WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychopathy checklist-revised pcl-r

  1. PCL-R Psychopathy Predicts Disruptive Behavior Among Male Offenders in a Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Martin; De Ruiter, Corine; Nijman, Henk

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between psychopathy, according to the Dutch language version of Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and various types of disruptive behavior during inpatient forensic psychiatric treatment is investigated. Ninety-two male participants were administered the PCL-R following admission to an inpatient forensic…

  2. Structural, Item, and Test Generalizability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised to Offenders with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Catrin; Cooke, David; Michie, Christine; Hollin, Clive; Hogue, Todd; Lindsay, William R.; Taylor, John L.

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is the most widely used measure of psychopathy in forensic clinical practice, but the generalizability of the measure to offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID) has not been clearly established. This study examined the structural equivalence and scalar equivalence of the PCL-R in a sample of 185 male…

  3. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  4. On Individual Differences in Person Perception: Raters' Personality Traits Relate to Their Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Scoring Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Audrey K.; Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Jackson, Rebecca L.; Murrie, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated raters' personality traits in relation to scores they assigned to offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). A total of 22 participants, including graduate students and faculty members in clinical psychology programs, completed a PCL-R training session, independently scored four criminal offenders using the…

  5. The Structural and Predictive Properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in Canadian Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Neumann, Craig S.; Wong, Stephen C. P.; Hare, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the structural and predictive properties of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in large samples of Canadian male Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. The PCL-R ratings were part of a risk assessment for criminal recidivism, with a mean follow-up of 26 months postrelease. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, we were…

  6. The Latent Structure of Psychopathy: A Taxometric Investigation of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in a Heterogeneous Sample of Male Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Duncan, Scott A.; Mitchell-Perez, Kari

    2007-01-01

    A taxometric analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is conducted on a group of 409 male maximum-, medium-, and minimum-security federal prison inmates using the four PCL-R facet scores (interpersonal, affective, impulsive lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) as indicators. Results obtained from three quasi-independent taxometric…

  7. Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Use and Reporting Practices in Sexually Violent Predator Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Chevalier, Caroline S; Murrie, Daniel C; Varela, Jorge G

    2017-09-01

    We surveyed evaluators who conduct sexually violent predator evaluations ( N = 95) regarding the frequency with which they use the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), their rationale for use, and scoring practices. Findings suggest that evaluators use the PCL-R in sexually violent predator cases because of its perceived versatility, providing information about both mental disorder and risk. Several findings suggested gaps between research and routine practice. For example, relatively few evaluators reported providing the factor and facet scores that may be the strongest predictors of future offending, and many assessed the combination of PCL-R scores and sexual deviance using deviance measures (e.g., paraphilia diagnoses) that have not been examined in available studies. There was evidence of adversarial allegiance in PCL-R score interpretation, as well as a "bias blind spot" in PCL-R and other risk measure (Static-99R) scoring; evaluators tended to acknowledge the possibility of bias in other evaluators but not in themselves. Findings suggest the need for evaluators to carefully consider the extent to which their practices are consistent with emerging research and to be attuned to the possibility that working in adversarial settings may influence their scoring and interpretation practices.

  8. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  9. Recidivism is related to psychopathy (PCL-R) in a group of men convicted of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Jenny; Dåderman, Anna M

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that psychopaths are a group with high risk for criminality. Despite that, researchers and clinicians have not yet agreed on a general cause of psychopathy. However Raine [Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311-326.] advocated a biosocial model of violent behaviour where the greatest risk for criminal behaviour occurred when both heredity and environmental risk factors (e.g., social class, childhood history) were present. In this follow-up study, 35 men convicted of homicide were assessed retrospectively for psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Information on personal history, as well as from legal documents and records of offences committed by the subjects was also obtained. Fourteen of the 35 men were classified as psychopaths. Two men, both rated as psychopaths, had criminal parents. Twenty-seven of the men had a social relationship with their victim, and eleven out of these were rated as psychopaths. There was no difference in PCL-R scores between those who had a social relationship with their victim and those who did not. The psychopaths relapsed more frequently than the nonpsychopaths into criminality after their prison term. This result confirms previous research indicating that psychopathy is a risk factor for recidivism. It is, therefore, very important that psychopaths get the best possible treatment, aftercare, and supervision.

  10. A latent variable analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system factors in North American and Swedish offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Neumann, Craig S; Lewis, Jonathan; Johansson, Peter

    2015-07-01

    An influential neurobiological model of personality is the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, which postulates how basic motivational systems (behavioral activation system [BAS], behavioral inhibition system [BIS]) can help account for the development and expression of individual differences in personality. Earlier research has documented a link between psychopathic personality and the BIS/BAS scale (Carver & White, 1994), which was developed to measure the behavioral inhibition and activation systems. However, no studies have examined how latent BIS/BAS factors and the 4 empirically derived Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) psychopathy factors (Hare & Neumann, 2008) are associated across different cultures. In the current study, structural equation modeling was used to determine how the 4 PCL-R factors were able to predict BIS/BAS factors using 2 large independent samples of male offenders (North American N = 908; Swedish N = 242). The results were in line with theory and revealed a negative relationship between the PCL-R Affective factor and the BIS factor as well as positive relationships between the PCL-R Antisocial and Lifestyle factors with the BAS factor. Overall, the results of the current study provide evidence of cross-cultural generalizability for the associations between the PCL-R factors and the BIS-BAS factors. Taken together, the PCL-R psychopathy factors were able to account for meaningful variance in the BIS-BAS factors and further support a dimensional approach to understanding the psychopathy construct across cultures.

  11. Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Auvinen-Lintunen, Laura; Ducci, Francesca; Sjöberg, Rickard L; Goldman, David; Tiihonen, Jari; Ojansuu, Ilkka; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-02-28

    The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders. Violent reconvictions and PCL-R scores among violent offenders were assessed after a 7-year non-incarcerated follow-up. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the alcohol exposure and age-adjusted effect of PCL-R score and psychopathy on the risk for reconvictions among differing MAOA genotypes. Results suggest that the PCL-R total score predicts impulsive reconvictions among high-activity MAOA offenders (6.8% risk increase for every one-point increase in PCL-R total score, P = 0.015), but not among low-activity MAOA offenders, whereas antisocial behavior and attitudes predicted reconvictions in both genotypes (17% risk increase among high-activity MAOA offenders and 12.8% increase among low-activity MAOA offenders for every one-point increase in factor 2 score). Both narcissistic self-image with related interpersonal style (factor 1 score) and psychopathy (PCL-R ≥ 30) failed to predict future violence. Results suggest that the efficacy of PCL-R is altered by MAOA genotype, alcohol exposure, and age, which seems important to note when PCL-R is used for risk assessments that will have legal or costly preventive work consequences.

  12. The role and reliability of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised in U.S. sexually violent predator evaluations: a case law survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMatteo, David; Edens, John F; Galloway, Meghann; Cox, Jennifer; Smith, Shannon Toney; Formon, Dana

    2014-06-01

    The civil commitment of offenders as sexually violent predators (SVPs) is a highly contentious area of U.S. mental health law. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is frequently used in mental health evaluations in these cases to aid legal decision making. Although generally perceived to be a useful assessment tool in applied settings, recent research has raised questions about the reliability of PCL-R scores in SVP cases. In this report, we review the use of the PCL-R in SVP trials identified as part of a larger project investigating its role in U.S. case law. After presenting data on how the PCL-R is used in SVP cases, we examine the reliability of scores reported in these cases. We located 214 cases involving the PCL-R, 88 of which included an actual score and 29 of which included multiple scores. In the 29 cases with multiple scores, the intraclass correlation coefficient for a single evaluator for the PCL-R scores was only .58, and only 41.4% of the difference scores were within 1 standard error of measurement unit. The average score reported by prosecution experts was significantly higher than the average score reported by defense-retained experts, and prosecution experts reported PCL-R scores of 30 or above in nearly 50% of the cases, compared with less than 10% of the cases for defense witnesses (κ = .29). In conjunction with other recently published findings demonstrating the unreliability of PCL-R scores in applied settings, our results raise questions as to whether this instrument should be admitted into SVP proceedings.

  13. The relationship between the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and the MMPI-2: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anita L; Stokkeland, Lisa; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Pallesen, Ståle; Waage, Leif

    2013-04-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between Hare's four-facet model of psychopathy and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in a forensic, culturally homogenous sample. 22 male prisoners from Bergen Prison participated. There was only a statistically significant negative zero-order correlation between the total PCL-R score and the score on the Depression scale of the MMPI-2. However, the results revealed that the four facets had different underlying correlates with negative affectivity. Overall, Facets 1 and 2 showed a tendency toward a negative relationship with the clinical scales on the MMPI-2, while Facets 3 and 4 had a positive relationship. Interestingly, partial correlations showed that Facet 4 of PCL-R was the only facet that correlated statistically significantly with the scores on the Psychopathic Deviate scale of the MMPI-2.

  14. One Measure Does Not a Construct Make: Directions toward Reinvigorating Psychopathy Research--Reply to Hare and Neumann (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Cooke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    In our article (J. L. Skeem & D. J. Cooke, 2010), we outlined the dangers inherent in conflating the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. Hare, 1991) with psychopathy itself. In their response, R. Hare and C. Neumann (2010) seemed to agree with key points that the PCL-R should not be confused with psychopathy and that criminal behavior is not…

  15. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  16. Is Criminal Behavior a Central Component of Psychopathy? Conceptual Directions for Resolving the Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeem, Jennifer L.; Cooke, David J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) has fueled intense clinical interest in the construct of psychopathy. Unfortunately, a side effect of this interest has been conceptual confusion and, in particular, the conflating of measures with constructs. Indeed, the field is in danger of equating the PCL-R with…

  17. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  18. Violence Risk Assessment and Facet 4 of the Psychopathy Checklist: Predicting Institutional and Community Aggression in Two Forensic Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Heilbrun, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist and Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL/PCL-R) were used to predict institutional aggression and community violence in two groups of forensic patients. Results showed that Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL/PCL-R or one of its parcels consistently achieved incremental validity relative to the first three facets, whereas the…

  19. Scoring Subjectivity and Item Performance on Measures Used to Assess Violence Risk: The PCL-R and HCR-20 as Exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Katrina A.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Guy, Laura S.

    2011-01-01

    Although reliability is essential to validity, most research on violence risk assessment tools has paid little attention to strategies for improving rater agreement. The authors evaluated the degree to which perceived subjectivity in scoring guidelines for items from two measures--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Historical,…

  20. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy: Construct and Incremental Validity in Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolondek, Stacey; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Fowler, Katherine A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the construct and incremental validity of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P), a relatively new instrument designed to detect interpersonal behaviors associated with psychopathy. Observers of videotaped Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) interviews rated male prisoners (N = 93) on the IM-P. The IM-P correlated…

  1. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version in German Female and Male Detainees and Community Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevecke, Kathrin; Pukrop, Ralf; Kosson, David S.; Krischer, Maya K.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists for 3- and 4-factor models of psychopathy underlying patterns of covariation among the items of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in diverse adult samples. Although initial studies conducted with the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) indicated reasonable fit for these models in incarcerated male…

  2. Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morana, Hilda Clotilde Penteado; Câmara, Fernando Portela; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio

    2006-12-20

    Fifty six cases of a forensic population were submitted to a cluster analysis to observe the aglomerative behavior in relation to the total scores of the items comprising the PCL-R Psychopathy Checklist Revised [R.D. Hare, Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Multi-Health System, Toronto, 1991]. The analysis indicated two independent types of antisocial personality disorders, not identified in the PCL-R in its standardized form, one of them being strongly associated with criminal conduct and the other with psychopathic personality. Such clusters were stable when the analysis was replicated with other hierarchical algorithms, and also, they were independently extracted via the k-means method without having previously fixed the value for k. One of the clusters concentrated the PCL-R highest scores, indicating that it is the prototypical psychopathic character determinant.

  3. Psychopathic Predators? Getting Specific about the Relation between Psychopathy and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jacqueline P.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Barchard, Kimberly; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Poythress, Norman G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 1991, 2003) is often used to assess risk of violence, perhaps based on the assumption that it captures emotionally detached individuals who are driven to prey upon others. This study is designed to assess the relation between (a) core interpersonal and affective traits of psychopathy and…

  4. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  5. Are fearless dominance traits superfluous in operationalizing psychopathy? Incremental validity and sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brett; Lilienfeld, Scott; Skeem, Jennifer; Edens, John F

    2016-12-01

    Researchers are vigorously debating whether psychopathic personality includes seemingly adaptive traits, especially social and physical boldness. In a large sample (N = 1,565) of adult offenders, we examined the incremental validity of 2 operationalizations of boldness (Fearless Dominance traits in the Psychopathy Personality Inventory [Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996]; Boldness traits in the triarchic model of psychopathy [Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009]), above and beyond other characteristics of psychopathy, in statistically predicting scores on 4 psychopathy-related measures, including the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The incremental validity added by boldness traits in predicting the PCL-R's representation of psychopathy was especially pronounced for interpersonal traits (e.g., superficial charm, deceitfulness). Our analyses, however, revealed unexpected sex differences in the relevance of these traits to psychopathy, with boldness traits exhibiting reduced importance for psychopathy in women. We discuss the implications of these findings for measurement models of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Do Core Interpersonal and Affective Traits of PCL-R Psychopathy Interact with Antisocial Behavior and Disinhibition to Predict Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…

  7. CONFIABILIDAD Y VALIDEZ DE LA VERSIÓN CHILENA DE LA HARE PCL-R Chilean version of Hare PCL-R: a study of reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth León-Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. En Chile, al igual que en otros países latinoamericanos, diversas modificaciones judiciales y el interés de los profesionales en sistematizar sus métodos de evaluación en psicopatía promovieron la traducción, adaptación y revisión de las propiedades psicométricas de la Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R. Objetivo. Evaluar aspectos de la confiabilidad y validez de la versión chilena del PCL-R en población forense masculina chilena. Material y métodos. Se realizó traducción y retrotraducción de la escala con la autorización del autor y editorial; se constituyó una muestra de 293 sujetos varones penados que aceptaron participar en la investigación. Entre otros análisis, se contrastó el diagnóstico obtenido a ciegas con la PCL-R con el aportado por el equipo técnico de Gendarmería de Chile. Resultados. La congruencia interna medida con Alfa de Cronbach fue la siguiente: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3 = 0,67; F4= 0,77. Valor Kappa ambos tipos de evaluaciones = 0,804; p Background. In Chile as in other Latin American countries the introduction of the Adversarial Model in the Judicial System increased the need for the systematization of the evaluation of psychopathy, thus making necessary the translation, adaptation and revision of the psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised. Objective. To evaluate aspects of the reliability and validity of the Chilean version of the PCL-R in Chilean male inmate population. Materials and methods. The PCL-R was translated and backtranslated with the authorization of the author and of the Editorial House. A sample of 293 inmates was constituted and the respective informed consent obtained. Several analyses were made including a blind comparison of the diagnosis made with the PCL-R and the one made by the Technical Area of Gendarmería of Chile. Results. The internal congruence measured with Crombach Alfa was: total =0,91; F1= 0,86; F2 = 0,87; F3

  8. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised for Latino, European American, and African American Male Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elizabeth A.; Abramowitz, Carolyn S.; Lopez, Mabel; Kosson, David S.

    2006-01-01

    The utility of the psychopathy construct in predicting laboratory deficits, criminal behavior, response to intervention, and recidivism has been well documented in European American populations. However, less is known about the manifestation and correlates of psychopathy in Latino and African American populations. The present study examined the…

  9. Recidivism in female offenders: PCL-R lifestyle factor and VRAG show predictive validity in a German sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Osterheider, Michael; Nedopil, Norbert; Stadtland, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    A clear and structured approach to evidence-based and gender-specific risk assessment of violence in female offenders is high on political and mental health agendas. However, most data on the factors involved in risk-assessment instruments are based on data of male offenders. The aim of the present study was to validate the use of the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R), the HCR-20 and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) for the prediction of recidivism in German female offenders. This study is part of the Munich Prognosis Project (MPP). It focuses on a subsample of female delinquents (n = 80) who had been referred for forensic-psychiatric evaluation prior to sentencing. The mean time at risk was 8 years (SD = 5 years; range: 1-18 years). During this time, 31% (n = 25) of the female offenders were reconvicted, 5% (n = 4) for violent and 26% (n = 21) for non-violent re-offenses. The predictive validity of the PCL-R for general recidivism was calculated. Analysis with receiver-operating characteristics revealed that the PCL-R total score, the PCL-R antisocial lifestyle factor, the PCL-R lifestyle factor and the PCL-R impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style factor had a moderate predictive validity for general recidivism (area under the curve, AUC = 0.66, p = 0.02). The VRAG has also demonstrated predictive validity (AUC = 0.72, p = 0.02), whereas the HCR-20 showed no predictive validity. These results appear to provide the first evidence that the PCL-R total score and the antisocial lifestyle factor are predictive for general female recidivism, as has been shown consistently for male recidivists. The implications of these findings for crime prevention, prognosis in women, and future research are discussed.

  10. [Personality disorders and "psychopathy" in sex offenders imprisoned in forensic-psychiatric hospitals--SKID-II- and PCL-R-results in patients with impulse control disorder and paraphilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchard, Bernd; Gnoth, Annika; Schulz, Wolfgang

    2003-04-01

    In order to clarify differential-diagnostic questions 47 mentally ill sex offenders (with impulse control disorder and paraphilia) were assessed with regard to comorbidity of personality disorders and "psychopathy". For this examination the SKID-II for personality disorders and the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) were used. 72 % of the sex offenders showed at least one personality disorder. The highest prevalence was found for cluster-B disorders, first of all the antisocial personality disorder. Using a PCL-R cut off score of 25 (for Europe) 10 of the 47 subjects (21 %) were diagnosed as "psychopaths", whereas being a "psychopath" is associated with a number of different personality disorders. The importance of structured diagnostic with regard to comorbidity of personality disorders in sex offenders imprisoned in maximum security psychiatric hospitals is stressed, and furthermore there is evidence that the PCL-R is a valid instrument for prognosis, but not a psychological-psychiatric instrument for the assessment of personality disorders.

  11. Using MMPI-2-RF Correlates to Elucidate the PCL-R and Its Four Facets in a Sample of Male Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Haneveld, Evelyn; Kamphuis, Jan H; Smid, Wineke; Forbey, Johnathan D

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive understanding of the nature of the 4 PCL-R facets and to discern possible implications for the treatment of psychopathic patients. A sample of 127 male forensic psychiatric offenders admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital completed the PCL-R and the MMPI-2. Exploratory stepwise regression analyses assessed the prediction of the PCL-R total and its facet scores from MMPI-2-RF scales at its 3 hierarchical levels. Conceptually meaningful results emerged at each level of the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy, including several consistent differences between predictor sets across the facets. Interestingly, ideas of persecution (RC6) was a specific predictor of PCL-R Facet 2, a facet noted for its association with treatment failure. Results are compared and contrasted to the extant body of empirical work to date, and some tentative clinical implications are offered.

  12. Modulatory effects of psychopathy on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance in male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Batalla, Iolanda; Bosque, Javier; Kosson, David; Pifarré, Josep; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Goldberg, Ximena; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Menchón, José M; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Cardoner, Narcís

    2016-01-30

    Neuropsychological deficits in executive functions (EF) have been linked to antisocial behavior and considered to be cardinal to the onset and persistence of severe antisocial and aggressive behavior. However, when psychopathy is present, prior evidence suggests that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is unaffected leading to intact EF. Ninety-one male offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) and 24 controls completed the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). ASPD individuals were grouped in three categories according to Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) scores (low, medium and high). We hypothesized that ASPD offenders with high PCL-R scores will not differ from healthy controls in EF and will show better EF performance in comparison with subjects with low PCL-R scores. Results showed that ASPD offenders with low PCL-R scores committed more perseverative errors and responses than controls and offenders with high PCL-R scores, which did not differ from healthy controls. Moreover, scores on Factor 1 and the interpersonal facet of the PCL-R were predictors of better WCST performance. Our results suggest a modulatory role of psychopathy in the cognitive performance of ASPD offenders, and provide further evidence supporting that offenders with ASPD and psychopathy are characterized by a cognitive profile different from those with ASPD without psychopathy.

  13. Psychopathy, intelligence, and impulsivity in German violent offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tribolet-Hardy, Fanny; Vohs, Knut; Mokros, Andreas; Habermeyer, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported numerous correlations between psychopathy and various personality traits, behavioural tendencies or clinical characteristics. The present study examined in greater depth the relationships between the components of psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and intelligence as well as impulsivity. A total of ninety male violent offenders were recruited from a prison and a forensic-psychiatric hospital in Germany. All of the subjects were assessed using the PCL-R, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a short version of the German Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WIP). As expected, a canonical correlation analysis showed a negative association between spatial intelligence and the Factor 2 subtotal on the PCL-R (reckless lifestyle/antisociality). In addition, our results agreed with the assumption of an association between impulsivity and the subtotal for PCL-R Factor 2. The positive relationship between verbal intelligence and the subtotal for Factor 1 of the PCL-R (insincere, manipulative conduct/affective deficits) vanished after controlling for educational level. The results indicate that there is a relationship between the spatial components of intelligence and the concept of psychopathy as described by Hare. This result supports the spatial impairment aetiological model of antisocial behaviour.

  14. Psychopathy/antisocial personality disorder conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogloff, James R P

    2006-01-01

    Psychopathy has traditionally been characterised as a disorder primarily of personality (particularly affective deficits) and, to a lesser extent, behaviour. Although often used interchangeably, the diagnostic constructs of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are distinct. In this article, the relevant historical and contemporary literature concerning psychopathy is briefly reviewed. The diagnostic criteria for psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and dissocial personality disorder are compared. Consideration is given to the assessment, prevalence, and implications of psychopathy for violence risk and treatment efficacy. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for antisocial personality disorder, in particular, are largely behaviourally based. The ICD criteria for dissocial personality disorder, while paying more attention to affective deficits, also do not represent the broad personality and behavioural components of psychopathy. Since 1980, a great deal of research on these disorders has been conducted, using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). The PCL-R assesses both personality (interpersonal and affective) and behavioural (lifestyle and antisocial) deficits. As such, the research and clinical implications of psychopathy, as operationalised by the PCL-R, cannot be readily extrapolated to the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder and dissocial personality disorder. As currently construed, the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder grossly over-identifies people, particularly those with offence histories, as meeting the criteria for the diagnosis. For example, research shows that between 50% and 80% of prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, yet only approximately 15% of prisoners would be expected to be psychopathic, as assessed by the PCL-R. As such, the characteristics and research findings drawn from the psychopathy research may not be relevant for those

  15. Neural correlates of moral and non-moral emotion in female psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla L Harenski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first neuroimaging investigation of female psychopathy in an incarcerated population. Prior studies have found that male psychopathy is associated with reduced limbic and paralimbic activation when processing emotional stimuli and making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to female psychopathy. During fMRI scanning, 157 incarcerated and 46 non-incarcerated female participants viewed unpleasant pictures, half which depicted moral transgressions, and neutral pictures. Participants rated each picture on moral transgression severity. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R in all incarcerated participants. Non-incarcerated participants were included as a control group to derive brain regions of interest associated with viewing unpleasant versus neutral pictures (emotion contrast, and unpleasant pictures depicting moral transgressions versus unpleasant pictures without moral transgressions (moral contrast. Regression analyses in the incarcerated group examined the association between PCL-R scores and brain activation in the emotion and moral contrasts. Results of the emotion contrast revealed a negative correlation between PCL-R scores and activation in the right amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate. Results of the moral contrast revealed a negative correlation between PCL-R scores and activation in the right temporo-parietal junction. These results indicate that female psychopathy, like male psychopathy, is characterized by reduced limbic activation during emotion processing. In contrast, reduced temporo-parietal activation to moral transgressions has been less observed in male psychopathy. These results extend prior findings in male psychopathy to female psychopathy, and reveal aberrant neural responses to morally-salient stimuli that may be unique to female psychopathy.

  16. Subcomponents of psychopathy have opposing correlations with punishment judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaich Borg, Jana; Kahn, Rachel E; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kurzban, Robert; Robinson, Paul H; Kiehl, Kent A

    2013-10-01

    Psychopathy research is plagued by an enigma: Psychopaths reliably act immorally, but they also accurately report whether an action is morally wrong. The current study revealed that cooperative suppressor effects and conflicting subsets of personality traits within the construct of psychopathy might help explain this conundrum. Among a sample of adult male offenders (N = 100) who ranked deserved punishment of crimes, Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) total scores were not linearly correlated with deserved punishment task performance. However, these null results masked significant opposing associations between task performance and factors of psychopathy: the PCL-R Interpersonal/Affective (i.e., manipulative and callous) factor was positively associated with task performance, while the PCL-R Social Deviance (i.e., impulsive and antisocial) factor was simultaneously negatively associated with task performance. These relationships were qualified by a significant interaction where the Interpersonal/Affective traits were positively associated with task performance when Social Deviance traits were high, but Social Deviance traits were negatively associated with task performance when Interpersonal/Affective traits were low. This interaction helped reveal a significant nonlinear relationship between PCL-R total scores and task performance such that individuals with very low or very high PCL-R total scores performed better than those with middle-range PCL-R total scores. These results may explain the enigma of why individuals with very high psychopathic traits, but not other groups of antisocial individuals, usually have normal moral judgment in laboratory settings, but still behave immorally, especially in contexts where social deviance traits have strong influence.

  17. Corporate psychopathy: Talking the walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiak, Paul; Neumann, Craig S; Hare, Robert D

    2010-01-01

    There is a very large literature on the important role of psychopathy in the criminal justice system. We know much less about corporate psychopathy and its implications, in large part because of the difficulty in obtaining the active cooperation of business organizations. This has left us with only a few small-sample studies, anecdotes, and speculation. In this study, we had a unique opportunity to examine psychopathy and its correlates in a sample of 203 corporate professionals selected by their companies to participate in management development programs. The correlates included demographic and status variables, as well as in-house 360 degrees assessments and performance ratings. The prevalence of psychopathic traits-as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and a Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV) "equivalent"-was higher than that found in community samples. The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) indicated that the underlying latent structure of psychopathy in our corporate sample was consistent with that model found in community and offender studies. Psychopathy was positively associated with in-house ratings of charisma/presentation style (creativity, good strategic thinking and communication skills) but negatively associated with ratings of responsibility/performance (being a team player, management skills, and overall accomplishments).

  18. Personality traits as predictors of inpatient aggression in a high-security forensic psychiatric setting: prospective evaluation of the PCL-R and IPDE dimension ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Hogue, Todd E; Daffern, Michael; Mannion, Aisling; Howells, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    The Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) initiative in England and Wales provides specialized care to high-risk offenders with mental disorders. This study investigated the predictive utility of personality traits, assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the International Personality Disorder Examination, with 44 consecutive admissions to the DSPD unit at a high-security forensic psychiatric hospital. Incidents of interpersonal physical aggression (IPA) were observed for 39% of the sample over an average 1.5-year period following admission. Histrionic personality disorder (PD) predicted IPA, and Histrionic, Borderline, and Antisocial PDs all predicted repetitive (2+ incidents of) IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Facets 1 and 2 were also significant predictors of IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Histrionic PD scores were significantly associated with imminence of IPA. Results were discussed in terms of the utility of personality traits in risk assessment and treatment of specially selected high-risk forensic psychiatric patients in secure settings.

  19. Quantitative Electroencephalogram and psychopathy. A case study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ortega-Noriega

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study shows the case of a psychopath prisoner who has been in jail for three years accused of rape. The subject was evaluated through the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R and Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG. QEEG measures used in this study were absolute power and occipital Alpha medium frequency. Values were transformed into Z score and compared with the QEEG normative database. Results showed a Theta excess and Alpha decrease; moreover occipital Alpha medium frequency was below the norm for the subject's age. Findings suggest a cortical hypoactivation; some theories suggest that some psychopath's features can be explained by this low activation.

  20. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORIAL STRUCTURE OF THE PCL-R: WHICH MODEL FITS BEST THE DATA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which of the factorial solutions proposed for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R of two, three, four factors, and unidimensional fitted best the data. Two trained and experienced independent raters scored 197 prisoners from the Villabona Penitentiary (Asturias, Spain, age range 21 to 73 years (M = 36.0, SD = 9.7, of whom 60.12% were reoffenders and 73% had committed violent crimes. The results revealed that the two-factor correlational, three-factor hierarchical without testlets, four-factor correlational and hierarchical, and unidimensional models were a poor fit for the data (CFI ≤ .86, and the three-factor model with testlets was a reasonable fit for the data (CFI = .93. The scale resulting from the three-factor hierarchical model with testlets (13 items classified psychopathy significantly higher than the original 20-item scale. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theoretical models of psychopathy, decision-making, prison classification and intervention, and prevention. Se diseñó un estudio con el objetivo de conocer cuál de las soluciones factoriales propuestas para la Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R de dos, tres y cuatro factores y unidimensional era la que presentaba mejor ajuste a los datos. Para ello, dos evaluadores entrenados y con experiencia evaluaron de forma independiente a 197 internos en la prisión Villabona (Asturias, España, con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y los 73 años (M = 36.0, DT = 9.7, de los cuales el 60.12% eran reincidentes y el 73% había cometido delitos violentos. Los resultados mostraron que los modelos unidimensional, correlacional de 2 factores, jerárquico de 3 factores sin testlest y correlacional y jerárquico de 4 factores, presentaban un pobre ajuste con los datos (CFI ≤ .86 y un ajuste razonable del modelo jerárquico de tres factores con testlets (CFI = .93. La escala resultante del modelo de tres factores

  1. Distinct neuronal patterns of positive and negative moral processing in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fede, Samantha J; Borg, Jana Schaich; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Harenski, Carla L; Cope, Lora M; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Koenigs, Mike; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-12-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder characterized by severe and frequent moral violations in multiple domains of life. Numerous studies have shown psychopathy-related limbic brain abnormalities during moral processing; however, these studies only examined negatively valenced moral stimuli. Here, we aimed to replicate prior psychopathy research on negative moral judgments and to extend this work by examining psychopathy-related abnormalities in the processing of controversial moral stimuli and positive moral processing. Incarcerated adult males (N = 245) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol on a mobile imaging system stationed at the prison. Psychopathy was assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Participants were then shown words describing three types of moral stimuli: wrong (e.g., stealing), not wrong (e.g., charity), and controversial (e.g., euthanasia). Participants rated each stimulus as either wrong or not wrong. PCL-R total scores were correlated with not wrong behavioral responses to wrong moral stimuli, and were inversely related to hemodynamic activity in the anterior cingulate cortex in the contrast of wrong > not wrong. In the controversial > noncontroversial comparison, psychopathy was inversely associated with activity in the temporal parietal junction and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that psychopathy-related abnormalities are observed during the processing of complex, negative, and positive moral stimuli.

  2. Dimensional assessment of psychopathy and relationship with physiological response to empathic images in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many psychophysiological studies investigate whether psychopaths present low levels of electrodermal activity (EDA. However, despite evidence that varying degrees of psychopathy are normally distributed in the population, there is a paucity of EDA studies evaluating dimensionally. Moreover, although lack of empathy is a cornerstone of psychopathy, there has been a lack of studies using pictures of empathic emotional content to assess psycophysiological responses. Method: We studied a population of young male delinquents (n=30 from a detention center, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R to determine if higher levels of psychopathy were related to lesser degrees of EDA in response to emotion-eliciting pictures of empathic content. Results: There were significant correlations (p

  3. Metacognitive impairments in schizophrenia are arrested at extreme levels of psychopathy: The cut-off effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Heinke, Dietmar; Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Bo, Sune

    2015-11-01

    Psychopathy and metacognitive difficulties have been associated with the occurrence of violence in schizophrenia. However, evidence suggests that nonschizophrenic psychopaths match or even outperform healthy controls on tests of metacognition. We hypothesize that the metacognitive difficulties associated with schizophrenia may be ameliorated by comorbid psychopathy. To this end, metacognition (using the Metacognition Assessment Scale-Abbreviated [MAS-A]) and psychopathy (using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [PCL-R]) are assessed in 79 patients with schizophrenia with a history of criminal offending. Piecewise regression reveals that the association between metacognition and psychopathy changes from a negative to a positive association at a breakpoint corresponding to a score of 24 on the PCL-R. This score is within the range of the cut-off point used for the diagnosis of psychopathy in Europe, which corresponds to a score of 26 on the PCL-R. The patients scoring above 24 on the PCL-R demonstrated better overall metacognitive abilities, suggesting that these patients constitute a specific group in which schizophrenia has an attenuated impairing effect on metacognition. However, this effect was absent for the Mastery subscale of the MAS-A, which refers to the ability to use one's own mental states to solve social and psychological dilemmas. Our results suggest that the relative preservation of metacognitive abilities in schizophrenic patients with extreme levels of psychopathy may contribute to their offending behavior as it may enable them to understand how to manipulate and extort their victims. However, enhancing the Mastery domain of metacognition in these patients may attenuate this offending behavior.

  4. Facets of psychopathy in relation to potentially traumatic events and posttraumatic stress disorder among female prisoners: the mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M; Sullivan, Elizabeth A; Hicks, Brian M; Patrick, Christopher J

    2012-10-01

    Despite the high prevalence of trauma exposure in female prisoners, few studies have examined the link between psychopathy and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-or the potential mediating role of borderline personality disorder traits. Using a sample of incarcerated women, we identified differential associations across facets of psychopathy, as assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003), with potentially traumatic events (PTE) and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, the Interpersonal and Affective facets were unrelated to both PTE and PTSD, while the Lifestyle and Antisocial facets were each associated with PTE and the Antisocial facet was uniquely associated with PTSD symptoms. Borderline personality disorder traits fully accounted for the association between the Antisocial facet and both PTE and PTSD, while the Lifestyle facet contributed incrementally to the prediction of PTE. The findings clarify linkages among psychopathy, trauma, PTSD, and borderline personality disorder traits, and extend our understanding of the clinical presentation of psychopathy in women.

  5. [Psychopathy: from "The Mask of Sanity" to social neurosciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, S J-J; Braun, S; Coumans, N; Linkowski, P

    2009-01-01

    Although psychopathy has traditionally been cited as a disorder of personality, confusion arises as the term is used interchangeably with the terms antisocial personality disorder of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV TR) or dissocial personality disorder, both of which are largely behaviorally based. This paper aims to provide a clinical and scientific overview of the literature on the topic of psychopathy, which examines this conundrum. This article begins with a wee bit of history about Hervey Cleckley's work, The Mask of Sanity, and then presents the definitions and nosography of psychopathy, focusing on the distinction between the antisocial psychopath and the successful psychopath. The discussion will then lead on the epidemiological aspects and diagnosis, especially psychometric and measurement tools used to assess psychopathy in the individual: Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), as this is the most frequently used and validated measure of psychopathy. The second section of the article reviews several studies dealing with structural and functional neuroimaging in psychopaths. The final part of this overview considers the treatment and interventions that are available to psychopathic offenders and the implications for future research, especially in terms of prevention. This review demonstrates that studies and further research are still required in psychopathy, particularly using functional neuroimaging techniques, as fMRI and magnetoencephalography, that can describe the functional neuroanatomy of human emotion. Today, cognitive and social neurosciences constitute one of the most promising way to study psychopathy.

  6. Intelligence and psychopathy: a correlational study on insane female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spironelli, C; Segrè, D; Stegagno, L; Angrilli, A

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of a significant relationship between psychopathic traits and intelligence is still open to debate. Most of the relevant information has been obtained from crystallized IQ tests or on psychopathic male offenders. In this study we hypothesized a negative correlation between psychopathic traits and fluid intelligence on a sample of criminal female in-patients. We carried out a correlational study on a selected sample of 56 criminal female offenders. Variables that were measured include the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) total score (and, separately, the scores from its four subscales: Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) and fluid IQ measured by Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM). Pearson's correlation between RPM IQ and total PCL-R score was negative (r(54) = -0.55, p correlations were also found between IQ and the four PCL-R subscales, Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial (r(54) = -0.35, p < 0.01, r(54) = -0.52, p < 0.001, r(54) = -0.53, p < 0.001, and r(54) = -0.49, p < 0.001 respectively). The results indicate a general negative relationship between PCL-R and IQ, equally distributed across the four subcomponents of the psychopathic trait, and support the view that unsuccessful psychopathic women have poor planning and are unable to foresee and represent future consequences of their actions.

  7. An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean eDecety

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective perspective taking, 121 incarcerated males, classified as high (n = 37; Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, PCL-R ≥ 30, intermediate (n = 44; PCL-R between 21-29, and low (n = 40; PCL-R ≤ 20 psychopaths, were scanned while viewing stimuli depicting bodily injuries and adopting an imagine-self and an imagine-other perspective. During the imagine-self perspective, participants with high psychopathy showed a typical response within the network involved in empathy for pain, including the anterior insula, anterior midcingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus, somatosensory cortex, and right amygdala. Conversely, during the imagine-other perspective, psychopaths exhibited an atypical pattern of brain activation and effective connectivity seeded in the anterior insula and amygdala with the orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. The response in the amygdala and insula was inversely correlated with PCL-R factor 1 (interpersonal/affective during the imagine-other perspective. In high psychopaths, scores on PCL-R Factor 1 predicted the neural response in ventral striatum when imagining others in pain. These patterns of brain activation and effective connectivity associated with differential perspective-taking provide a better understanding of empathy dysfunction in psychopathy, and have the potential to inform intervention programs for this complex clinical problem.

  8. Examining the DSM-5 alternative personality disorder model operationalization of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a male correctional sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Sleep, Chelsea E; Wall, Tina D; Applegate, Kathryn C; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    For decades, it has been known that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a nonadequate operationalization of psychopathy (Crego & Widiger, 2015). The DSM-5 alternative model of personality disorders provides an opportunity to rectify some of these long held concerns. The current study compared the Section III alternative model's trait-based conception of ASPD with the categorical model from the main diagnostic codes section of DSM-5 in terms of associations with differing models of psychopathy. We also evaluated the validity of the trait-based conception more broadly in relation to measures of antisocial tendencies as well as psychopathy. Participants were 200 male inmates who were administered a battery of self-report and interview-based researcher rating measures of relevant constructs. Analyses showed that Section III ASPD outperformed Section II ASPD in predicting scores on Hare's (2003) Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; r = .88 vs. .59). Additionally, aggregate scores for Section III ASPD performed well in capturing variance in differing ASPD and psychopathy measures. Finally, we found that the Section III ASPD impairment criteria added incrementally to the Section III ASPD traits in predicting PCL-R psychopathy and SCID-II ASPD. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Investigation of the criminal and conditional release profiles of Canadian federal offenders as a function of psychopathy and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S; Birt, A R; Boer, D P

    2001-12-01

    Using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991) diagnostic cut-off score of 30, the complete criminal career and community release profiles of 317 Canadian federal offenders (224 low scorers and 93 scoring within the psychopathic range) were investigated. Adult crimes were coded according to age at commission as well as either violent, nonviolent, or nonsexually violent. Changes in performance following release into the community also were examined. Results indicated that offenders scoring within the psychopathic range consistently committed more violent and nonviolent crimes than their counterparts for about three decades, spanning their late adolescence to their late 40s. Numbers of nonviolent criminal offenses committed by high PCL-R scorers declined considerably after age 30 relative to violent offenses, which declined and then rebounded in the late 30s before a major reduction was evidenced. Throughout adulthood, high PCL-R scorers failed during community release significantly faster than did low scorers. Importantly, from a risk management perspective, the release performance of low PCL-R scorers improved with age, whereas the opposite was seen for high scorers. Further, offenders scoring high on the PCL-R did not show a lower charge to conviction ratio with age, suggesting that they may not have been getting better at manipulating the legal system.

  10. Psychopathy Deconstructed and Reconstructed: Identifying and Assembling the Personality Building Blocks of Cleckley's Chimera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Watts, Ashley L; Francis Smith, Sarah; Berg, Joanna M; Latzman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    The psychopathy field has long been beset by confusion and contention regarding the boundaries and features of this chimerical condition. We propose that this disagreement stems largely from the historical separation between psychopathy and basic personality psychology. Using findings from a meta-analysis of the correlations between the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and normal-range personality traits as a launching point, we (a) deconstruct widely used measures of psychopathy into their constituent subdimensions and (b) examine the associations of these subdimensions with higher-order and lower-order personality dimensions drawn from the Big Five and Big Three frameworks. Our review of the adult psychopathy literature reveals broad agreement that psychopathy measures are imbued with low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness. Nevertheless, substantial disagreement revolves around the place of largely adaptive features, especially high agentic Extraversion, low Neuroticism, and high Openness, within the psychopathy construct. We propose that ongoing debates regarding the nature and boundaries of psychopathy reflect a focus on two differing operationalizations of this condition, each of which reflects a different "species" of individual.

  11. Facets of psychopathy among mentally disordered offenders: clinical comorbidity patterns and prediction of violent and criminal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinius, Märta; Nilsson, Thomas; Hofvander, Björn; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Stålenheim, Gunilla

    2012-07-30

    The complexity and consequences of psychopathy are still debated, and its relation to other mental disorders, pathological personality traits, and criminality needs to be further investigated by clinical, longitudinal studies using structured diagnostic instruments. The present study used two groups of mentally disordered offenders (N=153) investigated with in-depth clinical assessments and prospective long-term follow-up to identify the convergence between 1) the four facets of psychopathy defined by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle, and Antisocial), 2) mental disorders according to SCID I and II interviews, 3) personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality, and 4) criminal recidivism. The Interpersonal facet differed substantially from the other three facets by not being significantly associated with substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder (the other facets at P≤0.001 level), or personality traits involving impulsive and aggressive antisocial behaviors (the other facets at Pfacet could not predict violent recidivism better than random. The Antisocial facet outperformed not only the other facets but also the total PCL-R score in the prediction of violent recidivism, P<0.001.The findings confirm psychopathy as a heterogeneous phenomenon and have clinical implications for assessments of psychopathy and violence risk assessments in clinical and forensic contexts.

