primary health information source. Significant discrepancies have been documented between parent/child quality-of-life data but have not been examined among psychosocial diagnostic instruments. This study examined agreement and discrepancies between parent and child reports of psychosocial health and quality of life in the paediatric cardiology population. Children (n=50, 6-14 years) with diagnoses of CHDs (n=38), arrhythmia (n=5), cardiomyopathy (n=4), or infectious disease affecting the heart (n=3) were enrolled, completing one or more outcome measures. Children and their parents completed self-reports and parent proxy reports of quality of life - Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory - and psychosocial health - Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (Version 2). Patients also completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. Associations (Pearson's correlations, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients) and differences (Student's t-tests) between parent proxy reports and child self-reports were evaluated. Moderate parent-child correlations were found for physical (R=0.33, p=0.03), school (R=0.43, pParent-child reports of externalising behaviour problems, for example aggression, were strongly correlated (R=0.70, pparent-child associations were found for emotional quality of life (R=0.25, p=0.10), internalising problems (R=0.17, p=0.56), personal adjustment/adaptation skills (R=0.23, p=0.42), or anxiety (R=0.07, p=0.72). Our data suggest that clinicians caring for paediatric cardiac patients should assess both parent and child perspectives, particularly in relation to domains such as anxiety and emotional quality of life, which are more difficult to observe.

  17. Solving no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem with unrelated parallel machines and rework time by the adjusted discrete Multi Objective Invasive Weed Optimization and fuzzy dominance approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.

  18. Solving no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem with unrelated parallel machines and rework time by the adjusted discrete Multi Objective Invasive Weed Optimization and fuzzy dominance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, Hassan; Moradinasab, Nazanin; Gerami, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Adjusted discrete Multi-Objective Invasive Weed Optimization (DMOIWO) algorithm, which uses fuzzy dominant approach for ordering, has been proposed to solve No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem. Design/methodology/approach: No-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times and probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs and rework times for both stations as well as unrelated parallel machines with regards to the simultaneous minimization of maximum job completion time and average latency functions have been investigated in a multi-objective manner. In this study, the parameter setting has been carried out using Taguchi Method based on the quality indicator for beater performance of the algorithm. Findings: The results of this algorithm have been compared with those of conventional, multi-objective algorithms to show the better performance of the proposed algorithm. The results clearly indicated the greater performance of the proposed algorithm. Originality/value: This study provides an efficient method for solving multi objective no-wait two-stage flexible flow shop scheduling problem by considering sequence-dependent setup times, probable rework in both stations, different ready times for all jobs, rework times for both stations and unrelated parallel machines which are the real constraints.

  19. Patterns of psychosocial adaptation and allergic disorders in Korean schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, JinAh; Kim, Byoung-Ju; Kwon, Ji-Won; Song, Young Hwa; Yu, Jinho; Kim, Hyo-Bin; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Woo Kyung; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Hong, Soo-Jong; Shin, Yee-Jin

    2011-01-01

    To date, there is little evidence to support an association between symptoms of pediatric allergic disorders and psychosocial factors in the general population, particularly in Asian countries. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and symptoms of allergic disorders and to investigate the association between behavior problems and biomarkers of atopy. A cross-sectional survey of parental responses to the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was conducted from one elementary school in Seoul, Korea. Skin prick tests for 18 major allergens were also performed. A total of 780 children with valid CBCL surveys were included in the study. Externalizing problems were significantly larger in children with asthmatic symptoms, while internalizing problems were significantly larger in children with symptoms of both asthma and allergic rhinitis. Social adaptations were significantly lower in children with symptoms of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Boys with more positive allergens via the skin prick tests showed larger internalizing problems. While school children with allergic symptoms have been reported to have more difficulties with psychosocial adaptation, the patterns of psychosocial problems varied somewhat according to the types of atopic disorder. There was a positive relationship between atopy and behavior problems, especially in boys. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  1. The Wicked Character of Psychosocial Risks: Implications for Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Helbo Jespersen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial risks constitute a significant problem in most workplaces, and they are generally considered more difficult to regulate than many other occupational health and safety risks. This article investigates the challenges of regulating psychosocial risks in the workplace. The difficulties lie in the particular nature of psychosocial risks: their complexity, uncertainty, value, and power divergences. Psychosocial risks therefore resemble ‘wicked problems’, typically characterized by unclear cause-effect relationships and uncertain solutions. We use the ‘wicked problems’ concept to show how workplace regulation, and particularly the enforcement in the form of inspection and audits of certified occupational health and safety management systems, face challenges in assessing psychosocial risks and the strategies used by regulators to overcome these challenges. While regulation has become more effective in several countries, a better understanding of the nature of the challenges is still needed. It is necessary to accept the uncertain nature of psychosocial risks in the search for more efficient regulation. Achieving more effective regulation should involve stakeholders in the workplace who deal with the prerogatives of management, and should help develop the competencies of the inspectors and auditors in the field.

  2. The perception of midwives regarding psychosocial risk assessment during antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Mathibe-Neke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physiological and psychological changes caused by pregnancy may increase a woman’s vulnerability to depression, which may in turn have adverse effects on both maternal and foetal wellbeing. Inadequate psychosocial risk assessment of women by midwives may lead to lack of psychosocial support during pregnancy and childbirth. Pregnant women who lack psychosocial support may experience stress, anxiety and depression that could possibly affect foetal wellbeing. Objective:The objective of this study was toexplore and describe the perception of psychosocial risk assessment and psychosocial care by midwives providing antenatal care to pregnant women. Method: An interpretive and descriptive qualitative approach was adopted. Three focus group interviews were conducted with midwives working in three Maternal Obstetric Units in Gauteng Province, using a semi-structured interview guide. The constant comparison data analysis approach was used. Results:Findings revealed that midwives are aware of and have encountered a high prevalence of psychosocial problems in pregnant women. Furthermore, they acknowledged the importance of psychosocial care for pregnant women although they stated that they were not equipped adequately to offer psychosocial assessment and psychosocial care. Conclusion:The findings provided a basis for incorporation of psychosocial care into routine antenatal care.

  3. Predictors of Psychosocial Outcomes in Hard-of-Hearing Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Nina J.; Jacobsen, Karl H.; Rieffe, Carolien; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychosocial problems. Children with mild to severe hearing loss are less frequently subject to research, in particular in preschool, and we therefore know less about the risk in this particular group. To address this, we compared psychosocial functioning in thirty-five 4-5-year olds with…

  4. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  6. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  7. Perceived school safety is strongly associated with adolescent mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijs, Miesje M; Bun, Clothilde J E; Tempelaar, Wanda M; de Wit, Niek J; Burger, Huibert; Plevier, Carolien M; Boks, Marco P M

    2014-02-01

    School environment is an important determinant of psychosocial function and may also be related to mental health. We therefore investigated whether perceived school safety, a simple measure of this environment, is related to mental health problems. In a population-based sample of 11,130 secondary school students, we analysed the relationship of perceived school safety with mental health problems using multiple logistic regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Mental health problems were defined using the clinical cut-off of the self-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. School safety showed an exposure-response relationship with mental health problems after adjustment for confounders. Odds ratios increased from 2.48 ("sometimes unsafe") to 8.05 ("very often unsafe"). The association was strongest in girls and young and middle-aged adolescents. Irrespective of the causal background of this association, school safety deserves attention either as a risk factor or as an indicator of mental health problems.

