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Sample records for psychopathology results suggest

  1. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

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    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  2. Memory and Suggestibility in Maltreated Children: Age, Stress Arousal, Dissociation, and Psychopathology.

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    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed 3- to 17-year-olds' memory and suggestibility in the context of ongoing child maltreatment investigations. Results from 189 subjects indicated that general psychopathology, short-term memory, and intellectual ability predicted facets of children's memory performance. Older compared to young children evinced fewer memory errors…

  3. Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive Functioning

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    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…

  4. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

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    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  5. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

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    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  6. Improvements of adolescent psychopathology after insomnia treatment: results from a randomized controlled trial over 1 year

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    de Bruin, Eduard J.; Bögels, Susan M.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent insomnia can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTI). However, little is known about effects of CBTI on psychopathology in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate whether (a) CBTI improves psychopathology in Internet- (IT) and face-to-face group

  7. Improvements of adolescent psychopathology after insomnia treatment : Results from a randomized controlled trial over 1 year

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, E.J.; Bögels, S.M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    Adolescent insomnia can be treated effectively with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBTI). However, little is known about effects of CBTI on psychopathology in adolescents. This study aimed to investigate whether (a) CBTI improves psychopathology in Internet- (IT) and face-to-face group

  8. Parental bonding and adult psychopathology: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey.

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    Enns, M W; Cox, B J; Clara, I

    2002-08-01

    Research using the parental bonding instrument (PBI) has suggested that lack of parental care and/or overprotection may be important risk factors for adult mental disorders. Much of this research, however, has relied on clinical populations with one or two disorders, or has used highly select community samples. The association between parenting experiences and the occurrence of 13 common mental disorders in adulthood was evaluated in the US National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5877). The effect of sociodemographic variables (age, education, income) was statistically controlled and the effects of six parenting variables (maternal and paternal care, overprotection and authoritarianism) were examined simultaneously. The effects in men and women were examined separately. Lack of care was the parenting variable most consistently associated with adult psychopathology. Parenting experiences with one's mother were more consistently associated with adult mental disorders. In general the impact of parenting was diagnostically non-specific. However, there appeared to be some unique effects for externalizing disorders (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder) in males; paternal overprotection and authoritarianism conferred a reduced risk of externalizing disorders in adult males. The overall impact of parenting as assessed by the PBI was modest, accounting for about 1 to 5 % of the variance in the occurrence of adult mental disorders. Parenting experiences, particularly lack of care, are potentially causally related in a non-specific manner to a wide variety of forms of adult psychopathology in both men and women. The overall magnitude of the effect is small but statistically significant in a nationally representative US sample.

  9. Education in Psychopathology in Europe: Results from a Survey in 32 Countries.

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    Fiorillo, Andrea; Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the current status of training on psychopathology in Europe and to identify the unmet needs of training on psychopathology. An online survey was carried out during the period July-December 2013. Forty-one representatives of early career psychiatrists of their national associations were invited to participate. Each respondent was asked to provide the collective feedback of the association rather than that of any of its individual officer or member. Thirty-two associations returned the questionnaire out of the 41 contacted (response rate, 78%). All respondents recognized psychopathology as a core component of training in psychiatry. According to respondents, the primary aims of psychopathology are (a) to assess psychiatric symptoms (47%), (b) to understand patients' abnormal experiences (33%), and (c) to make nosographical diagnosis (20%). A formal training course in psychopathology is available in 29 out of the 32 surveyed countries. In most countries, (a) there is not a defined number of hours dedicated to psychopathology, (b) teaching is mainly theoretical, and (c) a structured training on psychometric tools is missing. At the end of the training, about half of trainees is not satisfied with received training in psychopathology. According to European early career psychiatrists, there is the need to rethink training in psychopathology, which should be at the heart of training in psychiatry and the key element of psychiatric practice. Education in psychopathology is affected by several unmet needs, such as lack of appropriate training in the use of psychometric instruments, lack of supervision, and lack of practical skills.

  10. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

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    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  11. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

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    Junaid Hassim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental health research appears to be continually transforming. Recent literature reflects a greater appreciation for the ways in which pathoplastic features of culture modulate emotional regulation. This article introduces those aspects of the literature which explore the (reconsideration of culture as a dynamic and essential construct in the clinical formulation of psychopathology. Objectives. The study aims to review literature that focuses on the dynamic influence of culture in psychopathology. Furthermore, the researchers aim to present a view on the ways in which culture appeared to shape the topography of psychopathology nosology. Method. A literature review of 31 sources. Results. The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This section also explored themes identified during the literature review. The literature was tabulated according to features and emerging themes. Three major themes were identified and included: the cultural context; the evolving definitions of culture; and culture and psychopathology. Conclusion/discussion. An analysis of the themes was offered. The authors concluded by highlighting the significance of the literature at present. Areas of particular interest suggested that health and behaviour are dependent, at least in part, on culture; psychopathology may also be appreciated as a social construct; culture influences psychopathology regardless of the aetiology; diagnostic classes do not adequately consider operational definitions; and a greater focus on hermeneutic perceptivity in appreciating cultural dynamics in psychopathology will benefit clinical assessment.

  12. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

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    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among adult offspring: results from the cross-sectional South African Stress and Health survey

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    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies have demonstrated a link between parental psychopathology and offspring suicidal behavior. However, it remains unclear what aspects of suicidal behavior among adult offspring are predicted by specific parental mental disorders, especially in Africa. This study set out to investigate the association between parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in a South African general population sample. Method Parental psychopathology and suicidal behavior in offspring were assessed using structured interviews among 4,315 respondents from across South Africa. The WHO CIDI was used to collect data on suicidal behavior, while the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria Interview was used to assess prior parental psychopathology. Bivariate and multivariate survival models tested the associations between the type and number parental mental disorders (including suicide) and lifetime suicidal behavior in the offspring. Associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts) among adult offspring were tested. Results The presence of parental psychopathology significantly increased the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring. More specifically, parental panic disorder was associated with offspring suicidal ideation, while parental panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and suicide were significantly associated with offspring suicide attempts. Among those with suicidal ideation, none of the tested forms of parental psychopathology was associated with having suicide plans or attempts. There was a dose–response relationship between the number of parental disorders and odds of suicidal ideation. Conclusions Parental psychopathology increases the odds of suicidal behavior among their adult offspring in the South African context, replicating results found in other regions. Specific parental disorders predicted the onset and

  14. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

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    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  15. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

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    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

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    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  17. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

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    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

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    Leenarts, L.E.W.; Diehle, J.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Jansma, E.P.; Lindauer, R.J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive

  19. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

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    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  20. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

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    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

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    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  2. Further Evidence of a Specific Psychopathology of Addiction. Differentiation from Other Psychiatric Psychopathological Dimensions (Such as Obesity).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Angelo G I; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rovai, Luca; Pallucchini, Alessandro; Spera, Vincenza; Perugi, Giulio; Maremmani, Icro

    2017-08-21

    Introduction : In this study, we used a symptomatology checklist (SCL-90) to substantiate the hypothesis that Substance Use Disorder (SUD) has its own five-dimensional psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to test whether this psychopathology can be differentiated from other psychiatric psychopathological dimensions (such as obesity). Methods: The severity and frequency of each of the five dimensions were investigated, at univariate and multivariate levels, by comparing 972 Heroin Use Disorder (HUD) patients (83.5% male, mean age 30.12 ± 6.6, range: 16-59) and 106 obese individuals (50.0% male, mean age 37.59 ± 7.6, range: 24-52). The correlations between the Body Mass Index (BMI) of obese individuals with these psychopathological dimensions were also studied. Results: Obese individuals showed higher SCL-90 total scores, global severity index scores, number of items rated positively, and positive symptoms distress index scores than HUD patients. The severity of all psychopathological dimensions was significantly higher in obese individuals. Discriminant analysis showed that Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide severity were more frequent in obese patients, sufficiently so to allow differentiation between HUD (lower severity) and obese individuals (greater severity). At the reclassification level, 70.8% of obese individuals in the sample were reclassified as HUD patients. Psychopathological subtypes characterized by Panic-Anxiety and Violence-Suicide typology were more frequent in obese patients and sufficiently so as to discriminate between groups. Of obese patients, 47.2% were reclassified as HUD patients. The severity of the Worthlessness-Being Trapped dimension was sufficient to predict the BMI of obese individuals. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the five-factor psychopathology found in HUD can discriminate between HUD and obese patients, but that there is an area of overlap between the forms of psychopathology found in SUD and those found in

  3. Psychopathology in Young People With Intellectual Disability

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    Einfeld, Stewart L.; Piccinin, Andrea M.; Mackinnon, Andrew; Hofer, Scott M.; Taffe, John; Gray, Kylie M.; Bontempo, Daniel E.; Hoffman, Lesa R.; Parmenter, Trevor; Tonge, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    having scores 0.53 points lower at study commencement increasing to a difference of 6.98 points below severely affected children by wave 4. This trend was observed in each of the subscales, except the social-relating disturbance subscale, which increased over time. Prevalence of participants meeting criteria for major psychopathology or definite psychiatric disorder decreased from 41% at wave 1 to 31% at wave 4. Few of the participants (10%) with psychopathology received mental health interventions during the study period. Conclusion These results provide evidence that the problem of psychopathology comorbid with intellectual disability is both substantial and persistent and suggest the need for effective mental health interventions. PMID:17062861

  4. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.

  5. Biosensor approach to psychopathology classification.

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    Misha Koshelev

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We used a multi-round, two-party exchange game in which a healthy subject played a subject diagnosed with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistics Manual-IV disorder, and applied a Bayesian clustering approach to the behavior exhibited by the healthy subject. The goal was to characterize quantitatively the style of play elicited in the healthy subject (the proposer by their DSM-diagnosed partner (the responder. The approach exploits the dynamics of the behavior elicited in the healthy proposer as a biosensor for cognitive features that characterize the psychopathology group at the other side of the interaction. Using a large cohort of subjects (n = 574, we found statistically significant clustering of proposers' behavior overlapping with a range of DSM-IV disorders including autism spectrum disorder, borderline personality disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major depressive disorder. To further validate these results, we developed a computer agent to replace the human subject in the proposer role (the biosensor and show that it can also detect these same four DSM-defined disorders. These results suggest that the highly developed social sensitivities that humans bring to a two-party social exchange can be exploited and automated to detect important psychopathologies, using an interpersonal behavioral probe not directly related to the defining diagnostic criteria.

  6. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

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    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  7. Prevalence, clinical correlates and maternal psychopathology of deliberate self-harm in children and early adolescents: results from a large community study

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    André R. Simioni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH in children from low- and middle-income countries. We investigated the prevalence of DSH and its clinical and maternal psychopathological associations in Brazilian children (n=2,508, ages 6-14y in a community-based study. Methods: Participants of the High Risk Cohort Study for the Development of Childhood Psychiatric Disorders (HRC and their mothers were assessed in structured interviews. Current (last month and lifetime DSH were estimated, including analysis stratified by age groups. Logistic regressions were performed to investigate the role of the children’s clinical diagnoses and maternal psychopathology on DSH prevalence estimates, adjusting for potential confounding factors. Results: The prevalence of current DSH was 0.8% (children 0.6%, adolescents 1% and lifetime DSH was 1.6% (1.8% and 1.5%, respectively. Current and lifetime DSH were more frequent in children with depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD, even in multiple models accounting for demographic variables and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Maternal anxiety disorder was strongly associated with current and lifetime DSH in offspring; whereas current DSH, specifically in young children, was associated with maternal mood disorder. Conclusion: Diagnoses of depression, ADHD and ODD were consistently associated with DSH, as was having a mother with anxiety disorder.

  8. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  9. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

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    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  10. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

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    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  11. Future in psychopathology research.

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    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  12. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology.

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    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2013-11-30

    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Birth Order and Psychopathology

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    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  14. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-08-01

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  15. Firesetting: Psychopathology, theory and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Theresa A.; Pina, Afroditi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we comprehensively review characteristics of adult firesetters, and the etiological features of\\ud firesetting. In particular, we pay attention to contemporary research available as to core traits and\\ud psychopathological features required to understand firesetters, and the classificatory systems and etiological\\ud theories developed to understand firesetting. This evaluation of contemporary research suggests that clinical\\ud knowledge and practice relating to firesetting is e...

  16. Facultative methanotrophy: false leads, true results, and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jeremy D; DiSpirito, Alan A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse microorganisms characterized by their ability to utilize methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Early studies suggested that growth on methane could be stimulated with the addition of some small organic acids, but initial efforts to find facultative methanotrophs, i.e., methanotrophs able to utilize compounds with carbon-carbon bonds as sole growth substrates were inconclusive. Recently, however, facultative methanotrophs in the genera Methylocella, Methylocapsa, and Methylocystis have been reported that can grow on acetate, as well as on larger organic acids or ethanol for some species. All identified facultative methanotrophs group within the Alphaproteobacteria and utilize the serine cycle for carbon assimilation from formaldehyde. It is possible that facultative methanotrophs are able to convert acetate into intermediates of the serine cycle (e.g. malate and glyoxylate), because a variety of acetate assimilation pathways convert acetate into these compounds (e.g. the glyoxylate shunt of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, the citramalate cycle, and the methylaspartate cycle). In this review, we summarize the history of facultative methanotrophy, describe scenarios for the basis of facultative methanotrophy, and pose several topics for future research in this area. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  18. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  20. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-01-01

    Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-relat...

  1. Dissociative tendencies and individual differences in high hypnotic suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Devin Blair; Cardeña, Etzel; Lindgren, Magnus

    2011-03-01

    Inconsistencies in the relationship between dissociation and hypnosis may result from heterogeneity among highly suggestible individuals, in particular the existence of distinct highly suggestible subtypes that are of relevance to models of psychopathology and the consequences of trauma. This study contrasted highly suggestible subtypes high or low in dissociation on measures of hypnotic responding, cognitive functioning, and psychopathology. Twenty-one low suggestible (LS), 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants were administered hypnotic suggestibility scales and completed measures of free recall, working memory capacity, imagery, fantasy-proneness, psychopathology, and exposure to stressful life events. HDHS participants were more responsive to positive and negative hallucination suggestions and experienced greater involuntariness during hypnotic responding. They also exhibited impaired working memory capacity, elevated pathological fantasy and dissociative symptomatology, and a greater incidence of exposure to stressful life events. In contrast, LDHS participants displayed superior object visual imagery. These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterised by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning.

  2. Contextual risk and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2008-10-01

    In developmental psychopathology it almost goes without saying that contextual risk factors do not occur in isolation and that it is the combination of various risk factors that portends numerous negative child outcomes. Despite this, the body of literature that examines the relation between multiple risk exposure and child psychopathology using a cumulative risk approach is still relatively small. Even when studies use a cumulative risk approach they rarely test properly whether the relation between cumulative risk and child psychopathology is linear or nonlinear, with consequences for both theory development and intervention design: if cumulative risk impacts problem behavior in a positively accelerated exponential manner, for instance, it means that exposure to multiple risk is especially difficult to manage as problem behavior accelerates at a critical level of risk. Furthermore, few studies have actually examined factors that protect from negative outcomes in those exposed to cumulative risk and even fewer have explored cumulative protection in relation to cumulative risk. On the other hand, there is the view that a cumulative risk approach at least implicitly assumes that risk factors are, in essence, interchangeable. According to this view, the importance of testing for specificity should not be underestimated. Finally, the renewed interest in the role of neighborhood risk in child development has initiated a lively debate as to whether contextual risk should be operationalized at the family or the area level. In this letter I discuss these issues, and offer some suggestions as to how future research can address them.

  3. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M.; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nolen, Willem A.; Hillegers, Manon H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. Methods We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10–18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Limitations Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. Conclusions We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. PMID:27423424

  4. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  5. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  6. Sleep paralysis and psychopathology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work accidents, etc. have been found to be at a high risk of psychopathology. ... patient has multiple bodily symptoms, but they are not accounted for by a general ... between sleep paralysis and adverse psychosocial situations,6,9-11 but to our ... treatment for co-morbid physical conditions or were too weak to participate ...

  7. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  8. Personality development and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Fruyt, Filip; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, E.A.L.; Verbeke, Lize; Specht, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reviews the state of knowledge concerning personality development and psychopathology, as well as their mutual influence. Although these separate constructs are currently well documented, the research area concerning their interconnection is complex and is in need of more sophisticated

  9. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  10. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  11. War zone veterans returning to treatment: effects of social functioning and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Patients with mental illness often return for further treatment after an initial episode of care. Two processes that may contribute to the return for further treatment are the severity of patients' initial social and clinical status; and/or deterioration in their status over time, regardless of their initial status. This study examined these processes in an administrative database of war zone veterans who had received outpatient treatment from a Veterans Affairs specialized posttraumatic stress disorder program. The results suggest that both initial severity and deterioration of status contribute to return to treatment and involve changes in both social functioning and psychopathology. Determination of the direction of effects between social functioning and psychopathology showed that psychopathology in the form of PTSD, other Axis I disorder or violent behavior generally affected subsequent social functioning, but not vice versa. Psychopathology in the form of alcohol or drug abuse/dependence, however, showed reciprocal effects with social functioning. These results point to the importance of emphasizing interventions that address social dysfunction and that address psychopathology, from the beginning of treatment as a way of maximizing the benefits and minimizing the need for recurrent care.

  12. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  13. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... need to explore cultural conceptualisations of psychopathology is ... The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This .... logy; universalism, relativism, abso ..... as philosophical systems include moral and political concerns.

  14. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  15. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  16. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would reflect their particular psychopathologies. We examined 47 male adolescents from three diagnostic groups: those suffering from externalizing psychopathologies, internalizing psychopathologies and controls. We performed a high-resolution examination of their gameplay, using in-game quantitative statistics mechanisms of two fundamentally different games, a structured racing game and an unstructured adventure game. While there was no difference in the groups' using patterns of the structured game, there was a high variability between the groups' using patterns when they were using a non-structured game. These findings suggest that virtual behavior in unstructured games is reflective of adolescent-players psychopathology, and might shed light on an unexplored facet of videogames research. Possible implications are discussed.

  17. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia: A Transdiagnostic Biomarker of Emotion Dysregulation and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA)—an index of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-mediated cardiac control—has emerged as a reliable peripheral biomarker of emotion regulation (ER). Reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity (i.e., withdrawal) to emotional challenge are observed consistently among individuals with poor ER capabilities, including those with various forms of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and those with specific psychopathological syndromes, including anxiety, phobias, attention problems, autism, callousness, conduct disorder, depression, non-suicidal self-injury, panic disorder, and trait hostility. Emerging evidence suggests that low RSA and excessive RSA reactivity index poor ER because they are downstream peripheral markers of prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Poorly modulated inhibitory efferent pathways from the medial PFC to the PNS result in reduced RSA and excessive RSA reactivity. According to this perspective, RSA is a non-invasive proxy for poor executive control over behavior, which characterizes most forms of psychopathology. PMID:25866835

  18. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  19. More adaptive versus less maladaptive coping: What is more predictive of symptom severity? Development of a new scale to investigate coping profiles across different psychopathological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Jahns, Anna Katharina; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Lincoln, Tania M; Klein, Jan Philipp; Göritz, Anja S

    2016-02-01

    Lack of adaptive and enhanced maladaptive coping with stress and negative emotions are implicated in many psychopathological disorders. We describe the development of a new scale to investigate the relative contribution of different coping styles to psychopathology in a large population sample. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the supposed positive correlation between maladaptive coping and psychopathology would be stronger than the supposed negative correlation between adaptive coping and psychopathology. We also examined whether distinct coping style patterns emerge for different psychopathological syndromes. A total of 2200 individuals from the general population participated in an online survey. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory revised (OCI-R) and the Paranoia Checklist were administered along with a novel instrument called Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Styles (MAX) questionnaire. Participants were reassessed six months later. MAX consists of three dimensions representing adaptive coping, maladaptive coping and avoidance. Across all psychopathological syndromes, similar response patterns emerged. Maladaptive coping was more strongly related to psychopathology than adaptive coping both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The overall number of coping styles adopted by an individual predicted greater psychopathology. Mediation analysis suggests that a mild positive relationship between adaptive and certain maladaptive styles (emotional suppression) partially accounts for the attenuated relationship between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms. Results should be replicated in a clinical population. Results suggest that maladaptive and adaptive coping styles are not reciprocal. Reducing maladaptive coping seems to be more important for outcome than enhancing adaptive coping. The study supports transdiagnostic approaches advocating that maladaptive coping is a common factor across different psychopathologies

  20. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…

  1. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  2. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  3. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  4. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Maternal personality and psychopathology as determinants of parenting behavior: a quantitative integration of two parenting literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer E

    2014-05-01

    A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement

  6. Anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of broad dimensions of psychopathology after cognitive behavioral therapy for panic disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Ino,1 Sei Ogawa,1 Masaki Kondo,1 Risa Imai,1 Toshitaka Ii,1 Toshi A Furukawa,2 Tatsuo Akechi1 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, 2Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Panic disorder (PD is a common disease and presents with broad dimensions of psychopathology. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is known to improve these broad dimensions of psychopathology in addition to PD symptoms. However, little is known about the predictors of treatment response in comorbid psychiatric symptoms after CBT for PD. Recent studies suggest that anxiety sensitivity (AS may be a key vulnerability for PD. This study aimed to examine AS as a predictor of broad dimensions of psychopathology after CBT for PD. Materials and methods: In total, 118 patients with PD were treated with manualized group CBT. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the associations between 3 Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI factors (physical concerns, mental incapacitation concerns, and social concerns at baseline and the subscales of the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R at endpoint. Results: Low levels of social concerns at baseline predicted low levels on 5 SCL-90-R subscales after CBT: interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychosis. High levels of mental incapacitation concerns significantly predicted low levels on 3 SCL-90-R subscales after treatment: interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and paranoid ideation. Physical concerns at baseline did not predict broad dimensions of psychopathology. Conclusion: This study suggested that the social concerns and mental incapacitation concerns subscales of the ASI at baseline predicted several dimensions of psychopathology after CBT for PD. To improve comorbid psychopathology, it may be useful to

  7. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  8. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  9. [Nightmares and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmigiani, Giovanna; Gentili, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are long frightening dreams, quite common in psychiatric and general population; they may cause psychological distress and social or occupational dysfunction and are the most common form of parasomnia. They can be divided into post-traumatic nightmares, which are part of post-traumatic stress reaction, idiopathic and stress-induced. This article is a review of studies evaluating the relationship between nightmares and psychopathology, especially in regard to their intensity and content. For example, prepsychotic patients often report nightmares, particularly of body fragmentation and death of the dreamer. Nightmares have been repeatedly associated with the general level of psychopathology and with the personality factor "neuroticism". Nightmare distress, the impact on daily functioning caused by nightmares, may function as a mediating variable. Several studies in the last years have shown that nightmares can be treated with several cognitive-behavioral techniques. Have been also reported promising effects of pharmacological agents, especially prazosin, but they need to be evaluated in larger placebo-controlled trials. In summary, many findings on nightmares are preliminary and this field needs to be further investigated. Nevertheless psychiatry and general medicine need to pay more attention to nightmares; they are not merely a nightly symptom of anxiety, but a separate sleep disorder that should receive specific treatment.

  10. Parental and Child Psychopathology: Moderated Mediation by Gender and Parent-Child Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Annabel O; McKinney, Cliff

    2018-03-26

    Previous literature has not examined the processes underlying the relations among parent-child relationship quality, parental psychopathology, and child psychopathology in the context of gender. Further, research examining these variables in emerging adulthood is lacking. The current study examined whether parent-child relationship quality would mediate the relation between parental and child psychopathology, and whether gender moderated these associations. Participants were emerging adults (N = 665) who reported on perceptions of their parents' and their own psychological problems as well as their parent-child relationship quality. Results indicated that the relation between parental internalizing problems and parent-child relationship quality was positive for males, and that mother-child relationship quality was related positively to psychological problems in males. This suggests that sons may grow closer to their parents (particularly their mother) who are exhibiting internalizing problems; in turn, this enmeshed relationship may facilitate transmission of psychopathology. Mediational paths were conditional upon gender, suggesting moderated mediation. Overall, the current study emphasizes that the complexities of parenting must be understood in the context of gender. Further, the mother-son dyad may particularly warrant further attention.

  11. Testing Models of Psychopathology in Preschool-aged Children Using a Structured Interview-based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Lea R.; Bufferd, Sara J.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents’ (typically mothers’) reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n=541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology. PMID:24652485

  12. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Repertoire Analysis of Antibody CDR-H3 Loops Suggests Affinity Maturation Does Not Typically Result in Rigidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeliazko R. Jeliazkov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody’s antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts. However, there were a few exceptions and previous studies were limited to a small handful of cases. Here, we determined the structural flexibility of the CDR-H3 loop for thousands of recent homology models of the human peripheral blood cell antibody repertoire using rigidity theory. We found no clear delineation in the flexibility of naïve and antigen-experienced antibodies. To account for possible sources of error, we additionally analyzed hundreds of human and mouse antibodies in the Protein Data Bank through both rigidity theory and B-factor analysis. By both metrics, we observed only a slight decrease in the CDR-H3 loop flexibility when comparing affinity matured antibodies to naïve antibodies, and the decrease was not as drastic as previously reported. Further analysis, incorporating molecular dynamics simulations, revealed a spectrum of changes in flexibility. Our results suggest that rigidification may be just one of many biophysical mechanisms for increasing affinity.

  15. Duration of Absence from Work Is Related to Psychopathology, Personality, and Sociodemographic Variables in a Longitudinal Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gamma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo examine, in a non-clinical sample, the association of psychopathology, personality, sociodemographic information, and psychosocial indicators of non-occupational functioning with the duration of absence from work in the past 12 months.MethodA longitudinal community cohort of 591 adults from Switzerland was analyzed using multilevel ordered logistic regression, with several alternative models as robustness checks. Psychopathology was assessed using the total score (Global Severity Index of the Symptom Check List-90 Revised.ResultsThe highest psychopathology levels were associated with absences of 3 or more week duration, largely independently of age. Extraversion and being divorced, widowed or separated also corresponded with longer absences from work in some analyses. No effect of sex was found. Most effects tested were not statistically significant and estimates showed large uncertainty.ConclusionAlthough tentative, our results suggest a possible influence of psychopathology on work participation. It may thus be desirable in insurance-medical appraisals of work ability to include instruments for measuring psychopathology.

  16. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  17. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopath......Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between...... in schizophrenia. Through this framework and with the use of clinical vignettes, we elicit 3 compensatory strategies, which, we suggest, reflect a fragile sense of "we" in the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e. (i) positive withdrawal, (ii) imposing a goal-oriented, spatiotemporal structure on intersubjective engagement......, and (iii) preferring social activities with a clear attribution of social roles and rules. Finally, we discuss the relation between anomalous self-experiences (i.e. self-disorders) and the complicated "we."...

  18. Challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jane; Hemmings, Colin; Kravariti, Eugenia; Dworzynski, Katharina; Holt, Geraldine; Bouras, Nick; Tsakanikos, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between challenging behavior and co-morbid psychopathology in adults with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) (N=124) as compared to adults with ID only (N=562). All participants were first time referrals to specialist mental health services and were living in community settings. Clinical diagnoses were based on ICD-10 criteria and presence of challenging behavior was assessed with the Disability Assessment Schedule (DAS-B). The analyses showed that ASD diagnosis was significantly associated with male gender, younger age and lower level of ID. Challenging behavior was about four times more likely in adults with ASD as compared to non-ASD adults. In those with challenging behavior, there were significant differences in co-morbid psychopathology between ASD and non-ASD adults. However, after controlling for level of ID, gender and age, there was no association between co-morbid psychopathology and presence of challenging behavior. Overall, the results suggest that presence of challenging behavior is independent from co-morbid psychopathology in adults with ID and ASD. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. © 2013.

  1. Correlations between psychopathology and self-reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle; Abiri, Gbonjubola; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well-being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self-rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. One hundred and sixty-five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15-16). There was strong negative correlation (r = -0.51, p psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  4. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18?25?years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  5. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  6. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent: retrospective results from a tertiary clinic suggesting an association with facial dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwensen, J F; Menné, T; Johansen, J D; Thyssen, J P

    2016-10-01

    Chemicals used for the manufacturing of rubber are known causes of allergic contact dermatitis on the hands. Recent European studies have suggested a decrease in thiuram contact allergy. Moreover, while an association with hand dermatitis is well established, we have recently observed several clinical cases with allergic facial dermatitis to rubber. To evaluate temporal trends of contact allergy to rubber accelerators from the European baseline series in a tertiary patch test clinic in Denmark, and examine associations with anatomical locations of dermatitis. Patch test and clinical data collected in a Danish tertiary dermatology clinic in Gentofte, Herlev, Copenhagen between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2014 were analysed. The following rubber accelerators or mixtures in petrolatum from the European baseline patch test series were included: thiuram mix 1.0%, mercaptobenzothiazole 2.0% and mercapto mix 1.0%. The overall prevalence of contact allergy to rubber accelerators was 3.1% with no significant change during the study period (P trend = 0.667). Contact allergy to thiuram mix was the most prevalent and was significantly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, hand dermatitis, age >40 years and facial dermatitis in adjusted binary logistic regression analysis. Current clinical relevance of contact allergy to thiuram mix was 59.3%. Patients with contact allergy to mercapto mix and mercaptobenzothiazole had a concomitant reaction to thiuram mix in 35.2% (19/54) and 35.4% (17/48) of the cases respectively. Contact allergy to rubber accelerators remains prevalent. Clinicians should be aware of the hitherto unexplored clinical association with facial dermatitis. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  7. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers’ psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  8. Network analysis: An innovative framework for understanding eating disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Forbush, Kelsie T; Mason, Tyler B; Moessner, Markus

    2018-03-01

    Network theory and analysis is an emerging approach in psychopathology research that has received increasing attention across fields of study. In contrast to medical models or latent variable approaches, network theory suggests that psychiatric syndromes result from systems of causal and reciprocal symptom relationships. Despite the promise of this approach to elucidate key mechanisms contributing to the development and maintenance of eating disorders (EDs), thus far, few applications of network analysis have been tested in ED samples. We first present an overview of network theory, review the existing findings in the ED literature, and discuss the limitations of this literature to date. In particular, the reliance on cross-sectional designs, use of single-item self-reports of symptoms, and instability of results have raised concern about the inferences that can be made from network analyses. We outline several areas to address in future ED network analytic research, which include the use of prospective designs and adoption of multimodal assessment methods. Doing so will provide a clearer understanding of whether network analysis can enhance our current understanding of ED psychopathology and inform clinical interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Childhood trauma in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: focus on personality disorders and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Ramírez, Nicolás; Hernández-Vara, Jorge; Casas, Miguel

    2015-10-01

    Personality Disorders (PDs) and childhood traumatic experiences have been considered risk factors for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). However, the relationship between these factors and their associated psychopathological impact has not been explored in this population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between different childhood traumas and the presence and number of PDs and current psychopathology in a sample of CFS patients. For this purpose, 166 CFS patients were evaluated with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) and the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Other instruments were used to assess the associated psychopathology and the impact of fatigue. Of the total sample, 55 (33.1%) presented childhood trauma, the most frequent of which were emotional neglect (21.7%) and emotional abuse (18.1%). Considering PD presence, 79 (47.6%) patients presented some PD. There were no differences in frequency of physical childhood trauma in patients with and without PD. However, patients with PD had more frequently experienced emotional childhood trauma (OR=2.18, p=0.034). Severity of childhood trauma was related to a higher number of PDs, more severe depressive symptoms (p=0.025) and suicide risk (p=0.001). Patients with PD and any childhood trauma presented more severe depressive and irritable symptoms and a higher suicide risk than those without any PD and non-childhood traumatic event. These patients' psychopathological symptoms were similar to those of patients with childhood trauma and without PD. These results suggest that emotional childhood trauma but not physical childhood trauma is related to higher frequency of PD presence. More severe childhood emotional and physical traumas are related to a higher number of PDs and to more severe psychopathological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.; Paterson, A.; Edgar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  11. Psychopathological Symptoms under Smog: The Role of Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuquan; Kong, Jiayang; Yu, Feng; Peng, Kaiping

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, major cities in China have suffered from severe air pollution, which is also known as smog. Despite lay considerations that smog might pose risks for psychopathology, it remains unknown whether it is only linked to affective psychopathology or to a broader range of symptomologies. Moreover, whether individual differences in emotion regulation, a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, would influence the magnitude of pollution-induced symptoms is not well understood. Using a longitudinal design, the current study measured trait emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of university students at Time 1 (without smog, N = 120) and then reassessed for psychopathology at Time 2 (after acute exposure to smog for 1 week, N = 102). The results showed that participants had higher levels of positive symptom distress, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and psychoticism at Time 2. Moreover, reappraisal is negatively associated with smog-induced elevations in psychopathological symptoms only when participants rely heavily on suppression. We discuss the implications of this investigation for both intervention efforts and future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies.

  12. Psychopathological Symptoms under Smog: The Role of Emotion Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuquan Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, major cities in China have suffered from severe air pollution, which is also known as smog. Despite lay considerations that smog might pose risks for psychopathology, it remains unknown whether it is only linked to affective psychopathology or to a broader range of symptomologies. Moreover, whether individual differences in emotion regulation, a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology, would influence the magnitude of pollution-induced symptoms is not well understood. Using a longitudinal design, the current study measured trait emotion regulation and psychopathological symptoms in a sample of university students at Time 1 (without smog, N = 120 and then reassessed for psychopathology at Time 2 (after acute exposure to smog for 1 week, N = 102. The results showed that participants had higher levels of positive symptom distress, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and psychoticism at Time 2. Moreover, reappraisal is negatively associated with smog-induced elevations in psychopathological symptoms only when participants rely heavily on suppression. We discuss the implications of this investigation for both intervention efforts and future work on the contextual factors surrounding the deployment of emotion regulation strategies.

  13. A theoretical framework for the associations between identity and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2017-11-01

    Identity research largely emerged from clinical observations. Decades of empirical work advanced the field in refining existing approaches and adding new approaches. Furthermore, the existence of linkages of identity with psychopathology is now well established. Unfortunately, both the directionality of effects between identity aspects and psychopathology symptoms, and the mechanisms underlying associations are unclear. In the present paper, we present a new framework to inspire hypothesis-driven empirical research to overcome this limitation. The framework has a basic resemblance to theoretical models for the study of personality and psychopathology, so we provide examples of how these might apply to the study of identity. Next, we explain that unique features of identity may come into play in individuals suffering from psychopathology that are mostly related to the content of one's identity. These include pros and cons of identifying with one's diagnostic label. Finally, inspired by Hermans' dialogical self theory and principles derived from Piaget's, Swann's and Kelly's work, we delineate a framework with identity at the core of an individual multidimensional space. In this space, psychopathology symptoms have a known distance (representing relevance) to one's identity, and individual multidimensional spaces are connected to those of other individuals in one's social network. We discuss methodological (quantitative and qualitative, idiographic and nomothetic) and statistical procedures (multilevel models and network models) to test the framework. Resulting evidence can boost the field of identity research in demonstrating its high practical relevance for the emergence and conservation of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Psychometric analysis of simulated psychopathology during sick leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation from a categorical or diagnostic perspective, has turned into a more dimensional point of view, so it is possible to establish different “levels” of simulation. In order to analyse, from a psychometric perspective, the possible prediction of simulated behaviour based on common measures of general psychopathology, the objective of the current study was to analyse possible predictors of the Structured Symptomatic Simulation Inventory (SIMS scores considering as dependent variables the total SIMS score, the SIMS subscales scores, and the cut-off points usually suggested to discriminate between “no suspected simulation”/“suspected simulation”, which usually are 14 and 16. In terms of possible predictors, a set of variables were established: a categorical (sex, type of treatment - psychopharmacological, psychotherapeutic, combined-, type of work activity, being self-employed or not, presence-absence of a history of psychopathology (both familial and personal, presence or not of associated physical pathology, diagnosis -according to ICD-10- and the final proposal -return to work, sick leave extended, proposal of permanent work incapacity-; and b continuous (perceived stress -general and current, self-esteem, results of a screening questionnaire for personality disorders and scores on a symptoms questionnaire. In addition, a descriptive study of all variables was carried out and possible differences of genre were analysed.