  12. Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in women: a literature review on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Mairead; Völlm, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Crime rates are low in women compared to men. The two disorders most commonly associated with offending behaviour, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy, are also less prevalent in female samples. However, developments in forensic psychiatry have often ignored gender, and the utility of constructs such as psychopathy and their assessment instruments in female samples remains unclear. This article presents a review of studies looking at rates of ASPD and psychopathy and on the reliability and validity of assessment instruments of these disorders in women. Gender differences in symptom patterns will be considered. The literature seems to suggest that DSM-IV criteria for ASPD may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of the disorder in women due to the requirement of childhood conduct disorder symptoms. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a valid and reliable instrument to identify psychopathy in women but there are gender differences in the factor structure and item loadings on this measure. Research to date seems to suggest a three-factor model may be most strongly supported in females. Preliminary evidence suggests the PCL-R may have some value in predicting future offending while the PCL:SV may be useful in predicting institutional violence. Clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Emotional detachment in psychopathy: Involvement of dorsal default-mode connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; Gregory, Sarah; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Periche Thomas, Eva; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G M; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel J; Craig, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Criminal psychopathy is defined by emotional detachment [Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) factor 1], and antisocial behaviour (PCL-R factor 2). Previous work has associated antisocial behaviour in psychopathy with abnormalities in a ventral temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network. However, little is known of the neural correlates of emotional detachment. Imaging studies have indicated that the 'default-mode network' (DMN), and in particular its dorsomedial (medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate) component, contributes to affective and social processing in healthy individuals. Furthermore, recent work suggests that this network may be implicated in psychopathy. However, no research has examined the relationship between psychopathy, emotional detachment, and the white matter underpinning the DMN. We therefore used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in 13 offenders with psychopathy and 13 non-offenders to investigate the relationship between emotional detachment and the microstructure of white matter connections within the DMN. These included the dorsal cingulum (containing the medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate connections of the DMN), and the ventral cingulum (containing the posterior cingulate - medial temporal connections of the DMN). We found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the left dorsal cingulum in the psychopathy group (p = .024). Moreover, within this group, emotional detachment was negatively correlated with FA in this tract portion bilaterally (left: r = -.61, p = .026; right: r = -.62, p = .023). These results suggest the importance of the dorsal DMN in the emotional detachment observed in individuals with psychopathy. We propose a 'dual-network' model of white matter abnormalities in the disorder, which incorporates these with previous findings.

  14. Altered connections on the road to psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, M C; Catani, M; Deeley, Q; Latham, R; Daly, E; Kanaan, R; Picchioni, M; McGuire, P K; Fahy, T; Murphy, D G M

    2009-10-01

    Psychopathy is strongly associated with serious criminal behaviour (for example, rape and murder) and recidivism. However, the biological basis of psychopathy remains poorly understood. Earlier studies suggested that dysfunction of the amygdala and/or orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may underpin psychopathy. Nobody, however, has ever studied the white matter connections (such as the uncinate fasciculus (UF)) linking these structures in psychopaths. Therefore, we used in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) tractography to analyse the microstructural integrity of the UF in psychopaths (defined by a Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) score of > or = 25) with convictions that included attempted murder, manslaughter, multiple rape with strangulation and false imprisonment. We report significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) (P<0.003), an indirect measure of microstructural integrity, in the UF of psychopaths compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. We also found, within psychopaths, a correlation between measures of antisocial behaviour and anatomical differences in the UF. To confirm that these findings were specific to the limbic amygdala-OFC network, we also studied two 'non-limbic' control tracts connecting the posterior visual and auditory areas to the amygdala and the OFC, and found no significant between-group differences. Lastly, to determine that our findings in UF could not be totally explained by non-specific confounds, we carried out a post hoc comparison with a psychiatric control group with a past history of drug abuse and institutionalization. Our findings remained significant. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormalities in a specific amygdala-OFC limbic network underpin the neurobiological basis of psychopathy.

  15. Strengths and limitations of actuarial prediction of criminal reoffence in a German prison sample: a comparative study of LSI-R, HCR-20 and PCL-R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahle, Klaus-Peter

    2006-01-01

    Unlike many other countries, for many years, Germany disregarded structured instruments for assessing the risk of criminal reoffence. However, this negative attitude now seems to be gradually changing. An increasing number of contributions regarding structured instruments have been published in the German literature in the last years, and some instruments have already found their way into practice. However, studies that systematically examine the applicability of the mostly Anglo-American instruments to German criminals are still lacking. Therefore, the major objective of the current study was to test some internationally established procedures in a larger unselected sample from the German penal system. The following were included in the study: the Level of Service Inventory - Revised (LSI-R), the HCR-20 Scheme, and the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). On the whole, the instruments proved to be applicable to German criminals with only a few adaptations to the German situation, and they achieved a predictive accuracy comparable to the values reported internationally. However, there were only minor differences in the predictive performance between the measures. Moreover, some basic limitations became apparent. Firstly, we found quite high percentages of criminals with medium scores and a correspondingly ambiguous prognosis. Furthermore, the predictive accuracy seemed to be dependent on demographic, criminological and psychopathological characteristics of the offenders. Finally, the instruments appeared to only partially utilize the empirical store of knowledge available regarding factors influencing the recidivism of criminals, since even a simple predictive model that only added a few further aspects besides the tested instruments (e. g. treatment yes or no) achieved systematically better predictions than the instruments alone. Altogether, the tested measures turned out to be useful instruments for risk assessments and may be conducive for a more systemized

  16. Deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy as a function of interpersonal and affective disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eVeit

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US, we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits observed in psychopaths. Participants with high scores on the affective facet subscale of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R showed weaker conditioned fear responses and lower N100 amplitudes compared to low scorers. In contrast, high scorers on the affective facet rated the CS+ (paired more negatively than low scorers regarding the CS- (unpaired. Regarding the P300, high scores on the interpersonal facet were associated with increased amplitudes to the CS+ compared to the CS-, while the opposed pattern was found with the antisocial facet. Both, the initial and terminal contingent negative variation indicated a divergent pattern: participants with pronounced interpersonal deficits, showed increased cortical negativity to the CS+ compared to the CS-, whereas a reversed CS+/CS- differentiation was found in offenders scoring high on the antisocial facet. The present study revealed that deficient fear conditioning in psychopathy was most pronounced in offenders with high scores on the affective facet. Event related potentials suggest that participants with distinct interpersonal deficits showed increased information processing, whereas the antisocial facet was linked to decreased attention and interest to the CS+. These data indicate that an approach to the facets of psychopathy can help to resolve ambiguous findings in psychopathy research and enables a more precise and useful description of this disorder.

  17. A five-factor model perspective on psychopathy and comorbid Axis-II disorders in a forensic-psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Fruyt, Filip; Buschman, Jos

    2008-01-01

    The validity of DSM-IV predictions [Widiger, T. A., Trull, T. J., Clarkin, J. F., Sanderson, C. J., & Costa, P. T., (2002). A description of the DSM-IV personality disorders with the five-factor model of personality. In Costa, P. T. & Widiger, T. A. (Eds.), Personality disorders and the five-factor model of personality (2nd ed.). Washington DC: American Psychological Association] concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder and the validity of the hypothesized associations between the Five-Factor Model and psychopathy were examined in 48 male forensic-psychiatric patients. Prevalence of psychopathy and comorbid personality pathology was also investigated, as well as the convergent validity of two Dutch personality disorder inventories. Patients provided self-descriptions on the NEO-PI-R [Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R., (1992b). Professional Manual: Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor-Inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources], and were administered the VKP [Duijsens, I. J., Haringsma, R., & EurelingsBontekoe, E. H. M., (1999). Handleiding VKP (Vragenlijst voor kenmerken van de persoonlijkheid). Gebaseerd op DSM-IV en ICD-10. Leiderdorp: Datec] and the ADP-IV [Schotte, C. K. W., & De Doncker, D. A. M., (1994). ADP-IV Questionnaire. Antwerp Belgium: University Hospital Antwerp] to assess personality pathology. Psychopathy was assessed using Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; [Hare, R. D., (1990). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised Manual. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems]) based on a semi-structured interview and file records of psychiatric and psychological evaluations and criminal history. Results underscored the validity of the FFM Antisocial PD associations, but the hypothesized correlations between the FFM and Psychopathy were less supported. Results supported the convergent validity of the ADP-IV and the VKP, both at the dimensional and categorical level. Around 55% met the diagnostic threshold of

  18. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubacher Arja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69, while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior.

  19. Psychopathy and Violence: The Importance of Factor Level Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.

    2008-01-01

    The power of scales based on the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; R. D. Hare, 1980) for prediction of violent behavior is well established. Although evidence suggests that this relationship is chiefly due to the impulsive and antisocial lifestyle component (Factor 2), the predictive power of psychopathy for violence may also reflect the multiplicative…

  20. Personalidade psicopática em uma amostra de adolescentes infratores brasileiros Psychopathy personality in a sample of young Brazilian offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schmitt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Evidências apontam que adolescentes infratores graves (autores de homicídio, estupro e latrocínio possuem personalidade psicopática e risco aumentado de reincidência criminal, mas não apresentam maior prevalência de história de abuso na infância do que outros adolescentes infratores. OBJETIVO: Comparar a psicopatia, a reincidência criminal e a história de maus-tratos entre adolescentes infratores versus a vida e outros adolescentes infratores. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, controlado, utilizando a escala Hare's Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R para avaliação de psicopatia em uma amostra de adolescentes cumprindo medida socioeducativa em decorrência da prática de ato infracional. RESULTADOS: Os adolescentes que cometeram crimes contra a vida apresentaram prevalência de psicopatia maior do que outros adolescentes infratores - RP = 2,86 (IC95% 1,49-5,47. A reincidência criminal foi mais prevalente entre os adolescentes que possuíam psicopatia e história de crimes contra a vida - RP = 2,96 (IC95% 1,32-6,60. O estudo não conseguiu demonstrar prevalência significativa de história de abuso na infância entre os adolescentes com psicopatia em comparação ao grupo-controle - RP = 0,88 (IC95% 0,66-1,15. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados sugerem prevalência aumentada de personalidade psicopática e reincidência criminal entre os adolescentes autores de crimes contra a vida quando comparados a outros adolescentes infratores.BACKGROUND: Evidences point out that the young offenders involved with major crimes (such as homicide, rape and violent robbery have psychopathic personality, with greater risk of recidivism but do not have a higher prevalence of childhood abuse history compared to other young delinquents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the psychopathy, criminal recidivism. However, incidence of childhood abuse is similar to other young delinquents groups. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, controlled, using the Hare's Psychopathy

  1. [From conduct disorder in childhood to psychopathy in adult life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsopelas, Ch; Armenaka, M

    2012-06-01

    Mental health professionals seldom recognize psychopathy in their daily practice. Usually forensic psychiatrists and psychologists are involved because individuals with psychopathic personality are involved in serious criminal behavior and implicated with the law. Most of the times the profiles of children who evolve in adult psychopaths have components from other disorders, especially conduct disorder. The term psychopathy originates from the Greek words "psyche" (soul) and "pathos" (passion) and was used to identify initially every mental illness. Although in the bibliography the terms Antisocial Personality Disorder, Psychopathic Personality, Psychopathy and Sociopathy are used as synonyms, it has not been clarified if the Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathic Personality constitute two different entities or if the latter constitutes the more serious and hard core subtype of the first. The prevalence of Psychopathic Personality in the general population is estimated as 1%, with the proportion of men: women to be 3:1. The adult male psychopaths are responsible for almost 50% of the serious criminal behavior. Diagnosis of Psychopathic Personality is completed with the use of specific psychometric tools: Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL: SV). The most recognizable elements of psychopathy are the non-existence of conscience and their shallow emotional relations. They are individuals with persuasion, that use the suitable phraseology in order to approach, impress and charm their prey. Nuclear characteristic is the inability to feel guilt, remorse and the nonexistence of moral rules. They lose their temper easily and present aggressiveness without obvious or insignificant reason. They develop various antisocial behaviors that are repeated with success, the gravity of violent behavior tends to increase and they have problems with the law. Nevertheless, people with Psychopathic Personality at one point

  2. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serotonin 1B Receptor Binding Is Associated With Trait Anger and Level of Psychopathy in Violent Offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjaer; Perfalk, Erik

    2017-01-01

    anger (difference in slopes, pcorrected = .04). In the violent offender group, striatal 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger (p = .0004), trait psychopathy (p = .008), and level of psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (p = .02). We found no group...... differences in 5-HT1BR binding. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate for the first time in humans a specific involvement of 5-HT1BR binding in anger and psychopathy. 5-HT1BRs putatively represent a molecular target for development of pharmacologic antiaggressive treatments....

  4. Coercive and precocious sexuality as a fundamental aspect of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Hilton, N Zoe; Lalumiére, Martin L; Quinsey, Vernon L

    2007-02-01

    Sexual behavior is closely associated with delinquency and crime. Although psychopaths, by definition, have many short-term sexual relationships, it has not been shown that sexuality is a core aspect of psychopathy. A Darwinian view of psychopathy led to the hypothesis that psychopaths have a unique sexuality involving early, frequent, and coercive sex. Our subjects were 512 sex offenders assessed on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). Five variables reflecting early, frequent, and coercive sex loaded on the same principal component in exploratory factor analysis on a subset of the sample, whereas PCL-R items pertaining to adult sexual behavior did not. Confirmatory factor analysis of the remaining subjects yielded a measurement model containing three inter-correlated factors - the traditional two PCL-R factors, and coercive and precocious sexuality. Taxometric analyses gave evidence of a natural discontinuity underlying coercive and precocious sexuality. Coercive and precocious sexuality yielded statistically significant associations with other study variables predicted by the Darwinian hypothesis. The present findings are consistent with prior empirical findings and support the hypothesis that psychopathy has been a nonpathological, reproductively viable, alternate life history strategy.

  5. Concurrent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory with Offender and Community Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterer, Melanie B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Neumann, Craig S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a frequently used and well-validated measure of psychopathy but is relatively time-intensive and expensive to administer. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure that provides a less time-intensive and less expensive method for identifying psychopathic individuals. Using…

  6. Social Sciences Support to Military Personnel Engaged in Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism Operations (Soutien en sciences sociales apporte au personnel militaire engage dans des operations de contre-insurrection et de contre-terrorisme)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Treaty Organisation NGO Non-Governmental Organization NWC Naval War College PCL Psychopathy Checklist PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire PTSD Post... Psychopathy Checklist Revised, PCL-R, is a diagnostic tool). We are evaluating all the training, pre-deployment, during and post-deployment. The Australians

  7. Aggressive Behavior in Dutch Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients: Determinants of reactive aggression and their consequences for treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Zwets (Almar)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe first goal of the current research project was to get more insight in the determinants of reactive aggression, namely psychopathy, as measured with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and implicit attitudes toward violence. The second goal was was to investigate the possib

  8. Criminal behavior and cognitive processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without comorbid psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riser, Rebecca E; Kosson, David S

    2013-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are 2 important syndromes with substantial utility in predicting antisocial behavior. Although prior studies have identified correlations between various factors and the presence of psychopathy or ASPD, most studies have focused on 1 syndrome or the other. Consequently, it is unclear whether the 2 syndromes reflect similar pathophysiologies, whether they are in fact 2 distinct syndromes, or whether the correlates of ASPD reflect its high comorbidity with psychopathy. The present study addressed this issue by examining the impact of ASPD with and without comorbid psychopathy (as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) on criminal offending and cognitive processing in 674 adult male inmates at a county jail in Illinois. Participants exhibited either ASPD and comorbid psychopathy, ASPD but not psychopathy, or neither ASPD nor psychopathy. Participants with and without comorbid psychopathy were characterized by more criminal behavior than controls, and inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited more severe criminal behavior than those with ASPD only. In addition, inmates with ASPD and psychopathy exhibited a different pattern of cognitive task performance impairment than those with ASPD alone. Results replicate the findings of Kosson, Lorenz, and Newman (2006) and provide new evidence suggesting that men with ASPD and comorbid psychopathy are characterized by cognitive processing anomalies different from those seen in ASPD without comorbid psychopathy.

  9. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed.

  10. Reconciling discrepant findings for P3 brain response in criminal psychopathy through reference to the concept of externalizing proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    We sought to address inconsistencies in the literature on amplitude of P3 brain potential response in offenders diagnosed with psychopathy. These inconsistencies contrast with the reliable finding of reduced P3 in relation to externalizing tendencies, which overlap with impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy, as distinguished from the affective-interpersonal features. Employing a sample of incarcerated male offenders (N = 154) who completed the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised along with a three-stimulus visual oddball task, we tested the hypothesis that impulsive-antisocial features of psychopathy would selectively exhibit an inverse relationship with P3 amplitude. Clear support for this hypothesis was obtained. Our findings clarify the discrepant findings regarding psychopathy and P3, and establish P3 as a neurophysiological point of contact between psychopathy and externalizing proneness from the broader psychopathology literature.

  11. Emotional intelligence and psychopathy: a comparison of trait and ability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copestake, Sonja; Gray, Nicola S; Snowden, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    A dysfunction in the processing of emotional material has been suggested to underpin the concept of psychopathy, hence we hypothesized that individuals high in psychopathic traits should have low scores on measure of emotional intelligence (EI). We measured EI by using both an ability-based measure (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) and a self-report measure (Trait Meta-Mood Scale) in a sample of offenders. Psychopathy was measured by using both a clinical checklist (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised) and a self-report scale (Psychopathy Personality Inventory-Revised). We also took a measure of intellectual ability (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence) to assess any unique contribution from EI over that of IQ. We found that the concepts of EI (both ability-based and self-report) were related to IQ. We also found that there was a negative relationship between self-report EI and ability EI. In relation to psychopathy, the results did not support the hypotheses of a general deficit in EI. While the results relating different facets of psychopathy to different aspects of EI were complex, there was some evidence that some aspects of psychopathy were positively related to the unique variance related to EI once IQ was partialled out. We suggest that there is not a general deficit in EI in psychopathy, and that future research needs carefully to carefully consider just what aspects of psychopathy and of EI are being measured, and the influence of intellectual ability, before drawing conclusions on this matter.

  12. Enquête internationale sur les pratiques d’évaluation du risque de violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Thierry H.; Ducro, C.; Desmarais, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    commonly using in the violence risk assessment process were the : PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist Revised ; Hare 1991, 2003), the HCR-20 (Historical Clinical Risk ; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, et Hart , 1997), the VRAG (Violence Risk Appraisal Guide ; Quinsey, Harris, Rice et Cormier, 2006), and the SAPROF...

  13. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  14. Psychopathy, Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Reconviction in an Australian Sample of Forensic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M; Campbell, Rachel E; Ogloff, James R P

    2016-06-09

    This study identified the presence of psychopathy (as measured by the PCL-R/PCL:SV instruments) and antisocial personality disorder (APD) and their relationship with future reconviction in an Australian forensic sample (N = 136) of patients with a mental disorder. Patients were tracked for over 4 years postrelease to determine associations between a diagnosis of APD/psychopathy and reoffense. Patients with higher psychopathy scores were found to have an increased likelihood of reincarceration, a higher rate of reconviction, and were reconvicted earlier compared with patients with lower psychopathy scores. Patients with APD were more likely to be reconvicted and reincarcerated during the follow-up period than patients without an APD diagnosis. Despite demonstrating associations with general reconviction, the PCL instruments did not exhibit statistically significant relationships with violence. Implications for the clinical identification of personality disordered patients in forensic settings are discussed.

  15. Early traumatic events in psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders.

  16. Amoralizm i psychopatia (AMORALISM AND PSYCHOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacław Janikowski

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoralist in a philosophically technical sense is a person who acknowledges that it would be morally wrong if she did certain act, yet she does not care about it at all, lacking any moral motivations as such. She would be capable of identifying moral reasons, but treating them as not reasons for her. The author points out that amoralists exist - they are persons ranked highly in R.D. Hare's PCL-R test (which, published in 1991, has been widely accepted in practice around the world, and Hare's concept of 'psychopathy' is now firmly grounded in clinical and theoretical community. Then he argues against apparently analytical claim of ethical rationalism. This claim, mostly considered sort of 'moral internalism', is not true, neither conceptually, nor factually. In the course of coming to such conclusion, the author discusses two peculiarities of psychopaths' minds: their difficulties with moral/conventional differentiation and being deprived of Violence Inhibition Mechanism.

  17. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective: This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method: Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11 participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64% had committed murder, 4 (18% had committed rape, and 4 (18% were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy. Results: There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  18. Reduced cortical call to arms differentiates psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, L E; Vaidyanathan, U; Patrick, C J

    2013-04-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are both characterized by impulsive, externalizing behaviors. Researchers have argued, however, that psychopathy is distinguished from ASPD by the presence of interpersonal-affective features that reflect an underlying deficit in emotional sensitivity. No study to date has tested for differential relations of these disorders with the brain's natural orienting response to sudden aversive events. Method Electroencephalography was used to assess cortical reactivity to abrupt noise probes presented during the viewing of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures in 140 incarcerated males diagnosed using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised and DSM-IV criteria for ASPD. The primary dependent measure was the P3 event-related potential response to the noise probes. Psychopaths showed significantly smaller amplitude of P3 response to noise probes across trials of all types compared with non-psychopaths. Follow-up analyses revealed that this overall reduction was attributable specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. By contrast, no group difference in general amplitude of probe P3 was evident for ASPD versus non-ASPD participants. The findings demonstrate a reduced cortical orienting response to abrupt aversive stimuli in participants exhibiting features of psychopathy that are distinct from ASPD. The specificity of the observed effect fits with the idea that these distinctive features of psychopathy reflect a deficit in defensive reactivity, or mobilization of the brain's defensive system, in the context of threat cues.

  19. Predictive Validity of the PCL-R for Offenders with Intellectual Disability in a High Security Hospital: Treatment Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Catrin; Mooney, Paul; Hogue, Todd E.; Lindsay, William R.; Taylor, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Among mainstream offenders, the severe personality disorder of psychopathy has considerable importance as a construct. The disorder has long been associated with failure to make treatment progress. Previous work has identified that psychopathy as a disorder occurs in samples of offenders with intellectual disability (ID), and suggests…

  20. Influence of the HCR-20, LS/CMI, and PCL-R on decisions about parole suitability among lifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Laura S; Kusaj, Cliff; Packer, Ira K; Douglas, Kevin S

    2015-06-01

    Among 5,181 inmates indeterminately sentenced to life in California who were evaluated for parole suitability between January 2009 and November 2010, 11% were granted parole. After administration of the HCR-20, LS/CMI, and PCL-R, psychologists judged most inmates (78%) to be at low or moderate risk for future violence. This overall risk rating (ORR) was significantly associated with parole suitability decisions. Moderate to large associations were observed between the ORR and all risk indices. The HCR-20 Clinical and Risk Management scales demonstrated the strongest associations with parole suitability decisions. Among the LS/CMI scales, Procriminal Attitudes and Leisure/Recreation were most predictive of failure to obtain parole. PCL-R scores had little influence on parole suitability decisions beyond the HCR-20 and LS/CMI. Overall, findings suggest parole board members' decisions were consistent with empirically supported practice, in that individuals assessed to be at relatively low risk were far more likely to be granted parole than those assessed to be at moderate or high risk for future violence.

  1. Construct Validity of the MMPI-2-RF Triarchic Psychopathy Scales in Correctional and Collegiate Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchen, Taylor J; Wygant, Dustin B; Tylicki, Jessica L; Dieter, Amy M; Veltri, Carlo O C; Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) Triarchic Psychopathy scales recently developed by Sellbom et al. ( 2016 ) in 3 separate groups of male correctional inmates and 2 college samples. Participants were administered a diverse battery of psychopathy specific measures (e.g., Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare, 2003 ], Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised [Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005 ], Triarchic Psychopathy Measure [Patrick, 2010 ]), omnibus personality and psychopathology measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 2007 ) and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012 ), and narrow-band measures that capture conceptually relevant constructs. Our results generally evidenced strong support for the convergent and discriminant validity for the MMPI-2-RF Triarchic scales. Boldness was largely associated with measures of fearless dominance, social potency, and stress immunity. Meanness showed strong relationships with measures of callousness, aggression, externalizing tendencies, and poor interpersonal functioning. Disinhibition exhibited strong associations with poor impulse control, stimulus seeking, and general externalizing proclivities. Our results provide additional construct validation to both the triarchic model and MMPI-2-RF Triarchic scales. Given the widespread use of the MMPI-2-RF in correctional and forensic settings, our results have important implications for clinical assessment in these 2 areas, where psychopathy is a highly relevant construct.

  2. Expert testimony and the effects of a biological approach, psychopathy, and juror attitudes in cases of insanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendell, Jariel A; Huss, Matthew T; Jensen, Maren L

    2010-01-01

    Amid growing psychological controversy and legal interest surrounding the uses of PCL-R and biological evidence in the legal system, this mock jury study assessed the effects of PCL-R and biological evidence on outcomes in an insanity defense case. A sample of 428 undergraduates read a trial transcript of an insanity defense murder case. Three variables of interest were manipulated: rebuttal illness (no mental illness, personality disorder, or psychopathy), evidentiary basis (biological or psychological), and evidentiary strength (moderately strong or moderately weak). Consistent with the hypotheses, biological evidence was more persuasive than psychological evidence, and the rebuttal was slightly more successful when the prosecution labeled the defendant as a "psychopath" than when they described him simply as "not mentally ill." 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A New Understanding of Psychopathy: The Contribution of Phenomenological Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englebert, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to present a theoretical paper about a clinical issue. Our aim is to propose some clinical and semiological considerations for a psychopathological conception of psychopathy. We will discuss several major theoretical works dedicated to this nosographic entity (mainly those of Schneider [Psychopathic Personalities (1923). London, Cassell, 1950], Cleckley [The Mask of Sanity. St. Louis, Mosby, 1941] and Hare [The Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised Manual, ed 2. Toronto, Multi-Health Systems, 2003]). We will also examine a significant issue raised by Cooke et al. [Psychol Assess 2001;13:171-188; J Person Disord 2004;18:337-357; Br J Psychiatry Suppl 2007;49:s39-s50; Int J Forensic Ment Health 2012;11:242-252], namely whether psychopathic functioning is consistently related to antisocial behavior. This theoretical essay is informed by clinical situations (involving psychopaths who were interviewed in prison or in forensic centers). The method applied a phenomenological psychopathology analysis to the clinical material. We first compare Binswanger's conception of mania with psychopathic functioning. Patient behavior is similar, but there is a difference related to the dialectic between the ego and the alter ego. A patient with mania has a fundamental crisis of the ego, which a psychopath does not have. A second finding of our investigations concerns emotions and the adaptive dimension of the psychopathic disorder. An epistemological discussion of the concept of emotions reveals that psychopaths are competent in the management of emotional stimuli, which confers a psychological advantage upon them.

  4. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  5. Psychopathy, adaptation, and disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Brian Krupp; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Craig eSheriff; Grant eHarris

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, we found a negative association between psychopathy and violence against genetic relatives. We interpreted this result as a form of nepotism and argued that it failed to support the hypothesis that psychopathy is a mental disorder, suggesting instead that it supports the hypothesis that psychopathy is an evolved life history strategy. This interpretation and subsequent arguments have been challenged in a number of ways. Here, we identify several misunderstandings regarding ...

  6. The Development of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.; Peschardt, K. S.; Budhani, S.; Mitchell, D. G. V.; Pine, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    The current review focuses on the construct of psychopathy, conceptualized as a clinical entity that is fundamentally distinct from a heterogeneous collection of syndromes encompassed by the term "conduct disorder". We will provide an account of the development of psychopathy at multiple levels: ultimate causal (the genetic or social primary…

  7. 强迫行为检查量表的临床初步应用%Clinical Application of Compulsive Activity Checklist-Revised

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊芝; 赵鸿涛

    2001-01-01

    @@Compulsive Activity Checklist- Revised(CAC-R)(强迫行为检查量表-修订版)是由美国Steketee和Freund根据DSM-Ⅲ-R诊断标准制定的测定强迫行为严重程度的量表[1],目前广为西方国家临床和科研采用.我国尚未引进该量表,本研究目的为引进该量表,为我国强迫症治疗和科研方面向国际接轨提供依据.

  8. Psychopathy, Sociopathy, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, David T.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses psychopathology as portrayed in literature, followed by an examination of some theories of psychopathy and the association of sociopathy and crime. Also discusses using parental licensing as a preventive measure against the development of sociopathology in children. (GR)

  9. Quelques éléments en faveur d’une réflexion psychopathologique sur la psychopathie : première partie

    OpenAIRE

    Englebert, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude est de proposer quelques éléments essentiels pour une conception clinique et psychopathologique de la psychopathie. L'auteur présente d’abord un historique de ce diagnostic et une description des tendances actuelles dans la littérature internationale : principalement les contributions de R.D. Hare sur la PCL-R, de D.J. Cooke sur le CAPP, et de T.H. Pham pour les validations francophones. Ensuite, une définition de la psychopathologie est proposée en s’appuyant sur le...

  10. Quelques éléments en faveur d’une réflexion psychopathologique sur la psychopathie : seconde partie

    OpenAIRE

    Englebert, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    L’objectif de cette étude est de proposer quelques éléments essentiels pour une conception clinique et psychopathologique de la psychopathie. L'auteur présente d’abord un historique de ce diagnostic et une description des tendances actuelles dans la littérature internationale : principalement les contributions de R.D. Hare sur la PCL-R, de D.J. Cooke sur le CAPP, et de T.H. Pham pour les validations francophones. Ensuite, une définition de la psychopathologie est proposée en s’appuyant sur le...

  11. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle E; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients with schizophr......Psychopathy is strongly related to aggression in community, forensic psychiatric and offender samples, including in patients with schizophrenia. However, most studies have failed to distinguish between impulsive or premeditated aggression. In a cross-sectional study of 108 patients...... with schizophrenia and comorbid psychopathy, we investigated if psychopathy measured with the total Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) score and the factors described in the two-factor model and the facets described in the four-factor model are associated with type of aggression in schizophrenia and to explore...... aggression than the three-factor model. These findings delineate the role of psychopathy including antisocial features in the understanding of premeditated aggression in schizophrenia....

  12. A Rorschach investigation of incarcerated female offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunliffe, Ted; Gacono, Carl B

    2005-10-01

    Although male psychopathy has been linked to histrionic, narcissistic, and antisocial personality disorders (ASPD), less is known about female psychopathy. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the Rorschach were used to explore the personality functioning of 45 incarcerated female offenders with ASPD delineated by their psychopathy level. Psychopaths (PCL-R > or = 30) and nonpsychopaths (PCL-R < 24) were compared on Rorschach measures of self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Compared to female offenders with ASPD who were nonpsychopathic, female offenders with ASPD who were psychopathic exhibited marked disturbances in self-perception, interpersonal relatedness, and reality testing. Our findings highlight the heterogeneity of the ASPD diagnosis in women, support the utility of the psychopathy construct with female offenders, and implicate important differences between men and women with ASPD. These gender differences have relevance to the evaluation (PCL-R scoring) and treatment of female offenders. Our findings are discussed within the context of the female psychopath's hypothesized hysterical character style.

  13. Identification With a Violent and Sadistic Aggressor: A Rorschach Study of Criminal Debt Collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørbech, Peder Chr Bryhn; Grønnerød, Cato; Hartmann, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined personality functioning in a group of 27 incarcerated criminal debt collectors as assessed by the Rorschach Inkblot Method (RIM; Rorschach, 1921/1942) and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ). To explore whether these individuals represent a distinct subgroup within the violent offender population, we compared them to a group of incarcerated homicide offenders (n = 23) without a previous history of significant violence and a group who had committed less serious violent crimes (n = 21). Results revealed significantly more Rorschach indicators of past trauma (Trauma Content Index), aggressive urges (Aggressive Potential) and identification (Aggressive Content) among the debt collectors than the 2 other groups. In addition, debt collectors displayed significantly more interpersonal interest (Sum Human content), and significantly higher scores on the PCL-R. Our findings suggest that the debt collector might be viewed as a hostile variant of psychopathy.

  14. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentjes, Lieke; Bernstein, David; Arntz, Arnoud; van Breukelen, Gerard; Slaats, Mariëtte

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psychopathy. ToM abilities (as assessed with the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test; RMET; Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001), was compared between 39 PCL-R diagnosed psychopathic offenders, 37 non-psychopathic offenders, and 26 nonoffender controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, psychopathic individuals presented with intact overall RMET performance when restrictions were imposed on how long task stimuli could be processed. In addition, psychopaths did not over-ascribe hostility to task stimuli (i.e., lack of hostility bias). However, there was a significant three-way interaction between hostility, processing speed, and psychopathy: when there was no time limit on stimulus presentation, psychopathic offenders made fewer errors in identifying more hostile eye stimuli compared to nonoffender controls, who seemed to be less accurate in detecting hostility. Psychopaths' more realistic appraisal of others' malevolent mental states is discussed in the light of theories that stress its potential adaptive function.

  15. The role of psychopathy and sexuality in a female serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wade C; Gooch, Erik; Meloy, J Reid

    2005-05-01

    The case of Aileen Wuornos, executed in Florida for the serial killing of seven men, is studied to determine her degree of psychopathy and the presence or absence of sexuality or sexual sadism as a motivation or gratification for her crimes. The authors, one of whom evaluated the subject shortly before her death, determined that she evidenced a psychopathic personality (PCL-R score 32). She also met DSM-IV-TR criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorder. While her killings ostensibly were carried out during routine acts of prostitution, there was ambiguous evidence that her crimes were sexually motivated or gratifying. Her articulated motivation was robbery and elimination of the witness/victim. After carefully considering all available data, the authors concluded there was no convincing evidence of sexual sadism in either her personal history or her method of committing serial murder, and it remains unclear whether sexual gratification was to some degree a motivating factor in her commission of these offenses. The confluence of early childhood attachment disruptions, severe psychopathy, other personality disorder pathology, and a traumagenic abuse history likely contributed to her having serially murdered seven victims.

  16. The relations between personality traits and psychopathy as measured by ratings and self-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujačić Daliborka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the relations between psychopathy - as assessed by ratings (PCL-R and by self-report (SRP3 - on one side, and The Five-Factor personality Model - expanded to include the traits Amorality and Disintegration - on the other. Both methods examined four traits of psychopathy: interpersonal, affective, lifestyle and antisocial characteristics. Data were collected on a sample of 112 male convicts. The results show the absence of congruence between the two methods - self-report and rating - in case of interpersonal and affective psychopathic dispositions. This incongruence is also reflected in their relations with personality traits. The self-report measures and the ratings of Lifestyle and Antisocial tendencies are related to amorality, aggressiveness, schizotypy, Neuroticism and impulsivity. However, the ratings of affective and interpersonal style are related to the integrated, organized, and emotionally stable aspects of personality. The results are interpreted in the light of differences between the methods of assessment and in the light of the essential characteristics of the psychopathic phenomena.

  17. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  18. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Kaźmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

  19. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A

    2012-07-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here, the authors investigate the relation between EI and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (N = 374), using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based EI measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower EI. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of EI abilities and that EI is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy.

  20. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; KALININA, NATALLIA; Winther Kestner, Kamma; Ettrup Andresen, Lærke

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between the term psychopathy formulated by Robert D. Hare, and the official diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). In relation to this, the project discusses the development of moral judgment and empathy, and under which conditions one might develop psychopathy and ASPD - how it is sociologically and biologically wired. Furthermore, we will take into consideration the ethical issues of labeling. We will discuss difficulties and possibilities ...

  1. Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-12-01

    Nine original articles comprise this special issue of the Journal of Personality addressing personality-based perspectives of psychopathy. In this introduction to the special issue, we review five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. At the same time, several important debates remain, which are also highlighted in the special issue's articles. These debates center around the necessity and sufficiency of certain psychopathy traits, the role of traits alternatively labeled stable Extraversion, fearless dominance, or boldness, and the validity and utility of separating psychopathy from Machiavellianism as is done in research on the Dark Triad.

  2. PSYCHOPATHY AND INSTRUMENTAL VIOLENCE: FACET LEVEL RELATIONSHIPS

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychopathy and violence is well established. However, the extent to which psychopathy is related to different types of violent behavior warrants further study. We examined the relationship between instrumental violence, psychopathy, and psychopathic traits among 248 European American and African American adult male county jail inmates. We assessed instrumentality based on subjective motivations for respondent-identified acts of violence. Psychopathy was assessed usin...

  3. The Importance of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P.

    2005-01-01

    In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4)…

  4. The Importance of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P.

    2005-01-01

    In commenting on the five articles in this special issue, this paper discusses (1) the concept of child and adolescent psychopathy, and whether adolescent psychopaths are qualitatively distinct from other young people; (2) the measurement of adolescent psychopathy; (3) the relationship between psychopathy and other personality dimensions; (4)…

  5. Moral identity in psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Glenn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several scholars have recognized the limitations of theories of moral reasoning in explaining moral behavior. They have argued that moral behavior may also be influenced by moral identity, or how central morality is to one's sense of self. This idea has been supported by findings that people who exemplify moral behavior tend to place more importance on moral traits when defining their self-concepts (Colby and Damon, 1995. This paper takes the next step of examining individual variation in a construct highly associated with IMMORAL behavior --- psychopathy. In Study 1, we test the hypothesis that individuals with a greater degree of psychopathic traits have a weaker moral identity. Within a large online sample, we found that individuals who scored higher on a measure of psychopathic traits were less likely to base their self-concepts on moral traits. In Study 2, we test whether this reduced sense of moral identity can be attributed to differences in moral judgment, which is another factor that could influence immoral behavior. Our results indicated that the reduced sense of moral identity among more psychopathic individuals was independent of variation in moral judgment. These results suggest that individuals with psychopathic traits may display immoral behavior partially because they do not construe their personal identities in moral terms.

  6. The Risk Assessment Program and the Court of Penal Execution in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Jorge O; Marengo, Claudio M; Marchiano, Susana E; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the working of a new system that supervises the execution of the punishment phase in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina; namely, the Court of Penal Execution, as well as the risk assessment program. It also reports the results of the violent recidivism baseline risk assessment carried out in candidates for conditional release. The cohort studied was recruited during 18 months in the Judicial Department of La Plata, taking into consideration psychopathological and criminological variables. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management--20 (HCR-20), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), among others, were used as measures. During the study period, 65 candidates for conditional release were part of the baseline assessment, and they constitute the population of this study. The measures' mean scores were PCL-R, 20.57; HCR-20, 18.58; VRAG, 12.17.

  7. Psychopathy and Indirect Aggression: The Roles of Cortisol, Sex, and Type of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sunderani, Shafik

    2011-01-01

    Salivary cortisol was examined in relation to indirect aggression and primary psychopathy (i.e., cold affect and interpersonal manipulation) and secondary psychopathy (i.e., criminal tendencies and erratic lifestyle) in a sample of 154 undergraduate students. Results revealed that although psychopathy and indirect aggression were strongly…

  8. Psychopathy and Indirect Aggression: The Roles of Cortisol, Sex, and Type of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Sunderani, Shafik

    2011-01-01

    Salivary cortisol was examined in relation to indirect aggression and primary psychopathy (i.e., cold affect and interpersonal manipulation) and secondary psychopathy (i.e., criminal tendencies and erratic lifestyle) in a sample of 154 undergraduate students. Results revealed that although psychopathy and indirect aggression were strongly…

  9. Psychopathy: Legal and neuroscientific aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Ortega-Escobar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.

  10. [Psychopathy in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Remschmidt, H

    2013-12-01

    Personality disorders manifest themselves in stable deviations of personality traits that especially arise in negative interactions with others. Those typical dysfunctional interactions can be observed particularly in dissocial and antisocial personality disorders: adults with severe forms of personality disorders often showed specific symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Clinical researchers therefore demand a respective diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychopathy. There is an extensive body of research on dissocial and borderline personality disorders in children and adolescents. To date the severe form of dissocial personality disorders, psychopathy, cannot be specifically classified. The transfer of this diagnosis to childhood and adolescence is crucial: based on the assumption of persistence and the risk of stigmatisation many clinicians refuse to diagnose psychopathy at a young age. On the other hand there are positive treatment outcomes that aim at symptom reduction from a very early age. The specification of dissocial personality disorders in childhood and adolescence may encourage the development of new treatments and the de-stigmatisation as well as qualify the dogged assumption of persistence of personality disorders.

  11. Psychopathy, DSM-5, and a caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A

    2014-10-01

    Recently developed models of psychopathy include such traits as fearlessness, boldness, and invulnerability. Section III of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes as well a psychopathy specifier that is modeled after these traits. The purpose of the current study was to test empirically the convergent and discriminant validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA), and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with respect to their relationship to one another, with traditional measures of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder, and with a measure of the 5-factor model. Participants were 2 samples of community adults (280 and 196) who indicated that they have engaged in criminal activities. The results indicated good convergent and discriminant validity for the PPI-R, TriPM, EPA, and the PID-5 psychopathy specifiers, as well as relationships with a measure of the 5 factor model that were quite distinct from the relationships obtained for traditional measures of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, concerns are raised with respect to a reliance on reverse-coded items for the assessment of components of psychopathy.

  12. Considering new insights into antisociality and psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazil, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sarah Gregory and colleagues1 report a functional MRI study of violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder. 12 men with antisocial personality disorder with psychopathy, 20 men with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 healthy non-offenders were assessed with an eve

  13. Considering new insights into antisociality and psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazil, I.A.

    2015-01-01

    Sarah Gregory and colleagues1 report a functional MRI study of violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder. 12 men with antisocial personality disorder with psychopathy, 20 men with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 healthy non-offenders were assessed with an eve

  14. Prediction of recidivism in exhibitionists: psychological, phallometric, and offense factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon R Rabinowitz; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M; Greenberg, David M

    2002-10-01

    Exhibitionists have traditionally been regarded as nuisance offenders. However, empirical studies show that some offenders can be highly recidivistic and can escalate to incidents of Hands-on sexual assault. The objective of this study was to investigate predictors of recidivism in exhibitionists and clarify the differences between Hands-on and Hands-off sexual recidivists. The hundred and twenty-one exhibitionists were assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1983 and 1996. Archival data came from medical files and police files. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) was assessed retrospectively. Results indicated that over a mean follow-up period of 6.84 years, 11.7, 16.8, and 32.7% of exhibitionists were charged with or convicted of sexual, violent, or criminal offenses, respectively. Sexual reoffending recidivists were less educated, and had more prior sexual and criminal offenses. Violent, recidivists were also less educated, had lower Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory (DSFI) scores, higher PCL-R Totals, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Criminal recidivists were younger, less educated, had lower DSFI scores, higher PCL-R scores, higher Pedophile Indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Hands-on sexual recidivists demonstrated higher PCL-R ratings, higher Pedophile and Rape indices, and more prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses than did Hands-off counterparts.

  15. Psychopathy and Deviant Workplace Behavior: A Comparison of Two Psychopathy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Jessica R; Mueller, Steven M; Schleicher, Karly M; Jones, Daniel N

    2017-06-08

    Although psychopathy is an interpersonally harmful construct, few studies have compared different psychopathy models in predicting different types of workplace deviance. We examined how the Triarchic Psychopathy Model (TRI-PM) and the Self-Report Psychopathy-Short Form (SRP-SF) predicted deviant workplace behaviors in two forms: sexual harassment and deviant work behaviors. Using structural equations modeling, the latent factor of psychopathy was predictive for both types of deviant workplace behavior. Specifically, the SRP-SF significantly predicted both measures of deviant workplace behavior. With respect to the TRI-PM, meanness and disinhibition significantly predicted higher scores of workplace deviance and workplace sexual harassment measures. Future research needs to investigate the influence of psychopathy on deviant workplace behaviors, and consider the measures they use when they investigate these constructs.