  8. Dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions: developmental trajectories and associations with psychosocial functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Giessen, Daniёlle; Branje, Susan J T; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-01-01

    Dyadic variability is considered to be a key mechanism in the development of mother-adolescent relationships, and low levels of dyadic flexibility are thought to be associated with behavior and relationship problems. The present observational study examined heterogeneity in the development of dyadic variability in mother-adolescent interactions and associations with psychosocial functioning. Dyadic variability refers to the range of emotional states during interactions of mother-adolescent dyads. During five annual home visits, 92 mother-adolescent dyads (M age T1 = 13; 65.2 % boys) were videotaped while discussing a conflict, and they completed several questionnaires on adolescents' aggressive behavior and adolescents' and mothers' perceived relationship quality. Two types of dyads were distinguished: low variability dyads (52 %) and high decreasing variability dyads (48 %). Over time, high decreasing variability dyads were characterized by a broader emotional repertoire than low variability dyads. Moreover, these two dyad types had distinct developmental patterns of psychosocial adjustment. Over time, high decreasing variability dyads showed lower levels of adolescents' aggressive behavior, and higher levels of perceived relationship quality than low variability dyads. These findings suggest that over time more dyadic variability is associated with less adjustment problems and a more constructive development of the mother-adolescent relationship. Adaptive interactions seem to be characterized by a wider range of emotional states and mothers should guide adolescents during interactions to express both positive and negative affect. Observing the dyadic variability during mother-adolescent interactions can help clinicians to distinguish adaptive from maladaptive mother-adolescent dyads.

  9. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  10. The contribution of maternal care and control, and community type to children's adjustment to political violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangir, Gali; Dekel, Rachel; Lavi, Tamar; Gewirtz, Abigail H; Zamir, Osnat

    2017-08-01

    This study explored the behavioral and emotional adjustment of Israeli school-age children who are exposed to political violence. Based on Bronfenbrenner's (1986) ecological model and ecological model of psychosocial trauma (Harvey, 2007), we examined the direct contribution of exposure, gender, maternal characteristics (mother's posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], maternal care and maternal control), and community type (development town vs. kibbutz), to school-age children's adjustment. In addition, we examined whether maternal characteristics and community type moderated the association between exposure and adjustment. There were 121 mother-child dyads from the development town of Sderot (n = 62) and from the surrounding kibbutzim (n = 58) participated. Revealed that being a boy, living in Sderot, and mothers' higher PTSS, contributed directly to children's total difficulties (i.e., externalizing and internalizing problems), and that maternal control moderated the association between personal exposure and children's total difficulties. Furthermore, being a girl and mother's higher PTSS and higher maternal control contributed directly to children's PTSS. Mother's PTSS moderated the association between personal exposure and children's PTSS. Maternal care was not associated with children's adjustment. Both the child's gender and the type of community in which he or she lives are associated with maternal distress and children's adjustment to political violence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshanpour, Firoozeh; Hajebi, Ahmad; Panaghi, Leili; Ahmadabadi, Zohre

    2017-01-01

    Background: Child abuse is a significant public health and social problem worldwide. It can be described as a failure to provide care and protection for children by the parents or other caregivers. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in abused children and their families. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the psychosocial support unit of a pediatric hospital in Bandar Abbas, Iran, from 2012 to 2013. The participants consisted of child abuse cases and their parents who referred to the psychosocial support unit to receive services. Services delivered in this unit included parenting skills training, psychiatric treatments, and supportive services. The effectiveness of the interventions was assessed with Child Abuse Questionnaire, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ). Participants were assessed at baseline, at 3, and 6 months follow-ups. ANOVA with repeated measures and Friedman test were used to evaluate the effect of the interventions. Results: A total of 68 children and their parents enrolled in this study, of whom 53% were males. Post-intervention follow-ups revealed significant changes in mothers' general health questionnaire (pchildren's conduct problem (pabuses significantly decreased (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychosocial interventions effectively improved child-parents interaction and mental health of parents. The effectiveness of interventions based on subgroup analysis and implications of the results have been discussed for further development of psychosocial interventions in the health system.

  12. Psychosocial Well-being of Siblings of Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langenberg, Tanja; Sawyer, Susan M; Le Grange, Daniel; Hughes, Elizabeth K

    2016-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often first diagnosed in the adolescent years. The treatment with the greatest evidence during this time is family-based treatment (FBT). In FBT, siblings are expected to attend treatment sessions; however, sibling well-being during this time has not been well researched. This study aimed to explore sibling well-being when the ill child was initially diagnosed with AN and after FBT had been completed. Eighty-five parents and 55 siblings of adolescents with AN completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at diagnosis. In addition, 88 parents and 46 siblings completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire after finishing treatment. Mothers and fathers reported siblings to have lower levels of conduct problems in comparison with population norms. Mothers also reported lower levels of prosocial behaviours. Siblings reported higher levels of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity in comparison with their peers. There were no differences in reported psychosocial well-being of siblings between diagnosis and following FBT. Siblings of adolescents with AN have poorer psychosocial adjustment than their peers, both before and after FBT. Clinicians and parents are encouraged to be aware of sibling difficulties and seek additional support if required. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Psychosocial stress among Danish vicars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, F; Hein, H O; Suadicani, P

    2012-01-01

    Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms.......Burnout and depression are common among clergy members of several religions and denominations. Despite this, no studies have analysed whether differences in psychosocial workloads between vicars and others explain their higher prevalence of stress-related symptoms....

  14. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, V; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2015-04-01

    In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental health problems and psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers, and to explore the association between psychosocial stressors and the health conditions studied. Based on validated scales, a paper and electronic questionnaire was developed for current and former professional footballers and distributed by the World Footballers' Union (FIFPro) and players' unions in six countries. Prevalence was calculated and cross-sectional analyses were conducted. The response rate was 29% with 253 responses available for analysis. The prevalence of mental health complaints ranged from 5% (burnout) to 26% (anxiety/depression) in 149 current players and from 16% (burnout) to 39% (anxiety/depression) in 104 former footballers. The prevalence of psychosocial problems ranged from 3% (low self-esteem) to 26% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in current players and from 5% (low self-esteem) to 42% (adverse nutrition behaviour) in former footballers. In both current and former players, mental health problems were significantly associated with low social support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.1) and recent life events (OR = 1.4-1.6). In former players, previous surgery was significantly associated with smoking (OR = 1.9). The prevalence of mental health problems and/or psychosocial difficulties in current and former professional footballers was found to be high. The presence of mental health problems was associated with low social support and recent life events. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Does routine psychosocial screening improve referral to psychosocial care providers and patient-radiotherapist communication? A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeken, Anna P B M; Lechner, Lilian; Eekers, Daniëlle B P; Houben, Ruud M A; van Gils, Francis C J M; Ambergen, Ton; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2013-11-01

    This study tests whether using a screening instrument improves referral to psychosocial care providers (e.g. psychologist) and facilitates patient-radiotherapist communication. A cluster randomized controlled trial was used. Fourteen radiotherapists were randomly allocated to the experimental or control group and 568 of their patients received care in accordance with the group to which their radiotherapist was allocated. Patients in the experimental group were asked to complete a screening instrument before and at the end of the radiation treatment period. All patients were requested to complete questionnaires concerning patient-physician communication after the first consultation and concerning psychosocial care 3 and 12 months post-intervention. Patients who completed the screening instrument were referred to social workers at an earlier stage than patients who did not (Pcommunication. Our results suggest that a simple screening procedure can be valuable for the timely treatment of psychosocial problems in patients. Future efforts should be directed at appropriate timing of screening and enhancing physicians' awareness regarding the importance of identifying, discussing and treating psychosocial problems in cancer patients. Psychosocial screening can be enhanced by effective radiotherapist-patient communication. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between Distal Upper Extremity Job Physical Factors and Psychosocial Measures in a Pooled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Thiese

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There is an increasing body of literature relating musculoskeletal diseases to both job physical exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Relationships between job physical exposure measures and psychosocial factors have not been well examined or quantified. These exploratory analyses evaluate relationships between quantified exposures and psychosocial outcomes. Methods. Individualized quantification of duration, repetition, and force and composite scores of the Strain Index (SI and the Threshold Limit Value for Hand Activity Level (TLV for HAL were compared to 10 psychosocial measures. Relationships and predicted probabilities were assessed using ordered logistic regression. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, and gender. Results and Discussion. Among 1834 study participants there were multiple statistically significant relationships. In general, as duration, repetition, and force increased, psychosocial factors worsened. However, general health and mental exhaustion improved with increasing job exposures. Depression was most strongly associated with increased repetition, while physical exhaustion was most strongly associated with increased force. SI and TLV for HAL were significantly related to multiple psychosocial factors. These relationships persisted after adjustment for strong confounders. Conclusion. This study quantified multiple associations between job physical exposures and occupational and nonoccupational psychosocial factors. Further research is needed to quantify the impacts on occupational health outcomes.