  15. Personality psychopathology differentiates risky behaviors among women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carolyn M; Pisetsky, Emily M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-01

    Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) frequently endorse risky behaviors such as self-harm and substance use. However, no studies of BN to date have examined factors associated with engaging in individual or co-occurring risky behaviors. Given that individuals with BN often have personality psychopathology, which has been linked to symptoms and course of illness, this study sought to examine how personality may differentiate engagement in risky behaviors among BN individuals. A sample of 133 women with BN completed self-report measures of personality psychopathology at baseline, and then reported on bulimic and risky behaviors (e.g., substance misuse, self-harm) over 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the unique associations between state-level predictor variables (each risky behavior, e.g., substance misuse, and combination of risky behaviors, e.g., substance misuse plus self-harm) and trait-level personality constructs. Substance misuse behavior, above and beyond all other risky behaviors, was significantly associated with higher scores on trait dissocial behavior (P = 0.004). Substance misuse in BN has a unique association with dissocial behavior, a personality trait characterized by hostility, impulsivity, and entitlement. These results suggest that targeting personality variables may help facilitate more effective treatment of risky behaviors, including substance use in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:681-688). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular approaches to child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsobrook, J P; Pauls, D L

    1998-04-01

    Basic research into the genetics of childhood psychiatric disorders has substantially increased during the last two decades. Specific genetic mutations have been characterized in some developmental disorders (e.g., fragile X syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome), but thus far identification of etiological gene mutations in psychiatric illnesses has been unsuccessful. Several psychiatric disorders serve as examples of the current state of molecular approaches in child psychopathology. Investigations to date of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) have not resulted in the discovery of a gene of major effect. Some studies have implicated the D2 and D4 dopamine receptors as having a direct role in the etiology of GTS, but other studies have disputed those findings. However, the dopamine D2 receptor may modulate the severity of GTS. Obsessive-compulsive disorder has a reported association with a low-activity allele of the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase; however, the low-activity genotype is also seen in a significant proportion of unaffected individuals. For reading disability two distinct phenotypes (phonological awareness and single-word reading) have been linked to separate loci on chromosomes 6 and 15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a reported association with the dopamine transporter. Findings of a genetic locus for the personality trait of novelty seeking remain controversial.

  17. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS, which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables. We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent

  18. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS), which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables). We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility) were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent costs. This might be

  19. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  20. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  1. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Agüera

    Full Text Available Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK, in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV. The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72, UK (n = 117, and Spain (n = 355. Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China. While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior. In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  2. P50 suppression deficits and psychopathology in Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao Lin; Tan, Shu Ping; Wang, Zhi Ren; Zhang, Jin Guo; Li, Dong; Fan, Feng Mei; Zhao, Yan Li; Zou, Yi Zhuang; Tan, Yun Long; Yang, Fu De; Zhang, Xiang Yang

    2017-07-13

    Numerous studies have reported P50 gating deficits in schizophrenia, though with mixed results. Moreover, few studies have explored the association between P50 gating deficits and psychopathology in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the P50 auditory sensory gating patterns and their correlations with clinical symptoms in a large sample of Han Chinese patients with schizophrenia. We assessed P50 sensory gating with a 64-channel electroencephalography system in 133 patients with schizophrenia and 148 healthy controls. The schizophrenia symptomatology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Patients with schizophrenia had a significantly higher P50 gating ratio (pschizophrenia. These findings suggest that the P50 sensory gating deficits identified in Chinese patients with schizophrenia may not be involved in the psychopathology of the illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The mediation effect of experiential avoidance between coping and psychopathology in chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2011-01-01

    This study explores experiential avoidance as a mediator in the relationship between coping (rational coping, avoidant coping and detached/ emotional coping) and psychopathology (depression, anxiety and stress). A battery of self-report questionnaires was used to assess coping, experiential avoidance and depression, anxiety and stress in 70 participants with a chronic pain from Portuguese primary health care units. Regression analyses were performed and showed preliminary evidence supporting the mediation role of experiential avoidance in a Portuguese sample with chronic pain. Results show that experiential avoidance partially or fully mediate the effects of rational coping and detached/emotional coping on depression and stress. Implications for clinical practice were discussed and suggest that psychopathology is not necessary direct product of coping and other processes, such as experiential avoidance, are likely involved. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem

  5. Psychosis Is Mutable over Time: A Longitudinal Psychopathology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigand, Moritz E; Lang, Fabian U; Müller-Stierlin, Annabel S; Reichhardt, Lea; Trif, Silvana; Schulze, Thomas G; Strik, Werner; Becker, Thomas; Jäger, Markus

    2018-03-14

    A neurobiologically informed, system-specific psychopathological approach has been suggested for use in schizophrenia. However, to our knowledge, such an approach has not been used to prospectively describe the course of schizophrenia. We assessed psychopathology in a well-described sample of 100 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with the Bern Psychopathology Scale (BPS) at 6-month intervals for up to 18 months. The BPS groups symptoms into the 3 domains language, affectivity and motor behaviour; each domain is rated as being normal, inhibited or disinhibited. In addition, we collected qualitative psychopathological data in the form of case reports. Forty-eight patients completed at least 2 assessments over the course of at least 1 year. Of these, 16 patients (33.3%) showed a bipolar course pattern (i.e., a switch from inhibited to disinhibited or vice versa) in 1 domain and 6 patients (12.5%) in more than 1 domain. Shifts from 1 dominant domain to another were seen frequently (n = 20, 41.7%), but shifts between 1 dominant domain and a combination of dominant domains were more common (n = 33, 68.8%). The course of schizophrenia is heterogeneous and shows frequent changes in psychopathology. This should be taken into account in the communication with patients and in the research on underlying illness mechanisms and treatment. A major limitation of this study is the small sample size. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Eating psychopathology amongst athletes: links to current attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vaithehy; Jowett, Sophia; Meyer, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were two-fold; first to determine the associations between current attachment styles, and eating psychopathology amongst athletes, and second to simultaneously assess the mediating effects of self-esteem, perfectionism, and depression in this association. Four hundred and eleven British athletes completed self-report instruments pertaining to eating psychopathology, attachment styles, self-esteem, depression, and perfectionism. Athletes who scored highly on both avoidant and anxious attachment styles, reported elevated eating psychopathology scores. However, such associations were indirect and mediated via athletes' levels of self-esteem, self-critical perfectionism, and depression, with self-esteem and depression identified as more salient mediators than self-critical perfectionism. The current findings provide evidence to suggest that insecure attachment styles influence athletes' eating psychopathology via their impact on self-esteem, depression, and self-critical perfectionism. Moreover, self-esteem and depression may play more significant role in transferring the impact of insecure attachment styles on elevated eating psychopathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents' divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with families at high and low risk for depression. One hundred seventy-eight grandchildren (mean age = 13.9 years) of depressed and nondepressed parents and grandparents were evaluated by raters blind to their parents' and grandparents' clinical status. We found that in both low and high-risk children, divorce had a limited impact on child adjustment over and above familial risk for depression. Divorce had a significant effect on child outcomes only among high-risk grandchildren with a depressed grandparent and non-depressed parents, with this group showing a threefold risk for anxiety disorders. Results support previous findings suggesting that familial risk for depression largely overshadows the effect of parental divorce on child psychopathology. Possible reasons for the lack of association between divorce and child psychopathology among low-risk offspring are discussed.

  8. Psychotherapy, psychopathology, research and practice: pathways of connections and integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Louis G

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes three pathways of connections between different communities of knowledge seekers: integration of psychotherapeutic approaches, integration of psychotherapy and psychopathology, and integration of science and practice. Some of the issues discussed involve the delineation and investigation of common factors (e.g., principles of change), improvement of major forms of psychotherapy, clinical implications of psychopathology research, as well as current and future directions related to practice-research networks. The aim of this paper is to suggest that building bridges across theoretical orientations, scientific fields, professional experiences, and epistemological views may be a fruitful strategy to improve our understanding and the impact of psychotherapy.

  9. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  10. CHRONIC PELVIC PAIN SYNDROME: A PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Kryuchkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates. The etiology and pathogenesis of this problem remains poorly understood. No uniform solitary treatment is known for CPPS. As a result, a multimodal approach is most likely to demonstrate benefit for this disease. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT which includes psychosocial domain. Nevertheless, psychosocial and psychopathological influences on CPPS only recently became a research focus. This literature review investigated the association of personality traits, mental disorders with the baseline clinical characteristics of patients with CPPS. We aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics.

  11. A latent profile analysis of childhood trauma in women with bulimia nervosa: Associations with borderline personality disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utzinger, Linsey M; Haukebo, Justine E; Simonich, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Cao, Li; Lavender, Jason M; Mitchell, James E; Engel, Scott G; Crosby, Ross D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to empirically examine naturally occurring groups of individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) based on their childhood trauma (CT) histories and to compare these groups on a clinically relevant external validator, borderline personality disorder (BPD) psychopathology. This study examined the relationship between CT and BPD psychopathology among 133 women with BN using latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify participants based on histories of CT. Participants completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P), the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). The LPA revealed four trauma profiles: low/no trauma, emotional trauma, sexual trauma, and polytrauma. Results indicated that the sexual and polytrauma profiles displayed significantly elevated scores on the DIB-R and that the low/no and emotional trauma profiles did not differ significantly on the DIB-R. Secondary analyses revealed elevated levels of a composite CT score among those with both BN and BPD psychopathology compared to those with BN only. These findings suggest that both childhood sexual abuse and the additive effects of childhood polytrauma may be linked to BPD psychopathology in BN. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:689-694). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Adverse Life Events and Psychopathology and Prosocial Behavior in Late Adolescence: Testing the Timing, Specificity, Accumulation, Gradient, and Moderation of Contextual Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Kallis, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    A study examines the role of contextual risk in psychopathology and prosocial behavior in adolescents. The results show that risk accumulation matters instead of specificity and that the number of adverse life events is nonmultiplicative with psychopathology.

  13. An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Psychopathological Risk and Impulsivity on BMI and Perceived Quality of Life in Obese Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambelli, Renata; Cerniglia, Luca; Cimino, Silvia; Ballarotto, Giulia; Paciello, Marinella; Lubrano, Carla; Marchitelli, Serena; Gnessi, Lucio; Lenzi, Andrea

    2017-04-26

    The present study aimed to assess the psychological profiles of adult male and female obese patients, as well as to verify the possible influence of their psychopathological risk and impulsivity on their body mass index (BMI) and perceived quality of life. A total of 64 obese subjects accessing a center for care of their obesity were assessed through anthropometric and psychometric measurements. All anthropometric measures in men were higher than in women, while in turn, women showed higher psychopathological symptoms. Furthermore, the symptoms of somatization and psychoticism were predictors for a higher BMI in men, but there was no effect of psychopathological symptoms on the perceived quality of life (QoL) of male subjects. Moreover, in women, somatization and attentional impulsivity were predictors for a higher BMI, whereas no correlation was found between their psychopathological risk and perceived QoL. The results of regression analysis underlined that somatization is a "core" psychopathological symptom in obese subjects regardless of their sex, which is a potential predictor for a higher BMI. The psychological difficulties of the subjects had no effect on their perceived QoL, suggesting that they find it difficult to reflect on the impact that obesity has on their life.

  14. Family profiles in eating disorders: family functioning and psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerniglia L

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Luca Cerniglia,1 Silvia Cimino,2 Mimma Tafà,2 Eleonora Marzilli,2 Giulia Ballarotto,2 Fabrizia Bracaglia2 1Faculty of Psychology, International Telematic University UNINETTUNO, 2Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Research has studied family functioning in families of patients suffering from eating disorders (EDs, particularly investigating the associations between mothers’ and daughters’ psychopathological symptoms, but limited studies have examined whether there are specific maladaptive psychological profiles characterizing the family as a whole when it includes adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN, and binge eating disorder (BED. Through the collaboration of a network of public and private consultants, we recruited n=181 adolescents diagnosed for EDs (n=61 with AN, n=60 with BN, and n=60 with BEDs and their parents. Mothers, fathers, and youths were assessed through a self-report measure evaluating family functioning, and adolescents completed a self-report questionnaire assessing psychopathological symptoms. Results showed specific family functioning and psychopathological profiles based on adolescents’ diagnosis. Regression analyses also showed that family functioning characterized by rigidity predicted higher psychopathological symptoms. Our study underlines the importance of involving all members of the family in assessment and intervention programs when adolescent offspring suffer from EDs. Keywords: family functioning, eating disorders, adolescents, psychopathological risk

  15. Cultural neuroscience and psychopathology: prospects for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Suparna; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2009-01-01

    There is a long tradition that seeks to understand the impact of culture on the causes, form, treatment, and outcome of psychiatric disorders. An early, colonialist literature attributed cultural characteristics and variations in psychopathology and behavior to deficiencies in the brains of colonized peoples. Contemporary research in social and cultural neuroscience holds the promise of moving beyond these invidious comparisons to a more sophisticated understanding of cultural variations in brain function relevant to psychiatry. To achieve this, however, we need better models of the nature of psychopathology and of culture itself. Culture is not simply a set of traits or characteristics shared by people with a common geographic, historical, or ethnic background. Current anthropology understands culture as fluid, flexible systems of discourse, institutions, and practices, which individuals actively use for self-fashioning and social positioning. Globalization introduces new cultural dynamics and demands that we rethink culture in relation to a wider domain of evolving identities, knowledge, and practice. Psychopathology is not reducible to brain dysfunction in either its causes, mechanisms, or expression. In addition to neuropsychiatric disorders, the problems that people bring to psychiatrists may result from disorders in cognition, the personal and social meanings of experience, and the dynamics of interpersonal interactions or social systems and institutions. The shifting meanings of culture and psychopathology have implications for efforts to apply cultural neuroscience to psychiatry. We consider how cultural neuroscience can refine use of culture and its role in psychopathology using the example of adolescent aggression as a symptom of conduct disorder.

  16. Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    measures of psychopathology, similarly moderated by momentary interactions with emotions and context. Conclusion The results suggest that psychopathology, represented as an interactome at the momentary level of temporal resolution, is informative in diagnosing clinical needs, over and above traditional symptom measures. PMID:24466189

  17. PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANOREXIA NERVOSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Bobrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of anorexia nervosa among women is 0,5%, whereas mortality related to this disorder amounts to 5–17%. Psychopathological structure of anorexia nervosa implies abnormalities of behavior as well as those of motivation and volition, thinking, perception and appreciation. In addition, mental abnormalities typical for this disorder are evident in regulation of emotions, specific personality traits and self-consciousness. The key psychopathological feature of patients with anorexia nervosa is a lack of cognitive and personal differentiation that calls forth impairments of self-concept and self-image. Anorexia nervosa should be differentiated from depression and schizophrenic spectrum disorders. Its etiology and pathogenesis are related both to hereditary and psychosocial factors. Of great importance are psychoendocrine abnormalities, however their role is still insufficiently elucidated.

  18. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    the psychometric properties of the translated Danish version of self-report measures sensitive to the different aspects and dimensions of dysfunction in affect regulation prevalent in BPD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study comprised a group of women diagnosed with BPD (n = 29) and a comparison group of healthy...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  19. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  1. Psychopathology and behavior problems in children and adolescents with Williams syndrome: Distinctive relationships with cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osório, Ana A C; Rossi, Natália F; Gonçalves, Óscar F; Sampaio, Adriana; Giacheti, Célia M

    2017-08-01

    Several studies have documented the high prevalence of psychopathology and behavior problems in Williams syndrome (WS). However, the links between cognitive development and such symptoms need further clarification. Our study aims to expand current knowledge on levels of behavior problems and its links to cognition in a sample of Brazilian individuals with WS. A total of 25 children and adolescents with WS and their parents participated in this study. The participants' IQs were assessed with the Wechsler Scales of Intelligence (for children or adults) and parental reports of psychopathology/behavior problems were collected using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The presence of clinically significant attention problems was a main feature in our sample of children and adolescents with WS. In the children, higher IQ scores were found to be significantly associated with less externalizing problems, while in the adolescents cognitive abilities were found to be associated with less internalizing symptoms. These results provide further insight into the links between psychopathology and behavior problems and cognitive abilities in WS, and suggest the need to take age into consideration when analyzing such relationships.

  2. A Place for Sexual Dysfunctions in an Empirical Taxonomy of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K.; Baillie, Andrew J.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions commonly co-occur with various depressive and anxiety disorders. An emerging framework for understanding the classification of mental disorders suggests that such comorbidity is a manifestation of underlying dimensions of psychopathology (or “spectra”). In this review, we synthesize the evidence that sexual dysfunctions should be included in the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology as part of the internalizing spectrum, which accounts for comorbidity among the depressive and anxiety disorders. The review has four parts. Part 1 summarizes the empirical basis and utility of the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology. Part 2 reviews the prima facie evidence for the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are part of the internalizing spectrum (i.e., high rates of comorbidity; shared cognitive, affective, and temperament characteristics; common neural substrates and biomarkers; shared course and treatment response; and the lack of causal relationships between them). Part 3 critically analyzes and integrates the results of the eight studies that have addressed this hypothesis. Finally, Part 4 examines the implications of reconceptualizing sexual dysfunctions as part of the internalizing spectrum, and explores avenues for future research. PMID:28121167

  3. Typology of schizotypy in non-clinical young adults: Psychopathological and personality disorder traits correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Nidetch, Victoria; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-12-30

    Few typological studies address schizotypy in young adults. Schizotypal traits were assessed on 466 college students using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B). Other measures evaluated personality traits previously associated with schizotypy (borderline, obsessionnal, and autistic traits), psychopathological symptoms (suicidal ideations, depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) and psychosocial functioning. A factor analysis was first performed on SPQ-B results, leading to four factors: negative schizotypy, positive schizotypy, social anxiety, and reference ideas. Based on these factors, a cluster analysis was conducted, which yielded four clearly distinct groups characterized by "Low" (non schizotypy), "High schizotypy" (mixed positive and negative), "Positive schizotypy", and "Social impairment". Regarding personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, the "High schizotypy" cluster scored higher than the "Positive" and the "Social impairment" groups, which scored higher than the "Low" cluster. The "Positive" group had higher levels of interpersonal relationships than in the "High" and the "Social impairment" clusters, suggesting that positive schizotypy was associated to benefits such as perceived social relationships. Nevertheless the "Positive" cluster was also linked to high levels of personality disorder traits and psychopathological symptoms, and to low academic achievement, at levels similar those observed in the "Social impairment" cluster, confirming an unhealthy side to positive schizotypy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Childhood physical maltreatment with physical injuries is associated with higher adult psychopathology symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamela, Diogo; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2018-05-29

    Previous research has neglected the distinction between childhood physical maltreatment (CPM) behaviors and the physical sequelae resulting from CPM. Prior empirical work has combined CPM behaviors (e.g., beat, hit with a belt) and CPM physical sequelae (e.g., bruises, fractures) into a single conceptual category to predict adverse psychological consequences in adults. This is preventing the examination whether specific subgroups of CPM exposure may report a higher risk of psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. The aim of this study was to examine whether distinct experiences of CPM histories (no physical maltreatment, physical maltreatment only, and physical maltreatment with physical sequelae) would be differentially associated with specific psychopathology dimensions in adulthood. symptoms METHOD: Data were drawn from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect (N = 941). Participants completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Three groups were created based on participants' experience of CPM assessed by the Childhood History Questionnaire. Participants who reported that suffered physical sequelae of the CPM exhibited significantly higher symptoms in all psychopathology dimensions than participants with no history of CPM and participants that were exposed to physical maltreatment without sequelae. These findings suggest that clinicians should discriminate CPM behavior from CPM physical sequelae in order to increase effectiveness of mental health treatment with adults with history of CPM. Our findings are discussed in light of the evolutionary-developmental frameworks of adaptative development and cumulative risk hypothesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Differences in Trauma-Related Psychopathology: a Critical Review of Neuroimaging Literature (2014-2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helpman, Liat; Zhu, Xi; Suarez-Jimenez, Benjamin; Lazarov, Amit; Monk, Catherine; Neria, Yuval

    2017-11-08

    Sex differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of trauma-related psychopathology have long been documented. Multiple underlying mechanisms have been examined, both psychosocial and biological. Among the most promising biological mechanisms are neural substrates of trauma-related psychopathology that have been uncovered in recent years. Neuroimaging studies of sex-related heterogeneity published over the past 3 years (2014-2017) demonstrate an interaction between sex and type, timing, and load of trauma exposure. These studies suggest that, for males, early trauma exposure may involve a loss of gray matter in the limbic system, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), amygdala, and hippocampus, and an over-activity and increased connectivity of salience hubs, and particularly dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). For females, however, early trauma exposure may involve overactive and possibly an enlarged amygdala, as well as decreased connectivity of salience hubs such as the dACC. Underlying mechanisms may include interaction with several endocrine systems and result in differential neural response to naturally occurring and added endocrine ligands, as well as sex-specific genetic and epigenetic risk and resilience factors. This complex interaction between multiple biological systems may be associated with sex-specific behavioral patterns, in turn associated with trauma-related psychopathology. While substantial number of published studies present preliminary evidence for neural mechanisms of sex-specific posttraumatic responses, there is a paucity of research directly designed to examine sex as a biological factor in trauma-related psychopathology. Specific foci for future studies aiming to bridge current gaps in the literature are discussed.

  6. Toward the Identification of a Specific Psychopathology of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo G. I. Maremmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution. The first factor accounted for a depressive “worthlessness and being trapped” dimension; the second factor picked out a “somatic symptoms” dimension; the third identified a “sensitivity–psychoticism” dimension; the fourth a “panic–anxiety” dimension; and the fifth a “violence–suicide” dimension. These same results were replicated by applying the PCA to another Italian sample of 1,195 heroin addicts entering a Therapeutic Community Treatment. Further analyses confirmed the clusters of symptoms, independently of demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems, kind of treatment received, and, especially, other substances used by the patient such as alcohol or cocaine. Moreover, these clusters were able to discriminate patients affected by addiction from those affected by psychiatric diseases such as major depressive disorder. Our studies seem to suggest the trait-dependent, rather than the state-dependent, nature of the introduced psychopathology dimensions of SUDs.

  7. Psychopathological profile adolescents with serious behavioral problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orrego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was mainly at analysing which the different psychopathological features as well as the behavioural and emotional problems were in a sample of "highly disruptive" students who are considered by the school authorities from Principado de Asturias, Spain, as the group with more difficulties for ordinary educational intervention. To do this, a representative sample of 43 students with these characteristics, 41 male, with an average age of 13.35 years (SD = 1.06 was selected, and compared their profile with a normal control group of students. The results showed that the disruptive students had higher average scores in most of the scales of the “Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent” than in the Control Group. Moreover, disruptive students showed higher average scores on general syndromes of the “Youth self report” in comparison to the aforementioned Control Group. These results allow identifying and describing a psychopathological profile characteristic of this type of educative group, in order to establish and improve strategies and intervention programs. Future lines should conduct follow up longitudinal studies and analyze other risk markers, such as endophenotypes.

  8. Psychopathological features in Noonan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Francesca; Licchelli, Serena; Serra, Giulia; Piccini, Giorgia; Caciolo, Cristina; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Cirillo, Flavia; Leoni, Chiara; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Marco; Alfieri, Paolo; Vicari, Stefano

    2018-01-01

    (n = 10; 95% Confidence Interval = 19-56%), with two individuals showing anxiety disorder and eight cases exhibiting subsyndromal traits. Our results show individuals with NS do present a very high risk to develop psychiatric disorders or symptoms during paediatric age. Based on these findings, preschool assessment of inattentive, hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety/depressive symptoms is recommended in order to plan a personalized treatment for psychological/psychiatric issues in affected individuals. Dedicated prospective studies are required to confirm the present data and better characterize the psychopathological profile in NS. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Affective predictors of the severity and change in eating psychopathology in residential eating disorder treatment: The role of social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Leonard, Rachel C; Wetterneck, Chad T; Smith, Brad E R; Farrell, Nicholas R; Riemann, Brad C

    2018-01-01

    Despite evidence documenting relationships between eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, depression, and anxiety, little is known regarding how social anxiety is related to ED symptoms in treatment. Therefore this study examined associations between depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and ED psychopathology at the beginning and end of treatment (EOT) among patients (N = 380) treated in a residential ED program. Participants completed measures of ED psychopathology and affective variables. Higher depression and general anxiety, but not social anxiety, were related to higher ED psychopathology at baseline. However, social anxiety emerged as a unique predictor of ED psychopathology at EOT such that participants with higher social anxiety evidenced less improvement in ED psychopathology. Findings suggest that social anxiety has specific relevance to treatment in EDs, which may reflect shared mechanisms and underlying deficits in emotion regulation.

  10. Psychopathology among senior secondary school students in Ilesa, south western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoye, F O; Morakinyo, O

    2003-09-01

    The prevalence rate of psychopathology and the relationship between psychopathology and some socio-demographic variables and consolidated current drug use were studied in 600 randomly selected senior secondary school students in Ilesa, south-western Nigeria. The 30-item version of the General Health Questionnaire and the WHO student drug use questionnaire were administered for the study. The findings revealed that the prevalence of psychopathology among the study population was 39.5%. There were significant positive associations between psychopathology and belonging to low socio-economic status, coming from a polygamous family and self-rated poor academic performance. The results also showed that although psychopathology was commoner amongst respondents who were engaged in current use of psychoactive substances than those who were not, the difference was not significant. The implications of these findings within the context of the limitations of the study and the importance of effective preventive and therapeutic student mental health services are discussed.

  11. Risk factors for psychopathology in children with intellectual disability: a prospective longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, J L; Dekker, M C; Koot, H M

    2006-04-01

    This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. A population sample of 968 children, aged 6-18, enrolled in special schools in The Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed at Time 1. A random 58% were re-contacted about 1 year later, resulting in a sample of 474 at Time 2. Psychopathology was highly consistent over 1 year. Risk factors jointly accounted for significant, but small, portions of the variance in development of psychopathology. Child physical symptoms, family dysfunction and previous parental mental health treatment reported at Time 1 were uniquely associated with new psychopathology at Time 2. Prevention and early intervention research to find ways to reduce the incidence of psychopathology, possibly targeting family functioning, appear important.

  12. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  14. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, R.; Stams, G.J.; Meijer, A.M.; Aldenkamp, A.P.; Dekovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the types and severity of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. Methods A series of meta-analyses were conducted to review 46 studies, including 2,434 children with epilepsy. Results Effect sizes were medium to large for comparisons with children from the general

  15. Efficacy for Psychopathology and Body Weight and Safety of Topiramate-Antipsychotic Cotreatment in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Maayan, Lawrence; Kane, John; Hert, Marc De; Cohen, Dan

    2016-06-01

    To meta-analyze the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment in schizophrenia. PubMed/MEDLINE database were searched until September 5, 2015, using the keywords topiramate AND antipsych* OR neurolept* OR specific antipsychotic names. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment versus placebo and ongoing antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Two evaluators extracted data. Standardized mean difference (SMD), weighted mean difference (WMD), and risk ratio (RR) ± 95% CIs were calculated. In 8 RCTs, lasting a mean ± SD of 13.6 ± 4.9 weeks, 439 patients were randomized to topiramate (100-400 mg/d) versus placebo (trials = 7) or ongoing antipsychotic treatment (trial = 1). Topiramate outperformed the comparator regarding total psychopathology (trials = 6, n = 269, SMD = -0.57 [95% CI, -1.01 to -0.14], P = .01), positive symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.56 [95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11], P = .01), negative symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.62 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.10], P = .02) general psychopathology (trials = 3, n = 179, SMD = -0.69 [95% CI, -1.27 to -0.11], P = .02), body weight (trials = 7, n = 327, WMD = -3.14 kg [95% CI, -5.55 to -0.73], P = .01), and body mass index (BMI) (trials = 4, n = 198, WMD = -1.80 [95% CI, -2.77 to -0.84], P = .0003). Topiramate's efficacy for total psychopathology and weight reduction effects were not mediated/moderated by trial duration, topiramate dose, sex, age, inpatient status, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, or baseline BMI. Conversely, clozapine-topiramate cotreatment moderated greater efficacy, but less weight loss, compared to topiramate-nonclozapine antipsychotic combinations. All-cause discontinuation was similar between topiramate and control groups (trials = 7, RR = 1.24 [95% CI, 0.76 to 2.02], P = .39). Topiramate trended only toward more paresthesia than placebo (trials = 4, RR = 2.03 [95 % CI, 0

  16. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  17. A developmental metatheory of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, T B

    1994-01-01

    The author proposes an integrative model of psychopathology in light of the contemporary need to bridge diverse ideological frameworks. This model has its major foundations in drive, ego, object relations, and self psychoanalytic perspectives as they impact upon interactional patterns of infancy. The chronology of these theoretical orientations is presented as parallel to a changing focus upon different successive stages in the course of individual development. The longstanding controversy between conflict and deficit theories, which undergirds the various schools of thought, is addressed: a developmental orientation is offered as the overriding conceptual connection between them. Conflict and deficit phenomena are regarded as intertwined and not incompatible: Unconscious drives, desires and wishes, ego defenses, and compromise formations as well as object relationship deficiencies and structural voids and defects in the self are combined to encompass a broad spectrum of psychopathology and its sources: the above intrapsychic and interpersonal factors are interfaced with significant reciprocal dyadic (mother/child) and triadic (father/mother/child) influences upon ongoing maturational processes. For heuristic purposes, a fourfold matrix--dyadic deficit, dyadic conflict, triadic deficit, and triadic conflict--is delineated. Clinical characteristics and developmental precursors of each of the four prototypes, especially with regard to early relational events, are examined.

  18. Understanding the role of psychopathology in bariatric surgery outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, R J; Ben-Porath, Y S; Heinberg, L J

    2016-02-01

    Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; however, a subset of patients who undergo this procedure regain weight or achieve suboptimal weight loss results. A large number of studies have examined whether psychological variables play a role in weight loss surgery outcome. Although presurgical psychopathology has been found to be associated with suboptimal results in some studies, this literature is equivocal. These inconsistent findings are reviewed and considered in the context of contemporary models of psychopathology. More specifically, the review focuses on the limitations of atheoretical, descriptive diagnostic systems and examines whether comorbidity within the mood/anxiety disorders, impulse control/substance use disorders and thought disorders can account for the inconsistent findings reported to date. Contemporary models of psychopathology are highlighted and linked to the Research Domain Criteria, which have been advanced by the National Institute of Health. Means for assessing psychological constructs congruent with these models are reviewed. Recommendations are made for standardizing approaches to investigating how psychopathology contributes to suboptimal bariatric surgery outcomes. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  20. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  1. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  2. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  3. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

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    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  4. Psychopathological tendencies and quality of life among patients with thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, K.; Waqar, S.

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between psychopathological tendencies and Quality of Life (QoL) among patients with Thalassemia major. Methodology: In this correlational study, data were collected from the blood transfusion dependent patients of beta-thalassemia major in Rawalpindi and Islamabad hospitals from September to December 2014. Urdu version of Worlds Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) methods were administered on 74 patients of thalassemia major. Pearson Product Correlation, Independent Sample t-test, One-way ANOVA and Post Hoc analysis were used. Results: There was higher levels of somatization, hostility and obsessive compulsive (OC) and lower levels of psychoticism. There was negatively affected social and psychological domains of life while comparatively better QoL related to environmental conditions of the patients. There was negative relationship between psychopathological tendencies and QoL among patients. Moreover, mother's education level negatively related with psychopathological tendencies among patients. Males scored high on depression and interpersonal sensitivity, whereas females scored high on anxiety, paranoid ideation and somatization. Female patients experienced better QoL as compared to male counterparts. Conclusion: There were higher degrees of psychopathological tendencies among patients with thalassemia major which affected their QoL mainly on social and psychological domains. (author)

  5. Extraversion and psychopathology: A facet-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, David; Stasik, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Stanton, Kasey

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to explicate how the lower order facets of extraversion are related to psychopathology. We used a "bottom-up" approach in which specific extraversion scales from 3 comprehensive personality inventories were used to model these facets as latent factors. We collected both self-report and interview measures of a broad range of psychopathology from a large community sample. Replicating previous findings using a similar approach (Naragon-Gainey & Watson, 2014; Naragon-Gainey, Watson, & Markon, 2009), structural analyses yielded four factors: Positive Emotionality, Sociability, Assertiveness, and Experience Seeking. Scores on these latent dimensions were related to psychopathology in correlational analyses and in two sets of regressions (the first series used the four facets as predictors; the second included composite scores on the other Big Five domains as additional predictors). These results revealed a striking level of specificity. As predicted, Positive Emotionality displayed especially strong negative links to depressive symptoms and diagnoses. Sociability also was negatively related to psychopathology, showing particularly strong associations with indicators of social dysfunction and the negative symptoms of schizotypy (i.e., social anxiety, social aloofness, and restricted affectivity). Assertiveness generally had weak associations at the bivariate level but was negatively related to social anxiety and was positively correlated with some forms of externalizing. Finally, Experience Seeking had substantial positive associations with a broad range of indicators related to externalizing and bipolar disorder; it also displayed negative links to agoraphobia. These differential correlates demonstrate the importance of examining personality-psychopathology relations at the specific facet level. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  7. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

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    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  8. Fathers and mothers with eating-disorder psychopathology: Associations with child eating-disorder behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A limited literature suggests an association between maternal eating disorders and child feeding difficulties, and notes maternal concern about inadvertently transmitting eating disorders. Thus, parents may be an important target for eating-disorder research to guide the development of clinical programs. Methods The current study examined differences in child eating-disorder behaviors and parental feeding practices between a sample of parents (42 fathers, 130 mothers) exhibiting core features of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, or purging disorder, and a matched sample of parents (n=172) reporting no eating-disorder characteristics. Results Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology were significantly more likely than parents without eating-disorder characteristics to report child binge-eating and compulsive exercise. Parents with eating-disorder psychopathology reported greater perceived feeding responsibility, greater concern about their child’s weight, and more monitoring of their child’s eating than parents without eating-disorder characteristics; however, they did not differ significantly in restriction of their child’s diet and pressure-to-eat. Child body mass index z-scores did not differ between parents with versus without eating-disorder characteristics. Conclusion Our findings suggest some important differences between parents with and without core eating-disorder psychopathology, which could augment clinical interventions for patients with eating disorders who are parents, or could guide pediatric eating-disorder prevention efforts. However, because our study was cross-sectional, findings could indicate increased awareness of or sensitivity to eating-disorder behaviors rather than a psychosocial cause of those behaviors. Longitudinal research and controlled trials examining prevention and intervention can clarify and address these clinical concerns. PMID:27302549

  9. Psychopathology Symptoms, Rumination and Autobiographical Memory Specificity : Do Associations Hold After Bereavement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, Maarten C.; Schut, Henk A. W.; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Voerman, Kim; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Boelen, Paul A.

    Symptoms of psychopathology are associated with overgeneral memory retrieval. Overgeneral memory is hypothesized to be the result of an emotion regulatory process, dampening emotional reactions associated with retrieval of distressing specific memories. However, higher post-loss symptom severity has

  10. Psychopathology and personality in juvenile sexual homicide offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W C; Blashfield, R

    1997-01-01

    This project describes the psychopathology and personality findings in 14 juveniles who committed sexual homicide. These incarcerated youth were assessed using a structured interview, a personality assessment instrument, correctional files review, and an author-designed clinical interview. Nearly all of these youth met DSM-III-R conduct disorder criteria at the time of the crime. The presence of personality disorders and moderately high psychopathy scores at follow-up were common. Two-thirds of these youth reported the presence of violent sexual fantasies before their crimes. Weapons, most often knives, were used by these juvenile sexual murderers to kill known victims in a majority of the cases. They usually acted alone and selected a low risk victim. These findings suggest that juvenile sexual murderers are an emotionally and behaviorally disturbed population with identifiable psychopathology, personality disturbances, and criminal patterns.