  16. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  17. Psychopathic traits in young offenders vs. non-offenders in similar socioeconomic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B. Castellana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.

  18. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingu...

  19. Psychopathy: Relations with three conceptions of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley L; Salekin, Randall T; Harrison, Natalie; Clark, Abby; Waldman, Irwin D; Vitacco, Michael J; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2016-07-01

    Psychopathy is often associated with heightened intelligence in the eyes of clinicians and laypersons despite mixed research support for this possibility. We adopted a fine-grained approach to studying the relations among psychopathy and multiple indices of intelligence, including both cognitively based intelligence (CBI) and emotional intelligence (EI), in a large sample of undergraduates (N = 1,257, 70% female, 82% Caucasian). We found no clear support for marked associations between psychopathy and CB I measures, with the magnitudes of these relations being small. With the exception of the dimensions of Fearless Dominance (FD) and Coldheartedness (C), psychopathy dimensions were negatively associated with (EI). In contrast, we found some support for the hypothesis that intelligence served as a protective factor against antisocial behavior among individuals with high levels of psychopathy. On balance, our findings show weak relations between psychopathy and intelligence, suggesting that the link between them may be less robust than theoretical models portray, at least among undergraduates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  1. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  2. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  3. Sexual deviance and psychopathy as risk factors for sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Karla Jean

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of psychopathy and sexual deviance in sexual offenders (N = 76). The relationship between psychopathy and sexual deviance was assessed in terms of their independence and whether they interacted to increase sexual recidivism significantly. The predictive values of psychopathy and sexual deviance as individual risk factors were also explored. Psychopathy and sexual deviance as general constructs were independent, although a number of specific aspects of psy...

  4. Cognitive, emotional and social markers of serial murdering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrilli, Alessandro; Sartori, Giuseppe; Donzella, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    Although criminal psychopathy is starting to be relatively well described, our knowledge of the characteristics and scientific markers of serial murdering is still very poor. A serial killer who murdered more than five people, KT, was administered a battery of standardized tests aimed at measuring neuropsychological impairment and social/emotional cognition deficits. KT exhibited a striking dissociation between a high level of emotional detachment and a low score on the antisocial behavior scale on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 showed a normal pattern with the psychotic triad at borderline level. KT had a high intelligence score and showed almost no impairment in cognitive tests sensitive to frontal lobe dysfunction (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Theory of Mind, Tower of London, this latter evidenced a mild impairment in planning performance). In the tests on moral, emotional and social cognition, his patterns of response differed from matched controls and from past reports on criminal psychopaths as, unlike these individuals, KT exhibited normal recognition of fear and a relatively intact knowledge of moral rules but he was impaired in the recognition of anger, embarrassment and conventional social rules. The overall picture of KT suggests that serial killing may be closer to normality than psychopathy defined according to either the DSM IV or the PCL-R, and it would be characterized by a relatively spared moral cognition and selective deficits in social and emotional cognition domains.

  5. Psychopathy and Affect Consciousness in Young Criminal Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    A key characteristic of psychopathy is the individual's problematic relation to certain affects, particularly shame. Previous research has studied relations between expressed shame and psychopathy. In this study, the author analyzes potential associations between psychopathy and consciousness of feelings (i.e., participants' ability to recognize…

  6. Psychopathy in Youth and Intelligence: An Investigation of Cleckley's Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T.; Neumann, Craig S.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.; Zalot, Alecia A.

    2004-01-01

    Cleckley (1941) hypothesized that true or "primary" psychopathic individuals have "good" intelligence. This study examined the relation between psychopathy and intelligence in 122 detained children and adolescents. We used the Psychopathy Checklist?Youth Version (PCL?YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) to assess psychopathy and administered novel…

  7. The Stability of Psychopathy Across Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The current diagnostic system suggests that personality disorder categories be applied to children and adolescents in rare circumstances due to expected changes in personality pathology across development. The present study examined the stability in personality pathology, specifically psychopathy, across childhood and adolescence. Using a short form of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; Lynam, 1997) and mixed models incorporating fixed and random effects, we examined the reliability, individual stability, mean-level stability, and predictive utility of juvenile psychopathy as a function of age (i.e., from 7 years old to 17 years old) in over 1500 boys from the three cohorts of the Pittsburgh Youth Study. If adolescent development contributes to instability in personality pathology, large age-related fluctuations in reliability, stability, and predictive utility should be observed, particularly in the latter part of adolescence when normative changes are hypothesized to influence levels of psychopathy. Such fluctuations were not observed. In general, juvenile psychopathy could be reliably assessed beginning in childhood, was fairly stable across short and long intervals, showed little mean-level fluctuation, and predicted delinquency across adolescence. These results suggest that concerns about large changes in personality pathology across childhood and adolescence may be overstated. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:19825261

  8. Psychopathy in women: theoretical and clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wynn R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rolf Wynn,1,2 Marita H Høiseth,1 Gunn Pettersen,31Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Telemedicine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: Prior research on psychopathy has primarily focused on the problem in men. Only a few studies have examined whether psychopathy even exists in women, and if so, how the disorder manifests itself in them. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on gender and psychopathy. We briefly discuss why this is an important topic for women and we discuss its causes. The concept of psychopathy is defined and related to the diagnostic systems. The discussion includes a presentation of diagnostic tools, including the Hare Psychology Checklist – Revised, which are examined in relationship to the importance of biological gender. While emphasizing the similarities as well as the differences between the sexes, we discuss the matters of prevalence, behavioral expressions, comorbidity, progression, and treatment of the disorder.Keywords: psychopathy, antisocial, dissocial, personality disorder, sex, women, review

  9. Portrayal of psychopathy in the movies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2009-01-01

    According to diagnostic criteria, psychopathy describes chronic immoral and anti-social behaviour, a lack of consciousness and an ability to lie and deceive without feeling guilt or discomfort. It is one of the most studied conditions and its relationship with criminal behaviour is well known....... Using psychopathy as a model, the narrative of the human monster fits well in the context of watching films. The most common portrayal of a psychopath in films is that of a callous, calculating and aggressive individual, but such a character tends to only scratch the surface of the problems associated...... with psychopathy. Using illustrations both old and new, this paper focuses on interpersonal relationships and placing films in the context of further discussion....

  10. Accuracy of the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management Scales (HCR-20) in predicting violence and other offenses in forensic psychiatric patients in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Lisieux Elaine de Borba; Folino, Jorge Oscar; Taborda, José Geraldo Vernet

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the risk of violence is a complex task. In Latin America it is often based on clinical criteria that are not very objective or structured. HCR-20 has been used to increase the accuracy of this exam. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Historical, Clinical and Risk Management Scales (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scale on a sample of Brazilian male forensic psychiatric inpatients. A concurrent prospective cohort design was used. The cohort was selected among the population of inpatients in Unit D (N=68) at Instituto Psiquiátrico Forense Mauricio Cardoso (IPF), Brazil. For the baseline assessment the following instruments: HCR-20-Assessing Risk for Violence, Version 2, and Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R) were used. During the one-year follow up, episodes of violent and/or anti-social behavior were assessed, and recorded on the Yudofsky's Overt Aggression Scale (OAS) and Tengström et al.'s Follow-Up Questionnaire. The accuracy of HCR-20 and PCL-R to predict violent and/or anti-social behavior was assessed. For the whole cohort, the mean total score of PCL-R was 13.54 and of HCR-20 it was 23.32. The rate of recidivism in the twelve month follow up was 73.5%. Outstanding among the risk factors explored for their predictive efficacy are scale HCR-20 and subscale H for any event, and scale HCR-20 for a violent event. The predictive efficacy of scales HCR-20 and PCL-R was greater for any antisocial event than for a violent event. By taking into account the possibility of recidivism and the probability of recidivism accumulated over time, instruments HCR-20 and PCL-R behaved as expected. In all these explorations, the instruments significantly differentiated the group of the sample that recidivated earlier. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship of antisocial personality disorder and history of conduct disorder with crime incidence in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safa Maghsoodloo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient′s condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime. It is not clear whether this is due to the nature of schizophrenia, comorbidity of antisocial personality disorder, or the history of conduct disorder in childhood. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 30 criminal and 30 non-criminal patients with schizophrenia, who had been referred by the court to the Forensic Medicine Center of Isfahan, were evaluated for antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and psychopathy checklist-revise (PCL-R score. Results: Frequency distribution of antisocial personality disorder (73.3%, history of conduct disorder in childhood (86.7%, and score of PCL-R ≥25 (indicating high probability of hostility in patients (40% were significantly higher in criminal patients than in non-criminals (10%, 30% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.001. Conclusions: More prevalence of antisocial personality disorder, history of conduct disorder, and high score of PCL-R (≥25 in criminal schizophrenic patients may indicate that in order to control the hostility and for prevention of crime, besides treating acute symptoms of psychosis, patients might receive treatment and rehabilitation for comorbidities too.

  12. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  13. Differential Associations Between Psychopathy Dimensions, Types of Aggression, and Response Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.; Korebrits, A.M.; Kunert, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings on executive functioning in psychopathy are inconsistent. Different associations between psychopathy dimensions and executive functioning might explain contradicting findings. This study examined the role of psychopathy dimensions and types of aggression in response inhibition among 117 mal

  14. Differential Associations Between Psychopathy Dimensions, Types of Aggression, and Response Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.; Korebrits, A.M.; Kunert, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Findings on executive functioning in psychopathy are inconsistent. Different associations between psychopathy dimensions and executive functioning might explain contradicting findings. This study examined the role of psychopathy dimensions and types of aggression in response inhibition among 117 mal

  15. Intelligence and Psychopathy Do Not Influence Malingering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakis, George; Rimland, Casey; Reeve, Charlie; Ward, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of psychopathy and intelligence on malingering in a simulated malingering design. We hypothesized that participants high in both traits would be more adept at evading detection on performance validity tests (PVTs). College students (N = 92) were first administered the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading, a reading measure that estimates intelligence, and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form under standard conditions. They were then asked to imagine as if they had suffered a concussion a year ago and were instructed to fake or exaggerate symptoms in a believable fashion to improve their settlement as part of a lawsuit. Participants were subsequently administered a brief neuropsychological battery that included the Word Memory Test, Rey 15-Item Test with Recognition, Finger-Tapping Test, and Digit Span from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition. Moderated multiple regressions with hierarchical entry were conducted. Intelligence, psychopathy, and the interaction of intelligence and psychopathy were not related to performance on any of the PVTs. In other words, participants who scored higher on intelligence and psychopathy did not perform differently on these measures compared with other participants. Though a null finding, implications of this study are discussed in terms of the broader research and clinical literature on malingering.

  16. Detecting Psychopathy from Thin Slices of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that features of psychopathy can be reliably and validly detected by lay raters from "thin slices" (i.e., small samples) of behavior. Brief excerpts (5 s, 10 s, and 20 s) from interviews with 96 maximum-security inmates were presented in video or audio form or in both modalities combined. Forty raters used…

  17. Comparison of personality traits in pedophiles, abstinent opiate addicts, and healthy controls: considering pedophilia as an addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Grebchenko, Yuli F; Steinfeld, Matthew; Frenda, Steven J; Galynker, Igor I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the model of pedophilia as a disorder of addictive behavior, pedophiles and chemically addicted individuals were compared on personality traits potentially associated with impaired behavioral inhibition. Twenty-nine pedophiles, 25 opiate addicts (OA's), and 27 healthy controls were administered the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II. OA's scored higher than either pedophiles or controls on the Barratt. Pedophiles and OA's scored higher than controls on all 3 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores but OA's scored marginally higher than pedophiles on factor 2 (behavioral) and total scores. On Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-V for Axis-II, pedophiles scored higher than controls on paranoid and schizoid scores whereas OA's did so on paranoid scores. Thus, both pedophiles and OA's may have elevated psychopathic traits and propensity toward cognitive distortions, as reflected in cluster A traits. Such similarities support the conceptualization of pedophilia as a behavioral addiction. Pedophiles may be less impulsive than OA's, however, and more prone toward cognitive distortions.

  18. Individual Differences and Rating Errors in First Impressions of Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher T. A. Gillen; Henriette Bergstrøm; Adelle E. Forth

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate whether individual differences in personality are related to improved first impression accuracy when appraising psychopathy in female offenders from thin-slices of information. The study also investigated the types of errors laypeople make when forming these judgments. Sixty-seven undergraduates assessed 22 offenders on their level of psychopathy, violence, likability, and attractiveness. Psychopathy rating accuracy improved as rater extroversion-...

  19. Maltreatment and psychopathy subtypes in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Ruth Louise

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...

  20. Individual Differences and Rating Errors in First Impressions of Psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher T. A. Gillen; Henriette Bergstrøm; Forth, Adelle E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate whether individual differences in personality are related to improved first impression accuracy when appraising psychopathy in female offenders from thin-slices of information. The study also investigated the types of errors laypeople make when forming these judgments. Sixty-seven undergraduates assessed 22 offenders on their level of psychopathy, violence, likability, and attractiveness. Psychopathy rating accuracy improved as rater extroversion-...

  1. Individual Differences and Rating Errors in First Impressions of Psychopathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillen, Christopher T. A; Bergstrøm, Henriette; Forth, Adelle E

    2016-01-01

    The current study is the first to investigate whether individual differences in personality are related to improved first impression accuracy when appraising psychopathy in female offenders from thin...

  2. Psychopathy and the cinema: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistedt, Samuel J; Linkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between cinema and psychopathy to describe and analyze the portrayal of fictional psychopathic characters in popular films and over cinematic history. From 400 films (1915-2010), 126 fictional psychopathic characters (21 female and 105 male) were selected based on the realism and clinical accuracy of their profiles. Movies were then analyzed by senior forensic psychiatrists and cinema critics. Secondary (71%) and manipulative (48%) subtypes were the most common in the female group, while secondary (51%) and prototypical (34%) were the most common in the male group. Corresponding to the increased understanding of clinical psychopathy by professional mental health providers over time, the clinical description of and epidemiological data on fictional psychopaths in popular films have become more realistic. Realistic fictional psychopaths remain in the minority but are very important for didactic purposes in Academic facilities, as "teaching Movies." © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. [Self-rating scales reveal psychopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dåderman, A; Lidberg, L

    1998-01-28

    Psychopathy is regarded as a dimensional concept--i.e., a person can be more or less psychopathic. This approach enables psychopathy to be measured with reliable, validated personality scales, and to be related to impairment of serontonergic function in the brain. Several personality inventories are described in the article, especially the Karolinska Scales of Personality, the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales, form V, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, including an impulsiveness scale from the IVE (Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy) inventory, and the old dimensional scale, the Marke-Nyman Personality Temperament scale based on the personality theory of Henrik Sjöbring. In this way both old and new, and both Swedish and foreign personality concepts are linked together. Personality scales are easy to use and enable better stability and validity of results to be attained.

  4. Psychopathy in women: theoretical and clinical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wynn R; Høiseth MH; Pettersen G

    2012-01-01

    Rolf Wynn,1,2 Marita H Høiseth,1 Gunn Pettersen,31Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Division of Addiction and Specialized Psychiatric Services, University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 2Telemedicine Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, NorwayAbstract: Prior research on psychopathy has primarily focused on the problem in men. Only a few studies ha...

  5. The Psychopathy Q-Sort. Construct Validity Evidence in a Nonclinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2007-01-01

    Scant research has examined the validity of instruments that permit observer ratings of psychopathy. Using a nonclinical (undergraduate) sample, the authors examined the associations between both self- and observer ratings on a psychopathy prototype (Psychopathy Q-Sort, PQS) and widely used measures of psychopathy, antisocial behavior, and…

  6. Validating the Factor Structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Menictas, Con; Stevenson, Richard J.; Homewood, Judi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no standard self-report measure of psychopathy in community-dwelling samples that parallels the most commonly used measure of psychopathy in forensic and clinical samples, the Psychopathy Checklist. A promising instrument is the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP), which was derived from the original version the Psychopathy…

  7. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Oorsouw, K. van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  8. Inconsistent handers show higher psychopathy than consistent handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Elizabeth; Desimone, Kailey

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred and forty-two university students completed the Short Dark Triad (SD3) and the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (EHI). Inconsistent handers showed higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers, and no handedness differences were observed for narcissism or Machiavellianism. Participants were further subdivided by quartile into low, moderately low, moderately high, and high psychopathy groups (non-clinical). Absolute EHI scores were equally distributed among low and moderate groups, but were significantly lower for the high psychopathy group. These findings suggest that inconsistent handedness is only associated with the upper quartile of psychopathy scores. Also, males showed significantly higher psychopathy scores than females, and the ratio of male to female inconsistent handers decreased as psychopathy score increased. No gender × handedness interaction indicated that both female and male inconsistent handers have higher psychopathy scores than consistent handers. Although significant, the effects were small and 99.6% of participants were not in the range of a potential clinical diagnosis. The reader, therefore, is strongly cautioned against equating inconsistent handedness with psychopathy.

  9. Examining the Construct Validity of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Gentile, Brittany; Lynam, Donald R.; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Lynam and colleagues recently developed a new self-report inventory for the assessment of psychopathy, the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA). Using a sample of undergraduates (N = 227), the authors examined the construct validity of the EPA by examining its correlations with self and stranger ratings on the Five-Factor Model, as well as…

  10. Adolescent Psychopathy and the Big Five: Results from Two Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the relation between psychopathy and the Big Five dimensions of personality in two samples of adolescents. Specifically, the study tests the hypothesis that the aspect of psychopathy representing selfishness, callousness, and interpersonal manipulation (Factor 1) is most strongly associated with low Agreeableness,…

  11. The Latent Structure of Psychopathy in Youth: A Taxometric Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W.; Kotov, Roman; Frick, Paul J.; Loney, Bryan R.

    2005-01-01

    Using taxometric procedures, the latent structure of psychopathy was investigated in two studies of children and adolescents. Prior studies have identified a taxon (i.e., a natural category) associated with antisocial behavior in adults as well as children and adolescents. However, features of this taxon suggest that it is not psychopathy but…

  12. The relationship between psychopathy and crime-related amnesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Oorsouw, K. van

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether levels of psychopathy predicted claims of crime-related amnesia. Different characteristics of psychopathy were based on the factor structure of the self-report questionnaire Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI). Crime-related amnesia claims

  13. A Model of Differential Amygdala Activation in Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Caroline; Killcross, Simon; Dadds, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces a novel hypothesis regarding amygdala function in psychopathy. The first part of this article introduces the concept of psychopathy and describes the main cognitive and affective impairments demonstrated by this population; that is, a deficit in fear-recognition, lower conditioned fear responses and poor performance in…

  14. Psychopathy, criminal responsibility, and civil commitment as a sexual predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopp, R F; Slain, A J

    2000-01-01

    Recent judicial decisions regarding commitment under sexual predator statutes and commentary addressing the legal significance of psychopathy provide an interesting opportunity to reflect upon the exculpatory significance of psychopathy and the appropriate relationship between criminal conviction and police power civil commitment. This paper examines the legal significance of psychopathy for the purposes of criminal responsibility and of civil commitment under sexual predator statutes. By examining the significance of psychopathy for each of these legal institutions, it clarifies our understanding of the legal significance of psychopathy and of the relationship between these institutions. This process illuminates the defensible functions and boundaries of each institution and clarifies the nature of the impairment that should qualify an individual for confinement by each. This analysis interprets criminal conviction and police power commitment, including sexual predator commitment, as integrated institutions of social control intended to provide a coherent approach to psychopaths as well as to others who require state intervention under the police power.

  15. Impaired integration in psychopathy: A unified theory of psychopathic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rachel K B; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-10-01

    This article introduces a novel theoretical framework for psychopathy that bridges dominant affective and cognitive models. According to the proposed impaired integration (II) framework of psychopathic dysfunction, topographical irregularities and abnormalities in neural connectivity in psychopathy hinder the complex process of information integration. Central to the II theory is the notion that psychopathic individuals are "'wired up' differently" (Hare, Williamson, & Harpur, 1988, p. 87). Specific theoretical assumptions include decreased functioning of the Salience and Default Mode Networks, normal functioning in executive control networks, and less coordination and flexible switching between networks. Following a review of dominant models of psychopathy, we introduce our II theory as a parsimonious account of behavioral and brain irregularities in psychopathy. The II theory provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding psychopathic dysfunction and integrates principle tenets of affective and cognitive perspectives. Moreover, it accommodates evidence regarding connectivity abnormalities in psychopathy through its network theoretical perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHY: ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Halty

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout this article we aim to defend the presence of psychopathic traits in child and adolescent population. In psychology there are two fundamental theoretical contributions to the understanding of this disorder in childhood. One focuses on the aspects of antisocial behaviour (Lynam, 1997; and the other highlights the presence of a fundamental characteristic in identifying the disorder, known as the callous unemotional trait (CU, Frick, O'Brien, Wootton & McBurnett, 1994. We also present some of the instruments that are most used in the assessment of child and adolescent psychopathy, as well as some results in the treatment of this disease.

  17. The trouble with psychopathy as a general theory of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2004-04-01

    The concept of psychopathy, as defined by Robert Hare, is reviewed with respect to its status as a general theory of crime. A hybrid of the medical pathology model and personality trait approach, the psychopathy concept proposes that a significant portion of serious crime is committed by psychopathic individuals. Hare's version of psychopathy, besides demonstrating weak applicability and a propensity for tautology, is subject to labeling effects, oversimplicity, reductionism, the fundamental attributional error, inattention to context, and disregard for the dynamic nature of human behavior. It is concluded that the psychopathy concept is substantially limited with respect to its ability to describe and clarify general criminal behavior but that it may still have value as a partial explanation for certain types of non-criminal predatory behavior.

  18. Individual Differences and Rating Errors in First Impressions of Psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. A. Gillen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study is the first to investigate whether individual differences in personality are related to improved first impression accuracy when appraising psychopathy in female offenders from thin-slices of information. The study also investigated the types of errors laypeople make when forming these judgments. Sixty-seven undergraduates assessed 22 offenders on their level of psychopathy, violence, likability, and attractiveness. Psychopathy rating accuracy improved as rater extroversion-sociability and agreeableness increased and when neuroticism and lifestyle and antisocial characteristics decreased. These results suggest that traits associated with nonverbal rating accuracy or social functioning may be important in threat detection. Raters also made errors consistent with error management theory, suggesting that laypeople overappraise danger when rating psychopathy.

  19. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  20. Psychopathy: developmental perspectives and their implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathaniel E; Kiehl, Kent A

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathy is a mental disorder marked by deficient emotional responses, lack of empathy, and poor behavioral controls, commonly resulting in persistent antisocial deviance and criminal behavior. Accumulating research suggests that psychopathy follows a developmental trajectory with strong genetic influences, and which precipitates deleterious effects on widespread functional networks, particularly within paralimbic regions of the brain. While traditional therapeutic interventions commonly administered in prisons and forensic institutions have been notoriously ineffective at combating these outcomes, alternative strategies informed by an understanding of these specific neuropsychological obstacles to healthy development, and which target younger individuals with nascent symptoms of psychopathy are more promising. Here we review recent neurobehavioral and neuroimaging literature that informs our understanding of the brain systems compromised in psychopathy, and apply these data to a broader understanding of its developmental course, ultimately promoting more proactive intervention strategies profiting from adaptive neuroplasticity in youth.

  1. Nepotistic patterns of violent psychopathy: evidence for adaptation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Brian Krupp

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to protect relatives. Thus, mental disorder and adaptation accounts of psychopathy generate opposing hypotheses: psychopathy should be associated with an increase in the victimization of kin in the former account but not in the latter. Contrary to the mental disorder hypothesis, we show here in a sample of 289 violent offenders that variation in psychopathy predicts a decrease in the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders; that is, psychopathy predicts an increased likelihood of harming nonrelatives. Because nepotistic inhibition in violence may be caused by dispersal or kin discrimination, we examined the effects of psychopathy on (1 the dispersal of offenders and their kin and (2 sexual assault frequency (as a window on kin discrimination. Although psychopathy was negatively associated with coresidence with kin and positively associated with the commission of sexual assault, it remained negatively associated with the genetic relatedness of victims to offenders after removing cases of offenders who had coresided with kin and cases of sexual assault from the analyses. These results stand in contrast to models positing psychopathy as a pathology, and provide support for the hypothesis that psychopathy reflects an evolutionary strategy largely favoring the exploitation of nonrelatives.

  2. Impaired decision-making in psychopathic heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Jasmin; Petkova, Pavlina; Georgiev, Stefan; Martin, Eileen M; Tersiyski, Ruslan; Raycheva, Margarita; Velinov, Vladimir; Marinov, Peter

    2007-01-12

    Substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) often show neurocognitive deficits in decision-making, such that their choices are biased toward the greatest immediate reward rather than the optimal future outcome. However, studies of SDIs are often hampered by two significant methodological challenges: polysubstance dependence and comorbid conditions, which are independently associated with neurocognitive impairments. We addressed these methodological challenges by testing heroin addicts in Bulgaria, where heroin addiction is highly prevalent but polysubstance dependence is rare. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential contribution of psychopathy to decision-making processes among this group of Bulgarian heroin addicts. We tested 78 male currently abstaining heroin addicts, classified as psychopathic or non-psychopathic using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). Psychopathic heroin addicts showed notable deficits in decision-making in that they made significantly more disadvantageous decisions relative to non-psychopathic heroin addicts. Results indicate that the presence of psychopathy may exacerbate decision-making deficits in heroin addicts.

  3. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psycho

  4. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psycho

  5. Psychopathy as a Taxon: Evidence That Psychopaths Are a Discrete Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Grant T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applied taxometric analyses to construct of psychopathy (as measured by Psychopathy Checklist) and to several variables reflecting antisocial childhood, adult criminality, and criminal recidivism. Findings from 653 serious offenders assessed or treated in maximum-security institution supported existence of taxon underlying psychopathy. Childhood…

  6. Validity of the modified child psychopathy scale for juvenile justice center residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Candel, I.; van Reenen, L.; Korebrits, A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult psychopathy has proven to be an important clinical and forensic construct, but much less is known about juvenile psychopathy. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of the self report modified Child Psychopathy Scale mCPS; Lynam (Psychological Bulletin 120:(2), 209-234, 1997)

  7. Adolescent Psychopathy and Personality Theory--The Interpersonal Circumplex: Expanding Evidence of a Nomological Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.; Trobst, Krista K.; Schrum, Crystal L.; Lochman, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The construct validity of psychopathy was examined in a sample of 114 male and female young offenders ([M.sub.age] = 15.16) at a southeastern detention center. The interpersonal circumplex served as a framework of general personality from which to examine the construct of adolescent psychopathy. A supplementary analysis of the psychopathy measures…

  8. The Role of Antisociality in the Psychopathy Construct: Comment on Skeem and Cooke (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; Neumann, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    J. Skeem and D. J. Cooke (2010) asserted that Hare and Neumann consider criminality to be an essential component of the psychopathy construct. The assertion, presented in the guise of a debate on the nature of psychopathy, is neither accurate nor consistent with the clinical and empirical literature on psychopathy to which Hare and Neumann have…

  9. Validity of the modified child psychopathy scale for juvenile justice center residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Candel, I.; van Reenen, L.; Korebrits, A.

    2012-01-01

    Adult psychopathy has proven to be an important clinical and forensic construct, but much less is known about juvenile psychopathy. In the present study, we examined the construct validity of the self report modified Child Psychopathy Scale mCPS; Lynam (Psychological Bulletin 120:(2), 209-234, 1997)

  10. Risk taking and the triarchic model of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Robert J; Smith, Chloe; Gray, Nicola S

    2017-03-15

    High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts. The task reflects the willingness to take risks under conditions where the risk-taking behavior is understood and is made clear to the individual. BART performance was measured in a mixed community and offender sample, and psychopathy was characterized via the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy, which proposes that psychopathy is a combination of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Total psychopathy score was correlated with greater risk taking on the BART, and this effect was mainly due to the Boldness scale rather than the Meanness or Disinhibition scales. These relationships were not moderated by the nature of the sample (offender vs. community) or by gender. Individuals with high psychopathy scores appear more willing to take risks on this simple laboratory task, and this behavior appears due to boldness rather than being related to an impulsive disposition.

  11. What can we learn about emotion by studying psychopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail A. Marsh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with core affective traits, such as low empathy, guilt, and remorse, and with antisocial and aggressive behaviors. Recent neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies of psychopathy in both institutionalized and community samples have begun to illuminate the basis of this condition, in particular the ways that psychopathy affects the experience and recognition of fear. In this review, we will consider how understanding emotional processes in psychopathy can shed light on the three questions central to the study of emotion: (1 Are emotions discrete, qualitatively distinct phenomena or quantitatively varying phenomena best described in terms of dimensions like arousal and valence? (2 What are the brain structures involved in generating specific emotions like fear, if any? And (3 how do our own experiences of emotion pertain to our perceptions of and responses to others’ emotion? We conclude that insights afforded by the study of psychopathy may provide better understanding of not only fundamental social phenomena like empathy and aggression, but of the basic emotional processes that motivate these behaviors.  

  12. Secondary Psychopathy, but not Primary Psychopathy, is Associated with Risky Decision-Making in Noninstitutionalized Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Altstein, Lily L; Berman, Mitchell E; Constans, Joseph I; Sugar, Catherine A; McCloskey, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Although risky decision-making has been posited to contribute to the maladaptive behavior of individuals with psychopathic tendencies, the performance of psychopathic groups on a common task of risky decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; Bechara, Damasio, Damasio, & Anderson, 1994), has been equivocal. Different aspects of psychopathy (personality traits, antisocial deviance) and/or moderating variables may help to explain these inconsistent findings. In a sample of college students (N = 129, age 18 to 27), we examined the relationship between primary and secondary psychopathic features and IGT performance. A measure of impulsivity was included to investigate its potential as a moderator. In a joint model including main effects and interactions between primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy and impulsivity, only secondary psychopathy was significantly related to risky IGT performance, and this effect was not moderated by the other variables. This finding supports the growing literature suggesting that secondary psychopathy is a better predictor of decision-making problems than the primary psychopathic personality traits of lack of empathy and remorselessness.

  13. Psychopathy and Physiological Detection of Concealed Information: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Verschuere

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Concealed Information Test has been advocated as the preferred method for deception detection using the polygraph ("lie detector". The Concealed Information Test is argued to be a standardised, highly accurate psychophysiological test founded on the orienting reflex. The validity of polygraph tests for the assessment of psychopathic individuals has, however, been questioned. Two dimensions are said to underlie psychopathy: emotional detachment and antisocial behaviour. Distinct psychophysiological correlates are hypothesised in these facets of psychopathy. Emotional detachment is associated with deficient fear-potentiated startle, and antisocial behaviour with reduced orienting. Few studies have examined the effect of psychopathy on the validity of the Concealed Information Test. This review suggests that reduced orienting in high antisocial individuals is also found in the Concealed Information Test, thereby threatening its validity. Implications for criminal investigations, possible solutions and directions for future research will be discussed.

  14. Psychopathy and a Model for Disturbed Affective Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khetrapal, Neha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the interaction of emotion and consciousness. It focuses on the perception of fearful stimuli and how such a perception can have implications for psychopathy. Amygdala has been found to be lesioned in the disorder and this compromise of integrity leads to deficits in fear perception, moral socialization and curtailing of aggression. This in turn leads to deficits in adaptive behavior as amygdala is responsible for influencing motor and perceptual responses in response to a fearful stimulus. Amygdala also plays an important role in bringing a fearful stimulus, detected at the attentional periphery, to the focus of attention and awareness so that it can receive enhanced processing which is found to be eficient in psychopathy. This role is supported by its connectivity to different cortical and subcortical areas. Hence this article provides an emphasis on the disturbed affective consciousness of psychopathy and its role in adaptive behavior deficits

  15. Parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy and aggression: Differential associations across dimensions and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Lisa K; Berg, Joanna M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a multidimensional construct that is broadly associated with both reactive (RA) and proactive (PA) aggression. Nevertheless, a consistent pattern of associations between psychopathy and these 2 aggression subtypes has yet to emerge because of methodological differences across studies. Moreover, research has yet to examine gender differences in the relation between dimensions of psychopathy and RA/PA. Accordingly, we examined the associations between psychopathy dimensions, as operationalized by 2 self-report instruments, and subtypes of aggression within a diverse sample of undergraduates (N = 1,158). Results confirmed that psychopathy is broadly associated with PA, as well as RA, with dimensions of psychopathy evidencing common and distinct associations with both raw and residual RA and PA scores. In both models of psychopathy, PA was significantly and positively associated with all dimensions, whereas RA was significantly negatively associated with interpersonal and affective dimensions, and significantly positively associated with dimensions related to an antisocial and impulsive lifestyle. Gender significantly moderated associations among dimensions of psychopathy and RA/PA, such that the antisocial/behavioral dimension of psychopathy was positively associated with PA for males, whereas the antisocial/behavioral dimension was positively associated with RA for females. Results suggest both generality and specificity of psychopathy dimensions as related to subtypes of aggression, as well as possible differential pathways from psychopathy to different subtypes of aggression in men and women.

  16. ["Acquired psychopathy" and the neurobiology of emotion and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Schuierer, Gerhard; Marienhagen, Jörg; Putzhammer, Albert; Klein, Helmfried E

    2003-05-01

    "Psychopathy" describes a type of personality disorder characterized by a dysregulation of emotion processing. Social behaviour, emotion regulation and competency are of particular relevance in forensic psychiatry. Structural-morphological and functional imaging studies prove that emotion regulation, aggressive-impulsive behaviour and learning from negative experiences are greatly influenced by frontal brain regions. These abilities are impaired in severe cases of dissocial personality disorders and in traumatic "pseudopsychopathy". We illustrate the importance functional neurobiological changes in patients personality disorders and "acquired psychopathy" by two case reports on patients who were admitted to a forensic-psychiatric facility for sexual crimes.

  17. Long-term follow-up of exhibitionists: psychological, phallometric, and offense characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Philip; Kingston, Drew A; Wexler, Audrey; Bradford, John M

    2006-01-01

    Exhibitionism has historically been viewed as more of a nuisance than a serious criminal justice matter. Research has demonstrated that the number of exhibitionists who are detected re-offending is a significant under-representation of the number who actually re-offend. The objective of this study was to extend a previous study conducted on exhibitionists, while attempting to solve the limitations described in that study. Two hundred eight exhibitionists were assessed at a university teaching hospital between 1983 and 1996. Archival data were derived from police and medical files. Results indicated that, over a mean follow-up period of 13.24 years, 23.6, 31.3, and 38.9 percent of exhibitionists were charged with or convicted of sexual, violent, or criminal offenses, respectively. Undoubtedly, this is an under-representation of the true rate, as we have no way of knowing how many exhibitionists re-offended and did not get caught. Nevertheless, in the present investigation, sexual recidivists compared with non-recidivists were less educated, scored higher on the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), the Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R), and the Pedophile Index. Violent recidivists were also less educated and scored higher on the MAST, PCL-R, and the Pedophile Index, and had accumulated a greater number of prior violent or criminal charges and/or convictions. Criminal recidivists were less educated; scored higher on the MAST, Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), PCL-R, and Pedophile Index; and had accumulated a greater number of prior sexual, violent, and criminal offenses. Finally, the hands-on sexual recidivists accumulated a greater number of prior violent and criminal charges and or convictions than did the hands-off sexual recidivists.

  18. Aggression, psychopathy and brain imaging - Review and future recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlund, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Violent behavior appears to result from a complex web of interacting genetic as well as environmental factors. Psychopathy is a strong predictor for relapse in violent acts. The current review shed light on rapidly expanding knowledge in brain imaging related to violent behavior and psychopathy. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane and PsycInfo combining the key words: mentally disordered offender/aggression/violence/ crime/forensic psychiatry/brain imaging neuroimaging/fMRI/MRI/PET/SPECT/lack of empathy/psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. The reviewed material, which consisted of 48 articles, indicates a rather strong consensus on the connection between dysfunctional parts of the frontal and temporal lobes and violent antisocial behavior and psychopathy. In future studies, it would be useful to focus on the limbic system and to investigate which parts of the frontal lobes and cerebral networks that are of interest in the psychopathic personality. Moreover, the reviewed material highlights some of the methodological difficulties in this area of research such as selection bias in the recruitment of patients, inadequate matching of control subjects, and sometimes incongruous results. In the future we hope that brain imaging can be used to map biological deviations in different offenders in order to try to learn more about the different mechanisms behind violent behaviors.

  19. Reduced spontaneous but relatively normal deliberate vicarious representations in psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meffert, Harma; Gazzola, Valeria; den Boer, Johan A.; Bartels, Arnold A. J.; Keysers, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with a profound lack of empathy. Neuroscientists have associated empathy and its interindividual variation with how strongly participants activate brain regions involved in their own actions, emotions and sensations while viewing those of others. Here

  20. The association between anxiety and psychopathy dimensions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, P J; Lilienfeld, S O; Ellis, M; Loney, B; Silverthorn, P

    1999-10-01

    Although several theoretical models posit that low levels of anxiety are a risk factor for psychopathy and antisocial behavior, a number of studies have reported elevated levels of anxiety among antisocial individuals. Nevertheless, most investigators in this literature have not distinguished between fearfulness and trait anxiety or attempted to separate the antisocial lifestyle dimension from the callous and unemotional dimension of psychopathy. In a study of clinically referred children (N = 143), we found that (a) measures of trait anxiety and fearlessness (low fearfulness) exhibited low correlations; (b) conduct problems tended to be positively correlated with trait anxiety, whereas callous and unemotional traits tended to be negatively correlated with trait anxiety; and (c) controlling statistically for the effects of one dimension increased the divergent correlations of the other dimension with both trait anxiety and fearful inhibition. These findings bear potentially important implications for the diagnosis and etiology of psychopathy and antisocial behavior and suggest that distinctions between trait anxiety and fearful inhibition, as well as between the two dimensions of psychopathy, may help to clarify longstanding confusion in this literature.

  1. Neural correlates of reward and loss sensitivity in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujara, Maia; Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous and impulsive behavior and criminal recidivism. It has long been theorized that psychopaths have deficits in processing reward and punishment. Here, we use structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of reward and loss sensitivity in a group of criminal psychopaths. Forty-one adult male prison inmates (n = 18 psychopaths and n = 23 non-psychopaths) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving the gain or loss of money. Across the entire sample of participants, monetary gains elicited robust activation within the ventral striatum (VS). Although psychopaths and non-psychopaths did not significantly differ with respect to overall levels of VS response to reward vs loss, we observed significantly different correlations between VS responses and psychopathy severity within each group. Volumetric analyses of striatal subregions revealed a similar pattern of correlations, specifically for the right accumbens area within VS. In a separate sample of inmates (n = 93 psychopaths and n = 117 non-psychopaths) who completed a self-report measure of appetitive motivation, we again found that the correlation with psychopathy severity differed between groups. These convergent results offer novel insight into the neural substrates of reward and loss processing in psychopathy.

  2. Defective somatic markers in sub-clinical psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Montagne, B.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis is argued to be specifically applicable to psychopathy, though evidence has been meager until now. The principal evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis is based on findings in patients with orbitofrontal lesions, showing absent punishment learning on the Iowa

  3. Defective somatic markers in sub-clinical psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Montagne, B.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis is argued to be specifically applicable to psychopathy, though evidence has been meager until now. The principal evidence for the somatic marker hypothesis is based on findings in patients with orbitofrontal lesions, showing absent punishment learning on the Iowa

  4. Neurological soft signs in antisocial men and relation with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Omer Faruk; Demirel, Aysegul; Kadak, Muhammed Tayyib; Emül, Murat; Duran, Alaattin

    2016-06-30

    Neurological soft signs (NSS) were studied in some axis-I disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, bipolar disorder, alcohol and substance abuse disorder. Aim of this study is detection of neurological soft signs in antisocial personality disorder and relation of these signs with psychopathy. The study was included 41 antisocial men and 41 healthy control subjects. Sociodemographic form, neurological evaluation scale and Hare psychopathy checklist was applied to the antisocial subjects, whereas sociodemographic form and neurological evaluation scale were applied to the controls. Antisocial men exhibited significiantly more NSS in total score and subgroups scales (ppsychopathy scores and NSS sequencing complex motor tasks (r=0.309; p=0.049) and NSS other tests subgroup scores (r=0.328; p=0.037). Similar relation was also observed in comparison between psychopathy subgroups. NSS accepted as being endophenotypes in schizophrenia, were also detected in antisocial group significantly more than controls in our study. Significant relationship between psychopathy and NSS may also hint the role of genetic mechanisms in personality development, though new extended studies with larger sample size are needed for clarification of this relationship.

  5. Brief Communication : Investigating the Relationship Between Psychopathy and Interoceptive Awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, L.; Meijer, E.; Bernstein, D.; Arntz, A.; Medendorp, W.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder that is characterized by marked emotional deficiencies. Because previous studies suggest that an individual's sensitivity to bodily signals--or "interoceptive awareness"--is associated with various components of emotional functioning, the authors expected this capacity to

  6. Understanding Psychopathy through an Evaluation of Interpersonal Behavior: Testing the Factor Structure of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy in a Large Sample of Jail Detainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Kosson, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Interpersonal characteristics are core features of the psychopathy construct which have a unique pattern of correlations with a variety of external correlates. To improve the assessment of interpersonal traits, the current study evaluated the internal structure of the Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P) through exploratory and confirmatory…

  7. Economic decision-making in psychopathy: a comparison with ventromedial prefrontal lesion patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigs, Michael; Kruepke, Michael; Newman, Joseph P

    2010-06-01

    Psychopathy, which is characterized by a constellation of antisocial behavioral traits, may be subdivided on the basis of etiology: "primary" (low-anxious) psychopathy is viewed as a direct consequence of some core intrinsic deficit, whereas "secondary" (high-anxious) psychopathy is viewed as an indirect consequence of environmental factors or other psychopathology. Theories on the neurobiology of psychopathy have targeted dysfunction within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a putative mechanism, yet the relationship between vmPFC function and psychopathy subtype has not been fully explored. In this study, we administered two laboratory decision-making tasks (the Ultimatum Game and the Dictator Game) to a group of prisoners (n=47) to determine whether the different subtypes of psychopathy (primary vs. secondary) are associated with characteristic patterns of economic decision-making, and furthermore, whether either subtype exhibits similar performance to patients with vmPFC lesions. Comparing primary psychopaths (n=6) to secondary psychopaths (n=6) and non-psychopaths (n=22), we found that primary psychopathy was associated with significantly lower acceptance rates of unfair Ultimatum offers and lower offer amounts in the Dictator Game. Moreover, primary psychopaths were quantitatively similar to vmPFC lesion patients in their response patterns. These results support the purported connection between psychopathy and vmPFC dysfunction, bolster the distinction between primary and secondary psychopathy, and demonstrate the utility of laboratory economic decision-making tests in differentiating clinical subgroups.