  17. Mental and psychosocial health among current and former professional footballers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, V.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    In common with elite athletes from other sport disciplines, severe or recurrent injuries in professional footballers are considered to be major physical and psychosocial stressors, which may predispose to mental health problems during and after their career. To determine the prevalence of mental

  18. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  19. Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Some Lessons Learned From Natural Disaster in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Alipour

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Lack of awareness of mental and social problems of affected people after disaster is one of the most important barriers in successful and stable rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation requires a suitable structure and planning for all stages of disaster management. 

  20. The mediating effects of family functioning on psychosocial outcomes in healthy siblings of children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey I; Treadwell, Marsha; Weissman, Lina; Vichinsky, Elliott

    2011-12-01

    Children with siblings coping with chronic illness experience stresses and disruptions in daily life as families work together to care for the affected child. Research suggests that children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD) may be at risk for adjustment problems, impaired psychosocial functioning, and reduced quality of life. These potential stressors affect the child with SCD as well as their caregivers and other family members. This study examined the role of family functioning on the psychosocial functioning of healthy siblings of children with SCD. Participants were 65 healthy African-American siblings of children with SCD with a mean age of 11.19 years (range: 7-16) and their primary caregiver. Caregivers completed questionnaires assessing family functioning and child adjustment including demographic surveys, the Family Relations Scale (FRS), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Increased number of emergency room visits (β = -0.28, P Family functioning mediated this effect (β = 0.27; P family expressiveness (total score, r = -0.34; P family conflict (total score, r = 0.41; P family expressiveness, support, and conflict are indicated for this population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Psychosocial Work Hazards, Self-Rated Health and Burnout: A Comparison Study of Public and Private Sector Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsi-Chen; Cheng, Yawen

    2018-04-01

    To compare psychosocial work conditions and health status between public and private sector employees and to examine if psychosocial work conditions explained the health differences. Two thousand four hundred fourty one public and 15,589 private sector employees participated in a cross-sectional survey. Psychosocial work hazards, self-rated health (SRH), and burnout status were assessed by questionnaire. As compared with private sector employees, public sector employees reported better psychosocial work conditions and better SRH, but higher risk of workplace violence (WPV) and higher levels of client-related burnout. Regression analyses indicated that higher psychosocial job demands, lower workplace justice, and WPV experience were associated with poor SRH and higher burnout. The public-private difference in client-related burnout remained even with adjustment of psychosocial work factors. Greater risks of WPV and client-related burnout observed in public sector employees warrant further investigation.

  2. Impact of Psychosocial Risk on Outcomes among Families Seeking Treatment for Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Thao-Ly T; Chen, Fang Fang; Pinto, Alison Taggi; Cox, Courtney; Robbins, Jennifer; Kazak, Anne E

    2018-04-02

    To test the hypothesis that children with elevated psychosocial risk would have increased attrition and worse weight outcomes in weight management treatment. This was a prospective cohort study of 100 new patients, aged 4-12 years, in a weight management clinic. Parents completed the Psychosocial Assessment Tool. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the odds of attrition from the clinic and a nonmeaningful change in body mass index (BMI) z-score (ie, psychosocial risk category, adjusting for child demographics and baseline weight category. The majority of patients were male (59%), black (36%) or white (43%), and had severe obesity (55%), and 59% of families were categorized as having moderate or high psychosocial risk. Over the 6-month period, 53% of families were lost to follow-up, and 67% did not have a clinically meaningful decrease in BMI z-score. Compared with children of families with low psychosocial risk, children of families with moderate or high psychosocial risk were 3.1 times (95% CI, 1.3-7.2 times) more likely to be lost to follow-up and 2.9 times (95% CI, 1.1-7.9 times) more likely to have a non-clinically meaningful change in BMI z-score. Children presenting with increased psychosocial risk have higher attrition and poorer weight outcomes, supporting the need for psychosocial screening as a standard component of pediatric weight management treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Psychosocial Integration of Seropositive Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matei Raluca

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We can assume without fail that the psychosocial implications in case of HIV/AIDS are as overwhelming as the medical aspects. For the positive person as well as for those who assist the seropositive people, the uncertainty frames the medical prognosis. All the effects that occur are entirely funded: the loss of self-trust as well as mistrusting others, stigmatization, isolation, getting abandoned by the family, friends, neighbors and school mates or coworkers. The current study aims to evaluate this aspect, the fact that the living environment of the seropositive person does not lead to significant differences as far as adjusting to HIV/AIDS diagnosis is concerned, but the adjusting differences are more related to the personality structure of the infected person, to the way this person identifies strategies of coping with the new situations he / she has to deal with (cognitive, emotional and behavioral strategies. In the applicative part of the study, we analyze the adjustment to the diagnosis, as well as the adherence to the treatment, by applying certain specific work instruments.

  4. Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and child psychosocial development at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Sharma, Andrea J; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Li, Ruowei; Lind, Jennifer N

    2015-05-01

    Both obesity and developmental disabilities have increased in recent decades. Limited studies suggest associations between maternal prepregnancy obesity and child neurodevelopment. The Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a US nationally distributed longitudinal study of maternal health and infant health and feeding practices, was conducted from 2005 to 2007. In 2012, mothers were recontacted for information on their children's health and development. We examined associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and child psychosocial development in 1311 mother-child pairs included in this follow-up study. Children's development was assessed by maternal report of child psychosocial difficulties from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, past developmental diagnoses, and receipt of special needs services. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, children of obese class II/III mothers (BMI >35.0) had increased odds of emotional symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-3.98), peer problems (aOR 2.07; 95% CI, 1.26-3.40), total psychosocial difficulties (aOR 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.77), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis (aOR 4.55; 95% CI, 1.80-11.46), autism or developmental delay diagnosis (aOR 3.13; 95% CI, 1.10-8.94), receipt of speech language therapy (aOR 1.93; 95% CI, 1.18-3.15), receipt of psychological services (aOR 2.27; 95% CI, 1.09-4.73), and receipt of any special needs service (aOR 1.99; 95% CI, 1.33-2.97) compared with children of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5-24.9). Adjustment for potential causal pathway factors including pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, breastfeeding duration, postpartum depression, and child's birth weight did not substantially affect most estimates. Children whose mothers were severely obese before pregnancy had increased risk for adverse developmental outcomes. published in the public domain by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Operational experience of UNESCO centres for psychosocial rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnets, O.

    2003-01-01

    Community Centres of social and psychological rehabilitation for the population suffered from Chernobyl catastrophe have been created in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus. Objectives assigned to the Community Centres for psychosocial rehabilitation on the affected population were as follows: improving mental health of all age and social groups in the community; encouraging interactions within the community; empowering community members to take control over their lives; developing social responsibility; promoting problem-solving skills. The Community Centres network has developed psychosocial assistance models relevant to post-catastrophe period (aggravated by social and economic crisis) that might be applied to different types of crises in communities

  6. [Psychosocial dwarfism, a reality: Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, A; Chalies, S; Jeandel, C; Rodière, M

    2010-05-01

    Psychosocial dwarfism is a rare condition, but can still be observed. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl seen in our clinic for severe growth retardation that had been evolving for several years. A growth arrest was observed beginning at the age of 3.5years. Initial clinical examination and biological investigations were negative. As the child was hospitalized, serious disturbances in mother-child relations were observed. A significant modification of the child's behavior was observed when the mother was absent. Following questioning, the mother admitted social problems; the pregnancy had not been desired and this contributed to a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother-child relationship. It seems to be caused by a partial growth hormone deficiency and a frequent context of malnutrition due to food behavior disorders. Family problems need to be taken into account and intensive medical and psychological follow-up is required. Prognosis is good if an early diagnosis is made and followed with a close and prolonged follow-up. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic review of psychosocial outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Watson, Maggie; Aitken, Joanne F; Hyde, Melissa K