  11. Psychopathology in Young People Experiencing Homelessness: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.; Los, Férenc J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mental health issues faced by young homeless persons is instrumental to the development of successful targeted interventions. No systematic review of recent published literature on psychopathology in this group has been completed. We conducted a systematic review of published research examining the prevalence of psychiatric problems among young homeless people. We examined the temporal relationship between homelessness and psychopathology. We collated 46 articles according to the PRISMA Statement. All studies that used a full psychiatric assessment consistently reported a prevalence of any psychiatric disorder from 48% to 98%. Although there was a lack of longitudinal studies of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorders and homelessness, findings suggested a reciprocal link. Supporting young people at risk for homelessness could reduce homelessness incidence and improve mental health. PMID:23597340

  12. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychopathological manifestations of joint hypermobility and joint hypermobility syndrome/ Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type: The link between connective tissue and psychological distress revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinibaldi, Lorenzo; Ursini, Gianluca; Castori, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Psychological distress is a known feature of generalized joint hypermobility (gJHM), as well as of its most common syndromic presentation, namely Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type (a.k.a. joint hypermobility syndrome - JHS/EDS-HT), and significantly contributes to the quality of life of affected individuals. Most published articles dealt with the link between gJHM (or JHS/EDS-HT) and anxiety-related conditions, and a novel generation of studies is emerging aimed at investigating the psychopathologic background of such an association. In this paper, literature review was carried out with a semi-systematic approach spanning the entire spectrum of psychopathological findings in gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT. Interestingly, in addition to the confirmation of a tight link between anxiety and gJHM, preliminary connections with depression, attention deficit (and hyperactivity) disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder were also found. Few papers investigated the relationship with schizophrenia with contrasting results. The mind-body connections hypothesized on the basis of available data were discussed with focus on somatotype, presumed psychopathology, and involvement of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system. The hypothesis of positive Beighton score and alteration of interoceptive/proprioceptive/body awareness as possible endophenotypes in families with symptomatic gJHM or JHS/EDS-HT is also suggested. Concluding remarks addressed the implications of the psychopathological features of gJHM and JHS/EDS-HT in clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  15. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  16. Neuropsychological and psychopathological differentiation of delirium

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    ICD-10 and DSM-IV differ in their definitions of delirium. The DSM-IV definition centers around a disorder of attention and cognitive functions, whereas ICD-10 describes delirium as a broader neuropsychological and psychopathological syndrome, e.g. hallucinations, emotional and psychomotor disorder. When neuropsychological and psychopathological symptoms of delirium are assessed simultaneously, our question was, if there are core symptoms of delirium, i.e. neuropsychological and psychopat...

  17. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Associations among emergency room visits, parenting styles, and psychopathology among pediatric patients with sickle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between frequency of emergency room (ER) visits and various parenting styles, both conjointly and interactively, and psychopathological outcomes among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Ninety-eight parents/caregivers of 6- to 18-year-old patients with SCD completed instruments assessing parenting style, child psychopathology, and reported on the frequency of ER visits during the previous year. ER visits were found to significantly explain Withdrawn/Depressed problems and parenting styles were found to incrementally contribute to the explanation of all forms of psychopathology. Further, Permissive parenting was found to explain Rule Breaking Behavior for those patients with low ER visit frequency but not for those with high ER visit frequency. Results of the current study confirm the importance of considering both the frequency of ER visits and parenting style in the explanation of psychopathology among pediatric patients with SCD. Results have important implications for both research and treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Parental rearing and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz-Serrrano, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cano, Teresa; Beato-Fernández, Luis; Latorre-Postigo, José Miguel; Rojo-Moreno, Luis; Vaz-Leal, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship between perceived rearing styles and the clinical expression of Eating Disorders (ED). One hundred and ninety-six patients diagnosed of an ED and 127 healthy student as controls selected from the Nursing College were evaluated for general psychopathology (STAI, BDI II, RSE), and for abnormal eating attitudes (EAT, EDI-II, BITE). The EMBU (‘my memories of upbringing’) was administered for the assessment of perceived parental rearing styles and was used a questionnaire to assess familial variables. In relation to the control group, patients with ED perceived greater rejection, overprotection and less warmth than the controls. Patients who perceived greater paternal favoritism, maternal overprotection and low paternal emotional warmth, showed higher levels of anxiety. Paternal affection and maternal attitudes of rejection, overprotection and favoritism were related to lower self-esteem. Regarding abnormal eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction inversely correlated with paternal emotional care and maternal favoritism. The EDI subscales: ineffectiveness, perfectionism and ascetism were associated to parental rejection. Maternal rejection also related with drive for thinness, interoceptive awareness and impulse regulation. Perceived emotional warmth was related with perfectionism. Bulimia subscale and BITE scores were inversely associated to paternal overprotection and affection, and scored significantly higher in paternal favoritism and rejection from both parents. Perceived parental bonding is different in the various subtypes of EDs. Patients diagnosed of Bulimia Nervosa or Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified perceived greater rejection, less affection and a greater overprotection than Anorexia Nervosa patients and controls.

  20. Do Overgeneral Autobiographical Memories Predict Increased Psychopathological Symptoms in Community Youth? A 3-Year Longitudinal Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Salmon, Karen; Jose, Paul E

    2018-02-01

    Research suggests that an overgeneral autobiographical memory style (i.e., retrieval of general memories when instructed to retrieve a specific episodic memory) represents a vulnerability marker for depression. Although adolescence is a period of high risk for the emergence of depression, little research has investigated the associations among overgeneral memory, psychopathology, and risk factors longitudinally in a community sample in this age group. We, therefore, investigated overgeneral memory, psychopathology (depression and anxiety), and rumination (an established risk factor for psychopathology) longitudinally in 269 typically-developing youth (125 females, 144 males) across 3 annual assessment points. We sought to determine whether 1) overgeneral memory would predict psychopathology across the entire sample, and 2) whether associations would vary as a function of longitudinal rumination growth. Across the entire sample, overgeneral memory did not predict psychopathology. For youth who reported elevated, and increasing, patterns of rumination over time, transient relationships between overgeneral memory and subsequent increases in anxiety were found. We conclude that overgeneral memory may represent a vulnerability marker for adverse psychological outcomes only for youth at risk for psychopathology.

  1. Psychopathological symptoms, social skills, and personality traits: a study with adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landazabal, Maite Garaigordobil

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study is two-fold: (a) to study the concomitant relationships between psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and other personality traits; and (b) to identify the predictive variables of psychopathological symptoms. The sample consists of 322 adolescents aged 14 to 17 years old. This study uses correlational methodology. In order to assess psychopathological symptoms, cooperation, social skills, and personality traits, the following scales are used: the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1983), the Cooperativeness Scale (CS; Rigby, Cox, and Black, 1997), the MESSY social skills scale (Matson, Rotatori, and Helsel, 1983), and the TPT Personality Test (Corral, Pamos, Pereña, and& Seisdedos, 2002). Pearson coefficients suggest that adolescents with many psychopathological symptoms have low levels of cooperative behaviors and social skills. They also score high in inappropriate assertiveness, impulsiveness, overconfidence, and jealousy-withdrawal and have low levels of emotional stability, sociability, and responsibility. Through multiple regression analyses, the following variables were identified as predictors of psychopathological symptoms: jealousy-withdrawal, low social integration, impulsiveness, and low self-concept. The role played by intervention programs promoting socio-emotional development to prevent psychopathological symptoms and enhance mental health is discussed.

  2. Juvenile firesetting in Italy: relationship to aggression, psychopathology, personality, self-efficacy, and school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bove, Giannetta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta; Paciello, Marinella

    2008-06-01

    Despite the fact that juvenile fire involvement is associated with significant injuries and is highly correlated with diverse maladjustment characteristics, firesetting has never been empirically evaluated in Italy. Participants included 567 youth between 11 and 18 years of age. This investigation attempted to address four gaps in the literature. The first objective was to examine how common firesetting behavior is among Italian youth. The second goal was to explore whether in Italy firesetting is associated with other types of psychopathology and later maladjustment. Thirdly, this study sought to extend our knowledge of the personal characteristics of firesetters. Finally, the relationship between firesetting and aggression remains an empirical question. Results suggested that almost one in three Italian youth reported engaging in fire involvement. Moreover, firesetting in Italian youth is associated with significant levels of antisocial behavior and psychopathology. In fact, firesetters-only demonstrated higher levels of most measures of maladjustment than did aggressive-only youth. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that aggressive firesetters are not at higher risk than nonaggressive firesetters. Instead, fire involvement appears to be the most important variable when predicting serious behavioral difficulties and anti-sociality. This highlights the importance of fire involvement in both the assessment and prediction of antisocial behavior and psychosocial adjustment in adolescence.

  3. Spatial proximity and the risk of psychopathology after a terrorist attack

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaggio, Charles; Galea, Sandro; Emch, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies concerned with the relation of proximity to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks and subsequent psychopathology have produced conflicting results. The goals of this analysis are to assess the appropriateness of using Bayesian hierarchical spatial techniques to answer the question of the role of proximity to a mass trauma as a risk factor for psychopathology. Using a set of individual-level Medicaid data for New York State, and controlling for age, gender, median household...

  4. Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talić, Goran; Ostojić, Ljerka; Bursać, Snježana Novaković; Nožica-Radulović, Tatjana; Stevanović-Papić, Đurđica

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.

  5. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  6. Psychopathology and psychosocial adjustment in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy

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    Anna Barata

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study whether patients with HIV-1 associated lipodystrophy (LD on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART have more psychopathology and worse psychosocial adjustment than a similar group without this syndrome. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, observational study we compared 47 HIV-1 infected patients with LD (LD group with 39 HIV-1 infected patients without LD (non-LD group. All participants were on HAART. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI and the Goldberg Health Questionnaire (GHQ-60 were administered. Levels of familial, work and social adjustment and adjustment to stressful events were evaluated in a semi-structured interview. Clinical information was extracted from the clinical records. RESULTS: In the univariate analysis patients with LD showed higher state anxiety scores (p = 0.009 and worse work adjustment (p = 0.019 than those without LD. A total of 45.3% of LD patients scored above the cut-off point on the trait anxiety scale, and over 33.3% scored above the cut-off point on the BDI, GHQ and state anxiety scales. However, in multivariate analyses LD was not independently associated with psychopathology or with worse adjustment in the studied areas. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that LD was not a predictor of greater psychopathology or worse psychosocial adjustment in HIV-1 infected patients, despite the high scores found, suggests that factors not taken into account in this study, such as LD severity and self-perception should have been included in the analysis. Further studies including a greater number of variables and a larger sample size will advance our understanding of this complex condition.

  7. The role of parental psychopathology and personality in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.

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    Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychopathology, Personal and Relationship Problems in Men Who Enact Family Violence

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    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at determing psychopathology and personal and relationship problems in violent husband. Materials & Methods: In this cross – sectional study 230 male were selected through a multi clustral sampling from four different regions of Tehran. Then they completed Conflict Tactics Scales-2, personal and relationship Profile and Symptoms Check list-90-Revised. Based on their response to Conflict Tactics Scales-2, they were devided in to two groups. Then the psychopathological profile and personal and Relationship problems were compaired. Results: Psychopathology, personal and relationshoip Profile were drawn. It showed that violence is associated with Psychopathology and excessive personal and relationship problems in violent husband (P&le0/05. Conclusion: Violent husband in compare with nonviolent husband have more severe psychological symptomathology and more personal and relationship problems.

  9. The Relationship Between Parental Psychopathology and Adolescent Psychopathology: An Examination of Gender Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley Ohannessian, Christine; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Mark A.; Nurnberger, John I.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the relationship between parental psychopathology (specifically, alcohol dependence and depression) and adolescent psychopathology, by the gender of the adolescent and the gender of the parent. The sample included 426 13- to 17-year-old adolescents and their parents. All participants were administered…

  10. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence : Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using

  11. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

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    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  12. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence and its common personality and cognitive correlates.

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    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Brière, Frederic N; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Robbins, Trevor W; Whelan, Robert; Schumann, Gunter; Conrod, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    The traditional view that mental disorders are distinct, categorical disorders has been challenged by evidence that disorders are highly comorbid and exist on a continuum (e.g., Caspi et al., 2014; Tackett et al., 2013). The first objective of this study was to use structural equation modeling to model the structure of psychopathology in an adolescent community-based sample (N = 2,144) including conduct disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, substance use, anxiety, depression, phobias, and other emotional symptoms, assessed at 16 years. The second objective was to identify common personality and cognitive correlates of psychopathology, assessed at 14 years. Results showed that psychopathology at 16 years fit 2 bifactor models equally well: (a) a bifactor model, reflecting a general psychopathology factor, as well as specific externalizing (representing mainly substance misuse and low ADHD) and internalizing factors; and (b) a bifactor model with a general psychopathology factor and 3 specific externalizing (representing mainly ADHD and ODD), substance use and internalizing factors. The general psychopathology factor was related to high disinhibition/impulsivity, low agreeableness, high neuroticism and hopelessness, high delay-discounting, poor response inhibition and low performance IQ. Substance use was specifically related to high novelty-seeking, sensation-seeking, extraversion, high verbal IQ, and risk-taking. Internalizing psychopathology was specifically related to high neuroticism, hopelessness and anxiety-sensitivity, low novelty-seeking and extraversion, and an attentional bias toward negatively valenced verbal stimuli. Findings reveal several nonspecific or transdiagnostic personality and cognitive factors that may be targeted in new interventions to potentially prevent the development of multiple psychopathologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016

  14. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

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    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  15. Age-related differences in internalizing psychopathology amongst the Australian general population.

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    Sunderland, Matthew; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Batterham, Philip; Buchan, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Two methodological criticisms have limited the reliability and validity of findings from previous studies that seek to examine change across the life span in levels of internalizing psychopathology using general population surveys. The first criticism involves the potential influence of cohort effects that confound true age-related changes whereas the second criticism involves the use of a single form of assessment to measure and compare levels of internalizing psychopathology. This study seeks to address these criticisms by modeling age-related change using multiple measures and multiple surveys. Data from 2 epidemiological surveys conducted 10 years apart in the Australian general population were combined and used for the current study. The latent construct of internalizing psychopathology was modeled using a combination of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) depression and anxiety diagnoses as well as items from the Kessler Psychological Distress scale (K10; Kessler et al., 2002). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) indicated that a single internalizing dimension provided good model fit to the data. Multigroup CFA indicated that strict measurement invariance of the model can be assumed across survey administrations and age bands, justifying comparisons of mean differences in latent trait levels. Significant changes in mean levels of latent internalizing psychopathology were evident between respondents aged 30-39 years old in 1997 and respondents aged 40-49 years old in 2007, suggesting a minor but significant increase in psychopathology across middle age. By contrast, a minor but significant decrease in psychopathology was noted when transitioning from late middle age (50-59 years old) to old age (60-69 years old). The majority of individuals in the general population will experience constant levels of internalizing psychopathology as they age, suggesting that the construct is relatively

  16. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychological and psychopathological variables associated with eating disorders (ED

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    Antonio Fernández-Delgado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare some psychological and psychopathological variables usually associated with different types of patients with eating disorders (ED. A total of 22 variables (psychological, psychopathological and specifically related to TCA were analyzed in three groups of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS. Method: The sample consisted of 76 patients diagnosed with ED (mean age 20.13 ± 6.28 years; 69 women and 7 men. The following questionnaires were administered: Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2 and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP. Results: Generally no significant differences between groups, except for the variables related to the BSQ and EDI-2 questionnaires, were found. The study of the correlations among the different variables specifically related to eating disorders and others, showed differences between groups. Conclusions: The present study shows few differences with respect to psychopathological symptoms among the different types of ED. Bearing in mind future studies, it would be interesting to use a bigger sample size, to include more men, and to distinguish between restricted/purging types of ED.

  19. Gender differences in psychopathologic features of agoraphobia with panic disorder

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    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.

  20. Unraveling interrelationships among psychopathology symptoms, cognitive domains and insight dimensions in chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Rose Mary; Pan, Wei; Dungan, Jennifer R; Keefe, Richard S E; Vorderstrasse, Allison

    2018-03-01

    Insight in schizophrenia is long known to have a complex relationship with psychopathology symptoms and cognition. However, very few studies have examined models that explain these interrelationships. In a large sample derived from the NIMH Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia trial (N=1391), we interrogated these interrelationships for potential causal pathways using structural equation modeling. Using the NIMH consensus model, latent variables were constructed for psychopathology symptom dimensions, including positive, negative, disorganized, excited and depressed from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) items. Neurocognitive variables were created from five predefined domains of working memory, verbal memory, reasoning, vigilance and processing speed. Illness insight and treatment insight were tested using latent variables constructed from the Illness and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire (ITAQ). Disorganized symptoms had the strongest effect on insight. Illness insight mediated the relationship of positive, depressed, and disorganized symptoms with treatment insight. Neurocognition mediated the relationship between disorganized and treatment insight and depressed symptoms and treatment insight. There was no effect of negative symptoms on either illness insight or treatment insight. Taken together, our results indicate overlapping and unique relational paths for illness and treatment insight dimensions, which could suggest differences in causal mechanisms and potential interventions to improve insight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychopathological traits of adolescents with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a comparison with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomba, Monica; Corbetta, Fabiola; Bonini, Luisa; Gambera, Alessandro; Tremolizzo, Lucio; Neri, Francesca; Nacinovich, Renata

    2014-03-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of anovulation, due to the suppression of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, not related to identifiable organic causes. Like adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN), subjects with FHA show dysfunctional attitudes, low self-esteem, depressive mood, anxiety and inability to cope with daily stress. The aim of the study is to examine similarities and differences between FHA and AN in terms of clinical profiles and psychological variables. 21 adolescents with FHA, 21 adolescents with anorexia nervosa, and 21 healthy adolescents were included in the study. All the teenagers completed a battery of self-administered psychological tests for the detection of behaviors and symptoms attributable to the presence of an eating disorder (EDI-2), depression (CDI), and alexithymia (TAS-20). Different from healthy controls, subjects with FHA and with AN shared common psychopathological aspects, such as maturity issues, social insecurity and introversion, a tendency to depression, excessive concerns with dieting, and fear of gaining weight. Nevertheless, adolescents with AN presented a more profound psychopathological disorder as observed at test comparisons with subjects with FHA. Results show a clinical spectrum that includes AN and FHA and suggest the necessity to treat FHA with a multidisciplinary approach for both organic and psychological aspects.

  2. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  3. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

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    Konstantinos Kontoangelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; (b The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; (c The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; (d State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024 and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039 respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7% do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life.

  4. Eating habits and psychopathology: translation, adaptation, reliability of the Nutrition Behavior Inventory to Portuguese and relation to psychopathology

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    Cássia Roberta Benko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Nutrition-Behavior Inventory (NBI is a self-administered instrument that allows eating habits to be correlated with psychopathological symptoms. The objective was to translate and adapt the NBI to Portuguese, and test the Portuguese NBI’s reliability. The second aim was to verify its sensitivity for identification of risk factors in terms of behavior/eating habits in children and adolescents. Methods: The NBI was translated, adapted, and back-translated. The Portuguese version of the NBI was then applied (N = 96; 9-12 years. In order to verify the internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was used. The psychopathological indicators of the participants were accessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. The mean CBCL scores were analyzed in relation to the NBI data (cutoff point: ≥ 30 with indicators, and 30 on the following: anxiety and depression (p = 0.041, social difficulties (p = 0.028, attention problems (p = 0.001, aggressive behavior (p = 0.015; ADHD (p < 0.001, and conduct problems (p = 0.032. Conclusion: The present results indicate that the NBI is a reliable instrument. The NBI can be useful for evaluating psychopathological symptoms related to the eating habits and behaviors of children and adolescents.

  5. Stream of consciousness: Quantum and biochemical assumptions regarding psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2017-04-01

    The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims. Second, they deviate from contemporary mainstream views of psychiatric illness and do so in revolutionary ways. We suggest a possible way to integrate experimental neuroscience with quantum models in order to address outstanding issues in psychopathology. A key role is played by the phenomenon called the "stream of consciousness", which can be linked to the so-called "Gamma Synchrony" (GS), which is clearly demonstrated by EEG data. In our novel proposal, a unipolar depressed patient could be seen as a subject with an altered stream of consciousness. In particular, some clues suggest that depression is linked to an "increased power" stream of consciousness. It is additionally suggested that such an approach to depression might be extended to psychopathology in general with potential benefits to diagnostics and therapeutics in neuropsychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  7. Polyvagal Theory and Developmental Psychopathology: Emotion Dysregulation and Conduct Problems from Preschool to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchaine, Theodore P.; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K.

    2007-01-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed. PMID:17045726

  8. Results of a multinational study suggest the need for rapid diagnosis and early antiviral treatment at the onset of herpetic meningoencephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, Hakan; Cag, Yasemin; Ozturk-Engin, Derya

    2015-01-01

    survived, with sequelae. Age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.05), Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.93), and symptomatic periods of 2 to 7 days (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.79) and >7 days (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.72 to 8.15) until the commencement...... of treatment predicted unfavorable outcomes. The outcome in HME patients is related to a combination of therapeutic and host factors. This study suggests that rapid diagnosis and early administration of antiviral treatment in HME patients are keys to a favorable outcome....

  9. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Liat; Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2018-01-01

    Lucid dreaming (LD) is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD), and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187) self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy), stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78) reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming), emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in dissociation and

  10. Lucid Dreaming: Intensity, But Not Frequency, Is Inversely Related to Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Aviram

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lucid dreaming (LD is awareness that one is dreaming, during the dream state. However, some define and assess LD relying also on controlling dream events, although control is present only in a subset of lucid dreams. LD has been claimed to represent well-being, and has even been used as a therapeutic agent. Conversely, LD is associated with mixed sleep-wake states, which are related to bizarre cognitions, stress, and psychopathology, and have been construed as arousal permeating and disrupting sleep. We propose that previous conflicting findings regarding relations between LD and both psychopathology and well-being, stem from the non-differentiated assessment of frequency and control. The present study aimed to develop an expansive measure of several LD characteristics (the Frequency and Intensity Lucid Dream questionnaire; FILD, and explore their relations with symptomatology. Undergraduate students (N = 187 self-reported trait LD, psychopathology (depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, dissociation, and schizotypy, stress, and sleep problems; 2 months later, a subsample (n = 78 reported psychopathology again, and also completed a dream diary each morning for 14 days. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the FILD. Items converged into four domains: frequency, intensity (e.g., control, activity, certainty of dreaming, emotional valence, and the use of induction techniques. We report an optimal frequency cutoff score to identify those likely to experience LD within a 2-week period. Whereas LD frequency was unrelated to psychopathology, LD intensity, and positive LD emotions, were inversely associated with several psychopathological symptoms. Use of deliberate induction techniques was positively associated with psychopathology and sleep problems. Additionally, we demonstrated directionality by employing a prospective-longitudinal design, showing that deliberate LD induction predicted an increase in

  11. Categorical and dimensional psychopathology in Dutch and US offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: A preliminary cross-national comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Birmaher, Boris B; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Derks, Eske M; Vleeschouwer, Marloes; Hickey, Mary Beth; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Sakolsky, Dara J; Reichart, Catrien G; Wals, Marjolein; Verhulst, Frank C; Nolen, Willem A; Hillegers, Manon H J

    2016-11-15

    Accumulating evidence suggests cross-national differences in adults with bipolar disorder (BD), but also in the susceptibility of their offspring (bipolar offspring). This study aims to explore and clarify cross-national variation in the prevalence of categorical and dimensional psychopathology between bipolar offspring in the US and The Netherlands. We compared levels of psychopathology in offspring of the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (n=224) and the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study (n=136) (age 10-18). Categorical psychopathology was ascertained through interviews using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children (K-SADS-PL), dimensional psychopathology by parental reports using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Higher rates of categorical psychopathology were observed in the US versus the Dutch samples (66% versus 44%). We found no differences in the overall prevalence of mood disorders, including BD-I or -II, but more comorbidity in mood disorders in US versus Dutch offspring (80% versus 34%). The strongest predictors of categorical psychopathology were maternal BD (OR: 1.72, ppsychopathology based on CBCL reports. Preliminary measure of inter-site reliability. We found cross-national differences in prevalence of categorical diagnoses of non-mood disorders in bipolar offspring, but not in mood disorder diagnoses nor in parent-reported dimensional psychopathology. Cross-national variation was only partially explained by between-sample differences. Cultural and methodological explanations for these findings warrant further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Tourette syndrome in a longitudinal perspective. Clinical course of tics and comorbidities, coexisting psychopathologies, phenotypes and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Camilla

    2018-04-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence. This large prospective follow-up study want to examine the clinical course of TS: tic and comorbidities during adolescence, the prevalence of coexisting psychopathologies, the tic-related impairment, development in phenotype expression and find predictors for the expected course of TS. 
Method: This study is examining a large clinical cohort recruited at the Danish National Tourette Clinic during the period 2005-2007 and 2011-2013. At baseline, 314 participants aged 5-19 years were included and at follow-up 6 years later 227 participated, aged 11-26. All participants were uniformly clinically examined at basis and follow-up with a clinical interview and validated measurements to assess comorbidities. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale was used to asses tic severity and tic-related impairment. At follow-up a cross-sectional diagnostic evaluation was made with the Development and Well-Being Assessment to assess coexisting psychopathologies.
 Results: A significant decline in tic and the most frequent comorbidities OCD and ADHD was found although some variation existed and some subclinical and partial remissions persisted. Tic-related impairment was not reflected in the tic-decline as expected but influenced by several parameters. The phenotype expression was found to be dynamic but overall changed toward TS without comorbidities. Several predictors were found to predict the clinical course of TS in

  13. Anubhoothi: a psychopathology of unusual sexual experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ragesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The case history and management of a 26 years old adult is reported who presented with an unusual symptom of sexual experience, in the background of symptoms of depression and anxiety; had been given multiple diagnoses at multiple points of time and treated with multiple medications. On establishment of rapport, he revealed details of his unusual experiences, which had been unexplored. When he was about 11 years and ten months, he sat next to a lady; he could perceive a particular experience for the first time in his life. And next time with another lady too he perceived a particular type of smell (“madaka gandha” meaning an intoxicating smell along with the other feelings. He began to have these feelings whenever he was in the vicinity of a female except his mother and sister. The smell reminded him of roses vaguely and was at least ten to 20 times more pleasurable than an orgasm that he got with masturbation. These feelings were more pleasurable than he could ever imagine and happened always with the presence of a female in the vicinity. This was never associated with periods of unresponsiveness or any other history suggestive of seizures. He titled the experience as “anubhoothi”. These experiences occurred on a regular basis for a period of ten months following which there was abrupt cessation of the same, without any intervention. Later he developed all symptoms. A coordinated management plan spearheaded by the multi-disciplinary treatment team could bring down his symptoms as well as make him functional. This case indicates that it is essential to explore abnormalities of experiences to understand the psychopathology and plan management.

  14. Loss of Niemann-Pick C1 or C2 protein results in similar biochemical changes suggesting that these proteins function in a common lysosomal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayali S Dixit

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the endolysosomal system. NPC disease results from a defect in either of two distinct cholesterol-binding proteins: a transmembrane protein, NPC1, and a small soluble protein, NPC2. NPC1 and NPC2 are thought to function closely in the export of lysosomal cholesterol with both proteins binding cholesterol in vitro but they may have unrelated lysosomal roles. To investigate this possibility, we compared biochemical consequences of the loss of either protein. Analyses of lysosome-enriched subcellular fractions from brain and liver revealed similar decreases in buoyant densities of lysosomes from NPC1 or NPC2 deficient mice compared to controls. The subcellular distribution of both proteins was similar and paralleled a lysosomal marker. In liver, absence of either NPC1 or NPC2 resulted in similar alterations in the carbohydrate processing of the lysosomal protease, tripeptidyl peptidase I. These results highlight biochemical alterations in the lysosomal system of the NPC-mutant mice that appear secondary to lipid storage. In addition, the similarity in biochemical phenotypes resulting from either NPC1 or NPC2 deficiency supports models in which the function of these two proteins within lysosomes are linked closely.

  15. Neuroticism : a non-informative marker of vulnerability to psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the

  16. Evaluating Computer Screen Time and Its Possible Link to Psychopathology in the Context of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Ross, Sharon; Silman, Zmira; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that high levels of computer use are linked to psychopathology. However, there is ambiguity about what should be considered normal or over-use of computers. Furthermore, the nature of the link between computer usage and psychopathology is controversial. The current study utilized the context of age to address these questions. Our hypothesis was that the context of age will be paramount for differentiating normal from excessive use, and that this context will allow a better understanding of the link to psychopathology. In a cross-sectional study, 185 parents and children aged 3-18 years were recruited in clinical and community settings. They were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding demographics, functional and academic variables, computer use as well as psychiatric screening questionnaires. Using a regression model, we identified 3 groups of normal-use, over-use and under-use and examined known factors as putative differentiators between the over-users and the other groups. After modeling computer screen time according to age, factors linked to over-use were: decreased socialization (OR 3.24, Confidence interval [CI] 1.23-8.55, p = 0.018), difficulty to disengage from the computer (OR 1.56, CI 1.07-2.28, p = 0.022) and age, though borderline-significant (OR 1.1 each year, CI 0.99-1.22, p = 0.058). While psychopathology was not linked to over-use, post-hoc analysis revealed that the link between increased computer screen time and psychopathology was age-dependent and solidified as age progressed (p = 0.007). Unlike computer usage, the use of small-screens and smartphones was not associated with psychopathology. The results suggest that computer screen time follows an age-based course. We conclude that differentiating normal from over-use as well as defining over-use as a possible marker for psychiatric difficulties must be performed within the context of age. If verified by additional studies, future research should integrate

  17. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  18. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  19. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  20. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  1. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Psychopathology and coping in recently ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on the role of gender. This study compared ... psychiatric disorder, most commonly major depression. (34.9%) ... morbidity, psychological distress, and negative social impact.' Evidence from ... psychopathology associated with HIV I AIDS may contribute to .... number of positive and negative life events during the past 6.

  3. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young

  4. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting: criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Jens; Bogaerts, Stefan; Sijtsema, Jelle; Klerx-van Mierlo, Fanny

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and victimological factors between IPV perpetrators (n = 61, 51.3%) and non-intimate violence (NIV) perpetrators (n = 58, 48.7%) were examined. All data, including information on demographics, criminal history, history of psychological, sexual, and physical victimization during childhood or adolescence, family history of psychopathology, history of psychopathology in childhood and adolescence, and mental disorders, were derived from archival electronic medical records. Mental disorders were measured using structured psychiatric interviews and final consensus diagnoses were established during weekly case consultations. Both IPV and NIV perpetrators displayed high rates of criminal history, psychopathology, and previous victimization, but the two groups did not differ in these factors with two exceptions. IPV perpetrators were significantly more likely to have higher rates of previous physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder than NIV perpetrators. The current study suggests that a history of physical victimization and intermittent explosive disorder are specific characteristics of IPV perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting. Future research should focus on mechanisms explaining the association of childhood victimization and IPV and increase our understanding of the role of intermittent explosive disorder in IPV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Adolescent depression, family psychopathology and parent/child relations: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguin, Monique; Manion, Ian; Cloutier, Paula; McEvoy, Lisa; Cappelli, Mario

    2003-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate family psychopathology and relationships between family members. Three groups of adolescents were interviewed: 1) currently depressed adolescents who have at least one parent who had/or is still experiencing a mood disorder, 2) currently depressed adolescents whose parents were never diagnosed with a mood disorder, 3) never-depressed control adolescents. Personal interview data was obtained from the proband, their parent(s) and one sibling. Findings suggest that parental psychopathology, parent-child relations and life events are all relevant factors in adolescent depression and should be considered in combination for assessment, prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-03-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Eating Disorder Psychopathology as a Marker of Psychosocial Distress and Suicide Risk in Female and Male Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine psychosocial correlates of specific aspects of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology (i.e., dietary restriction, body dissatisfaction, binge eating, and self-induced vomiting) in psychiatrically-hospitalized adolescent girls and boys. Method Four hundred and ninety-two psychiatric inpatients (286 girls and 206 boys), aged 12 to 19 years, completed self-report measures of psychosocial and behavioral functioning including measures of suicide risk and ED psychopathology. Associations between ED psychopathology and psychosocial functioning were examined separately by sex and after controlling for depressive/negative affect using Beck Depression Inventory scores. Results Among boys and girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly associated with anxiety, low self-esteem, and current distress regarding childhood abuse. Among girls, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was significantly related to hopelessness and suicidality. Among boys, after controlling for depressive/negative affect, ED psychopathology was positively related to self-reported history of sexual abuse and various externalizing problems (drug abuse, violence, and impulsivity). Conclusion In psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ED psychopathology may be an important marker of broad psychosocial distress and behavioral problems among girls and boys although the nature of the specific associations differs by sex. PMID:20152294

  8. NEUROBIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ADDICTION-LIKE BEHAVIORS: AN OVERVIEW AND THEMATIC SYNTHESIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Scala

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term dependency is increasingly being used also to explain symptoms resulting from the repetition of a behavior or legalized and socially accepted activities that do not involve substance assumption. These activities, although considered normal habits of daily life can become real addictions that may affect and disrupt socio-relational and working functioning. Growing evidence suggests to consider behavioral addictions similar to drug dependence for their common symptoms, the high frequency of poly-dependence conditions, and the correlation in risk (impulsivity, sensation seeking, early exposure, familiarity and protective (parental control, adequate metacognitive skills factors. The aim of this paper is to describe addiction in its general aspects, highlighting the underlying neurobiological and psychopathological mechanisms.

  9. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  10. Gender Performance Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Looking beyond Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oost, Kathryn M.; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Gleason, Hillary A.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with…

  11. Exploring the association between well-being and psychopathology in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, M.; Cacioppo, J.T.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Promotion of mental well-being and prevention of emotional and behavioral problems are suggested to go hand in hand. The present study examined the association between subjective well-being (SWB) and psychopathology and investigated the etiology of this association in a large population-based cohort

  12. [The clinico-psychopathological differentiation of schizoaffective psychoses with a predominance of affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, A N

    1994-01-01

    Basing on the clinico-psychopathological analysis of 43 patients with an affect-dominant form of schizoaffective psychosis, their typological division has been suggested. The interrelations of clinical types of delusional disturbances with affective disorders, their polarity, congruent and noncongruent delusions were shown. The discussion covers differential-diagnostic characteristics of affective states in schizoaffective and affective psychoses.

