WorldWideScience

Sample records for psychopathology results suggest

  1. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  2. Memory and Suggestibility in Maltreated Children: Age, Stress Arousal, Dissociation, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.; Davis, Suzanne L.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed 3- to 17-year-olds' memory and suggestibility in the context of ongoing child maltreatment investigations. Results from 189 subjects indicated that general psychopathology, short-term memory, and intellectual ability predicted facets of children's memory performance. Older compared to young children evinced fewer memory errors…

  3. Event Memory and Suggestibility in Abused and Neglected Children: Trauma-Related Psychopathology and Cognitive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yoojin; Goodman, Gail S.; Eisen, Mitchell L.; Qin, Jianjian

    2011-01-01

    This study examined event memory and suggestibility in 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of child maltreatment. A total of 322 children were interviewed about a play activity with an unfamiliar adult. Comprehensive measures of individual differences in trauma-related psychopathology and cognitive functioning were administered.…

  4. [THE RESULTS OF CLINICAL AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INVESTIGATIONS EMPLOYEES OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS WHICH WERE IDENTIFIED NEUROTIC DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovyova, M

    2014-12-01

    The article presents the results of the clinical and psychopathological and psychological diagnostic, investigations mental health employees of financial institutions, description and analysis of clinical forms identified disorders.

  5. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  6. Creativity and Psychopathology: Sex Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…

  7. Parental bonding and adult psychopathology: results from the US National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Cox, B J; Clara, I

    2002-08-01

    Research using the parental bonding instrument (PBI) has suggested that lack of parental care and/or overprotection may be important risk factors for adult mental disorders. Much of this research, however, has relied on clinical populations with one or two disorders, or has used highly select community samples. The association between parenting experiences and the occurrence of 13 common mental disorders in adulthood was evaluated in the US National Comorbidity Survey (N = 5877). The effect of sociodemographic variables (age, education, income) was statistically controlled and the effects of six parenting variables (maternal and paternal care, overprotection and authoritarianism) were examined simultaneously. The effects in men and women were examined separately. Lack of care was the parenting variable most consistently associated with adult psychopathology. Parenting experiences with one's mother were more consistently associated with adult mental disorders. In general the impact of parenting was diagnostically non-specific. However, there appeared to be some unique effects for externalizing disorders (substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder) in males; paternal overprotection and authoritarianism conferred a reduced risk of externalizing disorders in adult males. The overall impact of parenting as assessed by the PBI was modest, accounting for about 1 to 5 % of the variance in the occurrence of adult mental disorders. Parenting experiences, particularly lack of care, are potentially causally related in a non-specific manner to a wide variety of forms of adult psychopathology in both men and women. The overall magnitude of the effect is small but statistically significant in a nationally representative US sample.

  8. Education in Psychopathology in Europe: Results from a Survey in 32 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Andrea; Sampogna, Gaia; Del Vecchio, Valeria; Luciano, Mario; Ambrosini, Alessandra; Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present paper is to assess the current status of training on psychopathology in Europe and to identify the unmet needs of training on psychopathology. An online survey was carried out during the period July-December 2013. Forty-one representatives of early career psychiatrists of their national associations were invited to participate. Each respondent was asked to provide the collective feedback of the association rather than that of any of its individual officer or member. Thirty-two associations returned the questionnaire out of the 41 contacted (response rate, 78%). All respondents recognized psychopathology as a core component of training in psychiatry. According to respondents, the primary aims of psychopathology are (a) to assess psychiatric symptoms (47%), (b) to understand patients' abnormal experiences (33%), and (c) to make nosographical diagnosis (20%). A formal training course in psychopathology is available in 29 out of the 32 surveyed countries. In most countries, (a) there is not a defined number of hours dedicated to psychopathology, (b) teaching is mainly theoretical, and (c) a structured training on psychometric tools is missing. At the end of the training, about half of trainees is not satisfied with received training in psychopathology. According to European early career psychiatrists, there is the need to rethink training in psychopathology, which should be at the heart of training in psychiatry and the key element of psychiatric practice. Education in psychopathology is affected by several unmet needs, such as lack of appropriate training in the use of psychometric instruments, lack of supervision, and lack of practical skills.

  9. Evidence-based treatments for children with trauma-related psychopathology as a result of childhood maltreatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenarts, Laura E W; Diehle, Julia; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Jansma, Elise P; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2013-05-01

    This is a systematic review of evidence-based treatments for children exposed to childhood maltreatment. Because exposure to childhood maltreatment has been associated with a broad range of trauma-related psychopathology (e.g., PTSD, anxiety, suicidal ideation, substance abuse) and with aggressive and violent behavior, this review describes psychotherapeutic treatments which focus on former broad range of psychopathological outcomes. A total of 26 randomized controlled clinical trials and seven non-randomized controlled clinical trials published between 2000 and 2012 satisfied the inclusionary criteria and were included. These studies dealt with various kinds of samples, from sexually abused and maltreated children in child psychiatric outpatient clinics or in foster care to traumatized incarcerated boys. A total of 27 studies evaluated psychotherapeutic treatments which used trauma-focused cognitive, behavioral or cognitive-behavioral techniques; only two studies evaluated trauma-specific treatments for children and adolescents with comorbid aggressive or violent behavior; and four studies evaluated psychotherapeutic treatments that predominantly focused on other mental health problems than PTSD and used non-trauma focused cognitive, behavioral or cognitive-behavioral techniques. The results of this review suggest that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) is the best-supported treatment for children following childhood maltreatment. However, in line with increased interest in the diagnosis of complex PTSD and given the likely relationship between childhood maltreatment and aggressive and violent behavior, the authors suggest that clinical practice should address a phase-oriented approach. This review concludes with a discussion of future research directions and limitations.

  10. Relationship of indicators of neuropathology, psychopathology, and effort to neuropsychological results in patients with epilepsy or psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Dona E C; Berry, David T R; Fakhoury, Toufic A; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2006-04-01

    Previous research suggests epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizure (PNES) patients do not show consistent group differences on neuropsychological measures. However, both groups of patients show decreased neuropsychological performance when compared to a normal population (Cragar, Berry, Fakhoury, Cibula, & Schmitt, 2002). Swanson, Springer, Benbadis, and Morris (2000) have suggested epilepsy patients show decreased neurocognitive functioning due to neuropathology whereas PNES patients show decreased neurocognitive functioning due to psychopathology. Effort has also been implicated as an important factor in neuropsychological test results in general (Green, 2003). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships of medical history variables (e.g., duration of disorder), neuropathology, psychopathology, and effort to neuropsychological findings in epilepsy and PNES patients. Neuropsychological functioning was divided into six domains: intelligence, memory, language, executive functions, visual-spatial, and motor. Results indicated that medical history variables were related to intellectual, memory, language, and motor functioning. Psychopathology was associated with all cognitive domains except executive functioning. Effort was related to intellectual, memory, language, visual-spatial, and motor functioning. Neuropathology and diagnosis were related only to memory.

  11. Alexithymia and schizophrenic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-04-01

    This research is an attempt to gain a comprehensive insight into alexithymia in schizophrenia. Previous studies offered clinically-descriptive and phenomenologically oriented suggestions regarding alexithymia putative contribution in shaping schizophrenic psychopathology. However, the factorial structure of the scales used to assess alexithymia had never been applied to a schizophrenic sample as a preliminary step to interpret results, thus assuming the purported dimensions of the alexithymia construct (i.e. difficulties identifying feelings, difficulties describing feelings, and externally oriented thinking) to be transnosographically stable. In order to explore the psychopathologic meaning and interrelations with other schizophrenic symptoms, we evaluated 76 chronic schizophrenic outpatients using the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, standardized measures of positive, negative, disorganized and depressive symptoms, social and physical anhedonia scales, and the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. The principal component analysis ofTAS-20 items revealed a 4-factor structure with multiple correlations with psychotic, disorganized, depressive, anhedonic dimensions and basic symptoms. The data suggest that alexithymia in schizophrenia is more heterogeneous than was previously recognized, and has several components, some of which are more state-related, and others of which are more like trait features. Those components are specifically correlated with both overt and subjective dimensions of schizophrenic psychopathology.

  12. Fathers' behaviors and children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini

    2010-04-01

    The psychological literature on how fathers' behaviors may be related to children's psychopathology has grown substantially in the last three decades. This growth is the result of research asking the following three overarching questions: (1) what is the association between family structure, and particularly biological fathers' non-residence, and children's psychopathology, (2) what is the association between fathers' parenting and children's psychopathology, and (3) what is the association between fathers' psychopathology and children's psychopathology. The three broad theoretical perspectives relevant to this literature are the standard family environment model, the passive genetic model, and the child effects model. The evidence from studies comparing the first two models seems to suggest that the origin of the association between parental divorce and children's emotional and behavioral problems is largely shared environmental in origin, as is the association between resident fathers' parenting and children's emotional and behavioral problems, according to studies comparing the standard family environment model with the child effects model. However, research needs to compare appropriately all theoretical perspectives. The paper discusses this, and also points to the importance of considering theory-driven specificity in modeling effects.

  13. Parental psychopathology and the risk of suicidal behavior in their offspring: results from the World Mental Health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, O; Oladeji, B; Hwang, I; Chiu, W T; Kessler, R C; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Beautrais, A; Borges, G; Bromet, E; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Graaf, R; Gal, G; He, Y; Hu, C; Iwata, N; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masféty, V; Matschinger, H; Moldovan, M V; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scocco, P; Seedat, S; Tomov, T; Nock, M K

    2011-12-01

    Previous research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive aggression (for example, antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (for example, panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55 299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (that is, time since most recent episode controlling for age of onset and time since onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental antisocial personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt was also found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among

  14. Parental Psychopathology and the Risk of Suicidal Behavior in their Offspring: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola; Hwang, Irving; Chiu, Wai Tat; Kessler, Ronald C.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Alonso, Jordi; Andrade, Laura Helena; Beautrais, Annette; Borges, Guilherme; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Gal, Gilad; He, Yanling; Hu, Chiyi; Iwata, Noboru; Karam, Elie G.; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane; Matschinger, Herbert; Moldovan, Mona Victoria; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Scocco, Paolo; Seedat, Soraya; Tomov, Toma; Nock, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research suggests that parental psychopathology predicts suicidal behavior among offspring; however, the more fine-grained associations between specific parental disorders and distinct stages of the pathway to suicide are not well-understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that parental disorders associated with negative mood would predict offspring suicide ideation, whereas disorders characterized by impulsive-aggression (e,g., antisocial personality) and anxiety/agitation (e.g., panic disorder) would predict which offspring act on their suicide ideation and make a suicide attempt. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews conducted on nationally representative samples (N=55,299; age 18+) from 21 countries around the world. We tested the associations between a range of parental disorders and the onset and persistence over time (i.e., time-since-most-recent-episode controlling for age-of-onset and time-since-onset) of subsequent suicidal behavior (suicide ideation, plans, and attempts) among offspring. Analyses tested bivariate and multivariate associations between each parental disorder and distinct forms of suicidal behavior. Results revealed that each parental disorder examined increased the risk of suicide ideation among offspring, parental generalized anxiety and depression emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence (respectively) of suicide plans among offspring with ideation, whereas parental anti-social personality and anxiety disorders emerged as the only predictors of the onset and persistence of suicide attempts among ideators. A dose-response relation between parental disorders and respondent risk of suicide ideation and attempt also was found. Parental death by suicide was a particularly strong predictor of persistence of suicide attempts among offspring. These associations remained significant after controlling for comorbidity of parental disorders and for the presence of mental disorders among offspring. These

  15. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  16. Psychopathology and thought suppression: a quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K Paige; Teachman, Bethany A

    2012-04-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression.

  17. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  18. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-10-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone. To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between the individual development of the child and demands and expectations in the specific relations and institutions in which the child participates. This incongruence creates and strengthens negative factors for the child with disability and results in a higher risk of psychopathology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A hermeneutic framework for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the scope and limitations of descriptive and clinical psychopathology, this paper focuses on the method and intention of structural psychopathology. Structural psychopathology goes beyond the description of isolated symptoms and the use of some of those symptoms to establish a diagnosis. It aims to understand the meaning of a given world of experiences and actions grasping the underlying characteristic modification that keeps the symptoms meaningfully interconnected. Building on and expanding some basic phenomenological and hermeneutical principles, and applying them to the study of abnormal human subjectivity, this paper suggests the methodological guidelines for a structurally informed psychopathological interview.

  20. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  1. Intimate Relationships and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Baucom, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Relationship functioning and individual mental health and well-being are strongly associated with one another. In this article, we first review the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between relationship discord and various types of psychopathology, We then review findings suggesting that relationship discord is associated with poorer…

  2. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  3. Predicting later problematic cannabis use from psychopathological symptoms during childhood and adolescence: Results of a 25-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohsel, Katrin; Baldus, Christiane; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Thomasius, Rainer; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal substance among adolescents and young adults. Problematic cannabis use is often associated with comorbid psychopathological problems. The purpose of the current study was to elucidate the underlying developmental processes connecting externalizing and internalizing psychopathology in childhood and adolescence with problematic cannabis use in young adulthood. Data were drawn from the Mannheim Study of Children at Risk, an ongoing epidemiological cohort study from birth to adulthood. For n=307 participants, symptom scores of conduct/oppositional defiant disorder, attention problems, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and internalizing disorders were available for the periods of childhood (4.5-11 years) and adolescence (15 years). At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was assessed via clinical interview and a self-rating questionnaire. At age 25 years, problematic cannabis use was identified in n=28 participants (9.1%). Childhood conduct/oppositional behavior problems were predictive of problematic cannabis use during young adulthood when comorbid symptoms were controlled for. No such effect was found for childhood attention, hyperactivity/impulsivity or internalizing problems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms during adolescence, only attention problems were significantly related to later problematic cannabis use when controlling for comorbidity. The current study highlights the role of conduct/oppositional behavior problems during childhood and attention problems during adolescence in later problematic cannabis use. It sheds more light on the developmental sequence of childhood and adolescence psychopathology and young adult cannabis use, which is a prerequisite for effective prevention approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Creativity and psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Mad Genius is a recurring stereotype of contemporary cultural expression. However, starting with Lombroso’s investigation of genius and madness in 1888, recent decades have seen an increasing number of empirical studies suggesting that there really is an association between creativity and psychopathology. Still, taken together, the empirical support is unconvincing - largely due to a heavy reliance on biographical data and small cohorts. The primary aim of this thesis is t...

  5. Rediscovering Psychopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Sass, Louis; Zahavi, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Questions concerning both the ontology and epistemology of the "psychiatric object" (symptoms and signs) should be at the forefront of current concerns of psychiatry as a clinical neuroscience. We argue that neglect of these issues is a crucial source of the stagnation of psychiatric research....... In honor of the centenary of Karl Jaspers' book, General Psychopathology, we offer a critique of the contemporary "operationalist" epistemology, a critique that is consistent with Jaspers' views. Symptoms and signs cannot be properly understood or identified apart from an appreciation of the nature...... in the phenomenal or experiential realm are therefore a fundamental prerequisite for classification, treatment, and research. This requires a multidisciplinary approach, incorporating (among other things) insights provided by psychology, phenomenological philosophy, and the philosophy of mind....