  8. Neuroimaging of Psychopathy and Antisocial Behavior: A Targeted Review

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this article is to provide a selective and targeted review of the neuroimaging literature on psychopathic tendencies and antisocial behavior and to explore the extent to which this literature supports recent cognitive neuroscientific models of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. The literature reveals that individuals who present with an increased risk for reactive, but not instrumental, aggression show increased amygdala responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. This is consis...

  9. Relationships between dimensional factors of psychopathy and schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Ann Ragsdale

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Existing research has suggested that comorbid psychopathy may explain one trajectory of violent behavior in a subset of individuals with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear which specific traits and symptoms are responsible for this relationship and whether it is limited to clinical and/or forensic categories, or if it reflects a dimensional relationship found in the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine differential relationships between specific factors of psychopathy and schizotypy in a nonpsychiatric and nonforensic sample. 212 undergraduate students (50% female completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R. Correlations revealed that the total SPQ score was positively related to the total PPI-R score and the Self-Centered Impulsivity factor, and negatively related to the Fearless Dominance factor. Self-Centered Impulsivity was positively related to all three SPQ factor scores, with the strongest relationship found with the Cognitive-Perceptual factor. In contrast, Fearless Dominance was negatively related to only the Interpersonal and Disorganized factors of the SPQ, with the strongest relationship found with the Interpersonal factor. Findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizotypy and the self-centered impulsivity aspect of psychopathy is not limited to extreme discrete populations, but exists in a more dimensional manner within a nonpsychiatric sample. In addition, it appears that schizotypy is negatively related to the fearless dominance aspect of psychopathy, which appears to be a novel finding. Results provide preliminary findings that may have implications for developing appropriate prediction, assessment, and treatment techniques for violent behavior in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  10. Effects of comorbid psychopathy on criminal offending and emotion processing in male offenders with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S; Lorenz, Amanda R; Newman, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are two syndromes with substantial construct validity. To clarify relations between these syndromes, the authors evaluated 3 possibilities: (a) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy reflect a common underlying pathophysiology; (b) that ASPD with psychopathy and ASPD without psychopathy identify 2 distinct syndromes, similar in some respects; and (c) that most correlates of ASPD reflect its comorbidity with psychopathy. Participants were 472 incarcerated European American men who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed., American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for ASPD and Psychopathy Checklist criteria for psychopathy, who met the criteria for ASPD but not for psychopathy, or who did not meet diagnostic criteria for either ASPD or psychopathy (controls). Both individuals with ASPD only and those with ASPD and psychopathy were characterized by more criminal activity than were controls. In addition, ASPD with psychopathy was associated with more severe criminal behavior and weaker emotion facilitation than ASPD alone. Group differences in the association between emotion dysfunction and criminal behavior suggest tentatively that ASPD with and ASPD without prominent psychopathic features may be distinct syndromes.

  11. Fledgling Psychopathy in the Classroom: ADHD Subtypes Psychopathy, and Reading Comprehension in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael; Beaver, Kevin M.; Wexler, Jade; Barth, Amy E.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study explores characteristics that are associated with fledgling psychopathy and educational outcomes relating to reading comprehension performance in a community sample of 432 middle school students. Latent class analysis (LCA) produced a four-class solution. Class 1 was a large (71.5% of sample) ‘‘control’’ group of youths with no attention/hyperactivity deficits and the highest reading comprehension scores. Class 2 was 11.6% of the sample and was consistent with traits associa...

  12. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L. Watts; S.O. Lilienfeld; J.F. Edens; K.S. Douglas; J.L. Skeem; B. Verschuere; A.C. LoPilato

    2015-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  13. Impact of Psychopathy on Moral Judgments about Causing Fear and Physical Harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Cardinale

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality variable associated with persistent immoral behaviors. Despite this, attempts to link moral reasoning deficits to psychopathic traits have yielded mixed results with many findings supporting intact moral reasoning in individuals with psychopathic traits. Abundant evidence shows that psychopathy impairs responses to others' emotional distress. However, most studies of morality and psychopathy focus on judgments about causing others physical harm. Results of such studies may be inconsistent because physical harm is an imperfect proxy for emotional distress. No previous paradigm has explicitly separated judgments about physical harm and emotional distress and assessed how psychopathy affects each type of judgment. In three studies we found that psychopathy impairs judgments about causing others emotional distress (specifically fear but minimally affects judgments about causing physical harm and that judgments about causing fear predict instrumental aggression in psychopathy. These findings are consistent with reports linking psychopathy to insensitivity to others' fear, and suggest that sensitivity to others' fear may play a fundamental role in the types of moral decision-making impaired by psychopathy.

  14. A review on the relationship between testosterone and the interpersonal/affective facet of psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone (T) has received increasing interest in the recent years as a probable biological determinant in the etiology of male-biased clinical conditions such as psychopathy (i.e. psychopathy is more prevalent in men and leads to an earlier onset and more severe expression of antisocial and aggr

  15. Impact of Psychopathy on Moral Judgments about Causing Fear and Physical Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality variable associated with persistent immoral behaviors. Despite this, attempts to link moral reasoning deficits to psychopathic traits have yielded mixed results with many findings supporting intact moral reasoning in individuals with psychopathic traits. Abundant evidence shows that psychopathy impairs responses to others’ emotional distress. However, most studies of morality and psychopathy focus on judgments about causing others physical harm. Results of such studies may be inconsistent because physical harm is an imperfect proxy for emotional distress. No previous paradigm has explicitly separated judgments about physical harm and emotional distress and assessed how psychopathy affects each type of judgment. In three studies we found that psychopathy impairs judgments about causing others emotional distress (specifically fear) but minimally affects judgments about causing physical harm and that judgments about causing fear predict instrumental aggression in psychopathy. These findings are consistent with reports linking psychopathy to insensitivity to others’ fear, and suggest that sensitivity to others’ fear may play a fundamental role in the types of moral decision-making impaired by psychopathy. PMID:25992566

  16. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  17. Reliability and Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenbach, Diana; Poythress, Norman; Falki, Marielle; Manchak, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    The present study assessed the psychometric properties and construct validity of two self-report measures of psychopathy in a male-college sample: the Levenson Psychopathy scales (LPS; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996). Both the LPS and the PPI demonstrated good…

  18. Youth with Psychopathy Features Are Not a Discrete Class: A Taxometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Marcus, David K.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Lee, Zina; Salekin, Randall T.; Vincent, Gina

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recently, researchers have sought to measure psychopathy-like features among youth in hopes of identifying children who may be progressing toward a particularly destructive form of adult pathology. However, it remains unclear whether psychopathy-like personality features among youth are best conceptualized as dimensional (distributed…

  19. The Emergence of Psychopathy: Implications for the Neuropsychological Approach to Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I am going to examine the disorder of psychopathy and consider how genetic anomalies could give rise to the relatively specific neuro-cognitive impairments seen in individuals with this disorder. I will argue that genetic anomalies in psychopathy reduce the salience of punishment information (perhaps as a function of noradrenergic…

  20. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version in Offenders With Axis I Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Christie D.; Neumann, Craig S.; Rogers, Richard

    2004-01-01

    One hundred forty-nine inpatients within a maximum security psychiatric facility were assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV; S. D. Hart, D. N. Cox, & R. D. Hare, 1995). Within the total sample, 68% had a psychotic disorder and 30% met criteria for psychopathy. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors tested the…

  1. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Incarcerated Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Craig S.; Kosson, David S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Hare, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    Two studies are reported on the underlying dimensions of the psychopathy construct in adolescents as measured by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003). In Study 1, the PCL: YV item ratings for 505 male adolescents incarcerated in 5 different settings in North America were used to test the fit of 3…

  2. Psychopathy, IQ, and Violence in European American and African American County Jail Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Swogger, Marc T.; Kosson, David S.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of the prediction of criminal violence may be improved by combining psychopathy with other variables that have been found to predict violence. Research has suggested that assessing intelligence (i.e., IQ) as well as psychopathy improves the accuracy of violence prediction. In the present study, the authors tested this hypothesis by…

  3. Does response distortion statistically affect the relations between self-report psychopathy measures and external criteria?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Lilienfeld, S.O.; Edens, J.F.; Douglas, K.S.; Skeem, J.L.; Verschuere, B.; LoPilato, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    Given that psychopathy is associated with narcissism, lack of insight, and pathological lying, the assumption that the validity of self-report psychopathy measures is compromised by response distortion has been widespread. We examined the statistical effects (moderation, suppression) of response dis

  4. Assessing Violence Risk and Psychopathy in Juvenile and Adult Offenders: A Survey of Clinical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Jodi L.; McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Vincent, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed 199 forensic clinicians about the practices that they use in assessing violence risk in juvenile and adult offenders. Results indicated that the use of risk assessment and psychopathy tools was common. Although clinicians reported more routine use of psychopathy measures in adult risk assessments compared with juvenile risks…

  5. Factor Structure of the B-Scan 360: A Measure of Corporate Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cynthia; Hare, Robert D.; Jones, Daniel N.; Babiak, Paul; Neumann, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy is a clinical construct defined by a cluster of personality traits and behaviors, including grandiosity, egocentricity, deceptiveness, shallow emotions, lack of empathy or remorse, irresponsibility, impulsivity, and a tendency to ignore or violate social norms. The majority of empirical research on psychopathy involves forensic…

  6. Factor Structure of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosson, David S.; Neumann, Craig S.; Forth, Adelle E.; Salekin, Randall T.; Hare, Robert D.; Krischer, Maya K.; Sevecke, Kathrin

    2013-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for the fit of the 3- and 4-factor models of Psychopathy Checklist-based ratings of psychopathy in adult males and adolescents, evidence is less consistent in adolescent females. However, prior studies used samples much smaller than recommended for examining model fit. To address this issue, we conducted a confirmatory…

  7. Psychopathy and fear: specific impairments in judging behaviors that frighten others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A; Cardinale, Elise M

    2012-10-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder associated with antisocial behavior and deficits in responding to emotional stimuli, particularly fear-related stimuli. This research demonstrates that these deficits extend to judgments about behaviors that cause fear in others. We assessed whether psychopathy is associated with the ability to identify the emotional consequences of social behaviors and with judgments about these behaviors' acceptability. We found that psychopathy, as indexed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory, is associated with impairments in identifying behaviors that cause fear and in judging the moral acceptability of these behaviors. Ratings of emotional consequences and moral acceptability were also correlated, such that individuals who less accurately identified behaviors that cause fear also judged these behaviors to be more morally acceptable. Psychopathy scores mediated the relationship between these two variables. These findings suggest that understanding that frightening others is unacceptable relies on understanding this type of behavior's emotional consequences, and have significance for understanding the relationship between psychopathy, empathy, and antisocial behavior.

  8. Epidemiology, Comorbidity, and Behavioral Genetics of Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Few, Lauren R; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2015-04-01

    Psychopathy is theorized as a disorder of personality and affective deficits while antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) diagnosis is primarily behaviorally based. While ASPD and psychopathy are similar and are highly comorbid with each other, they are not synonymous. ASPD has been well studied in community samples with estimates of its lifetime prevalence ranging from 1-4% of the general population.(4,5) In contrast, psychopathy is almost exclusively investigated within criminal populations so that its prevalence in the general population has been inferred by psychopathic traits rather than disorder (1%). Differences in etiology and comorbidity with each other and other psychiatric disorders of these two disorders are also evident. The current article will briefly review the epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidity of ASPD and psychopathy, focusing predominately on research completed in community and clinical populations. This paper aims to highlight ASPD and psychopathy as related, but distinct disorders.

  9. Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogstad, Jill E; Rogers, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the importance of affective features as they relate to social deviance; however, little empirical research has actually investigated specific roles of emotion and emotion processing with respect to antisocial conduct. Antisocial personality disorder (APD), prevalent in forensic populations, is commonly associated with psychopathy despite the notable omission of such core affective features in its diagnosis. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on the contribution of emotion to psychopathy and APD, highlighting in particular research on emotion processing and various facets of emotional expression, including empathy and alexithymia. Research findings are discussed on gender differences in emotional functioning and their likely effects on the assessment of psychopathy and APD. Given the known gender differences in the expressions of emotion, the article concludes with recommendations to bridge research for different offender groups, including psychopathy and APD.

  10. The utility of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI)--Is it meaningful to measure psychopathy in young offenders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Stephane M; Strand, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the convergent validity of 2 youth psychopathy instruments, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI) and their relationship with problem behaviors and recidivism in an Australian sample of young offenders in custody. The PCL: YV demonstrated a capacity to identify severely antisocial youth; however, the tool was unable to differentiate between potentially psychopathic and nonpsychopathic antisocial youth. The YPI was receptive to a wide variety of problem behaviors which precluded the unique identification of core psychopathic traits in the sample. Both instruments were unable to meaningfully distinguish between recidivists and nonrecidivists. As such, the PCL: YV and the YPI demonstrate limited utility for antisocial young offenders in custody. Further research on the durability and developmental manifestation of psychopathy in adolescents is necessary before these instruments are employed in similar contexts. Implications for the clinical use of psychopathy measures are discussed.

  11. Amygdala Reactivity and Negative Emotionality: Divergent Correlates of Antisocial Personality and Psychopathy Traits in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W.; Byrd, Amy L.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat. PMID:24661171

  12. Amygdala reactivity and negative emotionality: divergent correlates of antisocial personality and psychopathy traits in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Byrd, Amy L; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy overlap highly but differ critically in several features, notably negative emotionality (NEM) and possibly amygdala reactivity to social signals of threat and distress. Here we examined whether dimensions of psychopathy and APD correlate differentially with NEM and amygdala reactivity to emotional faces. Testing these relationships among healthy individuals, dimensions of psychopathy and APD were generated by the profile matching technique of Lynam and Widiger (2001), using facet scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and amygdala reactivity was measured using a well-established emotional faces task, in a community sample of 103 men and women. Higher psychopathy scores were associated with lower NEM and lower amygdala reactivity, whereas higher APD scores were related to greater NEM and greater amygdala reactivity, but only after overlapping variance in APD and psychopathy was adjusted for in the statistical model. Amygdala reactivity did not mediate the relationship of APD and psychopathy scores to NEM. Supplemental analyses also compared other measures of factors within psychopathy in predicting NEM and amygdala reactivity and found that Factor 2 psychopathy was positively related to NEM and amygdala reactivity across measures of psychopathy. The overall findings replicate seminal observations on NEM in psychopathy by Hicks and Patrick (2006) and extend this work to neuroimaging in a normative population. They also suggest that one critical way in which APD and psychopathy dimensions may differ in their etiology is through their opposing levels of NEM and amygdala reactivity to threat.

  13. Mythos and mental illness: psychopathy, fantasy, and contemporary moral life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Geoff

    2008-12-01

    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a "mythos," for they betray a telling uncertainty about where "fact" ends and "fantasy" begins, as well as the means of distinguishing mental health from mental illness in regard to some social roles.

  14. FAMILY AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC RISK FACTORS FOR PSYCHOPATHY AMONG PRISON INMATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Valdivia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study was conducted with prison inmates to explore to what extent family and socio-demographic characteristics represent risk factors for psychopathy and delinquent behavior. A psychopathy scale derived from Hare’s Revised Psychopathy Checklist and an instrument containing questions related to family and socio-demographic characteristics were administered to 178 prison inmates. The psychopathy scale’s reliability (α = .92 and construct validity were established. A confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a model showing a negative association between psychopathy and age at which the person stopped living with his family of origin, age of first incarceration, severity of delinquent acts, length of prison sentence, and length of time spent in prison. (χ2/df = 1.40, FD = 1.34, PNI = 0.38, RMSEA =.04, IFI = .94, CFI = .94 and TLI = .93. Furthermore, the model sustained a positive association of psychopathy with income and frequency of incarceration. Level of education and age were eliminated from the model given that no significant associations were found among these variables and psychopathy. The validation of this model enables to interpret research findings in relation with attachment theory.

  15. The Early Attachment Experiences are the Roots of Psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Khetrapal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review proposes the ‘attachment and the deficient hemispheric integration hypothesis’ as explanation for psychopathy. The hypothesis states that since secure attachment to the parents is essential for the proper development of both the hemispheres in children, psychopaths with histories of neglect and abuse are unable to develop efficient interaction of both the hemispheres, important for emotional processing and regulation. Various studies have shown that without an efficient interaction between the two hemispheres psychopaths fail to perform adequately on tasks that require both language abilities and non-verbal emotional processing. The hypothesis also explains why psychopaths will perform inefficiently in conditions that selectively prime the left hemisphere resources as these people would have learnt to rely more on the language based mode of this hemisphere. The childhood of psychopaths is marked by insecure attachment with their parents where the parents fail to respond to the needs of the pre-verbal infant thus leading to improper development of the right hemisphere abilities, one of which is decoding and showing appropriate non-verbal emotional signals resembling a pattern shown by the parents. The hypothesis is useful in explaining different findings on laterality in psychopathy as well as answering the nature-nurture debate of the disorder. Research carried out under the proposed framework can be helpful in understanding the nature of the disorder which will be ultimately useful in the prevention of its full blown manifestation.

  16. Breakdown in the brain network subserving moral judgment in criminal psychopathy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Harrison, Ben J; Pera, Vanessa; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Real, Eva; Bosa, Laura; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M; Cardoner, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated the involvement of a well-defined brain network in the mediation of moral judgment in normal population, and has suggested the inappropriate network use in criminal psychopathy...

  17. A Replication of ``Using self-esteem to disaggregate psychopathy, narcissism, and aggression (2013''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a replication of Falkenbach, Howe, and Falki (2013. Using self-esteem to disaggregate psychopathy, narcissism, and aggression. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(7, 815-820.

  18. [Autistic psychopathy or pervasive developmental disorder: how has Asperger's syndrome changed in the past sixty years?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Gen; Ichihashi, Kayo

    2007-03-01

    Bosch (1970) was the first author who used "Asperger's syndrome" in English literature. In those days, "Kanner's syndrome" i.e. autism, which had been under schizophrenic-versus-undeveloped arguments from the 1960's, was always contrasted with Asperger's "autistic psychopathy in children". From then on there have been vicissitudes over the notion of "Asperger's syndrome" and its clinical presentation. Nowadays, the restricted notion of "Asperger's syndrome" is dominant and used in both DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. However, debates concerning the aspect of Asperger s "psychopathy" in clinical study and practice have long disappeared. In daily life, when we describe someone as "like Asperger's", it means a personality deviation that is to the degree of Asperger's "psychopathy". The history of Asperger's "psychopathy" is still developing in our culture.

  19. Interpersonal traits of psychopathy linked to reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Richard C; Pujara, Maia S; Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Here, we performed the largest diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of incarcerated criminal offenders to date (N = 147) to determine whether psychopathy severity is linked to the microstructural integrity of major white matter tracts in the brain. Consistent with the results of previous studies in smaller samples, we found that psychopathy was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF; the major white matter tract connecting ventral frontal and anterior temporal cortices). We found no such association in the left UF or in adjacent frontal or temporal white matter tracts. Moreover, the right UF finding was specifically related to the interpersonal features of psychopathy (glib superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth, pathological lying, manipulativeness), rather than the affective, antisocial, or lifestyle features. These results indicate a neural marker for this key dimension of psychopathic symptomatology.

  20. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  1. HANNIBAL REVISITED: ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER VERSUS PSYCHOPATHY--MEDICO-LEGAL PERSPECTIVES FROM SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Psychopathy and its relation to criminal behaviour has been the focus of clinical research for many years. Within the context of South African criminal law, the impact of psychopathy on criminal liability has been addressed in numerous decisions with varying outcomes all indicative of the reality that psychopathy will at most serve as a factor in mitigation of sentence, but will not exonerate an accused of criminal responsibility. In this contribution, the author reflects on the diagnostic entities of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder against the backdrop of South African criminal law cases in terms of which either of these entities were raised in support of mitigation of sentence and/or as extenuating circumstances.

  2. Violencia hacia la mujer: características psicológicas y de personalidad de los hombres que maltratan a su pareja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una revisión teórica de las principales investigaciones de la última década sobre el estudio de las características psicológicas y de personalidad de los hombres condenados por violencia hacia la mujer en la relación de pareja. La revisión efectuada atiende a tres características principales de los estudios: instrumentos de evaluación, tipo de muestra y tipologías encontradas. En cuanto los instrumentos de evaluación se han utilizado frecuentemente el MCMI en sus tres versiones (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory STAXI (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, SCL-90 (Symptom Checklist-90-R y PCL-R (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, entre otros. Respecto a las muestras utilizadas, éstas varían en tamaño y tipo (comunitaria o penitenciaria en los diferentes estudios. Esta variabilidad tanto en los instrumentos de evaluación como en el tamaño y tipo de las muestras limita claramente la comparación de las características obtenidas. Dentro de la heterogeneidad de los grupos encontrados en las distintas investigaciones existen determinadas características que se repiten de forma recurrente: características del tipo antisocial, narcisista, borderline y abuso de sustancias.

  3. A comparative study of violence risk assessment tools: a systematic review and metaregression analysis of 68 studies involving 25,980 participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jay P; Grann, Martin; Fazel, Seena

    2011-04-01

    There are a large number of structured instruments that assist in the assessment of antisocial, violent and sexual risk, and their use appears to be increasing in mental health and criminal justice settings. However, little is known about which commonly used instruments produce the highest rates of predictive validity, and whether overall rates of predictive validity differ by gender, ethnicity, outcome, and other study characteristics. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of nine commonly used risk assessment instruments following PRISMA guidelines. We collected data from 68 studies based on 25,980 participants in 88 independent samples. For 54 of the samples, new tabular data was provided directly by authors. We used four outcome statistics to assess rates of predictive validity, and analyzed sources of heterogeneity using subgroup analysis and metaregression. A tool designed to detect violence risk in juveniles, the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), produced the highest rates of predictive validity, while an instrument used to identify adults at risk for general offending, the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R), and a personality scale commonly used for the purposes of risk assessment, the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), produced the lowest. Instruments produced higher rates of predictive validity in older and in predominantly White samples. Risk assessment procedures and guidelines by mental health services and criminal justice systems may need review in light of these findings.

  4. Psicopatía y delincuencia: comparaciones y diferencias entre ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes en una cárcel chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cabrera Sánchez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se compararon ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes de una cárcel chilena en relación con la psicopatía. La muestra constó de 57 agresores sexuales y 82 delincuentes comunes, todos condenados y recluidos en el Centro Cumplimiento Penitenciario de la ciudad de Puerto Montt, Chile. El instrumento utilizado en esta investigación fue el Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R, de Robert Hare. Los resultados demuestran que el nivel de psicopatía parece no influir de manera significativa en el hecho de estar condenado por algún tipo de delito sexual; por otra parte, se aprecian niveles moderados de psicopatía en personas condenadas por delitos no violentos. A medida que aumentan las características psicopáticas se aprecia una asociación positiva con la participación en delitos violentos y/o de sangre. Se concluye que los ofensores sexuales y delincuentes comunes reincidentes presentan niveles mayores de psicopatía.

  5. Clarifying the Role of Defensive Reactivity Deficits in Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Using Startle Reflex Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Bernat, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms – an affective-interpersonal component, and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. The current study examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD—but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy, and not the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD. PMID:20973594

  6. Histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder: sex-differentiated manifestations of psychopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cale, Ellison M; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2002-02-01

    Little is known about the etiology of histrionic personality disorder (HPD) or its relation to other personality disorders. In this study, we examined whether HPD is etiologically related to psychopathy and more specifically whether HPD and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are sex-typed alternative manifestations of psychopathy. In addition, based on Newman's (1987) response modulation hypothesis of psychopathy, we examined the associations between psychopathic, HPD, and ASPD features and performance on laboratory measures of passive avoidance errors and interference effects. Seventy-five live theater actors completed self-report questionnaires and two laboratory measures of response modulation, and peers completed questionnaires concerning the participants' personality disorder features. The results provided weak and inconsistent support for the hypotheses that HPD is a female-typed variant of psychopathy and that ASPD is a male-typed variant of psychopathy. Contrary to previous findings, scores on response modulation tasks were not significantly related to psychopathy, or to either HPD or ASPD. The limitations of this study and possibilities for future research in this area are outlined.

  7. Triarchic Model of Psychopathy: Origins, Operationalizations, and Observed Linkages with Personality and General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Drislane, Laura E

    2015-12-01

    The triarchic model (Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009) was formulated to reconcile contrasting conceptions of psychopathy reflected in historic writings and contemporary assessment instruments, and to address persisting unresolved issues in the field. The model conceives of psychopathy as encompassing three distinct but interrelated phenotypic dispositions--disinhibition, boldness, and meanness--with biological referents. These dispositional constructs can be viewed as building blocks for alternative conceptions of psychopathy, and various existing psychopathy measures are presumed to index these constructs to differing degrees. This article summarizes the bases of the triarchic model in the conceptual and empirical literatures on psychopathy, and it describes linkages between the constructs of the model and established structural frameworks for personality and psychological disorders. Alternative methods for indexing the constructs of the model are described, and evidence regarding their interrelations and criterion-related validity is reviewed. Promising aspects of the model for ongoing research on psychopathy are discussed, along with current gaps in knowledge/methods and recommended avenues for future research.

  8. The strategy of psychopathy: primary psychopathic traits predict defection on low-value relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew M; Kline, Michelle; Ludmer, Mara; George, Rachel; Manson, Joseph H

    2013-04-22

    Recent evidence suggests that psychopathy is a trait continuum. This has unappreciated implications for understanding the selective advantage of psychopathic traits. Although clinical psychopathy is typically construed as a strategy of unconditional defection, subclinical psychopathy may promote strategic conditional defection, broadening the adaptive niche of psychopathy within human societies. To test this, we focus on a ubiquitous real-life source of conditional behaviour: the expected relational value of social partners, both in terms of their quality and the likely quantity of future interactions with them. We allow for conversational interaction among participants prior to their playing an unannounced, one-shot prisoner's dilemma game, which fosters naturalistic interpersonal evaluation and conditional behaviour, while controlling punishment and reputation effects. Individuals scoring higher on factor 1 (callous affect, interpersonal manipulation) of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale defected conditionally on two kinds of low-value partners: those who interrupted them more during the conversation, and those with whom they failed to discover cues to future interaction. Both interaction effects support the hypothesis that subclinical primary psychopathy potentiates defection on those with low expected relational value. These data clarify the function and form of psychopathic traits, while highlighting adaptive variation in human social strategies.

  9. Clarifying the role of defensive reactivity deficits in psychopathy and antisocial personality using startle reflex methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hall, Jason R; Patrick, Christopher J; Bernat, Edward M

    2011-02-01

    Prior research has demonstrated deficits in defensive reactivity (indexed by potentiation of the startle blink reflex) in psychopathic individuals. However, the basis of this association remains unclear, as diagnostic criteria for psychopathy encompass two distinct phenotypic components that may reflect differing neurobiological mechanisms-an affective-interpersonal component and an antisocial deviance component. Likewise, the role of defensive response deficits in antisocial personality disorder (APD), a related but distinct syndrome, remains to be clarified. In the current study, the authors examined affective priming deficits in relation to factors of psychopathy and symptoms of APD using startle reflex methods in 108 adult male prisoners. Deficits in blink reflex potentiation during aversive picture viewing were found in relation to the affective-interpersonal (Factor 1) component of psychopathy, and to a lesser extent in relation to the antisocial deviance (Factor 2) component of psychopathy and symptoms of APD-but only as a function of their overlap with affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy. These findings provide clear evidence that deficits in defensive reactivity are linked specifically to the affective-interpersonal features of psychopathy and not to the antisocial deviance features represented most strongly in APD.

  10. Risk reduction treatment of psychopathy and applications to mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen C P; Olver, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic nihilism on treating psychopathy is widespread and is largely based on many outdated and poorly designed studies. Important recent advances have been made in assessing psychopathy and recidivism risks, as well as in offender rehabilitation to reduce reoffending, all of which are now well supported by a considerable literature based on credible empirical research. A 2-component model to guide risk reduction treatment of psychopathy has been proposed based on the integration of key points from the 3 bodies of literature. Treatment programs in line with the model have been in operation, and the results of early outcome evaluations are encouraging. Important advances also have been made in understanding the possible etiology of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia and history of criminality and violence, some with significant features of psychopathy. This article presents a review of recent research on risk reduction treatment of psychopathy with the additional aim to extend the research to the treatment of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia, violence, and psychopathy.

  11. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  12. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  13. An examination of the structure of self-report psychopathy measures and their relations with general traits and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, L Alana; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R

    2011-07-01

    Self-report assessment of psychopathy is plagued by inconsistencies among the relations of the various psychopathy factors. We examined the factor structure of 3 prominent self-report measures of psychopathy-the Self-Report Psychopathy Scale-III (SRP-III; Williams, Paulhus, & Hare, 2007), the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995), and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-R (PPI-R; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). A coherent 4-factor structure resulted from conducting an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the psychopathy subscales along with the domains from the five-factor model. Two of these factors were consistent with traditional conceptualizations of a 2-factor structure of psychopathy (i.e., Factor 1, which loaded negatively with Agreeableness; Factor 2, which loaded negatively with Conscientiousness), while 2 additional factors emerged, 1 of which emphasized low Neuroticism and 1 of which emphasized traits related to novelty/reward-seeking and dominance-related personality traits (high Extraversion). We also investigated the relations of these factors with a variety of externalizing behaviors (EB). The psychopathy scales indicative of interpersonal antagonism (i.e., Factor 1) were most consistently and strongly related to EB. Our findings are discussed in terms of the importance of a trait-based perspective in the assessment of psychopathy.

  14. Are pathological narcissism and psychopathy different constructs or different names for the same thing? A study based on Italian nonclinical adult participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Pincus, Aaron L; Borroni, Serena; Munteanu, Arina Ferrari; Maffei, Cesare

    2014-06-01

    To understand the similarities and differences in personality traits and moral disengagement associated with pathological narcissism and psychopathy, 740 Italian active community members who voluntarily participated in the study were administered the Italian versions of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory, the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, the HEXACO Personality Inventory, and the Moral Disengagement Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that low Honesty-Humility and Antagonism (i.e., low Agreeableness) were personality traits common to both pathological narcissism and psychopathy, whereas low Conscientiousness was only related to psychopathy. Different associations with the HEXACO-PI scales and facets were observed for narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability, as well as for primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy. Moral disengagement represented a common feature of pathological narcissism and psychopathy that was related to narcissistic vulnerability and to primary and secondary psychopathy, but not to narcissistic grandiosity.

  15. Specific electrophysiological components disentangle affective sharing and empathic concern in psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kimberly L.; Cowell, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    Empathic impairment is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, a personality dimension associated with poverty in affective reactions, lack of attachment to others, and a callous disregard for the feelings, rights, and welfare of others. Neuroscience research on the relation between empathy and psychopathy has predominately focused on the affective sharing and cognitive components of empathy in forensic populations, and much less on empathic concern. The current study used high-density electroencephalography in a community sample to examine the spatiotemporal neurodynamic responses when viewing people in physical distress under two subjective contexts: one evoking affective sharing, the other, empathic concern. Results indicate that early automatic (175–275 ms) and later controlled responses (LPP 400–1,000 ms) were differentially modulated by engagement in affective sharing or empathic concern. Importantly, the late event-related potentials (ERP) component was significantly impacted by dispositional empathy and psychopathy, but the early component was not. Individual differences in dispositional empathic concern directly predicted gamma coherence (25–40 Hz), whereas psychopathy was inversely modulatory. Interestingly, significant suppression in the mu/alpha band (8–13 Hz) when perceiving others in distress was positively associated with higher trait psychopathy, which argues against the assumption that sensorimotor resonance underpins empathy. Greater scores on trait psychopathy were inversely related to subjective ratings of both empathic concern and affective sharing. Overall, the study demonstrates that neural markers of affective sharing and empathic concern to the same cues of another's distress can be distinguished at an electrophysiological level, and that psychopathy alters later time-locked differentiations and spectral coherence associated with empathic concern. PMID:25948868

  16. Altered resting-state functional connectivity in cortical networks in psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippi, Carissa L; Pujara, Maia S; Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph; Kiehl, Kent A; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-04-15

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous antisocial behavior and criminal recidivism. Here we examine whether psychopathy is associated with alterations in functional connectivity in three large-scale cortical networks. Using fMRI in 142 adult male prison inmates, we computed resting-state functional connectivity using seeds from the default mode network, frontoparietal network, and cingulo-opercular network. To determine the specificity of our findings to these cortical networks, we also calculated functional connectivity using seeds from two comparison primary sensory networks: visual and auditory networks. Regression analyses related network connectivity to overall psychopathy scores and to subscores for the "factors" and "facets" of psychopathy: Factor 1, interpersonal/affective traits; Factor 2, lifestyle/antisocial traits; Facet 1, interpersonal; Facet 2, affective; Facet 3, lifestyle; Facet 4, antisocial. Overall psychopathy severity was associated with reduced functional connectivity between lateral parietal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The two factor scores exhibited contrasting relationships with functional connectivity: Factor 1 scores were associated with reduced functional connectivity in the three cortical networks, whereas Factor 2 scores were associated with heightened connectivity in the same networks. This dissociation was evident particularly in the functional connectivity between anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. The facet scores also demonstrated distinct patterns of connectivity. We found no associations between psychopathy scores and functional connectivity within visual or auditory networks. These findings provide novel evidence on the neural correlates of psychopathy and suggest that connectivity between cortical association hubs, such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, may be a neurobiological marker of the disorder.

  17. Self-Report Measures of Child and Adolescent Psychopathy as Predictors of Offending in Four Samples of Justice-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Epstein, Monica; Poythress, Norman; Douglas, Kevin S.; Campbell, Justin; Gardner, Gail; Falkenbach, Diana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between self-report psychopathy measures and official records of offending in four samples of justice-involved youth (total N = 447). Psychopathy measures included the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) and a modified version of the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS). Measures of offending included the…

  18. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of Psychopathy Factors Assessed via Self-Report: A Comparison of Three Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Salekin, Randall T.; Leistico, Anne-Marie R.

    2005-01-01

    Psychopathy has been conceptualized as a personality disorder with distinctive interpersonal-affective and behavioral deviance features. The authors examine correlates of the factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Self-Report Psychopathy-II (SRP-II) scale, and Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) to understand similarities…

  19. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  20. The inverse relation between psychopathy and faking good: Not response bias but true variance in psychopathic personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Uzieblo, K.; De Schryver, M.; Douma, H.; Onraedt, T.; Crombez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to assess psychopathy through self-report is debated, amongst others, because psychopathic individuals may deliberately underreport psychopathic features (fake good). Meta-analytic research has shown an inverse relation between faking good and self-reported psychopathy, possibly indi

  1. Structural Validity of the MACI Psychopathy and Narcissism Scales: Evidence of Multidimensionality and Implications for Use in Research and Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Da Silva, Kimberley S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties and predictive validity of three self-report scales (the Psychopathy Content Scale, the Psychopathy-16 scale, and the Egotistic scale) derived from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) to screen for the presence of psychopathic and narcissistic personality characteristics. Exploratory…

  2. The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale: An Examination of the Personality Traits and Disorders Associated with the LSRP Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Pryor, Lauren R.

    2008-01-01

    There are several self-report measures of psychopathy, most of which use a two-factor structure. There is debate regarding the convergence of these factors, particularly with regard to Factor 1 (F1), which is related to the interpersonal and affective aspects of psychopathy; Factor 2 (F2) is related to the social deviance associated with…

  3. Psychopathy in Adolescence and Criminal Recidivism in Young Adulthood. Longitudinal Results from a Multiethnic Sample of Youthful Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.; Cahill, Melissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Very few studies to date have examined the long-term predictive validity of psychopathy among juveniles. The current study reports general and violent recidivism data for an ethnically heterogeneous sample of male offenders (n = 75) who had been administered the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) in 1996 when they were on average 16…

  4. Testing a Four-Factor Model of Psychopathy and Its Association With Ethnicity, Gender, Intelligence, and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J.; Neumann, Craig S.; Jackson, Rebecca L.

    2005-01-01

    Although a 2-factor model has advanced research on the psychopathy construct, a 3-factor model was recently developed that emphasized pathological personality and eliminated antisocial behavior. However, dropping antisocial behavior from the psychopathy construct may not be advantageous. Using a large sample of psychiatric patients from the…

  5. The inverse relation between psychopathy and faking good: Not response bias but true variance in psychopathic personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Uzieblo, K.; De Schryver, M.; Douma, H.; Onraedt, T.; Crombez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to assess psychopathy through self-report is debated, amongst others, because psychopathic individuals may deliberately underreport psychopathic features (fake good). Meta-analytic research has shown an inverse relation between faking good and self-reported psychopathy, possibly indi

  6. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  7. FFM description of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poy, Rosario; Segarra, Pilar; Esteller, Àngels; López, Raúl; Moltó, Javier

    2014-03-01

    This study examined differential associations between phenotypic domains of the triarchic conceptualization of psychopathy (boldness, meanness, and disinhibition; Patrick, Fowles, & Krueger, 2009), as assessed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010b), and the five-factor model (FFM) of normal personality, as indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992; Spanish version, Costa & McCrae, 1999), in 349 undergraduates (96 men). Distinctive patterns of correlations for psychopathy components did not differ significantly across gender, although relations between Meanness and Agreeableness were stronger for men than for women. Our findings are largely consistent with the conceptualization of psychopathy in terms of FFM constructs and provide discriminant evidence in support of all 3 triarchic domains. Thus, meanness is marked by low Agreeableness and some degree of low Conscientiousness, whereas disinhibition is characterized both by low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness along with high Neuroticism and Extraversion. Notably, the constellation of low Neuroticism, high Extraversion, and high Openness, with facets of low Agreeableness, supports the idea that boldness encompasses some adaptive features of psychological adjustment while depicting the interpersonal features of psychopathy. 2014 APA

  8. The moderating role of parenting on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Teresa C; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to analyze the impact of several parenting factors on the relationship between psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Nine hundred youths and their mothers reported on parent-youth interactions, and youth self-report measures of psychopathy, delinquency and violent behavior were taken. Multiple regression was used to test for the significance of interactions between parenting and psychopathy scores. In terms of delinquency, linear interactions between psychopathy and the level of conflict with parents and parents' knowledge of their youths' whereabouts/youths' willingness to disclose information were found based on the data reported by the youths. Data reported by mothers indicated a linear interaction between psychopathy and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure, and a quadratic interaction of conflict with parents. For violence, we used logistic regression models to analyze moderation. No interaction effects between psychopahy scores and parenting factors were found. Youths' reports of high conflict with parents and parents' knowledge/youth disclosure showed to have an impact on violence regardless of the level of psychopathic traits. Implications for the prevention and treatment are discussed.

  9. Psychopathy-related personality traits and shame management strategies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Markus B T; Mikkelsen, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a correlation between the amount of psychopathy-related personality traits and the type of shame management in adolescents. Two hypotheses were examined; first, that there is a positive correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more unconscious and externalized shame management strategies, and second, that there is a negative correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more conscious and internalized shame management strategies. Gender differences were also examined. In total, 236 participants were available for the study. All were secondary-level students, aged 16 to 21 years. Of these, 196 were examined: 96 were male and 100 female. The study used two self-assessment forms-the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Compass of Shame Scale (CoSS)-to measure the relevant personality characteristics. The results indicated gender differences, which led to all the analyses being conducted separately for males and females. Support was found for the study's first hypothesis, but not for the second, which was true for both males and females. Our results may have implications for the treatment of adolescents with a high percentage of psychopathy-related personality traits; they also indicate the need for more research on the association between psychopathy and shame management.

  10. Domains of psychopathy: evaluating the structure of a lexical model of psychopathic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) from a card sort perspective. The CAPP is a lexically based construct map of psychopathy comprising 33 symptoms organized by its developers into 6 broad functional domains of personality (i.e., Attachment, Behavioral, Cognitive; Dominance; Emotional, Self). Groups of mental health workers and students were asked to sort the CAPP symptoms into the model's 6 proposed domains. Overall, both mental health workers and students were able to categorize the symptoms speedily and intuitively according to model. This suggests that the CAPP model's hierarchical structure is plausible, and that the lexical nature of the model is successful in facilitating people's ability to understand features of psychopathy in a way that requires limited cognitive effort. Together, these findings support the validity of the CAPP model as a lexically based concept map of psychopathy. Yet, some exceptions to the overall pattern of agreement with model were identified.

  11. Triarchic Psychopathy Measure: Validity in Relation to Normal-Range Traits, Personality Pathology, and Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagov, Pavel S; Patrick, Christopher J; Oost, Kathryn M; Goodman, Joshua A; Pugh, Alan T

    2016-02-01

    The triarchic model of psychopathy replaces a syndromal view of this pathological personality condition with a tripartite trait-based conception, positing three distinct phenotypic dispositions as building blocks for what theorists have traditionally termed psychopathy. The Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) offers an efficient means for measuring the three dimensions to facilitate research on the model's validity. We tested the reliability of the TriPM as well as its convergent and discriminant validity with respect to differing models of personality and other criterion variables reflecting social-emotional adjustment and mental health in an undergraduate participant sample (n = 120). The TriPM evidenced excellent internal consistencies, good test-retest reliability, and strong validity consistent with the triarchic model. We discuss the results with respect to prior research and offer suggestions for future research on the validity of the TriPM and the triarchic model.

  12. Examining the Relationships Between the Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs and Behavioral Deviance in a Community Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, C Adam; Cox, Jennifer; Kopkin, Megan R

    2017-05-17

    Few studies have examined the extent to which psychopathic traits relate to the commission of mild to moderate acts of deviance, such as vandalism and minor traffic violations. Given that psychopathy is now studied in community populations, the relationship between psychopathic traits and less severe deviant behaviors, which are more normative among noninstitutionalized samples, warrants investigation. The current study examined the relationships between the triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick, Fowles & Krueger, 2009) and seven forms of deviant behavior (drug use, alcohol use, theft, vandalism, school misconduct, assault, and general deviance) in a nationally representative sample. Triarchic disinhibition positively predicted each form of normative deviance. Boldness positively predicted drug and alcohol use as well as general deviance, while meanness negatively predicted school misconduct. Boldness and disinhibition also positively predicted overall lifetime engagement in deviant behavior. Implications are discussed, including support of the role of boldness within the psychopathy construct.

  13. Physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, habitual aggression, and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the existing literature on physiological correlates of psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and persistent violence/aggression. Coverage is provided of findings from studies utilizing peripheral, electrocortical, and neuroimaging measures. The review begins with a discussion of how psychopathy and antisocial personality are defined, and how these conditions relate to one another and to violent behavior. A case is made that the relationships psychopathy and ASPD show with violent and aggressive behavior, and similarities and differences in associations of each with physiological measures of various types can be understood in terms of symptomatic features these conditions have in common versus features that distinguish them. Following this, an overview is provided of major lines of evidence emerging from psychophysiological and neuroimaging studies conducted to date on these conditions. The final section of the chapter summarizes what has been learned from these existing studies and discusses implications and directions for future research.