  13. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  14. Differences in psychopathology and behavioral characteristics of patients affected by conversion motor disorder and organic dystonia

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    Pastore A

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adriana Pastore, Grazia Pierri, Giada Fabio, Silvia Ferramosca, Angelo Gigante, Maria Superbo, Roberta Pellicciari, Francesco Margari Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, Bari, Italy Purpose: Typically, the diagnosis of conversion motor disorder (CMD is achieved by the exclusion of a wide range of organic illnesses rather than by applying positive criteria. New diagnostic criteria are highly needed in this scenario. The main aim of this study was to explore the use of behavioral features as an inclusion criterion for CMD, taking into account the relationship of the patients with physicians, and comparing the results with those from patients affected by organic dystonia (OD. Patients and methods: Patients from the outpatient Movement Disorder Service were assigned to either the CMD or the OD group based on Fahn and Williams criteria. Differences in sociodemographics, disease history, psychopathology, and degree of satisfaction about care received were assessed. Patient–neurologist agreement about the etiological nature of the disorder was also assessed using the k-statistic. A logistic regression analysis estimated the discordance status as a predictor to case/control status. Results: In this study, 31 CMD and 31 OD patients were included. CMD patients showed a longer illness life span, involvement of more body regions, higher comorbidity with anxiety, depression, and borderline personality disorder, as well as higher negative opinions about physicians’ delivering of proper care. Contrary to our expectations, CMD disagreement with neurologists about the etiological nature of the disorder was not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed that having at least one personality disorder was statistically associated with the discordance status. Conclusion: This study suggests that CMD patients show higher conflicting behavior toward physicians. Contrary to our

  15. The impact of leptin on perinatal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleau, Jeanette C; Sullivan, Elinor L

    2014-11-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin's role and profile during development is examined in available human studies, and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where high leptin levels have been correlated

  16. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

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    Popov Tzvetan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  17. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  18. Bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in obese adolescents and in their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, Pascale; Quantin, Laure; Cortese, Samuele; Falissard, Bruno; Musher-Eizenman, Dara; Guedeney, Antoine; Frelut, Marie-Laure; Mouren, Marie-Christine

    2010-12-01

    To help identify and advance the understanding of the potential mechanisms underlying the association between parents' and adolescents' psychological maladjustment in obesity, we evaluated bulimic behaviours and psychopathology in a clinical sample of obese adolescents and in their parents. This is a cross-sectional cohort study including 115 severely obese, treatment-seeking adolescents aged 12-17 years (mean age: 14.2; mean body mass index z-score: 4.32), and their parents (115 mothers and 96 fathers). Adolescents filled out the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Their parents completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the BITE. A child psychiatrist filled out the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA) for the adolescents. Obese adolescents demonstrated significant correlations between the severity of bulimic symptoms and the degree of emotional symptomatology, such as depression and anxiety, but not with the severity of obesity. Psychopathological maladjustment and bulimic symptoms in obese adolescents were significantly associated with the maternal psychopathological disturbances, especially anxiety and somatisation in mother. In fact, maternal psychopathology, not maternal bulimic symptoms, was the factor most strongly associated with bulimic behaviours in obese adolescents. These results highlight the importance of including an adolescent and parental psychiatric assessment (bulimic, depressive and anxiety symptoms), particularly maternal psychopathology in the treatment of severely obese adolescents.

  19. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  20. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality. PMID:28539902

  1. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001, denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”. The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”, or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation, which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  2. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term "sleep experiences," coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions ("general sleep experiences"). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor-measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)-with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., "transliminality"), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a "rebound effect." The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness-including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries-may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  3. Embodiment and psychopathology: a phenomenological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Schlimme, Jann E

    2009-11-01

    To survey recent developments in phenomenological psychopathology. We present the concept of embodiment as a key paradigm of recent interdisciplinary approaches from the areas of philosophy, psychology, psychiatry and neuroscience. This requires a short overview on the phenomenological concept of embodiment; in particular, on the distinction of subject and object body. A psychopathology of embodiment may be based on these and other distinctions, in particular on a polarity of disembodiment and hyperembodiment, which is illustrated by the examples of schizophrenia and depression. Recent contributions to phenomenological accounts of these disorders are presented. Finally, the study discusses the relationship of phenomenological and neuropsychiatric perspectives on embodiment. A phenomenology of embodiment may be combined with enactive approaches to cognitive neuroscience in order to overcome dualist concepts of the mind as an inner realm of representations that mirror the outside world. Phenomenological and ecological concepts of embodiment should also be conjoined to enable a new, advanced understanding of mental illness.

  4. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  5. [Psychopathological Profiles of Offspring of Subjects with Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Esteban Uribe; Briceño, Paola Gutiérrez; Palacio, Juan David; García, Jenny

    2012-03-01

    Bipolar Disorder (BD) has a high heritability and is more prevalent in first-degree relatives with family history. This makes the bipolar offspring (BO) an ideal study group to evaluate the natural history and the prodromal symptoms of this disorder. The main psychopathological findings for this group in various studies are described in this review. Articles comparing the psychopathology of bipolar offspring to either the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls were reviewed. The reviewed studies showed that the BO group had higher rates of affective disorders when compared to the offspring of other psychiatric patients or the offspring of healthy controls. The high prevalence of anxiety disorders, ADHD, and disruptive behavior disorders in this population suggest that such disorders could be considered prodromes of mood disorders. The group of BO had a significantly higher risk of developing a wide range of psychiatric disorders besides BD. More longitudinal studies are needed to characterize this population at risk for BD and to elucidate the risk factors in the progression of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  7. A path model of different forms of impulsivity with externalizing and internalizing psychopathology: Towards greater specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Tharp, Jordan A; Peckham, Andrew D; Carver, Charles S; Haase, Claudia M

    2017-09-01

    A growing empirical literature indicates that emotion-related impulsivity (compared to impulsivity that is unrelated to emotion) is particularly relevant for understanding a broad range of psychopathologies. Recent work, however, has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity: A factor termed Pervasive Influence of Feelings captures tendencies for emotions (mostly negative emotions) to quickly shape thoughts, and a factor termed Feelings Trigger Action captures tendencies for positive and negative emotions to quickly and reflexively shape behaviour and speech. This study used path modelling to consider links from emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity to a broad range of psychopathologies. Undergraduates completed self-report measures of impulsivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, and substance use symptoms. A path model (N = 261) indicated specificity of these forms of impulsivity. Pervasive Influence of Feelings was related to anxiety and depression, whereas Feelings Trigger Action and non-emotion-related impulsivity were related to aggression and substance use. The findings of this study suggest that emotion-relevant impulsivity could be a potentially important treatment target for a set of psychopathologies. Recent work has differentiated two forms of emotion-related impulsivity. This study tests a multivariate path model linking emotion-related and non-emotion-related impulsivity with multiple forms of psychopathology. Impulsive thoughts in response to negative emotions were related to anxiety and depression. Impulsive actions in response to emotions were related to aggression and substance use, as did non-emotion-related impulsivity. The study was limited by the reliance on self-report measures of impulsivity and psychopathology. There is a need for longitudinal work on how these forms of impulsivity predict the onset and course of psychopathology. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Personality and trajectories of posttraumatic psychopathology: A latent change modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Susan; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David

    2016-08-01

    Survivors of traumatic events may develop a range of psychopathology, across the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of disorder and associated personality traits. However, research into personality-based internalizing and externalizing trauma responses has been limited to cross-sectional investigations of PTSD comorbidity. Personality typologies may present an opportunity to identify and selectively intervene with survivors at risk of posttraumatic disorder. Therefore this study examined whether personality prospectively influences the trajectory of disorder in a broader trauma-exposed sample. During hospitalization for a physical injury, 323 Australian adults completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, with the latter readministered 3 and 12 months later. Latent profile analysis conducted on baseline personality scores identified subgroups of participants, while latent change modelling examined differences in disorder trajectories. Three classes (internalizing, externalizing, and normal personality) were identified. The internalizing class showed a high risk of developing all disorders. Unexpectedly, however, the normal personality class was not always at lowest risk of disorder. Rather, the externalizing class, while more likely than the normal personality class to develop substance use disorders, were less likely to develop PTSD and depression. Results suggest that personality is an important mechanism in influencing the development and form of psychopathology after trauma, with internalizing and externalizing subtypes identifiable in the early aftermath of injury. These findings suggest that early intervention using a personality-based transdiagnostic approach may be an effective method of predicting and ultimately preventing much of the burden of posttraumatic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The counselees' self-reported request for psychological help in genetic counseling for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer : not only psychopathology matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Joel; van Asperen, Christi J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Menko, Fred H.; Collee, Margriet J.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Tibben, Aad

    Background Several studies have shown that counselees do not experience psychopathological levels of distress after DNA test result disclosure. However, it has not systematically been studied whether the absence of psychopathology also means that counselees do not want to receive help. Their

  10. The counselees' self-reported request for psychological help in genetic counseling for hereditary breast/ovarian cancer: Not only psychopathology matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Vos (Joël); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); F. Menko (Fred); J.M. Collée (Margriet); E.B.G. Garcia; A. Tibben (Arend)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Several studies have shown that counselees do not experience psychopathological levels of distress after DNA test result disclosure. However, it has not systematically been studied whether the absence of psychopathology also means that counselees do not want to receive help.

  11. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term programing of psychopathology-like behaviors in male rats by peripubertal stress depends on individual's glucocorticoid responsiveness to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sophie E; Sandi, Carmen

    2018-02-07

    Experience of adversity early in life and dysregulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity are risk factors often independently associated with the development of psychopathological disorders, including depression, PTSD and pathological aggression. Additional evidence suggests that in combination these factors may interact to shape the development and expression of psychopathology differentially, though little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we studied the long-term consequences of early life stress exposure on individuals with differential constitutive glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stressor exposure, assessing both socio-affective behaviors and brain activity in regions sensitive to pathological alterations following stress. Two rat lines, genetically selected for either low or high glucocorticoid responsiveness to repeated stress were exposed to a series of unpredictable, fear-inducing stressors on intermittent days during the peripuberty period. Results obtained at adulthood indicated that having high glucocorticoid responses to repeated stress and having experience of peripuberty stress independently enhanced levels of psychopathology-like behaviors, as well as increasing basal activity in several prefrontal and limbic brain regions in a manner associated with enhanced behavioral inhibition. Interestingly, peripuberty stress had a differential impact on aggression in the two rat lines, enhancing aggression in the low-responsive line but not in the already high-aggressive, high-responsive rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that aberrant HPA axis activity around puberty, a key period in the development of social repertoire in both rats and humans, may alter behavior such that it becomes anti-social in nature.

  13. Genetic and Environmental Associations Between Procrastination and Internalizing/Externalizing Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavson, Daniel E; du Pont, Alta; Hatoum, Alexander S; Hyun Rhee, Soo; Kremen, William S; Hewitt, John K; Friedman, Naomi P

    2017-09-01

    Recent work on procrastination has begun to unravel the genetic and environmental correlates of this problematic behavior. However, little is known about how strongly procrastination is associated with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, and the extent to which shared genetic/environmental factors or relevant personality constructs (e.g., fear of failure, impulsivity, and neuroticism) can inform the structure of these associations. The current study examined data from 764 young adult twins who completed questionnaires assessing procrastination and personality and structured interviews regarding psychopathology symptoms. Results indicated that procrastination was positively correlated with both internalizing and externalizing latent variables, and that these correlations were driven by shared genetic influences. Moreover, the association between procrastination and internalizing was accounted for by fear of failure and neuroticism, whereas the association between procrastination and externalizing was primarily explained by impulsivity. The role of procrastination in psychopathology is discussed using a framework that highlights common and broadband-specific variance.

  14. Loss of synaptic zinc transport in progranulin deficient mice may contribute to progranulin-associated psychopathology and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Stefanie; Heidler, Juliana; Albuquerque, Boris; Valek, Lucie; Altmann, Christine; Wilken-Schmitz, Annett; Schäfer, Michael K E; Wittig, Ilka; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2017-11-01

    Affective and cognitive processing of nociception contributes to the development of chronic pain and vice versa, pain may precipitate psychopathologic symptoms. We hypothesized a higher risk for the latter with immanent neurologic diseases and studied this potential interrelationship in progranulin-deficient mice, which are a model for frontotemporal dementia, a disease dominated by behavioral abnormalities in humans. Young naïve progranulin deficient mice behaved normal in tests of short-term memory, anxiety, depression and nociception, but after peripheral nerve injury, they showed attention-deficit and depression-like behavior, over-activity, loss of shelter-seeking, reduced impulse control and compulsive feeding behavior, which did not occur in equally injured controls. Hence, only the interaction of 'pain x progranulin deficiency' resulted in the complex phenotype at young age, but neither pain nor progranulin deficiency alone. A deep proteome analysis of the prefrontal cortex and olfactory bulb revealed progranulin-dependent alterations of proteins involved in synaptic transport, including neurotransmitter transporters of the solute carrier superfamily. In particular, progranulin deficiency was associated with a deficiency of nuclear and synaptic zinc transporters (ZnT9/Slc30a9; ZnT3/Slc30a3) with low plasma zinc. Dietary zinc supplementation partly normalized the attention deficit of progranulin-deficient mice, which was in part reminiscent of autism-like and compulsive behavior of synaptic zinc transporter Znt3-knockout mice. Hence, the molecular studies point to defective zinc transport possibly contributing to progranulin-deficiency-associated psychopathology. Translated to humans, our data suggest that neuropathic pain may precipitate cognitive and psychopathological symptoms of an inherent, still silent neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jiubo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0% provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of

  16. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology and well-being: The mediator role of global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne K; Myhre, Arne K; Klöckner, Christian A; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to be associated with a broad variety of psychopathology and deteriorated well-being in adolescent populations. In the present nationwide study, we aimed to explore global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use as possible mediators of these associations in a high-risk adolescent population. We included 400 adolescents (aged 12-20 years) living in residential youth care in Norway (response rate 67%). The participants completed a semistructured psychiatric interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA)), a study-specific questionnaire, a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) and the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). Information was also provided by the adolescent's primary contact at the institution. Two models were tested using structural equation modelling; one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and psychopathology, and one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and well-being. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, well-being, global self-esteem and attachment difficulties were treated as latent variables, and substance use was added as an observed variable. The results of this study showed that global self-esteem was a mediator of paths in both models, whereas attachment difficulties and substance use were not. Preventing decline in health and well-being in high-risk adolescents is a main goal, and this study suggests that improving self-esteem, in addition to providing psychiatric health services, could be an important tool for achieving this goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among

  18. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms

  19. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender differences in self- and investigator-rated psychopathology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz-Junginger, Petra; Rösler, M; Jacob, C; Alm, B; Retz, W

    2010-06-01

    Despite the growing interest in the diagnosis of ADHD in adults, most of the knowledge in ADHD still relies on research with children and adolescents. Gender differences in adult ADHD patients were neglected for a long time and only few studies have focused this topic. The goal of this study was to investigate differences in ADHD psychopathology in male and female adults. We examined gender differences in ADHD core and associated symptoms and in personality traits in adults with ADHD. In order to discriminate between general and ADHD-specific gender differences, we compared data of adult ADHD patients with two control groups (patients with substance abuse and healthy controls). Regarding differences in ADHD core symptoms-attention problems, hyperactivity, and impulsivity-between male and female subjects, we found inconsistent results depending on the applied diagnostic instruments. Using standardized self-report, there were no gender differences regarding attention problems and hyperactivity but regarding impulsivity. Results of a semi-standardized interview (WRAADDS) according to the Utah criteria of adult ADHD showed no gender differences regarding impulsivity and hyperactivity but regarding attention problems. Moreover, differences were found between female and male healthy controls in the domains "over reactivity" and "hot temper" but not in the group of ADHD patients. Thus, it seems that gender differences in normal population were leveled by the disorder. Concerning general personality traits, some differences between male and female ADHD patients were also present in healthy controls, suggesting no ADHD-specific effect of gender. In conclusion, male and female ADHD patients seem to be more similar than different regarding ADHD-related psychopathology and general personality traits.

  2. Biomarkers of threat and reward sensitivity demonstrate unique associations with risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Brady D; McGowan, Sarah Kate; Sarapas, Casey; Robison-Andrew, E Jenna; Altman, Sarah E; Campbell, Miranda L; Gorka, Stephanie M; Katz, Andrea C; Shankman, Stewart A

    2013-08-01

    Two emotional/motivational constructs that have been posited to underlie anxiety and depressive disorders are heightened sensitivity to threat and reduced sensitivity to reward, respectively. It is unclear, though, whether these constructs are only epiphenomena or also connote risk for these disorders (and relatedly, whether they connote risk for separate disorders). Using family history of psychopathology as an indicator of risk, the present study examined whether biomarkers of sensitivity to threat (startle potentiation) and reward (frontal EEG asymmetry) were associated with similar or different familial liabilities. In addition, the present study examined whether these biomarkers were associated with risk independent of proband DSM-IV diagnosis. One-hundred and seventy-three individuals diagnosed with panic disorder (PD), early onset major depressive disorder (MDD), both (comorbids), or controls completed two laboratory paradigms assessing sensitivity to predictable/unpredictable threat (measured via startle response) and reward (measured via frontal EEG asymmetry during a gambling task). Results indicated that across all participants: (a) startle potentiation to unpredictable threat was associated with family history of PD (but not MDD); and (b) frontal EEG asymmetry while anticipating reward was associated with family history of MDD (but not PD). Additionally, both measures continued to be associated with family history of psychopathology after controlling for proband DSM-IV diagnosis. Results suggest that the proposed biomarkers of sensitivity to unpredictable threat and reward exhibit discriminant validity and may add to the predictive validity of the DSM-IV defined constructs of PD and MDD, respectively. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. [Narcissism in the world of Facebook. An evolutionary psychopathological interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework.

  4. Prospective memory, retrospective memory, and individual differences in cognitive abilities, personality, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Cnudde, Kelsey; Grant, Laura M

    2018-01-01

    Although individual differences in processing speed, working memory, intelligence, and other cognitive functions were found to explain individual differences in retrospective memory (RetM), much less is known about their relationship with prospective memory (ProM). Moreover, the studies that investigated the relationship between ProM and cognitive functions arrived to contradictory conclusions. The relationship between ProM, personality, and psychopathology is similarly unsettled. Meta-analytic reviews of the relationships of ProM with aging and personality suggest that the contradictory findings may be due to widespread methodological problems plaguing ProM research including the prevalent use of inefficient, unreliable binary measures; widespread ceiling effects; failure to distinguish between various ProM subdomains (e.g., episodic ProM versus vigilance/monitoring); various confounds; and, importantly, small sample sizes, resulting in insufficient statistical power. Accordingly, in a large scale study with nearly 1,200 participants, we investigated the relationship between episodic event-cued ProM, episodic RetM, and fundamental cognitive functions including intelligence, personality, and psychopathology, using reliable continuous measures of episodic event-cued ProM. Our findings show that (a) continuous measures of episodic event-cued ProM were much more reliable than binary measures, (b) episodic event-cued ProM was associated with measures of processing speed, working memory, crystallized and fluid intelligence, as well as RetM, and that such associations were similar for ProM and RetM, (c) personality factors did not improve prediction of neither ProM nor RetM beyond the variance predicted by cognitive ability, (d) symptoms of psychopathology did not improve the prediction of ProM although they slightly improved the prediction of RetM, and (e) participants' sex was not associated with ProM but showed small correlations with RetM. In addition to advancing

  5. Commentary: role of temperament in developmental models of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2004-03-01

    The articles in this special section provide exciting and useful perspectives on the role of temperament in the development of child and adolescent psychopathology. These articles are valuable both in summarizing what is known and in highlighting issues that must be addressed before further progress can be made. In the future, it will be essential to distinguish between the constructs of temperament and psychopathology in ways that are both scientifically valid and useful to the study of developmental psychopathology. In particular, because existing measures of temperament were not designed to study relations between temperament and psychopathology, new measures are needed that focus on relevant aspects of temperament and are not confounded by the inclusion of items that are close synonyms and antonyms of psychopathology. If circular and mentalistic thinking can be avoided, important advances can be expected from studies of temperament and psychopathology in the context of development.

  6. The relationship between the FFM personality traits, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joana; Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2013-07-01

    Several studies have advocated a relationship between psychopathological features and sexual compulsivity. Such relationship is often found among individuals seeking help for out of control sexual behavior, suggesting that the association between psychological adjustment and sexual compulsivity may have a significant clinical value. However, a more complete approach to the topic of sexual compulsivity would also include the analysis of nonclinical samples as healthy individuals may be at risk of developing some features of hypersexuality in the future. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between stable traits of personality, state psychopathology, and sexual compulsivity in a sample of male college students. Furthermore, the potential mediating role of state psychopathology in the relationship between personality traits and sexual compulsivity was tested. Participants completed the following measures: the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory-22. The sample included 152 male college students recruited in a Portuguese university using nonrandom methods. The measures were completed individually and anonymously. Findings on state psychopathology suggested that psychoticism may be one of the key dimensions associated with sexual compulsivity in male students. The personality traits of Neuroticism and Agreeableness were also significant predictors of sexual compulsivity. Findings on the mediating effects suggested that state psychopathology mediated the relationship between Neuroticism and sexual compulsivity but not between Agreeableness and sexual compulsivity. A psychopathological path (encompassing Neuroticism and state psychopathology) and a behavioral path (encompassing Agreeableness features) may be involved in sexual compulsivity as reported by a nonclinical sample of male students. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: The incidence of concurrent psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Margie H Wilson; Anita D Stuart; H Gertie Pretorius

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a contr...

  8. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  9. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  10. Interpersonal problems across levels of the psychopathology hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Jeffrey M; Wright, Aidan G C; Beeney, Joseph E; Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationship between psychopathology and interpersonal problems in a sample of 825 clinical and community participants. Sixteen psychiatric diagnoses and five transdiagnostic dimensions were examined in relation to self-reported interpersonal problems. The structural summary method was used with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Circumplex Scales to examine interpersonal problem profiles for each diagnosis and dimension. We built a structural model of mental disorders including factors corresponding to detachment (avoidant personality, social phobia, major depression), internalizing (dependent personality, borderline personality, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress, major depression), disinhibition (antisocial personality, drug dependence, alcohol dependence, borderline personality), dominance (histrionic personality, narcissistic personality, paranoid personality), and compulsivity (obsessive-compulsive personality). All dimensions showed good interpersonal prototypicality (e.g., detachment was defined by a socially avoidant/nonassertive interpersonal profile) except for internalizing, which was diffusely associated with elevated interpersonal distress. The findings for individual disorders were largely consistent with the dimension that each disorder loaded on, with the exception of the internalizing and dominance disorders, which were interpersonally heterogeneous. These results replicate previous findings and provide novel insights into social dysfunction in psychopathology by wedding the power of hierarchical (i.e., dimensional) modeling and interpersonal circumplex assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Psychopathology and achievement motivation in adolescents with pathological internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartberg, Lutz; Sack, Peter-Michael; Petersen, Kay-Uwe; Thomasius, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    In Germany, the internet is used by 69.4% of the population or 49 million people, and 100% of adolescents (between 14 to 19 years of age) spend time in the internet at least occasionally. An excessive use of the internet may lead to negative psychosocial consequences and changes in behaviour. This phenomenon is named "pathological internet use". Until now, there are only few studies published that investigate mental well being in German adolescents with pathological internet use. 16 participants of an outpatient treatment program for pathological internet use and 16 healthy adolescents were compared on self-reported levels of psychopathology (SPS-J), achievement motivation (FLM 7-13) and personal experience of attention deficit (FEDA). There were no differences in age, gender, intelligence or education between the two groups. Pathological internet users exhibited significantly elevated scores on self-esteem problems and the summary score of the SPS-J and significantly lower scores on FLM 7-13-dimensions "achievement ambition" and "perseverance/diligence" compared to controls. The results revealed that adolescents with pathological internet use report a higher level of psychopathology and lower levels of achievement motivation and drive. These findings should be taken into account when conceptualizing treatments for pathological internet users.

  12. Psychopathology of Online Poker Players: Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Axelle; Chabrol, Henri; Chauchard, Emeline

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Online Texas Hold'em poker has become a spectacular form of entertainment in our society, and the number of people who use this form of gambling is increasing. It seems that online poker activity challenges existing theoretical concepts about problem gambling behaviors. The purpose of this literature review is to provide a current overview about the population of online poker players. Methods To be selected, articles had to focus on psychopathology in a sample of online poker players, be written in English or French, and be published before November 2015. A total of 17 relevant studies were identified. Results In this population, the proportion of problematic gamblers was higher than in other forms of gambling. Several factors predicting excessive gambling were identified such as stress, internal attribution, dissociation, boredom, negative emotions, irrational beliefs, anxiety, and impulsivity. The population of online poker players is largely heterogeneous, with experimental players forming a specific group. Finally, the validity of the tools used to measure excessive or problematic gambling and irrational beliefs are not suitable for assessing online poker activity. Discussion and conclusions Future studies need to confirm previous findings in the literature of online poker games. Given that skills are important in poker playing, skill development in the frames of excessive use of online poker should be explored more in depth, particularly regarding poker experience and loss chasing. Future research should focus on skills, self-regulation, and psychopathology of online poker players.

  13. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  14. Psychopathology of Time in Brain Disease and Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cutting

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on disturbance of time-sense in brain disease and schizophrenia is reviewed and the subjective experience of altered time-sense reported by 45 out of 350 personally interviewed schizophrenics is analyzed. A review of the literature on the effect of brain damage revealed that some phenomena (déjà vu, reduplication of time, altered tempo to events were linked with right hemisphere dysfunction, one phenomenon (incorrect sequencing of events was linked with left anterior brain damage, and others (disrupted “biological clock”, disturbed serise of rate of flow of current or past events could arise from subcortical as well as focal cortical damage. The sparse literature on disturbed time-sense in schizophrenia suggested that there was a shared psychopathology in this respect with right hemisphere dysfunction. The phenomena encountered in the 45 schizophrenics are described and classified.

  15. Chronic Stress in Adolescents and Its Neurobiological and Psychopathological Consequences: An RDoC Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Chandni; McGlade, Erin; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a strategy for classifying psychopathology based on behavioral dimensions and neurobiological measures. Neurodevelopment is an orthogonal dimension in the current RDoC framework; however, it has not yet been fully incorporated into the RDoC approach. A combination of both a neurodevelopmental and RDoC approach offers a multidimensional perspective for understanding the emergence of psychopathology during development. Environmental influence (e.g., stress) has a profound impact on the risk for development of psychiatric illnesses. It has been shown that chronic stress interacts with the developing brain, producing significant changes in neural circuits that eventually increase the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders. This review highlights effects of chronic stress on the adolescent brain, as adolescence is a period characterized by a combination of significant brain alterations, high levels of stress, and emergence of psychopathology. The literature synthesized in this review suggests that chronic stress-induced changes in neurobiology and behavioral constructs underlie the shared vulnerability across a number of disorders in adolescence. The review particularly focuses on depression and substance use disorders; however, a similar argument can also be made for other psychopathologies, including anxiety disorders. The summarized findings underscore the need for a framework to integrate neurobiological findings from disparate psychiatric disorders and to target transdiagnostic mechanisms across disorders.

  16. Reciprocity Between Parental Psychopathology and Oppositional Symptoms From Preschool to Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Zayra; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2018-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is a common disorder in preschool children. Evidence indicates that maternal and paternal psychopathology, particularly aggressive behavior and anxious and depressed symptoms, contributes to the development of this disorder. The latest research also suggests that ODD symptoms may exacerbate the mental health problems of parents. Our aim was to establish the existence of a reciprocal association between paternal and maternal psychopathology (aggression, depression, and anxiety) and child ODD at ages 3 and 8, using a longitudinal design in a community sample of preschoolers. The sample included 331 children evaluated at ages 3 and 8 through questionnaires and a semistructured diagnostic interview with parents. Parents also informed about their own psychopathology. At 3 years of age, higher levels of ODD symptoms in girls were concurrently associated with maternal anxious and depressed symptoms and paternal aggressive behavior, and higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys were concurrently associated with maternal aggressive behavior. Longitudinally, for boys, higher levels of maternal anxious and depressed symptoms at child age 3 predicted increases in ODD symptoms from 3 to 8 years of age. In addition, higher levels of ODD symptoms in boys aged 3-8 years predicted increases in fathers' anxious and depressive symptoms. Children with ODD should be evaluated and treated promptly, but efforts should be extended to their parents. Mothers' and fathers' mental health must be explored because the psychopathologies of children and parents reciprocally affect each other. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Suicidal Adolescents' Social Support from Family and Peers: Gender-Specific Associations with Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C. R.; Preuss, Lesli J.; King, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of social support from family, non-family adults, and peers were examined in relation to the psychopathology reported by 220 suicidal adolescents (152 females) during a psychiatric hospitalization. Results of regression analyses showed that, among females, family support was negatively related to hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and…

  19. How Can Gender Affect Psychopathology in Lebanese School-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Vivian

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which gender differences in coping, school and family environments could account for variation in psychopathology among school-age children. Participants were 665 middle school students. Results showed no gender differences for PTSD. Females scored higher on emotional problems and prosocial behavior whereas…

  20. Suicidality and interrogative suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Boone, Lea; Range, Lillian M

    2005-01-01

    All people are subject to memory suggestibility, but suicidal individuals may be especially so. The link between suicidality and suggestibility is unclear given mixed findings and methodological weaknesses of past research. To test the link between suicidality and interrogative suggestibility, 149 undergraduates answered questions about suicidal thoughts and reasons for living, and participated in a direct suggestibility procedure. As expected, suggestibility correlated with suicidality but accounted for little overall variance (4%). Mental health professionals might be able to take advantage of client suggestibility by directly telling suicidal persons to refrain from suicidal thoughts or actions.

  1. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  2. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and

  3. Technology-related transformations of imaginary body boundaries: Psychopathology of the everyday excessive Internet and mobile phone use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emelin V. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. In line with the approach of Larkin et al. (2006, we consider technological dependence in the context of the interaction between personality, environment, and culture. Objective. The aim of this study is to discover technology-related changes in psycho- logical needs and boundaries that could mediate the relationship between psychopathological symptoms and indicators of excessive use of info-communication technologies (ICT. The application of the Body Function Regulation Model to the use of ICT suggests that technology-related changes in the system of an individual’s needs and psychological boundaries mediate the relationship between a sense of poor psychological well-being and the risk of technology dependence. Design. The study of a normative sample (N = 275 using two technologies–mobile phones and the Internet–was performed. Results and Discussion. We demonstrated that the relationship between the general level of psychopathological symptoms and excessive use of technology (subjective dependence and inability to refrain from use of mobile phones and the Internet is indeed mediated by the perception of their indispensability for extension of psychological boundaries, and (for the Internet its use in image-making.

  4. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 secretions in eating disorders: Correlations with psychopathological aspects of the disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Francesca; Santonastaso, Paolo; Caregaro, Lorenza; Favaro, Angela

    2018-05-01

    Hormonal alterations in Eating Disorders (ED) may result from the biochemical stress of malnutrition/starvation. The correlations between some hormonal impairments, particularly of the somatotropic axis, and the psychopathological aspects of ED are still undefined. We measured the plasma concentrations of the somatotropic hormone (GH) and the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in 136 patients with various forms of ED, 65 with restricted Anorexia Nervosa (ANR), 19 with bingeing-purging Anorexia Nervosa (ANBP), 12 with purging-non binging Anorexia Nervosa (ANP), 26 with Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 8 with ED not otherwise specified-anorexic type (EDNOS-AN), 7 with ED not otherwise specified-bulimic type (EDNOS-BN) and in 30 healthy controls. Psychological assessment of patients and controls was performed using two outpatient rating scales, the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Significant negative or positive correlations were observed between GH-IGF-1 concentrations and impairments on several EDI-2 subscales (drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, interoceptive awareness, sense of ineffectiveness, interpersonal distrust, maturity fear) and on SCL-90 subitems (depression, hostility, obsessivity compulsivity, anxiety), suggesting a possible hormonal modulatory effect on specific aspects of ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Psychopathological risk factors for partner aggression in a community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Factores de riesgo psicopatológicos para la agresión en la pareja en una muestra comunitaria Psychopathological risk factors for partner aggression in a community sample; Cuenca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the predictive value of certain psychopathological variables for physical aggression, from the developmental and dyadic perspectives, in a sample of 2,032 heterosexual couples from the Madrid Region, through the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-2. The results showed a higher prevalence of psychological aggression than of physical aggression, and significant differences in low level physical aggression in the case of women, 13% vs. 10%, chi;2(1, N=4.064=7.43, p less than.001. The results confirm that symptoms of hostility, impulsive, borderline, and antisocial personality traits, alcohol consumption, and the experience of victimization have a greater impact on younger men and women (18-29 years. The implications of the results for prevention of partner violence and for couple therapy are discussed.

  6. Types of suggestibility: Relationships among compliance, indirect, and direct suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polczyk, Romuald; Pasek, Tomasz

    2006-10-01

    It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrates that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Test results from 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale. Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.

  7. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  8. Personality and psychopathology of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosevski, Dusica L; Milovancevic, Milica P; Gajic, Saveta D

    2010-01-01

    University students represent the national capital and investment for the future, with an implicit mission both for their families and for society as a whole. However, they face multiple stressors such as academic overload, constant pressure to succeed, competition with peers and in some countries financial burden and concerns about the future. As all this may lead to psychopathology, the health of university students has been the subject of increasing focus in recent years. Multiple protective and risk factors are involved in the psychological well being and distress of university students. Specific risk factors for the development of psychopathology are high test anxiety, lower self-efficacy, as well as certain personality traits. Moreover, some students arrive at college with already existing mental health problems. The most frequent mental disorders among students are substance abuse, depression, self-harm and suicide, eating and anxiety disorders. Acquiring and improving knowledge about the student population is a crucial factor in the development of mental health promotion programs in order to meet their needs and to help them cope with various problems. Better understanding and care of the personality profile of university students can be helpful in academic and career choice and prevention of future mental health problems.

  9. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  10. Maternal Depression, Maternal Expressed Emotion, and Youth Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, Martha C.; Pierre, Claudette B.; Boger, Kathryn Dingman; McKowen, James W.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Freed, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    Across development, maternal depression has been found to be a risk factor for youth psychopathology generally and youth depression specifically. Maternal Expressed Emotion (EE) has been examined as a predictor of outcome among youth with depression. The present study explored the associations between youth psychopathology and two…

  11. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  12. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  13. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Specific Problems Scales Onto Extant Psychopathology Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A main objective in developing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) was to link the hierarchical structure of the instrument's scales to contemporary psychopathology and personality models for greater enhancement of construct validity. Initial evidence published with the Restructured Clinical scales has indicated promising results in that the higher order structure of these measures maps onto those reported in the extant psychopathology literature. This study focused on evaluating the internal structure of the Specific Problems and Interest scales, which have not yet been examined in this manner. Two large, mixed-gender outpatient and correctional samples were used. Exploratory factor analyses revealed consistent evidence for a 4-factor structure representing somatization, negative affect, externalizing, and social detachment. Convergent and discriminant validity analyses in the outpatient sample yielded a pattern of results consistent with expectations. These findings add further evidence to indicate that the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy of scales map onto extant psychopathology literature, and also add support to the notion that somatization and detachment should be considered important higher order domains in the psychopathology literature.

  14. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  15. Correlations between caregiver psychiatric symptoms and offspring psychopathology in a low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila T. Matsuzaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Associations between parental/caregiver depression and adverse child outcomes are well established and have been described through one or more mechanisms: child psychopathology following exposure to a depressed caregiver, child psychopathology exacerbating a caregiver’s depression, and caregiver and offspring depression sharing the same etiology. Data from low and middle-income countries is scarce. We examined correlations between common symptoms of mental disorders in caregivers and their offspring’s psychopathology in a Brazilian sample. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult caregivers were screened for depression during routine home visits by community health workers as part of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy. Caregivers with suspected depression were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Children’s symptoms were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results: The sample included 68 primary caregivers and 110 children aged 6 to 15 years. Higher caregiver scores on the SRQ-20 correlated significantly with psychiatric symptoms in offspring. Conclusion: These results substantiate our hypothesis that child psychopathology correlates with caregivers’ psychiatric symptoms. This paper adds to the growing literature on community mental health assessment and can help guide future strategies for reducing the burden of common mental disorders in caregivers and children alike in low and middle-income countries.