    2017-11-01

    New advanced melanoma therapies are associated with improved survival; however, quality of survivorship, particularly psychosocial outcomes, for patients overall and those treated with newer therapies is unclear. Synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence about psychosocial outcomes for advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma patients. Five databases were searched (01/01/1980 to 31/01/2016). Inclusion criteria were as follows: advanced melanoma patients or sub-group analysis; assessed psychosocial outcomes; and English language. Fifty-two studies met review criteria (4 qualitative, 48 quantitative). Trials comprise mostly medical not psychosocial interventions, with psychosocial outcomes assessed within broader quality of life measures. Patients receiving chemotherapy or IFN-alpha showed decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Five trials of newer therapies appeared to show improvements in emotional and social function. Descriptive studies suggest that patients with advanced, versus localized disease, had decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Contributors to distress were largely unexplored, and no clear framework described coping/adjustment trajectories. Patients with advanced versus localized disease had more supportive care needs, particularly amount, quality, and timing of melanoma-related information, communication with and emotional support from clinicians. Limitations included: lack of theoretical underpinnings guiding study design; inconsistent measurement approaches; small sample sizes; non-representative sampling; and cross-sectional design. Quality trial evidence is needed to clarify the impact of treatment innovations for advanced melanoma on patients' psychosocial well-being. Survivorship research and subsequent translation of that knowledge into programs and services currently lags behind gains in the medical treatment of advanced melanoma, a troubling circumstance that requires immediate and focused

  8. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westergaard-Nielsen Niels

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%. Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments.

  9. Being out at school: the implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B; Ryan, Caitlin; Diaz, Rafael M

    2014-11-01

    Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adolescents disclose their sexual and/or gender identities to peers at school. Disclosure of LGBT status is linked with positive psychosocial adjustment for adults; however, for adolescents, "coming out" has been linked to school victimization, which in turn is associated with negative adjustment. This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT youth, and developing informed school policies and educational practices. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Combining fixed effects and instrumental variable approaches for estimating the effect of psychosocial job quality on mental health: evidence from 13 waves of a nationally representative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pega, Frank; Petrie, Dennis

    2017-06-23

    Previous studies suggest that poor psychosocial job quality is a risk factor for mental health problems, but they use conventional regression analytic methods that cannot rule out reverse causation, unmeasured time-invariant confounding and reporting bias. This study combines two quasi-experimental approaches to improve causal inference by better accounting for these biases: (i) linear fixed effects regression analysis and (ii) linear instrumental variable analysis. We extract 13 annual waves of national cohort data including 13 260 working-age (18-64 years) employees. The exposure variable is self-reported level of psychosocial job quality. The instruments used are two common workplace entitlements. The outcome variable is the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5). We adjust for measured time-varying confounders. In the fixed effects regression analysis adjusted for time-varying confounders, a 1-point increase in psychosocial job quality is associated with a 1.28-point improvement in mental health on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: 1.17, 1.40; P variable analysis, a 1-point increase psychosocial job quality is related to 1.62-point improvement on the MHI-5 scale (95% CI: -0.24, 3.48; P = 0.088). Our quasi-experimental results provide evidence to confirm job stressors as risk factors for mental ill health using methods that improve causal inference. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Assessment of safety and health of storage workers - a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadłowska-Wrzesińska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is still a lot to do as far as prevention and elimination of traditional health and work safety hazards is concerned, the problem of psychosocial risk prevention is extremely important nowadays. It is crucial to take into consideration the health of workers and promotion of health in the workplace, as the occupational stress epidemics is getting more and more widespread. Methods: The article is based on the statistic analysis of accidents at work as well as the analysis of health problems resulting from the job itself. The latest work safety reports have been reviewed and special attention has been paid to psychosocial risk analysis. The author has tried to explicate the terms of new and emerging risks as regards storage work. Results: Various threat aspects of storage work have been evaluated. Deficits in psychosocial hazard identification have been indicated. What is more, no correlation between occupational tasks of storage workers and their knowledge about psychosocial risks has been emphasized.  An exemplified approach to warehouse psychosocial threat identification has been presented. The approach is based on the diagnosis of the current situation.  Conclusions: The psychosocial risk of storage work may lead to health deterioration, greater accident risk and worse performance at work. Such consequences mean that the psychosocial risks affect both an individual and the organization. Therefore, we should expect more intense efforts to increase psychosocial risk awareness of both employers and employees.

  12. Psychosocial challenges facing physicians of today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnetz, B B

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental changes in the organization, financing, and delivery of health care have added new stressors or opportunities to the medical profession. These new potential stressors are in addition to previously recognized external and internal ones. The work environment of physicians poses both psychosocial, ergonomic, and physico-chemical threats. The psychosocial work environment has, if anything, worsened. Demands at work increase at the same time as influence over one's work and intellectual stimulation from work decrease. In addition, violence and the threat of violence is another major occupational health problem physicians increasingly face. Financial constraint, managed care and consumerism in health care are other factors that fundamentally change the role of physicians. The rapid deployment of new information technologies will also change the role of the physician towards being more of an advisor and information provider. Many of the minor health problems will increasingly be managed by patients themselves and by non-physician professionals and practitioners of complementary medicine. Finally, the economic and social status of physicians are challenged which is reflected in a slower salary increase compared to many other professional groups. The picture painted above may be seen as uniformly gloomy. In reality, that is not the case. There is growing interest in and awareness of the importance of the psychosocial work environment for the delivery of high quality care. Physicians under stress are more likely to treat patients poorly, both medically and psychologically. They are also more prone to make errors of judgment. Studies where physicians' work environment in entire hospitals has been assessed, results fed-back, and physicians and management have worked with focused improvement processes, have demonstrated measurable improvements in the ratings of the psychosocial work environment. However, it becomes clear from such studies that quality of the

  13. Psychosocial work aspects, stress and musculoskeletal pain among musicians. A systematic review in search of correlates and predictors of playing-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-16

    Musicians face numerous psychosocial and physical demands at work resulting in high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike physical risks, little is known about psychosocial work factors influencing such health problems in this particular group. The paper aimed to identify psychosocial work demands resulting in musculoskeletal problems among musicians. A systematic review was undertaken to find data linking psychosocial work demands or stress with musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. The exploration of databases resulted in nine research studies linking psychosocial aspects of work or stress with musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The analyzed studies linked psychosocial aspects with musculoskeletal problems in three ways - showing proportions of people indicating particular causes of pain, indicating correlations between these variables or performing regression analysis showing psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal pain. Only a few studies have undertaken the issue of psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The results revealed that some psychosocial aspects of work, e.g. long hours at work, work content, high job demands, low control/influence, lack of social support, were related to musculoskeletal pain, however, the methods and results were inconsistent. The extant studies employed variety of definitions of psychosocial aspects that hindered the possibility for consistent conclusions. Basing on those conclusions, future directions were offered.

  14. Gender-associated differences in the psychosocial and developmental outcome in patients affected with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Celine; Reutter, Heiko M; Grässer, Melanie F; Fisch, Margit; Noeker, Meinolf

    2006-02-01

    To identify problems in the long-term psychosocial and developmental outcome specific to patients with the bladder exstrophy-epispadias complex (BEEC), using a self-developed semi-structured questionnaire, as there are various techniques of reconstruction to repair BEEC but to date neither patients nor surgeons have a clear answer about which type gives the most acceptable long-term results. Increasingly many patients with BEEC reach adulthood and wish to have sexual relationships and families. To date, no studies have used disease-specific psychological instruments to measure the psychosocial status of patients with BEEC. Thus we contacted 208 patients with BEEC, and 122 were enrolled, covering the complete spectrum of the BEEC. The data assessed included the surgical reconstruction, subjective assessment of continence, developmental milestones, school performance and career, overall satisfaction in life, disease-specific fears and partnership experiences in patients aged >18 years. We compared affected females and males to assess gender-associated differences in quality of life. Affected females had more close friendships, fewer disadvantages in relation to healthy female peers and more partnerships than the males. Family planning seemed to be less of a problem in affected females. There were no gender differences in the adjustments within school and professional career, which was very good in general. Future studies are needed to assess the disease-specific anxieties, considering gender-specific differences.