  6. Emotion Dysregulation and Adolescent Psychopathology: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Emotion regulation deficits have been consistently linked to psychopathology in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between emotion regulation and psychopathology is unclear. This study examined the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion regulation deficits and psychopathology in adolescents. Methods Emotion dysregulation and symptomatology (depression, anxiety, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology) were assessed in a large, diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1,065) at two time points separated by seven months. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between emotion dysregulation and symptoms of psychopathology. Results The three distinct emotion processes examined here (emotional understanding, dysregulated expression of sadness and anger, and ruminative responses to distress) formed a unitary latent emotion dysregulation factor. Emotion dysregulation predicted increases in anxiety symptoms, aggressive behavior, and eating pathology after controlling for baseline symptoms but did not predict depressive symptoms. In contrast, none of the four types of psychopathology predicted increases in emotion dysregulation after controlling for baseline emotion dysregulation. Conclusions Emotion dysregulation appears to be an important transdiagnostic factor that increases risk for a wide range of psychopathology outcomes in adolescence. These results suggest targets for preventive interventions during this developmental period of risk. PMID:21718967

  7. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  8. Adolescent attachment and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, D S; Horowitz, H A

    1996-04-01

    The relationships among attachment classification, psychopathology, and personality traits were examined in a group of 60 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. The concordance of attachment classification was examined in 27 adolescent-mother pairs. Both adolescent and maternal attachment status were overwhelmingly insecure and were highly concordant. Adolescents showing a dismissing attachment organization were more likely to have a conduct or substance abuse disorder, narcissistic or antisocial personality disorder, and self-reported narcissistic, antisocial, and paranoid personality traits. Adolescents showing a preoccupied attachment organization were more likely to have an affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive, histrionic, borderline or schizotypal personality disorder, and self-reported avoidant, anxious, and dysthymic personality traits. The results support a model of development of psychopathology based partially on relational experiences with parents.

  9. Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caraveo Anduaga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self

  10. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  11. Comparing Factor Structures of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam; Sprague, Jenessa

    2011-01-01

    Research on the structure of adolescent psychopathology can provide information on broad factors that underlie different forms of maladjustment in youths. Multiple studies from the literature on adult populations suggest that 2 factors, Internalizing and Externalizing, meaningfully comprise the factor structure of adult psychopathology (e.g.,…

  12. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  13. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  14. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  15. Correction of distortions in distressed mothers' ratings of their preschool children's psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jörg M; Furniss, Tilman

    2013-11-30

    The often-reported low informant agreement about child psychopathology between multiple informants has lead to various suggestions about how to address discrepant ratings. Among the factors that may lower agreement that have been discussed is informant credibility, reliability, or psychopathology, which is of interest in this paper. We tested three different models, namely, the accuracy, the distortion, and an integrated so-called combined model, that conceptualize parental ratings to assess child psychopathology. The data comprise ratings of child psychopathology from multiple informants (mother, therapist and kindergarten teacher) and ratings of maternal psychopathology. The children were patients in a preschool psychiatry unit (N=247). The results from structural equation modeling show that maternal ratings of child psychopathology were biased by maternal psychopathology (distortion model). Based on this statistical background, we suggest a method to adjust biased maternal ratings. We illustrate the maternal bias by comparing the ratings of mother to expert ratings (combined kindergarten teacher and therapist ratings) and show that the correction equation increases the agreement between maternal and expert ratings. We conclude that this approach may help to reduce misclassification of preschool children as 'clinical' on the basis of biased maternal ratings.

  16. Future in psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-03-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter's proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry.

  17. Externalizing and internalizing subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology and anger expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Diane T; Joseph, Jeremy S; Tharp, Andra T; C'de Baca, Janet; Torres-Sena, Lorraine M; Qualls, Clifford; Miller, Mark W

    2014-02-01

    Subtypes of posttraumatic psychopathology were replicated and extended in 254 female veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cluster analyses on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and Personality Psychopathology Five scales (Harkness, McNulty, & Ben-Porath, ) yielded internalizing and externalizing psychopathology dimensions, with a third low psychopathology group (simple PTSD). Externalizers were higher than the internalizers and the simple PTSD groups on the antisocial, substance, and aggression scales; internalizers were higher on depression and anxiety scales. Further validation included an independent measure of psychopathology to examine anger (Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, [BDHI]; Buss & Durkee, ). Externalizers were higher on extreme behavioral anger scales (assault and verbal hostility); and externalizers and internalizers were higher than the simple PTSD subjects on other anger scales. Positive correlations between the BDHI scales and the PTSD symptom of "irritability and anger outbursts" were found across scales in the total sample (range: r = .19-.36), on the assault scale in externalizers (r = .59), and the verbal hostility scale in both internalizers (r = .30) and simple PTSD (r = .37) groups, suggesting the broad utility of the symptom in the diagnosis. The results demonstrate the generalizability of the internalizing/externalizing typology to the female veteran population and highlight clinically relevant distinctions in anger expression within PTSD.

  18. Is working memory working against suggestion susceptibility? Results from extended version of DRM paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciaszek Patrycja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates relationship between working memory efficiency, defined as the result of its’ processing & storage capacity (Oberauer et al., 2003 and the tendency to (1 create assosiative memory distortions (false memories, FM; (2 yield under the influence of external, suggesting factors. Both issues were examined using extended version of Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure (1959, 1995, modified in order to meet the study demands. Suggestion was contained in an ostentatious feedback information the participants (N=88 received during the DRM procedure. Working memory (WM was measured by standardized tasks (n-back, Jaeggi et al., 2010; automatic-ospan, Unsworth et al., 2005. Study included 3 conditions, differing in the quality of suggestion (positive, negative or neutral. Participants were assigned into 3 groups, depending on results they achieved completing the WM tasks. Obtained results alongside the previously set hypothesis, revealed that (1 WM impacts individuals’ tendency to create false memories in DRM and (2 that the individuals showing higher rates in WM tasks are less willing to yield to suggestion compared to those with lesser ones. It also showed that the greater amount to shift (Gudjonsson, 2003, emerges under the negative suggestion condition (collating positive. Notwithstanding that the interaction effect did not achieve saliency, both analyzed factors (WM and suggesting content are considered as meaningful to explain memory suggestion susceptibility in presented study. Although, obtained results emphasize the crucial role of WM efficiency, that is believed to decide the magnitude of feedback that is influential in every subject. Therefore, issue demands further exploration.

  19. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  20. Nucleon resonance electroproduction at high momentum transers: Results from SLAC and suggestions for CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keppel, C. [Virginia Union Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Nucleon resonance electroproduction results from SLAC Experiment E14OX are presented. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy would enable similar high momentum transfer measurements to be made with greater accuracy. Of particular interest are the Delta P{sub 33}(1232) resonance form factor and R = {sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub T}, the ratio of the longitudinal and transverse components of the cross section. A suggestion is made to study these quantities in conjunction with Bloom-Gilman duality.

  1. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder: Associations With Childhood Trauma and Dimensions of Personality Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Marianne S; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean; Mathiesen, Birgit B; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-09-12

    The present study evaluates the severity of neurocognitive deficits and assesses their relations with self-reported childhood trauma and dimensions of personality psychopathology in 45 outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) matched to 56 non-psychiatric controls. Participants completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an elevated childhood history of physical trauma were each accompanied by more severe neurocognitive deficits. There were no statistically significant associations between neurocognitive function and dimensions of personality psychopathology. These results suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination.

  2. A general psychopathology factor in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Praveetha; Fonagy, Peter; Deighton, Jessica; Belsky, Jay; Vostanis, Panos; Wolpert, Miranda

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a general psychopathology dimension reflecting common aspects among disorders has been identified in adults. This has not yet been considered in children and adolescents, where the focus has been on externalising and internalising dimensions. To examine the existence, correlates and predictive value of a general psychopathology dimension in young people. Alternative factor models were estimated using self-reports of symptoms in a large community-based sample aged 11-13.5 years (N = 23 477), and resulting dimensions were assessed in terms of associations with external correlates and future functioning. Both a traditional two-factor model and a bi-factor model with a general psychopathology bi-factor fitted the data well. The general psychopathology bi-factor best predicted future psychopathology and academic attainment. Associations with correlates and factor loadings are discussed. A general psychopathology factor, which is equal across genders, can be identified in young people. Its associations with correlates and future functioning indicate that investigating this factor can increase our understanding of the aetiology, risk and correlates of psychopathology. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  3. Self-centrality, basic symptoms model and psychopathology in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggini, Carlo; Raballo, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The study's aim was to empirically derive the psychopathological constellation associated with self-centrality (i.e. non-delusional self-referential attitude) by seeking an interpretation in the light of the 'Basic Symptoms Model' of schizophrenic psychopathology. Eighty-four patients with an established schizophrenic illness receiving maintenance treatment at the Psychiatry Section of the Parma University Neuroscience Department were examined. The Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms, the Calgary Depression Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale were administered to all subjects to determine levels of positive, disorganized, negative and depressive symptoms, as well as alexithymia. Subjective experiences, including non-delusional self-centrality, were explored by means of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms. Logistic regression detected three different psychopathological domains (delusional, alexithymic, and basic body symptoms) strongly associated with self-centrality. Among these the most influential independent variable was basic body symptoms. These results suggest that impaired lived body experience (i.e. protopathic body disattunement) is a psychopathologic condition concomitant with the emergence of autocentric polarization of experience (i.e. self-centrality).

  4. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  5. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina; Simonsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...... subjects (n = 29) who reported psychopathology and levels of affective instability, aggression, impulsivity and alexithymia by self-report measures. RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that women with BPD have significant psychopathology and report significantly higher levels of dysfunction in separate...

  6. [Dependence disorders in psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L; Sztulman, H

    1999-01-01

    Research concerning the psychopathological aspects of dependence implicates a wide range of behaviors reassembled under the term of "dependence behaviors": sexual, medical, alcoholic and tobacco dependencies. Speech samples of dependent subjects show that encountering the object of dependence (product, element, ...) introduces a particular form of organized psychological processes. According to several authors, psychopathological dependence can be attributed to: early personality development; failures in the separation-individuation processes; disorders in mother-infant interactions; and a deficit in the psychological functioning of the subjects. For psychopathology, the dependence cannot be reduced to physiological dependence on the product but is understood rather in terms of a complex process indicative of either specific or non-specific suffering which is addressed by abused substance that represents a solution--the effects of which constitute the addictive process. Understanding this process requires an analysis of the psychopathological dependence from a triple meta-psychological viewpoint (topographical, dynamic, economic). Such analysis allows for a psychoanalytical theoretical interpretation of dependence based on three models: pleasure, narcissism and stress reduction. At the same time, the analysis extends the examination of psychopathological dependence towards issues concerning the body. Such body issues are critically placed between the biological and the psychological processes.

  7. Investigations of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation - results, conclusions and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Bilski, P; Horwacik, T; Marczewska, B; Ochab, E; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    In frame of a research project undertaken in collaboration with Polish airlines LOT, analysis of aircrews exposure to cosmic radiation has been performed. The applied methods included measurements of radiation doses with thermoluminescent detectors (MTS-N, MCP-N) and track detectors (CR-39) and also calculations of route doses with the CARI computer code. The obtained results indicate that aircrews of nearly all airplanes, with exception of these flying only on ATR aircraft, exceed regularly or may exceed in some conditions, effective doses of 1 mSv. In case of Boeing-767 aircrews such exceeding occurs always, independently of solar activity. Investigations revealed, that during these periods of the solar cycle, when intensity of cosmic radiation is high, exceeding of 6 mSv level is also possible. These results indicate, that according to Polish and European regulations it is necessary for airlines to provide regular estimations of radiation exposure of aircrews. Basing on the obtained results a system for pe...

  8. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g., the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008), however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010). Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck's study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck's study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008), where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  9. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  10. Tubulin dipole moment, dielectric constant and quantum behavior: computer simulations, experimental results and suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Mershin, A; Schüssler, H A; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V; Mershin, Andreas; Kolomenski, Alexandre A.; Schuessler, Hans A.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2004-01-01

    We used computer simulation to calculate the electric dipole moments of the alpha and beta tubulin monomers and dimer and found those to be |palpha|=552D, |pbeta|=1193D and |palpha-beta|=1740D respectively. Independent surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and refractometry measurements of the high-frequency dielectric constant and polarizability strongly corroborated our previous SPR-derived results giving delta-n/delta-c ~1.800x10^-3 ml/mg. The refractive index of tubulin was measured to be n_tub ~2.90 and the high frequency tubulin dielectric constant kappa_tub ~8.41 while the high-frequency polarizability was found to be alpha_tub ~ 2.1x10^-33 C m^2/V. Methods for the experimental determination of the low-frequency p are explored as well as ways to test the often conjectured quantum coherence and entanglement properties of tubulin. Biobits, bioqubits and other applications to bioelectronics are discussed.

  11. Testing for variation in taxonomic extinction probabilities: a suggested methodology and some results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, M.J.; Nichols, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Several important questions in evolutionary biology and paleobiology involve sources of variation in extinction rates. In all cases of which we are aware, extinction rates have been estimated from data in which the probability that an observation (e.g., a fossil taxon) will occur is related both to extinction rates and to what we term encounter probabilities. Any statistical method for analyzing fossil data should at a minimum permit separate inferences on these two components. We develop a method for estimating taxonomic extinction rates from stratigraphic range data and for testing hypotheses about variability in these rates. We use this method to estimate extinction rates and to test the hypothesis of constant extinction rates for several sets of stratigraphic range data. The results of our tests support the hypothesis that extinction rates varied over the geologic time periods examined. We also present a test that can be used to identify periods of high or low extinction probabilities and provide an example using Phanerozoic invertebrate data. Extinction rates should be analyzed using stochastic models, in which it is recognized that stratigraphic samples are random varlates and that sampling is imperfect

  12. Psychopathological features and suicidal ideation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Arianna; Sorarù, Gianni; Albertini, Elisa; Semenza, Carlo; Vottero-Ris, Francesca; D'Ascenzo, Carla; Querin, Giorgia; Zennaro, Alessandro; Pegoraro, Elena; Angelini, Corrado

    2010-12-01

    Psychopathological diagnosis has become increasingly important in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), since the recent emphasis on the comprehensive management and end-of-life decisions. Rorschach test is the third most commonly used psychological instrument worldwide and can offer a different approach from self-reporting questionnaires, mainly providing information on issues of which individuals may be unaware or unwilling to admit to. Forty-two ALS patients underwent a psychopathological assessment with the Rorschach test. Psychopathological data were also correlated with skeletal muscle strength as measured by MRC scale and functional evaluation as ALSFRSr and FVC values. Psychopathological features, including suicidial ideation, were more frequent in the recently diagnosed ALS patients. These features were observed to be different according to the kind of functional impairment. Rorschach test may be an useful tool to assess psychopathological features in ALS. Results of our study highlight the need of an early psychopathological diagnosis and specific psychotherapeutic treatment in patients with ALS.

  13. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  14. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  15. Implicit Theories Relate to Youth Psychopathology, But How? A Longitudinal Test of Two Predictive Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L; Weisz, John R

    2016-08-01

    Research shows relations between entity theories-i.e., beliefs that traits and abilities are unchangeable-and youth psychopathology. A common interpretation has been that entity theories lead to psychopathology, but another possibility is that psychopathology predicts entity theories. The two models carry different implications for developmental psychopathology and intervention design. We tested each model's plausibility, examining longitudinal associations between entity theories of thoughts, feelings, and behavior and psychopathology in early adolescents across one school year (N = 59, 52 % female, ages 11-14, 0 % attrition). Baseline entity theories did not predict increases in psychopathology; instead, baseline psychopathology predicted increased entity theories over time. When symptom clusters were assessed individually, greater youth internalizing (but not externalizing) problems predicted subsequent increases in entity theories. Findings suggest that the commonly proposed predictive model may not be the only one warranting attention. They suggest that youth psychopathology may contribute to the development of certain kinds of entity theories.