  14. Mentalizing Mediates the Relationship Between Psychopathy and Type of Aggression in Schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence demonstrates that psychopathy is associated with premeditated aggression. However, studies have failed to explain why this association exists and whether socio-cognitive functions, such as mentalizing, could explain the relation. This cross-sectional study investigates, in 108...... patients with schizophrenia, the association of psychopathy and mentalizing abilities with premeditated and impulsive aggression and probes the nature of their influence on these specific aggression patterns. Patients' engagement in premeditated aggression was associated with diminishing mentalizing...... and increasing psychopathic tendencies. Moreover, mediation analyses reveal that the ability to attribute mental states to others mediates the relation between psychopathy and type of aggression. This mediation is facilitated by a specific mentalizing profile characterized by the presence of intact cognitive...

  15. Relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Larry C

    2013-08-01

    Two studies investigate relationships between individual differences in motivation and borderline personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. Participants completed the Brief Assessment of Individual Motives 1--Revised, a measure of 15 putative evolved motives (i.e., "traits of action"). In Study 1, N = 147 adult participants also completed the Borderline Personality Questionnaire and Self-Report Psychopathy III Questionnaire (SRP III). In Study 2, N = 135 college age participants also completed the SRP III and the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms-62. Regression analyses suggested that individual differences in motivational traits account for moderate amounts of variance in measures of antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and maladjustment. They also suggested that lower motivation to engage in cooperative behaviors (e.g., sharing resources and forming coalitions) is related to impaired interpersonal relationships and maladjustment.

  16. Learning-style bias and the development of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moul, Caroline; Dadds, Mark R

    2013-02-01

    In accordance with a recently proposed account of amygdala function in psychopathy, it is hypothesized that people with high levels of psychopathic personality traits have a bias in learning style to encode the general valence, and neglect the specific-features, of an outcome. We present a novel learning task designed to operationalize these biases in learning style. The results from pilot samples of healthy adults and children and from a clinical sample of children with conduct problems provide support for the validity of the learning task as a measure of learning style and demonstrate a significant relationship between general-valence style learning and psychopathic personality traits. It is suggested that this relationship may be important for the aetiology of the social-cognitive deficits exhibited by psychopaths. These preliminary results suggest that this measure of learning style has the potential to be utilized as a research tool and may assist with the early identification, and treatment, of children with conduct problems and high levels of callous-unemotional traits.

  17. Assortative Mating for Psychopathy Components and its Effects on the Relationship Quality in Intimate Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kardum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined assortative mating for psychopathy components as well as its effects on the relationship quality in intimate partners. Compared to the original structure we confirmed three factors of psychopathy: criminal tendencies (CT, erratic lifestyle (ELS and interpersonal manipulation (IM, while callous affect (CA was not replicated. Hypotheses regarding positive versus negative assortment, initial assortment versus convergence, and active assortment versus social homogamy were tested. All hypotheses were examined using both variable-centered approach (VCA and couple-centered approach (CCA. We found moderate positive assortment between intimate partners in psychopathy as a latent construct estimated by structural modelling. Furthermore, positive assortment for all three components of psychopathy was found either by using only VCA (CT, only CCA (IM or both approaches (ELS. Additionally, initial assortment rather than convergence hypothesis and active assortment rather than social homogamy hypothesis was confirmed for all three psychopathy components, with a slight tendency towards divergence and social homogamy. We explored the effects of similarity in psychopathy components on the women and men' relationship quality by using profile similarity and polynomial regression analyses. Profile similarity in IM was significantly positively related to women's relationship quality, while the results of the polynomial regression analyses were more complex, and showed that only (dissimilarity in CT did not exert any effect on women and men's relationship quality. Greater disagreement between women and men's ELS was related with more sharp decrease of women's relationship quality, while men's relationship quality decreased at the higher levels of women and men's ELS. Greater disagreement between women and men's IM results in a lower women's relationship quality, while women and men's relationship quality was higher when women's IM was

  18. An examination of the association between psychopathy and dissimulation using the MMPI-2-RF validity scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Brandee E; Sellbom, Martin; Salekin, Randall T; Toomey, Joseph A; Kucharski, L Thomas; Duncan, Scott

    2013-08-01

    This investigation sought to determine whether individuals high on psychopathic traits are better able than those low on such traits to avoid detection when feigning psychopathology in the context of a forensic psychological evaluation. Study 1 tested whether individuals high on psychopathy were better able than those low on psychopathy to avoid detection by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form's (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath, Y. S., & Tellegen, A., 2008, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form: Manual for administration, scoring and interpretation, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.) overreporting (F-r, Fp-r) and underreporting (L-r and K-r) validity scales, when undergraduate students were asked to feign good, feign bad, or respond honestly. Study 2 aimed to replicate and extend the overreporting (F-r and Fp-r) analyses in a forensic pretrial sample, in which individuals were classified as malingering or not malingering using the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, R., Bagby, R. M., & Dickens, S. E., 1992, Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms. Tampa, FL, Psychological Assessment Resources.). Combined results indicated that psychopathy did not affect the utility of the MMPI-2-RF validity scales in detecting overreporting. The underreporting analyses indicated that psychopathy did not affect the utility of L-r; however, callous-aggressive (or "meanness") psychopathy traits moderated the utility of K-r in detecting those feigning psychological adjustment, such that K-r was better able to detect individuals high on, rather than low on, psychopathy when underreporting. These results are promising in terms of evidence that individuals high on psychopathic traits are not any better than individuals low on these traits in feigning during psychological evaluations.

  19. An exploration of psychopathy in self-report measures among juvenile sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Laura M; Burton, David L

    2014-05-01

    Researchers have indicated that adult psychopathy often originates in childhood or adolescence. It has also been established that psychopathic traits are linked to disruptive behavior, criminality, and violence. As knowledge about psychopathy and its manifestations in juvenile sex offender populations remains limited, several instruments have been developed in an effort to measure the construct. In this study, we assessed how the relationship of diverse scales of psychopathy related to characteristics of sexual aggression, and determined which scales were most correlated to sexual and nonsexual delinquency. We utilized four measures of juvenile psychopathy: the Modified Childhood Psychopathy Scale (mCPS; Lynam, 1997), the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Frick & Hare, 2001; Frick, O'Brien, Wootton, & McBurnett, 1994), the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI; Millon & Davis, 1993; using two derived psychopathy scales), and the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional (ICU) Traits (Frick, 2003), in a sample of 191 incarcerated adolescent sex offenders located in juvenile detention facilities across a Midwestern state. We found that of the four instruments and seven subscales, only the APSD Narcissism and Impulsivity Scale was significantly correlated to a characteristic of sexual crime (i.e., number of victims, level of crime severity). No subscales were found to predict sexual crime at a significant level. However, several scales were correlated to the total delinquency score as measured by the Self-Reported Delinquency Measure. In a series of multiple regressions, the MACI Factor 2 and ICU total score were determined as the best fit to total nonsexual delinquency. Implications are offered.

  20. Viewing the triarchic model of psychopathy through general personality and expert-based lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Lamkin, Joanna; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-07-01

    The recently articulated and increasingly prominent triarchic model of psychopathy (TPM) posits the existence of 3 components of meanness, disinhibition, and boldness. In the current studies, 2 issues are addressed. First, although typically conceptualized in isolation from trait models of personality, the TPM components may be manifestations of basic personality dimensions. In Study 1 (N = 335), we test whether basic traits from the five-factor model (FFM) can account for the TPM's psychopathy domains. The FFM domains (Mean R2 = .65) and facets (Mean R2 = .75) accounted for substantial variance in the TPM domains, suggesting that the TPM can be viewed as being nested within a broader trait framework. Second, there is disagreement about which personality components are necessary and sufficient for psychopathy. In Study 2, we examine this issue using a between subject design in which expert raters (N = 46) were asked to view an FFM profile of the TPM domains and total score derived in Study 1 and rate the degree to which an individual with this profile would manifest symptoms of psychopathy, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) personality disorders, and a variety of other psychiatric disorders. As expected, the profile associated with boldness was rated as less emblematic of psychopathy and related disorders (e.g., antisocial personality disorder; externalizing disorders) than the profiles for meanness or the total TPM score. These findings contribute to an ongoing debate addressing the degree to which domains like those articulated in the TPM are necessary or sufficient for the construct of psychopathy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Psychopathy-related traits and the use of reward and social information: A computational approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inti A Brazil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behaviour in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behaviour. However, how much information is actually used to guide behaviour is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI, a self-report psychopathy list, and performed a task involving simultaneous learning of reward-based and social information. A Bayesian reinforcement-learning model was used to parameterize the use of each source of information during learning. Subsequently, we used the subscales of the PPI to assess psychopathy-related traits, and the traits that were more strongly related to the model’s parameters were isolated through a formal variable selection procedure. Finally, we assessed how these covaried with model parameters. We succeeded in isolating key personality traits believed to be relevant for psychopathy that can be related to model-based descriptions of subject behaviour. Use of reward-history information was negatively related to levels of trait anxiety and fearlessness, whereas use of social advice decreased as the perceived ability to manipulate others and lack of anxiety increased. These results corroborate previous findings suggesting that sub-optimal use of different types of information might be implicated in psychopathy. They also further highlight the importance of considering the potential of computational modelling to understand the role of latent variables, such as the weight people give to various sources of information during goal-directed behaviour, when conducting research on psychopathy-related traits and in the field of forensic psychiatry.

  2. Prediction of recidivism in extrafamilial child molesters based on court-related assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; McCoy, M; Greenberg, D M; Curry, S; Larose, M R

    2000-07-01

    One hundred ninety-two convicted extrafamilial child molesters were followed for an average of 7.8 years after their conviction. The percentage of men who had committed a sexual, a violent, or any criminal offense by the 12th year was 15.1, 20.3, and 41.6, respectively. The sexual recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists; demonstrated more problems with alcohol and showed greater sexual arousal to assaultive stimuli involving children than to mutually consenting stimuli with children. The violent recidivists, compared with the nonrecidivists, were more likely to have a history of violence in the families in which they were raised and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the Psychopathy Checklist--Revised (PCL-R). They also showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting mutually consenting sexual interactions with children than to adult stimuli. In terms of any criminal recidivism, recidivists were younger, had completed fewer years of school, and were raised in psychologically more harmful family environments compared with nonrecidivists. They also reported that, before 16 years of age, they were more likely to have been physically abused and were more likely to have been removed from their homes compared to those that did not recidivate. In addition, recidivists demonstrated more general hostility on the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory and were rated significantly more psychopathic on the PCL-R. The phallometric assessments revealed, that the criminal recidivists, compared to the nonrecidivists, showed more sexual arousal to stimuli depicting coercive sexual activity with children than consenting sexual activities with children. In addition, they showed more sexual arousal to scenes depicting adult rape then adult mutually consenting sex. Finally, the recidivists also had more charges or convictions for violence and any criminal acts. The small number of significant differences between recidivists and nonrecidivists in the sexual and violent

  3. Gender and psychopathy: an overview of important issues and introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Petrila, John

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important concepts to ever emerge in forensic psychology and law is psychopathy. It would be difficult to exaggerate the profound effect the construct has had on research and practice in correctional psychology, psychiatry, and criminology. Much less pronounced has been an interest in understanding the potential relevance and practical implications that this personality disorder might have for providing insights into antisocial behaviors and crimes committed by girls and women. In this paper we provide an overview of some of the pressing issues confronting clinicians and researchers and provide an introduction to this special issue dedicated to gender and psychopathy. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Parsing fear: A reassessment of the evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Bulten, B.H.; Brazil, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an

  5. Impaired Attention to the Eyes of Attachment Figures and the Developmental Origins of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; Jambrak, Jasmin; Pasalich, Dave; Hawes, David J.; Brennan, John

    2011-01-01

    Background: A pervasive failure to attend and respond to emotionally salient stimuli is a core feature of psychopathy. We hypothesise that this begins early in life and is expressed most importantly as a failure to attend to core emotional features (viz., the eyes) of attachment figures. The current study tested whether impaired eye contact is a…

  6. Effect of MAOA promoter polymorphism and neuropsychological performance on psychopathy traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Romero-Rebollar

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: These findings were according to the previous studies about abnormal emotional processing and behavioral inhibition failures reported in subjects with genetic risk for violence, as well as with studies about neuropsychological performance in psychopaths. Further the MAOA genotype moderates the relationship between orbitofrontal functioning and antisocial traits of psychopathy which is a risk factor for violence.

  7. Evidence for Substantial Genetic Risk for Psychopathy in 7-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Blair, R. James R.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Plomin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background: Individuals with early warning signs of life-long psychopathy, callous-unemotional traits (CU) and high levels of antisocial behaviour (AB) can be identified in childhood. We report here the first twin study of high levels of psychopathic tendencies in young children. Methods: At the end of the first school year, teachers provided…

  8. Top-down attention and selection history in psychopathy: Evidence from a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Sergiou, Carmen S; Theeuwes, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Psychopathy is a severe personality disorder, the core of which pertains to callousness, an entitled and grandiose interpersonal style often accompanied by impulsive and reckless endangerment of oneself and others. The response modulation theory of psychopathy states that psychopathic individuals have difficulty modulating top-down attention to incorporate bottom-up stimuli that may signal important information but are irrelevant to current goals. However, it remains unclear which particular aspects of attention are impaired in psychopathy. Here, we used 2 visual search tasks that selectively tap into bottom-up and top-down attention. In addition, we also looked at intertrial priming, which reflects a separate class of processes that influence attention (i.e., selection history). The research group consisted of 65 participants that were recruited from the community. Psychopathic traits were measured with the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Uzieblo, Verschuere, & Crombez, 2007). We found that bottom-up attention was unrelated to psychopathic traits, whereas elevated psychopathic traits were related to deficits in the use of cues to facilitate top-down attention. Further, participants with elevated psychopathic traits were more strongly influenced by their previous response to the target. These results show that attentional deficits in psychopathy are largely confined to top-down attention and selection history.

  9. Examining psychopathy from an attachment perspective: the role of fear of rejection and abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Conradi; S.D. Boertien; H. Cavus; B. Verschuere

    2015-01-01

    A key feature of psychopathy, a self-centered orientation towards others and a failure to truly connect, is poorly understood. The attachment framework can be used to examine underlying interpersonal mechanisms. Because of the overall failure to connect, we anticipated, and found, in a large undergr

  10. High-risk sexual offenders: an examination of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, psychopathy, and offence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Michael; Freimuth, Tabatha; Hutton, Erin L; Carpenter, Tara; Agar, Ava D; Logan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    High-risk sexual offenders are a complex and heterogeneous group of offenders about whom researchers, clinicians, and law enforcement agencies still know relatively little. In response to the paucity of information that is specifically applicable to high-risk offenders, the present study investigated the potential influence of sexual fantasy, sexual paraphilia, and psychopathy on the offending behaviour of 139 of the highest risk sexual offenders in one province of Canada. The sample included 41 child molesters, 42 rapists, 18 rapist/molesters, 30 mixed offenders, and 6 "other" sexual offenders. Two offenders could not be categorized by type due to insufficient file information. Data analyses revealed significant differences between offender types for a number of criminal history variables including past sexual and nonsexual convictions, number of victims, weapon use, and age of offending onset. Further, there were significant differences between offender types for sexual fantasy themes, paraphilia diagnoses, and levels of psychopathy. For example, results revealed that offenders' sexual fantasies were significantly more likely to correspond with the specific type of index sexual offence that they had committed. Further, offenders scoring high in psychopathy were significantly more likely to have a sadistic paraphilia than offenders with either low or moderate psychopathy scores. Results from the current study provide a refined and informed understanding of sexual offending behaviour with important implications for future research, assessment, and treatment, as well as law enforcement practices when working with high-risk sexual offenders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesocorticolimbic dopamine functioning in primary psychopathy: A source of within-group heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Bariş O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2015-10-30

    Despite similar emotional deficiencies, primary psychopathic individuals can be situated on a continuum that spans from controlled to disinhibited. The constructs on which primary psychopaths are found to diverge, such as self-control, cognitive flexibility, and executive functioning, are crucially regulated by dopamine (DA). As such, the goal of this review is to examine which specific alterations in the meso-cortico-limbic DA system and corresponding genes (e.g., TH, DAT, COMT, DRD2, DRD4) might bias development towards a more controlled or disinhibited expression of primary psychopathy. Based on empirical data, it is argued that primary psychopathy is generally related to a higher tonic and population activity of striatal DA neurons and lower levels of D2-type DA receptors in meso-cortico-limbic projections, which may boost motivational drive towards incentive-laden goals, dampen punishment sensitivity, and increase future reward-expectancy. However, increasingly higher levels of DA activity in the striatum (moderate versus pathological elevations), lower levels of DA functionality in the prefrontal cortex, and higher D1-to-D2-type receptor ratios in meso-cortico-limbic projections may lead to increasingly disinhibited and impetuous phenotypes of primary psychopathy. Finally, in order to provide a more coherent view on etiological mechanisms, we discuss interactions between DA and serotonin that are relevant for primary psychopathy.

  12. Examining psychopathy from an attachment perspective: the role of fear of rejection and abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, H.J.; Boertien, S.D.; Cavus, H.; Verschuere, B.

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of psychopathy, a self-centered orientation towards others and a failure to truly connect, is poorly understood. The attachment framework can be used to examine underlying interpersonal mechanisms. Because of the overall failure to connect, we anticipated, and found, in a large

  13. 'Biologizing' Psychopathy: Ethical, Legal, and Research Implications at the Interface of Epigenetics and Chronic Antisocial Conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamatea, Armon J

    2015-10-01

    Epigenetics, a field that links genetics and environmental influences on the expression of phenotypic traits, offers to increase our understanding of the development and trajectory of disease and psychological disorders beyond that thought of traditional genetic research and behavioural measures. By extension, this new perspective has implications for risk and risk management of antisocial behaviour where there is a biological component, such as psychopathy. Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with repeat displays of antisocial behaviour, and is associated with the disproportionate imposition of harm on communities. Despite advances in our knowledge of psychopathic individuals, the construct remains complex and is hampered by a lack of integration across a range of fundamental domains. The clinical and forensic research on psychopathy is brought into conversation with the emerging field of epigenetics to highlight critical issues of (1) clinical definition and diagnosis, (2) assessment, (3) aetiology of psychopathic phenotypes, and (4) treatment and rehabilitation approaches. Broader ethical and legal questions of the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the management of psychopathy beyond the criminal justice arena are also outlined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Antisocial behaviour and psychopathy: uncovering the externalizing link in the P3 modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasion, Rita; Fernandes, Carina; Pereira, Mariana R; Barbosa, Fernando

    2017-03-22

    In 2009, Gao and Raine's meta-analysis analysed P3 modulation over the antisocial spectrum. However, some questions remained open regarding the P3 modulation patterns across impulsive and violent manifestations of antisocial behaviour, phenotypic components of psychopathy, and P3 components. A systematic review of 36 studies was conducted (N=3514) to extend previous results and to address these unresolved questions. A clear link between decreased P3 amplitude and antisocial behaviour was found. In psychopathy, dimensional approaches become more informative than taxonomic models. Distinct etiological pathways of psychopathy were evidenced in cognitive tasks: impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits mainly predicted blunted P3 amplitude, while interpersonal-affective psychopathic traits explained enhanced P3 amplitude. Supporting the low fear hypothesis, the interpersonal-affective traits were associated with reduced P3 amplitude in emotional-affective learning tasks. From the accumulated knowledge we propose a framework of P3 amplitude modulation that uncovers the externalizing link between psychopathy and antisocial behaviour. However, the main hypotheses are exploratory and call for more data before stablishing robust conclusions.

  15. A review on the relationship between testosterone and the interpersonal/affective facet of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Baris O; Derksen, Jan J L

    2012-05-30

    Testosterone (T) has received increasing interest in the recent years as a probable biological determinant in the etiology of male-biased clinical conditions such as psychopathy (i.e. psychopathy is more prevalent in men and leads to an earlier onset and more severe expression of antisocial and aggressive behavior in men compared to women). In this review, the authors evaluated the potential relationship between T and different constructs closely related to the core characteristics of psychopathy (affective empathy, fear-reactivity, and instrumental aggression). After a thorough examination of the literature, it is concluded that high T exposure in utero and high circulating T levels throughout important life phases (most notably adolescence) or in response to social challenges (e.g. social stress, competition) could be an important etiological risk factor in the emergence of psychopathic behavior. Nevertheless, studies consistently indicate that high T is not related to a significantly reduced fear-reactivity and is only indirectly associated with the increased levels of instrumental aggression observed in psychopathic individuals. Therefore, psychopathy is likely to arise from an interaction between high T levels and other biological and socio-psychological risk factors, such as a constitutionally based dampened fear-reactivity, insecure/disordered attachment processes in childhood, and social discrimination/rejection in adolescence and/or adulthood.

  16. Unmasking feigned sanity: a neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessn

  17. Can family risk-factors moderate the link between psychopathy and life-history strategy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life History Theory is an explanatory evolutionary framework which explains differences in fitness-relevant outcomes using the characteristics of the environment and individual organisms. Basically, individuals can be positioned somewhere on the r/K continuum of the Life History Strategy (LHS: a K or slow strategy represents later maturity and reproduction, a smaller number of offspring with higher investment in them, while the r (or fast strategy follows the opposite pattern. Previous research offered evidence that psychopathy can represent a trait associated with fast LHS. In the present research we examined the relations between the family risk-factors, a four-factor model of psychopathy and the LHS in a sample of male convicts (N=181. The results have shown that a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style is associated with slow LHS while shallow affect and antisocial tendencies are related to fast LHS. The interactions between psychopathy and family risk-factors revealed that parental criminal behaviour enhances the relation between fast LHS and psychopathic traits, including the manipulative interpersonal style. The findings are in accordance with the Life History Theory and provide a deeper understanding of the preservation of psychopathy in contemporary populations.

  18. Youth psychopathy: Differential correlates of callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the validity of the dimensional approach to psychopathy in both children and adults. The occurrence of severe aggressive and antisocial behavior in combination with callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) designates a group of children that is particularly at risk to develop psychop

  19. Implicit vs. explicit dimensions of guilt and dominance in criminal psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, L.; Bernstein, D.P.; Cima, M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between psychopathy and two concepts that hold a central position in conceptualizations of this disorder, being guilt and dominance. Both constructs were measured using explicit measures (i.e., self-report), as well as indirect assessment (i.e., the Si

  20. Youth psychopathy: Differential correlates of callous-unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feilhauer, J.; Cima, M.

    2013-01-01

    Research supports the validity of the dimensional approach to psychopathy in both children and adults. The occurrence of severe aggressive and antisocial behavior in combination with callous-unemotional traits (CU traits) designates a group of children that is particularly at risk to develop psychop

  1. Examining psychopathy from an attachment perspective: the role of fear of rejection and abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conradi, H.J.; Boertien, S.D.; Cavus, H.; Verschuere, B.

    2016-01-01

    A key feature of psychopathy, a self-centered orientation towards others and a failure to truly connect, is poorly understood. The attachment framework can be used to examine underlying interpersonal mechanisms. Because of the overall failure to connect, we anticipated, and found, in a large undergr

  2. Effect of Psychopathy on Physical Aggression Toward Gay and Heterosexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of psychopathy on antigay aggression. Participants were 84 heterosexual men who competed in an aggression paradigm in which electric shocks were received from and administered to a randomly determined fictitious opponent (heterosexual male, gay male) during a competitive reaction time…

  3. The Utility of the Child and Adolescent Psychopathy Construct in Hong Kong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai-Chu; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined the nature of child and adolescent psychopathy using the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) in 3,675 schoolchildren (ages 11-16) in Hong Kong, China. A confirmatory factor analysis observed a good fit for the three-factor model (callous-unemotional, impulsivity, narcissism) of APSD, with boys scoring…

  4. Heavy Episodic Drinking in College Students: Associations with Features of Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvers, Patrick; Landfield, Kristin E.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study extends the college heavy episodic drinking literature by examining the associations between features of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), on the one hand, and heavy episodic drinking and associated problem behaviors, on the other. Participants: Participants were 159 (85 male, 74 female) undergraduates…

  5. Adolescent Conduct Disorder and Interpersonal Callousness as Predictors of Psychopathy in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Loeber, Rolf; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2007-01-01

    Unfortunately, very little research has examined the link between antisocial personality traits in childhood and adult psychopathy. This study used data from a clinic-referred sample of 177 boys, assessed annually from recruitment (ages 7 to 12) through age 19. Parent and teacher ratings of interpersonal callousness (IC) were tested at predictors…

  6. Diagnostic Labeling in Juvenile Court: How Do Descriptions of Psychopathy and Conduct Disorder Influence Judges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; McCoy, Wendy; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of diagnostic criteria and diagnostic labels for psychopathy or conduct disorder on judicial decisions. A national sample of judges (N = 326) rendered hypothetical dispositions based on 1 of 12 mock psychological evaluations. The evaluations varied the presence of 2 sets of diagnostic criteria (antisocial…

  7. Unmasking feigned sanity: a neurobiological model of emotion processing in primary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The neurobiological basis of primary psychopathy, an emotional disorder characterised by a lack of fear and empathy, on the one hand, and extremely violent, antisocial tendencies, on the other, is relatively unknown. Nevertheless, theoretical models that emphasise the role of fearlessn

  8. Parsing fear: A reassessment of the evidence for fear deficits in psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Bulten, B.H.; Brazil, I.A.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by interpersonal manipulation and callousness, and reckless and impulsive antisocial behavior. It is often seen as a disorder in which profound emotional disturbances lead to antisocial behavior. A lack of fear in particular has been proposed as an

  9. Effects of a Parenting Intervention on Features of Psychopathy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Renee; Dodson, Mary Catherine; Rosenfield, David; Jouriles, Ernest N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether Project Support, a parenting intervention shown to reduce child conduct problems, also exerts positive effects on features of psychopathy in children. Participants were 66 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters who participated in a randomized controlled trial evaluating Project…

  10. Predicting Recidivism with the Psychopathy Checklist: Are Factor Score Composites Really Necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Wilson, Nick J.; Glover, Anthony J. J.

    2011-01-01

    In two previous studies on general and violent recidivism (Walters & Heilbrun, 2010; Walters, Knight, Grann, & Dahle, 2008), the summed composite antisocial facet of the Psychopathy Checklist displayed incremental validity relative to the other 3 facets (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle), whereas the other 3 facets generally failed to…

  11. Dimensions of Psychopathy and Their Relationships to Cognitive Functioning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Barker, Edward D.; Salekin, Randall T.; Viding, Essi

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathic traits are hypothesized to be free of intellectual deficits and possibly even to exhibit good cognitive abilities. Previous studies, based on clinical and incarcerated youth, have shown inconsistent findings. We investigated the relationships between different dimensions of psychopathy (callous/unemotional traits,…

  12. Cross-Validation of Levenson's Psychopathy Scale in a Sample of Federal Female Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, Chad A.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Heigel, Caron P.

    2008-01-01

    Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRPS) is evaluated to determine the factor structure and concurrent validity of the instrument among 430 federal female inmates. Confirmatory factor analysis fails to validate the expected 2-factor structure. Subsequent exploratory factor analysis reveals a 3-factor structure…

  13. Psychopathy, Treatment Change, and Recidivism in High-Risk, High-Need Sexual Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looman, Jan; Abracen, Jeffrey; Serin, Ralph; Marquis, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 154 consecutive admissions to the Regional Treatment Center (Ontario) Sex Offender Treatment Program with reference to psychopathy and outcome. Ratings of treatment behavior, as well as clinical judgments as to whether risk was reduced, were coded based on treatment reports. With reference to Psychopathy…

  14. Ethnic differences in the relationship between psychopathy and (re) offending in a sample of juvenile delinquents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; Dekovic, Maja; Wissink, Inge B.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Manders, Willeke A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on the relationship between psychopathy and delinquency in a multiethnic sample of juvenile offenders (N=207, n=105 native Dutch, and n=102 immigrants) referred to a treatment program. Aims were (1) to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the Antisocial Process Screening

  15. Psychopathy, Treatment Behavior, and Recidivism: An Extended Follow-Up of Seto and Barbaree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaree, Howard E.

    2005-01-01

    Seto and Barbaree reported the unexpected finding that adult male sex offenders who scored higher on psychopathy and exhibited better behavior in treatment were almost four times more likely to commit a new serious offence than other offenders once released. The present study reexamined this sample after a longer follow-up time using more complete…

  16. Antisocial Psychopathy and HIV Risk among Alcohol and Other Drug (AOD Abusing Adolescent Offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Malow

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While the consensus is that HIV prevalence has remained low among adolescent offenders, the prevalence of STDs and HIV transmission risk behaviors is alarming, particularly for those abusing alcohol and other drugs and those displaying antisocial or conduct disorder characteristics. In the current study, 269 male and 110 female inner city, culturally diverse alcohol and other drug (AOD abusing adolescent offenders completed measures of (a psychopathy, using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI (b HIV transmission risk behavior, (c prevention skills and attitudes and (d social desirability. Results showed that those with high levels of psychopathy reported more AOD use, overall unprotected sex and more sexual activity when influenced by alcohol and/or marijuana. High psychopathy adolescent offenders also reported lower self-efficacy and sexual response-efficacy, less favorable safer sex and condom attitudes and less favorable intentions to engage in safer sex behaviors, when controlling for social desirability. Data suggest that adolescent offenders, who are either in court-ordered treatment or detention, should be assessed for psychopathy and provided with tailored risk reduction interventions, geared toward attitudinal and behavioral change. A discussion of integrating neurobiological measures to improve the next generation of tailored interventions for this risk group is offered in conclusion.

  17. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results

  18. Identifying Essential Features of Juvenile Psychopathy in the Prediction of Later Antisocial Behavior: Is There an Additive, Synergistic, or Curvilinear Role for Fearless Dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vize, Colin E; Lynam, Donald R; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Pardini, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Despite years of research, and inclusion of psychopathy DSM-5, there remains debate over the fundamental components of psychopathy. Although there is agreement about traits related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness, there is less agreement about traits related to Fearless Dominance (FD) or Boldness. The present paper uses proxies of FD and Self-centered Impulsivity (SCI) to examine the contribution of FD-related traits to the predictive utility of psychopathy in a large, longitudinal, sample of boys to test four possibilities: FD 1. assessed earlier is a risk factor, 2. interacts with other risk-related variables to predict later psychopathy, 3. interacts with SCI interact to predict outcomes, and 4. bears curvilinear relations to outcomes. SCI received excellent support as a measure of psychopathy in adolescence; however, FD was unrelated to criteria in all tests. It is suggested that FD be dropped from psychopathy and that future research focus on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas and interpersonal problems in Norwegian offenders suffering from psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Stedal, Lise-Martine; Welander, Malin

    2015-01-01

    People suffering from psychopathy are known to have difficulties in relating to others, and according to Schema Theory, there is a close connection between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and interpersonal problems. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychopathy, EMSs, and interpersonal problems. A sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 16) completed the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL:SV), the Young Schema Questionnaire ...

  20. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.

  1. Psychopathy in juvenile offenders. Can temperament and attachment be considered as robust developmental precursors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaris, Christina

    2002-06-01

    Attempts to predict adult psychopathy generally focus on aggressive and antisocial behavior exhibited in childhood and adolescence. Yet, children with conduct problems constitute a heterogeneous group, and many of the unique interpersonal and affective features associated with the construct of psychopathy only apply to a small subset of children displaying antisocial behavior. The current review seeks to derive an understanding of the specific precursors of the apparently amoral, affectionless, and self-centered orientation that psychopathic youngsters display towards other people. The focus is on the notions of temperament and attachment in early childhood, and their links to the emergence of moral emotions later in life. Based on a developmental perspective, the data currently available are examined, highlighting the insights gained from this body of work and outlining the conceptual and methodological challenges that still need to be addressed.

  2. Comparing the constructs of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet I; South, Susan C

    2006-01-01

    Our study examines the relationship between Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) and psychopathy among a sample of 137 female offenders. Drawing from a historical review of the evolution of these two concepts, we explore their differential relationship to patterns of criminal behavior, psychological adjustment, co-morbidity with other personality disorders, victimization, and institutional adjustment. Findings suggest that the two disorders share a common foundation of social norm violations and deception; however, APD is associated with impulsive, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior, higher rates of childhood abuse, and greater co-morbidity with Cluster A PDs, while psychopathy is better characterized by higher rates of property crimes, previous incarceration, and the manifestation of remorselessness. Results contribute to a further understanding of the etiology and phenomenology of these two disorders and suggest different types of treatment and intervention.

  3. Punishment and psychopathy: a case-control functional MRI investigation of reinforcement learning in violent antisocial personality disordered men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Sarah; Blair, R James; Ffytche, Dominic; Simmons, Andrew; Kumari, Veena; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel

    2015-02-01

    Men with antisocial personality disorder show lifelong abnormalities in adaptive decision making guided by the weighing up of reward and punishment information. Among men with antisocial personality disorder, modification of the behaviour of those with additional diagnoses of psychopathy seems particularly resistant to punishment. We did a case-control functional MRI (fMRI) study in 50 men, of whom 12 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, 20 were violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder but not psychopathy, and 18 were healthy non-offenders. We used fMRI to measure brain activation associated with the representation of punishment or reward information during an event-related probabilistic response-reversal task, assessed with standard general linear-model-based analysis. Offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy displayed discrete regions of increased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula in response to punished errors during the task reversal phase, and decreased activation to all correct rewarded responses in the superior temporal cortex. This finding was in contrast to results for offenders without psychopathy and healthy non-offenders. Punishment prediction error signalling in offenders with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy was highly atypical. This finding challenges the widely held view that such men are simply characterised by diminished neural sensitivity to punishment. Instead, this finding indicates altered organisation of the information-processing system responsible for reinforcement learning and appropriate decision making. This difference between violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without psychopathy has implications for the causes of these disorders and for treatment approaches. National Forensic Mental Health Research and Development Programme, UK Ministry of Justice, Psychiatry Research Trust, NIHR

  4. Development and Validation of MMPI-2-RF Scales for Indexing Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Drislane, Laura E; Johnson, Alexandria K; Goodwin, Brandee E; Phillips, Tasha R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    The triarchic model characterizes psychopathy in terms of three distinct dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The model can be operationalized through scales designed specifically to index these domains or by using items from other inventories that provide coverage of related constructs. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing the triarchic model domains using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). A consensus rating approach was used to identify items relevant to each triarchic domain, and following psychometric refinement, the resulting MMPI-2-RF-based triarchic scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in relation to multiple psychopathy-relevant criterion variables in offender and nonoffender samples. Expected convergent and discriminant associations were evident very clearly for the Boldness and Disinhibition scales and somewhat less clearly for the Meanness scale. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all MMPI-2-RF triarchic scales incremented standard MMPI-2-RF scale scores in predicting extant triarchic model scale scores. The widespread use of MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic settings provides avenues for both clinical and research applications in contexts where traditional psychopathy measures are less likely to be administered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A Drifting Concept for an Unruly Menace: A History of Psychopathy in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghigian, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The term "psychopath" has enjoyed wide currency both in popular culture and among specialists in forensic psychiatry. Historians, however, have generally neglected the subject. This essay examines the history of psychopathy in the country that first coined the term, developed the concept, and debated its treatment: Germany. While the notion can be traced to nineteenth-century psychiatric ideas about abnormal, yet not completely pathological, character traits, the figure of the psychopath emerged out of distinctly twentieth-century preoccupations and institutions. The vagueness and plasticity of the diagnosis of psychopathy proved to be one of the keys to its success, as it was embraced and employed by clinicians, researchers, and the mass media, despite attempts by some to curb its use. Within the span of a few decades, the image of the psychopath became one of a perpetual troublemaker, an individual who could not be managed within any institutional setting. By midcentury, psychopaths were no longer seen as simply nosological curiosities; rather, they were spatial problems, individuals whose defiance of institutional routine and attempts at social redemption stood in for an attributed mental status. The history of psychopathy therefore reveals how public dangers and risks can be shaped and defined by institutional limitations.

  6. Affective startle potentiation differentiates primary and secondary variants of juvenile psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Goulter, Natalie; Hall, Jason

    2017-10-01

    Individuals with psychopathic traits show an attenuated emotional response to aversive stimuli. However, recent evidence suggests heterogeneity in emotional reactivity among individuals with psychopathic or callous-unemotional (CU) traits in the identification of primary and secondary subtypes, or variants. We hypothesized that primary CU variants will respond with blunted affect to negatively valenced stimuli, whereas individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment, fitting with theoretical conceptualizations of secondary psychopathy, will display heightened emotional reactivity. To test this hypothesis, we examined fear-potentiated startle between CU variants while viewing aversive, pleasant, and neutral scenes. Two hundred thirty-eight incarcerated adolescent (M age = 16.8 years, SD = 1.11 years) boys completed a picture-startle paradigm and self-report questionnaires assessing CU traits, aggressive behavior, and maltreatment. Latent profile analysis of CU trait, aggression, and maltreatment scores identified four classes: primary psychopathy variants (high CU traits, high aggression, low maltreatment; n = 46), secondary psychopathy variants (high CU traits, high aggression, high maltreatment; n = 42), and two nonpsychopathic groups differentiated on maltreatment experience (n = 148). Primary CU variants displayed reduced startle potentiation to aversive images relative to control, maltreated, and also secondary variants that exhibited greater startle modulation. Findings add to a rapidly growing body of literature supporting the possibility of multiple developmental pathways to psychopathic traits (i.e., equifinality), and extend it by finding support for divergent potential biomarkers between primary and secondary CU variants.

  7. Inhibitory control and negative emotional processing in psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Sprague, Jenessa; Sadeh, Naomi

    2012-05-01

    The field of personality disorders has had a long-standing interest in understanding interactions between emotion and inhibitory control, as well as neurophysiological indices of these processes. More work in particular is needed to clarify differential deficits in offenders with antisocial personality disorder (APD) who differ on psychopathic traits, as APD and psychopathy are considered separate, albeit related, syndromes. Evidence of distinct neurobiological processing in these disorders would have implications for etiology-based personality disorder taxonomies in future psychiatric classification systems. To inform this area of research, we recorded event-related brain potentials during an emotional-linguistic Go/No-Go task to examine modulation of negative emotional processing by inhibitory control in three groups: psychopathy (n = 14), APD (n = 16), and control (n = 15). In control offenders, inhibitory control demands (No-Go vs. Go) modulated frontal-P3 amplitude to negative emotional words, indicating appropriate prioritization of inhibition over emotional processing. In contrast, the psychopathic group showed blunted processing of negative emotional words regardless of inhibitory control demands, consistent with research on emotional deficits in psychopathy. Finally, the APD group demonstrated enhanced processing of negative emotion words in both Go and No-Go trials, suggesting a failure to modulate negative emotional processing when inhibitory control is required. Implications for emotion-cognition interactions and putative etiological processes in these personality disorders are discussed.

  8. Subclinical primary psychopathy, but not physical formidability or attractiveness, predicts conversational dominance in a zero-acquaintance situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joseph H; Gervais, Matthew M; Fessler, Daniel M T; Kline, Michelle A

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of conversational dominance are not well understood. We used videotaped triadic interactions among unacquainted same-sex American college students to test predictions drawn from the theoretical distinction between dominance and prestige as modes of human status competition. Specifically, we investigated the effects of physical formidability, facial attractiveness, social status, and self-reported subclinical psychopathy on quantitative (proportion of words produced), participatory (interruptions produced and sustained), and sequential (topic control) dominance. No measure of physical formidability or attractiveness was associated with any form of conversational dominance, suggesting that the characteristics of our study population or experimental frame may have moderated their role in dominance dynamics. Primary psychopathy was positively associated with quantitative dominance and (marginally) overall triad talkativeness, and negatively associated (in men) with affect word use, whereas secondary psychopathy was unrelated to conversational dominance. The two psychopathy factors had significant opposing effects on quantitative dominance in a multivariate model. These latter findings suggest that glibness in primary psychopathy may function to elicit exploitable information from others in a relationally mobile society.

  9. Psychopathy in women: Prediction of criminality and violence in UK and USA psychiatric patients resident in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola S; Snowden, Robert J

    2016-03-30

    Psychopathy is an important clinical construct often used in the assessment and management of psychiatric patients and offenders. This, in part, is due to the strong association between psychopathy, crime, and particularly violent crime. However, there are few studies of these associations in women. These relationships were examined using information from two large databases. The Partnerships in Care database contains data from a sample of forensic psychiatric patients (154 women and 777 men) in the UK that were discharged from secure psychiatric units. Follow-up was via official conviction data within the next 2 years. The MacArthur study examined violence and aggression in a sample of civil psychiatric patients (367 women and 496 men) in the USA following discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital. Follow-up was via a mixture of self-report, informant report and official records. Psychopathy in both samples was measured via the PCL:SV prior to discharge. Psychopathy was a good predictor of target events for the women in both samples and for all time intervals used. No significant gender differences in the PCL:SV's predictive efficacy were found. The results provide a strong evidence-base for the use of psychopathy in women when considering future community behaviour and reoffending.

  10. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  11. Subclinical primary psychopathy, but not physical formidability or attractiveness, predicts conversational dominance in a zero-acquaintance situation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H Manson

    Full Text Available The determinants of conversational dominance are not well understood. We used videotaped triadic interactions among unacquainted same-sex American college students to test predictions drawn from the theoretical distinction between dominance and prestige as modes of human status competition. Specifically, we investigated the effects of physical formidability, facial attractiveness, social status, and self-reported subclinical psychopathy on quantitative (proportion of words produced, participatory (interruptions produced and sustained, and sequential (topic control dominance. No measure of physical formidability or attractiveness was associated with any form of conversational dominance, suggesting that the characteristics of our study population or experimental frame may have moderated their role in dominance dynamics. Primary psychopathy was positively associated with quantitative dominance and (marginally overall triad talkativeness, and negatively associated (in men with affect word use, whereas secondary psychopathy was unrelated to conversational dominance. The two psychopathy factors had significant opposing effects on quantitative dominance in a multivariate model. These latter findings suggest that glibness in primary psychopathy may function to elicit exploitable information from others in a relationally mobile society.

  12. Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically.

  13. Understanding the Relationship Between Suicidality and Psychopathy: An Examination of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Joye C; Anestis, Michael D; Rufino, Katrina A; Cramer, Robert J; Miller, Holly; Khazem, Lauren R; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-07-02

    A number of studies have reported a bifurcated relationship between psychopathy and suicidality, such that suicidality is positively related to Factor 2 (impulsive-antisocial lifestyle) of psychopathy but negatively related or unrelated to Factor 1 (affective-interpersonal deficits). The present study aims to expand these findings by investigating this relationship through the lens of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior across both undergraduate and forensic samples. We hypothesized that, although both Factors 1 and 2 would be associated with the acquired capability for suicide, Factor 2 would exhibit a unique relationship with suicidal desire (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Results were largely supportive of these hypotheses, although differences were noted across samples and measures. Findings highlight the importance of precision in the assessment of antisociality and suggest potential differences in the construct of psychopathy between non-criminal and criminal samples.