  15. Institutional capacity to provide psychosocial oncology support services: A report from the Association of Oncology Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrack, Brad; Kayser, Karen; Padgett, Lynne; Sundstrom, Laura; Jobin, Chad; Nelson, Krista; Fineberg, Iris C

    2016-06-15

    This study reports cancer-treating institutions' capacity to deliver comprehensive psychosocial support services. Oncology care providers at 60 cancer-treating institutions completed surveys assessing the capacity of their institutions to provide psychosocial care. Capacity was assessed with the Cancer Psychosocial Care Matrix (CPCM) from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Scores represented individuals' perceptions of their cancer program's performance with respect to 10 fundamental elements of psychosocial care. Among 2134 respondents, 62% reported a mid-level capacity for ≥5 of 10 CPCM items. In comparison with other types of cancer programs (eg, NCI-designated, academic, or comprehensive centers), providers at community cancer programs reported a significantly greater capacity with respect to patient-provider communication, psychosocial needs assessment, and continuity in the delivery of psychosocial care over time. Nurses and primary medical providers reported a significantly lower capacity for linking patients and families with needed psychosocial services within their respective cancer programs. They also reported a significantly higher capacity for conducting follow-up, re-evaluations, and adjustments of psychosocial treatment plans. Cancer programs are performing moderately well in terms of communicating to patients the importance of psychosocial care, identifying patient psychosocial needs, and referring patients and families to psychosocial services. They are doing less well with respect to the provision of that care over time. Findings suggest that gaps in psychosocial service capacity are a function of patient, provider, and system characteristics. These results may be useful in formulating strategies to enhance psychosocial care delivery. Cancer 2016;122:1937-45. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Psychosocial responses of children to cardiac pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, D; Uzark, K; Dick, M

    1989-03-01

    To examine the psychosocial responses of children and adolescents with a cardiac pacemaker and compare their responses to those of their peers, we evaluated 30 pediatric pacemaker patients, aged 7 to 19 years, and two age- and sex-matched comparison groups, including 30 patients with similar heart disease but without pacemakers and 30 physically healthy children, using standardized psychometric tests and a specific interview format. We postulated that children with pacemakers would experience greater stress in psychosocial adaptation. No significant differences on standardized measures of trait anxiety, self-competence, or self-esteem were found between the pacemaker group and the comparison groups. In contrast, pacemaker subjects were significantly (p less than 0.05) more external in their locus-of-control orientation than were healthy subjects, suggesting a diminished sense of personal control and less autonomy. Pacemaker subjects, particularly the older ones, had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater knowledge of pacemaker systems than did subjects in the other two groups, facilitating the use of intellectualization as a coping mechanism. The pacemaker patients were likely to be as fearful of social rejection as of potential pacemaker failure. All three groups identified potential negative peer reactions toward an individual with a pacemaker. The patients with cardiac disease but without pacemakers and the healthy subjects perceived significant (p less than 0.05) social and emotional differences between patients with pacemakers and their peers, but the pacemaker patients did not view themselves as different from their peers. This study demonstrates healthy psychosocial adaptation of children with cardiac pacemakers. Although these children appear to cope effectively with the stress of their life situation through the use of denial and intellectualization, they may experience problems both in the development of autonomy and in social isolation and rejection.

  17. Psychosocial intervention for sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-02-01

    Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment.

  18. Personality, emotional adjustment, and cardiovascular risk: marriage as a mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Baron, Carolynne E; Grove, Jeremy L

    2014-12-01

    A variety of aspects of personality and emotional adjustment predict the development and course of coronary heart disease (CHD), as do indications of marital quality (e.g., satisfaction, conflict, strain, disruption). Importantly, the personality traits and aspects of emotional adjustment that predict CHD are also related to marital quality. In such instances of correlated risk factors, traditional epidemiological and clinical research typically either ignores the potentially overlapping effects or examines independent associations through statistical controls, approaches that can misrepresent the key components and mechanisms of psychosocial effects on CHD. The interpersonal perspective in personality and clinical psychology provides an alternative and integrative approach, through its structural and process models of interpersonal behavior. We present this perspective on psychosocial risk and review research on its application to the integration of personality, emotional adjustment, and marital processes as closely interrelated influences on health and disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Psychosocial Treatments in Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati Serkut Bulut

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite its severe morbidity and mortality, studies regarding the psychosocial treatments of anorexia nervosa are limited in number. This paper aims to present the general outlines of various psychosocial interventions developed for the treatment of anorexia nervosa and to provide an up-to-date review of the randomized-controlled studies on the effectiveness of these approaches. Reviewed studies were classified by age spectrum of samples under two main headings: adolescents and mixed samples of adults and adolescents. Specific issues about other variables were then discussed separately. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 329-345

  20. The psychosocial impact of acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen CM

    2016-10-01

    negatively affected marriage potential and caused relationship problems in >50% of patients. Psoriasis negatively affected multiple domains of life, including work, relationships, and social activities. Anxiety and depression affected not only psoriasis patients but also their cohabitants; up to 88% of cohabitants had an impaired quality of life. Conclusion: Though all three skin conditions resulted in an increase in anxiety and depression among their patient populations, the psychosocial focus varied slightly for each disease. Overall, acne, vitiligo, and psoriasis can have negative psychosocial impact in different stages of life development. Keywords: psychosocial, acne, psoriasis, vitiligo

  1. The Psychosocial Risk Factors in the Activity of the Advanced Technicians on Occupational Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana F. Ramalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social and organisational changes are causing deep transformations, which can generate quite concerning psychosocial dynamics in the work places. The “psychosocial risks” result from a set of conditions and factors inherent to the organisation of the work and it is important to identify them. This study's main purpose was to verify whether the Advanced Technicians on Occupational Health (ATOH who perform their activity in Portugal are exposed, or not, to psychosocial risk factors and whether, consequently, their health condition is deteriorating. The findings show they are exposed to psychosocial risk factors related to the work conditions and characteristics. Their health is perceived as good and not entirely work-related, though some of their health problems are made worse by the work. The less the ATOH are affected by the psychosocial risk factors, the better do they perceive their health.

  2. The influence of maternal psychosocial characteristics on infant feeding styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Katherine J; Thompson, Amanda L; Bentley, Margaret E

    2016-08-01

    Maternal feeding styles in infancy and early childhood are associated with children's later risk for overweight and obesity. Maternal psychosocial factors that influence feeding styles during the complementary feeding period, the time during which infants transition from a milk-based diet to one that includes solid foods and other non-milk products, have received less attention. The present study explores how maternal psychosocial factors-specifically self-esteem, parenting self-efficacy, parenting satisfaction, and depression symptoms-influence mothers' infant feeding styles at nine months of age, a time during which solid foods eating habits are being established. Participants included 160 low-income, African-American mother-infant pairs in central North Carolina who were enrolled in the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study. Regression models tested for associations between maternal psychosocial characteristics and pressuring and restrictive feeding styles. Models were first adjusted for maternal age, education, marital status and obesity status. To account for infant characteristics, models were then adjusted for infant weight-for-length, distress to limitations and activity level scores. Maternal self-esteem was negatively associated with pressuring to soothe. Maternal parenting self-efficacy was positively associated with restriction-diet quality. Maternal parenting satisfaction and depression symptoms were not associated with feeding styles in the final models. Focusing on strengthening maternal self-esteem and parenting self-efficacy may help to prevent the development of less desirable infant feeding styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  4. Match of psychosocial risk and psychosocial care in families of a child with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sint Nicolaas, S. M.; Schepers, S. A.; van den Bergh, E. M. M.; de Boer, Y.; Streng, I.; van Dijk-Lokkart, E. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Verhaak, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Psychosocial Assessment Tool (PAT) was developed to screen for psychosocial risk, aimed to be supportive in directing psychosocial care to families of a child with cancer. This study aimed to determine (i) the match between PAT risk score and provided psychosocial care with healthcare

  5. Recurrency of Pregnancy Among Adolescents: Psychosocial Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sanchez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that are associated with recurrence of pregnancy among adolescents, considering the possible emotional demands that could favor the occurrence of a subsequent pregnancy. With the participation of four teenage mothers who were chosen according to pre-established criteria such as lower age criterion with higher number of children and registered in the Surveillance System for HighRisk Newborn – SISVIG Health Department, Araraquara-SP. After the authorization of those responsible for health services and signing of the consent form by the responsible of teenage girls the application of the instruments began: a socio-demographic interview in order to collect social data of the participants; b psychosocial interview, obtaining data related to the gestational history and c significant stories, containing two stories, followed by guiding questions for support in order to assess the possible factors that led to the recurrence of new adolescent pregnancies. The research took place in a single meeting in the homes of participants. Results were measured within the criteria of the qualitative analysis of responses of the interviewed. It was concluded that there was identification with the representative stories. The feelings presented by the adolescents were evident: sadness, discouragement, accordance, passion, anger, fear, regret and indignation. We emphasize the relevance of psychology as an intervention resource covering this adolescent population, contributing to the minimization of the demands raised by the participant adolescents within this social problem.