  16. Spatiotemporal Psychopathology II: How does a psychopathology of the brain's resting state look like? Spatiotemporal approach and the history of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg

    2016-01-15

    Psychopathology as the investigation and classification of experience, behavior and symptoms in psychiatric patients is an old discipline that ranges back to the end of the 19th century. Since then different approaches to psychopathology have been suggested. Recent investigations showing abnormalities in the brain on different levels raise the question how the gap between brain and psyche, between neural abnormalities and alteration in experience and behavior can be bridged. Historical approaches like descriptive (Jaspers) and structural (Minkoswki) psychopathology as well as the more current phenomenological psychopathology (Paarnas, Fuchs, Sass, Stanghellini) remain on the side of the psyche giving detailed description of the phenomenal level of experience while leaving open the link to the brain. In contrast, the recently introduced Research Domain Classification (RDoC) aims at explicitly linking brain and psyche by starting from so-called 'neuro-behavioral constructs'. How does Spatiotemporal Psychopathology, as demonstrated in the first paper on depression, stand in relation to these approaches? In a nutshell, Spatiotemporal Psychopathology aims to bridge the gap between brain and psyche. Specifically, as demonstrated in depression in the first paper, the focus is on the spatiotemporal features of the brain's intrinsic activity and how they are transformed into corresponding spatiotemporal features in experience on the phenomenal level and behavioral changes, which can well account for the symptoms in these patients. This second paper focuses on some of the theoretical background assumptions in Spatiotemporal Psychopathology by directly comparing it to descriptive, structural, and phenomenological psychopathology as well as to RDoC.

  17. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  18. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  19. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own developmental symptom histories and other predictors of psychopathology. This study used latent difference score structural equation modeling to test ...

  20. Pregnancy and Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Tjitte

    2016-01-01

    For a lot of people, because of the joy and happiness of a new life, pregnancy means being on cloud nine. The general population may not be aware that this does not apply to every woman. Psychopathology during and after pregnancy should not be underrated. For as much as 10-20% of all pregnant women,

  1. Are assisted reproduction technologies associated with categorical or dimensional aspects of psychopathology in childhood, adolescence or early adulthood? Results from a Danish prospective nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, T; Juul Hansen, K; Munk-Jørgensen, P; Mohr-Jensen, C

    2017-01-24

    An increasing number of children are conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (ART), but little is known about the long-term risk in terms of mental health outcomes. All twin and singleton children conceived via ART and born in 1995 were sampled from the Danish in vitro fertilization registry and matched to four spontaneously conceived (SC) children. The children were followed-up at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry, to estimate the prevalence of all possible psychiatric diagnoses; dimensional aspects of psychopathology were assessed at the age of 14 years, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). The study included 858 ART children and 3436 SC children. ART and SC children were not clinically distinguishable on either the categorical measures of psychopathology at the age of 3, 7, 14 and 18 years, or on CBCL scale scores at the age of 14 years. The findings remained nonsignificant after controlling for sample differences. This large, prospective, nationwide cohort study provides evidence to support that ART exposure does not increase the risk of adverse mental health outcomes considered as a whole, while power was limited to discard an effect of ART on specific mental health disorders.

  2. EXCESSIVE INTERNET USE AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: THE ROLE OF COPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association included Internet Gaming Disorder in the diagnostic manual as a condition which requires further research, indicating the scientific and clinical community are aware of potential health concerns as a consequence of excessive Internet use. From a clinical point of view, it appears that excessive/addictive Internet use is often comorbid with further psychopathologies and assessing comorbidity is relevant in clinical practice, treatment outcome and prevention as the probability to become addicted to using the Internet accelerates with additional (subclinical symptoms. Moreover, research indicates individuals play computer games excessively to cope with everyday stressors and to regulate their emotions by applying media-focused coping strategies, suggesting pathological computer game players play in order to relieve stress and to avoid daily hassles. The aims of this research were to replicate and extend previous findings and explanations of the complexities of the relationships between excessive Internet use and Internet addiction, psychopathology and dysfunctional coping strategies. Method: Participants included 681 Polish university students sampled using an online battery of validated psychometric instruments. Results: Results of structural equation models revealed dysfunctional coping strategies (i.e., distraction, denial, self-blame, substance use, venting, media use, and behavioural disengagement significantly predict excessive Internet use, and the data fit the theoretical model well. A second SEM showed media-focused coping and substance use coping significantly mediate the relationship between psychopathology (operationalised via the Global Severity Index and excessive Internet use. Conclusions: The findings lend support to the self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders, and suggest psychopathology and dysfunctional coping have additive effects on excessive Internet use.

  3. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H

    2011-03-01

    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  4. [Psychopathology and creativity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz; Klonowska, Paulina; Patrzała, Amelia; Jaracz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a concept has been presented stating that the process of creativity may be connected with psychopathological features such as mood disorders, mainly bipolar, and psychosis-like thought abnormalities. Biographic studies point to a more frequent occurrence of affective disorders in creative subjects and members of their families. There is also data concerning the occurrence of schizophrenia in the families of prominent persons. A number of studies have demonstrated a similarity of patients with bipolar affective illness and members of their families to creative persons, as to increased indexes of creativity as well as such temperamental features as cyclothymia, neuroticism and openness. An association has been also found between the dimension of"psychoticism", schizotypal features and the measures of creativity. A reduction of the so called "latent inhibition" mechanism, resulting in perception of seemingly irrelevant external stimuli is connected with a predisposition to both increased creativity and schizophrenia-like disturbances. A neurobiological model of generating ideas and creative drive assumes a dominant role of three brain structures: frontal lobes, temporal lobes and the mesolimbic system. The neurotransmission system mostly connected with elevated mood and psychotic thinking is the dopaminergic system, especially its mesolimbic and cortical pathways. Both neurobiological and pharmacological evidence has been accumulated for an association of these pathways with motivational, emotional and cognitive processes, and indirectly, with the processes of creativity. In recent years, a number of interesting results has also been obtained from molecular-genetic studies about genetic determinants of creativity processes in association with bipolar mood changes and psychotic conditions.

  5. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  6. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  7. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Methods Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2 years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2 kg/m2; mean education 15.1±2.2 years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Results Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, peating disorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, peating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. Conclusion These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. PMID:26741258

  8. The relationship between effortful control, current psychopathology and interpersonal difficulties in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Panfilis, Chiara; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Clarkin, John F

    2013-07-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between low effortful control (EC), general psychopathology and interpersonal maladjustment previously reported among children extends to adulthood. Two hundred and forty undergraduate students were assessed using the EC scale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire, the General Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI) and the interpersonal distress index of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Short Circumplex (IIP-distress). Both the BSI-GSI and the IIP-distress scores were related to low levels of EC. Furthermore, interpersonal distress mediated the association between low EC and greater psychopathology severity. These results suggest that deficits in regulatory temperament among adults may be associated with experiencing greater psychopathology distress, and that this relationship may be explained by an impairment in interpersonal adjustment. Such preliminary findings may constitute a useful starting point for investigating this hypothesis among clinical populations.

  9. More adaptive versus less maladaptive coping: What is more predictive of symptom severity? Development of a new scale to investigate coping profiles across different psychopathological syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Jahns, Anna Katharina; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Lincoln, Tania M; Klein, Jan Philipp; Göritz, Anja S

    2016-02-01

    Lack of adaptive and enhanced maladaptive coping with stress and negative emotions are implicated in many psychopathological disorders. We describe the development of a new scale to investigate the relative contribution of different coping styles to psychopathology in a large population sample. We hypothesized that the magnitude of the supposed positive correlation between maladaptive coping and psychopathology would be stronger than the supposed negative correlation between adaptive coping and psychopathology. We also examined whether distinct coping style patterns emerge for different psychopathological syndromes. A total of 2200 individuals from the general population participated in an online survey. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory revised (OCI-R) and the Paranoia Checklist were administered along with a novel instrument called Maladaptive and Adaptive Coping Styles (MAX) questionnaire. Participants were reassessed six months later. MAX consists of three dimensions representing adaptive coping, maladaptive coping and avoidance. Across all psychopathological syndromes, similar response patterns emerged. Maladaptive coping was more strongly related to psychopathology than adaptive coping both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The overall number of coping styles adopted by an individual predicted greater psychopathology. Mediation analysis suggests that a mild positive relationship between adaptive and certain maladaptive styles (emotional suppression) partially accounts for the attenuated relationship between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms. Results should be replicated in a clinical population. Results suggest that maladaptive and adaptive coping styles are not reciprocal. Reducing maladaptive coping seems to be more important for outcome than enhancing adaptive coping. The study supports transdiagnostic approaches advocating that maladaptive coping is a common factor across different psychopathologies

  10. Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R

    2017-01-03

    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.

  11. Psychopathology in adolescents and young adults : prediction, course and prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F. Ferdinand (Robert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis manuscript contains results of an epidemiological study of psychopathology in adolescents and young adults. The first aim of the study was to determine the development of psychopathology from adolescence into young adulthood. The second aim was to validate recently developed' proced

  12. Childhood psychopathology and development of adult schizotypal symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagel, Selene Sofia Alexandra Agnes

    2013-01-01

    In conclusion, the results of the present studies show how schizotypal symptoms may develop following child psychiatric psychopathology and how these symptoms unfavorably influence a persons’ quality of life. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the complex dynamics of psychopathology and t

  13. Psychopathology and offense types in detained male juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, Belinda; Giger, Joël; Bachmann, Friedel; Brühwiler, Karl; Steiner, Hans; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bessler, Cornelia; Aebi, Marcel

    2012-07-30

    A substantial proportion of violent crime is committed by juveniles. In detained juveniles, high rates of psychopathology have been found. The objective of this study was to determine psychopathology associated with offense characteristics in detained male adolescents. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess juvenile detainees. The final sample included 275 males (mean age=16.45, S.D.=1.27 years). Multivariate logistic regressions yielded significant associations between psychopathology and specific offense types: The presence of substance use disorders (without alcohol) (SUD) was found to predict drug-related crimes, and the presence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) without further SUD were a predictor of violent crime, especially in older juveniles. The absence of anxiety disorder, especially in younger juveniles, was found to be relevant for the prediction of robbery. The results of the study suggest that the use and abuse of legal and illegal substances might be a trigger for serious violent and drug-related crimes in juveniles. In particular, the presence of AUD is presumed to have a pivotal role in the development of impulsive aggression. These findings are important when considering the serious social impact of violent behaviors in adolescents.

  14. University students' psychopathology: correlates and the examiner's potential bias effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Espirito Santo

    2015-02-01

    Aims: the main objective was to verify if there is a difference on psychopathological symptoms between two groups questioned by two different examiners, controlling for the potential role of social desirability, and other potential covariates. Additionally, we want to assess the level of psychopathology and its socio-demographic correlates.Methods: 185 Coimbra's university students completed the Brief Symptom Inventory/BSI and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale. In one group the examiner was of the same age and academic status as the students, while in the other group the examiner was older and a teacher. We studied the psychopathological correlates with Pearson, point-biserial correlations, and qui-square analyses, and we controlled the potential role of covariates through Quade non-parametric ANCOVAs. Results: The level of distress was lower in comparison with other investigations. Women had higher level of distress and more symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsion, and depression. The students that live a higher distance from home had more anxiety and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. The group assessed by the younger examiner scored higher in distress and in some BSI factors, and had lower levels on social desirability. Conclusions: Sex and distance from home seem important factors for university students' mental health. However, the examiner does have an influence in the evaluation, probably because of social desirability, suggesting that the examiner's characteristics should be given in investigations involving university students.

  15. Psychopathology and Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gama Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Hippocrates that neuropsychiatric illness secondary to liver disease fascinates physicians, but only in the XIX century Marcel Nencki and Ivan Pavlov suggested the relation between high concentrations of ammonia and Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE. The reaction of ammonia and glutamate (origins glutamine, “the Trojan Horse of neurotoxicity of ammonia continues to be the main responsible for the neurologic lesions, recently confirmed by neurochemistry and neuroimagiology studies. Glutamine starts the inflammatory reaction at the central nervous sys- tem but other important actors seem to be manganese and the neurotransmitters systems of GABA and endocanabinoids. Nowadays there are three different etiologic big groups for HE: type A associated with acute liver failure; type B associated with portosystemic bypass; and type C associated with cirrhosis of the liver. The staging of HE is still based on classic West Haven system, but a latent Grade 0 was introduced (the so called minimal HE; remaining the aggra- vating HE from Grade 1 (subtle changes at clinical examination to Grade 4 (coma. In this work a bibliographic review was made on 30 of the most pertinent and recent papers, focusing in psychopathology, physiopathology, etiology and staging of this clinical entity transversal to Psychiatry and Gastroenterology. Alterations are described in vigility and conscience like temporal, spatial and personal disorientation. Attention, concentration and memory are impaired very early, on latent phase and can be accessed through neuropsychological tests. Mood oscillates between euphoric and depressive. Personality changes begin obviously and abruptly or in a subtle and insidious way. There can be changes in perception like visual hallucinations or even of acoustic-verbal. The thought disorders can be of delusional type, paranoid, systematized or not, but also monothematic ala Capgras Syndrome. Speech can be accelerated, slowed down or completely in

  16. Contribution to postnonclassical psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintino-Aires J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Any psychological paradigm needs a psychopathological system that helps professionals to describe and explain the behavioral expressions that deviate from “normal” (whether this term is used with the semantic property of statistical or ideal adaptations. In this work, I seek to present the system that I have been developing since 1998 among the psychologists at the Instituto Vegotsky de Lisboa (Vygotsky Institute of Lisbon, Portugal, to understand psychopathology with regard to the vygotskian approach. It was conceived and designed according to the work of Rita Mendes Leal and her contribution to socioemotional development theory, AR Luria’s systemic and dynamic theory of the human brain, the theory of Activity (dyatel’nost of AN Leont’ev, and the psychopathological German school of E Kraepelin, presented and disseminated in Portugal in the early twentieth century by Professor Sobral Cid. It is intended to be a proposal to colleagues who are interested in postnonclassical psychology and a request for arguments.

  17. Insightful hallucination: psychopathology or paranormal phenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-03-15

    This report describes a 26-year-old man who was so emotionally attached to his mother that the mere thought of separating from her caused immense anxiety. The death of his mother after a brief illness resulted in prolonged bereavement. However, the patient started seeing and talking to his mother after her death, which led to huge improvement in his mood and social functioning. His wife brought him in for consultation but no obvious psychopathology was detected. This gave rise to the dilemma of whether to consider this a real psychopathology and treat it, or to disregard this reported hallucination. No active treatment is being given to this patient at the moment.