  14. Psicopatía y violación: un estudio con ofensores sexuales costarricenses Violation and Psychopath: a study with Costarican sexual offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saborío Valverde

    2005-03-01

    de los subtipos del MTC: R3 agrupados mostró en el presente estudio un patrón bastante similar al reportado por Brown (1994. Esto probablemente significa que cuando la tipología de violadores MTC: R3 es utilizada con poblaciones de violadores equivalentes, probablemente se producirán distribuciones análogas. Sin embargo, esta es una estimación preliminar a un sistema de clasificación metodológicamente muy complejo que debe ser estudiado mucho más con poblaciones penales costarricenses.The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between psychopathy as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R, Hare, 1991 and rapist subtype according to the Massachusetts Treatment Center Rapist Typology (MTC: R3, Knight & Prentky, 1990 in a sample of incarcerated rapists in Costa Rica. The main goals of the present study were to empirically explore the role of psychopathy in the configuration of different rape subtypes and to examine the applicability of specialized psychological forensic approaches to Costa Rican criminal populations. The proportion of rapists in this study who scored 30 or higher on the PCL-R (35% fell somewhere in between rates reported in similar studies. The prevalence of psychopathy obtained in this sample of Costa Rican rapists selected from a medium and maximum security facility is very encouraging methodologically due to the similar distribution with other North American samples of equivalent rapists. Reliability analyses of the PCL-R were acceptable and consistent with previous findings. The interrater agreement (ICC's and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients are within the range of values observed by other studies (Hare, 1991; Brown, 1994, Molto et. al, 2000. Results from the MTC: R3 produced remarkable differences between the psychopathic and nonpsychopathic rapists as hypothesized. Confirming previous findings (Barbaree et al., 1994; Brown, 1994; Brown & Forth, 1997; Prentky et al., 1997, psychopathic

  15. Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire data on alcoholic violent offenders: specific connections to severe impulsive cluster B personality disorders and violent criminality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Nina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity of traditional categorical personality disorder diagnoses is currently re-evaluated from a continuous perspective, and the evolving DSM-V classification may describe personality disorders dimensionally. The utility of dimensional personality assessment, however, is unclear in violent offenders with severe personality pathology. Methods The temperament structure of 114 alcoholic violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD was compared to 84 offenders without ASPD, and 170 healthy controls. Inclusion occurred during a court-ordered mental examination preceded by homicide, assault, battery, rape or arson. Participants underwent assessment of temperament with the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ and were diagnosed with DSM-III-R criteria. Results The typical temperament profile in violent offender having ASPD comprised high novelty seeking, high harm avoidance, and low reward dependence. A 21% minority scored low in trait harm avoidance. Results, including the polarized harm avoidance dimension, are in accordance with Cloninger's hypothesis of dimensional description of ASPD. The low harm avoidance offenders committed less impulsive violence than high harm avoidance offenders. High harm avoidance was associated with comorbid antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Conclusion Results indicate that the DSM based ASPD diagnosis in alcoholic violent offenders associates with impulsiveness and high novelty seeking but comprises two different types of ASPD associated with distinct second-order traits that possibly explain differences in type of violent criminality. Low harm avoidance offenders have many traits in common with high scorers on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R. Results link high harm avoidance with broad personality pathology and argue for the usefulness of self-report questionnaires in clinical praxis.

  16. Triarchic Psychopathy Dimensions in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes: Investigating Associations with Genetic Variation in the Vasopressin Receptor 1A Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Latzman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vasopressin is a neuropeptide known to be associated with the development and evolution of complex socio-emotional behaviors including those relevant to psychopathic personality. In both humans and chimpanzees, recent research suggests a strong genetic contribution to individual variation in psychopathic traits. To date, however, little is known concerning specific genes that might explain the observed heritability of psychopathy. In a relatively large sample of captive chimpanzees (N = 164, the current study thus sought to investigate gene-environment associations between triarchic psychopathy dimensions (i.e., disinhibition, meanness, and boldness and (1 early social rearing experiences and (2 polymorphisms in the promoter region of the V1A receptor gene (AVPR1A. Among chimpanzees raised by their biological conspecific mothers, AVPR1A was found to uniquely explain variability in disinhibition and in sex-specific ways for boldness and a total psychopathy score; however, in contrast, no significant associations were found between AVPR1A and any of the triarchic psychopathy dimensions in chimpanzees raised the first 3 years of life in a human nursery. Thus, when considered in its entirety, results suggest an important contributory influence of V1A receptor genotype variation in the explanation of the development of psychopathy under some but not all early rearing conditions. Results of the current study provide additional support for the assertion that psychopathic tendencies are rooted in basic, evolutionarily-meaningful dispositions, and provide support for a primate-translational operationalization of key neurobehavioral constructs relevant both to psychopathy and to broader forms of psychopathology.

  17. Perceived supervisor’s subclinical psychopathy, and subordinate’s organizational commitment, job satisfaction and satisfaction with executive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELŻBIETA SANECKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the correlations between supervisor`s perceived subclinical psychopathy and subordinate`s organizational commitment, overall job satisfaction and particularly satisfaction with his/her supervisor. The results, based on a sample of 153 employees, showed that subordinates working with leaders, who can be defined as organizational (or industrial, corporate psychopaths, tended to adopt more negative work attitudes. Supervisor`s perceived subclinical psychopathy had a negative impact on subordinates’ job satisfaction, satisfaction with supervisor and their organizational commitment. The paper discusses the results and limitations of the study, and offers suggestions for future research. Keywords: ; ; ; ; ;

  18. Communicating the Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Its Influence on Moral Behavior: Protocol of Two Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Robert; Askelund, Adrian D.; Boccanera, Matilde; Immonen, Johanna; Plohl, Nejc; Popham, Cassandra; Sorger, Clarissa; Stuhlreyer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroscience has identified brain structures and functions that correlate with psychopathic tendencies. Since psychopathic traits can be traced back to physical neural attributes, it has been argued that psychopaths are not truly responsible for their actions and therefore should not be blamed for their psychopathic behaviors. This experimental research aims to evaluate what effect communicating this theory of psychopathy has on the moral behavior of lay people. If psychopathy is blamed on the brain, people may feel less morally responsible for their own psychopathic tendencies and therefore may be more likely to display those tendencies. An online study will provide participants with false feedback about their psychopathic traits supposedly based on their digital footprint (i.e., Facebook likes), thus classifying them as having either above-average or below-average psychopathic traits and describing psychopathy in cognitive or neurobiological terms. This particular study will assess the extent to which lay people are influenced by feedback regarding their psychopathic traits, and how this might affect their moral behavior in online tasks. Public recognition of these potential negative consequences of neuroscience communication will also be assessed. A field study using the lost letter technique will be conducted to examine lay people’s endorsement of neurobiological, as compared to cognitive, explanations of criminal behavior. This field and online experimental research could inform the future communication of neuroscience to the public in a way that is sensitive to the potential negative consequences of communicating such science. In particular, this research may have implications for the future means by which neurobiological predictors of offending can be safely communicated to offenders. PMID:28352238

  19. The neurobiology of psychopathy: recent developments and new directions in research and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Psychopathic individuals account for substantial predatory and impulsive violence. To the present, the principal intervention used to decrease the harm inflicted by psychopaths has been confinement. Nevertheless, most confined psychopathic persons return to the community. Recent advances in the understanding of the neurobiology of psychopathy hold promise for new research directions and more effective treatments. In this article, we will explore recent advances in genetics, electrophysiology, brain imaging, and psychopharmacology, as well as, in brief, their implications for new directions in research and treatment.

  20. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results ind

  1. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E.; Vitale, Jennifer E.; Curtin, John J.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity. PMID:22886692

  2. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  3. Differential effects of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder symptoms on cognitive and fear processing in female offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marja E; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Vitale, Jennifer E; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder (APD) have long been considered important risk factors for criminal behavior and incarceration. However, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings that give rise to the disinhibited behavior of female offenders. Using an instructed fear-conditioning paradigm and a sample of incarcerated female offenders, we manipulated attentional focus and cognitive load to characterize and differentiate between the dysfunctional cognitive and affective processes associated with these syndromes. We used fear-potentiated startle (FPS) and event-related potentials as measures of affective and cognitive processing, respectively. After controlling for APD symptoms, psychopathic women displayed greater FPS while attending directly to threat-relevant stimuli and displayed less FPS while performing a demanding task that directed attention to threat-irrelevant information. Conversely, controlling for psychopathy, women with high APD symptoms displayed less overall FPS, especially when instructed to focus on threat-relevant stimuli. However, as the demands on cognitive resources increased, they displayed greater FPS. For both psychopathy and APD, analysis of the event-related potentials qualified these findings and further specified the abnormal cognitive processes associated with these two syndromes. Overall, simultaneous analysis of psychopathy and APD revealed distinct patterns of cognitive processing and fear reactivity.

  4. Interpersonal and Affective Features of Psychopathy in Children and Adolescents: Advancing a Developmental Perspective--Introduction to Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The interpersonal (e.g., manipulative, deceitful) and affective (e.g., callous, unemotional) features associated with adult psychopathy have been identified in children and adolescents. Although early research suggests that these features have clinical utility in identifying a particularly severe and recalcitrant form of antisocial behavior with…

  5. Cool and hot executive function impairments in violent offenders with antisocial personality disorder with and without psychopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane A De Brito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impairments in executive function characterize offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and offenders with psychopathy. However, the extent to which those impairments are associated with ASPD, psychopathy, or both is unknown. METHODS: The present study examined 17 violent offenders with ASPD and psychopathy (ASPD+P, 28 violent offenders with ASPD without psychopathy (ASPD-P, and 21 healthy non-offenders on tasks assessing cool (verbal working memory and alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and hot (reversal learning, decision-making under risk, and stimulus-reinforcement-based decision-making executive function. RESULTS: In comparison to healthy non-offenders, violent offenders with ASPD+P and those with ASPD-P showed similar impairments in verbal working memory and adaptive decision-making. They failed to learn from punishment cues, to change their behaviour in the face of changing contingencies, and made poorer quality decisions despite longer periods of deliberation. Intriguingly, the two groups of offenders did not differ significantly from the non-offenders in terms of their alteration of motor responses to spatial locations and their levels of risk-taking, indicated by betting, and impulsivity, measured as delay aversion. The performance of the two groups of offenders on the measures of cool and hot executive function did not differ, indicating shared deficits. CONCLUSIONS: These documented impairments may help to explain the persistence of antisocial behaviours despite the known risks of the negative consequences of such behaviours.

  6. An Examination of the Dirty Dozen Measure of Psychopathy: A Cautionary Tale about the Costs of Brief Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Few, Lauren R.; Seibert, L. Alana; Watts, Ashley; Zeichner, Amos; Lynam, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Given substantial interest in the traits conceived of as part of the "Dark Triad"--psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism--assessment of these traits is of great importance. The Dirty Dozen (DD; Jonason & Webster, 2010) is a brief measure of the Dark Triad constructs that uses 4 items to assess each of these constructs. In the present…

  7. Incremental Validity Analyses of the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version in a Civil Psychiatric Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.

    2006-01-01

    This study compares two instruments frequently used to assess risk for violence, the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), in a large sample of civil psychiatric patients. Despite a strong bivariate relationship with community violence, the VRAG could not improve on the predictive validity…

  8. The wondrous eyes of a new technology : A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explo

  9. Ethnic differences in the relationship between psychopathy and (re)offending in a sample of juvenile delinquents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; Deković, M.; Wissink, I.B.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Manders, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focused on the relationship between psychopathy and delinquency in a multiethnic sample of juvenile offenders (N=207, n=105 native Dutch, and n=102 immigrants) referred to a treatment program. Aims were (1) to examine the cross-ethnic equivalence of the Antisocial Process Screening

  10. Reliability and Validity Evaluation of the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in Swedish Correctional and Forensic Psychiatric Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Kevin S.; Strand, Susanne; Belfrage, Henrik; Fransson, Goran; Levander, Sten

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the structural reliability, construct-related validity, and cultural validity generalization of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV) in a sample of more than 560 male and female Swedish forensic psychiatric treatment patients, forensic evaluation patients, and criminal offenders. Structural reliability…

  11. Emotional reactivity and the association between psychopathy-linked narcissism and aggression in detained adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Aucoin, Katherine J

    2013-05-01

    Different patterns of emotional reactivity characterize proactive and reactive functions of aggressive behavior, and theory also suggests a link of both types with narcissism. How people with narcissistic traits respond emotionally to competitive scenarios could influence their aggressiveness. Participants were 85 adolescent boys from a detention center. Several indices of emotional functioning were assessed, including attentional bias to negative emotional stimuli and psychophysiological responding. In addition, we included self-report and laboratory measures of aggression and measures of psychopathy-linked narcissism, callous-unemotional traits, and impulsivity. Psychopathy-linked narcissism was uniquely related to unprovoked aggression (i.e., proactive aggression) and to heightened attention to pictures depicting others' distress. Compared with those scoring low on narcissism, those high on narcissism, who were the least physiologically reactive group, evinced greater proactive aggression, whereas those showing a pattern of coactivation (i.e., sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic reactivity) evinced greater reactive aggression. Results are consistent with descriptions of narcissistic individuals as being hypervigilant to negative cues and exhibiting poor emotion regulation. These characteristics may lead to aggressive and violent behavior aimed at maintaining dominance over others.

  12. Limitations of Extending Juvenile Psychopathy Research Assessment Tools and Methods to Forensic Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Semel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated significant associations between psychopathic-like characteristics in youths, which include affective, interpersonal, and behavioral dimensions, and severe and persisting conduct problems, violence, aggression, and antisocial behavior. The results of such studies have had practical considerations in the area of assessment with respect to the added specifier, “with limited prosocial emotions”, for the diagnosis of conduct disorder, and to the inclusion of features that have been described as callous-unemotional (CU traits on empirically supported juvenile risk assessment instruments. However, it is questionable whether findings obtained through research which provides anonymity and/or confidentiality to research participants are comparable across research and applied settings, and whether self-report youth psychopathy or CU questionnaire measures, which are vulnerable to deception, can effectively measure the same latent constructs in applied contexts. Forensic mental health evaluators attempt to obtain optimally consistent and reliable information through the use of multiple sources of information and through multiple assessment methods. Current practices of forensic mental health evaluators with regard to risk assessment and assessment of juvenile psychopathy are referenced. Some observations and suggestions are made to help meet the challenge of bridging the gap between research that utilizes self-report measures and applied forensic contexts.

  13. Systematic review, structural analysis, and new theoretical perspectives on the role of serotonin and associated genes in the etiology of psychopathy and sociopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Since its theoretical inception, psychopathy has been considered by philosophers, clinicians, theorists, and empirical researchers to be substantially and critically explained by genetic factors. In this systematic review and structural analysis, new hypotheses will be introduced regarding gene-gene

  14. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume I. Design Criteria and Checklists. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Transactions, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., New York, January 1969. Arnold , D. B., Burnside, J. V., and Hajari, J. V., DEVELOPMENT OF LIGHTWEIGHT...1976. Huston, R. L., Hessel , R., and Passerello, C., A THREE- DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE-MAN MODEL FOR COLLISION AND HIGH ACCELER- ATION STUDIES, SAE Paper

  15. Further development and construct validation of MMPI-2-RF indices of global psychopathy, fearless-dominance, and impulsive-antisociality in a sample of incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tasha R; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Patrick, Christopher J

    2014-02-01

    Replicating and extending research by Sellbom et al. (M. Sellbom, Y. S. Ben-Porath, C. J. Patrick, D. B. Wygant, D. M. Gartland, & K. P. Stafford, 2012, Development and Construct Validation of the MMPI-2-RF Measures of Global Psychopathy, Fearless-Dominance, and Impulsive-Antisociality, Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 17-38), the current study examined the criterion-related validity of three self-report indices of psychopathy that were derived from scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Y. S. Ben-Porath & A. Tellegen, 2008, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form: Manual for Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation, Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press). We estimated psychopathy indices by regressing scores from the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996, Development and Preliminary Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Noncriminal Populations, Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 488-524) and its two distinct facets, Fearless-Dominance and Impulsive-Antisociality, onto conceptually selected MMPI-2-RF scales. Data for a newly collected sample of 230 incarcerated women were combined with existing data from Sellbom et al.'s (2012) male correctional and mixed-gender college samples to establish regression equations with optimal generalizability. Correlation and regression analyses were then used to examine associations between the MMPI-2-RF-based estimates of PPI psychopathy and criterion measures (i.e., other well-established measures of psychopathy and conceptually related personality traits), and to evaluate whether gender moderated these associations. The MMPI-2-RF-based psychopathy indices correlated as expected with criterion measures and showed only one significant moderating effect for gender, namely, in the association between psychopathy and narcissism. These

  16. Qualify of Life of Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, C. van; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the quality of life (QoL) of mentally disordered offenders was investigated. The data of 44 forensic psychiatric inpatients were analyzed using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQoLP), Rehabilitation Evaluation Hall and Baker (REHAB), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PC

  17. Aspectos neurobiológicos de la psicopatía Neurobiological aspects of psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Gil Restrepo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available La psicopatía es un constructo psiquiátrico caracterizado por un patrón permanente de déficit afectivo y una falta de respeto por los derechos de los demás y por las normas sociales. El término equivale al “trastorno de personalidad antisocial” DSM-IV-TR y al “Trastorno disocial de personalidad” de la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades (CIE-10. Los individuos afectados comienzan a presentar características psicopáticas desde la niñez, son propensos a involucrarse en conductas criminales pero no a resocializarse con los programas penitenciarios, y reinciden con más rapidez, crueldad y violencia que los criminales no psicópatas. La etiopatogenia parece basarse en la interacción compleja de factores biológicos y psicosociales. El objetivo del presente artículo es presentar una revisión actualizada de los aspectos neurobiológicos de la psicopatía entre los cuales se encuentran los obstétricos, neuroanatómicos, neuroquímicos y genéticos. Psychopathy is a psychiatric construct characterized by a permanent pattern of affective deficit, and a lack of respect for the rights of other people and the social norms. The term is equivalent to the “Antisocial personality disorder” of the DSMIV-TR, and to the “Dissocial personality disorder” of the CIE-10. Since childhood, the affected individuals begin to display psychopathic characteristics and they have tendency to become involved in criminal behaviors but not to resocialice themselves with penitentiary programs; they reoffend more rapidly, with more cruelty and violence than non-psychopathic criminals. Etiopathogenesis of psychopathy is based on the complex interaction of biological and psychosocial factors. The objective of the present article is to provide an updated review about the neurobiological aspects of psychopathy among them the obstetric, neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic.

  18. An examination of gender-moderated test bias on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Brandee E; Sellbom, Martin

    2011-05-01

    In this investigation, we examined the validity of Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995) in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 403). Utilizing a step-down hierarchical multiple regression procedure (e.g., Arbisi, Ben-Porath, & McNulty, 2002), we used LSRP scores to predict psychopathic personality traits to determine the presence of gender-moderated test bias. Results indicate similar correlational magnitudes for men and women. However, systematic over- and underprediction of scores (i.e., differential intercepts) was found for external criteria measuring key affective (i.e., low empathy) and behavioral (i.e., aggression, antisocial behavior) components of the psychopathic personality, although these effects were generally small.

  19. Violence risk prediction. Clinical and actuarial measures and the role of the Psychopathy Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, M; Doyle, M

    2000-10-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. To review the current status of violence risk prediction research. Literature search (Medline). Key words: violence, risk prediction, mental disorder. Systematic/structured risk assessment approaches may enhance the accuracy of clinical prediction of violent outcomes. Data on the predictive validity of available clinical risk assessment tools are based largely on American and North American studies and further validation is required in British samples. The Psychopathy Checklist appears to be a key predictor of violent recidivism in a variety of settings. Violence risk prediction is an inexact science and as such will continue to provoke debate. Clinicians clearly need to be able to demonstrate the rationale behind their decisions on violence risk and much can be learned from recent developments in research on violence risk prediction.

  20. The Relative Importance of Psychopathy-Related Traits in Predicting Impersonal Sex and Hostile Masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBreton, James M; Baysinger, Michael; Abbey, Antonia; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J

    2013-10-01

    This paper reports the relative contributions of several facets of subclinical psychopathy (i.e., callous affect, erratic lifestyle, interpersonal manipulation), subclinical narcissism (i.e., entitlement, exploitation), and trait aggression (i.e., anger) to the prediction of four enduring attitudes towards women and sexual assault (i.e., hostility towards women, negative attitudes regarding women, sexual dominance, impersonal sex) and a behavioral indicator of an impersonal sexual behavior (i.e., number of one-night stands). Survey data were collected from 470 single men living in the Detroit Metropolitan area. The importance of personality traits varied as a function of the outcome with anger most predictive of hostility toward women; erratic lifestyle most predictive of impersonal sexual attitudes and behavior, and entitlement most predictive of sexual dominance and negative attitudes toward women. These outcome-specific findings are interpreted and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. [From "psychopathy" to "personality disorder"--conceptual history of a problematic field within psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paul; Camenisch, Paul

    2015-11-11

    The issue of personality disorders addresses fundamental questions of psychiatry: Is there a clear boundary between normal behaviour and the state of mental illness? Which criteria are defining this boundary? Is a personality disorder really a mental illness or «just» a special variation of an individual lifestyle? This paper reviews the development of the terms psychopathy/personality disorder from the early 19th century to the present-day diagnostic manuals ICD-10 and DSM-5. This debate spreads out–as it does with regard to any other mental disorder–between psychopathological, neurobiological and social sciences approaches. It is of high practical relevance to realize that nowadays effective therapeutic options for patients with personality disorders are available. Therefore, the therapeutic nihilism of earlier times is no longer justified.

  2. Gendered contexts: Psychopathy and drug use in relation to sex work and exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bethany G; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-05-01

    Few scholars have examined psychopathology correlates of sex work. It has been suggested that sex work may reflect manifestations of impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits (e.g., reckless disregard, delinquency) in women more than men. The current work examined relative contributions of drug dependence and distinct psychopathic features in relation to traditional forms of sex work (i.e., prostitution) in women, along with gender differences in psychopathy relationships with casual forms of sex exchange (i.e., trading sex for necessities). Study 1 included 171 community-dwelling women offenders, and Study 2 included 319 participants (42.3% women) with histories of drug use and/or violence. Participants completed the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version, prostitution was measured as self-report and/or public record data across studies, and sex exchange in Study 2 was assessed using a questionnaire based on prior research on sexual risk-taking. Findings across both studies demonstrated that although psychopathic traits, particularly impulsive-antisocial features, were associated with prostitution in women above the use of drugs, drug dependence did not moderate the relationship between psychopathic traits and prostitution in women. Analyses of Study 2 data revealed that impulsive-antisocial traits were associated with sex exchange at low, but not high, levels of interpersonal-affective traits across participants. As well, interpersonal-affective traits were significantly positively related to sex exchange in men and not significantly (and negatively) related in women. In sum, impulsive-antisocial traits related to prostitution among women, suggesting that women may manifest these traits within intimate contexts. Moreover, findings indicated gender differences in the manifestation of interpersonal-affective traits within sexual exchange contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Is psychopathy elevated among criminal offenders who are under preventive detention pursuant to Section 66 of the German Penal Code?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeyer, Elmar; Passow, Daniel; Vohs, Knut

    2010-01-01

    In Germany, preventive detention can be imposed if a repeat offender shows a proclivity to commit further significant criminal acts. The courts require expert opinion to provide information about personality traits relevant for this disposition. However, currently, consensus about this topic is lacking. On the basis of a standardized examination, the relevance of Hare's concept of "psychopathy" for expert opinion is discussed in the context of preventive detention.

  4. Development and Validation of an Expanded Version of the Three-Factor Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Elliott; Sellbom, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl, & Fitzpatrick, 1995 ) is a brief self-report questionnaire frequently used in psychopathy research. Although the scale has many desirable properties such as brevity and being available in the public domain, there are also several psychometric concerns associated with it, including low internal consistency, problematic construct validity, and incomplete conceptual coverage of several components of psychopathy. In 2 studies, we provide evidence that additional items can augment the LSRP to address the aforementioned concerns. In the first study, using a large sample of students and members of the general Australian community (n = 729), we found that an expanded 36-item, 3-factor version of the LSRP was associated with improvements in internal consistency and construct coverage with little degradation in model fit. In the second study, using another Australian community sample (n = 300), we replicated the results of Study 1 and demonstrated improvements in construct validity for the expanded 36-item, 3-factor scale compared to the 19-item, 3-factor scale. Our results indicate that, although slightly longer, the expanded version of the 3-factor LSRP ameliorates many of the concerns associated with its original counterpart.

  5. It's immoral, but I'd do it! Psychopathy traits affect decision-making in sacrificial dilemmas and in everyday moral situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletti, Carolina; Lotto, Lorella; Buodo, Giulia; Sarlo, Michela

    2017-05-01

    This research investigated whether emotional hyporeactivity affects moral judgements and choices of action in sacrificial moral dilemmas and in everyday moral conflict situations in which harm to other's welfare is differentially involved. Twenty-six participants with high trait psychopathy (HP) and 25 with low trait psychopathy (LP) were selected based on the primary psychopathy scale of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. HP participants were more likely to sacrifice one person to save others in sacrificial dilemmas and to pursue a personal advantage in everyday moral situations entailing harm to another's good. While deciding in these situations, HP participants experienced lower unpleasantness as compared to LP participants. Conversely, no group differences emerged in choice of action and unpleasantness ratings for everyday moral situations that did not entail harm to others. Importantly, moral judgements did not differ in the two groups. These results suggest that high psychopathy trait affects choices of action in sacrificial dilemmas because of reduced emotional reactivity to harmful acts. The dissociation between choice of action and moral judgement suggests that the former is more closely related to emotional experience. Also, emotion seems to play a critical role in discriminating harmful from harmless acts and in driving decisions accordingly. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda C P Morana

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo quanto à viabilidade de tratamento dessa clientela forense. RESULTADOS: Enquanto o transtorno de personalidade anti-social é um diagnóstico médico, pode-se entender o termo "psicopatia", pertencente à esfera psiquiátrico-forense, como um "diagnóstico legal". Não se pode falar ainda de tratamento eficaz para os chamados "serial killers". CONCLUSÃO: Os transtornos de personalidade, especialmente o tipo anti-social, representam ainda hoje um verdadeiro desafio para a psiquiatria forense. O local mais adequado e justo para seus portadores, bem como recomendação homogênea e padronizada de tratamento são questões ainda não respondidas.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the basic characteristics of several specific personality disorders, focusing mainly in antisocial personality disorder. The differences between antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are highlighted. Serial killers and its psychopathic aspects are also discussed. METHOD: A bibliographic review was completed in order to outline convergences and divergences among different authors about this controversial issue, especially those concerning the possibility of treatment. RESULTS: While anti-social personality disorder is a medical diagnosis, the term "psychopathy" (which belongs to the sphere of forensic psychiatry may be understood as a "legal diagnosis". It is not still possible to identify an effective treatment for serial killers. CONCLUSION: Personality disorders

  7. XYY chromosome abnormality in sexual homicide perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briken, Peer; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Hill, Andreas

    2006-03-05

    In a retrospective investigation of the court reports about sexual homicide perpetrators chromosome analysis had been carried out in 13 of 166 (7.8%) men. Three men (1.8%) with XYY chromosome abnormality were found. This rate is much higher than that found in unselected samples of prisoners (0.7-0.9%) or in the general population (0.01%). The three men had shown prepubescent abnormalities, school problems, and had suffered from physical abuse. The chromosome analysis in all cases had been carried out in connection with the forensic psychiatric court report due to the sexual homicide. However, two men had earlier psychiatric referrals. All were diagnosed as sexual sadistic, showed a psychopathic syndrome or psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised [Hare RD, 1991, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Multi-Health Systems]. Two were multiple murderers. Especially forensic psychiatrists should be vigilant of the possibility of XYY chromosome abnormalities in sexual offenders.

  8. Breakdown in the brain network subserving moral judgment in criminal psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Iolanda; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Harrison, Ben J.; Pera, Vanessa; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Real, Eva; Bosa, Laura; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M.; Cardoner, Narcís

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated the involvement of a well-defined brain network in the mediation of moral judgment in normal population, and has suggested the inappropriate network use in criminal psychopathy. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to prove that alterations in the brain network subserving moral judgment in criminal psychopaths are not limited to the inadequate network use during moral judgment, but that a primary network breakdown would exist with dysfunctional alterations outside moral dilemma situations. A total of 22 criminal psychopathic men and 22 control subjects were assessed and fMRI maps were generated to identify (i) brain response to moral dilemmas, (ii) task-induced deactivation of the network during a conventional cognitive task and (iii) the strength of functional connectivity within the network during resting-state. The obtained functional brain maps indeed confirmed that the network subserving moral judgment is underactive in psychopathic individuals during moral dilemma situations, but the data also provided evidence of a baseline network alteration outside moral contexts with a functional disconnection between emotional and cognitive elements that jointly construct moral judgment. The finding may have significant social implications if considering psychopathic behavior to be a result of a primary breakdown in basic brain systems. PMID:22037688

  9. [Neurobiological aspects of reactive and proactive violence in antisocial personality disorder and "psychopathy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Strüber, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive-reactive violent offenders show increased autonomic activity in response to negative emotional and threatening stimuli. A volume reduction and/or activity decrease of frontal brain structures associated with impulse control and the regulation of fear and anger are likewise found in combination with a fear-related hyperactivity of the amygdala. In addition, impulsive aggression is facilitated by variants of gene polymorphisms influencing the serotonergic system. Conversely, proactive-instrumental violent offender with psychopathy, who are characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, demonstrate an autonomic hypo-responsivity as well as dysfunctions of the amygdala and of cortical regions related to empathic and social behavior. Developmentally, aggressive children exhibit temperamental differences from early childhood on that are characteristic of a developmental pathway towards either reactive or proactive violence later in life. Exposure to negative environmental factors like ineffective parenting or childhood maltreatment has been related to a heightened risk for developing reactive violence. A developmental trajectory of proactive violence, however, has been related to a mostly genetically determined callous unemotional temperament of the child that disrupts the parental socialization efforts during childhood.

  10. Do perceived social stress and resilience influence the effects of psychopathy-linked narcissism and CU traits on adolescent aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauten, Rebecca; Barry, Christopher T; Leachman, Lacey

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the influences of social stress and resilience on the relation between psychopathy-linked personality characteristics (i.e., narcissism, dimensions of CU traits) and aggression with the expectation that social stress would exacerbate the relation, whereas resilience would mitigate it. In a sample of 154 at-risk adolescents (ages 16-18; 84% male), contrary to expectations, high social stress attenuated the relations of narcissism and callousness with aggression. Self-reported resilience attenuated the relation between callousness and aggression. The implications for understanding the role that these moderators might play in the association between adolescent psychopathic tendencies, particularly callousness, and aggression are discussed.

  11. The role of fearless dominance in differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: comment on Marcus, Fulton, and Edens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Drislane, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Comments on the original article by Marcus et al. (see record 2011-23134-001). Based on their meta-analytic review of the correlates of the two factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Fearless Dominance (FD) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (SCI), Marcus, Fulton, and Edens (this issue, pp. 70-79) raise important questions about the role of FD in diagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathy. In considering their findings, general limitations of metaanalyses (e.g., Ioannidis & Lau, 1999) should be borne in mind, along with specific limitations of their analysis. These limitations are discussed here.

  12. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings across distinct…

  13. Jury panel member perceptions of interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy predict support for execution in a capital murder trial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer; Clark, John C; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Magyar, Melissa S

    2013-01-01

    Recent research with college undergraduate mock jurors suggests that how psychopathic they perceive a criminal defendant to be is a powerful predictor of whether they will support a death verdict in simulated capital murder trials. Perceived affective and interpersonal traits of psychopathy are especially predictive of support for capital punishment, with perceived remorselessness explaining a disproportionate amount of variance in these attitudes. The present study attempted to extend these findings with a more representative sample of community members called for jury duty (N = 304). Jurors reviewed a case vignette based on an actual capital murder trial, provided sentencing verdicts, and rated the defendant on several characteristics historically associated with the construct of psychopathy. Consistent with prior findings, remorselessness predicted death verdicts, as did the affective and interpersonal features of psychopathy - though the latter effect was more pronounced among jurors who were Caucasian and/or who described their political beliefs as moderate rather than conservative or liberal. Results are discussed in terms of the potentially stigmatizing effects of psychopathy evidence in capital cases.

  14. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Dutch Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version--Findings from a Sample of Male Adolescents in a Juvenile Justice Treatment Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jacqueline; de Ruiter, Corine; Doreleijers, Theo; Hillege, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability and validity of the separate dimensions of…

  15. Multimethod Assessment of Psychopathy in Relation to Factors of Internalizing and Externalizing from the Personality Assessment Inventory: The Impact of Method Variance and Suppressor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Poythress, Norman G.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Edens, John F.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Research to date has revealed divergent relations across factors of psychopathy measures with criteria of "internalizing" (INT; anxiety, depression) and "externalizing" (EXT; antisocial behavior, substance use). However, failure to account for method variance and suppressor effects has obscured the consistency of these findings…

  16. The cognitive and neural correlates of psychopathy and especially callous-unemotional traits in youths: a systematic review of the evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpers, P.C.; Scheepers, F.E.; Bons, D.M.A.; Buitelaar, J.; Rommelse, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether the concepts and findings of the underlying neurobiology of adult psychopathy apply to youths as well. If so, a life span approach to treatment should be taken. Because youths' brains are still developing, interventions at an early age may be far more effective in the long run.

  17. Reliability and construct validity of the Dutch psychopathy checklist: youth version: findings from a sample of male adolescents in a juvenile justice treatment institution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.; Ruiter, de C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Hillege, S.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the reliability and construct validity of the Dutch version of the Psychopathy Check List: Youth Version (PCL:YV) in a sample of male adolescents admitted to a secure juvenile justice treatment institution (N = 98). Hare's four-factor model is used to examine reliability a

  18. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities. PMID:20582155

  19. A Big Five facet analysis of a psychopath: The validity of the HDS mischievous scale of sub-clinical psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John

    2016-04-01

    Around 5,700 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R, which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the Domain and the Facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS); measure of Anti-Social Personality Disorder called Mischievous. Previous work in this field has used clinical measures of psychopathy and either student or patient samples. This sought to validate this measure by comparing NEO facet correlational results with other studies. The Mischievous score from the HDS was the criterion variable in the correlations and multiple regressions. Mischievous people were Disagreeable, Stable, Extraverts, lacking in Conscientiousness. Facet analysis showed them high on Excitement-seeking but low of Straightforwardness, Anxiety and Deliberation. Limitations are of the study are discussed.

  20. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  1. The HEXACO and 5DPT models of personality: a comparison and their relationships with psychopathy, egoism, pretentiousness, immorality, and Machiavellianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; van Kampen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    This study describes and tests two models of personality: the HEXACO model of personality, which is derived from the lexical tradition and which is rooted in "normal" psychology, and the 5DPT model of personality, which is derived from a theoretical approach and which is rooted in clinical psychology. The HEXACO and 5DPT models are compared in the prediction of antisocial and self-benefiting personality traits in a large-scale community sample study. Relative weight analyses show that HEXACO Honesty-Humility explains most of the variance in SRPIII Psychopathy, Egoism, and IPIP Pretentiousness, Immorality, and Machiavellianism. Additionally, Honesty-Humility is able to increment the amount of variance explained by the 5DPT scales in these antisocial and self-benefiting personality scales. Consequences for the 5DPT and for the choice of a dimensional axis-II personality model in the run-up of the DSM-V are discussed.

  2. Long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and criminal recidivism: follow-up 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalenheim, E Gunilla

    2004-01-01

    This study is a follow-up investigation of a forensic psychiatric sub-population 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric evaluation. The aim was to examine the long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and antisocial behavior over time. Data on criminal records were obtained at follow-up from the National Council for Crime Prevention. Basic data included findings of psychiatric and psychological assessments, as well as values for serum triiodothyronine (T3) and free thyroxin (FT4), and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, all obtained during the forensic psychiatric examination. Criminal recidivists at follow-up had higher serum T3 levels than non-recidivists, and much higher values than normal controls, while their levels of free T4 were lower. The T3 levels in criminal recidivists correlated to psychopathy- and aggression-related personality traits as measured by the Karolinska Scale of Personality. In violent recidivists, a remarkably high correlation was noted between T3 levels and Irritability and Detachment, traits that have previously been linked to the dopaminergic system. Stepwise multiple regression analyses confirmed the relationships of T3 levels and platelet MAO activity with personality traits in criminal recidivists. The predictive validity of biological markers of psychopathy, T3 and platelet MAO, measured during forensic psychiatric investigation, is stable over time. The results indicate chronic alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in this group of subjects.

  3. Psicopatía y conducta suicida en una muestra de delincuentes con trastorno mental Psychopathy and suicidal behaviour in a sample of mentally disordered offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Negredo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available La literatura empírica ha constatado una asociación positiva entre el nivel de psicopatía y la presencia de intentos de suicidio. Esta asociación se centra en los aspectos de impulsividad y desinhibición de la psicopatía, mientras que suicidio y pobreza emocional se muestran independientes. Los datos sobre la asociación entre suicidio y psicopatía en personas con enfermedad mental no son concluyentes. Este trabajo explora la relación entre distintas medidas de la personalidad antisocial y la presencia de intentos de suicidio y episodios de autolesión deliberada en una muestra de internos de un Hospital Psiquiátrico Penitenciario. Los resultados apoyan la asociación entre aspectos desinhibidos de personalidad y suicidio también en esta población.Empirical literature has yielded a positive association between psychopathy levels and suicide attempts. This association is centred around impulsivity and disinhibitory facets of psychopathy, whereas suicide and emotional poverty remain independent. Evidence about the relation between suicide and psychopathy in mentally disordered offenders is not conclusive. The present work explores the relation between several measures of antisocial personality, suicide attempt and deliberate self mutilation in a sample of inmates from a forensic psychiatric hospital. Results support the association between disinhibitory aspects of personality and suicide in this population.

  4. Examining the factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale: is the two-factor model the best fitting model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T; Chen, Debra R; Sellbom, Martin; Lester, Whitney S; MacDougall, Emily

    2014-07-01

    The Levenson, Kiehl, and Fitzpatrick (1995) Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) was introduced in the mid-1990s as a brief measure of psychopathy and has since gained considerable popularity. Despite its attractiveness as a brief psychopathy tool, the LSRP has received limited research regarding its factor structure and convergent and discriminant validity. The present study examined the construct validity of the LSRP, testing both its factor structure and the convergent and discriminant validity. Using a community sample of 1,257 undergraduates (869 females; 378 males), we tested whether a 1-, 2-, or 3-factor model best fit the data and examined the links between the resultant factor structures and external correlates. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) findings revealed a 3-factor model best matched the data, followed by an adequate-fitting original 2-factor model. Next, comparisons were made regarding the convergent and discriminant validity of the competing 2- and 3-factor models. Findings showed the LSRP traditional primary and secondary factors had meaningful relations with extratest variables such as neuroticism, stress tolerance, and lack of empathy. The 3-factor model showed particular problems with the Callousness scale. These findings underscore the importance of examining not only CFA fit statistics but also convergent and discriminant validity when testing factor structure models. The current findings suggest that the 2-factor model might still be the best way to interpret the LSRP. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Emotional intelligence in incarcerated men with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Kahn, Rachel E.; Salovey, Peter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, recognition, and communication of emotional states are ubiquitous features of the human social world. Emotional intelligence (EI) is defined as the ability to perceive, manage, and reason about emotions, in oneself and others. Individuals with psychopathy have numerous difficulties in social interaction and show impairment on some emotional tasks. Here we investigate the relation between emotional intelligence and psychopathy in a sample of incarcerated men (n=374), using the Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). The MSCEIT is a well-validated ability-based emotional intelligence measure that does not rely on self-report judgments of emotional skills. The Hare PCL-R is the gold-standard for the assessment of psychopathy in clinical populations. Controlling for general intelligence, psychopathy was associated with lower emotional intelligence. These findings suggest individuals with psychopathy are impaired on a range of emotional intelligence abilities and that emotional intelligence is an important area for understanding deficits in psychopathy. PMID:22329657

  6. Psychopathy and violence: Does antisocial cognition mediate the relationship between the PCL: YV factor scores and violent offending?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; DeLisi, Matt

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether proactive and reactive antisocial cognition mediate the effect of Factors 1 (core personality features) and 2 (behavioral deviance) of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) on violent offending. In this study Bandura et al.'s (1996) Moral Disengagement (MD) scale and the Impulse Control (IC) scale of the Weinberger Adjustment Inventory (WAI; Weinberger & Schwartz, 1990) served as proxies for proactive and reactive antisocial cognition, respectively. It was hypothesized that proactive antisocial cognition (MD) would mediate the Factor 1-violence relationship and that both proactive antisocial cognition and reactive antisocial cognition (IC) would mediate the Factor 2-violence relationship. A 3-wave path analysis of data from 1,354 adjudicated delinquents produced results consistent with the first part of the hypothesis (i.e., proactive antisocial mediation of the Factor 1-violence relationship) but inconsistent with the second part of the hypothesis (i.e., only proactive antisocial cognition mediated the Factor 2-violence relationship). Whereas the direct path from Factor 1 to violent offending was no longer significant when MD and IC were taken into account, the direct path from Factor 2 to violent offender remained significant even after MD and IC were included as mediators. This suggests that whereas proactive antisocial cognition plays a major role in mediating the Factor 1-violence relationship, the Factor 2-violence relationship is mediated by proactive antisocial cognition and variables not included or not adequately covered in the current study.

  7. "The wondrous eyes of a new technology"-a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging-the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality-and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  8. Response inhibition in the parametric go/no-go task and its relation to impulsivity and subclinical psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidacker, Kathrin; Whiteford, Seb; Boy, Frederic; Johnston, Stephen J

    2017-03-01

    The current study utilizes the parametric go/no-go task (PGNG), a task that examines changes in inhibitory performance as executive function load increases, to examine the link between psychopathic traits, impulsivity, and response inhibition in a cohort of healthy participants. The results show that as executive function load increased, inhibitory ability decreased. High scores on the Cognitive Complexity subscale of the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) predict poor inhibitory ability in the PGNG. Similarly, high scores on the Psychopathy Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) Blame Externalization subscale predict response inhibition deficits in the PGNG, which loads more on the executive functions than the standard go/no-go task. The remaining BIS-11 as well as PPI-R subscales did not interact with inhibitory performance in the PGNG highlighting the specificity of associations between aspects of personality and impulsivity with inhibitory performance as cognitive load is increased. These data point towards the sensitivity of the PGNG in studying response inhibition in the context of highly impulsive populations and its utility as a measure of impulsivity.