  6. Annual Adjustment Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Department of Housing and Urban Development establishes the rent adjustment factors - called Annual Adjustment Factors (AAFs) - on the basis of Consumer Price...

  7. Adjustment to University and Academic Performance among Disadvantaged Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Il-haam; Louw, Johann; Dumont, Kitty

    2009-01-01

    Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help-seeking, academic motivation, self-esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and…

  8. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  9. NET SALARY ADJUSTMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Finance Division

    2001-01-01

    On 15 June 2001 the Council approved the correction of the discrepancy identified in the net salary adjustment implemented on 1st January 2001 by retroactively increasing the scale of basic salaries to achieve the 2.8% average net salary adjustment approved in December 2000. We should like to inform you that the corresponding adjustment will be made to your July salary. Full details of the retroactive adjustments will consequently be shown on your pay slip.

  10. Perinatal dioxin exposure and psychosocial and behavioral development in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yumi; Oka, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Itabashi, Kazuo; Matsui, Eiko; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between psychosocial and behavioral problems in children at school age and dioxin level in breast milk or estimated dioxin exposure (EDE) through breastfeeding in the general Japanese population. Dioxin level of breast milk at 1month of age and breastfeeding ratio through the first year of life were used to calculate the EDE of infants born in 1998-2005 in Japan. The Japanese Social Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for the assessment of children's behavior was sent by mail to mothers whose breast milk underwent the dioxin survey, at the time when their infants were aged 6-13 years. The study subjects were 175 pairs of mothers and their first infants (79 boys, 96 girls). The mean total dioxin levels of breast milk were 18.3 and 19.8 (pgTEQ/g fat) and EDEs were 16.4 and 19.6 (ngTEQ/kg/year) in boys and girls, respectively. In linear multiple regression analyses after adjusting for age at SDQ, maternal age, birth weight and maternal smoking habit, dioxin level in breast milk was not significantly related to the total difficulties score (TDS) of SDQ in boys, B=2.29 (95% CI -7.60-12.18), or in girls, B=-1.04 (95% CI -9.24-7.15). EDE correlated to the TDS in neither boys, B=-0.99 (95% CI -4.14-2.15), nor girls, B=1.08 (95% CI -2.69-4.85). No evidence was found of a correlation between perinatal dioxin exposure and behavioral and psychosocial problems of children measured by SDQ. These results support the benefits of recommending breastfeeding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).

  12. Psychosocial risks and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Oeij, P.; Kraan, K.O.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we concentrate on explaining job performance from the perspective of psychosocial risks in the work environment. Many risks may hinder good job performance. The article does not concentrate on physical (such as, carrying heavy loads) or environmental risks (such as, extreme heat or

  13. Cyberaddictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2014-12-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen, 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina, 2012; Nadeau & et al. 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant, 2011. The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013); Coulombe (2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al. 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5, others question the operational and practical basis for the diagnostic criteria (Block, 2008). Through a review of litterature and results from research findings; the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for the cyberaddiction phenomenon. By a psychosocial perspective, we mean the inclusion of social determinants (weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, poverty, unemployment, etc) and not only the individual characteristics associated with the disease model in the addiction field. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology ? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. As a conclusion, a demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial Issues in Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisler, Alice B.

    1983-01-01

    Emotional development from infancy to adolescence is traced and the effects of psychosocial issues on a child with a learning disability are considered for five of E. Erikson's seven proposed stages (trust, autonomy, initiative, industry, adolescence). The need for intervention and parent counseling at each state is emphasized. (CL)

  15. Cooley's Anemia: A Psychosocial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Washington, DC.

    The directory is intended to aid patients and their families who are coping with the genetic disorder of Cooley's anemia. A brief review of the disease covers background, genetics, symptoms, effect on the patient, treatment, and current research. The next section looks at psychosocial needs at various times (time of diagnosis, infancy and toddler…

  16. Sickness absence and workplace levels of satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions at public service workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the impact of psychosocial work conditions on sickness absence while addressing methodological weaknesses in earlier studies. METHODS: The participants were 13,437 employees from 698 public service workplace units in Aarhus County, Denmark....... Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions was rated on a scale from 0 (low) to 10 (high). Individual ratings were aggregated to workplace scores. Analysis of variance was used to compare the average number of days of yearly sickness absence in three groups with different levels of satisfaction...... with psychosocial work conditions. RESULTS: Sickness absence was 30.8% lower in the most satisfied group (11.7 days/year (CI 95%: 10.2; 13.1)) than in the least satisfied group (16.9 days/year (CI 95%: 15.3; 18.6)) adjusted for the covariates included. CONCLUSIONS: Satisfaction with psychosocial work conditions has...

  17. Adiposity and psychosocial outcomes at ages 30 and 35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine F H; Fergusson, David M; John Horwood, L; Carter, Frances A

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adiposity and adult psychosocial outcomes (depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, self-esteem, household income, personal income, savings/investments) in a New Zealand birth cohort, by gender. Adiposity was assessed using Body Mass Index scores classified on a 3-point scale of BMI: depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, equivalized household income and savings/investments) remaining statistically significant (p < 0.05). In contrast, for males there was a significant (p = 0.008) positive association between adiposity and higher personal net weekly income after covariate adjustment. The findings suggest evidence of gender differences in the associations between adiposity and psychosocial outcomes. For females, there were small but pervasive tendencies for increasing adiposity to be related to more adverse mental health, psychological well-being and economic outcomes; whereas for males adiposity was either unrelated to these outcomes, or in the case of personal income, associated with greater economic advantage. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  18. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  19. Evaluation of a Classroom-Based Psychosocial Intervention in Conflict-Affected Nepal: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordans, Mark J. D.; Komproe, Ivan H.; Tol, Wietse A.; Kohrt, Brandon A.; Luitel, Nagendra P.; Macy, Robert D.; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected, rural Nepal. Methods: A cluster…

  20. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in

  1. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordans, M.J.D.; Komproe, I.H.; Tol, W.A.; Kohrt, B.A.; Luitel, N.P.; Macy, R.D.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background:  In situations of ongoing violence, childhood psychosocial and mental health problems require care. However, resources and evidence for adequate interventions are scarce for children in low- and middle-income countries. This study evaluated a school-based psychosocial intervention in

  2. Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care: views of parents and adolescents in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanninga, Marieke; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Knorth, Erik J; Jansen, Danielle E M C

    2016-01-01

    Parents with a child suffering from psychosocial problems frequently experience barriers to psychosocial care, which may hinder access. Expectations of barriers may have the same effect, but evidence is lacking. The aim of this study is to examine parents' and adolescents' expectations of barriers regarding psychosocial care for the child, along with associated child and family characteristics. We obtained data on an age-stratified random sample of school children/pupils aged 4-18 via questionnaires (N = 666; response rate 70.3 %). Expectations of barriers to psychosocial care were measured with the "Barriers to Treatment Participation Scale-Expectancies" questionnaire (BTPS-exp). Results showed that 64 % of the parents of children below age 12, 59 % of the parents of adolescents (age 12-18), and 84 % of the adolescents expected one or more barriers. Parents and adolescents expected barriers most frequently with respect to irrelevance of treatment. Mainly parents with low educational level and their adolescents expected barriers regarding treatment, and quite a few characteristics of parents of adolescents were associated with expecting multiple barriers regarding treatment demands and issues, for example, single parents, parents of lower educational level and of adolescent boys, and parents of adolescents with psychosocial problems. We conclude that adolescents especially, but also their parents and parents of younger children, expect major barriers to psychosocial care, which may greatly hinder appropriate care seeking. This evidence may support professionals and policymakers in their attempts to improve access to psychosocial care.