  18. Creativity and psychopathology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Erik; Sabbe, Bernard; De Hert, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long-time focus of research up to the present day. However, the research results in this field are heterogeneous and contradictory. Links between creativity and specific psychiatric disorders have been confirmed and refuted in different studies. This disparity is partly explained by the methodological challenges peculiar to this field. In this systematic review of the literature from 1950, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology are presented, focusing on the methodology and results of the collected studies. This review confirms the methodological problems and the heterogeneity of the study designs and results. The assessment of psychopathology, but more so of creativity, remains a fundamental challenge. On the whole, study results cautiously confirm an association between creativity and both bipolar disorder and schizotypy. The research on creativity and psychopathology is hampered by serious methodological problems. Study results are to be interpreted with caution and future research needs more methodological rigor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Maternal personality and psychopathology as determinants of parenting behavior: a quantitative integration of two parenting literatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Jennifer E

    2014-05-01

    A substantial literature has examined the association between parenting behavior and maternal psychological characteristics (i.e., personality and psychopathology). Although research has provided evidence indicating that personality and psychopathology are not independent of one another, parenting research has mainly focused on these characteristics separately. In the present study, I quantitatively integrated these literatures through meta-analytic path analysis. First, meta-analyses were conducted on articles, book chapters, and dissertations that examined associations between personality or psychopathology and warmth or control in mothers of children age 12 months or older. Using mixed-effects regression, meta-analyses revealed significant, small effect sizes suggesting that low levels of neuroticism and psychopathology and high levels of agreeableness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were associated with adaptive parenting. Moderator analyses indicated that variability among individual studies was partially explained by report method, study design, and conceptualizations of parenting behavior. Meta-analytic path analyses showed that the observed associations between maternal personality/psychopathology and parenting behaviors as reported in the literature may be explained by variance shared among these psychological characteristics. Furthermore, some maternal psychological characteristics explained a significantly larger portion of variance in parenting behavior than others. Findings supported the proposal that maternal personality and psychopathology are not independent in the associations they demonstrate with parenting behaviors and that these areas of research can be integrated. The present study is limited by including only mothers, excluding infants, and using cross-sectional analyses. However, results have implications for future conceptualizations of maternal psychological characteristics as determinants of parenting behaviors and for the refinement

  20. Psychopathological profiles in transsexuals and the challenge of their special status among the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias K Auer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Investigating psychopathological profiles of transsexuals raises a very basic methodological question: are control groups, which represent the biological or the phenotypic sex, most suited for an optimal evaluation of psychopathology of transsexuals? METHOD: Male-to-female (MtF (n=52 and female-to-male transsexuals (FtM (n=32, receiving cross-sex hormone treatment, were compared with age matched healthy subjects of the same genetic sex (n=178 and with the same phenotypic sex (n=178 by means of the Symptom Check List-90-Revisited instrument (SCL-90-R. We performed analyses of covariance (ANCOVA to test for group and sex effects. Furthermore, we used a profile analysis to determine if psychopathological symptom profiles of transsexuals more closely resemble genotypic sex or phenotypic sex controls. RESULTS: Transsexual patients reported more symptoms of psychopathological distress than did healthy control subjects in all subscales of the SCL-90-R (all p<0.001, regardless of whether they were compared with phenotype or genotype matched controls. Depressive symptoms were more pronounced in MtF than in FtM (SCL-90-R score 0.85 vs. 0.45, p = 0.001. We could demonstrate that FtM primarily reflect the psychopathological profile of biological males rather than that of biological females (r = 0.945, while MtF showed a slightly higher profile similarity with biological females than with biological males (r = 0.698 vs. r = 0.685. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that phenotypic sex matched controls are potentially more appropriate for comparison with the psychopathology of transsexual patients than are genetic sex matched controls.

  1. Parental psychopathology and treatment outcome for anxious youth: Roles of family functioning and caregiver strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleider, Jessica L.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Keeton, Courtney P.; Weisz, John R.; Birmaher, Boris; Kendall, Phillip C.; Piacentini, John; Sherrill, Joel; Walkup, John T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research has examined the effects of parental psychopathology, family functioning, and caregiver strain on treatment response in anxious youths. Although these variables have shown individual links to youth treatment response, theoretical models for their combined effects remain unexplored. This study tested the hypothesis that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain explained the effects of parental psychopathology on youth treatment outcome in an anxiety treatment trial. Method A multiple mediation technique was used to test the proposed model across independent evaluator (IE), parent, and youth informants in 488 youths, aged 7–17 years (50% female; mean age 10.7) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for social phobia, separation anxiety, and/or generalized anxiety disorder. Youths were randomized to receive 12 weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (Coping Cat), medication (sertraline), their combination, or a pill placebo. At pre- and post-treatment, parents completed self-report measures of global psychopathology symptoms, family functioning, and caregiver strain; parents, youths, and IEs rated youths’ anxiety symptom severity. Results Changes in family functioning and caregiver strain jointly explained relations between parental psychopathology and reductions in youth anxiety. Specifically, across IE and parent informants, families with higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology showed more improvement in family functioning and caregiver strain, which in turn predicted greater youth anxiety reductions. Further, higher pre-treatment parental psychopathology predicted greater caregiver strain reductions, and in turn, greater youth anxiety reductions, based on youths’ reports of their own anxiety. Conclusions Findings suggest that improvements in family functioning and reductions in caregiver strain can influence treatment outcomes for anxious youths, especially among youths with more distressed parents. Public health

  2. Self and informant report ratings of psychopathology in genetic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, Amy; Bowden, Stephen C; D'Souza, Wendyl J

    2017-02-01

    The psychological sequelae of genetic generalized epilepsies (GGE) is of growing research interest, with up to a third of all adults with GGE experiencing significant psychiatric comorbidity according to a recent systematic review. A number of unexplored questions remain. Firstly, there is insufficient evidence to determine relative prevalence of psychopathology between GGE syndromes. Secondly, the degree to which self-report and informant-report questionnaires accord in adults with epilepsy is unknown. Finally, while epilepsy severity is one likely predictor of worse psychopathology in GGE, evidence regarding other possible contributing factors such as epilepsy duration and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) has been equivocal. The potential impact of subclinical epileptiform discharges remains unexplored. Self-report psychopathology symptoms across six DSM-Oriented Subscales were prospectively measured in 60 adults with GGE, with informant-report provided for a subset of 47. We assessed the burden of symptoms from both self- and informant-report, and the relationship between clinical epilepsy variables and self-reported symptoms. Results showed elevated symptoms in almost half of the sample overall. Depression and anxiety were the most commonly reported types of symptoms. There was a trend towards greater symptoms endorsement by self-report, and relatively modest interrater agreement. Symptoms of ADHD were significantly positively associated with number of AEDs currently prescribed. Other psychopathology symptoms were not significantly predicted by epilepsy duration, seizure-free duration or total duration of epileptiform discharges over a 24-hour period. The high prevalence of psychological needs suggests that routine screening of psychopathology and provision of psychoeducation may be essential to improving patient care and outcomes. Further investigation is required to better understand predictive and causal factors for psychopathology in GGE. Copyright © 2016

  3. [Crime and psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligand, Liliane; Gonin, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Crime does not necessarily involve the existence of a psychopathologic disorder. However, some psychiatric disorders as, for example, delirious psychosis, paranoia, melancholy or obsessional neurosis, might predispose to crime. Violence can lead the victim, by the way of stress or trauma, to develop some psychic trouble as neurosis or traumatic psychosis. Children in particular, while constructing, are very vulnerable victims, especially when their aggressor is also a member of their family. Therapy for the aggressors, as well as for the victims, is based on the assertion that both the aggressors and the victims are subject to law.

  4. Disability as a risk factor? Development of psychopathology in children with disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualise the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability....... To explain the contradictory findings, developmental models of disability and psychopathology are applied. Within a multi-factorial developmental psychopathological perspective and a dialectical model of disability (Vygotsky, 1993), it is suggested that disability can be understood as an incongruence between...

  5. Sexual Trauma, Spirituality, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Mark J.; Thompson, Kevin M.; Simonich, Heather; Crosby, Ross D.; Donaldson, Mary Ann; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the association between spirituality and psychopathology in a group of sexual abuse victims and controls with a focus on whether spirituality moderated the association between sexual trauma and psychopathology. Seventy-one sexual trauma victims were compared to 25 control subjects on spiritual well-being, the Eating Disorder…

  6. Shame and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallanti, S; Quercioli, L

    2000-08-01

    The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.

  7. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  8. Attachment and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Ustundag

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type of attachment defined in the early stages of life and thought to be continuous, is a phenomenon that shapes the pattern of how a person makes contact with others. The clinical appearance of every type of attachment is different and each one has prospective and retrospective phenomenological reflections. In all stages of life and in close relationships, it can be observed if a person gets in close contact with someone else and if this relation bears supportive and protective qualities. According to attachment theorists, once it is defined as safe or unsafe during nursing period, it shows little change. Starting from Bowlby’s work, unsafe attachment type is considered as the determining factor of psychopathology in the later periods of life, while safe attachment is considered as in relation with healthy processes. The nature’s original model is safe attachment. Anxious/indecisive attachment, an unsafe attachment type, is associated with anxiety disorders and depressive disorder, while avoidant attachment is associated with behavior disorder and other extroverted pathologies. Disorganized/disoriented attachment is considered to be together with dissociative disorder. The aim of this paper is to review attachment theory and the relation between attachment and psychopathology.

  9. Testing models of psychopathology in preschool-aged children using a structured interview-based assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olino, Thomas M; Dougherty, Lea R; Bufferd, Sara J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have found that broadband internalizing and externalizing factors provide a parsimonious framework for understanding the structure of psychopathology across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. However, few of these studies have examined psychopathology in young children, and several recent studies have found support for alternative models, including a bi-factor model with common and specific factors. The present study used parents' (typically mothers') reports on a diagnostic interview in a community sample of 3-year old children (n = 541; 53.9 % male) to compare the internalizing-externalizing latent factor model with a bi-factor model. The bi-factor model provided a better fit to the data. To test the concurrent validity of this solution, we examined associations between this model and paternal reports and laboratory observations of child temperament. The internalizing factor was associated with low levels of surgency and high levels of fear; the externalizing factor was associated with high levels of surgency and disinhibition and low levels of effortful control; and the common factor was associated with high levels of surgency and negative affect and low levels of effortful control. These results suggest that psychopathology in preschool-aged children may be explained by a single, common factor influencing nearly all disorders and unique internalizing and externalizing factors. These findings indicate that shared variance across internalizing and externalizing domains is substantial and are consistent with recent suggestions that emotion regulation difficulties may be a common vulnerability for a wide array of psychopathology.

  10. Urinary cortisol and psychopathology in obese binge eating subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavagnino, Luca; Amianto, Federico; Parasiliti Caprino, Mirko; Maccario, Mauro; Arvat, Emanuela; Ghigo, Ezio; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2014-12-01

    Investigations on the relationship between obesity, binge eating and the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have led to inconsistent results. General psychopathology affects HPA axis function. The present study aims to examine correlations between binge eating, general psychopathology and HPA axis function in obese binge eaters. Twenty-four hour urinary free cortisol (UFC/24 h) was measured in 71 obese binge eating women. The patients were administered psychometric tests investigating binge eating, psychopathology and clinical variables. The relationship between binge eating, psychopathology and urinary cortisol was investigated, controlling for age and BMI. We found an inverse correlation between UFC/24 h and binge eating, depression, obsessive-compusive symptoms, somatization and sensitivity. In a regression model a significant inverse correlation between urinary cortisol and psychopathology was confirmed. Urinary cortisol levels in obese patients with binge eating disorder show an inverse correlation with several dimensions of psychopathology which are considered to be typical of a cluster of psychiatric disorders characterized by low HPA axis function, and are very common in obese binge eating patients. If these results are confirmed, UFC/24 h might be considered a biomarker of psychopathology in obese binge eaters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María

    2008-02-01

    This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.

  12. A roadmap for the integration of culture into developmental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causadias, José M

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, I propose a roadmap for the integration of culture in developmental psychopathology. This integration is pressing because culture continues to be somewhat disconnected from theory, research, training, and interventions in developmental psychopathology, thus limiting our understanding of the epigenesis of mental health. I argue that in order to successfully integrate culture into developmental psychopathology, it is crucial to (a) study cultural development, (b) consider both individual-level and social-level cultural processes, (c) examine the interplay between culture and biology, and (d) promote improved and direct cultural assessment. I provide evidence in support of each of these guidelines, present alternative conceptual frameworks, and suggest new lines of research. Hopefully, that these directions will contribute to the emerging field of cultural development and psychopathology, which focuses on the elucidation of the cultural processes that initiate, maintain, or derail trajectories of normal and abnormal behavior.

  13. [Psychopathology in children with dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, E

    2010-08-01

    The term "dyspraxia" was coined by Julian de Ajuriaguerra and Mira Stambak in 1964. This clinical term was treated very differently according to which explanatory model was adopted. Nowadays, it is used to refer to developmental coordination disorder in view of its neuro-developmental origin. In any case, the actual clinical situations vary and are often complex. In our opinion, it is first necessary to examine the differential diagnosis: apraxia in children caused by lesions, dysgraphia, simply delayed motor development, non-verbal learning disability syndrome, hemispheric specialisation deficits, pervasive developmental disorders (autisms, Asperger syndrome, atypical autism and other pervasive developmental disorders), mixed specific developmental disorders, multiple developmental disorder, and children with high potential. Next we focus on co-morbidity. Firstly, we look at psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia: autism and pervasive developmental disorders, dyscalculia/math disability, dyslexia/reading difficulties, dysphasia accompanied by verbal dyspraxia, intelligence deficiency, anxiety disorders, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Secondly, we examine psychopathological disorders associated with dyspraxia. Children with developmental coordination disorder are less inclined to participate in collective games. As a result, there is a greater risk of them becoming lonely and isolated. They have higher child behaviour checklist (CBCL) scores in the somatic problems scale as well as for anxiety, depression and social withdrawal. They have low self-perception in sports as well as at school, which is related to their physical appearance and their self-esteem, attention deficit and externalized behaviour. These children are often at risk of academic failure and they suffer from oppositional defiant disorder and functional disorders. And finally, we believe that it is important to touch on the impact of these disorders on the family.

  14. Maternal Emotional Availability and Its Association with Maternal Psychopathology, Attachment Style Insecurity and Theory of Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Maria; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Träuble, Birgit; Sodian, Beate; Reck, Corinna

    High maternal emotional availability (EA) positively affects various domains of child development. However, the question of which factors promote or hinder maternal EA has not been investigated systematically. The present study investigated several maternal characteristics, namely maternal psychopathology, maternal attachment style insecurity, and theory of mind (ToM) as possible factors that influence maternal EA. The sample was comprised of 56 mothers and their preschool-aged children. Half of the mothers were diagnosed with postpartum depression and or anxiety disorders according to DSM-IV, and the other half were healthy controls. The results showed that both low maternal attachment style insecurity and high ToM skills significantly predicted maternal EA sensitivity, independently from maternal postpartum and concurrent psychopathology and education. Moreover, maternal attachment style insecurity fully mediated the link between maternal postpartum psychopathology and sensitivity. The findings suggest that maternal attachment style security can buffer negative effects of maternal psychopathology on maternal sensitivity in the mother-child interaction. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: application of the UPPS impulsive behavior scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, Stephen P; Lynam, Donald R

    2003-08-01

    The present study explores the relation among 4 personality traits associated with impulsive behavior and alcohol abuse. Personality traits were measured using the 4 subscales of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale (UPPS; S. P. Whiteside & D. R. Lynam, 2001). The UPPS and measures of psychopathology were administered to clinical samples of alcohol abusers high in antisocial personality traits (AAPD), alcohol abusers low in antisocial personality traits (AA), and a control group (total N = 60). Separate analyses of variance indicated that AAPDs had significant elevations on all 4 UPPS scales, whereas the AAs and controls differed only on the Urgency subscale. However, when controlling for psychopathology, group differences on the UPPS scales disappeared. The results suggest that personality traits related to impulsive behavior are not directly related to alcohol abuse but rather are associated with the elevated levels of psychopathology found in a subtype of alcohol abusers.