  16. Chronic Tobacco-Smoking on Psychopathological Symptoms, Impulsivity and Cognitive Deficits in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Linda; Lim, Ahnate; Lau, Eric; Alicata, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    HIV-infected individuals (HIV+) has 2-3 times the rate of tobacco smoking than the general population, and whether smoking may lead to greater psychiatric symptoms or cognitive deficits remains unclear. We evaluated the independent and combined effects of being HIV+ and chronic tobacco-smoking on impulsivity, psychopathological symptoms and cognition. 104 participants [27 seronegative (SN)-non-Smokers, 26 SN-Smokers, 29 HIV+ non-Smokers, 22 HIV+ Smokers] were assessed for psychopathology symptoms (Symptom Checklist-90, SCL-90), depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, CES-D), impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, BIS), decision-making (The Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST), and cognition (seven neurocognitive domains). Both HIV+ and Smoker groups had higher SCL-90 and CES-D scores, with highest scores in HIV+ Smokers. On BIS, both HIV+ and Smokers had higher Total Impulsiveness scores, with higher behavioral impulsivity in Smokers, highest in HIV+ Smokers. Furthermore, across the four groups, HIV+ Smokers lost most money and made fewest advantageous choices on the IGT, and had highest percent errors on WCST. Lastly, HIV+ had lower z-scores on all cognitive domains, with the lowest scores in HIV+ Smokers. These findings suggest that HIV-infection and chronic tobacco smoking may lead to additive deleterious effects on impulsivity, psychopathological (especially depressive) symptoms and cognitive dysfunction. Although greater impulsivity may be premorbid in HIV+ and Smokers, the lack of benefits of nicotine in chronic Smokers on attention and psychopathology, especially those with HIV-infection, may be due to the negative effects of chronic smoking on dopaminergic and cardio-neurovascular systems. Tobacco smoking may contribute to psychopathology and neurocognitive disorders in HIV+ individuals.

  17. Emotion regulation and psychopathology: the role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This review addresses three questions regarding the relationships among gender, emotion regulation, and psychopathology: (a) are there gender differences in emotion regulation strategies, (b) are emotion regulation strategies similarly related to psychopathology in men and women, and (c) do gender differences in emotion regulation strategies account for gender differences in psychopathology? Women report using most emotion regulation strategies more than men do, and emotion regulation strategies are similarly related to psychopathology in women and men. More rumination in women compared to men partially accounts for greater depression and anxiety in women compared to men, while a greater tendency to use alcohol to cope partially accounts for more alcohol misuse in men compared to women. The literature on emotion regulation is likely missing vital information on how men regulate their emotions. I discuss lessons learned and questions raised about the relationships between gender differences in emotion regulation and gender differences in psychopathology.

  18. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  19. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (Ppsychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  20. Problematic smartphone use: A conceptual overview and systematic review of relations with anxiety and depression psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Dvorak, Robert D; Levine, Jason C; Hall, Brian J

    2017-01-01

    Research literature on problematic smartphone use, or smartphone addiction, has proliferated. However, relationships with existing categories of psychopathology are not well defined. We discuss the concept of problematic smartphone use, including possible causal pathways to such use. We conducted a systematic review of the relationship between problematic use with psychopathology. Using scholarly bibliographic databases, we screened 117 total citations, resulting in 23 peer-reviewer papers examining statistical relations between standardized measures of problematic smartphone use/use severity and the severity of psychopathology. Most papers examined problematic use in relation to depression, anxiety, chronic stress and/or low self-esteem. Across this literature, without statistically adjusting for other relevant variables, depression severity was consistently related to problematic smartphone use, demonstrating at least medium effect sizes. Anxiety was also consistently related to problem use, but with small effect sizes. Stress was somewhat consistently related, with small to medium effects. Self-esteem was inconsistently related, with small to medium effects when found. Statistically adjusting for other relevant variables yielded similar but somewhat smaller effects. We only included correlational studies in our systematic review, but address the few relevant experimental studies also. We discuss causal explanations for relationships between problem smartphone use and psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Jiménez-Murcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU and addiction (VGA in gambling disorder (GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT, symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7%÷44.3,VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0%÷28.7, and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7%÷20.7. Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients’ sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  2. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  3. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  4. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study

    OpenAIRE

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents’ divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with fam...

  5. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Shatla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.

  6. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.

  7. [Alienation: Differential Psychopathology of Ego-Disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodatsch, M; Kuhn, J

    2016-11-01

    Alienation, i. e. disorders of the inner experience of integrity, continuity, and agency, represents a feature of both psychotic and non-psychotic disorders. Thereby, ego disturbances are thought to be specific for schizophrenia. Depersonalisation, in contrast, has been reported in schizophrenia as well as a neurotic, probably distinct syndrome. The differentiation of psychotic vs. non-psychotic alienation is often all but trivial. The present paper provides an overview of the historical roots and the psychopathological conceptualizations of alienation. Clinically relevant features of psychotic alienation are highlighted. Experience of passivity, loss of authenticity and disturbances of striving and volition appear as psychotic characteristics. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  9. Natural language processing in psychiatry. Artificial intelligence technology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, D A; Rapp, C; Evens, M

    1992-04-01

    The potential benefit of artificial intelligence (AI) technology as a tool of psychiatry has not been well defined. In this essay, the technology of natural language processing and its position with regard to the two main schools of AI is clearly outlined. Past experiments utilizing AI techniques in understanding psychopathology are reviewed. Natural language processing can automate the analysis of transcripts and can be used in modeling theories of language comprehension. In these ways, it can serve as a tool in testing psychological theories of psychopathology and can be used as an effective tool in empirical research on verbal behavior in psychopathology.

  10. Clinical distinctions between selective mutism and social phobia: an investigation of childhood psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeganeh, Robin; Beidel, Deborah C; Turner, Samuel M; Pina, Armando A; Silverman, Wendy K

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that children with selective mutism are more socially anxious than children with social anxiety disorder but who are not selectively mute. Twenty-three children with comorbid selective mutism and social phobia and 23 age-matched controls with social phobia alone and their parents participated in a comprehensive assessment of social anxiety and related aspects of psychopathology. The results do not uniformly support previous suggestions that children with selective mutism refuse speech because they are "frozen with fear." Although clinician and observer ratings for children with selective mutism revealed higher ratings of social distress than for children with social phobia alone, self-report data do not support this conclusion. Furthermore, although there were no group differences on measures of trait anxiety, general fears, or scores on the Child Behavior Checklist broadband Internalizing or Externalizing scales, children with selective mutism scored higher than children with social phobia alone on the Child Behavior Checklist Delinquency subscale, suggesting the presence of a broader clinical syndrome. It remains unclear whether children with selective mutism have extreme levels of social anxiety. Potential areas that might shed further light on this interesting disorder are discussed.

  11. Violence Exposure and Psychopathology in Latino Youth: The Moderating Role of Active and Avoidant Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiño, Omar G; Stiles, Allison A; Diaz, Kathleen I

    2018-06-01

    Despite high rates of exposure to community violence among Latino youth in urban communities, there is considerable variability in individual outcomes. This study examined (a) associations between coping and indices of Latino culture, (b) main effects of active/avoidant coping on psychopathology, and (c) whether coping moderates the impact of violence exposure on mental health in Latino youth. Participants included 168 Latino youth (56% female; ages 11-14) that took part in a short-term longitudinal study. Results indicate that youth acculturation was positively associated with active coping, but enculturation level and immigrant status were not associated with coping. Structural equation models suggested that active coping was negatively associated with internalizing problems (p = .046) while avoidant coping was positively associated with internalizing problems (p = .013) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (p = .024). Moderation analyses revealed that violence exposure was more strongly associated with internalizing problems as reliance on avoidance coping increased. However, at high levels of violence exposure, a greater reliance on active coping was related to increased posttraumatic stress problems. Findings suggest that consideration of the specific stressor, level of stress exposure, and mental health problem-type may be crucial in determining the effectiveness of a coping strategy. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  12. Dark Hair and Light Eyes in Female College Students: A Potential Biologic Marker for Liability to Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, David B.

    1978-01-01

    Informal observation suggested that dark-haired/light eyed females (target group) might have a liability to psychopathology. Questionnaire data obtained from eight large undergraduate classes during a four year period (1974-77) yielded consistently higher percentages of target group individuals reporting hospitalization of first-degree relatives…

  13. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    In Western secular societies, spiritual life is no longer limited to classical religious institutions but can also be found at workplace organizations. While spirituality is conventionally understood as a subjective and internal process, this paper proposes the concept of ‘suggestive objects......’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...... scaffolding. This has deep implications for our understanding of the sacred, including a better appreciation of the way that suggestive objects make the sacred durable, the way they organize it....

  14. Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Fabris, Matteo Angelo; Settanni, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders. The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  16. Stress moderates the relationships between problem-gambling severity and specific psychopathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronzitti, Silvia; Kraus, Shane W; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG) group, individuals at-risk gambling (ARG) and problem gambling (PPG) demonstrated higher odds of multiple Axis-I and Axis-II disorders in both high- and low-stress groups. Interactions odds ratios were statistically significant for stress moderating the relationships between at-risk gambling (versus non-gambling) and Any Axis-I and Any Axis-II disorder, with substance-use and Cluster-A and Cluster-B disorders contributing significantly. Some similar patterns were observed for pathological gambling (versus non-gambling), with stress moderating relationships with Cluster-B disorders. In all cases, a stronger relationship was observed between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in the low-stress versus high-stress groups. The findings suggest that perceived stress accounts for some of the variance in the relationship between problem-gambling severity and specific forms of psychopathology, particularly with respect to lower intensity, subsyndromal levels of gambling. Findings suggest that stress may be particularly important to consider in the relationships between problem-gambling severity and substance use and Cluster-B disorders. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2017-08-01

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  18. Plasma homovanillic acid levels in first-episode schizophrenia. Psychopathology and treatment response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koreen, A R; Lieberman, J; Alvir, J; Mayerhoff, D; Loebel, A; Chakos, M; Amin, F; Cooper, T

    1994-02-01

    To examine plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in first-episode schizophrenia, to compare pHVA levels in patients and controls, and to assess the association of pHVA levels with psychopathology and treatment response. Forty-one patients entered the study, and pHVA levels were measured at baseline and on a weekly basis for up to 6 weeks of open standardized neuroleptic treatment. Psychopathology was evaluated with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Ten healthy controls were used for comparison of baseline pHVA levels. No differences were observed between patients and controls. Baseline pHVA level was not associated with psychopathology but was associated with time to reach remission. Baseline pHVA levels and week-1 pHVA levels were higher in responders than nonresponders. Regardless of responsiveness, female participants had higher pHVA levels than male participants throughout the study. The pattern of pHVA levels with treatment was similar in all patients with a short-term rise initially and then a decrease toward baseline values. These findings suggest that pHVA levels have prognostic significance for response and time to reach remission. Qualitative and quantitative differences between first-episode patients' pHVA levels and studies using a long-term, neuroleptic-exposed population suggest that changes occur with neuroleptic treatment or the progression of the illness.

  19. Development of psychopathology in deployed armed forces in relation to plasma GABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Geuze, Elbert; Prinsen, Hubertus C; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Joëls, Marian; Kahn, René S; Vermetten, Eric; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-11-01

    prospective evidence that the development of psychopathology after military deployment is associated with increasing plasma GABA levels. Our finding that plasma GABA rises after the emergence of psychopathology symptoms suggests that GABA increase may constitute a compensatory mechanism and warrants further exploration of the GABA system as a potential target for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Association among Default Mode Network Functional Connectivity, Mentalization, and Psychopathology in a Nonclinical Sample: An eLORETA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Della Marca, Giacomo; Maestoso, Giulia; Amoroso, Noemi; Valenti, Enrico Maria; Carbone, Giuseppe Alessio; Massullo, Chiara; Contardi, Anna; Imperatori, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    We investigated default mode network (DMN) electroencephalography (EEG) functional connectivity differences between individuals with self-reported high mentalization capability and low psychopathological symptoms, versus participants with mentalization impairments and high psychopathological symptoms. Forty-nine students (35 women) with a mean age of 22.92 ± 2.53 years were administered the Mentalization Questionnaire (MZQ) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Five minutes of EEG during resting state were also recorded for each participant. DMN functional connectivity analyses were conducted by means of the exact Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (eLORETA). Compared to the individuals with high mentalization capability and lower self-reported psychopathological symptoms, participants with mentalization impairments and high psychopathological symptoms showed a decrease of EEG beta connectivity between: (i) the right and left medial frontal lobe, and (ii) the left medial frontal lobe and the right anterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, while MZQ total score was positively associated with DMN network connections (i.e., right and left medial frontal lobes), several psychopathological symptoms (i.e., interpersonal sensitivity, depression, and psychoticism) were negatively associated with DMN connectivity. Our results may reflect a top-down emotion regulation deficit which is associated with both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Culture beats gender? The importance of controlling for identity- and parenting-related risk factors in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Persike, Malte; Besevegis, Elias; Chau, Cecilia; Karaman, Neslihan Güney; Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Lubiewska, Katharzyna; Rohail, Iffat

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzed the unique effects of gender and culture on psychopathology in adolescents from seven countries after controlling for factors which might have contributed to variations in psychopathology. In a sample 2259 adolescents (M = 15 years; 54% female) from France, Germany, Turkey, Greece, Peru, Pakistan, and Poland identity stress, coping with identity stress, maternal parenting (support, psychological control, anxious rearing) and psychopathology (internalizing, externalizing and total symptomatology) were assessed. Due to variations in stress perception, coping style and maternal behavior, these covariates were partialed out before the psychopathology scores were subjected to analyses of variance with gender and country as factors. These analyses leveled out the main effect of country and revealed country-specific gender effects. In four countries, males reported higher internalizing and total symptomatology than females. Partialing out the covariates resulted in a clearer picture of culture-specific and gender-dependent effects on psychopathology, which is helpful in designing interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychopathology in Sickle Cell Disease | Alao | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depression and anxiety are two of the most common psychiatric symptoms that complicate the diagnosis and management of medical conditions. ... recommend how to better identify and treat psychopathology associated with this condition.

  3. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  4. Psychological functioning of adolescent transsexuals: personality and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, L.; de Ruiter, C.; Ringelberg, H.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    1997-01-01

    Adolescent transsexuals were compared with adolescent psychiatric out-patients and first-year university students to determine the extent to which other psychopathology is a necessary condition for the development of transsexualism. Three areas of psychological functioning associated with

  5. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  6. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  7. Examining Whether Offspring Psychopathology Influences Illness Course in Mothers With Recurrent Depression Using a High-Risk Longitudinal Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = −.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal

  8. Examining whether offspring psychopathology influences illness course in mothers with recurrent depression using a high-risk longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression

  9. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Bron, M.; Hollink, L.; Huurnink, B.; de Rijke, M.

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide

  10. Psychomotor development and psychopathology in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Raeymaecker, Dirk M J

    2006-01-01

    The sensorimotor developmental phase, leading to a gradual acquisition of skilled actions, is of crucial importance for the young child and its growing sense of competence. Three vital steps in motor development are mentioned: first, the smooth and spontaneous movements of the "graceful and elegant" baby, expression of his well-being and vitality, with their profound effect on the mother-infant relationship; second, the emergence of intentional and goal-oriented acts leading to Funktionslust and playful repetitions; and finally, the development of symbolic acts and increasing technical capacity to use playthings in imaginative play. The psychodynamic significance of the most important motor milestones for the child's ego development is set out. Motility is one of the most important avenues for exercising such functions as mastery, integration, reality testing (self-preservation), and control of impulses. One may consider this early childhood period of rapid motor development as the motor phase of ego and libido development. Hence, many forms of developmental psychopathology are attended with motor impairment or insufficient motor mastery and integration. From that clinical perspective pass in review: perinatal complications and motor disturbance, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dissociated motor development, low birth weight children and their developmental difficulties, developmental coordination disorder, aspects of pervasive developmental disorder, and stereotypic movement disorder.

  11. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  13. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, ppsychopathology (B=.47±.09, ppsychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cardiovascular reactivity as a mechanism linking child trauma to adolescent psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleniak, Charlotte; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in physiological reactivity to stress are argued to be central mechanisms linking adverse childhood environmental experiences to internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Childhood trauma exposure may influence physiological reactivity to stress in distinct ways from other forms of childhood adversity. This study applied a novel theoretical model to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on cardiovascular stress reactivity – the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. This model suggests that inefficient cardiovascular responses to stress – a threat as opposed to challenge profile – are characterized by blunted cardiac output (CO) reactivity and increased vascular resistance. We examined whether childhood trauma exposure predicted an indicator of the threat profile of cardiovascular reactivity and whether such a pattern was associated with adolescent psychopathology in a population-representative sample of 488 adolescents (M = 16.17 years old, 49.2% boys) in the TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS). Exposure to trauma was associated with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms and a pattern of cardiovascular reactivity consistent with the threat profile, including blunted CO reactivity during a social stress task. Blunted CO reactivity, in turn, was positively associated with externalizing, but not internalizing symptoms and mediated the link between trauma and externalizing psychopathology. None of these associations varied by gender. The biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat provides a novel theoretical framework for understanding disruptions in physiological reactivity to stress following childhood trauma exposure, revealing a potential pathway linking such exposure with externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:27568327

  15. Is low affect consciousness related to the severity of psychopathology? A cross-sectional study of patients with avoidant and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann-Eide, Eivind; Johansen, Merete Selsbakk; Normann-Eide, Tone; Egeland, Jens; Wilberg, Theresa

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relationships between affect consciousness (AC) and symptom distress, interpersonal problems, low self-esteem, and the number of PD traits in patients with avoidant personality disorder (APD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Within the setting of a treatment trial, 52 patients with APD or BPD were examined with structured interviews and self-report questionnaires before treatment and at 3-year follow-up. The evaluations included the Affect Consciousness Interview, the SCID-II interview, the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the Circumplex of Interpersonal Problems, and the Index of Self-esteem. A low global level of AC was expected to be associated with the severity of psychopathology; a low AC for interest, joy, and tenderness was expected to be associated with social detachment; and a low AC for anger, contempt, and disgust was expected to be associated with nonassertiveness. A low AC was associated with interpersonal problems and low self-esteem, but not symptom distress or the number of fulfilled SCID-II criteria. Despite a significant reduction in the psychopathology based on most clinical variables, the associations measured at baseline were maintained after 3years. Examination of specific affect categories showed a pattern of convergent and discriminative relationships with different types of interpersonal problems. A low AC for pleasant affects was specifically related to communion problems, like cold, detached behavior, both at baseline and follow-up. In contrast, a low AC for self-boundary affects was specifically related to agency problems, like non-assertiveness, at follow-up. Our results showed that a low AC was associated with central domains of psychopathology in patients with PDs. This suggested that AC would be an important focus for treatment and further research in PDs. Future studies are needed to examine how AC is related to various forms of personality pathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Are eating disorders "all about control?" The elusive psychopathology of nonfat phobic presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Helen B; Coniglio, Kathryn; Hartmann, Andrea S; Becker, Anne E; Eddy, Kamryn T; Thomas, Jennifer J

    2017-11-01

    There are a subset of individuals with eating disorders (EDs) who do not overevaluate body shape/weight (i.e., nonfat phobic ED; NFP-ED). According to the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral conceptualization of EDs, a need for control, in general, is hypothesized as the core psychopathology of NFP-EDs, with shape- and weight-related motivations for ED behavior merely superimposed in FP-ED presentations. This study tested the need for control as motivation for restriction in NFP-ED, using items aimed at assessing control from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) Restraint scale. Females ages 13-27 years consecutively admitted to residential treatment completed the EDE, Eating Disorder Inventory-3 Drive for Thinness subscale (EDI-DFT), and other self-report measures of psychopathology. We included patients with DSM-5 EDs, but excluded patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder. Twenty participants had NFP-ED (≤14 on EDI-DFT) and 124 had fatphobic ED (FP-ED; >14 on EDI-DFT). NFP-ED scored significantly lower than FP-ED on EDE Restraint scale shape/weight [χ 2 (1) = 10.73-35.62, p's psychopathology and impairment. Findings suggest those with NFP-ED report lower psychopathology overall and the new EDE Restraint scale control items do not capture additional motivation for restriction beyond that captured in the original Restraint scale shape/weight items. Future research should examine whether this latter finding is due to a minimizing response style in NFP-ED, an incomplete capture of desire for control by the EDE assessment method, or indeed reflects that need for control does not motivate restriction in NFP-EDs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanisms Underlying Motivational Deficits in Psychopathology: Similarities and Differences in Depression and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Motivational and hedonic impairments are core aspects of a variety of types of psychopathology. These impairments cut across diagnostic categories and may be critical to understanding major aspects of the functional impairments accompanying psychopathology. Given the centrality of motivational and hedonic systems to psychopathology, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative includes a "positive valence" systems domain that outlines a number of constructs that may be key to understanding the nature and mechanisms of motivational and hedonic impairments in psychopathology. These component constructs include initial responsiveness to reward, reward anticipation or expectancy, incentive or reinforcement learning, effort valuation, and action selection. Here, we review behavioral and neuroimaging studies providing evidence for impairments in these constructs in individuals with psychosis versus in individuals with depressive pathology. There are important differences in the nature of reward-related and hedonic deficits associated with psychosis versus depression that have major implications for our understanding of etiology and treatment development. In particular, the literature strongly suggests the presence of impairments in in-the-moment hedonics or "liking" in individuals with depressive pathology, particularly among those who experience anhedonia. Such deficits may propagate forward and contribute to impairments in other constructs that are dependent on hedonic responses, such as anticipation, learning, effort, and action selection. Such hedonic impairments could reflect alterations in dopamine and/or opioid signaling in the striatum related to depression or specifically to anhedonia in depressed populations. In contrast, the literature points to relatively intact in-the-moment hedonic processing in psychosis, but provides much evidence for impairments in other components involved in translating reward to action selection. Particularly, individuals with

  18. Educational styles, parenting stressors and psychopathological symptoms in parents of adolescents with high-risk behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Ituráin, Sonia; López-Goñi, José Javier; Arteaga Olleta, Alfonso; Deusto, Corina; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The main goal of this study was to determine the characteristics of parents who sought help from two prevention programmes due to having an adolescent child who presents highrisk behaviours. Methods: The sample was composed of 374 parents (169 fathers and 205 mothers). Information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychopathological symptoms, emotional states, educational styles and maladjustment to everyday life was collected. Findings: The results show statistically...

  19. Real and virtual worlds alike: Adolescents' psychopathology is reflected in their videogame virtual behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Segev, Aviv; Gabay-Weschler, Hila; Naar, Yossi; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2017-01-01

    Current research refers to videogames as a constant variable. However, games today are designed to be highly interactive and versatile: two players may be using the same videogame, but as a result of different using patterns, the game will not necessarily encompass the same content and gameplay. The current study examined the possible relationship between psychopathology and in-game playing patterns. We hypothesized that adolescents would play videogames differently, in a manner that would re...

  20. A Study of Psycho-pathology and Treatment of Children with Phagophobia

    OpenAIRE

    Ootyou,Keiko; Watanabe,Kumi; Yamanaka,Eriko; Hosogi,Mizuho; Tsukamoto,Chiaki; Okada,Ayumi; Morishima,Tsuneo

    2007-01-01

    Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and curren...

  1. Neurobiological Programming of Early Life Stress: Functional Development of Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry and Vulnerability for Stress-Related Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-04-25

    Early adverse experiences are associated with heighted vulnerability for stress-related psychopathology across the lifespan. While extensive work has investigated the effects of early adversity on neurobiology in adulthood, developmental approaches can provide further insight on the neurobiological mechanisms that link early experiences and long-term mental health outcomes. In the current review, we discuss the role of emotion regulation circuitry implicated in stress-related psychopathology from a developmental and transdiagnostic perspective. We highlight converging evidence suggesting that multiple forms of early adverse experiences impact the functional development of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry. Next, we discuss how adversity-induced alterations in amygdala-prefrontal development are associated with symptoms of emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Additionally, we discuss potential mechanisms through which protective factors may buffer the effects of early adversity on amygdala-prefrontal development to confer more adaptive long-term outcomes. Finally, we consider limitations of the existing literature and make suggestions for future longitudinal and translational research that can better elucidate the mechanisms linking early adversity, neurobiology, and emotional phenotypes. Together, these findings may provide further insight into the neuro-developmental mechanisms underlying the emergence of adversity-related emotional disorders and facilitate the development of targeted interventions that can ameliorate risk for psychopathology in youth exposed to early life stress.

  2. Enhanced fear expression in a psychopathological mouse model of trait anxiety: pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B Sartori

    Full Text Available The propensity to develop an anxiety disorder is thought to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here we investigated the relationship between a genetic predisposition to trait anxiety and experience-based learned fear in a psychopathological mouse model. Male CD-1 mice selectively bred for either high (HAB, or normal (NAB anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze were subjected to classical fear conditioning. During conditioning both mouse lines showed increased fear responses as assessed by freezing behaviour. However, 24 h later, HAB mice displayed more pronounced conditioned responses to both a contextual or cued stimulus when compared with NAB mice. Interestingly, 6 h and already 1 h after fear conditioning, freezing levels were high in HAB mice but not in NAB mice. These results suggest that trait anxiety determines stronger fear memory and/or a weaker ability to inhibit fear responses in the HAB line. The enhanced fear response of HAB mice was attenuated by treatment with either the α(2,3,5-subunit selective benzodiazepine partial agonist L-838,417, corticosterone or the selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-822,429. Overall, the HAB mouse line may represent an interesting model (i for identifying biological factors underlying misguided conditioned fear responses and (ii for studying novel anxiolytic pharmacotherapies for patients with fear-associated disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias.

  3. Suffering in silence: why a developmental psychopathology perspective on selective mutism is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Sharon L; Price, Joseph M; Stein, Murray B

    2006-08-01

    A developmental psychopathology perspective is offered in an effort to organize the existing literature regarding the etiology of selective mutism (SM), a relatively rare disorder in which a child consistently fails to speak in 1 or more social settings (e.g., school) despite speaking normally in other settings (e.g., home). Following a brief description of the history, prevalence, and course of the disorder, multiple pathways to the development of SM are discussed, with a focus on the various genetic, temperamental, psychological, and social/environmental systems that may be important in conceptualizing this unusual childhood disorder. The authors propose that SM develops due to a series of complex interactions among the various systems reviewed (e.g., a strong genetic loading for anxiety interacts with an existing communication disorder, resulting in heightened sensitivity to verbal interactions and mutism in some settings). Suggestions are provided for future longitudinal, twin/adoption, molecular genetic, and neuroimaging studies that would be particularly helpful in testing the pathways perspective on SM.

  4. How social cognition deficits affect psychopathology: A neuroscientific approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrić Sanja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are substantially a social species. Effective mental treatment cannot be obtained without addressing social behavior. Social cognition refers to the mental processes underlying social interactions, which allow individuals to make sense of the other peoples' behavior, to decipher emotions on their faces, and to draw conclusions about their intentions. The core domains of this multifaceted concept are theory of mind, social cue perception, attributional style and emotion perception/ processing. The amygdala, orbital frontal cortex and temporal cortex areas are typically activated during the processing of information within social-emotional context. The aforementioned brain areas are recognized as the major components of the so-called 'social brain'- specialized for the social interactions in humans. Adequate perceiving and processing of the social information is essential for an effective social functioning, which becomes obvious when it goes awry. Various psychiatric disorders are characterized by social cognitive deficits, among which schizophrenias, depression-anxiety and autism spectrum disorders were most broadly studied to date. Growing evidence suggest that these deficits underlie poor functional outcomes in patients with mental health impairments and have an important role in the initiation and maintenance of the disorders' symptoms. One of the most important goals of social neuroscience research is to provide a treatment intervention that will improve patients' social cognitive skills and the functional outcome. All together, the present review aims to provide a contemporary overview of the concept of social cognition, to outline its relation to psychopathology, and to discuss the implications for clinical practice and treatment.

  5. Is Internet addiction a psychopathological condition distinct from pathological gambling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico; Mazza, Marianna; Autullo, Gianna; Cappelluti, Roberta; Catalano, Valeria; Marano, Giuseppe; Fiumana, Valerio; Moschetti, Claudia; Alimonti, Flaminia; Luciani, Massimiliano; Lai, Carlo

    2014-06-01

    The behavioural-addiction perspective suggests that Internet addiction (IA) and pathological gambling (PG) could share similar characteristics with substance dependence. Despite the similarities between IA and PG, it is not clear whether these disorders share different or similar psychopathological conditions. The aim of the present study was to test whether IA patients presented different psychological symptoms, temperamental traits, coping strategies and relational patterns compared with PG patients. The hypothesis was that IA patients will show greater interpersonal disengagement than PG patients. Two clinical groups (31 IA patients and 11 PG patients) and a control group (38 healthy subjects) matched with the clinical groups for gender and age were enrolled. The clinical groups were gathered in a psychiatric service for IA and PG in a hospital. Anxiety, depression, coping strategies, attachment, temperament, and global assessment of functioning were measured. MANOVAs, ANOVAs and post-hoc comparisons were carried out in order to test the hypothesis. Despite IA and PG showing similar differences with the control group on the levels of depression, anxiety and global functioning, the two clinical groups showed different temperamental, coping and social patterns. Specifically IA patients compared with the PG patients showed a greater mental and behavioural disengagement associated with an important interpersonal impairment. The two clinical groups shared an impulsive coping strategy and socio-emotional impairments. Despite IA and PG patients presenting similar clinical symptoms, IA condition was characterised by a more relevant mental, behavioural, and social disengagement compared to PG condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  7. [Family characteristics, organic risk factors, psychopathological picture and premorbid adjustment of hospitalized adolescent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małkiewicz-Borkowska, M; Namysłowska, I; Siewierska, A; Puzyńska, E; Sredniawa, H; Zechowski, C; Iwanek, A; Ruszkowska, E

    1996-01-01

    The relation of some family characteristics such as cohesion and adaptability with organic risk factors, developmental psychopathology, clinical picture and premorbid adjustment was assessed in the group of 100 hospitalized adolescent patients and families. We found correlation between: some of organic risk factors (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood), some of indicators of developmental psychopathology (eating disorders, conduct disorders), some of clinical signs (mannerism, grandiosity, hostility, suspciousness, disturbances of content of thinking), premorbid adjustment, and variables related to families, described before. We think that biological variables characterizing child (pathology of neonatal period, pathology of early childhood) have an influence on some family characteristics as independent variable. General system theory and circular thinking support these conclusions. In order to verify them, it is necessary to undertake further investigations, based on other methodology, using this results as preliminary findings.

  8. Psychopathology and social functioning of 42 subjects from a Danish ultra high-risk cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Helle Karkov; Nordholm, Dorte; Krakauer, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    history of psychiatric disorders. Results: All UHR subjects met the criteria of at least 1 axis I diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) and met on average four diagnoses (both axis I and II), mostly within the areas of depression, anxiety......Aim: To make a thorough characterization of the co-morbidity, psychopathology and demographics in the first Danish ultra high-risk (UHR) sample. Method: Forty-two UHR subjects went through comprehensive interviews assessing their psychopathology, psychiatric disorders, substance use and family...... and substance abuse. A total of 48% had schizotypal personality disorder and 19% had borderline personality disorder. Level of functioning was low with a mean score on the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale corresponding to "major impairment in several areas," and mean scores in the Global...

  9. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  10. The Electrophysiological Phenomenon of Alzheimer's Disease: A Psychopathology Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holston, Ezra C

    2015-08-01

    The current understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is based on the Aβ and tau pathology and the resulting neuropathological changes, which are associated with manifested clinical symptoms. However, electrophysiological brain changes may provide a more expansive understanding of AD. Hence, the objective of this systematic review is to propose a theory about the electrophysiological phenomenon of Alzheimer's disease (EPAD). The review of literature resulted from an extensive search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases. One-hundred articles were purposively selected. They provided an understanding of the concepts establishing the theory of EPAD (neuropathological changes, neurochemical changes, metabolic changes, and electrophysiological brain changes). Changes in the electrophysiology of the brain are foundational to the association or interaction of the concepts. Building on Berger's Psychophysical Model, it is evident that electrophysiological brain changes occur and affect cortical areas to generate or manifest symptoms from onset and across the stages of AD, which may be prior to pathological changes. Therefore, the interaction of the concepts demonstrates how the psychopathology results from affected electrophysiology of the brain. The theory of the EPAD provides a theoretical foundation for appropriate measurements of AD without dependence on neuropathological changes. Future research is warranted to further test this theory. Ultimately, this theory contributes to existing knowledge because it shows how electrophysiological changes are useful in understanding the risk and progression of AD across the stages.

  11. Personality and Psychopathology of Patients with Grandmal and Complex Partial Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epileptic patients have special mental profile and experience emotional and psychopathological problems. Some studies have reported that epilepsy and psychopathology occur together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental profile of Complex partial seizure (CPS and Grandmal seizure (GMS patients and compare them with the control group. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 2008 at the neurological clinics of Isfahan and included 40 Patients with CPS and GMS epilepsy selected conveniently and control group included relatives of the patients. Psychological and personality profile was measured with MMPI inventory. The obtained data was analyzed with SPSS software, mainly through the analysis of Chi Square and ANOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that although the scores of clinical scales in MMPI are higher than control group, this psychopathology isn’t abnormal. Epileptic patients in hypochondria, depression and hysteria had more elevated levels in comparison with the control group, but this difference was significant only in CPS patients. Conclusion: The results showed that epileptic patients tend to have more psychological disorders than normal people. These findings emphasize the necessity for psychological treatment along with drug therapy.

  12. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The assessment of creativity in creativity/psychopathology research - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long time focus of research up to the present day. However, this research is hampered by methodological problems, especially the definition and assessment of creativity. This makes interpretation and comparison of studies difficult and possibly accounts for the contradictory results of this research. In this systematic review of the literature, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology were searched for creativity assessment tools. The tools used in the collected articles are presented and discussed. The results indicate that a multitude of creativity assessment tools were used, that many studies only used one tool to assess creativity and that most of these tools were only used in a limited number of studies. A few assessment tools stand out by a more frequent use, also outside psychopathological research, and more solid psychometric properties. Most scales used to evaluate creativity have poor psychometric properties. The scattered methodology to assess creativity compromises the generalizability and validity of this research. The field should creatively develop new validated instruments.