  3. Full- and part-time work: gender and welfare-type differences in European working conditions, job satisfaction, health status, and psychosocial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoll, Xavier; Cortès, Imma; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the differences between full- and part-time employment (FTE and PTE) in terms of working conditions, on the one hand, and job satisfaction, health status, and work-related psychosocial problems according to gender and welfare state regime, on the other hand, and to analyze the role of working conditions in the association between PTE and FTE. This cross-sectional study was based on a sample of 7921 men and 8220 women from the European Working Conditions Survey aged 16-64 years, who were employed part-time (5-19 or 20-30 hours per week) or full-time (31-40 hours/week). Multiple logistic regression models were fitted separately for each gender and welfare state regime. PTE is associated with poorer working conditions than FTE for all national welfare types. Among women, only those in southern European countries experienced low job satisfaction [odds ratio after adjustment (OR adj) for sociodemographic variables, OR adj1.73, and 1.66, for those working 20-30 and 5-19 hours/week, respectively; reference group: FTE workers], but this association disappeared after further adjustment for working conditions. Low job satisfaction and poorer health status was more common among PTE men from continental (low job satisfaction, OR adj1.80 and 3.61, for 20-30 and 5-19 working hours/week, respectively), and southern European (OR adj, 2.98, for 5-19 working hours/week) countries. PTE tended to be associated with fewer psychosocial problems among women, but with more psychosocial problems among men in continental Europe and those those engaged in "mini-jobs" in southern European welfare regimes. The association between FTE and PTE and job satisfaction, health status, and psychosocial problems is partly driven by working conditions and differs between gender and welfare regime. This highlights the importance of promoting effective measures to ensure equal treatment between FTE and PTE workers and the role of the social norms that form part of

  4. Psychosocial aspects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Obese patients have many physical limitations and much psychiatric burden to overcome. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the obese is similar to those with normal weight. However, in obese patients seeking treatment there is an increased prevalence (40-60%) of psychiatric morbidity, most commonly depression. It is difficult to separate the effects of depression on obesity and, on the contrary, the neuroendocrine changes associated with stress and depression may cause metabolic changes that predispose and perpetuate obesity. The stigma associated with obesity causes bullying in school as well as childhood psychiatric morbidity. Prejudice is not limited to the general public but exists among health professionals too. This chapter discusses the treatment of depression in obesity and the psychiatric evaluation of the pre-bariatric surgery patient. Education of society, starting with schools and including healthcare professionals will reduce bias and stigma as well as assist this vulnerable group of patients to seek help for their obesity and the many problems that come with it. Given that by the year 2025 obesity will be the world's number one health problem with the US leading the way, it is very important that we pursue preventive measures as well as encourage research for treatments of obesity.

  5. Unemployment and psychosocial outcomes to age 30: A fixed-effects regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; McLeod, Geraldine F; Horwood, L John

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between exposure to unemployment and psychosocial outcomes over the period from 16 to 30 years, using data from a well-studied birth cohort. Data were collected over the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 children, born in Christchurch in 1977, who have been studied to age 30. Assessments of unemployment and psychosocial outcomes (mental health, substance abuse/dependence, criminal offending, adverse life events and life satisfaction) were obtained at ages 18, 21, 25 and 30. Prior to adjustment, an increasing duration of unemployment was associated with significant increases in the risk of all psychosocial outcomes. These associations were adjusted for confounding using conditional, fixed-effects regression techniques. The analyses showed significant (p unemployment and major depression (p = 0.05), alcohol abuse/dependence (p = 0.043), illicit substance abuse/dependence (p = 0.017), property/violent offending (p unemployment. The findings suggested that the association between unemployment and psychosocial outcomes was likely to involve a causal process in which unemployment led to increased risks of adverse psychosocial outcomes. Effect sizes were estimated using attributable risk; exposure to unemployment accounted for between 4.2 and 14.0% (median 10.8%) of the risk of experiencing the significant psychosocial outcomes. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to unemployment had small but pervasive effects on psychosocial adjustment in adolescence and young adulthood. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  6. Violence against radiologists. II: Psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Fileni, A

    2012-09-01

    Violence against radiologists is a growing problem. This study evaluated the psychosocial factors associated with this phenomenon. A questionnaire was administered to 992 Italian radiologists. Physical violence experienced in the previous 12-month period was associated with the radiologist's poor mental health [odds ratio (OR) 1.11] and overcommitment to work (OR 1.06), whereas radiologists in good physical health (OR 0.64), with job satisfaction (OR 0.96) and with overall happiness (OR 0.67) were less exposed. Nonphysical abuse was equally associated with the radiologist's poor mental health (OR 1.10) and overcommitment (OR 1.14) and negatively associated with physical health (OR 0.54), job satisfaction (OR 0.96), happiness (OR 0.81), organisational justice (OR 0.94) and social support (OR 0.80). Preventive intervention against violence in the workplace should improve workplace organisation and relationships between workers.

  7. [The psychosocial background of sterile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusch, H H; Urdl, W; Walcher, W

    1989-01-01

    The psychosocial background of 300 childless couples from the Infertility Clinic of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Graz, was evaluated by means of a questionnaire and statistical analysis of data from their files. Points of special interest were problems such as interactions of the couple, motivations for the desire of children, psychosomatics, andrological investigation within the gynecological department, sexual habits and motivation and compliance concerning investigations and treatment. 72% of the questionnaires were returned. 50% of the sterile couples preferred to attend the infertility clinic together. 26% felt restrictions in their sexual behaviour due to the unrealized desire of children, 48% expected improvements in their partnership if they could have children. Compliance of male partners concerning the regular intake of prescribed medicaments was 83%, 63% accepted to stop smoking in cases of pathospermia.

  8. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses....... We measured 14 psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout. Linear regression models were used for analyzing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and at 3 years of follow up. RESULTS: Low possibilities for development, high...... meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted burnout at 3 years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders, and burnout level at baseline. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial work...

  9. Psychosocial difficulties from the perspective of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Michaela; Cabello, Maria; Umlauf, Silvia; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Anczewska, Marta; Tourunen, Jouni; Leonardi, Matilde; Cieza, Alarcos

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience a common set of psychosocial difficulties using qualitative data from focus groups and individual interviews. The study was performed in five European countries (Finland, Italy, Germany, Poland and Spain) using the focus groups and individual interviews with persons with nine neuropsychiatric disorders (dementia, depression, epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, stroke and substance dependence). Digitally recorded sessions were analysed using a step-by-step qualitative and quantitative methodology resulting in the compilation of a common set of psychosocial difficulties using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework. Sixty-seven persons participated in the study. Most persons with neuropsychiatric disorders experience difficulties in emotional functions, sleeping, carrying out daily routine, working and interpersonal relationships in common. Sixteen out of 33 psychosocial difficulties made up the common set. This set includes mental functions, pain and issues addressing activities and participation and provides first evidence for the hypothesis of horizontal epidemiology of psychosocial difficulties in neuropsychiatric disorders. This study provides information about psychosocial difficulties that should be covered in the treatment and rehabilitation of persons with neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of clinical diagnoses. Emotional problems, work and sleep problems should be addressed in all the treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders regardless of their specific diagnosis, etiology and severity. Personality issues should be targeted in the treatment for neurological disorders, whereas communication skill training may also be useful for mental disorders. The effects of medication and social environment on patient's daily life should be considered in all the