  16. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. © 2013.

  17. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  18. Attachment and Emotion Regulation Strategies in Predicting Adult Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Pascuzzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested a 10-year longitudinal model examining the role of adolescent attachment, adult romantic attachment, and emotion regulation strategies on adult symptoms of psychopathology. Fifty individuals completed a measure of attachment security to parents and peers at age 14, measures of romantic attachment and emotion regulation at age 22, and a measure of psychopathology at age 24. Results revealed that attachment insecurity to parents in adolescence was associated with greater symptoms of psychopathology in adulthood, and emotion-focused strategies partially mediated this association. Anxious romantic attachment was also related to psychopathology, an association that was fully mediated by emotion-focused strategies. The long-term mechanism involved in the association between earlier attachment and future adaptation will be discussed.

  19. Disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in non-clinical children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; van der Heiden, Simone; Rassin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    There is clear evidence in the adult literature that disgust sensitivity is implicated in various psychopathological syndromes. The current study examined the link between disgust sensitivity and psychopathological symptoms in youths. In a sample of non-clinical children aged 9-13 years, disgust sensitivity was assessed by two self-report questionnaires (i.e., the Disgust Scale and the Disgust Sensitivity Questionnaire) and a behavioural test. Furthermore, children completed scales for measuring the personality trait of neuroticism and various types of psychopathological symptoms. Results showed that disgust measures had sufficient to good convergent validity. Further, significant positive correlations were found between disgust sensitivity and symptoms of specific phobias (i.e., spider phobia, blood-injection phobia, small-animal phobia), social phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and eating problems, and these links were not attenuated when controlling for neuroticism. The possible role of disgust sensitivity in the aetiology of child psychopathology is discussed.

  20. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Darryl W; Gauthier, Justin R; McDade-Montez, Elizabeth; Cloitre, Marylene; Carlson, Eve B

    2013-01-01

    Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse), childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction), and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  1. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Murphy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one’s own emotion, underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood.

  2. Interoception and psychopathology: A developmental neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Brewer, Rebecca; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-02-01

    Interoception refers to the perception of the physiological condition of the body, including hunger, temperature, and heart rate. There is a growing appreciation that interoception is integral to higher-order cognition. Indeed, existing research indicates an association between low interoceptive sensitivity and alexithymia (a difficulty identifying one's own emotion), underscoring the link between bodily and emotional awareness. Despite this appreciation, the developmental trajectory of interoception across the lifespan remains under-researched, with clear gaps in our understanding. This qualitative review and opinion paper provides a brief overview of interoception, discussing its relevance for developmental psychopathology, and highlighting measurement issues, before surveying the available work on interoception across four stages of development: infancy, childhood, adolescence and late adulthood. Where gaps in the literature addressing the development of interoception exist, we draw upon the association between alexithymia and interoception, using alexithymia as a possible marker of atypical interoception. Evidence indicates that interoceptive ability varies across development, and that this variance correlates with established age-related changes in cognition and with risk periods for the development of psychopathology. We suggest a theory within which atypical interoception underlies the onset of psychopathology and risky behaviour in adolescence, and the decreased socio-emotional competence observed in late adulthood. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Epigenetic modifications of the glucocorticoid receptor gene are associated with the vulnerability to psychopathology in childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, K M; Schauer, M; Gunter, H M; Ruf-Leuschner, M; Sill, J; Meyer, A; Elbert, T

    2015-05-26

    Stress, particularly when experienced early in life, can have profound implications for mental health. Previous research covering various tissues such as the brain, suggests that the detrimental impact of early-life stress (ELS) on mental health is mediated via epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis--in particular, the glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene--stand out as key targets for ELS. Even though the link between hGR methylation and either ELS or psychopathology is fairly well established, the mutually dependent relationships between ELS, DNA methylation and psychopathology remain to be uncovered. The specific psychopathology an individual might develop in the aftermath of stressful events can be highly variable, however, most studies investigating hGR methylation and psychopathology suffer from being limited to a single symptom cluster of mental disorders. Here, we screened volunteers for childhood maltreatment and analyzed whether it associates with hGR methylation in lymphocytes and a range of measures of psychological ill-health. hGR methylation in lymphocytes most likely reflects methylation patterns found in the brain and thus provides valuable insights into the etiology of psychopathology. We find the interaction between childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation to be strongly correlated with an increased vulnerability to psychopathology providing evidence of epigenome × environment interactions. Furthermore, our results indicate an additive effect of childhood maltreatment and hGR methylation in predicting borderline personality disorder (BPD)-associated symptoms, suggesting that the combination of both ELS and DNA methylation that possibly represents unfavorable events experienced even earlier in life poses the risk for BPD.

  4. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Trumpf, Julia; Margraf, Jürgen; Vriends, Noortje; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Becker, Eni S

    2009-01-01

    Background Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. Objectives The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young women in the community. Method Data came from the Dresden Predictor Study in which 1,538 German women (18–25 years) completed a diagnostic interview at two time points. Results W...

  5. Are reviewers suggested by authors as good as those chosen by editors? Results of a rater-blinded, retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkin Emma C

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BioMed Central (BMC requires authors to suggest four reviewers when making a submission. Editors searching for reviewers use these suggestions as a source. The review process of the medical journals in the BMC series is open – authors and reviewers know each other's identity – although reviewers can make confidential comments to the editor. Reviews are published alongside accepted articles so readers may see the reviewers' names and recommendations. Our objective was to compare the performance of author-nominated reviewers (ANR with that of editor-chosen reviewers (ECR in terms of review quality and recommendations about submissions in an online-only medical journal. Methods Pairs of reviews from 100 consecutive submissions to medical journals in the BMC series (with one author-nominated and one editor-chosen reviewer and a final decision were assessed by two raters, blinded to reviewer type, using a validated review quality instrument (RQI which rates 7 items on 5-point Likert scales. The raters discussed their ratings after the first 20 pairs (keeping reviewer type masked and resolved major discrepancies in scoring and interpretation to improve inter-rater reliability. Reviewers' recommendations were also compared. Results Reviewer source had no impact on review quality (mean RQI score (± SD 2.24 ± 0.55 for ANR, 2.34 ± 0.54 for ECR or tone (mean scores on additional question 2.72 ANR vs 2.82 ECR (maximum score = 5 in both cases. However author-nominated reviewers were significantly more likely to recommend acceptance (47 vs 35 and less likely to recommend rejection (10 vs 23 than editor-chosen reviewers after initial review (p Conclusion Author-nominated reviewers produced reviews of similar quality to editor-chosen reviewers but were more likely to recommend acceptance during the initial stages of peer review.

  6. Relationships Between Problem-Gambling Severity and Psychopathology as Moderated by Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanacora, Rachel L; Whiting, Seth W; Pilver, Corey E; Hoff, Rani A; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Problem and pathological gambling have been associated with elevated rates of both Axis-I and Axis-II psychiatric disorders. Although both problem gambling and psychiatric disorders have been reported as being more prevalent among lower income vs. middle/higher income groups, how income might moderate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology is incompletely understood. To examine the associations between problem-gambling severity and psychopathology in lower income and middle/higher income groups. Methods Data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (n = 43,093) were analyzed in adjusted logistic regression models to investigate the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders within and across income groups. Results Greater problem-gambling severity was associated with increased odds of multiple psychiatric disorders for both lower income and middle/higher income groups. Income moderated the association between problem/pathological gambling and alcohol abuse/dependence, with a stronger association seen among middle/higher income respondents than among lower income respondents. Discussion and conclusions The findings that problem-gambling severity is related to psychopathology across income groups suggest a need for public health initiatives across social strata to reduce the impact that problem/pathological gambling may have in relation to psychopathology. Middle/higher income populations, perhaps owing to the availability of more "disposable income," may be at greater risk for co-occurring gambling and alcohol-use psychopathology and may benefit preferentially from interventions targeting both gambling and alcohol use.

  7. Two forms of self-criticism mediate differently the shame-psychopathological symptoms link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2017-03-01

    This study explored the relation between external shame, two types of self-criticism, and depressive, anxious and stress symptoms, in a clinical sample. Specifically, we set out to test whether the impact of external shame on such symptoms would be mediated by two forms of self-criticism. A total of 279 patients (228 female and 51 male; mean age of 28.58) with axis I and II disorders recruited from several outpatients psychiatric services in Portugal completed the Other as Shamer Scale (OAS), the Forms of Self-Criticizing/Attacking and Self-Reassuring Scale (FSCRS), and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42). Self-criticism mediated in part the shame-psychopathological symptoms link, especially the hated self form. The alternative model where shame mediates the link between self-criticism and psychopathological symptoms was also significant. This result suggests that fear of being devalued in the minds of others has a significant impact on people's psychological well-being, and this effect can be partially explained by self-criticism. This study highlights that inadequate self and hated self are separable types of self-criticism, because they show different patterns of association with psychopathology. Shame and self-criticism appear to mutually enhance one another, and both are associated with psychopathological symptoms. External shame and self-criticism should be a target in treatment. External shame and self-criticism are associated with depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms, in a clinical sample. Self-criticism, especially hatred for the self, mediates the shame-psychopathological symptoms link. Shame and self-criticism should be addressed in therapeutic interventions targeting the reduction of depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  8. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers' psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices.

  9. The Role of Parent Psychopathology in Emotion Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relation between parent psychopathology symptoms and emotion socialization practices in a sample of mothers and fathers of preschool-aged children with behavior problems (N = 109, M age = 44.60 months, 50 % male). Each parent completed a self-report rating scale of their psychopathology symptoms and audio-recorded naturalistic interactions with their children, which were coded for reactions to child negative affect. Results supported a spillover hypothesis for mothers. Specifically, mothers who reported greater overall psychopathology symptoms, anxiety symptoms, substance use, and borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to exhibit non-supportive reactions. Additionally, mothers who reported greater anxiety and Cluster A personality symptoms were more likely to not respond to child negative affect. Compensatory and crossover hypotheses were also supported. Partners of mothers who reported high levels of anxiety were more likely to use supportive reactions to child negative affect. In contrast, partners of mothers who reported high levels of borderline and Cluster A personality symptoms and overall psychopathology symptoms were more likely to show non-supportive reactions. With the exception of borderline personality symptoms, fathers’ psychopathology was unrelated to parental responses to child negative affect. Results highlight the importance of maternal psychopathology in parental emotion socialization practices. PMID:26267238

  10. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  11. Evidence that the presence of psychosis in non-psychotic disorder is environment-dependent and mediated by severity of non-psychotic psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guloksuz, S; van Nierop, M; Lieb, R; van Winkel, R; Wittchen, H-U; van Os, J

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that in affective, non-psychotic disorders: (i) environmental exposures increase risk of subthreshold psychotic experiences (PEs) and strengthen connectivity between domains of affective and subthreshold psychotic psychopathology; and (ii) PEs are a marker of illness severity. In 3021 adolescents from the Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology cohort, we tested whether the association between PEs and presence of DSM-IV mood disorder (MD)/obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) would be moderated by risk factors for psychosis (cannabis use, childhood trauma and urbanicity), using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) method. Furthermore, we analysed whether the interaction between environment and PEs was mediated by non-psychotic psychopathology. The association between PEs and MD/OCD was moderated by urbanicity (ICR = 2.46, p = 0.005), cannabis use (ICR = 3.76, p = 0.010) and, suggestively, trauma (ICR = 1.91, p = 0.063). Exposure to more than one environmental risk factor increased the likelihood of co-expression of PEs in a dose-response fashion. Moderating effects of environmental exposures were largely mediated by the severity of general non-psychotic psychopathology (percentage explained 56-68%, all p < 0.001). Within individuals with MD/OCD, the association between PEs and help-seeking behaviour, as an index of severity, was moderated by trauma (ICR = 1.87, p = 0.009) and urbanicity (ICR = 1.48, p = 0.005), but not by cannabis use. In non-psychotic disorder, environmental factors increase the likelihood of psychosis admixture and help-seeking behaviour through an increase in general psychopathology. The findings are compatible with a relational model of psychopathology in which more severe clinical states are the result of environment-induced disturbances spreading through a psychopathology network.

  12. Eating symptomatology and general psychopathology in patients with anorexia nervosa from China, UK and Spain: A cross-cultural study examining the role of social attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, Zaida; Brewin, Nicola; Chen, Jue; Granero, Roser; Kang, Qing; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Arcelus, Jon

    2017-01-01

    Cultural studies exploring differences in the manifestation of anorexia nervosa (AN) have primarily focus on Western and non-Western cultures. However, no study so far has considered the role that social attitudes (i.e. Collectivist vs. Individualist cultural values) have in the clinical manifestations of eating disorders, including AN patients. With this in mind, the aim of this study is to compare eating and general psychopathology in a large sample of individuals diagnosed with AN from China, Spain, and United Kingdom (UK), in order to study the differences according to belonging to Western or non-Western country, or the country's Individualist Index (IDV). The total sample comprised on 544 adults with a diagnosis of AN recruited from People´s Republic of China (n = 72), UK (n = 117), and Spain (n = 355). Assessment measures included the Eating Disorders Inventory and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Our results show significant differences in most of the eating and psychopathological indices between the three countries. Patients from Western societies (Spain and UK) share more similarities regarding psychopathological expression of AN than the non-Western country (China). While Western countries show higher levels of body dissatisfaction, somatization and overall psychopathology, Chinese patients tend to deny or minimize depression, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms. Besides, the IDV shows cultural differences in the interpersonal sensitivity scale, being AN patients from UK (the more individualistic society) who presented with higher levels of interpersonal sensitivity (i.e. discomfort during interpersonal interactions and more negative expectations concerning interpersonal behavior). In conclusion, our findings suggest that psychopathological expression of AN is better explained by Western/Eastern influence than by individualist/collectivist values. Although the diagnosis for the eating disorder may be the same, differences in the

  13. Does psychopathology at admission predict the length of inpatient stay in psychiatry? Implications for financing psychiatric services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herwig Uwe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The debate on appropriate financing systems in inpatient psychiatry is ongoing. In this context, it is important to control resource use in terms of length of stay (LOS, which is the most costly factor in inpatient care and the one that can be influenced most easily. Previous studies have shown that psychiatric diagnoses provide only limited justification for explaining variation in LOS, and it has been suggested that measures such as psychopathology might be more appropriate to predict resource use. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between LOS and psychopathological syndromes or symptoms at admission as well as other characteristics such as sociodemographic and clinical variables. Methods We considered routine medical data of patients admitted to the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich in the years 2008 and 2009. Complete data on psychopathology at hospital admission were available in 3,220 inpatient episodes. A subsample of 2,939 inpatient episodes was considered in final statistical models, including psychopathology as well as complete datasets of further measures (e.g. sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related and psychosocial variables. We used multivariate linear as well as logistic regression analysis with forward selection procedure to determine the predictors of LOS. Results All but two syndrome scores (mania, hostility were positively related to the length of stay. Final statistical models showed that syndromes or symptoms explained about 5% of the variation in length of stay. The inclusion of syndromes or symptoms as well as basic treatment variables and other factors led to an explained variation of up to 25%. Conclusions Psychopathological syndromes and symptoms at admission and further characteristics only explained a small proportion of the length of inpatient stay. Thus, according to our sample, psychopathology might not be suitable as a primary indicator for estimating LOS and contingent

  14. Neurobiological pathways to childhood psychopathology : Population-based studies of cognition and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassabian, Akhgar

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spectrum of severity of symptoms and impairment. Second, psychopathology has been studied in the context of young children’s real life parallel to referral settings. Third, studying child psychopathol...