  14. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Engels, Anna S; Banich, Marie T; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG) and worry (BA10). Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  15. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Warren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG and worry (BA10. Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  16. Psychopathological aspects of kidney transplantation: Efficacy of a multidisciplinary team

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Concetta; Veroux, Massimiliano; Indelicato, Luisa; Sinagra, Nunzia; Giaquinta, Alessia; Fornaro, Michele; Veroux, Pierfrancesco; Pistorio, Maria L

    2014-01-01

    Renal transplantation is a well established treatment for end-stage renal disease, allowing most patients to return to a satisfactory quality of life. Studies have identified many problems that may affect adaptation to the transplanted condition and post-operative compliance. The psychological implications of transplantation have important consequences even on strictly physical aspects. Organ transplantation is very challenging for the patient and acts as an intense stressor stimulus to which the patient reacts with neurotransmitter and endocrine-metabolic changes. Transplantation can result in a psychosomatic crisis that requires the patient to mobilize all bio-psycho-social resources during the process of adaptation to the new foreign organ which may result in an alteration in self-representation and identity, with possible psychopathologic repercussions. These reactions are feasible in mental disorders, e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and psychosomatic disorders. In organ transplantation, the fruitful collaboration between professionals with diverse scientific expertise, calls for both a guarantee for mental health and greater effectiveness in challenging treatments for a viable association between patients, family members and doctors. Integrated and multidisciplinary care should include uniform criteria and procedures for standard assessments, for patient autonomy, adherence to therapy, new coping strategies and the adoption of more appropriate lifestyles. PMID:25540735

  17. Annual research review: phenotypic and causal structure of conduct disorder in the broader context of prevalent forms of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2012-05-01

    A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other 'externalizing' disorders and some 'internalizing' disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conduct disorder is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed by studying CD in the context of

  18. Personality and Psychopathology: A Stagnant Field in Need of Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, C. Emily; Hicks, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    A dominant paradigm in psychopathology research proposes that individual differences in personality are centrally involved in the origins and manifestations of psychopathology, and structural models of personality and psychopathology have been extremely useful in helping to organize associations among many traits and disorders. However, these models merely describe patterns of covariation; they do not explain the processes by which these patterns emerge. We argue that the field is stagnated, as it is overly focused on the demonstration of concurrent associations and on confirming a spectrum model that proposes traits and disorders are manifestations of the same underlying constructs. We contend that if the field is to move toward an understanding of causal processes, it must integrate knowledge and principles of personality development and developmental psychopathology. To begin this integration, we review (1) normative trends in personality change, (2) age-related changes in the prevalence of disorders, and (3) the impact of onset and chronicity on the severity of disorders. We propose several developmental processes that may contribute to the co-development of personality and psychopathology. We then present novel empirical findings to illustrate how a developmental perspective on traits and disorders can inform new hypotheses, and propose principles and hypotheses that should guide future research. PMID:25544802

  19. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  20. Network analysis: A new way of understanding psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology. First of all, a brief introduction where psychopathological disorders are conceived as complex dynamic systems was carried out. Key concepts, as well as the different types of networks and the procedures for their estimation, are discussed. Following this, centrality measures, important for the understanding of the network as well as to examine the relevance of the variables within the network were addressed. These factors were then exemplified by estimating a network of self-reported psychopathological symptoms in a representative sample of adolescents. Finally, a brief recapitulation is made and future lines of research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Is there an interrelationship between the effects of antipsychotics on psychopathology and on metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukhin, Evgeny; Terevnikov, Viacheslav; Takala, Pirjo; Hakko, Helinä; Putkonen, Hanna; Räsänen, Pirkko; Stenberg, Jan-Henry; Eronen, Markku; Joffe, Grigori

    2016-01-01

    Increased body weight and hyperlipidemia caused by antipsychotics may be associated with improved antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia. If this association has a causal interrelationship via a genuine pathophysiological mechanism, then body weight loss in antipsychotic-treated patients would be accompanied by worsened psychopathology. This could have clinical implications. To explore whether the decreased body weight in these patients is associated with a worsened psychopathology. In our previously published study, a 16 week treatment period with add-on orlistat (but not placebo) resulted in body weight loss in male (but not female) clozapine- or olanzapine-treated overweight or obese patients. In the current study, we investigated whether body weight loss in those male patients could worsen psychosis. Changes in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores within groups and body weight changes and lipid profiles over the treatment period were analysed by the paired samples t-test. Between-group comparisons were analysed by the independent samples t-test. Over the treatment period body weight decreased by 2.56 ± 3.25 kg from initial 106.02 ± 12.61 kg (p = 0.04) for the orlistat group, with no statistically significant changes for the placebo group. Lipid levels did not change in either group. The orlistat-induced weight decrease was not associated with worsening in the PANSS scores. Weight loss was not associated with a worsening of psychosis. The interrelationship between the antipsychotic-induced weigh gain and improved schizophrenia psychopathology observed in earlier studies appears to be indirect. Orlistat treatment in our study did not worsen psychopathology in this population.

  2. Gender Differences and Psychopathological Features Associated With Addictive Behaviors in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aims of the study were to assess prevalence and gender differences of addictive behaviors (substance- and non-substance-related in an adolescent population, and their association with psychopathological features and academic performance.Material and methodsA sample of high school Italian students (n = 996; M = 240, F = 756 was examined using a self-report survey concerning sociodemographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, alcohol and substance use, perceived academic performance, activities, and behaviors (Internet use, gambling, and physical exercising. The Internet Addiction Test, the South Oaks Gambling Screen-revised Adolescent, and the Exercise Addiction Inventory-Short Form were administered to identify problematic behaviors. The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for Adolescent, the Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale, the Dissociative Experience Scale for Adolescent, and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were used to investigate psychopathological dimensions.ResultsFrequent alcohol intake and lifetime substances consumption were more common among males. The occurrence of other addictive behaviors was 22.1% for problematic Internet use (M = F, 9.7% for at-risk/problematic gambling (M > F, and 6.2% for maladaptive physical exercise (M = F. We also found an association between substance-/non-substance-related addictive behaviors and psychopathological dimensions. Addictive behaviors were more frequent among students reporting poor school performance.ConclusionOur study showed a relevant prevalence of addictive behaviors in a sample of Italian high school students, with specific gender differences. We underlined the cooccurrence of substance and non-substance-related addictive behaviors, and their association with worse school performance. Dissociative proneness, anhedonia, alexithymia, and impulsivity were associated with addictive behaviors in adolescents and might represent vulnerability factors for the

  3. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  4. The Association between Obesity and Symptoms of Psychopathology and its Relationship with Sedentary Behavior and Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, Dimitrios; Mamplekou, Efterpi; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Komessidou, Vasso; Dimitriadis, George; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates an association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology, the nature of which remains obscure. This study examined the confounding role of behavioral factors on this association. One hundred and forty-two overweight/obese subjects who sought treatment for obesity, of both genders (51 males and 91 females), 18 to 64 years old and 139 normal-weight controls of both genders (41 males and 98 females), 18 to 63 years old, were enrolled in this study. We measured psychopathology features, using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), dietary habits, using the MedDietScore (MDS) questionnaire, and physical activity, using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A series of regression models were used to estimate the mediation of dietary patterns and physical activity on the obesity-psychopathology association. The associations between obesity and depression (β=0.32/β=0.15), obsession-compulsion (β=0.03/β=-0.13), anxiety (β=-0.25/β=-0.12), interpersonal sensitivity (β=0.08/β=-0.04) and psychoticism (β=-0.01/ β=0.025) are accounted for by sedentary behavior and Mediterranean diet. Our data suggest that modifiable behavioral factors such as sedentary time and dietary patterns positively affect the association between obesity and symptoms of psychopathology.

  5. Structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify and explore the structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and methods: 543 patients with type 2nd DM were included into the study. The average age of patients was (56.2 ± 0.65 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of DM. The first clinical group (CG-1 included 57 patients with type 2nd DM of mild severity, who was treated in outpatient department; the average age in the group was (51.8 ± 1.28 years. The second clinical group (CG-2 made up of 312 patients with type 2nd DM, moderate severity, they were in inpatient department; the median age of the group was (55.1 ± 1.12 years. The third clinical group (CG-3 included 174 patients with type 2nd DM, severe degrees of severity, they undergone inpatient treatment too; average age in the group was (61.8 ± 0.85 years. Research methods: clinical-anamnesis, clinical- psychopathological, statistical. Research results. The study established the incidence of non-psychotic mental disorders of varying severity in patients with type 2nd DM at the level of 94.11 %, among them, for 91.16 % – of psychogenic origin. Proportional correlation between the severity of type 2nd DM and the absence of comorbid psychopathological manifestations was detected (rs = -0.3416, p < 0.01. It is revealed that the dominant psychopathological syndromes among all patients with type 2nd DM were psychoorganic (62.43 %, dyssomnia (60.86 %, asthenic (55.58 % and anxiety (43.05 % syndromes. Structure of the dominant psychopathological syndromes was established depending on severity of type 2nd DM: in CG-1 dominated dyssomnia (36.84 %, anxiety (31.58 %, psychoorganic (21.05 % syndromes; in CG-2 – psychoorganic (65.38 %, asthenic (40.38 %, dyssomnia (38.46 %, anxiety (37, and 82 % syndromes; in CG-3 – dyssomnia (97.70 %, asthenic (89.08 %, organic mental (70.69 %, anxious 48.28 % syndromes. Significant

  6. Psychopathology, trauma and delinquency: subtypes of aggression and their relevance for understanding young offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plattner Belinda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between emotional and trauma related psychopathology and disturbances in the emotions, self-regulation and aggressive behavior which has important implications for diagnosis and treatment, especially for delinquent populations. Method Selective review of preclinical and clinical studies in normal, clinical and delinquent populations. Results In delinquent populations we observe an increase in psychopathology, and especially trauma related psychopathology which impacts emotions and self-regulation in a manner that hotly emotionally charged acts of aggression become more likely. The identification of these disturbances can be supported by findings in cognitive neuroscience. These hot aggressive acts can be delineated from planned or emotionally cold aggression. Conclusion Our findings support a typology of diagnostic labels for disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, as it appears that these acts of hot emotional aggression are a legitimate target for psychopharmacological and other trauma specific interventions. The identification of this subtype of disruptive behavior disorders leads to more specific clinical interventions which in turn promise to improve hitherto unimpressive treatment outcomes of delinquents and patients with disruptive behavior.

  7. Family functioning in the context of parental bipolar disorder: associations with offspring age, sex, and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Rachel D; Tompson, Martha C; Wang, Christine H; Otto, Michael W; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Henin, Aude

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that families with a parent who has bipolar disorder (BD) may experience family functioning difficulties. However, the association between family functioning and psychopathology among offspring of parents with BD, and offspring characteristics that may moderate this association, remains poorly understood. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between family functioning (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict) and psychopathology in 117 offspring (ages 5-18) of 75 parents with BD. We also examined whether age and sex differences moderated these associations. We measured offspring psychopathology by examining current dimensional symptoms and DSM-IV emotional and behavioral disorders. Correlational analyses indicated that higher family conflict and lower cohesion were associated with higher internalizing and externalizing symptoms in offspring. Lower family cohesion was also associated with current offspring mood disorders. Moderation analyses indicated, first, that the link between lower family cohesion and internalizing symptoms was stronger for younger offspring compared to older offspring. Second, higher family conflict and current mood disorder were associated in younger males but not in older males or in females. Results remained the same after controlling for parental anxiety or substance use disorder comorbidity. Our study highlights the importance of accounting for family functioning when working with offspring at risk for BD, while also recognizing that the connections between family functioning and offspring outcomes are complex and differ based on offspring sex and developmental stage. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Are children and adolescents with food allergies at increased risk for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology-concurrently and over time. Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N=1420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 and 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N=5165 pairs of interviews. Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, disorder, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. The unique constellation of adolescents' increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychopathology Dimensions of Females Experiencing Family Violence and a Perspective to Their Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Mohammadkhani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Violence is a widespread problem that occurs all over the word among all ages, genders, races, educational level and socio- economic groups.  The aim of this study was to investigate modeling of different processes that could account for the link between experiencing spouse abuse in women and psychology, psychopathology, social and demographic factors. Methods: Data were gathered through a family violence survey study. 230 married women participated in this study. Participants were selected by a multi-cluster sampling method from 4 different randomized regions of Tehran. They completed 1 Conflict Tactic Scale-2, 2 Personal and Relationship Profile, 3 Symptoms Check List Inventory, 4 Marital Attitude Survey, 5 Social and Demographic Measure. Results: Based on participants’ scores in Conflict Tactics Scale-2, women who were experiencing violence (victims were recognized and in compare to non-experiencing women (non-victims a model of family violence victimization was draw. This model showed the paths from psychology, psychopathology, Social and Demographic factors to experiencing violence. Discussion: Based on the model with a series of paths which may act as effective determinants for experiencing violence (family violence victimization in women, habilitation services must consider the influence of each factor which may change or modify by some recognized mediating interventions .So, it may be concluded that based on present study, a reduction of psychopathology would have a beneficial impact over experiencing spousal violence.

  10. Birth cohort increases in psychopathology among young Americans, 1938-2007: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Gentile, Brittany; DeWall, C Nathan; Ma, Debbie; Lacefield, Katharine; Schurtz, David R

    2010-03-01

    Two cross-temporal meta-analyses find large generational increases in psychopathology among American college students (N=63,706) between 1938 and 2007 on the MMPI and MMPI-2 and high school students (N=13,870) between 1951 and 2002 on the MMPI-A. The current generation of young people scores about a standard deviation higher (average d=1.05) on the clinical scales, including Pd (Psychopathic Deviation), Pa (Paranoia), Ma (Hypomania), and D (Depression). Five times as many now score above common cutoffs for psychopathology, including up to 40% on Ma. The birth cohort effects are still large and significant after controlling for the L and K validity scales, suggesting that the changes are not caused by response bias. The results best fit a model citing cultural shifts toward extrinsic goals, such as materialism and status and away from intrinsic goals, such as community, meaning in life, and affiliation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Neuropsychological evaluation and psychopathology of multiple sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defer, G

    2001-09-01

    or open interviews and assessment scales to evaluate the level of depression and/or anxiety. For cognitive assessment, short-term batteries focusing on the main dysfunctions are recommended. Psychometric evaluation should not be performed during a period of relapse, hospitalization or immediately after starting drug therapy for depression or anxiety. The cognitive evaluation should be explained to the patient and should include a parallel assessment by a psychologist well trained in MS. The evaluations will be adapted to the situation and the goals. Early interviews evaluate the psychopathological profile that can then be reevaluated during each consultation. Cognitive assessment is mainly proposed in case of interferon therapy, spontaneous complaints of the patient or abnormal difficulties in daily life or occupational activities. In all cases, patient management requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  13. Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19448188

  14. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Witt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., [1]. Keywords: Child maltreatment, Latent class analysis, Child abuse and neglect, Psychopathology

  15. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  16. Results based on 124 cases of breast cancer and 97 controls from Taiwan suggest that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP309) in the MDM2 gene promoter is associated with earlier onset and increased risk of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Ying-Fang; Leu, Jyh-Der; Chen, Su-Mei; Lin, I-Feng; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism 309 (SNP309, T -> G) in the promoter region of the MDM2 gene is important for tumor development; however, with regards to breast cancer, inconsistent associations have been reported worldwide. It is speculated that these conflicting results may have arisen due to different patient subgroups and ethnicities studied. For the first time, this study explores the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 genotype on Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Genomic DNA was obtained from the whole blood of 124 breast cancer patients and 97 cancer-free healthy women living in Taiwan. MDM2 SNP309 genotyping was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. The multivariate logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method were used for analyzing the risk association and significance of age at diagnosis among different MDM2 SNP309 genotypes, respectively. Compared to the TT genotype, an increased risk association with breast cancer was apparent for the GG genotype (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.04 to 8.95), and for the TG genotype (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 0.90 to 5.00) after adjusting for age, cardiovascular disease/diabetes, oral contraceptive usage, and body mass index, which exhibits significant difference between cases and controls. Furthermore, the average ages at diagnosis for breast cancer patients were 53.6, 52 and 47 years for those harboring TT, TG and GG genotypes, respectively. A significant difference in median age of onset for breast cancer between GG and TT+TG genotypes was obtained by the log-rank test (p = 0.0067). Findings based on the current sample size suggest that the MDM2 SNP309 GG genotype may be associated with both the risk of breast cancer and an earlier age of onset in Taiwanese women

  17. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  18. Autonomy-connectedness and internalizing-externalizing personality psychopathology, among outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachrach, N.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Croon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this research were to investigate gender differences in levels of autonomy-connectedness, Axis I Psychopathology, and higher order factors of internalizing and externalizing personality psychopathology and, second, to investigate the association between these variables. Design

  19. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone......Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...

  20. Empirically derived dimensional syndromes of self-reported psychopathology: Cross-cultural comparisons of Portuguese and US elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Masha Y; Achenbach, Thomas; Leite, Manuela; Almeida, Vera; Caldas, Carlos; Turner, Lori; Dumas, Julie A

    2018-05-01

    As the world population ages, mental health professionals increasingly need empirically supported assessment instruments for older adult psychopathology. This study tested the degree to which syndromes derived from self-ratings of psychopathology by elders in the US would fit self-ratings by elders in Portugal. The Older Adult Self-Report (OASR) was completed by 352 60- to 102-year-olds in Portuguese community and residential settings. Confirmatory factor analyses tested the fit of the 7-syndrome OASR model to self-ratings by Portuguese elders. The primary fit index (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation) showed good fit, while secondary fit indices (the Comparative Fit Index and the Tucker-Lewis Index) showed acceptable fit. Loadings of 95 of the 97 items on their expected syndromes were statistically significant (mean = .63), indicating that the items measured the syndromes well. Correlations between latent factors, ie, between the hypothesized syndrome constructs measured by the items, averaged .66. The correlations between syndromes reflect varying degrees of comorbidity between problems comprising particular pairs of syndromes. The results support the syndrome structure of the OASR for Portuguese elders, offering Portuguese clinicians and researchers a useful instrument for assessing a broad spectrum of psychopathology. The results also offer a core of empirically supported taxonomic constructs of later life psychopathology as a basis for advancing clinical practice, training, and cross-cultural research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Differences in psychopathology and behavioral characteristics of patients affected by conversion motor disorder and organic dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastore, Adriana; Pierri, Grazia; Fabio, Giada; Ferramosca, Silvia; Gigante, Angelo; Superbo, Maria; Pellicciari, Roberta; Margari, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Typically, the diagnosis of conversion motor disorder (CMD) is achieved by the exclusion of a wide range of organic illnesses rather than by applying positive criteria. New diagnostic criteria are highly needed in this scenario. The main aim of this study was to explore the use of behavioral features as an inclusion criterion for CMD, taking into account the relationship of the patients with physicians, and comparing the results with those from patients affected by organic dystonia (OD). Patients from the outpatient Movement Disorder Service were assigned to either the CMD or the OD group based on Fahn and Williams criteria. Differences in sociodemographics, disease history, psychopathology, and degree of satisfaction about care received were assessed. Patient-neurologist agreement about the etiological nature of the disorder was also assessed using the k -statistic. A logistic regression analysis estimated the discordance status as a predictor to case/control status. In this study, 31 CMD and 31 OD patients were included. CMD patients showed a longer illness life span, involvement of more body regions, higher comorbidity with anxiety, depression, and borderline personality disorder, as well as higher negative opinions about physicians' delivering of proper care. Contrary to our expectations, CMD disagreement with neurologists about the etiological nature of the disorder was not statistically significant. Additional analysis showed that having at least one personality disorder was statistically associated with the discordance status. This study suggests that CMD patients show higher conflicting behavior toward physicians. Contrary to our expectations, they show awareness of their psychological needs, suggesting a possible lack of recognition of psychological distress in the neurological setting.

  2. results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salabura Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available HADES experiment at GSI is the only high precision experiment probing nuclear matter in the beam energy range of a few AGeV. Pion, proton and ion beams are used to study rare dielectron and strangeness probes to diagnose properties of strongly interacting matter in this energy regime. Selected results from p + A and A + A collisions are presented and discussed.

  3. Conformational changes in Sindbis virions resulting from exposure to low pH and interactions with cells suggest that cell penetration may occur at the cell surface in the absence of membrane fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Angel M.; Ferreira, Davis; Horton, Michelle; Saad, Ali; Tsuruta, Hiro; Johnston, Robert; Klimstra, William; Ryman, Kate; Hernandez, Raquel; Chiu Wah; Brown, Dennis T.

    2004-01-01

    Alphaviruses have the ability to induce cell-cell fusion after exposure to acid pH. This observation has served as an article of proof that these membrane-containing viruses infect cells by fusion of the virus membrane with a host cell membrane upon exposure to acid pH after incorporation into a cell endosome. We have investigated the requirements for the induction of virus-mediated, low pH-induced cell-cell fusion and cell-virus fusion. We have correlated the pH requirements for this process to structural changes they produce in the virus by electron cryo-microscopy. We found that exposure to acid pH was required to establish conditions for membrane fusion but that membrane fusion did not occur until return to neutral pH. Electron cryo-microscopy revealed dramatic changes in the structure of the virion as it was moved to acid pH and then returned to neutral pH. None of these treatments resulted in the disassembly of the virus protein icosahedral shell that is a requisite for the process of virus membrane-cell membrane fusion. The appearance of a prominent protruding structure upon exposure to acid pH and its disappearance upon return to neutral pH suggested that the production of a 'pore'-like structure at the fivefold axis may facilitate cell penetration as has been proposed for polio (J. Virol. 74 (2000) 1342) and human rhino virus (Mol. Cell 10 (2002) 317). This transient structural change also provided an explanation for how membrane fusion occurs after return to neutral pH. Examination of virus-cell complexes at neutral pH supported the contention that infection occurs at the cell surface at neutral pH by the production of a virus structure that breaches the plasma membrane bilayer. These data suggest an alternative route of infection for Sindbis virus that occurs by a process that does not involve membrane fusion and does not require disassembly of the virus protein shell

  4. Family Study of Borderline Personality Disorder and Its Sectors of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, John G.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Choi-Kain, Lois W.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Jang, Kerry L.; Hudson, James I.

    2011-01-01

    Context The familiality of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its sectors of psychopathology are incompletely understood. Objectives To assess the familial aggregation of BPD and its 4 major sectors (affective, interpersonal, behavioral, and cognitive) and test whether the relationship of the familial and nonfamilial associations among these sectors can be accounted for by a latent BPD construct. Design Family study, with direct interviews of probands and relatives. Setting A psychiatric hospital (McLean Hospital) and the Boston-area community. Participants A total of 368 probands (132 with BPD, 134 without BPD, and 102 with major depressive disorder) and 885 siblings and parents of probands. Main Assessments The Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders and the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB-R) were used to assess borderline psychopathology, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to assess major depressive disorder. Results Borderline personality disorder meeting both DSM-IV and DIB-R criteria showed substantial familial aggregation for BPD in individuals with a family member with BPD vs those without a family member with BPD, using proband-relative pairs (risk ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5–5.5) as well as using all pairs of family members (3.9; 1.7–9.0). All 4 sectors of BPD psychopathology aggregated significantly in families, using both DSM-IV and DIB-R definitions (correlation of traits among all pairs of family members ranged from 0.07 to 0.27), with the affective and interpersonal sectors showing the highest levels; however, the level of familial aggregation of BPD was higher than that of the individual sectors. The relationship among the sectors was best explained by a common pathway model in which the sectors represent manifestations of a latent BPD construct. Conclusions Familial factors contribute to BPD and its sectors of psychopathology. Borderline personality disorder may arise

  5. The Relationship Between the Genetic and Environmental Influences on Common Externalizing Psychopathology and Mental Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Myers, John M.; Keyes, Corey L. M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed with the Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing. PMID:22506307

  6. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  7. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  8. Introduction to the Special Section: Toward a Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F.; Watson, David; Barlow, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Much current psychopathology research is framed by categorical constructs. Limitations of categorical constructs have been articulated, and dimensional constructs are often proposed as viable alternatives to categories of psychopathology. The purpose of this Special Section is to articulate and discuss diverse issues that arise in contemplating dimensional constructs as targets for psychopathology research. PMID:16351372

  9. Body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors in women with and without BED: their relation with eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Díaz, M L; Franco-Paredes, K; Mancilla-Díaz, J M; Alvarez-Rayón, G; López-Aguilar, X; Ocampo Téllez-Girón, T; Soto-González, Y

    2012-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess the role of body dissatisfaction and socio-cultural factors on eating psychopathology in women with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and women without BED. Seventy obese women consecutively evaluated participated: 35 with BED and 35 without BED who attended for the first time in a weight loss program. All participants completed a battery of questionnaires, including: Body Shape Questionnaire, Questionnaire of Influences on the Aesthetic Body Shape Model, Questionnaire on Eating and Weight Patterns, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, and they were interviewed with the Interview for the Diagnosis of Eating Disorder-IV. The Body Mass Index, Waist-to-Hip Ratio and Body Fat were calculated. The results showed that 21% of obese women who participated in a weight reduction program met BED criteria. The scores of body dissatisfaction, influences of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology were higher in women with BED compared with women without BED. In the same way, significantly stronger correlations were found among influences of socio-cultural factors, specifically, influence of advertisement, social relations and eating psychopathology in women with BED than women without BED. It is concluded that the high body dissatisfaction as well as stronger associations among influence of socio-cultural factors and eating psychopathology could play an important role in women with BED.

  10. Non-linear Heart Rate Variability as a Discriminator of Internalizing Psychopathology and Negative Affect in Children With Internalizing Problems and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Fiskum

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internalizing psychopathology and dysregulated negative affect are characterized by dysregulation in the autonomic nervous system and reduced heart rate variability (HRV due to increases in sympathetic activity alongside reduced vagal tone. The neurovisceral system is however, a complex nonlinear system, and nonlinear indices related to psychopathology are so far less studied in children. Essential nonlinear properties of a system can be found in two main domains: the informational domain and the invariant domain. sample entropy (SampEn is a much-used method from the informational domain, while detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA represents a widely-used method from the invariant domain. To see if nonlinear HRV can provide information beyond linear indices of autonomic activation, this study investigated SampEn and DFA as discriminators of internalizing psychopathology and negative affect alongside measures of vagally-mediated HRV and sympathetic activation.Material and Methods: Thirty-Two children with internalizing difficulties and 25 healthy controls (aged 9–13 were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire, Revised, giving an estimate of internalizing psychopathology, negative affect and effortful control, a protective factor against psychopathology. Five minute electrocardiogram and impedance cardiography recordings were collected during a resting baseline, giving estimates of SampEn, DFA short-term scaling exponent α1, root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD, and pre-ejection period (PEP. Between-group differences and correlations were assessed with parametric and non-parametric tests, and the relationships between cardiac variables, psychopathology and negative affect were assessed using generalized linear modeling.Results: SampEn and DFA were not significantly different between the groups. SampEn was weakly negatively related to heart rate (HR in the controls

  11. Psychiatric Disorders and Personality Profiles of Middle-Aged Suicide Attempters with no Evidence of Specific Psychopathological Profiles Referring to an Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess socio-demographic and psychiatric characteristics of 40-65 years old suicide attempters referred to an emergency department within four hours of making their attempt.Method: We assessed a total of 93 suicide attempters (Mage=46.59 years referred to an emergency department. Patients completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, personality traits, mood, and impulsivity; experts rated patients’ psychiatric status.Results: Experts rated 85 (92.4% of the suicide attempters as having a psychiatric disorder. Based on self-ratings and compared to normative data, 42 (46.6% were psychopathologically ill. Suicide attempts were not related to impulsive personality traits, mood disorders, socio-demographic patterns or gender (gender-ratio: 1:1.58;f:m.Conclusions: The pattern of results suggests that further unknown factors were involved in pushing people to attempt suicide.

  12. Psychiatric Disorders and Personality Profiles of Middle-Aged Suicide Attempters with No Evidence of Specific Psychopathological Profiles Referred to an Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Nejat, Mehri; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Alireza; Jahangard, Leila; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of 40 to 65 year- old suicide attempters, who were referred to an emergency department within 4 hours of the attempt. Method: A total of 93 suicide attempters (Mean age=46.59 years) who were referred to an emergency department, were assessed in this study. Patients completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, personality traits, mood, and impulsivity. Psychiatric status of the patients was rated by experts. Results: Experts rated 85 (92.4%) of the suicide attempters as having a psychiatric disorder. Based on self-ratings and compared to normative data, 42 (46.6%) patients were psychopathologically ill. It was found that suicide attempts were not related to impulsive personality traits, mood disorders, sociodemographic patterns, or gender (gender-ratio: 1:1.58; f: m). Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that further unknown factors were involved in pushing people to attempt suicide. PMID:29472951

  13. Psychiatric Disorders and Personality Profiles of Middle-Aged Suicide Attempters with No Evidence of Specific Psychopathological Profiles Referred to an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Nejat, Mehri; Haghighi, Mohammad; Rahimi, Alireza; Jahangard, Leila; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Bajoghli, Hafez; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at assessing the sociodemographic and psychiatric characteristics of 40 to 65 year- old suicide attempters, who were referred to an emergency department within 4 hours of the attempt. Method: A total of 93 suicide attempters (Mean age=46.59 years) who were referred to an emergency department, were assessed in this study. Patients completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic data, personality traits, mood, and impulsivity. Psychiatric status of the patients was rated by experts. Results: Experts rated 85 (92.4%) of the suicide attempters as having a psychiatric disorder. Based on self-ratings and compared to normative data, 42 (46.6%) patients were psychopathologically ill. It was found that suicide attempts were not related to impulsive personality traits, mood disorders, sociodemographic patterns, or gender (gender-ratio: 1:1.58; f: m). Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that further unknown factors were involved in pushing people to attempt suicide.

  14. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically-based system which guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by describing psychological, social, and biological correlates of the dominance behavioral system (DBS). Extensive research suggests that externalizing disorders, mania-proneness, and narcissistic traits are related to heightened dominance motivation and behaviors. Mania and narcissistic traits also appear related to inflated self-perceptions of power. Anxiety and depression are related to subordination and submissiveness, as well as a desire to avoid subordination. Models of the DBS have received support from research with humans and animals; from self-report, observational, and biological methods; and using naturalistic and experimental paradigms. Limitations of available research include the relative lack of longitudinal studies using multiple measures of the DBS and the absence of relevant studies using diagnosed samples to study narcissistic personality disorder and bipolar disorder. We provide suggestions for future research on the DBS and psychopathology, including investigations of whether the DBS can be used to differentiate specific disorder outcomes; the need for more sophisticated biological research; and the value of longitudinal dynamical research. Implications of using the DBS as a tool in clinical assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:22506751

  15. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  16. Response inhibition and measures of psychopathology: a dimensional analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, R.; Scheres, A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Quay's (1988a, 1988b, 1993, 1997) model in which the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) are linked to various forms of child psychopathology, predictions were made regarding the relation between inhibitory control and two dimensions of

  17. Response inhibition and measures of psychopathology: A dimensional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijmans, R.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of Quay's (1988a, 1988b, 1993, 1997) model in which the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) are Linked to various forms of child psychopathology, predictions were made regarding the relation between inhibitory control and two dimensions of

  18. Spherical Model Integrating Academic Competence with Social Adjustment and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; And Others

    This study replicates and elaborates a three-dimensional, spherical model that integrates research findings concerning social and emotional behavior, psychopathology, and academic competence. Kindergarten teachers completed an extensive set of rating scales on 100 children, including the Classroom Behavior Inventory and the Child Adaptive Behavior…

  19. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  20. Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy: A Study of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bools, Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated 100 mothers with Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (the fabrication of illness by a mother in her child). Approximately half of the mothers had either smothered or poisoned their child as part of their fabrications. Lifetime psychiatric histories were reported for 47 of the mothers. The most notable psychopathology was personality…

  1. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  2. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  3. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  5. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  6. A Theoretical Framework for the Associations between Identity and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimstra, Theo A.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Identity research largely emerged from clinical observations. Decades of empirical work advanced the field in refining existing approaches and adding new approaches. Furthermore, the existence of linkages of identity with psychopathology is now well established. Unfortunately, both the directionality of effects between identity aspects and…

  7. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  8. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  10. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  11. Ezines: A Constructivist Instructional Activity for Teaching Diagnosis and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Granello, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Ezines (electronic zines) are independently made, online publications that can provide creative, pedagogical possibilities for constructivist learning in counselor education and, specifically, the diagnosis class. Making ezines about mental disorders and psychopathology allows students to engage in active learning about important topics while…

  12. Children's Perceptions of Parental Emotional Neglect and Control and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert; Lennie, Susan; Minnis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Background: Parental emotional neglect is linked to psychiatric disorder. This study explores the associations between children's perceptions of parental emotional neglect and future psychopathology. Methods: In a school-based longitudinal study of nearly 1,700 children aged 11-15 we explored children's perceptions of parenting, as measured by the…

  13. Evaluation of psychopathological patterns among students of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the appraisal of the severity of general psychopathology and assessing the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, its seven sub scales measure symptoms indicative of disorder in sleep, intellect, sensation of movement, mood, head, alimentary tract and general well being. A total of 746 students (mean age=21.71, ± =3.98), ...

  14. Psychopathology after cardiac surgery and intensive care treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis, the occurrence of stress-related psychopathology after cardiac surgery and intensive care treatment is assessed. We primarily focused on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptomatology, but the effects of benzodiazepine administration, delirium, anxiety, and

  15. Adverse life events, area socio-economic disadvantage, and adolescent psychopathology: The role of closeness to grandparents in moderating the effect of contextual stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Buchanan, Ann; Tan, Jo-Pei; Griggs, Julia; Attar-Schwartz, Shalhevet

    2010-09-01

    The study, using data from 801 11-16-year-olds clustered in 68 schools across England and Wales, tested whether closeness to grandparents moderates the association between contextual stress and adolescent psychopathology and prosocial behavior, measured with the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Contextual stress was measured at both school area level (assessed with the index of multiple deprivation) and child level (assessed, as life stress, with the number of proximal and distal adverse life events experienced). At baseline, area stress (multiple deprivation) was unrelated to psychopathology (SDQ), and although both proximal (during the last 12 months) and distal (before the last 12 months) life stress was associated with broad and specific child psychopathology, the association with proximal life stress was stronger. Closeness to the most significant grandparent moderated both the effect of proximal life stress on hyperactivity and broad psychopathology, and the effect of the interaction between distal and proximal life stress on broad and externalizing psychopathology. These findings suggest that the role of grandparents deserves further attention in future investigations of the development of resilience in youth.

  16. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  17. Childhood psychopathology in children of women with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barona, M; Nybo Andersen, A-M; Micali, N

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of maternal eating disorders (ED) on childhood psychopathology, early delays in cognitive, motor and language development, mother and child relationship, and child temperament in a community-based cohort: the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data were obtained prospectively on 48 403 children at 18 months and 46 156 children at 7 years. Data on cognitive, motor and language development, temperament and attachment were obtained at 18 months; data on child psychopathology were obtained at 7 years of age, using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Children of mothers with lifetime diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 931), lifetime diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 906) and both (AN & BN = 360) were compared to children of mothers without an ED (n = 46 206). Girls of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of having emotional problems, and girls of women with lifetime BN of having conduct problems compared with children of healthy women. Boys of women with lifetime AN had higher odds of total, emotional and conduct problems; boys of women with lifetime BN had higher odds of total, conduct, hyperactivity and peer difficulties compared to children of women without an ED. Boys of women with lifetime AN and BN had higher odds of total, emotional and peer problems compared to children of healthy women. Maternal ED is associated with childhood psychopathology in both boys and girls. Boys seemed at higher risk for psychopathology in this sample. Associations between emotional disorders across genders in children of mothers with lifetime AN, and hyperactivity and peer difficulties in boys of mothers with lifetime BN confirm and extend previous findings and point to possible shared risk between ED and other psychopathology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Classification of hadith into positive suggestion, negative suggestion, and information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraby, Said Al; Riviera Rachmawati Jasin, Eliza; Kusumaningrum, Andina; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    As one of the Muslim life guidelines, based on the meaning of its sentence(s), a hadith can be viewed as a suggestion for doing something, or a suggestion for not doing something, or just information without any suggestion. In this paper, we tried to classify the Bahasa translation of hadith into the three categories using machine learning approach. We tried stemming and stopword removal in preprocessing, and TF-IDF of unigram, bigram, and trigram as the extracted features. As the classifier, we compared between SVM and Neural Network. Since the categories are new, so in order to compare the results of the previous pipelines, we created a baseline classifier using simple rule-based string matching technique. The rule-based algorithm conditions on the occurrence of words such as “janganlah, sholatlah, and so on” to determine the category. The baseline method achieved F1-Score of 0.69, while the best F1-Score from the machine learning approach was 0.88, and it was produced by SVM model with the linear kernel.