  9. 精神病态的家庭风险因素%Familial Risk Factors for Psychopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨敏齐; 王国芳; 韩鹏; 杨晓辉

    2014-01-01

    精神病态(psychopathy)是一种个体表现在人际关系、情感、生活方式和反社会特征等方面的人格障碍,其特征为自我中心、欺骗、冲动、缺乏共情、缺乏罪恶感等.以往研究偏向于精神病态的生理机制,认为精神病态具有高度的遗传性,近期越来越多的研究发现家庭因素对精神病态的重要影响.这些因素包括:产前风险因素、破碎家庭、不良的教养方式、不安全的亲子依恋关系和童年期虐待等.未来的研究应探讨家庭因素对各个精神病态亚型的作用机制,探索抑制精神病态表达的保护性环境因子,并构建精神病态的生物心理社会模型等.

  10. The wondrous eyes of a new technology – A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eSchirmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging – the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality – and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  11. Psychopathy and facial emotion recognition ability in patients with bipolar affective disorder with or without delinquent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Husrev; Yesilbas, Dilek; Ozver, Ismail; Yuksek, Erhan; Sahin, Feyzi; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Emul, Murat

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that patients with bipolar disorder are more prone to violence and have more criminal behaviors than general population. A strong relationship between criminal behavior and inability to empathize and imperceptions to other person's feelings and facial expressions increases the risk of delinquent behaviors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the deficits of facial emotion recognition ability in euthymic bipolar patients who committed an offense and compare with non-delinquent euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Fifty-five euthymic patients with delinquent behaviors and 54 non-delinquent euthymic bipolar patients as a control group were included in the study. Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition Test, sociodemographic data, Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were applied to both groups. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in the meaning of average age, gender, level of education, mean age onset of disease and suicide attempt (p>0.05). The three types of most committed delinquent behaviors in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder were as follows: injury (30.8%), threat or insult (20%) and homicide (12.7%). The best accurate percentage of identified facial emotion was "happy" (>99%, for both) while the worst misidentified facial emotion was "fear" in both groups (fear expressions was significantly worse in the case group than in the control group (pfear, disgusted and angry expressions had been significantly longer in the case group than in the control group (pfearful and modestly anger facial emotions and need some more time to response facial emotions even in remission. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the prevalence, role and impact of evidence regarding Antisocial Personality, sociopathy and psychopathy in capital cases: a survey of defense team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence-although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reliability and validity of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5): predicting DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy in community-dwelling Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the internal consistency, factor structure, and ability to recover DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) scales, 710 Italian adult community dwelling volunteers were administered the Italian translation of the PID-5, as well as the Italian translation of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Cronbach's alpha values were >.70 for all PID-5 facet scales and greater than .90 for all PID-5 domain scales. Parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical five-factor model of the PID-5 trait scales. Regression analyses showed that both PID-5 trait and domain scales explained a substantial amount of variance in the PDQ-4+ PD scales, with the exception of the Passive-Aggressive PD scale. When the PID-5 was administered to a second independent sample of 389 Italian adult community dwelling volunteers, the basic psychometric properties of the scale were replicated. In this second sample, the PID-5 trait and domain scales proved to be significant predictors of psychopathy measures. As a whole, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that the PID-5 is a reliable instrument which is able to recover DSM-IV PDs, as well as to capture personality pathology that is not included in the DSM-IV (namely, psychopathy).

  14. Assessment of the affective dimensions of psychopathy with the Danish version of the inventory of callous-unemotional traits among incarcerated boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey Toftkjær; Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle E

    2015-01-01

    and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, have included a “with limited prosocial emotions” specifier in the diagnostic criteria for conduct disorder to designate a subtype with high levels of CU traits. This creates the need for psychometrically sound measures for the assessment of these traits....... The self-report questionnaire Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) was designed to provide an efficient, reliable, and valid measure of CU traits among youth populations. Method: Eighty Danish adolescent boys between the ages of 15 to 18 years in secure institutions were assessed concurrently...... with the ICU, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV), self-report measures of aggression and empathy, and ratings of psychosocial problems. Approximately nine days later, the ICU was readministered in a subset of the sample (n = 40) to examine test-retest reliability. Results: Internal consistency...

  15. Portage Guide to Early Education, Manual [and] Checklist. Revised Edition [and] Guia Portage de Educacion Preescolar. Manual [y] Lista de Objectivos. Edicion Revisada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Susan; And Others

    Intended for instructional personnel working with rural handicapped and nonhandicapped children (birth through 5 years), the documents provide English and Spanish versions of a checklist of behaviors to record an individual child's developmental progress, a card file listing possible methods of teaching these behaviors, and a manual of direction.…

  16. Personalidade e psicopatia: implicações diagnósticas na infância e adolescência Personality and psychopathy: diagnostic implications in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárcia Rita Davoglio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão de literatura examinou o construto da psicopatia associado ao desenvolvimento da personalidade em crianças e adolescentes, privilegiando as questões diagnósticas incipientes. Observou-se que a busca de uma terminologia mais apropriada para descrever as manifestações desviantes precoces, a construção e utilização de instrumentos de avaliação dirigidos à psicopatia em jovens, bem como a estabilidade dos sintomas ao longo do desenvolvimento, têm sido preocupações recorrentes nas pesquisas atuais. Pode-se afirmar que a presença de traços de psicopatia na infância e adolescência ainda suscita questionamentos, demandando por estudos empíricos que explorem aspectos evolutivos e a etiologia multifatorial do construto, preferencialmente, dentro da concepção geral dos transtornos de personalidade.This literature review article examined the psychopathy construct associated to the development of personality in children and adolescents focusing on the incipient diagnostic issues. It was observed that the search for a more appropriate terminology for describing the early deviant manifestations, the building and using of instruments of evaluation directed to psychopathy in youngsters as well as the stability of the symptoms during growth have been recurrent issues in current researches. It can be affirmed that the presence of psychopathy traits in childhood and adolescence still raises doubts, requiring empirical studies which explore the evolutive aspects and the multifactorial etiology, preferentially within the general conception of personality disorders.

  17. Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (IM-P: estudo preliminar no contexto brasileiro Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P: preliminary study in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tárcia Rita Davoglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A observação direta do comportamento interpessoal é um recurso importante na descrição e diagnóstico da personalidade psicopática. A Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy, IM-P é um instrumento psicométrico composto por 21 itens, desenvolvido para ser utilizado em associação com outras escalas de avaliação da psicopatia. Foca-se, especificamente, nos comportamentos interpessoais e aspectos não verbais evidentes na interação do entrevistador com indivíduos que apresentam características psicopáticas. OBJETIVO: Descrever resultados preliminares sobre a investigação de aspectos interpessoais da psicopatia mediante a utilização da IM-P, incluindo as etapas de tradução/adaptação e avaliação de confiabilidade interavaliadores da IM-P, em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional realizado com 20 adolescentes masculinos cumprindo medida socioeducativa com privação de liberdade na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS. Após os procedimentos de tradução da escala, treinamento dos pesquisadores e teste piloto por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada, a IM-P foi pontuada por três juízes independentes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados estatísticos, obtidos através do coeficiente de concordância de Kendall, revelaram grau de concordância interavaliadores elevado e satisfatório para os escores totais da IM-P (W = 0,84; p INTRODUCTION: The direct observation of interpersonal behaviors is an important resource in the description and diagnosis of the psychopathic personality. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P is a psychometric instrument comprised of 21 items, designed to be applied in association with other instruments that also evaluate psychopaths. It focuses specifically on interpersonal and non-verbal behaviors that become evident during the interaction between the interviewer and individuals

  18. Psicopatía, otros trastornos de personalidad, abuso de sustancias y violencia/Psychopathy, personality disorders, substance abuse and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Garrido Genovés (España

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad está bien establecido que ciertos trastornos mentales incrementan el riesgo de realizar comportamientos violentos. En particular esto es cierto para el abuso de sustancias y el grupo B de los trastornos de personalidad del DSM-IV (Garrido, 2003. También tendríamos que incluir en esta relación —aunque en menor medida— los trastornos incluidos en el espectro de la esquizofrenia, en particular los síntomas paranoides de amenaza y de control, y en general el estilo cognitivo de personalidad paranoide (Nestor, 2002. No obstante, yo me referiré tan sólo a la relación existente entre el mencionado grupo B y el abuso de sustancias y su vinculación con el delito y la violencia. Más en concreto, atenderé especialmente, dentro de ese grupo B, al trastorno antisocial de la personalidad y a la psicopatía (aunque no son términos todo intercambiables, como luego veremos y su capacidad para predecir tales comportamientos desviados de violencia y conducta antisocial. Currently it is well established that certain mental disorders increase the risk for violent behaviour. This is in particular true for the Group B of the DSM-IV (2003 Garrido personality disorders and substance abuse. Would also have to include disorders included in the spectrum of schizophrenia, paranoid and control symptoms in particular, and in general the cognitive style of personality in this relationship -although in smaller measure- paranoid (Nestor, 2002. I refer only to the relationship between the Group (b and substance abuse and its link with crime and violence. More specifically, within that group B, the antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy (although they are not all interchangeable terms, as we shall see and its ability to predict such behavior diverted from violence and antisocial behaviour.

  19. The three-factor structure of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale: fool's gold or true gold? A study in a sample of Italian adult non-clinical participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somma, Antonella; Fossati, Andrea; Patrick, Christopher; Maffei, Cesare; Borroni, Serena

    2014-10-01

    The major aim of this study was to evaluate the factor structure of the Italian translation of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP) in a sample of 740 community dwelling adult participants. Hull method, minimum average partial analysis and quasi-inferential parallel analysis techniques were used to identify a three-factor solution that appeared broadly consistent with previous work. The three factors exhibited reliability coefficients >0.70, and the three-factor structure was adequately reproduced across gender, educational level and civil status strata (median congruence coefficients = 0.94, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively) and remained largely unchanged when the effect of participants' age was controlled for (median factor score correlation = 0.99). Although Factor 3 in our study was demarcated mainly by reverse-keyed items, the LSRP factors yielded meaningful relations with retrospective measures of antisocial behaviour in adolescence and HEXACO personality traits and were conceptually consistent with the triarchic model of psychopathy of Patrick, Fowles and Krueger (2009).

  20. Antisocial behavior: Dimension or category(ies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Classificatory systems (DSM-IV, ICD-10 use different criteria for defining a rather common antisocial disorder, traditionally referred as psychopathy. Most empirical studies of this phenomenon use Cleckley's operational definition that was applied and amended in Hare's revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R. In modern literature, the fact that there is less than a perfect correspondence between classificatory systems and Hare's PCL-R is often cited as an indication that antisocial behavior is not confined to a distinct category of people but is rather a continuous personality dimension. In order to further elucidate the nosology of antisocial behaviors, a Psychopathy Assessment Questionnaire (PAQ based on Cleckley - Hare's criteria and consisting of 40 binary items was administered to 339 men (135 prisoners and 204 members of the general population. Four distinct clusters of respondents were identified by means of hierarchical cluster analysis: Psychopathic type (characterized by high positive scores on dimension of Unemotionality; Antisocial type (characterized by high positive scores on Social deviance dimension; Adapted type (characterized by negative scores on all dimensions; and Hyper-controlled type (characterized by extremely negative scores on dimension Social deviance accompanied with positive scores on Unemotionality dimension. Additional comparison with MMPI profiles which classified prison sample in two groups ("Psychopathic profiles" and "Non- Psychopathic profiles" shows that there is no expected compatibility between MMPI and PAQ. We conclude that Antisocial type can be treated as a distinct category, while Psychopathic type displays characteristics of dimensional distribution.

  1. Aberrant neural processing of moral violations in criminal psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2010-01-01

    A defining characteristic of psychopathy is the willingness to intentionally commit moral transgressions against others without guilt or remorse. Despite this ‘moral insensitivity’, the behavioral and neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy have not been well studied. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 72 incarcerated male adults, stratified into psychopathic (N = 16) and nonpsychopathic (N = 16) groups based on scores from the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, while they made decisions regarding the ‘severity of moral violations’ of pictures that did or did not depict moral situations. Consistent with hypotheses, an analysis of brain activity during the evaluation of pictures depicting moral violations in psychopaths vs. nonpsychopaths showed atypical activity in several regions involved in moral decision-making. This included reduced moral/non-moral picture distinctions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal cortex in psychopaths relative to nonpsychopaths. In a separate analysis, the association between severity of moral violation ratings and brain activity across participants was compared in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths. Results revealed a positive association between amygdala activity and severity ratings that was greater in nonpsychopaths than psychopaths, and a negative association between posterior temporal activity and severity ratings that was greater in psychopaths than nonpsychopaths. These results reveal potential neural underpinnings of moral insensitivity in psychopathy and are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of morality and psychopathy. PMID:21090881

  2. Características psicopáticas en la adolescencia: sistematización teórica

    OpenAIRE

    León, Elizabeth; Universidad Nacional de La Plata; Zúñiga, Daniela; Universidad Nacional de La Plata

    2012-01-01

    Hoy existe un interés creciente en estudiar el constructo de psicopatía y su aplicabilidad en población adolescente. La Psychopathy Checklist - Youth Version (PCL-YV) de Forth, Kosson y Hare (2003) deriva de la PCL-R considerando las características propias de la juventud (Zúñiga, 2008). El presente artículo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer tres estudios que constituyen un aporte a la evaluación de características psicopáticas en la juventud. Uno de ellos caracteriza psicométricamentre la...

  3. Perspectives on treatment of criminal psychopaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical background of psychopathic personality in therapy. Research shows that the most of therapeutic techniques and correctional programmes are unsuccessful in dealing with psychopathic prisoners. However, the theory of psychopathy by R. Hare and PCL-R is able to improve the process of the diagnosis of the psychopathic personality and can also accelerate subsequent research into this disorder. At the end of the paper author presents some principles for creating a correctional treatment programme for psychopaths which is based on Pospiszyl’s theory and current knowledge regarding the psychopathic personality.

  4. Aproximación diagnóstica de psicopatía mediante instrumento autoinformado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth León Mayer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Dada la relevancia clínica y social que tiene la psicopatía, resulta útil contar con instrumentos autoinformados para la aproximación diagnóstica a la psicopatía. Objetivos: Evaluar la congruencia interna y la validez convergente del Self Report of Psychopathy-Short Form. Material y métodos: Se evaluaron 208 personas condenadas, alojadas en el Centro de Cumplimiento Penal de la Provincia de Los Andes, Chile. Se utilizaron el SRP-III-SF, el PCL-R y la HCR-20. Resultados: La distribución de valores del SRP-III-SF tuvo una media de 61,6 y fue normal. El Coeficiente de Alfa de Cronbach para el total fue 0,8 y para los factores 1, 2, 3 y 4 fue 0,7, 0, 4, 0,7 y 0,5, respectivamente. La correlación del SRP-III-SF con el PCL-R fue 0,4 (p = 0,01 y con HCR 20, 0,5 (p < 0,001. El riesgo de diagnóstico de psicopatía con el PCL-R aumentó en forma lineal para cada cuartil de la distribución del SRP-SF. El área bajo la curva ROC fue 0,66 (p = 0,05; 95% IC 0,5; 0,8.

  5. Re-offending in forensic patients released from secure care: the role of antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, substance dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCarthy, Lucy; Huband, Nick; Duggan, Conor

    2013-07-01

    Research suggests that a particular externalising phenotype, manifested in a developmental trajectory from severe childhood conduct disorder through early-onset substance abuse to adult antisocial/borderline personality disorder co-morbidity, may increase risk of antisocial behaviour in general and criminal recidivism in particular. This study aims to test the hypothesis that antisocial/borderline co-morbidity together with the triad of substance dependence, severe conduct disorder and borderline pathology would result in an increased risk of criminal recidivism. Fifty-three men who had been assessed and treated in a secure hospital unit were followed up after they had returned to the community. They were assessed for severity of the following: (i) antisocial personality disorder; (ii) borderline personality disorder; (iii) drug/alcohol dependence; and (iv) high Psychopathy Checklist Revised scores (factors 1 and 2). Patients with antisocial/borderline co-morbidity took significantly less time to re-offend compared with those without such co-morbidity. Both Psychopathy Checklist Revised factor 2 and the tripartite risk measure significantly predicted time to re-offence; the former largely accounted for the predictive accuracy of the latter. Risk of criminal recidivism can be adequately assessed without recourse to the pejorative term 'psychopath'. It is sufficient to assess the presence of the three elements of our risk measure: borderline and antisocial personality disorders in the context of drug/alcohol dependence and severe childhood conduct disorder. Practical implications of the study are as follows. (i) Sound assessment of personality, inclusive of a detailed history of childhood conduct disorder as well as adolescent and adult substance misuse, yields good enough information about risk of recidivism without recourse to the pejorative concept of 'psychopathy'. (ii) Given the high risk of alcohol-related violence in individuals with antisocial/borderline co

  6. 丙泊酚用于精神病患者人工通气镇静治疗的临床效果评价%The clinical efficacy of Propofol on severe hypercapnic respiratory failure in psychopathy during mechanical ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳顺; 梁庆; 杨航; 郑艳辉; 吴向红

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases(COPD) with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure for Sedation in psychopathy during mechanical ventilation. Methods Forty-four cases of COPD with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure were divided into two groups, patients (n = 22) inControl The comparison was made on the changes of pH, PaO2, PaCO2in the arterial blood gas before and after the treatment 0. 5 h, 1 h, between the two groups. And also the changes of Pmax, Ppalt, PEF, FEV1/ FVC in pulmonary function between the two groups. Results Significant differences were found in the Propofol group of the improvement of pH, PaO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEF, FEV1/ FVC in pulmonary function and the decreased value of PaCO2, Pmax, Ppahbefore and after the treatment, compared with the control group (P < 0. 05~0. 01). Conclusion Propofol infusion have an excellent effect for sedation in ventilation patients with COPD with severe hypercapnic respiratory failure, can decrease airway resistance, improve the oxygenation in lung, Also can maintain the coordination between spontaneous breath and mechanic ventilation in psychopathy.%目的 研究丙泊酚对精神病患者人工通气在治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)伴重度高碳酸性呼吸衰竭的镇静效果.方法 将44例COPD伴重度高碳酸性呼吸衰竭的精神病患者按入院顺序完全随机分为2组各22例,对照组:咪唑安定静脉注射10~20 mg;丙泊酚组:丙泊酚静脉注射泵持续输注0.5~2.0mg/(kg·h),比较治疗0.5、1h后,2组动脉血气分析中的pH值、氧分压(PaO2)、二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)变化,峰值气道压力(Pmax)、平台压(Ppalt)以及肺功能中第1秒用力呼气量与用力肺活量的比值(FEV1/FVC)和呼气峰流速(PEF)的变化.结果 丙泊酚组的镇静效果显著优于对照组;与对照组比较,丙泊酚组在治疗后PaCO2显著降低,pH值在治疗后0.5 h回到正常范围内,恢复较迅速(P<0.05或P<0.01);治疗后0.5 h

  7. Treating the untreatable: a single case study of a psychopathic inpatient treated with schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhssi, Farid; Kersten, Truus; de Ruiter, Corine; Bernstein, David P

    2014-09-01

    From its first conceptualization in modern psychiatry, psychopathy has been considered difficult if not impossible to treat. Schema Therapy (ST) is a psychotherapeutic approach that has shown efficacy in patients with borderline personality disorder. ST has recently been adapted for personality disordered forensic patients, including patients with high levels of psychopathy. The present case study examined the process of individual ST, combined with movement therapy and milieu therapy by the nursing staff, with a forensic inpatient with psychopathic features (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised total score = 28.4). The patient had been sentenced to a mandatory treatment order in relation to a sexual assault. We assessed change using independent assessments of psychopathic traits, cognitive schemas, and risk-related behaviors over the 4-year treatment period and a 3-year follow-up. We also assessed the quality of the working alliance. Reliable change analyses showed significant improvements in psychopathic traits, cognitive schemas, and risk-related outcomes. At 3 years posttreatment, the patient was living independently outside of the forensic institution without judicial supervision and he had not reoffended. While many questions remain about the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment for psychopathic patients, our study challenges the view that they are untreatable.

  8. Psicopatía, violencia y criminalidad: un análisis psicológico-forense, psiquiátrico-legal y criminológico (Parte II Psychopathy, violence and crime: a psychological-forensic, psychiatric-legal and criminological analysis (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Pozueco Romero

    2011-12-01

    , antisocial Personality disorder, psychopathic personality, cruel psychopath, epileptoid psychopathy, sociopathy, etcetera. In this way, it's not infrequent that jurists (magistrates, judges, public prosecutors, lawyers became disorientated with so much terminology which, despite all, they are nothing at all about synonym terms. Doctrine, on the other hand, dissents from the traditionally point maintained by the Jurisprudence that psychopaths are non-attributed individuals. Many penologists know very good psychological and psychiatric manuals and research studies on subject, and they are usually based on them to make some differences which apparently are fines. One of the controversies more extended is if the terms antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy are the same category. In the review of this Part II, it's also pretended to go deeply into and emphasize those fine differences, now that it's been proved repeatedly that both diagnosis categories, if it's of course true that they share some common features, they are neither the same concept nor involve the same consequences. It also examines the bitter controversy that exists regarding the frequent association between psychopathy and substance abuse, a controversy that seems to set its roots in the same terminological confusion between psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Finally, we review the literature about the criminality of psychopaths, with special reference to the case of both common criminals and the case of serial murderers and other violent criminals, without losing sight of the position that psychopaths currently have at a penological, doctrinal and jurisprudential level.

  9. Differences between homicide and filicide offenders; results of a nationwide register-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eronen Markku

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filicide, the killing of one's child, is an extraordinary form of homicide. It has commonly been associated with suicide and parental psychiatric illness. In the research on filicide, nationwide studies with comparison groups, specific perpetrator subgroups, and assessment of possible risk factors have been called for. The purpose of the current study was to provide all that. Methods In this nationwide register-based case-control study all filicide offenders who were in a forensic psychiatric examination in Finland 1995–2004 were examined and compared with an age- and gender matched control group of homicide offenders. The assessed variables were psychosocial history, index offence, and psychiatric variables as well as psychopathy using the PCL-R. Results Filicide offenders were not significantly more often diagnosed with psychotic disorders than the controls but they had attempted suicide at the crime scene significantly more often. Filicide offenders had alcohol abuse/dependence and antisocial personality less often than the controls. Filicide offenders scored significantly lower on psychopathy than the controls. Within the group of filicide offenders, the psychopathy items with relatively higher scores were lack of remorse or guilt, shallow affect, callous/lack of empathy, poor behavioral controls, and failure to accept responsibility. Conclusion Since filicide offenders did not seem significantly more mentally disordered than the other homicide offenders, psychiatry alone cannot be held responsible for the prevention of filicide. Extensive international studies are needed to replicate our findings and provide more specific knowledge in order to enhance prevention.

  10. Annotation: Understanding the Development of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychopaths are not only antisocial, but also have a callous and unemotional personality profile. This article selectively reviews evidence that psychopathic personality traits are an important factor in understanding and predicting the development of persistent antisocial conduct. Cognitive neuroscience research and more tentative…

  11. Emotion and Morality in Psychopathy and Paraphilias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenski, Carla L.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of emotion in moral judgment has been an active area of investigation and debate. Here we comment on this topic by examining the interaction between emotion and moral judgment in certain psychopathological groups that are characterized by abnormalities in emotion processing, such as psychopaths and sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders. PMID:24899928

  12. Annotation: Understanding the Development of Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi

    2004-01-01

    Background: Psychopaths are not only antisocial, but also have a callous and unemotional personality profile. This article selectively reviews evidence that psychopathic personality traits are an important factor in understanding and predicting the development of persistent antisocial conduct. Cognitive neuroscience research and more tentative…

  13. Psychopathy among Pedophilic and Nonpedophilic Child Molesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassberg, Donald S.; Eastvold, Angela; Kenney, J. Wilson; Suchy, Yana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Among men who commit sexual offenses against children, at least 2 distinct groups can be identified on the basis of the age of the primary targets of their sexual interest; pedophiles and nonpedophiles. Method: In the present report, across 2 independent samples of both types of child molesters as well as controls, a total of 104 men…

  14. Psicopatía, violencia y criminalidad: un análisis psicológico-forense, psiquiátrico-legal y criminológico (Parte I Psychopathy, violence and crime: a psychological-forensic, psychiatric-legal and criminological analysis (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Pozueco Romero

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Tras más de 200 años de historia, el concepto de "psicopatía" ha venido experimentando una auténtica y variopinta metamorfosis terminológica. Exceptuando aquellos períodos del Medievo en los que se creía que la psicopatía y cualquier otra conducta y personalidad "anormales" eran bien de origen demoníaco, bien de corte estrictamente hereditarista-biologicista-fisionomista-antropométrico, el resto de enfoques teórico-investigadores han arrojado sobrada luz que, a día de hoy, y tras más de 200 años de historia amarga y controvertida sobre el término, nos permiten haber llegado a un consenso generalizado entre los estudiosos de la psicopatía desde el punto de vista clínico-forense y criminológico. Este primer trabajo o Parte I es una revisión en la que se pretende ahondar en los polémicos y muchas veces incomprobables orígenes del término "psicopatía". Por otro lado, y tras intensas investigaciones empíricas realizadas desde los años 70 y centradas fundamentalmente en la población penitenciaria, modernamente se ha comenzado a hablar, de manera distintiva, tanto de los psicópatas criminales como de los psicópatas integrados, habiéndose hallado que la diferencia principal entre ambos tipos de psicópatas estriba, sencillamente, en la concreta comisión de delitos, puesto que la estructura básica de personalidad es prácticamente la misma en ambos tipos de psicópatas. Finalmente, se hace muy necesario subrayar que el carácter antisocial de la personalidad y conducta se observa, por definición, en cualquier tipo de delincuentes, sean éstos o no psicópatas, un carácter antisocial que, por otro lado, no siempre ni necesariamente se observa entre los denominados psicópatas integrados.After more than 200 years of history, the concept of "psychopathy" has been undergoing an authentic and varied terminological metamorphosis. Except for those periods in the Medieval Age in which it was believed that psychopathy and other

  15. VALIDEZ CONCURRENTE Y PREDICTIVA DE LA ESCALA DE CRIBADO DE ESTILO DE VIDA DELICTIVO REVISADA -ECEVID R- Predictive and concurrent validity of the criminal lifestyle scale -LCSF-R revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Castillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La metodología de evaluación del riesgo de violencia ha evolucionado en los últimos tiempos. Las predicciones efectuadas en el sistema judicial requieren determinaciones basadas en evidencias y transparencia en sus procedimientos. Objetivos. Evaluar la validez concurrente y predictiva de la versión argentina de la Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form Revised -LCSF-R-, denominada escala de cribado de estilo de vida delictivo revisada -ECEViD R-. Material y métodos. Luego de traducir al español y adaptar al medio local la LCSF-R, se evaluó una cohorte de 100 personas candidatas consecutivas a liberación o alta del servicio penitenciario de la provincia de Buenos Aires con la ECEViD R y otras tres escalas: la Psychopathic Checklist Revised (PCL R, la Assessing Risk For Violence (HCR 20 y la Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG. El reclutamiento duró quince meses y el seguimiento, en promedio, dos años y medio. Se consignaron eventos violentos y delitos no violentos; se chequearon pérdidas por fallecimiento y salida del país. Se recabó la información mediante fuentes de información múltiples. Resultados. Éstos permiten sostener la validez concurrente de la ECEViD. Respecto de la validez predictiva no se obtuvieron resultados positivos significativos. Conclusión. Los autores sugieren que la ECEViD R resulta ser un instrumento candidato apropiado para el cribado en evaluaciones de riesgo de violencia, dado el comportamiento similar presentado con instrumentos m ás complejos.Background. The violence risk assessment methodology has evolved in recent times. The predictions made in the judicial system require evidence based determinations and transparency in its procedures Objective. To evaluate the concurrent and predictive validity of the Argentinean version of Lifestyle Criminality Screening Form Revised -LCSF-R-, denominated escala de cribado de estilo de vida delictivo revisada -ECEViD R-. Materials and method. After

  16. White matter deficits in psychopathic offenders and correlation with factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers

    Full Text Available Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis in 11 psychopathic offenders matched to 11 healthy controls was completed. Fractional anisotropy was calculated within each voxel and comparisons were made between groups using a permutation test. Any clusters of white matter voxels different between groups were submitted to probabilistic tractography. Significant differences in fractional anisotropy were found between psychopathic offenders and healthy controls in three main white matter clusters. These three clusters represented two major networks: an amygdalo-prefrontal network, and a striato-thalamo-frontal network. The interpersonal/affective component of the PCL-R correlated with white matter deficits in the orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole whereas the antisocial component correlated with deficits in the striato-thalamo-frontal network. In addition to replicating earlier work concerning disruption of an amygdala-prefrontal network, we show for the first time that white matter integrity in a striato-thalamo-frontal network is disrupted in psychopathic offenders. The novelty of our findings lies in the two dissociable white matter networks that map directly onto the two major factors of psychopathy.

  17. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, Marleen; Barendregt, Marko; Haan, Bernadette; Nijman, Henk; de Beurs, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders and psychopathy can be held fully responsible for crimes has been questioned on theoretical bases. According to some interpretations, these disorders are due to cognitive, biological and developmental deficits that diminish the individual's accountability. The current article presents two studies among suspects of serious crimes under forensic evaluation in a Dutch forensic psychiatric observation clinic. The first study examined how experts weigh personality disorders in their conclusions as far as the degree of criminal responsibility and the need for enforced forensic psychiatric treatment are concerned (n=843). The second study investigated associations between PCL-R scores and experts' responsibility and treatment advisements (n=108). The results suggest that in Dutch forensic practice, the presence of a personality disorder decreased responsibility and led to an advice for enforced forensic treatment. Experts also take characteristics of psychopathy concerning impulsivity and (ir)responsibility into consideration when judging criminal accountability. Furthermore, they deem affective deficiencies sufficiently important to indicate suspects' threat to society or dangerousness and warrant a need for forensic treatment.

  18. Comportamento violento e disfunção cerebral: estudo de homicidas no Rio de Janeiro Violent behavior and brain dysfunction: study of murderers in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Jozef

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estudar a correlação entre disfunção cerebral e psicopatia em homicidas. Métodos: Foram separados em dois grupos (psicopatas e não-psicopatas 29 homicidas "normais" (não-psicóticos, detidos em uma delegacia policial e escolhidos aleatoriamente, com base no HARE PCL-R (escala de avaliação de psicopatia. Ambos os grupos foram submetidos a testagem neuropsicológica, sendo empregados testes voltados para atividade em lobo frontal (Trail Making Test A e B, e subtestes do WAIS [Mosaico, Semelhanças e Símbolos Numéricos]. Resultados: Dos homicidas, 15 foram considerados psicopatas e 14, não-psicopatas. O subteste Mosaico, do WAIS, constituiu-se em discriminador entre os dois grupos pela presença significativa de resultados negativos em não-psicopatas (chi²=5,37; G.L.=1; PObjectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between psychopathy and cerebral dysfunction in a population of murderers. Methods: A random sample of 29 "normal" (non-psychotic murderers detained in a police station were evaluated and classified into psychopaths (n=15 and non-psychopaths (n=14 according to the HARE PCL-R. All individuals in the sample were submitted to neuropsychological tests (Trail Making Test A and B, and WAIS subtests [Block Design, Similarities and Digit Symbol]. Results: The WAIS subtest Block Design was a discriminator between the sample subgroups, with psychopaths scoring significantly better than non-psychopaths (c²=5.37; G.L.=1; p<0.05. As psychopaths were most commonly diagnosed with alcohol/illicit drugs addiction/abuse than non-psychopaths, this factor does not seem to account for the better neuropsychological performance of non-psychopaths. Conclusions: There is evidence that frontal lobe dysfunction is implied in homicidal behavior among non-psychopaths. A better psychiatric evaluation of murderers and the routine use of HARE PCL-R as a clinical and research tool are recommended.

  19. PREDICTIVE EFFICACY OF VIOLENCE RISK ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS IN LATIN-AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oscar Folino

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, violence risk assessment used to be based in the non-structured clinical approach. An Argentinian cohort study that included violence risk assessment tools changed the tradition. The objective of this study is to inform of the observed predictive efficacy of these tools in the follow-up until March 2012. One hundred and fifty three consecutive pre-released convicted males were recruited from September 2001 through September 2004 in La Plata, Argentina. The pre-release assessment measures included the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Assessing Risk for Violence V2, Structured Professional Judgment, and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide. The mean follow-up time was 1,290 days. Ninety-nine (64.7% subjects had at least one general relapse, and 91 (59.5% had at least one violent relapse. The incidence rate of violent recidivism was 16.8 per 100 person-years. While some indicators of predictivevalidity had no clinical significance, the time-dependent indicators did have clinical significance.

  20. Sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with comorbid psychosis and dissocial personality disorder: Relationship with antisocial traits and psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Ottilie; Young, Susan; Greer, Ben; Arnold, Jack; Parsons, Aisling; Puzzo, Ignazio; Terracciano, Mariafatima; Das, Mrigendra; Kumari, Veena

    2017-07-06

    Evidence suggests violence amongst those with psychosis is not aetiologically homogeneous, and that a large proportion of those who engage in violent behaviour have a comorbid antisocial personality disorder. Initial investigations indicate that this subgroup has distinct historical and neuropsychological characteristics, which may indicate diverse treatment needs. This study investigated sensorimotor gating characteristics of violent men with diagnoses of both psychosis and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) (n=21) relative to violent men with psychosis alone (n=12), DPD alone (n=14) and healthy, non-violent male controls (n=27), using the prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm. The results indicated that, relative to the psychosis alone and healthy control groups, the comorbid group had lower PPI, especially at 60-ms prepulse-to-pulse interval. The DPD group took an intermediary position and did not differ from any group. Antisocial personality traits (factor two scores of the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised), and greater severity of childhood psychosocial deprivation (including physical and sexual abuse), were significantly correlated with poor PPI across the clinical sample. The findings suggest diverse sensorimotor gating profiles amongst subgroups of violent offenders, with comorbid psychosis and DPD showing most impairment. This is consistent with a 'double dose' of deficit explanation amongst those with both diagnoses, explained at least in part by presence of antisocial personality traits and childhood psychosocial deprivation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. La práctica de la evaluación del riesgo de violencia en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Arbach-Lucioni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. La valoración del riesgo de violencia es un requisito fundamental en la toma de decisiones profesionales que implican prevenir, intervenir o informar sobre la conducta de las personas. El uso de herramientas estructuradas de evaluación del riesgo de violencia ha mostrado mejoría en la precisión de las evaluaciones basadas exclusivamente en el juicio clínico o en la pericia de un experto en contextos psiquiátricos, penitenciarios y jurídicos. Objetivo. Este estudio presenta los resultados de la primera encuesta sobre las prácticas profesionales asociadas al uso de herramientas de evaluación del riesgo de violencia en España. Materiales y métodos. La información fue recogida mediante la administración de una encuesta en internet que fue distribuida por correo electrónico a los miembros de organizaciones profesionales. Resultados. De manera similar a los contextos profesionales del resto del mundo, las escalas de psicopatía de Robert Hare (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised y Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version y el Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 encabezaron la lista de las herramientas más usadas tanto por elección personal como por requisito institucional. Conclusiones. Se ofrecen datos novedosos sobre la prevalencia de uso y la utilidad percibida de las herramientas estructuradas, así como sobre otras cuestiones relacionadas a las prácticas profesionales de evaluación del riesgo de violencia en España que pueden orientar tanto a los profesionales de contextos sanitarios, correccionales y forenses, como a los responsables de las instituciones en la elección de las herramientas a implementar para asistirlos en la toma de decisiones.

  2. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  3. Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation?

    OpenAIRE

    Krupp, Daniel Brian; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Sheriff, Craig; Harris, Grant T.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an ...

  4. Nepotistic patterns of violent psychopathy: evidence for adaptation?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Brian Krupp; Sewall, Lindsay A.; Lalumière, Martin L.; Craig eSheriff; Harris, Grant T.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an ...

  5. Biofeedback and Electrodermal Self-Regulation in Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Earl P.; Schwartz, Gary E.

    1976-01-01

    Data replicate and extend research on differences in physiological patterning between psychopaths and control subjects and provide new information on patterning with instructions and learned specificity with biofeedback. (Author/RK)

  6. A Theory-Based Treatment Model for Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The most salient characteristic of the psychopath is the propensity to engage in maladaptive and inappropriate behavior of all sorts, including antisocial and criminal actions. Consequently, there is considerable interest--particularly in the field of criminology--in determining what sorts of treatment interventions are likely to be effective in…

  7. Sexual psychopathy, public policy, and the liberal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Leonard V

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses several interrelated issues. It strives to situate a class of offenders within the liberal state. The disposition of this class allows an analysis of the tensions in liberal theory. It highlights the ways liberalism attributes individual responsibility for criminal behavior and captures the limits of those attributions. It also reveals liberalism's shift away from models of responsibility toward the social control of deviancy. The disposition of this class points toward the therapeutic mask involved in the social control model. Further, the disposition of this class may well serve as a model for isolating and demonizing other disfavored classes, including political dissenters.

  8. Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates.

  9. Distinct characteristics of psychopathy relate to different subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.

    2009-01-01

    This article both selectively reviews the evidence supporting the view that reactive and proactive aggression actually reflect related but separate constructs, and also investigates the selective relationship between these forms of aggression and psychopathic personality in 121 male prison inmates.

  10. Is psychopathy a syndrome? Commentary on Marcus, Fulton, and Edens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2013-01-01

    Comments on the original article by Marcus, Fulton, and Edens (see record 2011-23134-001). The term "syndrome" derives from the Greek, meaning to "run together." Accordingly, in organic medicine, syndromes are traditionally conceptualized as conditions marked by constellations of signs (observable indicators) and symptoms (subjective indicators) that covary across individuals (Kazdin, 1983; Lilienfeld, Waldman, & Israel, 1994). For example, panic disorder is a classical syndrome because it consists of signs (e.g., sweating and difficulty breathing) and symptoms (e.g., intense fear and fears of dying or losing control) that are positively correlated. In rare cases, syndromes also comprise constellations of largely uncorrelated traits that point to an underlying pathology. For example, Gerstmann's syndrome in neurology is marked by four indicators: dysgraphia/ agraphia, dyscalculia/acalculia, left-right disorientation, and finger agnosia (Benton, 1992). Across the general population, these four indicators are essentially uncorrelated. Nevertheless, when observed together, this constellation of four signs generally indicates a lesion in the left hemisphere near the angular gyrus.

  11. A Theory-Based Treatment Model for Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, John F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The most salient characteristic of the psychopath is the propensity to engage in maladaptive and inappropriate behavior of all sorts, including antisocial and criminal actions. Consequently, there is considerable interest--particularly in the field of criminology--in determining what sorts of treatment interventions are likely to be effective in…

  12. Características psicopáticas en la adolescencia: sistematización teórica / Psychopathic Features in Adolescence: Theoric Systematization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth León

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hoy existe un interés creciente en estudiar el constructo de psicopatía y su aplicabilidad en población adolescente. La Psychopathy Checklist - Youth Version (PCL-YV de Forth, Kosson y Hare (2003 deriva de la PCL-R considerandolas características propias de la juventud (Zúñiga, 2008. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo dar a conocer tres estudios que constituyen un aporte a la evaluación de características psicopáticas en la juventud. Uno de ellos caracteriza psicométricamentre la PCL-YV aplicada en población chilena (Zúñiga, Vinet & León, 2011. Otros dos estudios permiten identificar importantes factores de riesgo presentes en la juventud que diferencian a adultos psicopáticos y no psicopáticos (León, Asún & Folino, 2010; León & Folino, 2011. Dichas investigaciones permiten sumar conocimientosespecializados en el área infantojuvenil.

  13. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers Resposta cardíaca e nível de ansiedade em homicidas psicopatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Pádua Serafim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. METHOD: 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38; non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37 serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35 according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. RESULTS: Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.OBJETIVO: Comparar a atividade cardíaca e nível de ansiedade de homicidas psicopatas e não psicopatas e não criminosos não psicopatas. MÉTODO: 110 homens com idade superior a 18 anos, divididos em três grupos: homicidas psicopatas (n = 38, homicidas não psicopatas (n = 37 cumprindo pena por homicídio em Prisões de Segurança Máxima do Estado de São Paulo e não criminosos e não psicopatas (n = 35 de acordo com a Escala de Avaliação de Psicopatia. A resposta emocional foi avaliada pela variação da

  14. Trastornos y desajustes psicológicos asociados a la violencia delictiva: Un estudio con mujeres costarricenses privadas de libertad Psychological disorders and disturbances related to criminal violence: A study with Costa Rican female offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sc. Carlos Saborío Valverde

    2006-03-01

    relationship between psychological disorders and disturbances with criminal violence in a sample of Costa Rican female offenders. This investigation intended to provide some empirical and conceptual support to the field of forensic psychological assessment given that there is not enough research in our country concerning this specialized area. The sample was comprised of 60 female incarcerated offenders located at the correctional center "El Buen Pastor", who were classified according to their criminal history as violent and nonviolent offenders. PCL-R and MMPI-2 were used among other instruments. These instruments showed good reliability coefficients with this sample of female offenders. On the other hand, PLC-R results made it possible to know the prevalence of psychopathy in this sample as well as the fact that no significant differences existed between violent and nonviolent female offenders related to this personality disorder. Likewise, this study allowed to find out that offender with violent criminal history manifested a better level of psychological and social adjustment than those offenders with no violent criminal history. Finally, it was observed that instrumental violent offenders showed a pattern of psychological features less functional than reactive/hostile violent offenders.

  15. The relationship between psychopathy and moral development in young sex offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.; Asscher, J.J.; Hendriks, J.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.; van der Laan, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between psychopathic traits and moral development (moral judgement and empathy) in 85 Dutch male sex offenders between 13 and 23 years of age. Questions were asked about general life situations, sexual situations with morally relevant features, and questions abou

  16. In the Eye of the Storm : Connectivity studies on antisocial behavior and psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of three sections. Section 1 is a proof of principle in which the functional contributions and mechanisms of interhemispheric connectivity will be addressed. The first chapter of Part 1 (§2.1) will examine the relationship between interhemispheric connectivity and personality fe

  17. Examining the influence of psychopathy, hostility biases, and automatic processing on criminal offenders' Theory of Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Nentjes; D. Bernstein; A. Arntz; G. van Breukelen; M. Slaats

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) is a social perceptual skill that refers to the ability to take someone else's perspective and infer what others think. The current study examined the effect of potential hostility biases, as well as controlled (slow) versus automatic (fast) processing on ToM performance in psyc

  18. Transtornos de personalidade, psicopatia e serial killers Personality disorders, psychopathy and serial killers

    OpenAIRE

    Morana,Hilda C P; Stone, Michael H.; Elias Abdalla-Filho

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Apresentar as características básicas dos diversos transtornos específicos de personalidade, mas centrando-se no transtorno de personalidade anti-social, fazendo sua diferenciação com psicopatia. O estudo ainda se propõe a abordar a figura do serial killer, apontando a presença de aspectos psicopáticos no homicídio seriado. MÉTODO: Uma revisão bibliográfica foi feita no sentido de se abordar convergências e divergências entre diversos autores sobre um assunto tão polêmico, sobretudo...