  15. The handbook of forensic psychopathology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Forensic Psychopathology and Treatment explores the relationship between psychopathology and criminal behaviour in juveniles and adults. It provides a detailed explanation of the developmental pathway from the process of increasing criminal behaviour and becoming a forensic patient,

  16. Protection or Vulnerability? A Meta-Analysis of the Relations Between the Positive and Negative Components of Self-Compassion and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Petrocchi, Nicola

    2016-02-19

    Self-compassion is increasingly explored as a protective factor in relation to psychopathology. The Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) and its Short Form variant (SCS-SF) are the most widely used instruments for measuring this psychological construct, and previous studies have indeed shown that the total score of this scale is negatively associated with psychopathology. In this article, we point out that half of the items of the SCS and SCS-SF are positive indicators of self-compassion and directly refer to the three key components of self-kindness, common humanity and mindfulness, while the other half of the items are negative indicators of the construct and reflect the precise opposite of the key components, namely self-judgment, isolation and over-identification. A meta-analysis was conducted including 18 studies that reported on the positive and negative indicators of self-compassion as indexed by the SCS/SCS-SF and their relations to various types of psychopathology. Results showed that positive indicators of self-compassion were negatively associated with psychopathology, which confirms their hypothesized protective influence. However, the negative indicators were positively linked to psychopathology, suggesting that these scales tap increased vulnerability to mental health problems. Moreover, tests comparing the strength of the relations between various SCS/SCS-SF counterparts (i.e., self-kindness versus self-judgment, common humanity versus isolation and mindfulness versus over-identification) and psychopathology showed that the negative indicators were significantly stronger linked to mental health problems than the positive indicators. This provides support for the idea that the use of a total self-compassion score of the SCS or SCS-SF, which typically includes the reversely scored negative subscales, will probably result in an inflated relationship with symptoms of psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. CHILDHOOD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY MEAUSREMENT SCHEDULE: DEVELOPMENT AND STANDARDIZATION*

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Savita; Varma, V.K.; Verma, S.K.; Malhotra, Anil

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY Development and standardization of an instrument Childhood Psychopathology Measurement Schedule (CPMS) to assess psychopathology in children is reported. CPMS is standardized on Indian population and is applicable to children of both sexes in the age range of 4-14 years. It measures overall psychopathology in the form of a total scores and also the type of psychopathology in the form of eight factorially derived syndromes which have satisfactory reliability and validity. CPMS is propo...

  18. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  19. The impact of body image-related cognitive fusion on eating psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Inês A; Ferreira, Cláudia

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that cognitive fusion underlies psychological inflexibility and in consequence various forms of psychopathology. However, the role of cognitive fusion specifically related to body image on eating psychopathology remained to be examined. The current study explores the impact of cognitive fusion concerning body image in the relation between acknowledged related risk factors and eating psychopathology in a sample of 342 female students. The impact of body dissatisfaction and social comparison through physical appearance on eating psychopathology was partially mediated by body image-related cognitive fusion. The results highlight the importance of cognitive defusion in the treatment of eating disorders.

  20. Does psychopathology in childhood predict internet addiction in male adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Sung, Min-Je; Shin, Kyoung-Min; Lim, Ki Young; Shin, Yun-Mi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated childhood psychopathology and Internet addiction in adolescents. Initial assessment data were obtained from 1998 to 1999, and a follow-up assessment was performed in 2006, when the original subjects entered middle school. Personal information for the 524 male subjects was obtained from the original data. The subjects were evaluated with the Korean version of the child behavior checklist, which was administered to the children's parents. Demographic and psychosocial factors were also evaluated. Children were reassessed with the self-reported Korea Internet Addiction Scale. Our results indicated that 3.6 % of the subjects had Internet addiction, and revealed a significant relationship between withdrawal and anxiety/depression and future Internet addiction. The results suggest that withdrawal and anxiety/depression during childhood should be considered in the etiology of problematic Internet use in boys. Accordingly, clinicians should consider anxiety/depression and withdrawal during childhood to prevent Internet addiction.

  1. PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND PSYCHOTHERAPY IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathology is mental illness that has often suffered by human being. There are several factors that causes this illness, some of which are modern life characterized by materialistic, hedonistic and egoistic lives. In Islam, psychopathology which is described as a form of deviation from norms or moral values, spiritual and religion. Psychopathology is divided into three parts, namely those associated with faith, humanity and psychopathology which is associated with combination of faith and human being.Meanwhile psychotherapy is an effort to cure mental and psychiatric disorders suffered by individuals. Psychotherapy is a solution to cure various problems of mental disorders. Al-Qur’an, as the principles of Islamic teachings, contain information about psychotherapy for those who suffer from mental disorders. Religious approach is completely needed for therapy and it helps the psychopath recover from his/her mental disorders.TheQur’an could be used as a treatment as well as a preventive step, so that all human being will not suffer from mental disorders, and religious approach can bring the psychopaths closer to God, theAlmighty.

  2. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  3. Psychopathology in Sickle Cell Disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are genetic disorders of the blood that most often affect people of ... approximately 5% of carriers develop benign hematuria. ... direct consequences of the illness on brain function and emotional ... disease, children and adolescents may have known relatives that ... to healthy children may also lead to psychopathology.

  4. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem

  5. Structural rearrangements of chromosome 15 satellites resulting in Prader-Willi syndrome suggest a complex mechanism for uniparental disomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth-Fijel, S.; Gunter, K.; Olson, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    We report two cases of PWS in which there was abnormal meiosis I segregation of chromosome 15 following a rare translocation event between the heteromorphic satellite regions of chromosomes 14 and 15 and an apparent meiotic recombination in the unstable region of 15q11.2. PWS and normal appearing chromosomes in case one prompted a chromosome 15 origin analysis. PCR analysis indicated maternal isodisomy for the long arm of chromosome. However, only one chromosome 15 had short arm heteromorphisms consistent with either paternal or maternal inheritance. VNTR DNA analysis and heteromorphism data suggest that a maternal de novo translocation between chromosome 14 and 15 occurred prior to meiosis I. This was followed by recombination between D15Z1 and D15S11 and subsequent meiosis I nondisjunction. Proband and maternal karyotype display a distamycin A-DAPI positive region on the chromosome 14 homolog involved in the translocation. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses of ONCOR probes D15S11, SNRPN, D15S11 and GABRB 3 were normal, consistent with the molecular data. Case two received a Robertsonian translocation t(14;15)(p13;p13) of maternal origin. Chromosome analysis revealed a meiosis I error producing UPD. FISH analysis of the proband and parents showed normal hybridization of ONCOR probes D15Z1, D15S11, SNRPN, D15S10 and GABRB3. In both cases the PWS probands received a structurally altered chromosome 15 that had rearranged with chromosome 14 prior to meiosis. If proper meiotic segregation is dependent on the resolution of chiasmata and/or the binding to chromosome-specific spindle fibers, then it may be possible that rearrangements of pericentric or unstable regions of the genome disrupt normal disjunction and lead to uniparental disomy.

  6. [Psychopathology and film: a valuable interaction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duppen, Z; Summa, M; Fuchs, T

    2015-01-01

    Film or film fragments are often used in psychopathology education. However, so far there have been very few articles that have discussed the benefits and limitations of using films to explain or illustrate psychopathology. Although numerous films involves psychopathology in varying degrees, it is not clear how we can use films for psychopathology education. To examine the advantages, limitations and possible methods of using film as a means of increasing our knowledge and understanding of psychiatric illnesses. We discuss five examples that illustrate the interaction of film and psychopathology. On the one hand we explain how the psychopathological concepts are used in each film and on the other hand we explain which aspects of each film are valuable aids for teaching psychopathology. The use of film makes it possible to introduce the following topics in psychopathological teaching programme: holistic psychiatric reasoning, phenomenology and the subjective experience, the recognition of psychopathological prototypes and the importance of context. There is undoubtedly an analogy between the method we have chosen for teaching psychopathology with the help of films and the holistic approach of the psychiatrist and his or her team. We believe psychopathology education can benefit from films and we would recommend our colleagues to use it in this way.

  7. Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Souto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.

  8. Sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of DSM-IV substance use, mood and anxiety disorders: results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, B F; Goldstein, R B; Chou, S P; Huang, B; Stinson, F S; Dawson, D A; Saha, T D; Smith, S M; Pulay, A J; Pickering, R P; Ruan, W J; Compton, W M

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to present nationally representative findings on sociodemographic and psychopathologic predictors of first incidence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV) substance, mood and anxiety disorders using the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. One-year incidence rates of DSM-IV substance, mood and anxiety disorders were highest for alcohol abuse (1.02), alcohol dependence (1.70), major depressive disorder (MDD; 1.51) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; 1.12). Incidence rates were significantly greater (Pdisorders and greater among women for mood and anxiety disorders except bipolar disorders and social phobia. Age was inversely related to all disorders. Black individuals were at decreased risk of incident alcohol abuse and Hispanic individuals were at decreased risk of GAD. Anxiety disorders at baseline more often predicted incidence of other anxiety disorders than mood disorders. Reciprocal temporal relationships were found between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. Borderline and schizotypal personality disorders predicted most incident disorders. Incidence rates of substance, mood and anxiety disorders were comparable to or greater than rates of lung cancer, stroke and cardiovascular disease. The greater incidence of all disorders in the youngest cohort underscores the need for increased vigilance in identifying and treating these disorders among young adults. Strong common factors and unique factors appear to underlie associations between alcohol abuse and dependence, MDD and GAD, and GAD and panic disorder. The major results of this study are discussed with regard to prevention and treatment implications.

  9. Preparing for severe contrast media reactions in children - results of a national survey, a literature review and a suggested protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, R., E-mail: rwklindsay@hotmail.co [Imaging Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Paterson, A. [Radiology Department, The Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Edgar, D. [Immunology Department, Royal Victoria Hospital, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Aim: To identify current practices within paediatric radiology in the UK with regard to the use of prophylactic medication, prior to administering intravenous (IV) radiocontrast medium (RCM). In addition, the pre-injection risk management strategies of the departments questioned was to be evaluated, and using consensus opinion, a protocol for managing patients identified as being at high risk for an adverse reaction to RCM was to be outlined. Materials and methods: An online survey of paediatric radiology consultants representing all geographic regions of the UK was carried out. The questions asked included an assessment of the risk factors for adverse reactions to RCM, and how such reactions are anticipated and managed. The questionnaire asked about the perceived indications for, and the use of prophylactic medication prior to RCM administration. Results: A response rate of 51% was achieved. The majority of respondents felt that a history of previous RCM reaction was an indication to administer prophylactic drugs prior to a further dose of RCM. No other risk factor was believed to require prophylactic medication. Conclusion: Using information obtained from the survey, a literature search was performed to assess the evidence available in support of each practice. A protocol was devised to identify children at risk of an adverse reaction to RCM, and guide the use of prophylactic medication in this group of patients. The survey highlighted considerable variability in the risk-assessment and management practices within paediatric radiology in the UK. The derived protocol may guide radiologists' management of children at risk for an RCM reaction.

  10. Increased psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits, but normal cognitive functioning, in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; van der Mast, Roos C; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Middelkoop, Huub A M; Pereira, Alberto M; Romijn, Johannes A

    2010-12-01

    Active acromegaly is associated with psychopathology, personality changes, and cognitive dysfunction. It is unknown whether, and to what extent, these effects are present after long-term cure of acromegaly. The aim of the study was to assess psychopathology, personality traits, and cognitive function in patients after long-term cure of acromegaly. This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 68 patients after long-term cure (13±1 yr) of acromegaly and 68 matched controls. We compared these data with 60 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFMAs) and 60 matched controls. Psychopathology was assessed using the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form, and personality was assessed by the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). Cognitive function was assessed by 11 tests. Compared with matched controls, patients cured from acromegaly scored significantly worse on virtually all psychopathology questionnaires and on several subscales of the DAPPs. Compared with NFMA patients, patients cured from acromegaly scored worse on negative affect (P=0.050) and somatic arousal (P=0.009) and seven of 18 subscales of the DAPPs (Pmaladaptive personality traits but not cognitive dysfunction, compared with matched controls and patients treated for NFMA. These results suggest irreversible effects of previous GH excess, rather than effects of pituitary adenomas per se and/or their treatment, on the central nervous system.

  11. Catastrophic interpretations and anxiety sensitivity as predictors of panic-spectrum psychopathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Nicole; Sharpe, Louise; McKenzie, David

    2012-05-01

    Panic-spectrum psychopathology (denoting panic attacks and panic disorder) is highly prevalent in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the cognitive model of panic has been proposed as an explanation of this high prevalence. In the current cross-sectional study we investigated factors predicting panic-spectrum psychopathology in COPD, and hypothesized that, consistent with the cognitive model, both the catastrophic interpretation of shortness of breath and elevated anxiety sensitivity would be significant predictors when variance shared with confounding variables was controlled. Sixty-two participants with COPD were interviewed with the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule for DSM-IV, Panic Disorder section, and completed measures of interpretation of breathing difficulty, anxiety sensitivity, anxiety, depression, disease-specific quality of life, and stressful life events. Objective disease severity was measured using forced expiratory volume in the first second. Direct logistic regression was performed, and worse depressive symptoms, more catastrophic interpretations of shortness of breath, higher anxiety sensitivity, higher magnitude of recent stressful life events, and worse disease severity were each found to be significant unique predictors of panic-spectrum psychopathology in COPD after shared variance was controlled. The results of the study provide support for the cognitive model of panic, and also suggest a diathesis-stress explanation of the development of panic-spectrum psychopathology in COPD. The findings have implications for future preventative psychological interventions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition: working memory mediates signal discriminability and reinforcement moderates response bias in approach-avoidance learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Michael J; Rickert, Martin E; Bogg, Tim; Lucas, Jesolyn; Finn, Peter R

    2011-05-01

    Research has suggested that reduced working memory capacity plays a key role in disinhibited patterns of behavior associated with externalizing psychopathology. In this study, participants (N = 365) completed 2 versions of a go/no-go mixed-incentive learning task that differed in the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments for correct and incorrect active-approach responses, respectively. Using separate structural equation models for conventional (hit and false alarm rates) and signal detection theory (signal discriminability and response bias) performance indices, distinct roles for working memory capacity and changes in payoff structure were found. Specifically, results showed that (a) working memory capacity mediated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on false alarms and discriminability of go versus no-go signals; (b) these effects were not moderated by the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments; (c) the relative frequency of monetary rewards and punishments moderated the effects of externalizing psychopathology on hits and response bias for go versus no-go responses; and (d) these effects were not mediated by working memory capacity. The findings implicate distinct roles for reduced working memory capacity and poorly modulated active approach and passive avoidance in the link between externalizing psychopathology and behavioral disinhibition.