  19. The technique of «Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Danilevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available [Pseudo]obsessions therapy in patients with endogenous diseases of schizophrenic round accompanied with difficulties, caused by both psycho etio pathogenetic features of the disease. Disadvantages of the existing methods of therapy are associated with therapeutic conflict between two nosologies. Aim: to develop and test etiopsychopathogenetic technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" as a subsidiary method of treatment of schizophrenia patients with [pseudo] obsessions in the structure of the disease. Methods and results. 137 patients who underwent hospital treatment 65 schizophrenia patients (F20 with the [pseudo]obsessive symptoms in the structure of the disease were examined on the basis of Public Health Institution «Regional clinical mental hospital» of the Zaporizhzhian regional council. 30 patients received standard pharmacotherapy (antipsychotic drugs according to clinical protocols that was combined with proposed technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions". The comparison group consisted of 35 patients treated with the use of standard pharmacotherapy: antipsychotic drugs. The next methods were used: medical history assessment, follow-up, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed. This technique is a combination of suggestion in the waking state and neurolinguistic programming, implemented with specially compiled auditory complex listening. The main therapeutic component s realized through the subthreshold perception of the verbal formulas that are unavailable to awareness. The technique consists of two components – primary and secondary, and three stages. The methodology was tested, its therapeutic efficacy was confirmed. Conclusion. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed as a subsidiary method of the

  20. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism. Copyright

  1. Recall of threat and submissiveness in childhood and psychopathology: the mediator effect of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Amaral, Vânia; Duarte, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Research has robustly shown that early negative parenting experiences are associated with psychopathology and self-criticism in adulthood. This study investigates recall of personal feelings of perceived threat and subordination in childhood and its relation to psychopathology. In addition, we explore the mediator role of self-criticism in this association. A sample of 193 subjects from the general population completed self-report questionnaires measuring the study variables. The mediator analyses suggested that the impact of submissiveness experiences in childhood on depression and anxiety is mediated by self-criticism. Our findings highlight the route through which the recall of personal feelings of perceived involuntary subordination to parents contributes to depression and anxiety in adulthood. Although the relation between early experiences of abuse and later psychological problems is now well established, there has been less study on subtler forms of threat and subordinate behaviour in childhood. Given ours and previous findings, therapists should be aware of, and prone to explore, these early experiences. Most studies exploring early negative experiences mainly refer to attachment theory-related constructs (e.g., attachment style). We also highlight the importance of noting rank structure and rank style in the family. Self-criticism seems to be a key process in the relation between early aversive experiences of subordination and psychopathology. Given the idea that self-reassuring operates through a different affect system, helping people develop inner warmth and compassion for the self may be important to counteract feelings of self-hatred and self-attack. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eMüller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 (GAD65+/- mice, which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/- mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects.

  3. Alexithymia, impulsiveness, and psychopathology in nonsuicidal self-injured adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatta M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Michela Gatta,1 Francesco Dal Santo,1 Alessio Rago,1 Andrea Spoto,2 Pier Antonio Battistella1 1Childhood Adolescence Family Unit, Ulss 16 – Padua University, 2Department of General Psychology, Padua University, Padova, Italy Introduction: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI is a multifaceted phenomenon and a major health issue among adolescents. A better understanding of self-injury comorbidities is crucial to improve our ability to assess, treat, and prevent NSSI.Purpose: This study aimed at analyzing some of the psychobehavioral correlates of NSSI: psychological problems, alexithymia, impulsiveness, and sociorelational aspects.Patients and methods: This was a case–control study. The clinical sample (n=33 included adolescents attending our unit for NSSI and other issues; the controls (n=79 were high-school students. Data were collected using six questionnaires: Youth Self-Report, Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Children’s Depression Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90-R, and Child Behavior Checklist.Results: Cases scored significantly higher in all questionnaires. Habitual self-injurers scored higher on impulsiveness and alexithymia. The gesture’s repetition seems relevant to the global clinical picture: habitual self-injurers appear more likely to seek help from the sociosanitary services. We found a difference between the self-injurers’ and their parents’ awareness of the disorder.Conclusion: Habitual self-injurers show signs of having difficulty with assessing the consequences of their actions (nonplanning impulsiveness and the inability to manage their feelings. Given the significantly higher scores found for cases than for controls on all the psychopathological scales, NSSI can be seen as a cross-category psychiatric disorder, supporting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders decision to include it as a pathological entity in its own right. Keywords: NSSI, self-cutting, psychiatric

  4. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  5. Self-Reported Psychopathology, Trauma Symptoms, and Emotion Coping Among Child Suicide Attempters and Ideators: An Exploratory Study of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  6. The role of fathers in child and adolescent psychopathology: make room for daddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phares, V; Compas, B E

    1992-05-01

    This review summarizes research concerning the relation between paternal factors and child and adolescent psychopathology. When compared with mothers, fathers continue to be dramatically underrepresented in developmental research on psychopathology. However, findings from studies of children of clinically referred fathers and nonreferred samples of children and their fathers indicate that there is substantial association between paternal characteristics and child and adolescent psychopathology. Findings from studies of fathers of clinically referred children are stronger for fathers' effects on children's externalizing than internalizing problems. In most cases the degree of risk associated with paternal psychopathology is comparable to that associated with maternal psychopathology. Evidence indicates that the presence of paternal psychopathology is a sufficient but not necessary condition for child or adolescent psychopathology.

  7. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    that non-linear dynamical process may be involved in the recurrence of symptoms in troubles such as manic-depressive illness (9) or schizophrenia (51). These observations can contribute to more parcimonious interpretation of the time course of these illnesses than usual theories. In the search of a relationship between brain dynamics and mental troubles, it has been shown in three depressed patients an important correlation between the characteristics of brain dynamics and the intensity of depressive mood (49). This preliminary observation is in accordance with the emergence hypothesis according which changes in neuronal dynamics should be related to changes in mental processes. We reviewed here some theoretical and experimental results related to the use of "physical" dynamical theory in the field of psychopathology. It has been argued that these applications go beyond metaphor and that they are empirically founded. Nevertheless, these studies only constitute first steps on the way of a cautious development and definition of a "dynamical paradigm" in psychopathology. The introduction of concepts from dynamics such as complexity and dynamical changes (i.e. bifurcations) permits a new perspective on function and dysfunction of the mind/brain and the time evolution of symptoms. Moreover, it offers a ground for the hypothesis of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Since this theory can help to throw light on classical problems in psychopathology, we consider that a precise examination of both its theoretical and empirical consequences is requested to define its validity on this topic.

  8. Why does positive mental health buffer against psychopathology? : An exploratory study on self compassion as a resilience mechanism and adaptive emotion regulation strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; De Kleine, E.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and

  9. Models of Stress in Nonhuman Primates and Their Relevance for Human Psychopathology and Endocrine Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S.; Hamel, Amanda F.

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. PMID:25225311

  10. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  11. Development of fear and guilt in young children: stability over time and relations with psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erika; Baibazarova, Eugenia; Ktistaki, Georgia; Shelton, Katherine H; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2012-08-01

    Extremes in fearful temperament have long been associated with later psychopathology and risk pathways. Whereas fearful children are inhibited and anxious and avoid novel events, fearless individuals are disinhibited and more likely to engage in aggressive behavior. However, very few studies have examined fear in infants from a multimethod and prospective longitudinal perspective. This study had the following objectives: to examine behavioral, maternal reported, and physiological indices of fearful temperament in infancy, together with their relations and stability over time; and to establish whether early indices of fear predict fear later in toddlerhood. We also examined the association between behavioral and physiological measures of fear and guilt and whether fear in infancy predicts guilt in toddlers. Finally, we investigated infant risk factors for later psychopathology. We recorded skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate (HR) and observed children's responses during a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery fear paradigm across the first 3 years of life and during a guilt induction procedure at age 3 (N = 70). The results indicate that different measures of infant fear were associated across time. Observed fearlessness in infancy predicted observed fearlessness and low levels of SCL arousal to fear and guilt in toddlers. Low levels of HR and SCL to fear in infancy predicted low levels of physiological arousal to the same situation and to guilt 2 years later. Fear and guilt were significantly associated across measures. Finally, toddlers with clinically significant internalizing problems at age 3 were already notably more fearful in Year 1 as reflected by their significantly higher HR levels. The results indicated that assessments of children in infancy are predictive of how these children react 2 years later and therefore lend support to the idea that the emotional thermostat is set in the first 3 years of life. They also showed, for the first time

  12. Suggestibility and suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Irving

    2011-06-01

    Although the induction of a hypnotic state does not seem necessary for suggestive modulation of the Stroop effect, this important phenomenon has seemed to be dependent on the subject's level of hypnotic suggestibility. Raz and Campbell's (2011) study indicates that suggestion can modulate the Stroop effect substantially in very low suggestible subjects, as well as in those who are highly suggestible. This finding casts doubt on the presumed mechanism by which suggestive modulation is brought about. Research aimed at uncovering the means by which low suggestible individuals are able to modulate the Stroop effect would be welcome, as would assessment of this effect in moderately suggestible people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Network Approach to Understanding Emotion Dynamics in Relation to Childhood Trauma and Genetic Liability to Psychopathology: Replication of a Prospective Experience Sampling Analysis

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    Laila Hasmi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The network analysis of intensive time series data collected using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM may provide vital information in gaining insight into the link between emotion regulation and vulnerability to psychopathology. The aim of this study was to apply the network approach to investigate whether genetic liability (GL to psychopathology and childhood trauma (CT are associated with the network structure of the emotions “cheerful,” “insecure,” “relaxed,” “anxious,” “irritated,” and “down”—collected using the ESM method.Methods: Using data from a population-based sample of twin pairs and siblings (704 individuals, we examined whether momentary emotion network structures differed across strata of CT and GL. GL was determined empirically using the level of psychopathology in monozygotic and dizygotic co-twins. Network models were generated using multilevel time-lagged regression analysis and were compared across three strata (low, medium, and high of CT and GL, respectively. Permutations were utilized to calculate p values and compare regressions coefficients, density, and centrality indices. Regression coefficients were presented as connections, while variables represented the nodes in the network.Results: In comparison to the low GL stratum, the high GL stratum had significantly denser overall (p = 0.018 and negative affect network density (p < 0.001. The medium GL stratum also showed a directionally similar (in-between high and low GL strata but statistically inconclusive association with network density. In contrast to GL, the results of the CT analysis were less conclusive, with increased positive affect density (p = 0.021 and overall density (p = 0.042 in the high CT stratum compared to the medium CT stratum but not to the low CT stratum. The individual node comparisons across strata of GL and CT yielded only very few significant results, after adjusting for multiple testing.Conclusions: The

  14. Cultural psychopathology: uncovering the social world of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S R; Guarnaccia, P J

    2000-01-01

    We review cultural psychopathology research since Kleinman's (1988) important review with the goals of updating past reviews, evaluating current conceptualizations and methods, and identifying emerging substantive trends. Conceptual advances are noted, particularly developments in the definition of culture and the examination of both culture-specific and cultural-general processes. The contributions of the Culture and Diagnosis Task Force for DSM-IV and the World Mental Health Report are reviewed and contrasted. Selected research on anxiety, schizophrenia, and childhood disorders is examined, with particular attention given to the study of ataque de nervios, social factors affecting the course of schizophrenia, and cross-national differences in internalizing and externalizing problems in children. Within the last ten years, cultural psychopathology research has become a significant force. Its focus on the social world holds promise to make significant inroads in reducing suffering and improving people's everyday lives.

  15. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  16. THE INTERNET ADDICTION OF PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OFCRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Voloshyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35±0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97±1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral trauma, despite the high prevalence of lack of experience “usage” of the Internet, high degrees of addiction and dependence were reported. The addictive potential of the Internet addiction in the study group exceeded 32% of that of the control group.

  17. Assessment of Distress Associated to Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

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    Wendy Reich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.

  18. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  19. Delay Discounting of Losses in Alcohol Use Disorders and Antisocial Psychopathology: Effects of a Working Memory Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerst, Kyle R; Gunn, Rachel L; Finn, Peter R

    2017-10-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with increased discounting of delayed rewards and reduced executive working memory (eWM) capacity. This association is amplified when comorbid with antisocial psychopathology (AP). Furthermore, recent studies suggest that reduced WM capacity is associated with disinhibited decisions reflected by increased impulsive decision making on the delay discounting of rewards task. While discounting of delayed rewards is well studied, the discounting of delayed losses has received significantly less experimental attention. The current study investigated (i) the rate of discounting of delayed losses in individuals with AUD only (n = 61), AUD with comorbid AP (n = 79) and healthy controls (n = 64); (ii) the relationship between eWM capacity and discounting of delayed losses; and (iii) the effect of a WM load on discounting of delayed losses. Discounting performance was assessed using a computerized discounting of delayed losses task. Results showed that the AUD-only and AUD-AP groups had higher rates of discounting of delayed losses and lower eWM capacity compared to the control groups. Lower individual eWM capacity was associated with increased discounting of delayed losses. However, WM load did not increase discounting rates overall. These results support the hypothesis that greater discounting of delayed losses is associated with AUD and comorbid AP problems and lower individual eWM capacity. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Intersubjectivity and Psychopathology in the Schizophrenia Spectrum: Complicated We, Compensatory Strategies, and Self-Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Mads Gram; Nilsson, Lars Siersbæk

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in phenomenological psychopathology emphasize the importance of intersubjectivity for our understanding of schizophrenia. Yet, the central role of the "we" in social experience and engagement is largely absent from this literature. Our study explores the relation between psychopathology and intersubjectivity in the schizophrenia spectrum through the prism of the "we." First, we explore the role of intersubjectivity in the current schizophrenia spectrum definitions and discuss the main contemporary research trends. Second, we recollect some of the classical accounts of schizophrenia, which offer a different perspective on the pervasive and often persistent intersubjective difficulties in these conditions. Third, capitalizing on recent advances in collective intentionality studies, we present and discuss a conceptual framework of the "we" and of how the "we" may be disrupted in schizophrenia. Through this framework and with the use of clinical vignettes, we elicit 3 compensatory strategies, which, we suggest, reflect a fragile sense of "we" in the schizophrenia spectrum, i.e. (i) positive withdrawal, (ii) imposing a goal-oriented, spatiotemporal structure on intersubjective engagement, and (iii) preferring social activities with a clear attribution of social roles and rules. Finally, we discuss the relation between anomalous self-experiences (i.e. self-disorders) and the complicated "we." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Relationship between Self-Reported Psychopathology and Future Dropout in a Mexican School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J Chalita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.

  2. Relationship of dropout and psychopathology in a high school sample in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalita, Pablo J; Palacios, Lino; Cortes, Jose F; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Bloch, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odds ratio (OR) of school dropout associated with students' self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty-seven students participated in the study. Psychosis [OR = 8.0 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.7-37.2)], depression [OR = 4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7)], tic disorders [OR = 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.5)], ADHD [OR = 3.2 (95% CI: 1.5-6.4)], and social phobia [OR = 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.8)] were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students' self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico. ADHD and depression may be particularly useful childhood psychiatric disorders to target with public health interventions because they explain the greatest amount of the variance in school dropout of child psychiatric disorders.

  3. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  4. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuppert H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101 and a healthy control group (N = 44. Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD

  5. Social Workers' Perceptions of the Association Between Role Playing Games and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Lis, Eric; Błachnio, Agata; Ring, Lia; Lavenda, Osnat; Mahat-Shamir, Michal

    2018-03-01

    Whereas role-playing and table-top role-play games (RPGs) have been proven to have potential as therapeutic tools, playing RPGs is often stereotypically associated with social incompetence and psychiatric disorders. Knowledge regarding the stereotype and its implications is very scarce specifically among mental health practitioners. Therefore the present study aimed to narrow this gap in knowledge by examining the perception of Social Workers that are considered to be the forefront of mental health-care, in regard to the association between playing RPGs and mental health. A convenience sample of 130 Social Workers, recruited through social networks (e.g. Facebook, WhatsApp etc.), responded to an on-line survey dealing with their perception of their own knowledge on RPGs, the importance of such knowledge and the association between playing RPGs and mental illness. Results indicated an association between having higher knowledge of RPGs and lower perception of a link between playing RPGs and psychopathology. The study's findings emphasize the false stigma and its potential harmful implication on professionals' practice, especially in the context of intake process and primary diagnostic. The effect of familiarity is also discussed in light of the study's findings. • The perception of mental health professionals toward role playing games such as Dungeons and Dragons is understudied. • Social Workers' perception was measured in regard to the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology. • Greater knowledge of RPGs was found to be associated with lower perception of the connection between use of RPGs and DSM-IV-TR psychopathology.

  6. [Prevalence of psychiatric disorders, psychopathology, and the need for treatment in female and male prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schönfeld, C-E; Schneider, F; Schröder, T; Widmann, B; Botthof, U; Driessen, M

    2006-07-01

    While the international literature documents a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in prisoners, German studies in this field are rare. The base of knowledge is even worse with regard to female prisoners. The purpose of this study was to investigate DSM-IV axis I and II psychiatric disorders and current psychopathology and to estimate treatment needs in prisoners. On the 1st of May 2002, all female prisoners in Brackwede I Prison in Bielefeld, Germany, were included; and a sample of incarcerated men was matched according to age, nationality, and length of stay. Sixty-three women and 76 men participated. Criminal history and current living conditions were investigated using a questionnaire and prison documents. Psychopathology and psychiatric disorders were investigated using structured clinical interviews. In 88.2% of the sample, at least one current axis I (83.5%) and/or axis II personality disorder (53.2%) was found. Comorbidity rates were high, with 3.5+/-2.7 diagnoses per case. Mean SCL scores revealed a substantial psychopathologic burden. In female prisoners, opiate-related and polysubstance use disorders and affective and post-traumatic stress disorders were more frequent than in the male subsample, which in turn showed higher rates of alcohol-related disorders. Specific treatment needs were indicated in 83.4% of the sample. These results indicate that the proportion of mentally ill persons in prisons is substantially higher than in specialized hospitals for mentally ill criminals. More treatment options are urgently needed than has been realized up to now.

  7. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  8. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Children exposed to domestic violences assessment and psychopathology /

    OpenAIRE

    Olaya Guzmán, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 17-06-2010 Exposure to domestic violence is a current, complex concern with negative aftermath on the child's mental health. Aim: to answer the following questions about the effects that this exposure has on children's mental health: a) what should be assessed; b) what kind of psychopathology do outpatient exposed children have; c) which characteristics of the situation are more influential; and d) what is the role of parenting styles. Method: A retrospective cohort ...

  10. Psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Prakash V; Shah, Henal; Rao, Pradeep; Ashturkar, Dhananjay; Ghaisas, Pradnya

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness. 60 children and their parents were selected to participate in an open study. 30 children had epilepsy and the other 30 had thalassemia. Both the groups consisted of children randomly selected from the Epilepsy Clinic and Thalassemia Centre respectively, of a teaching general hospital. The children and their parents were interviewed and also rated on Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) and Rosenberg's self esteem scale. The data was analysed using Pearson's chi square test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The children were seen to have high psychopathology on CPMS (average score: thalassemia group = 28.56, epilepsy group = 26.06). Depression was the subscale with the maximum elevation in both groups. Behavior problems were high in epilepsy. In addition, sadness and disinterest in life were common symptoms in thalassemia while irritability and panic were high in epilepsy. Children with epilepsy perceived a change in lifestyle after diagnosis. Self-esteem was moderately affected in both groups and this affected compliance with treatment in thalassemia. Chronic illness affects psychological health and self esteem in children. Hence, in addition to the physical aspects it is necessary also, to focus on the psychological health of the child in order to ensure compliance and thus treat the child comprehensively.

  11. Psychopathological profile of patients with different forms of bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Gurkan Rasit; Tutuncu, Recep; Acikel, Cengizhan

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the prevalence of psychopathological symptoms in patients who self-reported different forms of bruxism by means of clinical and anamnestic diagnostic criteria. Eighty-five participants were divided into four groups as sleep bruxers (12), awake bruxers (24), sleep-awake bruxers (33), and non-bruxers (16). A self-report symptom inventory questionnaire (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R)) was filled out by all groups to determine their psychopathological symptoms. As regards mean psychopathological scores, patients with sleep-awake bruxism endorsed the highest scores. In addition, patients with awake bruxism showed higher scores than patients with sleep bruxism and non-bruxism in most SCL-90-R subscales. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between groups in any of the SCL-90-R subscales, except for the psychoticism subscale. Mann-Whitney test followed by Bonferroni's test correction between non-bruxer and sleep-awake bruxer groups revealed significant differences in depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, global severity index, positive symptom distress index, and positive symptom total in all SCL-90-R subscales. Statistical analysis of our study showed that differences between groups were significant in all SCL-90-R subscales except for the psychoticism subscale. Better distinction of bruxism forms may help to develop new treatment strategies for bruxism disorder.

  12. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Risk for Psychopathology in Childhood and Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R

    2017-05-08

    Although rates of child maltreatment are declining, more than 600,000 children in the United States are substantiated victims of abuse or neglect. The focus of this review is on the relationship between maltreatment and mental health problems in childhood and adulthood. Children and adults who are exposed to abuse or neglect in childhood are at risk for a range of poor mental health outcomes, including internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychotic symptoms, and personality disorders. I review three potential mechanisms by which maltreatment may increase risk for various forms of psychopathology, (a) hypervigilance to threat, (b) deficits in emotion recognition and understanding, and (c) low responsivity to reward. I also review genetic and psychosocial factors that moderate the relationship between maltreatment and risk for psychopathology. Finally, I discuss methodological limitations of the literature on maltreatment, with an emphasis on the challenges associated with establishing a causal role for maltreatment (and moderators or mediators of maltreatment) in the development of mental health problems and the reliance of many studies on retrospective self-reports.

  15. Treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): results from a randomised, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelke, Matthias; Giuliano, François; Baygani, Simin K; Melby, Thomas; Sontag, Angelina

    2014-10-01

    To assess treatment satisfaction with tadalafil or tamsulosin vs placebo in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind study of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH). After a 4-week placebo lead-in period, men aged ≥45 years with an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) of ≥13 and a maximum urinary flow rate of ≥4 to ≤15 mL/s received placebo (172 men), tadalafil 5 mg (171), or tamsulosin 0.4 mg (168) once daily for 12 weeks. Treatment Satisfaction Scale-BPH (TSS-BPH) responses were assessed based on median treatment differences using the van Elteren test. Overall treatment satisfaction was greater for tadalafil vs placebo (P = 0.005), based on greater satisfaction with efficacy (P = 0.003); neither overall treatment satisfaction nor satisfaction with efficacy was greater for tamsulosin vs placebo (P ≥ 0.409). For individual questions, 66.5% of men rated tadalafil treatment as 'effective/very effective' (Question 1, Q1) vs placebo (P = 0.011), 72.6% would 'definitely/probably recommend their treatment' (Q3; P = 0.043), 71.8% were generally 'very satisfied/satisfied with their medication' (Q8; P BPH by baseline age (≤65/>65 years), history of erectile dysfunction (yes/no), LUTS/BPH severity (IPSS

  16. Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maren; Leahy, Robert L; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated whether self-compassion and emotional invalidation (perceiving others as indifferent to one's emotions) may explain the relationship of childhood exposure to adverse parenting and adult psychopathology in psychiatric outpatients (N=326). Path analysis was used to investigate associations between exposure to adverse parenting (abuse and indifference), self-compassion, emotional invalidation, and mental health when controlling for gender and age. Self-compassion was strongly inversely associated with emotional invalidation, suggesting that a schema that others will be unsympathetic or indifferent toward one's emotions may affect self-compassion and vice versa. Both self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediated the relationship between parental indifference and mental health outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest the potential utility of self-compassion and emotional schemas as transdiagnostic treatment targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Psychopathology in families: an integral approach via the family outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S C; Batelaan, N M; Wesseldijk, L W; Rozeboom, J; Middeldorp, C M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders run in families. To bridge the gap between child and youth psychiatry and adult psychiatry, GGZ inGeest has started screening parents of new registered children for psychopathology - and if indicated - offers parents treatment in the same department as their children. To examine the feasibility and usefulness of this procedure, to investigate how many parents agree to screening, further diagnostics and treatment, and to find out how many parents have in fact suffered from recent psychiatric problems. Prior to the children's first appointment, the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, the Adult Self Report (ASR), about their own problems. If these scores were (sub)clinical, parents were invited to participate in a telephonic interview. This consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). If the results indicate psychopathology, further psychiatric assessment and, if necessary, treatment is offered. The first response was 55.7% and, if indicated, most of the parents agreed on further diagnostics. On the ASR 2 out of 5 mothers (42.1%) and 1 out of 5 fathers (21.8%) reported problems that could point to a psychiatric disorder. According to the ASR, within this high-risk group 37% of the mothers met the criteria for an axis I diagnosis (less than one month earlier) compared to 70.6% of the fathers. A mood disorder was the primary diagnosis for women, whereas men most often suffered from an anxiety disorder. In total, 19.1% of the parents screened were suffering from recent psychopathology and 75% of this group agreed to receive mental health care (treatment at the family outpatient clinic or referred to another clinic). Implementation of the family outpatient clinic scheme is feasible. However, further efforts are needed in order to reach a larger group of parents, particularly fathers. The family outpatient clinic is useful because parents who suffer from psychopathology

  18. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  19. [Addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of women in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrá Lanza, Patricia; González Menéndez, Ana; Fernández García, Paula; Casares, Ma José; Martín Martín, José Luis; Rodríguez Lamelas, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of 59 women incarcerated in the Villabona prison in Asturias (a region in northern Spain). The instruments administered were the EuropASI, the SCL-90-R and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that the profile is a young, single women with family dependents serving an average of 5 years' imprisonment. Of the total sample, 64.4% met criteria for a substance abuse disorder. We found a statistically significant relationship between the variables use-nonuse and type of crime: women who used substances had committed the most crimes against property and against the socioeconomic order. As regards psychopathology, 44.06% of the sample fulfilled the requirements for clinical case according to Derogatis' (1994) criteria. The results of the SCL-90-R showed that the predominant psychological disorders were, in the following order, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder and paranoid ideation. Moreover, in the group of female users, 47.4% had dual pathology. Our results revealed a statistically significant relationship between clinical case and substance use. Finally, statistically significant differences were found between the user and nonuser groups in the EuropASI severity profile. Highest scores were found for the medical, psychiatric and family areas in the user group.

  20. The relationship between the big five personality dimensions and acute psychopathology: mediating and moderating effects of coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnics, Zsuzsanna; Heincz, Orsolya; Bagdy, Gyorgy; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Gonda, Xenia; Benko, Anita; Molnar, Eszter; Jakšić, Nenad; Lazary, Judit; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2013-12-01

    Prior research suggests that the Big Five personality dimensions might be associated with coping strategies as well as acute psychopathology. The aim of the present study was to investigate direct and indirect associations between the Big Five personality traits, coping styles, and psychopathological variables. Subjects were 1140 adults from various institutions and regions in Hungary. A comprehensive test battery was administered including the Big Five Inventory (BFI), Psychological Immune System Inventory (PISI), and some subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Several moderation-mediation analyses were conducted using the PROCESS tool in SPSS to test for influence paths. Coping and personality variables jointly accounted for 40% to 50% of variance in psychopathology outcome. Personality dimensions of Extraversion, Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability had strongest predictive values. Emotional Stability had a more direct and unmediated effect, whereas Extraversion and Conscientiousness effects were mediated by the Approach and Self-regulation coping systems. In comparison to personality, coping style was generally a stronger predictor. The findings of this study might add to better understanding of complex pathways leading from broad personality dimensions to coping strategies and psychological (mal)adjustment.

  1. Spatiotemporal psychopathology I: No rest for the brain's resting state activity in depression? Spatiotemporal psychopathology of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Despite intense neurobiological investigation in psychiatric disorders like major depressive disorder (MDD), the basic disturbance that underlies the psychopathological symptoms of MDD remains, nevertheless, unclear. Neuroimaging has focused mainly on the brain's extrinsic activity, specifically task-evoked or stimulus-induced activity, as related to the various sensorimotor, affective, cognitive, and social functions. Recently, the focus has shifted to the brain's intrinsic activity, otherwise known as its resting state activity. While various abnormalities have been observed during this activity, their meaning and significance for depression, along with its various psychopathological symptoms, are yet to be defined. Based on findings in healthy brain resting state activity and its particular spatial and temporal structure - defined in a functional and physiological sense rather than anatomical and structural - I claim that the various depressive symptoms are spatiotemporal disturbances of the resting state activity and its spatiotemporal structure. This is supported by recent findings that link ruminations and increased self-focus in depression to abnormal spatial organization of resting state activity. Analogously, affective and cognitive symptoms like anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and thought disorder can be traced to an increased focus on the past, increased past-focus as basic temporal disturbance o the resting state. Based on these findings, I conclude that the various depressive symptoms must be conceived as spatiotemporal disturbances of the brain's resting state's activity and its spatiotemporal structure. Importantly, this entails a new form of psychopathology, "Spatiotemporal Psychopathology" that directly links the brain and psyche, therefore having major diagnostic and therapeutic implications for clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. psychopathological correlates of child sexual abuse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... RESULTS: The study revealed a result of t=3.83 for depression, t=2.46 for panic episode, .... 6-point Likert-type format with scores ranging ..... APA. Professional practice and standard. Washington DC, American Psychologists'.

  3. Psicopatologia, exotismo e diversidade: ensaio de antropologia da psicopatologia Psychopathology, exoticism and diversity: some remarks on the anthropology of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Holanda

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto se propõe a uma reflexão em torno de uma perspectiva antropológica da questão da psicopatologia. Partindo da análise antropológica de Tzvetan Todorov, perpassa o ensaio histórico de Theodore Zeldin, alcançando a crítica de Thomas Szasz e a abordagem histórico-antropológica de Michel Foucault, na tentativa de clarear a compreensão do fenômeno psicopatológico. Nesta perspectiva crítico-histórica, a psicopatologia é vista como um fenômeno contextualizado, inserido na construção das mentalidades específicas da cultura ocidental.The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon an anthropological approach of psychopathology. It intends to throw some light upon the phenomenon of the "psychopathologic". It begins with some remarks on the anthropological concept of Tzevan Todorov. It also analyses Theodore Zeldin’s historical essay, Thomas Szasz’s critical reflections and Michel Foucault’s historic-anthropological approach. In this historical perspective, "Psychopathology" is conceived as a rather contextualized phenomenon, part of the specific mentalities constructed by the Western culture.

  4. A comparative network analysis of eating disorder psychopathology and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Leonard, Rachel C; Wetterneck, Chad T; Smith, Brad E R; Farrell, Nicholas R; Riemann, Bradley C; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Moessner, Markus

    2018-04-15

    Network analysis is an emerging approach in the study of psychopathology, yet few applications have been seen in eating disorders (EDs). Furthermore, little research exists regarding changes in network strength after interventions. Therefore the present study examined the network structures of ED and co-occurring depression and anxiety symptoms before and after treatment for EDs. Participants from residential or partial hospital ED treatment programs (N = 446) completed assessments upon admission and discharge. Networks were estimated using regularized Graphical Gaussian Models using 38 items from the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire, Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. ED symptoms with high centrality indices included a desire to lose weight, guilt about eating, shape overvaluation, and wanting an empty stomach, while restlessness, self-esteem, lack of energy, and feeling overwhelmed bridged ED to depression and anxiety symptoms. Comparisons between admission and discharge networks indicated the global network strength did not change significantly, though symptom severity decreased. Participants with denser networks at admission evidenced less change in ED symptomatology during treatment. Findings suggest that symptoms related to shape and weight concerns and guilt are central ED symptoms, while physical symptoms, self-esteem, and feeling overwhelmed are links that may underlie comorbidities in EDs. Results provided some support for the validity of network approaches, in that admission networks conveyed prognostic information. However, the lack of correspondence between symptom reduction and change in network strength indicates that future research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of intervention and relapse prevention.

  5. Neural correlates of ostracism in transgender persons living according to their gender identity: a potential risk marker for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sven C; Wierckx, Katrien; Boccadoro, Sara; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2018-01-15

    Stigmatization in society carries a high risk for development of psychopathology. Transgender persons are at particularly high risk for such stigmatization and social rejection by others. However, the neural correlates of ostracism in this group have not been captured. Twenty transgender men (TM, female-to-male) and 19 transgender women (TW, male-to-female) already living in their gender identity and 20 cisgender men (CM) and 20 cisgender women (CW) completed a cyberball task assessing both exclusion and re-inclusion during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During psychosocial stress between-group differences were found in the dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Patterns were consistent with sex assigned at birth, i.e. CW showed greater activation in dorsal ACC and IFG relative to CM and TW. During re-inclusion, transgender persons showed greater ventral ACC activity relative to CW, possibly indicating persistent feelings of exclusion. Functional connectivity analyses supported these findings but showed a particularly altered functional connectivity between ACC and lateral prefrontal cortex in TM, which may suggest reduced emotional regulation to the ostracism experience in this group. Depressive symptoms or hormonal levels were not associated with these findings. The results bear implications for the role of social exclusion in development of mental health problems in socially marginalized groups.

  6. Distinct emotion regulation skills explain psychopathology and problems in social relationships following childhood emotional abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R

    2018-03-22

    Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.

  7. Could the eventual results of the NSABP* 39/RTOG** 0413 trial for partial breast irradiation (PBI) be improved by combining spherical applicators and whole breast irradiation? Radiobiology suggests it may.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, B J

    2010-01-01

    There may be unacceptable risks associated with the relatively large single doses of irradiation prescribed over five days instead of over six weeks for three of the four trial arms of the NSABP39/RTOG 0413 clinical trial seeking to enlist 4,300 patients. The first arm prescribes 60 Gray (Gy) in two Gy fractions over six weeks, which is the present standard. The dose implications of the other three arms with reference to this standard were examined using the ID2 formalism. Particularly poor (non-homogeneous) dose distributions characterise spherical applicators like "MammoSite" used as a sole device for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). The alternative treatment, APBI done by 3-D conformal radiation, may also have a drawback, namely a sudden sharp cut-off in dose which may cause cosmetic problems due to circumscribed fibrosis and edema. Some recently published results from this trial reveal an alarming level of complications. The possible causes of these complications and poor cosmetic outcomes and how to avoid them are examined. An obstacle to the more widespread use of the "MammoSite type of device is that the device is not allowed closer than 5-7 mm from the skin or ribs; a possible remedy for this restriction is offered. It is also intended to make the relevant radiobiological principles usable for surgical oncologists.

  8. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  9. Association of psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia; an experience from east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suravi Patra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find the association of patient characteristic and psychopathology with quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: Socio-demographic variables of patient, psychopathology and quality of life were assessed. Spearman′s Correlation coefficients were measured using SPSS version 15.0. Results: Quality of life of the patients varied in different domains. Male gender, unmarried status and higher educational status predicted a poorer quality of life. The domains of physical and psychological well-being of WHO-QOL were correlated with PANSS general and total scores whereas environmental and social health showed no correlation with PANSS scores. Conclusion: Domains of subjective quality of life in acute phase of schizophrenia are associated variedly with socio-demographic variables and symptomatology.

  10. Psychopathology trajectories of children with autism spectrum disorder: the role of family poverty and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouhas, Emily; Yogaratnam, Amy; Flouri, Eirini; Charman, Tony

    2013-10-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are reported to have high rates of co-occurring psychopathology. Little is known about risk factors that might contribute to this psychopathology. This study modeled the effect of family poverty on psychopathology trajectories in young children with ASD, and examined whether home organization and maternal warmth and involvement could buffer the effect of poverty on children's psychopathology. The sample comprised 209 children with ASD who participated in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study, a population birth cohort study. Individual trajectories of psychopathology at ages 3, 5, and 7 years were analyzed using growth curve models. Psychopathology was assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Children with ASD exhibited increasingly high rates of psychopathology over time. Family poverty was associated with broad and specific (emotional and conduct problems) psychopathology, but not with changes in psychopathology over time. Warmth, involvement, and home organization did not buffer the association of family poverty with psychopathology. However, low warmth explained the relationship between poverty and broad psychopathology, and predicted annual changes in broad psychopathology. Warmth was associated with fewer conduct problems and less hyperactivity, and with an annual decrease in peer and conduct problems. Household chaos was a risk factor for conduct problems, as was maternal involvement for peer problems. Family poverty, low maternal warmth, and household chaos are risk factors for externalizing problems in children with ASD. Maternal warmth may be a key target for intervention, particularly in poorer families of children with ASD. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Relational factors in psychopathological responses to childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigoli, Vittorio; Gilli, Gabriella; Saita, Emanuela

    2006-06-01

    Childbirth can represent for women the time of greatest vulnerability experience, often associated with being out of control, loneliness or sadness. One hundred and sixty women who had 'normal' births were assessed within 48 hours on potential predictive measures and at 3-6 months post-partum for PTSD. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, perceived and desired support by family members, friends, medical personnel were also assessed. t-Test and chi-square were used to analyze, differences between 'risk group' and 'non-risk group'. Few women (1.25%) showed questionnaire responses suggesting clinically significant levels on PTSD; other women (28.75%) reported clinically significant symptoms for at least one subscale. Being at the first delivery experience, together with perceptions of low levels of support from family members and medical personnel, were found to be related to experience of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Anxiety for the child and previous depression are also related to such symptoms. Moreover, anxiety and depression are related to a difficult recognition of the support received, as well as to the desire for more support, in the care of the newborn, from medical professionals.