  19. Disentangling attentional deficits in psychopathy using visual search : Failures in the use of contextual information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Slotboom, Jantine; Dalmaijer, Edwin S.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic patients show a lack of affective reactivity in threatening situations. Previous research has shown that this lack of affective reactivity can be explained by diminished processing of goal-irrelevant information once psychopathic individuals initiate goal-directed behavior. Although the

  20. Exploring Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in Youth: Examination of Associations with Antisocial Behavior and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Katherine S. L.; Marsee, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to explore the differential associations of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, narcissistic traits, and Machiavellian traits with overt aggression, relational aggression, delinquency, behavioral dysregulation, and emotional dysregulation in a community sample of boys and girls (ages 11-17). Results indicated that the three personality…

  1. The potential role of the striatum in antisocial behavior and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Yang, Yaling

    2012-11-15

    In this review, we examine the functions of the striatum and the evidence that this brain region may be compromised in antisocial individuals. The striatum is involved in the processing of reward-related information and is thus important in reward-based learning. We review evidence from a growing number of brain imaging studies that have identified differences in the structure or functioning of the striatum either in antisocial groups or in relation to personality traits that are associated with antisocial behavior such as impulsivity and novelty seeking. Evidence from structural imaging studies suggests that the volume of the striatum is increased in antisocial populations, although evidence of localization to specific subregions is inconsistent. Functional imaging studies, which similarly tend to find increased functioning in the striatum, suggest that the striatum is not necessarily hypersensitive to the receipt of reward in antisocial individuals but instead may not be appropriately processing the absence of a reward, resulting in continuous responding to a stimulus that is no longer rewarding. This may impair the ability of individuals to flexibly respond to the environment, thus contributing to impulsivity and antisocial behavior. We conclude by discussing genetic and environmental factors that may affect the development of the striatum.

  2. Clarifying the heterogeneity in psychopathic samples: Towards a new continuum of primary and secondary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals identified through contemporary instruments vary considerably in personality and etiological background, which creates confusion in practice and inconsistency in data. The goal of this paper is to clarify this heterogeneity and introduce a new typology to narrow down psychop

  3. Child Psychopathy: Theories, Measurement, and Relations with the Development and Persistence of Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Julie S.; McMahon, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    To develop more accurate explanatory and predictive models of child and adolescent conduct problems, interest has grown in examining psychopathic traits in youth. The presence or absence of these traits may help to identify unique etiological pathways in the development of antisocial behavior. The current review provides a detailed summary and…

  4. Linking Psychopathy and School Aggression in a Nonclinical Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Antisocial behavior and school aggression in youth has been linked with affective, interpersonal, self-attributional, and behavioral characteristics; these traits have often been associated with psychopathic behaviors among adults. Psychopathic traits were examined in nonclinically-referred youth exhibiting antisocial and aggressive behavior.…

  5. Clarifying the heterogeneity in psychopathic samples: Towards a new continuum of primary and secondary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals identified through contemporary instruments vary considerably in personality and etiological background, which creates confusion in practice and inconsistency in data. The goal of this paper is to clarify this heterogeneity and introduce a new typology to narrow down psychop

  6. Psychopathy as predictor and moderator of Multisystemic Therapy outcomes among adolescents treated for antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, W.A.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; van der Laan, P.H.; Prins, P.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether psychopathic traits act as a predictor and/or moderator of the effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST). Method: The sample included N = 256 adolescents (188 boys and 68 girls) referred for conduct problems, randomized to MST or Tr

  7. Characterisitcs of aggressive behavior among male inpaitents with schizophrenia%男性住院精神分裂症患者的攻击行为特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓敏; 李雯; 王小平

    2016-01-01

    University Second Xiangya Hospital (Changsha, China) from August 2015 to February 2016.On the third day after hospitalization participants were given a general questionnaire as well as being assessed using the modified overt aggression scale (MOAS), historical clinical risk management-20 (HCR-20) quesitonnaire, hare psychopathic checklist-revised (PCL-R), and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS).Based on results of the MOAS participants were group into an ‘aggressive behavior’ group (39 cases) and ‘non-aggressive behavior’ group (36 cases). The differences in socio-demographic characteristics and scores on the other evaluation tools were then compared between these two groups. Results: Participants in the ‘aggressive behavior’ group had significantly different scores in the HCR-20 in the H1 (past violence events), H2 (violent events when young), H10 (disobedience in the past), and C4 (impulsiveness) sections; as well in the anti-social section of PCL-R; and significantly higher PANSS scores in the positive symptom, depressive symptoms and paranoid symptom sections than those in the ‘non-aggressive behavior’ group. Conclusions: A combinaiton of adverse and traumaitc life events such as a history of violence, vulnerabiliites in ones personality (e.g. impulsive or antisocial tendencies) and psychopathology of current illness (e.g. significant anxiety and depressive symptoms) contribute to aggressive behavior in male inpatients with schizophrenia. Our results contribute to the literature that will hopefully aid in ensuring paitent and staff safety, as well as providing more informaiton in working with this vulnerable populaiton.

  8. The HEXACO and 5DPT Models of personality: A comparison and their relationships with Psychopathy, Egoism, Pretentiousness, Immorality, and Machiavellianism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.E.; Kampen, van D.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes and tests two models of personality: the HEXACO model of personality, which is derived from the lexical tradition and which is rooted in “normal” psychology, and the 5DPT model of personality, which is derived from a theoretical approach and which is rooted in clinical psycholog

  9. Contemporaneidade: uma psicopatia americana? Contemporaneidad: ¿una psicopatía americana? Contemporaneity: an american psychopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Martins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A herança recebida pela contemporaneidade inclui, entre outras características, a racionalidade, as normatizações, a influência da ciência, certa busca por legitimações e uma valorização das permanências. O objetivo deste artigo é questionar alguns desses conceitos tão arraigados no Ocidente utilizando recortes do livro "O psicopata americano", de Bret Easton Ellis, como ilustração e ponto de partida para refletir acerca de alguns aspectos. A tendência a diagnósticos individuais e a busca por anomalias que sejam respostas a questionamentos de uma sociedade que não se responsabiliza pelas margens que estipula, demonstram a compreensão de que o mal pode e deve ser controlado em favor da cidadania dos considerados normais. Questionar, refletir e se responsabilizar é princípio de mudanças sociais para além da simples repressão do diferente; e perceber que há um pouco deste diferente em cada um é repensar os papéis determinados socialmente.La herencia recibida por la contemporaneidad incluye, entre otras características, la racionalidad, las normatizaciones, la influencia de la ciencia, la búsqueda por la legitimación y la valorización de las permanencias. El objetivo de este artículo es cuestionar algunos de esos conceptos tan arraigados en el Occidente, utilizando partes del libro "O psicopata americano" de Bret Easton Ellis, como ilustración y punto de partida para reflexionar sobre algunos aspectos. La tendencia a diagnósticos individuales y la búsqueda por anomalías que respondan a cuestiones de una sociedad que no asume la responsabilidad por las márgenes que determina, demuestran la comprensión de que el malo puede y debe ser controlado en favor de la ciudadanía de los considerados normales. Cuestionar, reflexionar y responsabilizarse es principio de transformaciones sociales más allá de la simple represión de lo diferente. Y percibir que existe un poco de este diferente en cada uno es repensar los roles determinados socialmente.The inheritance from contemporaneity includes, among other characteristics, rationality, normativeness, influence from science, a certain quest for legitimation and the increasing value given to permanence. Current essay questions some of these concepts rooted in Western Civilization, with excerpts from Bret Easton Ellis's American Psycho as an example for starting a reflection on a few aspects. The tendency for individual diagnostics and the search for anomalies as an answer to the questioning of a society that shuns accountability for the boundaries it stipulates, show that evil may and must be controlled in order to protect the citizenship of those who are considered normal. Questioning, reflecting and being accountable constitute the beginning for social changes beyond the mere repression of that which is different. The fact that the different exists in each and every one of us is to rethink socially determined roles.

  10. Defense Task Force on Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    offenders; another screening question- naire will be tested to identify psychopathy among offenders and determine the impact of such offenders in a...offenses.(3) Administer a test and screener for psychopathy in order to assess the level of psychopathy in a sample population, determine the...relationship of psychopathy to continued abuse and determine the impact that such offenders have in a group treatment setting. (4) Determine if the

  11. The Entry Psychiatric Screen (EPS): A Psychiatric Screening Procedure for Applicants for Military Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (First, et al., 2001) and the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (Hart, Cox, & Hare, 1995). In total, 96 induction...psychotic characteristics. EPS Antisocial Scale Here again, the lack of participants in our sample who manifested clinical levels of psychopathy ... Psychopathy Checklist revealed that no members of our sample met the criteria for clinical psychopathy . For each of the three remaining diagnostic

  12. Self-mutilation among male patients with alcohol dependency: the role of dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-mutilative behavior with dissociative experiences among men who are alcohol dependent. Participants were 176 inpatients consecutively admitted to an alcohol dependency treatment center. Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-Revised, and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test were conducted to all participants. A sizable proportion of patients (29.0%) reported self-mutilation (SM). Childhood abuse, younger age, early onset of alcoholism, and dissociative taxon membership predicted SM. The overall severity of clinical condition and the frequency of suicide attempts among those who reported SM were higher than those of the remaining patients. The Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon item "auditory verbal hallucinations" and the Symptom Checklist-Revised dimension "hostility" were predictors of SM. There is a complex relationship between dissociation, alcohol use, and SM. Increased awareness among clinicians on this relationship may increase the effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  13. A Methodology for Studying Noninstitutionalized Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a methodological approach to studying noninstitutionalized psychopaths and presents data on criteria associated with psychopathy. The recruitment procedure involved incorporating the characteristics of psychopathy into an advertisement. The present sample fulfilled the criteria for psychopathy, and the recruitment method used was a…

  14. New Explorations in the Field of Leadership Research: A Walk on the Dark Side of Personality & Implications for Leadership (In)Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    instruments like the MMPI or the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL; Hare, Harpur, Hakistan, Forth, Hart, & Newman, 1990; Harpur, Hakistan, & Hare, 50 1988... psychopathy in criminal populations. Both the original version as well as the revised version are considered a well validated and reliable instrument...clinically-based measures. No doubt, some in the field will view these measures as assessments of psychopathy , psychopathology, or personality

  15. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version ...

  16. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not…

  17. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not contained…

  18. A Comparison of Agreeableness Scores from the Big Five Inventory and the Neo PI-R: Consequences for the Study of Narcissism and Psychopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Maples, Jessica; Price, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Despite being significantly correlated, there is evidence to suggest that the scales measuring Agreeableness from the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) do not capture identical constructs. More specifically, NEO PI-R Agreeableness contains content related to "honesty and humility" that is not…

  19. Psicopatía, otros trastornos de personalidad, abuso de sustancias y violencia/Psychopathy, personality disorders, substance abuse and violence

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Garrido Genovés (España)

    2008-01-01

    En la actualidad está bien establecido que ciertos trastornos mentales incrementan el riesgo de realizar comportamientos violentos. En particular esto es cierto para el abuso de sustancias y el grupo B de los trastornos de personalidad del DSM-IV (Garrido, 2003). También tendríamos que incluir en esta relación —aunque en menor medida— los trastornos incluidos en el espectro de la esquizofrenia, en particular los síntomas paranoides de amenaza y de control, y en general el estilo cognitivo d...

  20. Analysis of psychopathy after renal transplantation:Six cases report%肾移植术后精神异常6例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小顺; 陈飞鸿; 谢飞; 王岚; 王玉红; 李俊贤; 陈瑞; 刘锐

    2004-01-01

    临床资料 我院1997-05/2003-05行尸体。肾移植462例,其中6例出现精神异常.男2例,女4例,年龄28~54岁,既往均无精神病史,无精神病家族史.原发病慢性。肾炎5例,间质性肾炎1例,术前均接受血液透析.手术过程均顺利,有5例并发急性排斥反应,1例并发急性。肾小管坏死,6例患者均有不同程度的睡眠障碍及胡言乱语,其他表现有焦虑、恐惧症3例,强迫症1例,幻视、幻听2例.发病时间均在术后1~3wk.应用镇静、抗焦虑药物(如羟基安定、阿普唑仑)改善睡眠,出现幻视、幻听应用小剂量利培酮,有躁狂或胡言乱语症状严重时应用氟哌利多等。

  1. 精神科新分配护士的分阶段培养%Grading Cultivation from students of Nursing School to Nurses of Psychopathy Section

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春海; 翟丽; 王秀丽

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨精神科新分配护士的分阶段培养方法.方法 将78名新分配至精神科病房的护士按时问顺序分成对照组(38名)和观察组(40名),对照组采用传统一对一的带教方法,观察组在此基础上,通过质性研究分析不同阶段护士的心理状态,然后实施针对性的、有重点的培养方法.结果 观察组培养合格率显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 通过分析精神科新分配护士的心理特点进行分阶段培养,有利于其完成护士角色的转变.

  2. Training Management of Inpatient-accompany in Wards of Psychopathy%精神科开放病区陪护的培训管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓俊

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过观察比较对精神病患者陪护进行培训前后,患者满意度、意外事件发生比例变化评价培训效果.方法 对精神科开放病区陪护人员进行培训前的调查工作,结合培训内容采取灵活多样的培训方式,观察患者满意度、意外事件发生比例进行评价.结果 病人对护士的满意度提高,病人安全保障有提高的趋势.结论 针对陪护的培训在保障病人的安全上具有重要意义,因陪护文化程度差异,应更加细致地分别制定培训内容.

  3. 改良电痉挛治疗精神病的护理%NURSING CARE OF 263 CASES PSYCHOPATHY TREATD WITH MODIFIED ELECTRIC CONVULSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏勉; 王彩琴; 姚小梅

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨改良电痉挛治疗精神病的护理.方法对263例精神病患者行改良电痉挛治疗(841例次)并进行有效的术前、术中、术后护理.结果263例精神病患者经积极治疗和护理,近期疗效良好,无1例出现严重并发症.结论改良电痉挛疗法是一种安全有效的治疗精神病的方法之一,术后的护理至关重要.

  4. Study on serum creatine kinase activity in patients with psychopathy%精神疾病患者血清肌酸激酶活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李筠; 王艳娉; 罗敏; 赵鹏; 王维洁

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨精神疾病患者血清肌酸激酶活性及临床意义.方法 选择入院时血清肌酸激酶异常增高精神病患者450例做为研究组,同期入院时血清肌酸激酶值在正常范围内的精神病患者400例为对照组,于治疗前、治疗2周末和4周末分别进行血清肌酸激酶、肌酸激酶同工酶,心电图检测,同时以阳性症状与阴性症状量表评定病情.结果 研究组在发病期的血清肌酸激酶值与阳性症状与阴性症状量表有关兴奋行为条目评分及病情严重程度呈正相关,且随着治疗后病情得到控制,阳性症状与阳性症状量表评分阳性症状减少,血清肌酸激酶值及心率亦逐渐下降,4周末已降至正常范围.结论 精神病患者在发病期的阳性症状及病情程度与血清肌酸激酶活性关系密切且相平行,血清肌酸激酶活性有可能成为其生物学标志之一.

  5. An analysis on drug use in 530 patients of old age with psychopathy%530例老年精神病人用药调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵根祥; 张建明

    2005-01-01

    目的:了解我院老年住院精神病人药物使用情况.方法:对2004年6月26日我院60岁以上老年住院病人全部用药记录进行调查.结果:精神病药物、促智药与心脑血管药物使用频率、DDDs、金额排序较以往有所变化,大多数药物DUI小于或接近于1.0,联合用药方案有108种.结论:我院老年住院精神病人用药基本合理.

  6. Psychopathology as a risk factor for violent recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Liselotte; Kunz, Camilla; Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    A robust relationship has been established between psychopathy and violence, and psychopathy is considered essential in the process of violence risk assessment. This study presents data on a patient sample from a forensic psychiatric unit in Denmark. All patients were assessed for psychopathy using...... the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP). After a follow-up period of 5.7 years, recidivism outcomes were obtained from the Danish National Crime Register. Both psychopathy measures were related to a more severe and versatile criminal...

  7. Distinct variants of extreme psychopathic individuals in society at large: evidence from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed.

  8. Attachment to caregivers and psychopathic characteristics among adolescents at risk for aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in adult psychopathy, both in research studies and clinical writings. However, only recently has the study of youth psychopathy garnered attention. Researchers are particularly interested in basic questions about the early course of psychopathy, however little work has investigated the role that attachment plays in this disorder. This dissertation investigated the relationships between adolescent-caregiver attachment patterns and psychopathic traits. Spe...

  9. The Mediating Effects of Hardiness on Resilience in Repatriated Vietnam-Era Prisoners of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Pengilly and Dowd, 2000). More recently, when all three factors were entered as mediators of the psychopathy -anxiety relationship, only the indirect...Rivers Press. Sandvik, A.M., Hansen, A.L., Hystad, S.W., Johnsen, B.H. & Bartone, P.T. (2015). Psychopathy , anxiety, and resiliency – Psychological...hardiness as a mediator of the psychopathy -anxiety relationship in a prison setting. Personality and Individual Difference, 72, 30-34. Segovia, F

  10. The Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    terrorists have clearly exhibited psychopathy (see Glossary). For example, in April 1986 Nezar Hindawi, a freelance Syrian-funded Jordanian terrorist and...exhibit signs of psychopathy or other mental illness are deselected in the interest of group survival. Terrorist groups need members whose behavior...appears to be normal and who would not arouse suspicion. A member who exhibits traits of psychopathy or any noticeable degree of mental illness would

  11. Background Data Measures for Predicting Security Risks: A Construct Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    psychopathy contributes to criminal acts. Indirect evidence pertaining to the significance of object beliefs has also been provided by Eisenberg and...supervisory behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 130(1), 103-109. Hare, R. D. (1980). A research scale for the assessment of psychopathy in criminal...assessment of psychopathy . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53(1), 7-16. Hare, R., & McPherson, L. (1984). Violent and aggressive behavior by

  12. Establishing Construct Validity for Integrity Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    socialization or integrity can be found in Gough’s 1948 article entitled "A sociological theory of psychopathy ." The theory seems rely on the concept...1985). Comparison of Procedures for the Assessment of Psychopathy . Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 53 pp. 7- 16. Harris, J. (1993, 25...March). Personal communication. 181 Heilbun, A. B. (1982). Cognitive Models of Criminal Violence Based upon Intelligence and Psychopathy Levels. Journal

  13. A Research Review on Psychological Aspects of Extreme Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    listing of the attributes of psychopathy . Some characteristics of the terrorist clearly do fall within the above listing, and this has led some authors to...poiitically motivated hostage situations. When more general statements about the relationship between psychopathy and terrorism are attempted, the...difficulty of the undertaking becomes clearer. Cooper (1978) in his discussion of psychopathy and terrorism concludes that whilst the psychopathic

  14. The Clinical Prediction of Dangerousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    executive potential, psychopathy , suicidality and so forth. Unfor- tunately, this is not the case. There tend to be substantial dif- ferences among...Prediction from case material to personality data. New York Archives of Psychology, 29 (No. 207). Hare, R. D. (1970). Psychopathy : Theory and research. New...1967). Psychopathy , mental deficiency, aggressiveness, and the XYY syndrome. Nature, 214, (5087), 500-501. Wexler, D. (1979). Patients, therapists

  15. Alcoholism, Psychopathology and Sensation-Seeking: Differences Between Male Dui First Offenders and Recidivists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    hopelessness, anger, acting out, anxiety, paranoia, psychopathy , obsessive- compulsiveness, sensation-seeking, and impulsivity. In addition, a number of...resultant condition after use of alcohol for other purposes. Paranoia, psychopathy and obsessive-compulsiveness are personality characteristics that have...drive him or her home after drinking. The person with peculiar, psychopathy like characteristics has an unusual slant on their 31 perception of life in

  16. An exploration of the trauma histories, dissociative experiences and psychopathic features of murderers

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of PhD and was awarded by Brunel University London Background: Differential relationships of the dimensions of psychopathy with external factors indicate that psychopathy can be conceptualised as a multifaceted syndrome comprised of distinct subgroups of psychopaths (Blackburn, 1988). However, it is not known whether similar subtypes of psychopathy exist across cultures. The research question which this thesis sought to answer was: Do subtypes of psy...

  17. Toward defining a cutoff score for elevated fear of hypoglycemia on the hypoglycemia fear survey worry subscale in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Polonsky, William H; Pouwer, Frans

    2014-01-01

    ), and distress about diabetes symptoms (Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised) were available from Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with oral medication or insulin (n = 1,530). Four criteria were applied to define a threshold for clinically meaningful FoH: 1) modal score distribution (MD...... with history of severe hypoglycemia. The EI criterion was the strongest associated with suboptimal well-being. CONCLUSIONS Although no definite cutoff score has been determined, the EI criterion may be most indicative of clinically relevant FoH in this exploratory study. Further testing of the clinical...

  18. Comparison between the Rorschach Depression Index and depression-related measures in a nonpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, D F

    1997-06-01

    The Rorschach Depression Index of Exner was correlated with eight self-report measures of affect and related personality constructs, including the Beck Depression Inventory, the Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist-Revised Depression and Positive Affect scales, and Kaplan Self-derogation in a sample of 41 undergraduates (M age 19 yr.). The only significant correlation was an unexpected inverse correlation (r = -.35) for scores on Kaplan Self-derogation, suggesting the need for caution in the use of the Depression Index as an indicator of depression in nonpatients.

  19. Survey on prevalence of psychopathy in hualin street, Liwan District, Guangzhou%广州市荔湾区华林街精神病患病情况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫秀梅; 梁卫萍; 陈建荣

    2003-01-01

    目的了解社区精神病患病情况,为采取有效的防治和康复措施提供依据.方法用线索调查的方法,从1998年开始对广州市荔湾区华林街社区居民进行线索调查,诊断并确定精神病的类型,并进行病情随访记录和年度康复效果评估.结果该社区精神病患病率为6.66‰,其中精神分裂患者占比例最大为66.9%,发病高峰年龄在10~39岁间,其次是精神发育迟缓占28.0%,发病高峰年龄在10岁以下.职业分布中以无职业人群患者比例最大占66.7%,其次是工人占29.6%.精神分裂患者以中学(中专)文化程度比例最大,占76.2%;精神发育迟缓患者文盲比例最大,占54.7%.有效的社区康复措施能使精神病人的好转率达74.6%.结论广州市荔湾区华林街社区精神病发病与职业、文化程度等因素有关.各部门通力合作,创造良好的社区生活和工作环境,是做好社区精防工作的关键.

  20. Causes of Unapproved Discharge from Hospital of Inpatients with Psychopathy Subject to Open Management and Countermeasures%开放式管理精神病患者擅自离院原因分析及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周逸如; 陈树乔

    2005-01-01

    目的寻找开放管理模式下住院精神患者擅自离院的原因,提出护理管理对策.方法回顾性分析5年来25例患者擅自离院的相关因素,结果擅自离院途径是正常出入通道(医院大门),非正常通道(爬墙,攀树等).结论进一步规范出入通道及环境的安全管理,促进各部门之间的协调沟通、重视全院员工的安全意识培训,才能减少院内开放管理患者的擅自离院现象.

  1. A psicopatia no contexto dos cinco grandes fatores = Psychopathy in the context of the big five personality factors = Psicopatía en el contexto de los cinco grandes factores de personalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro, Renan Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A psicopatia configura-se como um grave transtorno da personalidade. Apesar de resultados indicarem a extroversão e amabilidade como dois dos marcadores dos big five como seus preditores, são escassas as evidências no Brasil. Portanto, este estudo objetivou conhecer em que medida os fatores de personalidade normal se correlacionam com os três fenótipos avaliados pela Medida Triádica de Psicopatia (TriPM. Participaram da pesquisa 228 estudantes universitários de João Pessoa (PB, apresentando idade média de 25,1 anos, a maioria do sexo feminino (76%. Estes responderam a TriPM, o Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores da Personalidade e perguntas demográficas. Os resultados indicaram que os fatores extroversão, abertura à mudança e amabilidade predisseram a psicopatia, corroborando estudos prévios. Estes achados são discutidos tomando como base o modelo dos big five para compreender este traço socialmente desviante, onde a ausência de afeto e o comportamento manipulador são características centrais

  2. Actuality, problems and countermeasures of psychopathy medical institutions in Zhejiang province%浙江省精神病医疗机构现状、问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健生

    2003-01-01

    @@ 一、现状 1.政府财政补助相对减少.浙江省卫生系统现有30家精神病专科医院,2001年政府财政拨款共2759.86万元,与1999年的2180.75万元相比,增加了26.56%.但是财政拨款占人员经费的比例却从1999年的57.50%下降到了32.84%.

  3. Analyses on the Psychopathy of 57 Anthropophbia and the Effect of Psychotherapy%57例对人恐怖症的病理心理及心理治疗效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建周; 李淑英; 杨静娟; 赵淑芝

    2002-01-01

    目的探讨对人恐怖症的病理心理和认识领悟心理治疗效果.方法通过对57例对人恐怖症的个性特征、幼年性经历、恐怖症状的意义、性教育、青春期生活挫折调查分析,了解其病理心理成因,采有SCL-90量表评定心理治疗效果.结果大多数对人恐怖症病人性格内向、羞怯、恐怖症状具有性含意、存在着幼年性经历和歪曲性观念,青春期生活挫折使恐惧症状明朗化,SCL-90评定比较心理治疗效果明显.结论具有歪曲性观念的病人在青春期开始对异性的性意识和性幻想时,感到羞耻、自责、怕被人发现而出现对人恐怖症状,幼年性经历的忆起和自责加剧病情,阻碍正常性心理的发展,生活挫折使症状明朗化,心理治疗效果良好.

  4. Evaluation on the Disability Weights of Neuropathy and Psychopathy in Zhejiang%浙江省主要神经精神及相关疾病失能权重的评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈清; 杨敬; 刘立群; 陈定湾; 韩晓军; 刘谷琮

    2006-01-01

    目的:评定浙江省神经精神及相关疾病的失能权重.方法:以全球疾病负担研究中疾病失能权重7级分类标准及22个指标症状为依据,采用德尔菲法,选择10名肿瘤临床专家和18名公共卫生专家,通过自制的专家咨询表评定浙江省神经精神及相关疾病的失能权重的最小值和最大值.结果:专家咨询表回收率100%,8种神经精神及相关疾病失能权重最小值的均数为0.102~0.618,最大值的均数为0.311~0.932.结论:对8种神经精神及相关疾病失能权重的评定结果与荷兰等国的研究数据有一定的差异.

  5. 路优泰合并抗精神病药物治疗分裂症阴性%Effect of neurostan combined with anti-psychopathy drugs on negative symptoms of schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志壮; 于永达; 高毅

    2006-01-01

    目的:研究在服用原抗精神病药物基础上合并路优泰对分裂症阴性症状的治疗效果.方法:以阴性症状为主型的分裂症患者60例,随机分为两组,实验组在服用原抗精神病药物基础上合并路优泰,以阴性症状评定量表(SANS)减分情况评定疗效,以副反应量表(TESS)得分情况评价治疗中出现的副反应.结果:结果:两组病人治疗第2周末始逐渐呈现差异SANS(P<0.05)直至研究结束.两组TESS(P>0.05).结论:路优泰合并抗精神病药物治疗分裂症阴性症状相对单独抗精神病药物效果为佳,且未出现更多副反应.

  6. Hemodynamic Effects of Propofol on Acute Left Heart Failure in Psychopathy Patient during Mechanical Ventilation%精神病患者机械通气治疗左心衰竭时丙泊酚的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王阳顺; 杨航; 梁庆; 吴向红; 郑艳辉

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨丙泊酚对精神病患者机械通气治疗急性左心功能衰竭时治疗效果.方法:将精神病合并急性左心衰行机械通气的38例随机分成两组:丙泊酚组(n=18):持续静滴丙泊酚0.5~1.0 mg/(kg·h):对照组(n=20):间断用度冷丁50~100 mg静脉注射;观察镇静效果达Ramsay分级Ⅲ~Ⅳ级时间、动态监测给药前、后的生命体征、循环参数的变化.结果:丙泊酚的镇静效果优于对照组,治疗后1 h,两组血流动力学指标均较治疗前有显著改善.与对照组比较,丙泊酚组心脏指数显著升高,肺动脉压、肺毛细血管楔压轻度下降、外周血管阻力有所下降,有统计学差异(P0.05.结论:精神病患者机械通气治疗急性左心衰时使用丙泊酚镇静效果好,并对血流动力学影响有益.

  7. Nosocomial infection of inpatients with psychopathy: an incidence survey and risk factor analysis%精神病患者医院感染调查及危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金冬; 罗东凤

    2006-01-01

    目的了解精神病患者医院感染特点和危险因素.方法采用前瞻性与回顾性相结合的方法调查我院2005年1月~12月收治的1 250例住院精神病患者的医院感染情况,并对其相关危险因素进行分析.结果医院感染率为11.36%,以上呼吸道(41.57%)、下呼吸道(21.69%)和胃肠道(16.87%)感染为主.医院感染病种以精神分裂症和情感性精神障碍为主,分别占48.59%、38.03%.结论病程长短、住院次数、住院时间、药物副反应(流涎)及自我照顾能力为医院感染发生的相关因素.

  8. What Are We Really Afraid Of? The Practitioner View of the Terrorist Threat in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    mental disorders listed in the DSM-III that are most frequently associated with terrorists: sociopathy or psychopathy, narcissism, Freudian “thanatos...death wish), and organic or physiological disorders (Corrado 1982:295). Sociopathy and psychopathy are used interchangeably, although sociopathy

  9. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…

  10. Personality Correlates of Machiavellianism: VI. Machiavellianism and the Psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nicholas F.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have not demonstrated hypothesized link between Machiavellianism (interpersonally manipulative behavior) and psychopathy. Results from two studies using college student samples revealed that High Machs obtained significantly higher Psychopathy scores than did Low Machs, and Mach V totals for Primary Psychopaths were significantly…

  11. Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Two-Factor Model with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J.; Edens, John F.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Benning, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the research on psychopathy has treated it as a unitary construct operationalized by total scores on one (or more) measures. More recent studies on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) suggest the existence of two distinct facets of psychopathy with unique external correlates. Here, the authors report reanalyses of two offender…

  12. The relationship between juvenile psychopathic traits, delinquency and (violent) recidivism: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asscher, J.J.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Deković, M.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; Yousfi, S.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency,

  13. Screening for personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated male youth: preliminary validation of the Standardised Assessment of Personality-Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongerslev, Mickey; Bo, Sune; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    prisons and secure institutions Within one week a clinical psychologist administered the Structured Clinical Inter-view for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) and the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) to assess for personality disorders and psychopathy In order to control for confounding...

  14. Crime and Security Risk: Background Information for Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Monterey, CA: Defense Personnel Security Research and Education Center. 69. Hare, R. D., Hart, S. D., & Harpur, T. J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM-IV...Predictors of psychopathy and release outcome in a criminal population. Psycho- logical Assessment: A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 4, 419

  15. Physiological Sociology. Endocrine Correlates of Status Behaviors,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Behavior. J. Spuhler (Ed.). Chicago: Aldine Press, pp. 135-170, 1967. Hare, R. D. Psychopathy ’ Theory and Research. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1970...Hare, R. D. Psychophathy and physiological responses to adrenalin. J. Abnorm. Psychol. 79:138-147, 1972. Hare, R. D. and Quinn, M. J. Psychopathy and

  16. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  17. Assessment of Psychopathic Traits in an Incarcerated Adolescent Sample: A Methodological Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Brandi C.; Tant, Adam S.; Tremba, Katherine; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of convergent validity and group assignment using self-report, caregiver-report and interview-based measures of adolescent psychopathy were conducted in a sample of 160 incarcerated adolescents. Results reveal significant convergent validity between caregiver-report measures of adolescent psychopathy, significant convergent validity…

  18. Suggestions for Improving the Recruitment of Al-Qaeda Sources: Lessons Derived from Counter-Ideological Programs and the Targeting of Type B Terrorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    term now used in place of sociopathy, which, in turn, replaced the term psychopathy . APD is a “pattern of remorseless disregard for the rights of...noted, “…the idea of terrorism as the product of mental disorder or psychopathy has been discredited” (Crenshaw, 1992, p. 30).12 The second finding

  19. Measurement of Coronary-Prone Behavior and Autonomic Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    neurochemical parallels of psychopathology; a psychophysiological model relating autonomic imbalance to hyper- activity, psychopathy and autism. In... Psychopathy and physiological responses to threat of an aversive stimulus. Psychophysiology, 1978, 15(2), 165-172. 197. Berkeley, A.W. Level of aspiration

  20. Adolescents with Psychopathic Traits Report Reductions in Physiological Responses to Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Schechter, Julia C.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Reid, Marguerite E.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Psychopathy is characterized by profound affective deficits, including shallow affect and reduced empathy. Recent research suggests that these deficits may apply particularly to negative emotions, or to certain negative emotions such as fear. Despite increased focus on the cognitive and neural underpinnings of psychopathy, little is…

  1. An Interactionistic Approach to Soldiers’ Mental Persistence in the Context of Operational Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Killgore, Vo, Castro & Hoge, 2006) and with cortical under-arousal associated with psychopathy (Herperz & Sass, 2000), to name a few. This negative...elderly people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 2924–2953. [32] Herperz, S. C., & Sass, H. (2000). Emotional deficiency and psychopathy

  2. A Comparison of Approaches to Detect Deception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    noteworthy literature suggests that psychopathy tends to moderate deceptive responses (Phinney, 1992; Nunez, Casey, Egner, Hare, & Hirsch, 2005), little is...that psychopathy influences deceptive responses (Fullam, McKie, & Dolan, 2009; Nunez et al., 2005), little is known whether individual differences

  3. Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-08

    C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Psychopathy , threat, and polygraph test accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 347-355. Patrick, C. J... Psychopathy and detection of deception in a prison population. Psychophysiology, 15,121-136. Raskin, D. C, & Honts, C. R. (2002). The comparison question

  4. The Relationship between Juvenile Psychopathic Traits, Delinquency and (Violent) Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asscher, Jessica J.; van Vugt, Eveline S.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; Dekovic, Maja; Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Yousfi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis of k = 53 studies containing 60 non-overlapping samples and 10,073 participants was conducted to investigate whether psychopathy was associated with delinquency and (violent) recidivism in juveniles. The results showed that psychopathy was moderately associated with delinquency, general recidivism, and violent recidivism. Moderator…

  5. Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    following: oral fixation with passive, dependent features; psychopathy ; low frustration tolerance; low perseverance; guilt and anxiety; egocentricity...research findings of elevated scale 4 with alcoholic samples, the psychopathy /sociopathy personality domain, as tapped by the MMPI/Pd items, warranted

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on the Role of Behavioral Science in Physical Security (8th), Conflict and Confrontation in a Civilized Society Held at Springfield, Virginia on 7-8 June 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-31

    traits. A conduct disorder requiring special note is psychopathy (which fortunately, ijs evaluated on all major tests of maladjustment). In con...measure of psychopathy does run higher than these other personnel. This is not surprising. People with psychopathic traits would be expected to seek out

  7. Unique and Interactive Associations Between Maltreatment and Complex Emotion Recognition Deficits and Psychopathic Traits in an Undergraduate Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; McCabe, Hannah K; Dotterer, Hailey L; Neumann, Craig S; Hyde, Luke W

    2017-09-13

    Psychopathy is defined by affective and interpersonal deficits, deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behaviors. Poor recognition of emotions and childhood maltreatment are two risk factors implicated in psychopathy. The current study examined whether childhood maltreatment and complex emotion recognition deficits showed unique and interactive associations with psychopathic traits among 261 undergraduate students. Results indicate that maltreatment was related to higher general psychopathy scores within a bifactor model comprising a general psychopathy factor and four specific factors tapping underlying dimensions of psychopathy (i.e., affective, interpersonal, lifestyle, and antisocial). A significant interaction emerged whereby maltreatment was related to higher antisocial factor scores among individuals showing poor recognition of positive emotions. In an intriguing interaction, more maltreatment was related to lower interpersonal factor scores among individuals with low/mean levels of neutral emotion recognition. The interaction of positive emotion recognition deficits and maltreatment highlights a potential intervention target among antisocial individuals who have experienced maltreatment.

  8. Validating Obstetric Emergency Checklists using Simulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Komal; Rivera-Chiauzzi, Enid Y; Lee, Colleen; Shepard, Cynthia; Bernstein, Peter S; Moore-Murray, Tanya; Smith, Heather; Nathan, Lisa; Walker, Katie; Chazotte, Cynthia; Goffman, Dena

    2016-10-01

    Background The World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist has demonstrated significant reduction in surgical morbidity. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists District II Safe Motherhood Initiative (SMI) safety bundles include eclampsia and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) checklists. Objective To determine whether use of the SMI checklists during simulated obstetric emergencies improved completion of critical actions and to elicit feedback to facilitate checklist revision. Study Design During this randomized controlled trial, teams were assigned to use a checklist during one of two emergencies: eclampsia and PPH. Raters scored teams on critical step completion. Feedback was elicited through structured debriefing. Results In total, 30 teams completed 60 scenarios. For eclampsia, trends toward higher completion were noted for blood pressure and airway management. For PPH, trends toward higher completion rates were noted for PPH stage assessment and fundal massage. Feedback resulted in substantial checklist revision. Participants were enthusiastic about using checklists in a clinical emergency. Conclusion Despite trends toward higher rates of completion of critical tasks, teams using checklists did not approach 100% task completion. Teams were interested in the application of checklists and provided feedback necessary to substantially revise the checklists. Intensive implementation planning and training in use of the revised checklists will result in improved patient outcomes.

  9. Parallel syndromes: two dimensions of narcissism and the facets of psychopathic personality in criminally involved individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-04-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals. In this study, we examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to (a) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and (b) self- and other-directed aggression, measured with the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed.

  10. Television's "crazy lady" trope: female psychopathic traits, teaching, and influence of popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Cathleen; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Smith, Delaney

    2014-04-01

    This article describes notable illustrations of female psychopathy on modern television to review various characters that will have utility in teaching students about female psychopathy in distinction to male psychopathy and to encourage consideration of the potential effects that viewing these countless examples may have on a generation of young women. The authors use examples from soap operas, crime procedurals, reality television, fantasy, comedies, and young adult programs to illustrate gender differences in psychopathy and make specific teaching points. They also review the research literature related to popular culture's impact on behavior and gender roles. Gender differences in real-world psychopathy are mirrored in television portrayals. For example, female psychopaths, on TV and in reality, use sexual manipulation, demonstrate unstable emotions, and employ social aggression to achieve their ambitions. The examples of female psychopathic traits are prevalent on TV and easily accessible for teaching purposes. Research does give some support for a popular culture impact on behavior and gender roles. As compared to male psychopathy, female psychopathy is less recognized, and there are some notable differences in how the psychopathic traits manifest. Television provides myriad teaching examples that can highlight the gender distinctions such as use of sexual manipulation, emotional instability, and social aggression. Research suggests that the prevalence of "crazy ladies" on television may be negatively impacting gender stereotypes and normalizing bad behavior in young women.

  11. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

  12. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  13. Jovem aprisionado em regime semi-aberto: um estudo transdisciplinar

    OpenAIRE

    Lazzaron, Leandra Regina

    2008-01-01

    A presente dissertação, vinculada à linha de pesquisa “Criminologia e Controle Social”, do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Criminais, da Faculdade de Direito da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, identifica o perfil do jovem apenado, aprisionado em regime semi-aberto, no Instituto Penal de Viamão, com base na escala PCL-R. O estudo de campo foi realizado na instituição prisional e avaliou 40 jovens, com idade de 18 a 23 anos, que cumprem pena em regime semi-aberto. O...

  14. Moral pluralism on the trolley tracks: Different normative principles are used for different reasons in justifying moral judgments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Büsra Aktas; Onurcan Yilmaz; Hasan G Bahçekapili

    2017-01-01

    ...), psychopathy and real-world utilitarianism in three Turkish samples. In Study 1 (n = 269), we used four ethical dilemmas and asked participants to select one normative principle as the grounds for their judgment in the dilemma...

  15. Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task (Nucci & Turiel, 1978) that employs a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual sub-facets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong. PMID:21842959

  16. Enuresis: An Historical, Cultural, and Contemporary Account of Etiology and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E.; Trepper, Terry

    1977-01-01

    The authors discuss the cultural relativism of enuresis and the subsequent notion that urinary incontinence may not be a disease or psychopathy, but, rather, a problem associated with social expectations and developmental delays. (Author)

  17. Size matters: Increased grey matter in boys with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    De Brito, Stéphane A; Mechelli, Andrea; Wilke, Marko; Laurens, Kristin R; Jones, Alice P; Barker, Gareth J; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Viding, Essi

    Brain imaging studies of adults with psychopathy have identified structural and functional abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal regions that are involved in emotion recognition, decision-making, morality and empathy...

  18. Biologie en criminologie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WODC

    2006-01-01

    Ruim zes jaar na het themanummer 'Biologische factoren van agressief gedrag' (2000) is er nu opnieuw een speciale aflevering over de verhouding tussen biologie en criminologie. Een belangrijke aanleiding zijn de vele onderzoeken naar biologische factoren van psychopathie, agressie, antisociaal

  19. Mapping the association of global executive functioning onto diverse measures of psychopathic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskin-Sommers, A.R.; Brazil, I.A.; Ryan, J.; Kohlenberg, N.; Neumann, C.S.; Newman, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals display a callous-coldhearted approach to interpersonal and affective situations and engage in impulsive and antisocial behaviors. Despite early conceptualizations suggesting that psychopathy is related to enhanced cognitive functioning, research examining executive

  20. Sex-specific Association between Psychopathic Traits and Electrodermal Reactivity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Isen, Joshua; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura; Dawson, Michael; Bezdjian, Serena; LOZANO, DORA ISABEL

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of skin conductance response (SCR) to a child psychopathy measure. Blunted electrodermal activity is a theoretically important characteristic of psychopathy, but has not been fully explored in preadolescents or females. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SCR magnitude is associated with psychopathic-like traits in boys and girls. Participants were drawn from an ethnically diverse community sample of 9-10 year old twins. Given the fact that members o...