  13. Sexual assault victimization and psychopathology: A review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Menon, Suvarna V; Bystrynski, Jonathan; Allen, Nicole E

    2017-08-01

    Sexual assault (SA) is a common and deleterious form of trauma. Over 40years of research on its impact has suggested that SA has particularly severe effects on a variety of forms of psychopathology, and has highlighted unique aspects of SA as a form of trauma that contribute to these outcomes. The goal of this meta-analytic review was to synthesize the empirical literature from 1970 to 2014 (reflecting 497 effect sizes) to understand the degree to which (a) SA confers general risk for psychological dysfunction rather than specific risk for posttraumatic stress, and (b) differences in studies and samples account for variation in observed effects. Results indicate that people who have been sexually assaulted report significantly worse psychopathology than unassaulted comparisons (average Hedges' g=0.61). SA was associated with increased risk for all forms of psychopathology assessed, and relatively stronger associations were observed for posttraumatic stress and suicidality. Effects endured across differences in sample demographics. The use of broader SA operationalizations (e.g., including incapacitated, coerced, or nonpenetrative SA) was not associated with differences in effects, although including attempted SA in operationalizations resulted in lower effects. Larger effects were observed in samples with more assaults involving stranger perpetrators, weapons, or physical injury. In the context of the broader literature, our findings provide evidence that experiencing SA is major risk factor for multiple forms of psychological dysfunction across populations and assault types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Humor and Trauma-Related Psychopathology Among Survivors of Terror Attacks and Their Spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Avi; Weinberg, Michael; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Ataria, Yochai; Neria, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the bidirectional relationships between humor and trauma-related psychopathology (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and anxiety symptoms) among 105 dyads consisting of Israelis who were injured during terror attacks and their spouses (N = 210). An actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was applied as part of a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis aimed at examining the associations between the use of different styles of humor and trauma-related psychopathology. Consistent with our hypotheses, results suggested that benign styles of humor were associated with survivors' lower levels of trauma-related symptoms (actor effects) and also had a buffering effect for the spouse (partner effects). More specifically, the use of self-enhancing humor by survivors was negatively associated with spousal symptoms and the use of affiliative humor by spouses was negatively associated with psychopathology symptoms reported by survivors. The results of this study shed light on the role that benign humor may play in coping with traumatic events while taking into account the dyadic relationships among survivors and their spouses. Theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Startle potentiation to uncertain threat as a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology: An examination across multiple internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Stephanie M; Lieberman, Lynne; Shankman, Stewart A; Phan, K Luan

    2017-01-01

    Heightened reactivity to uncertain threat (U-threat) is an important individual difference factor that may characterize fear-based internalizing psychopathologies (IPs) and distinguish them from distress/misery IPs. To date, however, the majority of existing research examining reactivity to U-threat has been within individuals with panic disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) and no prior study has directly tested this hypothesis across multiple IPs. The current study therefore explored whether heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based psychopathology across 5 groups: current (a) social anxiety disorder (SAD); (b) specific phobia (SP); (c) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); (d) MDD; and (c) individuals with no history of psychopathology (controls). All 160 adults completed a well-validated threat-of-shock task designed to probe responses to predictable (P-) and U-threat. Startle eyeblink potentiation was recorded as an index of aversive arousal. Results indicated that individuals with SAD and SP evidenced greater startle potentiation to U-threat, but not P-threat, relative to individuals with GAD, MDD, and controls (who did not differ). The current findings, along with the prior panic disorder and MDD literature, suggest that heightened reactivity to U-threat is a psychophysiological indicator of fear-based disorders and could represent a neurobiological organizing principle for internalizing psychopathology. The findings also suggest that individuals with fear disorders generally display a hypersensitivity to uncertain aversive events, which could contribute to their psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Disruption of MBD5 contributes to a spectrum of psychopathology and neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J C; Mitchell, E; Pillalamarri, V; Toler, T L; Bartel, F; Kearney, H M; Zou, Y S; Tan, W H; Hanscom, C; Kirmani, S; Hanson, R R; Skinner, S A; Rogers, R C; Everman, D B; Boyd, E; Tapp, C; Mullegama, S V; Keelean-Fuller, D; Powell, C M; Elsea, S H; Morton, C C; Gusella, J F; DuPont, B; Chaubey, A; Lin, A E; Talkowski, M E

    2014-03-01

    Microdeletions of chromosomal region 2q23.1 that disrupt MBD5 (methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 5) contribute to a spectrum of neurodevelopmental phenotypes; however, the impact of this locus on human psychopathology has not been fully explored. To characterize the structural variation landscape of MBD5 disruptions and the associated human psychopathology, 22 individuals with genomic disruption of MBD5 (translocation, point mutation and deletion) were identified through whole-genome sequencing or cytogenomic microarray at 11 molecular diagnostic centers. The genomic impact ranged from a single base pair to 5.4 Mb. Parents were available for 11 cases, all of which confirmed that the rearrangement arose de novo. Phenotypes were largely indistinguishable between patients with full-segment 2q23.1 deletions and those with intragenic MBD5 rearrangements, including alterations confined entirely to the 5'-untranslated region, confirming the critical impact of non-coding sequence at this locus. We identified heterogeneous, multisystem pathogenic effects of MBD5 disruption and characterized the associated spectrum of psychopathology, including the novel finding of anxiety and bipolar disorder in multiple patients. Importantly, one of the unique features of the oldest known patient was behavioral regression. Analyses also revealed phenotypes that distinguish MBD5 disruptions from seven well-established syndromes with significant diagnostic overlap. This study demonstrates that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 causes diverse phenotypes, yields insight into the spectrum of resulting neurodevelopmental and behavioral psychopathology and provides clinical context for interpretation of MBD5 structural variations. Empirical evidence also indicates that disruption of non-coding MBD5 regulatory regions is sufficient for clinical manifestation, highlighting the limitations of exon-focused assessments. These results suggest an ongoing perturbation of neurological function throughout the

  17. Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, Jim; Lataster, Tineke; Delespaul, Philippe; Wichers, Marieke; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2014-01-01

    measures of psychopathology, similarly moderated by momentary interactions with emotions and context. Conclusion The results suggest that psychopathology, represented as an interactome at the momentary level of temporal resolution, is informative in diagnosing clinical needs, over and above traditional symptom measures. PMID:24466189

  18. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  19. Neurobiological pathways to childhood psychopathology : Population-based studies of cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ghassabian (Akhgar)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the past few decades, considerable advances have been made in understanding childhood psychopathology. This progress is the result of four primary developments in the field. First, both in the research and in the clinical framework, psychopathology has been conceptualized across a spe

  20. Relationships between Learning Disability, Executive Function, and Psychopathology in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Richard E.; Mayes, Susan Dickerson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Learning disabilities (LD), executive function (EF), and psychopathology were investigated to clarify their relationships in 595 children with ADHD. Method: Standard instruments for IQ, achievement, EF, and parent and teacher ratings of psychopathology were obtained at the time of outpatient evaluation. Results: Comparisons between the…

  1. Exploring the link among state of mind concerning childhood attachment, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathological symptoms in substance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Musetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we have explored the link among styles of attachment and psychopathology in drug users. We know that insecure attachment predisposes the individuals the development of drug-addiction and psychopathological symptoms. However, we do not know which attachment is more frequent in drug users and which is related to particular psychopathological symptoms. The aim of the present work is to explore the relationship between childhood attachment state of mind, attachment in close relationships, parental bonding and psychopathology in sample of Italian substance users.MethodsWe explored, in a sample of 70 drug users and drug-addicted patients, the childhood attachment state of mind measured by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI, the attachment in close relationships by the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ and parental bonding measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI. The Symptom Check-List-90-R (SCL-90-R measured psychopathological symptoms.ResultsWe found that parental bonding, rather than state of mind concerning childhood attachment or attachment in close relationships, is related to the psychopathological manifestation of anxiety, hostility, depression and paranoid ideation in the sample. The latter occurs frequently in our sample, independent of state of mind concerning child attachment, attachment in close relationships and parental bonding, suggesting its role either as a factor that favors a bad image of the participants’ own relationships or as a direct effect of consuming drugs. ConclusionThese results have clinical implications on suggesting ways of interventions that prevent drug addiction, which should include the evaluation of attachment in the prodromic phases of substance use onset or rehabilitation programs to prevent and manage psychotic-like symptoms.

  2. A Place for Sexual Dysfunctions in an Empirical Taxonomy of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Baillie, Andrew J; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-01-25

    Sexual dysfunctions commonly co-occur with various depressive and anxiety disorders. An emerging framework for understanding the classification of mental disorders suggests that such comorbidity is a manifestation of underlying dimensions of psychopathology (or "spectra"). In this review, we synthesize the evidence that sexual dysfunctions should be included in the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology as part of the internalizing spectrum, which accounts for comorbidity among the depressive and anxiety disorders. The review has four parts. Part 1 summarizes the empirical basis and utility of the empirical taxonomy of psychopathology. Part 2 reviews the prima facie evidence for the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are part of the internalizing spectrum (i.e., high rates of comorbidity; shared cognitive, affective, and temperament characteristics; common neural substrates and biomarkers; shared course and treatment response; and the lack of causal relationships between them). Part 3 critically analyzes and integrates the results of the eight studies that have addressed this hypothesis. Finally, Part 4 examines the implications of reconceptualizing sexual dysfunctions as part of the internalizing spectrum, and explores avenues for future research.

  3. The role of parental psychopathology and personality in adolescent non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromatsky, Molly A; Waszczuk, Monika A; Perlman, Greg; Salis, Katie Lee; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), a significant risk factor for suicidal behavior, is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and personality traits, particularly those characterized by poor self-regulation. Some parental psychopathology and personality traits have also been identified as risk factors for adolescent NSSI, but specific parental characteristics and mechanisms involved in this association have not been systematically examined. The current study comprehensively investigated the contribution of parental psychopathology and personality to adolescent NSSI using data from the baseline wave of the Adolescent Development of Emotion and Personality Traits (ADEPT) study of 550 adolescent girls (mean age = 14.39 years, SD = 0.63) and their biological parents. We first investigated whether parental lifetime psychiatric diagnoses, and personality and clinical (rumination, self-criticism, emotional reliance) traits were associated with adolescent NSSI. We also tested whether adolescent history of psychiatric illness, personality, and clinical traits mediated the associations between parental characteristics and adolescent NSSI. Parental substance use disorder, adult-ADHD symptoms, self-criticism, and lower agreeableness and conscientiousness were associated with offspring's NSSI. These associations were mediated through adolescent characteristics. In contrast, parental mood and anxiety disorders and neuroticism were unrelated to adolescent NSSI. The results suggest that parental traits and disorders characterized by self-regulatory difficulties and lack of support constitute risk factors for self-injury in adolescent girls, acting via adolescent traits. This demonstrates that parental influences play a significant role in the etiology of adolescent NSSI.

  4. The psychopathology of musical hallucinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendran, R

    2007-02-01

    Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in neurological and psychiatric patients. There are clinical case reports and a few studies which describe the condition. Musical hallucinations have a heterogeneous clinical and pathophysiological aetiology, and have been reported in the elderly and in those with hearing impairment, central nervous system disorders and psychiatric disorders. The psychopathology is reviewed and three cases seen in a psychiatric setting are reported.

  5. Brittle diabetes: Psychopathology and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Pupo, Simona

    The term "brittle" is used to describe an uncommon subgroup of patients with type I diabetes whose lives are disrupted by severe glycaemic instability with repeated and prolonged hospitalization. Psychosocial problems are the major perceived underlying causes of brittle diabetes. Aim of this study is a systematic psychopathological and personological assessment of patients with brittle diabetes in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes, using specific parameters of general psychopathology and personality disorders following the multi-axial format of the current DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical manual of Mental Disorders - IV Edition - Text Revised) diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. Patients comprised 42 subjects with brittle diabetes and a case-control group of 42 subjects with stable diabetes, matched for age, gender, years of education, and diabetes duration. General psychopathology and the DSM-IV-TR personality disorders were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis II personality Disorders (SCID-II). The comparison for SCL-90-R parameters revealed no differences in all primary symptom dimensions and in the three global distress indices between the two groups. However, patients with brittle diabetes showed higher percentages in borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorder. In this study, patients with brittle diabetes show no differences in terms of global severity of psychopathological distress and specific symptoms of axis I DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnoses in comparison with subjects without brittle diabetes. Differently, individuals with brittle diabetes are more frequently affected by specific DSM-IV-TR cluster B personality disorders.

  6. [Pica: nosographical and psychopathological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Gennaro; Prisco, Vincenzo; Iorio, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The authors, after examining a clinical case of obsessive-compulsive disorder, associated to Pica syndrome, analyse psychopathological development of the symptomatology in its complex, refuting some statements of published studies, that include Pica within obsessive-compulsive disorder spectrum. On the contrary, they think the coexistence of the two symptomatologies simply as an expression of a comorbidity, explaining why they are prone to link Pica with eating disorders.

  7. Research in psychopathology: epistemologic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef; Bovet, P

    1995-01-01

    (connectionism), and developmental psychology (developmental biodynamics) converge in viewing living organisms as self-organizing systems. In this perspective, the organism is not specified by the outer world, but enacts its environment by selecting relevant domains of significance that constitute its world....... The distinction between mind and body or organism and environment is a matter of observational perspective. These models from empirical sciences are compatible with fundamental tenets of philosophical phenomenology and hermeneutics. They imply consequences for research in psychopathology: symptoms cannot...

  8. Toward the Identification of a Specific Psychopathology of Substance Use Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo G. I. Maremmani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a mental illness in which psychiatric conditions imply a prominent burden. Psychopathological symptoms in substance use disorder (SUD patients are usually viewed as being assignable to the sphere of a personality trait or of comorbidity, leaving doubts about the presence of a specific psychopathology that could only be related to the toxicomanic process. Our research group at the University of Pisa has shed light on the possible definition of a specific psychopathological dimension in SUDs. In heroin use disorder patients, performing an exploratory principal component factor analysis (PCA on all the 90 items included in the SCL-90 questionnaire led to a five-factor solution. The first factor accounted for a depressive “worthlessness and being trapped” dimension; the second factor picked out a “somatic symptoms” dimension; the third identified a “sensitivity–psychoticism” dimension; the fourth a “panic–anxiety” dimension; and the fifth a “violence–suicide” dimension. These same results were replicated by applying the PCA to another Italian sample of 1,195 heroin addicts entering a Therapeutic Community Treatment. Further analyses confirmed the clusters of symptoms, independently of demographic and clinical characteristics, active heroin use, lifetime psychiatric problems, kind of treatment received, and, especially, other substances used by the patient such as alcohol or cocaine. Moreover, these clusters were able to discriminate patients affected by addiction from those affected by psychiatric diseases such as major depressive disorder. Our studies seem to suggest the trait-dependent, rather than the state-dependent, nature of the introduced psychopathology dimensions of SUDs.

  9. Fundamental concepts of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology

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    Debajit Gogoi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For a better understanding of what psychiatry is all about, the importance and stronghold of phenomenology and descriptive psychopathology in psychiatry has never been overstated. Biological psychiatry has accumulated enough evidences of mental illnesses until now but that does not mean that phenomenology and psychopathology would lose its shine. Rather psychopathology and phenomenology will afoot stronger as it is the philosophy of psychiatry.