  10. Psychosocial Adaptation and Depressive Manifestations in High-Risk Pregnant Women: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskin, Gamze; Kaydirak, Meltem Mecdi; Oskay, Umran Yesiltepe

    2017-02-01

    High-risk pregnancy research has focused primarily on psychological well-being. The aim is to determine psychosocial adaptation and depression levels of pregnant women who were admitted to hospital with diagnosis of high-risk pregnancy. This study was descriptive. Sampling was composed of 122 high-risk pregnant women who were hospitalized in the perinatology service of Istanbul University Medical School, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology between January 1, 2014, and May 31, 2014, and met the study criteria. The Pregnant Introduction Form, Psychosocial Adjustment of Illness Scale-Self Report, and CES Depression Scale were used. Of high-risk pregnant women, 47% were found to have a poor level of psychosocial adaptation and 57% presented with depressive symptoms. There were statistically significant difference found between the levels of psychosocial adaptation and status of depressive manifestations. The difference between the average scores increased as the adaptation levels weaken and the pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. The results of this study indicate that, depending on the high-risk pregnancy status, pregnant women experience difficulty in adaptation to their current status and pregnant women with a poor level of psychosocial adaptation showed more depressive manifestations. Nurses should deliver care in high-risk pregnancies with the awareness of physiological needs as well the psychosocial needs of pregnant women, and information meetings should be held in order to increase the psychosocial support of their families and decrease their tendency toward depression. Nursing initiatives should be developed with further studies for the psychosocial adaptation of high-risk pregnancy and reduction of the depressive manifestations. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. [Risks and health problems caused by the use of video terminals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez González, Silvia; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Martínez-Alcántara, Susana; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the association between video display terminal (VDT) use and health hazards, occupational risks, and psychosocial factors, in newspaper workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998 in a representative sample (n = 68) drawn from a population of 218 VDT operators in Mexico City. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were confirmed by performing physical examinations. The research hypothesis was that both the current and cumulative use of VDT are associated with visual, musculoskeletal system, and skin illnesses, as well as with fatigue and mental or psychosomatic disorders. Occupational health hazards were assessed (visual problems, postural risks, sedentary work, computer mouse use, excessive heat, and overcrowding), as well as psychosocial factors related to work organization (psychological demands, work control, and social support). Prevalence ratios were adjusted for confounding variables like age, sex and schooling. Women were more likely than men to have upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. VDT use was associated with neuro-visual fatigue, upper extremity MSD, dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. Computer mouse use and postural risks were significantly associated with health problems. Psychosocial factors were mainly associated with mental problems, psychosomatic disorders, and fatigue. Intense use of video screens has been found to cause musculoskeletal disorders of the hand. The diversification of tasks and control of labor processes itself had a protective effect against psychosomatic disorders and pathological fatigue.

  12. Work-aged stroke survivors’ psychosocial challenges and follow-up needs. A qualitative exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Martinsen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Background Suffering a stroke in the age span between 18-67 years means being threatened by a serious illness during a productive phase of life. During this phase, people usually focus on education, launching a career and/or establishing a family, and the role commitments are many and demanding. Suffering a stroke during this phase of life might give rise to different psychosocial challenges and problems compared to suffering a stroke later in life. A number of psychosocial challenges h...

  13. Emotion regulation and Residual Depression Predict Psychosocial Functioning in Bipolar Disorder: Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Rodrigo; Cruise, Kate; Harms, Craig; Allan, Alfred; Bassett, Darryl; Hood, Sean; Murray, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the predictive value of various clinical, neuropsychological, functional, and emotion regulation processes for recovery in Bipolar Disorder. Clinical and demographic information was collected for 27 euthymic or residually depressed BD participants. Seventy one percent of the sample reported some degree of impairment in psychosocial functioning. Both residual depression and problems with emotion regulation were identified as significant predictors of poor psychosocial funct...

  14. Factors Contributing to Psycho-Social Ill-Health in Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Singh Chhabra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of psychosocial problems in male adolescents and find out various factors contributing to psycho-social ill health. Methods: 500 adolescents were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire to elicit the information about the psychosocial problems including depression, suicidal thoughts and suicidal attempts. Association of academic performance, family problems, psychological problems and substance abuse was also included. Results: More than one third (39.6% adolescents were having psychological problems. These problems were significantly higher in middle adolescence (14-16 years, large extended families (> 8 members and lower socioeconomic status. Residence had no significant relation to psychological problems in the adolescents. On correlation, these adolescents with psychological problems were having significantly more academic problems, family disputes, domestic violence, lesser number of close friends and greater substance abuse. Conclusion: Considering that male adolescents from large families with lesser education and lower income had higher prevalence of psychosocial problems, it is essential for health care planners to design comprehensive family and health education programs for the adolescents. The family support, teacher student rapport and peer group communication should be strengthened to counteract unsafe behaviours in the adolescents.

  15. INSOMNIA AND CORRELATION WITH PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    OpenAIRE

    Made Gede Cahyadi Permana

    2013-01-01

    Insomnia is regarded as sleep disorder that most often affects people in the world, both in primary and in the presence of comorbid conditions. Based on those facts, insomnia could be a serious problem at the level of primary health care. General Practitioner should be able to diagnose insomnia and able to perform the appropriate treatment for the patient. Psychosocial factors may related to the degree of severity of insomnia, among others are health status, depression, dysfunctional beliefs ...

  16. A Systematic Review of Psychosocial Interventions to Cancer Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers.Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and WANFANG were searched. Inclusion criteria were: randomized controlled trails (RCTs; psychosocial intervention to cancer caregivers; psychosocial health indicators including quality of life, depression or anxiety.Results: 21 studies out of 4,666 identified abstracts met inclusion criteria, including 19 RCTs. The intervention modes fell into the following nine categories: family connect intervention, self-determination theory-based intervention (SDT, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, emotion-focused therapy (EFT, comprehensive health enhancement support system (CHESS, FOCUS programme, existential behavioral therapy (EBT, telephone interpersonal counseling (TIP-C, problem-solving intervention (COPE.Conclusion: paired-intervention targeting self-care and interpersonal connections of caregivers and symptom management of patients is effective in improving quality of life and alleviating depression of cancer caregivers while music therapy is helpful for reducing anxiety of cancer caregivers.

  17. Psychosocial Rehabilitation: Some Lessons Learned From Natural Disaster in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Alipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disasters have adverse impacts on different aspects of human life. Psychosocial Rehabilitation is one of the fields which is usually overshadowed and ignored by physical rehabilitation or its importance does not receive proper attention. This research attempts to study some lessons learned from Psychosocial Rehabilitation based on disaster experiences in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study has a conventional qualitative content analysis design. The participants of study were 15 people with direct experience of earthquake and 12 experts in this field. The study sample was selected by purposeful sampling method and the data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Results: Lack of a suitable system to deliver Psychosocial Rehabilitation, challenge in establishing balance between short-term and long-term social and mental needs, lack of mental and social experts, inefficiency in using social capital and capacities are the most important lessons learned in this field. Conclusion: Lack of awareness of mental and social problems of affected people after disaster is one of the most important barriers in successful and stable rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation requires a suitable structure and planning for all stages of disaster management.

  18. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  19. Women with Chronic Physical Disabilities: Correlates of Their Long-Term Psychosocial Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangoor, Nira; Florian, Victor

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effects of demographic factors, disability status, and individual internal resources to the long-term psychosocial adjustment of 88 married women with orthopedic, neurological, and internal chronic diseases. Results suggest that sense of coherence and socioeconomic status, rather than disability status variables, accounted…

  20. Sensory loss and its consequences for couples’ psychosocial and relational wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehane, Christine Marie; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup; Elsass, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research has shown that marital communication is key to couples' successful illness adjustment. However, little is known about couples' experiences of health conditions characterised by communication difficulties such as acquired hearing, vision, and dual-sensory loss. The aim...... of this review was to identify the effect of sensory loss, and associated communication difficulties, on couples' relational and psychosocial adjustment. Method: A systematic search was conducted to identify studies investigating the social, psychological, and relational impact of sensory loss on couples...