  12. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation in relation to eating and general psychopathology among college-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Kass, Andrea E; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Gibbs, Elise; Trockel, Mickey; Barr Taylor, C; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation are potent risk factors for suicide and are associated with general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology. Limited research has examined the effects of combined NSSI+suicidal ideation thus concurrent examination is needed to understand potential differential effects on psychopathology. College-aged women (N=508) completed self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation, general psychopathology, and Eating Disorder-specific psychopathology. MANOVAs determined whether the NSSI/SI status groups differed on general and eating disorder pathology measures as a set. Significant MANOVAs were followed up with univariate ANOVAs and posthoc tests. Thirteen women endorsed NSSI+Suicidal Ideation, 70 endorsed NSSI-only, 25 endorsed Suicidal Ideation-only, and 400 endorsed no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. Both general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology differed across groups. NSSI+Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Ideation-only groups typically endorsed higher general psychopathology than the no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only groups. Regarding eating disorder pathology, the NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was more pathological than no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only, except on the weight concerns scale, where NSSI+Suicidal Ideation only differed from no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. The NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was only greater than Suicidal Ideation-only on measures of depression and eating concern. Results highlight the importance of screening for both NSSI and suicidal ideation, especially for individuals with eating disorder symptoms. Likewise, screening for eating disorder pathology may be beneficial for individuals presenting with NSSI and suicidal ideation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of internet addiction: Prevalence, pattern, and psychopathology among health professional undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin R Gedam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet has become an essential part of our daily life, especially among adolescents and youth. It is mainly used for education, entertainment, social networking, and information sharing. Its excessive use among health care providers is becoming a major concern. Aims: The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, understand the pattern, and to determine the association between psychopathology and internet addiction among health profession undergraduates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 846 students of various faculties from Deemed University. Students were assessed with semi-structured data, Internet Addiction Test and Mental Health Inventory, after giving them brief instructions. Students were classified into normal students and addicted students for comparison. Results: The total prevalence of internet addiction was 19.85%, with moderate and severe addiction being 19.5% and 0.4%, respectively. Internet addiction was associated with gender, computer ownership, preferred time of internet use, login status, and mode of internet access (P < 0.05. It was also associated with anxiety, depression, loss of emotional/behavioral control, emotional ties, life satisfaction, psychological distress, and lower psychological well-being (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Significant association was found between psychopathology and internet addiction. Male gender, login status, emotional ties, and psychological distress were found to be important predictors of internet addiction among students. Hence, these parameters should be taken into consideration while promoting awareness of problematic internet use and educating students regarding healthy internet use.

  14. Current Psychopathological Symptoms in Children and Adolescents Who Suffered Different Forms of Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Rose

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate the current psychopathological problems of different forms associated with maltreatment on children’s and adolescents’ mental health. Ninety-five females and ninety males with a mean age of 8.8 years who have suffered in the last six months different forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional and neglect were included in the study. The current reaction to trauma as directly observed by clinical instruments was examined. Differences in gender, age at the time of medical examination, familial psychiatric disorders, neuropsychiatric status, and type of maltreatment were also taken into account. Results documented that 95.1% of abused children and adolescents developed a psychiatric disorder or a subclinical form of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Moreover, our data demonstrate a role for gender, age, and familial psychiatric comorbidity in the current psychopathological problems associated with maltreatment. Overall, our findings can help clinicians make a diagnosis and provide efficient treatment and prevention strategies for child maltreatment and abuse.

  15. Attachment styles and psychopathology among adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Mustafa; Gencoglan, Salih; Akguc, Leyla; Ozatalay, Esin; Fettahoglu, Emine Cigil

    2015-04-16

    The aim of this study was to compare attachment styles and psychopathology in adolescent children of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) with a healthy control group. We studied 25 adolescents who had at least 1 parent with BD (BD group) and 28 adolescents who had no parents with BD (control group). The adolescent participants were between the ages of 12 and 17 years. We used the Adolescent Relationship Scales Questionnaire (A-RSQ) for the adolescents in the BD vs. control groups, and we used the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-age Children - present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), Clinician Version for each parent of adolescents in the BD and control groups to rule out psychopathologies. Attachment styles of participants were assessed according to A-RSQ, dismissing attachment style scores of adolescents in BD group were found significantly higher compared to the healthy control group (padolescents (48%) out of 25 in the BD group and 5 adolescents (18%) out of 28 in the control group were given DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis, which is a statistically significant result (padolescent children of parents with BD have increased risk of developing mental illnesses, and that these adolescents adopt dismissing attachment styles.

  16. Association between auditory P300, psychopathology, and memory function in drug-naïve schizophrenia

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    Wei-Hung Chang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore memory deficits and psychopathology and their relationships with P300 in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Wechsler Memory Scale—Revised were administered. Auditory event-related potentials elicited by an oddball paradigm were obtained. After controlling for age, sex, the results showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the total PANSS score and P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = −0.66, p < 0.05. Moreover, visual memory was significantly positively correlated with P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = 0.67, p < 0.05. After controlling for the duration of illness, the above correlations remained statistically significant. The correlation between P300 and the severity of psychopathology was reconfirmed in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia. A possible contribution of memory decompensation in P300 among drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia may be considered, and the compensatory or Default Model Network might be a possible explanation of this association.

  17. A study of psycho-pathology and treatment of children with phagophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ayumi; Tsukamoto, Chiaki; Hosogi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Eriko; Watanabe, Kumi; Ootyou, Keiko; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2007-10-01

    Phagophobia is a disorder characterized by a conditioned excessive fear of eating and is initiated by an event such as vomiting or choking. During childhood, vomiting often occurs as a result of infection or overeating, and painful experiences bring about maladaptive eating behavior like food refusal. There have been few reports of phagophobia, and patients have sometimes been misdiagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN). The objective of this study was to elucidate the psycho-pathology and current treatment of patients with phagophobia by analyzing case studies. We describe 6 cases with phagophobia. Patients with strong obsessions were refractory to treatment, indicating that evaluation of premorbid personality is crucial to the prognosis. It is important to classify this disorder according to psycho-pathology into "post-traumatic type" and "gain-from-illness type" to make a treatment plan. A solution focused approach is also effective for patients and their family. Paying close attention to these conditions and to the diagnostic concept referred as "hagophobia" is useful in achieving these aims.

  18. The Effect of Nicotine Dependence on Psychopathology in Patients with Schizophrenia

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    Anne Yee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Our study aims to determine the prevalence of nicotine dependence and investigate the effect of nicotine dependence on psychopathology among schizophrenia patients. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out in an outpatient psychiatric clinic at a general hospital in Malaysia. 180 recruited subjects were administered the Malay version of Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS, and the Malay version of Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND-M questionnaires. Results. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the subjects was 38.1% (n=69 and they were mainly composed of male gender, Malay ethnicity, being treated with atypical antipsychotics, and taking other illicit drugs or alcohol. Subjects with severe nicotine dependence scored less in the negative subscale of PANSS compared with the nonsmokers (P=0.011. On performing the hierarchy multiple regressions, dependence status still significantly predicted negative scores after adjusting the confounders (t=-2.87, P=0.005. Conclusion. The rate of nicotine use disorder among schizophrenia patients in this study is higher than that of the general population in Malaysia. The significant association between nicotine dependence and negative psychopathology symptoms will help the healthcare practitioners in their management of nicotine dependence among schizophrenia patients.

  19. Predictors of Broad Dimensions of Psychopathology among Patients with Panic Disorder after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

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    Sei Ogawa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with panic disorder meet criteria for at least one other diagnosis, most commonly other anxiety or mood disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the best empirically supported psychotherapy for panic disorder. There is now evidence indicating that cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder yields positive benefits upon comorbid disorders. Objectives. The present study aimed to examine the predictors of broad dimensions of psychopathology in panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. Methods. Two hundred patients affected by panic disorder were treated with manualized group cognitive-behavioral therapy. We examined if the baseline personality dimensions of NEO Five Factor Index predicted the subscales of Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at endpoint using multiple regression analysis based on the intention-to-treat principle. Results. Conscientiousness score of NEO Five Factor Index at baseline was a predictor of four Symptom Checklist-90 Revised subscales including obsessive-compulsive (β=-0.15, P<0.01, depression (β=-0.13, P<0.05, phobic anxiety (β=-0.15, P<0.05, and Global Severity Index (β=-0.13, P<0.05. Conclusion. Conscientiousness at baseline may predict several dimensions of psychopathology in patients with panic disorder after cognitive-behavioral therapy. For the purpose of improving a wide range of psychiatric symptoms with patients affected by panic disorder, it may be useful to pay more attention to this personal trait at baseline.

  20. [Mixed affective states in the juvenile age (historical aspects, current state of the problem, psychopathology)].

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    Kopeĭko, G I

    2011-01-01

    The author analyzed the problem in historical, diagnostic and psychopathological aspects and presented the results of his own study. The aim was to study the structure and dynamics of endogenous juvenile mixed states in order to work out the psychopathological typology and to clarify the criteria of diagnosis, differential treatment and clinical-social prognosis. The study included 174 patients, 118 men and 56 women, aged from 17 to 25 years (mean age 20, 4 years). Depressive states were found in 65%, mania in 16% and mixed in 19% of patients. The clinical differentiation of mixed states was carried out basing on the dominating pole of affective disorders and the following types were singled out and described: mania type (dysphoria-like mania)--34%, depressive type (association-driven depression)--38%; alternating type of mixed states--28%. The preference of the formation of alternating and atypical variants of mixed states in the juvenile age demonstrated in the study may reflect the pathogenetic and pathoplastic effect of biological features characteristic of this age--lability and polymorphism of clinical presentations as well as immaturity of emotional and cognitive spheres.

  1. Testing the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis for Psychopathology Using Family-Based Quasi-Experimental Designs

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    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Class, Quetzal A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is a broad theoretical framework that emphasizes how early risk factors have a causal influence on psychopathology. Researchers have raised concerns about the causal interpretation of statistical associations between early risk factors and later psychopathology because most existing studies have been unable to rule out the possibility of environmental and genetic confounding. In this paper we illustrate how family-based quasi-experimental designs can test the DOHaD hypothesis by ruling out alternative hypotheses. We review the logic underlying sibling-comparison, co-twin control, offspring of siblings/twins, adoption, and in vitro fertilization designs. We then present results from studies using these designs focused on broad indices of fetal development (low birth weight and gestational age) and a particular teratogen, smoking during pregnancy. The results provide mixed support for the DOHaD hypothesis for psychopathology, illustrating the critical need to use design features that rule out unmeasured confounding. PMID:25364377

  2. A deeper view of insight in schizophrenia: Insight dimensions, unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms and its relation with psychopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousa, Esther; Ochoa, Susana; Cobo, Jesús; Nieto, Lourdes; Usall, Judith; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Garcia-Ribera, Carles; Pérez Solà, Victor; Ruiz, Ada-I; Baños, Iris; Cobo, Jesús; García-Ribera, Carles; González, Beatriz; Massons, Carmina; Nieto, Lourdes; Monserrat, Clara; Ochoa, Susana; Pousa, Esther; Ruiz, Ada-Inmaculada; Ruiz, Isabel; Sanchez-Cabezudo, Dolores; Usall, Judith

    2017-11-01

    1. To describe insight in a large sample of schizophrenia subjects from a multidimensional point of view, including unawareness of general insight dimensions as well as unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms. 2. To explore the relationship between unawareness and clinical and socio-demographic variables. 248 schizophrenia patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, five factor model of Lindenmayer) and the full Scale of Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD). Bivariate associations and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship between unawareness, symptoms and socio-demographic variables. Around 40% of the sample showed unawareness of mental disorder, of the need for medication and of the social consequences. Levels of unawareness and misattribution of particular symptoms varied considerably. General unawareness dimensions showed small significant correlations with positive, cognitive and excitement factors of psychopathology, whereas these symptom factors showed higher correlations with unawareness of particular symptoms. Similarly, regression models showed a small significant predictive value of positive symptoms in the three general unawareness dimensions while a moderate one in the prediction of particular symptoms. Misattribution showed no significant correlations with any symptom factors. Results confirm that insight in schizophrenia is a multi-phased phenomenon and that unawareness into particular symptoms varies widely. The overlap between unawareness dimensions and psychopathology is small and seems to be restricted to positive and cognitive symptoms, supporting the accounts from cognitive neurosciences that suggest that besides basic cognition poor insight may be in part a failure of self-reflection or strategic metacognition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Affective temperaments are associated with specific clusters of symptoms and psychopathology: a cross-sectional study on bipolar disorder inpatients in acute manic, mixed, or depressive relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iasevoli, Felice; Valchera, Alessandro; Di Giovambattista, Emanuela; Marconi, Massimo; Rapagnani, Maria Paola; De Berardis, Domenico; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fornaro, Michele; Mazza, Monica; Tomasetti, Carmine; Buonaguro, Elisabetta F; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Perugi, Giulio; de Bartolomeis, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether different affective temperaments could be related to a specific mood disorder diagnosis and/or to different therapeutic choices in inpatients admitted for an acute relapse of their primary mood disorder. Hundred and twenty-nine inpatients were consecutively assessed by means of the Structured and Clinical Interview for axis-I disorders/Patient edition and by the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Scale for Depression and for Anxiety, Brief Psychiatry Rating Scale, Clinical Global impression, Drug Attitude Inventory, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, and Symptoms Checklist-90 items version, along with records of clinical and demographic data. The following prevalence rates for axis-I mood diagnoses were detected: bipolar disorder type I (BD-I, 28%), type II (31%), type not otherwise specified (BD-NOS, 33%), major depressive disorder (4%), and schizoaffective disorder (4%). Mean scores on the hyperthymic temperament scale were significantly higher in BD-I and BD-NOS, and in mixed and manic acute states. Hyperthymic temperament was significantly more frequent in BD-I and BD-NOS patients, whereas depressive temperament in BD-II ones. Hyperthymic and irritable temperaments were found more frequently in mixed episodes, while patients with depressive and mixed episodes more frequently exhibited anxious and depressive temperaments. Affective temperaments were associated with specific symptom and psychopathology clusters, with an orthogonal subdivision between hyperthymic temperament and anxious/cyclothymic/depressive/irritable temperaments. Therapeutic choices were often poorly differentiated among temperaments and mood states. Cross-sectional design; sample size. Although replication studies are needed, current results suggest that temperament-specific clusters of symptoms severity and psychopathology domains could be

  4. Representational constraints on children's suggestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Stephen J; Papierno, Paul B; Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2007-06-01

    In a multistage experiment, twelve 4- and 9-year-old children participated in a triad rating task. Their ratings were mapped with multidimensional scaling, from which euclidean distances were computed to operationalize semantic distance between items in target pairs. These children and age-mates then participated in an experiment that employed these target pairs in a story, which was followed by a misinformation manipulation. Analyses linked individual and developmental differences in suggestibility to children's representations of the target items. Semantic proximity was a strong predictor of differences in suggestibility: The closer a suggested distractor was to the original item's representation, the greater was the distractor's suggestive influence. The triad participants' semantic proximity subsequently served as the basis for correctly predicting memory performance in the larger group. Semantic proximity enabled a priori counterintuitive predictions of reverse age-related trends to be confirmed whenever the distance between representations of items in a target pair was greater for younger than for older children.

  5. Psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in urban adolescents with suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerville, M B; Kaslow, N J; Abbate, M F; Cronan, S

    1994-04-01

    This study examined psychopathology, family functioning, and cognitive style in 121 African-American adolescents who attempted suicide. Group means suggested that these youths, when taken together, were not reporting significant psychological distress. However, after classifying the youths into three groups by level of depressive symptoms interesting findings emerged. Youth self-reports of depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory were associated with the presence of internalizing and externalizing disorders on the Youth Self-Report and Child Behavior Checklist, and with a maladaptive attributional style. Sixty-seven percent of participants classified their family types as maladaptive in terms of levels of cohesion and/or adaptability. In fact, the majority of adolescents and parents reported their families as disengaged. These findings are discussed from a culturally and developmentally sensitive framework which considers key demographic variables (race, socioeconomic status, age). Clinical implications are offered for individual and family interventions.

  6. The theoretical root of Karl Jaspers' General Psychopathology. Part 2: The influence of Max Weber.

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    Kumazaki, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    The present study explores and compares Jaspers' methodology of psychopathology with Weber's methodology of sociology. In his works, Weber incorporated the arguments of many other researchers into his own methodology. Jaspers respected Weber as a mentor and presented arguments that were very similar to Weber's. Both Weber and Jaspers began from empathic understanding, but at the same time aimed for a rational and ideal-typical conceptualization. In addition, their methodologies were similar with respect to their detailed terminology. Such similarities cannot be seen with any other scholars. This suggests that Weber may have played an integral role as a mediator between his contemporary scholars and Jaspers. Thus, Weber may have had the most significant influence on Jaspers.

  7. Asymmetric Drug-Induced Parkinsonism and Psychopathology: A Prospective Naturalistic Study in Long-Stay Psychiatric Patients

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    Lydia E. Pieters

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDrug-induced parkinsonism (DIP is the most common movement disorder induced by antipsychotics. Although DIP is mostly symmetric, asymmetric DIP is reported in a substantial part of the patients. We investigated the frequency of motor asymmetry in DIP and its relationship to the severity of psychopathology in long-stay psychiatric patients.MethodsWe obtained data from a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric patients on the frequency and risk factors of tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, tardive dystonia, and DIP. From July 2003 to May 2007 (mean follow-up, 1.1 year drug-induced movement disorders were assessed at least two times in each patient, with a frequency of persistent DIP of 56.2%. All patients who had at least one time parkinsonism in the upper/lower limb(s were included for analyses (190 patients, 79 women; mean age, 48.0 ± 12.9 years. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale motor scale was used to calculate the frequency of asymmetric parkinsonism. Multilevel mixed models were built to explore the relationship between asymmetry in parkinsonism and the severity of psychopathology, measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale severity index (CGI-SCH SI.ResultsThe frequency of asymmetric parkinsonism was 20.8%. Asymmetry in parkinsonism was associated with symptom severity on all CGI-SCH SI scales (β range, 0.37–3.74 and significantly associated with the positive symptom scale (β, 3.74; 95% CI, 0.35–7.31.ConclusionDIP is asymmetric in a substantial part of patients. Asymmetric presentation of DIP is of clinical relevance as it is related to the severity of psychopathology and may alert the clinician of more severe psychopathology. Future research is recommended to provide insight into the neuropsychopathology and clinical value of asymmetric parkinsonism for psychiatric patients.

  8. The psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia: Preliminary data of a 13-year follow-up

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    Mehler-Wex Claudia

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little is known about the long-term psychopathological and psychosocial outcome of early-onset schizophrenia. The existing literature describes more severe courses of illness in these patients compared with adult-onset schizophrenia. This article reports preliminary data of a study exploring the outcome of early-onset schizophrenia 13.4 years (mean after first admission. Predictors for interindividual outcomes were investigated. Methods We retrospectively assessed 27 former patients (mean age at first admission 15.5 years, SD = 2.0 that were consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Wuerzburg between 1990 and 2000. A multidimensional approach was chosen to assess the outcome consisting of a mail survey including different questions about psychopathological symptoms, psychosocial parameters, and standardized self-reports (ESI and ADS. Results Concerning the psychopathological outcome, 22.2% reported having acute schizophrenic symptoms. Almost one third (30.8% described symptoms of depression and 37.0% reported having tried to commit suicide or seriously thought about it. 77.8% of the former patients were still in outpatient treatment. Compared to the general population, the number of patients without a school graduation was relatively high (18.5%. Almost half of participants still live with their parents (48.1% or in assisted or semi-assisted living conditions (33.3%. Only 18.5% were working in the open market. Conclusion Schizophrenia with an early onset has an unfavourable prognosis. Our retrospective study of the psychopathological and psychosocial outcome concludes with a generally poor rating.

  9. Development of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A): gender differences in emotional responses to family mealtimes and eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Hannah J; Haycraft, Emma; Wallis, Deborah J; Arcelus, Jon; Leung, Newman; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Mealtime Emotions Measure for adolescents (MEM-A), a novel measure of emotional responses experienced during family mealtimes. Additionally, it examined gender differences in mealtime emotions and also the relationships between mealtime emotions and levels of eating psychopathology, when controlling for anxiety or depression. Adolescent participants (N = 527; 282 girls, 245 boys) with a mean age of 15.9 years completed the new mealtime measure for adolescents (MEM-A), in addition to questions about family mealtime atmosphere, and measures assessing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and eating psychopathology. Factor analysis produced a three factor solution for the MEM-A with two subscales relating to different types of negative mealtime emotions (Anxiety-related mealtime emotions and Anger-related mealtime emotions) and one subscale relating to Positive mealtime emotions. Generally, girls reported experiencing more Anxiety-related mealtime emotions compared to boys. Having conducted separate analyses controlling for levels of either anxiety or depression, there were several significant associations for both girls and boys between mealtime emotions, particularly Anxiety-related emotions, and eating psychopathology. The findings suggest that some mealtime emotions are associated with increased eating psychopathology. Replication and detailed examination of these emotional responses is required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rumination in Patients with Binge-Eating Disorder and Obesity: Associations with Eating-Disorder Psychopathology and Weight-bias Internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shirley B; Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2017-03-01

    Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that rumination was associated with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization above and beyond the influence of overvaluation of shape/weight. Findings suggest that, among patients with BED/obesity, rumination is an important cognitive process associated with severity of eating-disorder psychopathology even after accounting for overvaluation of shape/weight. Patients with greater rumination might be more likely to dwell on weight-based discrimination experiences and internalize these negative attitudes. Additional controlled examination could determine whether rumination represents another potential target for BED/obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

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    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  12. Crossing the invisible line: De-differentiation of wake, sleep and dreaming may engender both creative insight and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Writing about dreaming, the poet Raymond Carver said "I feel as if I've crossed some kind of invisible line". In creative people, the "line" between wake, dreaming and psychopathology may be porous, engendering a de-differentiated, super-critical, hybrid state. Evidence exists for a relationship between creativity and psychopathology but its nature has been elusive. De-differentiation between wake, sleep and dreaming may be the common substrate, as dream-like cognition pervades wake and wake-like neurophysiology suffuses sleep. Chaos theory posits brain states as inherently labile, transient and dynamically unstable. Over and above transient dissociations, an enduring and, sometimes, progressive, de-differentiation may be possible. Evidence indicates that sleep and dreaming facilitate creative insight. In consequence, a mild to moderate form of de-differentiation may enhance creativity but if wake-like neurobiology permeates sleep this may disrupt sleep-dependent memory processing and emotional regulation. If de-differentiation is progressive and enduring, various forms of psychopathology may result. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wittgenstein and the limits of empathic understanding in psychopathology.

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    Thornton, Tim

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this paper is three-fold. Firstly, to briefly set out how strategic choices made about theorising about intentionality or content have actions at a distance for accounting for delusion. Secondly, to investigate how successfully a general difficulty facing a broadly interpretative approach to delusions might be eased by the application of any of three Wittgensteinian interpretative tools. Thirdly, to draw a general moral about how the later Wittgenstein gives more reason to be pessimistic than optimistic about the prospects of a philosophical psychopathology aimed at empathic understanding of delusions.

  14. Differential blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Alvarez, Leticia; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Gonzalez-Blanco, Leticia; Saiz Martinez, Pilar Alejandra; de la Fuente-Tomas, Lorena; Menendez-Miranda, Isabel; Iglesias, Celso; Bobes, Julio

    Symptomatology of schizophrenia is heterogeneous, there is not any pathognomonic symptom. Moreover, the diagnosis is difficult, since it is based on subjective information, instead of markers. The purpose of this study is to provide a review of the current status of blood-based biomarkers of psychopathological dimensions of schizophrenia. Inflammatory, hormonal or metabolic dysfunctions have been identified in patients with schizophrenia and it has attempted to establish biomarkers responsible for these dysfunctions. The identification of these biomarkers could contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Review paper. Does genius border on insanity? Part I: A relationship between creativity and the presence of psychopathological symptoms in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka Olga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theory linking the development of mental disorders with the processes of human evolution assumes that these disorders may be the result of a side effect of natural and sexual selection processes. Creativity is one of the adaptive features associated with the increased incidence of psychopathological symptoms (as compared to the general population.

  16. Unreliability as a Threat to Understanding Psychopathology: The Cautionary Tale of Attentional Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Scullin, Rachel B.; Langer, Julia K.; Dixon, David J.; Huppert, Jonathan D.; Bernstein, Amit; Zvielli, Ariel; Lenze, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of unreliable measures constitutes a threat to our understanding of psychopathology, because advancement of science using both behavioral and biologically-oriented measures can only be certain if such measurements are reliable. Two pillars of NIMH’s portfolio – the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative for psychopathology and the target engagement initiative in clinical trials – cannot succeed without measures that possess the high reliability necessary for tests involving mediation and selection based on individual differences. We focus on the historical lack of reliability of attentional bias measures as an illustration of how reliability can pose a threat to our understanding. Our own data replicate previous findings of poor reliability for traditionally-used scores, which suggests a serious problem with the ability to test theories regarding attentional bias. This lack of reliability may also suggest problems with the assumption (in both theory and the formula for the scores) that attentional bias is consistent and stable across time. In contrast, measures accounting for attention as a dynamic process in time show good reliability in our data. The field is sorely in need of research reporting findings and reliability for attentional bias scores using multiple methods, including those focusing on dynamic processes over time. We urge researchers to test and report reliability of all measures, considering findings of low reliability not just as a nuisance but as an opportunity to modify and improve upon the underlying theory. Full assessment of reliability of measures will maximize the possibility that RDoC (and psychological science more generally) will succeed. PMID:27322741

  17. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  18. Reinventing suggestion systems for continuous improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuring, R.W.; Luijten, Harald

    2001-01-01

    This article reports an experiment to increase the effectiveness of a suggestion system by deliberately applying principles of the kaizen and performance management. Design rules for suggestion systems are derived from these theories. The suggestion system that resulted differs from traditional

  19. S4. ASYMMETRIC DRUG-INDUCED PARKINSONISM IS RELATED TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Lydia; Bakker, P Roberto; Van Harten, Peter N

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Drug-Induced Parkinsonism (DIP) is the most common movement disorder induced by antipsychotics. The prevalence of DIP in chronic psychiatric populations ranges between 17 and 72% (1–3). Although, DIP is mostly symmetric, asymmetric DIP is reported in 18 to 54% of the patients. (4). There are no studies to the clinical relevance of asymmetric DIP. We investigated the prevalence of motor asymmetry in DIP and its relationship to the severity of psychopathology in a prospective study. Methods In a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric inpatients the prevalence of DIP was assessed at least two times (mean follow-up 1.1 year) in each patient (5). DIP was assessed with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the prevalence of persistent DIP was 56.2%. Patients with at least one time parkinsonism in the upper/lower limb(s) were included for analyses. Asymmetry of parkinsonism was calculated with the symmetry index (Figure 1). A cut-off value of ≥ 0,20 was used for the definition of asymmetric DIP. Multilevel mixed models were built to explore the relationship between asymmetry in DIP and the severity of psychopathology, measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale severity index (CGI-SCH SI). Results In a cohort study of 207 long-stay psychiatric inpatients the prevalence of DIP was assessed at least two times (mean follow-up 1.1 year) in each patient (5). DIP was assessed with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and the prevalence of persistent DIP was 56.2%. Patients with at least one time parkinsonism in the upper/lower limb(s) were included for analyses. Asymmetry of parkinsonism was calculated with the symmetry index (Figure 1). A cut-off value of ≥ 0,20 was used for the definition of asymmetric DIP. Multilevel mixed models were built to explore the relationship between asymmetry in DIP and the severity of psychopathology, measured on the Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale

  20. Interrogative suggestibility in opiate users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, A; Edelmann, R J; Davis, P E

    1996-09-01

    The present study investigated interrogative suggestibility in opiate users. A group of patients undergoing a methadone detoxification programme in an in-patient drug treatment unit (Detox group, n = 21), and a group of residents who had come off drugs and were no longer suffering from withdrawal syndrome (Rehab group, n = 19) were compared on interrogative suggestibility and various other psychological factors. Significant differences were found between the two groups, with the Detox group having more physical and psychological problems, and a higher total suggestibility score in comparison with the Rehab group. These findings are discussed in relation to the context of police interrogations and the reliability of confessions made by suspects and witnesses dependent on opiates.

  1. Suggestibility and negative priming: two replication studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Daniel; Brown, Richard J

    2002-07-01

    Research suggests that inhibiting the effect of irrelevant stimuli on subsequent thought and action (cognitive inhibition) may be an important component of suggestibility. Two small correlation studies were conducted to address the relationship between different aspects of suggestibility and individual differences in cognitive inhibition, operationalized as the degree of negative priming generated by to-be-ignored stimuli in a semantic categorization task. The first study found significant positive correlations between negative priming, hypnotic suggestibility, and creative imagination; a significant negative correlation was obtained between negative priming and interrogative suggestibility, demonstrating the discriminant validity of the study results. The second study replicated the correlation between negative priming and hypnotic suggestibility, using a different suggestibility measurement procedure that assessed subjective experience and hypnotic involuntariness as well as objective responses to suggestions. These studies support the notion that the ability to engage in cognitive inhibition may be an important component of hypnotic responsivity and maybe of other forms of suggestibility.

  2. A review of overgeneral memory in child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Caitlin; Nixon, Reginald D V; Weber, Nathan

    2014-06-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) refers to the impaired retrieval of specific events from autobiographical memory. This review examined OGM in children and adolescents to answer three main questions. First, do children demonstrate OGM? Second, how does the experience of OGM relate to childhood trauma and associated psychopathology? Third, is the CaR-FA-X model (Williams et al., 2007) able to explain OGM in child psychopathology once developmental issues have been considered? Articles were identified in PsycINFO and PubMed searches using the terms overgeneral memory AND children, autobiographical memory specificity AND children, and autobiographical memory AND children. The authors reviewed 21 articles that examined OGM in young people aged 7–18 years. Effect sizes were calculated for each study. The review demonstrated consistent support for a relationship with trauma exposure and depression symptoms in childhood. Furthermore, OGM was found to predict depression symptoms. Limited support was provided for the efficacy of the CaR-FA-X model in young people. Future research will need to examine the influence of trauma characteristics on OGM development, along with the relationship of OGM to depression prognosis. Further investigation of the CaR-FA-X model is required and developmental aspects will need to be taken into account.

  3. Findings of psychopathology and computerized tomography in neuropsychiatric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, G.; Huber, G.; Schuettler, R.

    1982-01-01

    1978-1980 we examined 451 patients of the Psychiatric University Clinic of Bonn by computerized tomography. From 260 patients with characterized diseases of the brain and brain damages 78 patients had neuropsychiatric diseases of old age, i.e. cerebro-vascular processes (average age of 63.7 years) and 9 patients had primary degenerative processes of the brain (average age of 62.1 years). Patients with diseases of the cerebral vessels showed irreversible psychopathological syndromes in 87%. The rate of pathological findings in CT increases in relation to degree of severity of the chronic (irreversible) organic psychosyndromes from 76% in pseudoneurasthenics syndromes to 93% in patients with organic changes of personality and to 100% in patients with dementia. The ambiguity of the conception of the multi-infarct-dementia is discussed. Only 19% of the sample with irreversible psychopathological changes showed localized neurological deficits and infarctions in CT, but none of them more than one. In all patients with dementia a cortical atrophy was found. There is a significant positive correlation between cerebral atrophy in CT and irreversible organic psychosyndrome. These findings with computerized tomography demonstrate in accordance with earlier pneumoencephalographic findings that distinct types of irreversible psychosyndromes can be correlated to distinct types of cerebral atrophy. But these statistical correlations between the degree of the severity of the loss of psychic functions and the reduction of cerebral tissue are not necessarily valid for any single case. (orig.) [de

  4. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  5. Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Sagdeo, Aditi; Galea, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to systematically appraise the peer-reviewed literature about clustered forms of psychopathology and to present a framework that can be useful for studying comorbid psychiatric disorders. The review focuses on four of the most prevalent types of mental health problems: anxiety, depression, conduct disorder, and substance abuse. The authors summarize existing empirical research on the distribution of concurrent and sequential comorbidity in children and adolescents and in adults, and they review existing knowledge about exogenous risk factors that influence comorbidity. The authors include articles that used a longitudinal study design and used psychiatric definitions of the disorders. A total of 58 articles met the inclusion criteria and were assessed. Current evidence demonstrates a reciprocal, sequential relation between most comorbid pairs, although the mechanisms that mediate such links remain to be explained. Methodological concerns include the inconsistency of measurement of the disorders across studies, small sample sizes, and restricted follow-up times. Given the significant mental health burden placed by comorbid disorders, and their high prevalence across populations, research on the key risk factors for clustering of psychopathology is needed.

  6. Psychometric and Structural Analysis of the MMPI-2 Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) Facet Subscales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) is a model of personality psychopathology assessed in adult populations with a set of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales. The authors examine the reliability and validity of recently developed lower-order facet subscales for each of these five domains, with an emphasis on…

  7. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  8. Discrete Emotion Regulation Strategy Repertoires and Parasympathetic Physiology Characterize Psychopathology Symptoms in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-Camacho, Laura E.; Davis, Elizabeth L.

    2018-01-01

    Certain psychopathologies are often linked to dysregulation of specific emotions (e.g., anxiety is associated with dysregulation of fear), but few studies have examined how regulatory repertoires for specific emotions (e.g., the strategies a person uses to regulate fear) relate to psychopathology, and fewer still have examined this in childhood. A…

  9. Moderators of Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Adolescent Psychopathology: Extension to a Forensic Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Stephanie R.; Skilling, Tracey A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-documented finding in developmental psychopathology research is that different informants often provide discrepant ratings of a youth's internalizing and externalizing problems. The current study examines youth- and parent-based moderators (i.e., youth age, gender, and IQ; type of psychopathology; offense category; psychopathic traits;…

  10. Emotional Psychopathology and Increased Adiposity: Follow-Up Study in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Estefania; Canals, Josefa; Voltas, Nuria; Hernandez-Martinez, Carmen; Arija, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from a three-year longitudinal study, we assess the effect, according to gender, of emotional psychopathology in preadolescence on anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescence (N = 229). Psychopathology was assessed using the "Screen for Childhood Anxiety and Related Emotional Disorders, the Children's…

  11. Degree of Exposure to Domestic Violence, Psychopathology, and Functional Impairment in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…

  12. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…

  13. Parental psychopathology and the early developing child: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Lambregtse-van den Berg (Mijke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractUp to now research tradition particularly focused on the influence of maternal psychopathology on the early developing infant. There are two main reasons to focus on paternal psychopathology during pregnancy. Firstly, fathers contribute 50% of their children’s genes and depression and

  14. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  15. Severity of borderline personality symptoms in adolescence: relationship with maternal parenting stress, maternal psychopathology, and rearing styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H.M.; Albers, C.J.; Minderaa, R.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Nauta, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  16. Severity of Borderline Personality Symptoms in Adolescence : Relationship With Maternal Parenting Stress, Maternal Psychopathology, and Rearing Styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuppert, H. Marieke; Albers, Casper J.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Emmelkamp, Paulus; Nauta, Maaike H.

    The development of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with parenting styles and parental psychopathology. Only a few studies have examined current parental rearing styles and parental psychopathology in relationship to BPD symptoms in adolescents. Moreover, parenting stress

  17. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a hig