  10. [Schizophrenia and evolutionary psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Oguz; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2007-01-01

    Evolution can shape any characteristic appearing as a phenotype that is genetically rooted and possesses a long history. The stress-diathesis model suggests that psychiatric disorders have some genetic roots, and therefore the theory of evolution may be relevant for psychiatry. Schizophrenia is present in every human culture with approximately the same incidence. The great evolutionary paradox is: how can such illness persist despite fundamental reproductive disadvantages? Since the 1960s, several evolutionary explanations have been raised to explain the origins of schizophrenia. This article reviews all the major evolutionary theories about the possible origins of this disease. On the one hand, some researchers have proposed that schizophrenia is an evolutionary disadvantageous byproduct of human brain evolution (e.g. the evolution of hemispheric specialization, social brain or language skills). On the other hand, others have suggested that a compensatory advantage must exist either in the biological system of patients with schizophrenia (e.g. resistance against infectious diseases), or within the social domain (e.g. greater creativity of the relatives). According to some theories, shamanism and religion demonstrate some similarities to psychosis and provide clues regarding the origins of schizophrenia. At the end of this article we discuss this last theory in detail listing arguments for and against.

  11. Parental psychopathology and expectations for the futures of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Paul Andrew; King, Jake S; Mendelson, Jenna L; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O

    2017-02-16

    The influence of parental psychopathology and parental expectations on child well-being is well documented among typically developing populations. However, to date little research has examined the relationship among these factors in families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examines an observed relationship between parental psychopathology and expectations in families with children with ASD in the light of research in other populations. Twenty-four parents of children diagnosed with ASD were assessed for symptoms of psychopathology. Parents completed measures of child ASD severity as well as their expectations for possible outcomes of their child. Two main effects were found: higher parental psychopathology and ASD severity were both related to lower expectations. Interaction of ASD severity and parental psychopathology in relation to parent expectations was not observed. These results emphasize the necessity of providing services not only to individuals diagnosed with ASD, but to caregivers as well. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychopathology in Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pre-professional and professional dancers (n=209) who were exposed to traumatic events. Nine self-report instruments assessed (1) adverse childhood experiences, (2) past traumatic events, (3) coping strategies under stressful situations, and (4) fantasy proneness. The psychopathology variables included (5) anxiety, (6) depression, (7) dissociation, (8) shame, and (9)) PTSD diagnostic scale. Statistical calculations included descriptive, distributional, and multivariate analysis of covariates (MANCOVA). Results indicate that dancers had a significantly higher distribution of PTSD (20.2%) compared to the normal population (7.8%). They also had a higher frequency of family members with mental illness, an inability to speak about their trauma, and more suicidal thoughts. The PTSD group of dancers had higher levels of psychopathology (anxiety, depression, dissociation, and shame) and they had more childhood adversity and adult trauma. Compared to the no-PTSD group, the PTSD group had higher scores on fantasy proneness and emotion-oriented coping strategies. These coping strategies may increase psychological instability. Addressing early abuse and trauma is recommended. Clinicians may help dancers alter their internal working models that their self is worthless, others are abusive, and the world is threatening and dangerous. By understanding PTSD in dancers, medical and mental health treatment protocols may be established to address the debilitating, and often hidden, symptoms of PTSD.

  14. Distress, demoralization and psychopathology: Diagnostic boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. de Figueiredo

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The objectives of the manuscript are: (a to review the understanding of demoralization and its assessment; (b to describe its clinical progression; (c to explain the differences between demoralization and other form of psychological distress; (d to propose a set of criteria for future research on demoralization. Methods: A MEDLINE search using the keywords distress, subjective incompetence, depression, demoralization, helplessness, hopelessness and psychopathology was conducted. This was supplemented by a manual search of the literature. Results: Demoralization can be distinguished from passing or transient distress, non-specific distress, sub-threshold depression or anxiety, and certain mental disorders. Demoralization can be a risk factor for the manifestation of psychopathology, the prodromal phase of a mental disorder, or a trigger for exacerbation or recurrence of psychiatric distress symptoms. The domains of distress and demoralization are described and research diagnostic criteria for demoralization are presented. Conclusions: The scales discussed in this article differ in their time frames and have not yet been applied to the same population at the same time. The role of demoralization as a risk factor for mental disorders is just beginning to be understood. The domains and the diagnostic criteria for demoralization presented in this article need to be confirmed by epidemiological and empirical studies. Future research should continue to clarify its role in the pathogenesis of both mental disorders and physical illnesses and identify appropriate interventions for its arrest or prevention.

  15. Parenting and Psychopathology in Sibling Pairs

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    Jiri Modestin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study explored the relationship between parenting experience in childhood as a specific aspect of the non-shared environment and the amount of psychopathology in adulthood. Sampling and Methods: 27 same-sex sibling pairs were studied. In each pair, one proband was a psychiatric outpatient, the other proband a non-patient. All probands filled in the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Results: The patients rated higher on practically all SCL-90-R scales whereas no significant differences were found with regard to the PBI ratings. With only one exception, there were no significant correlations between PBI and SCL-90-R ratings in the group of patients. In contrast, all SCL-90-R subscales correlated negatively with paternal care and half of them positively with paternal control in patients' healthy siblings. Conclusions: The degree of paternal care seems to be most closely related with lack of mental symptoms in psychiatric non-patients. In contrast, parenting does not seem to play a substantial role in patients, presenting with a higher degree of psychopathology. Obviously, environmental factors become less important, the more pronounced the pathology.

  16. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  17. Parental Reports of Prodromal Psychopathology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mariely; Marangoni, Ciro; Grant, Marie C; Estrada, Jezelle; Faedda, Gianni L

    2017-04-01

    Early psychopathology in children diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) remains poorly characterized. Parental retrospective reports provide helpful details on the earliest manifestations and their evolution over time. These symptoms occur early in the course of BD, often before a formal diagnosis is made and/or treatment is implemented, and are of great importance to early recognition and prevention. Parents of pre-pubertal children and adolescents with DSM-IV diagnoses of BD attending an outpatient mood disorders clinic provided retrospective ratings of 37 symptoms of child psychopathology. Stability and comorbidity of diagnoses were evaluated, and severity of symptoms for each subject was assessed by identifying the earliest occurrence of the reported symptoms causing impairment. Severe mood instability, temper tantrums, anxiety symptoms, sleep disturbances and aggression were among the most common signs of psychopathology reported in children diagnosed with BD before puberty. Symptoms were already apparent in the first three years in 28%, and formal diagnoses were made before the age of 8 y in the majority of cases. Retrospective parental reports of early symptoms of psychopathology in pre-pubertal children with BD revealed a very early occurrence of affective precursors (irritability and mood dysregulation) and clinical risk factors like impulsive aggression and anxiety that can precede the syndromal onset of mania by several years. These findings support previous reports suggesting a progression of symptoms from abnormal, non-specific presentations to sub-threshold and finally syndromal BD. The importance of early identification and intervention is discussed.

  18. Psychopathology in the adolescent offspring of bipolar parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, CG; Wals, M; Hillegers, MHJ; Ormel, J; Nolen, WA; Verhulst, FC

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and 14-months incidence of psychopathology in adolescent offspring of a bipolar parent. Method: Parent, teacher and self-report rating scales and Kiddie-SADS were used to assess 132 13-23-year-old offspring of bipolar parents. Results

  19. Comorbidity Among Dimensions of Childhood Psychopathology: Converging Evidence from Behavior Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Soo Hyun; Lahey, Benjamin B; Waldman, Irwin D

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we review evidence from recent behavior genetic studies that examined the covariance among common childhood psychopathological conditions and tested specific hypotheses regarding common and broadband-specific underlying features of childhood psychopathology. Specifically, we review the distinction between internalizing and externalizing disorders, the support for the generalist genes and specialist environments model, negative emotionality as a heritable underlying feature common to both internalizing and externalizing disorders, and daring as a heritable broadband-specific underlying feature that distinguishes externalizing disorders from internalizing disorders. We also discuss the implications of research in the search for specific genes that influence childhood psychopathology and suggest avenues for new research.

  20. Efficacy for Psychopathology and Body Weight and Safety of Topiramate-Antipsychotic Cotreatment in Patients With Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, Christoph U; Maayan, Lawrence; Kane, John; Hert, Marc De; Cohen, Dan

    2016-06-01

    To meta-analyze the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment in schizophrenia. PubMed/MEDLINE database were searched until September 5, 2015, using the keywords topiramate AND antipsych* OR neurolept* OR specific antipsychotic names. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topiramate-antipsychotic cotreatment versus placebo and ongoing antipsychotic treatment in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were included. Two evaluators extracted data. Standardized mean difference (SMD), weighted mean difference (WMD), and risk ratio (RR) ± 95% CIs were calculated. In 8 RCTs, lasting a mean ± SD of 13.6 ± 4.9 weeks, 439 patients were randomized to topiramate (100-400 mg/d) versus placebo (trials = 7) or ongoing antipsychotic treatment (trial = 1). Topiramate outperformed the comparator regarding total psychopathology (trials = 6, n = 269, SMD = -0.57 [95% CI, -1.01 to -0.14], P = .01), positive symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.56 [95% CI, -1.0 to -0.11], P = .01), negative symptoms (trials = 4, n = 190, SMD = -0.62 [95% CI, -1.13 to -0.10], P = .02) general psychopathology (trials = 3, n = 179, SMD = -0.69 [95% CI, -1.27 to -0.11], P = .02), body weight (trials = 7, n = 327, WMD = -3.14 kg [95% CI, -5.55 to -0.73], P = .01), and body mass index (BMI) (trials = 4, n = 198, WMD = -1.80 [95% CI, -2.77 to -0.84], P = .0003). Topiramate's efficacy for total psychopathology and weight reduction effects were not mediated/moderated by trial duration, topiramate dose, sex, age, inpatient status, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, or baseline BMI. Conversely, clozapine-topiramate cotreatment moderated greater efficacy, but less weight loss, compared to topiramate-nonclozapine antipsychotic combinations. All-cause discontinuation was similar between topiramate and control groups (trials = 7, RR = 1.24 [95% CI, 0.76 to 2.02], P = .39). Topiramate trended only toward more paresthesia than placebo (trials = 4, RR = 2.03 [95 % CI, 0

  1. Characterizing the magnitude of the relation between self-reported childhood parentification and adult psychopathology: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M; Decoster, Jamie; White, Nyshetia; Voltz, Mukesha L

    2011-10-01

    Several decades of research have shown that people who experience parentification in childhood are at an increased risk of experiencing psychopathology in adulthood. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the magnitude of the relation between self-reported parentification experienced in childhood and psychopathology evidenced in adulthood. Results from 12 nonoverlapping studies (N = 2,472), which were conducted between 1984 and 2010, revealed a small significant but reliable effect (r = .14; 95% confidence interval = .10 to .18). Moderator analyses were performed to explore possible explanations for the variance evidenced between parentification and psychopathology. Moderators that were examined include population factors, methodological factors, and type of psychopathology. The present findings indicate that four factors-types of psychopathology, type of sample, race, and parentification measure used-moderated the relation between parentification and psychopathology. The meta-analytic findings that emerged highlight the need for additional empirical research. Possible explanations and clinical

  2. The role of parent psychopathology in the development of preschool children with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux, Rosanna P; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined associations between early parental self-reported psychopathology symptoms and the later behavioral, emotional, and social functioning of preschool children with behavior problems. Mothers and fathers of preschoolers with behavior problems (N = 132; 55 girls, 77 boys) completed parent psychopathology questionnaires when children were 3 years old and completed measures of children's externalizing, internalizing, and social problems annually from age 3 to age 6. The sample included 61% European American, 16% Latino (predominantly Puerto Rican), 10% African American, and 13% multiethnic children. Every dimension of mothers' and fathers' psychopathology symptoms when children were 3 years old was associated with their own reports of children's externalizing and internalizing problems 3 years later. Several dimensions of maternal psychopathology symptoms at age 3 were associated with mother-reported social skills 3 years later. However, the relation between many dimensions of psychopathology symptoms and child outcome appears to be accounted for by co-occurring psychopathology symptoms. Only maternal attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Cluster A symptoms, and paternal ADHD and depression/anxiety symptoms emerged as unique predictors of child functioning. These findings suggest that most types of mothers' and fathers' self-reported psychopathology symptoms may play a role in the prognosis of behavioral, social, and emotional outcomes of preschoolers with behavior problems, but that co-occurring symptoms need to be considered.

  3. ADHD, ODD, and CD: Do They Belong to a Common Psychopathological Spectrum? A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanti Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Research. Numerous studies have reported comorbidities, overlapping symptoms, and shared risk factors among cases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD. We present three adolescent males aged 13–16 years with conduct disorder having past history of ADHD and ODD. Principal Result. The symptom profile especially in domains of aggression, hostility, and emotionality as well as the manner of progression from ADHD to ODD and CD in the above cases shows a similar pattern. Conclusion. These common developmental pathways and overlapping symptoms suggest the possibility of a common psychopathological spectrum encompassing the three externalizing disorders.

  4. Psychopathology in Women Arrested for Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Gregory L.; Moore, Todd M.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Ramsey, Susan E.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of psychopathology among women arrested for violence and whether the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with Axis I psychopathology. Women who were arrested for domestic violence perpetration and court referred to violence intervention programs (N=103) completed measures of IPV…

  5. Psychopathology in hearing-impaired children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Stephanie Carla Petra Maria

    2013-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for developing psychopathology, which has detrimental consequences for academic and psychosocial functioning. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to objectify levels of psychopathology in hearing-impaired children, and to investigate the influence of

  6. Developmental Psychopathology: Pathways to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Ann S.

    2006-01-01

    This article highlights the defining principles, progress and future directions in developmental psychopathology in relation to this special section. Six fundamental principles of developmental psychopathology are identified and the pervasive impact of this integrative framework on research, theory, and practice in behavioral health fields over…

  7. Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period

  8. Interaction effects in comorbid psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared W; Chmielewski, Michael S; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-07-01

    Comorbidity in psychopathology is the norm. Despite some initial evidence, few studies have examined if the presence of comorbid conditions changes the expression of the pathology, either through increased severity of the syndrome(s) or by expanding to symptoms beyond the syndrome(s) (i.e., symptom overextension). The following report provides an illustration of interactive effects and overextension in comorbid pathology. A large pool of patients from a university hospital were assessed using SCID-I/P interviews. Of these, 230 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder, social phobia, or both were included in the study. Symptoms not belonging to either index condition (major depressive disorder or social phobia) reliably overextended in comorbid cases (odds ratios between 2.82 and 15.75). Current research methodologies (e.g., structured interviews) do not allow for the examination of overextended symptoms. The authors make a call for future psychopathological research to search systematically for interactive effects by adopting more inclusive or flexible assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Future Directions in Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    It is critical for psychologists to gain a better understanding about the intersection between sleep and developmental psychopathology. However, while many strive to answer the question of whether sleep causes developmental psychopathology, or vice versa, ultimately the relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology is complex and dynamic. This article considers future directions in the field of clinical child and adolescent psychology that go beyond this mechanistic question, highlighting areas important to address for clinicians and researchers who strive to better understand how best to serve children and adolescents with developmental psychopathology. Questions are presented about what is normal in terms of sleep across development, the role of individual variability in terms of sleep needs and vulnerability to sleep loss, and how sleep may serve as a risk or resilience factor for developmental psychopathology, concluding with considerations for interventions.

  10. Psychopathology and hormonal disturbances in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola D’Arista

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Our aim was to study the relationship between hormonal disturbances and psychopathology in Eating Disorders (ED.

    Methods: Forty-nine women diagnosed as Eating Disorders according to DSM-IV were subjected to control plasma levels of TSH, FT3, FT4, LH, FSH, 17beta-estradiol, prolactin, cortisol, DHEAS, GH and IGF-1. They were also administered by SCL-90R, BAT, DES II questionnaires. We applied multivariate regression models.

    Results: Our results highlight a statistically significant relation between LH, FSH and prolactin decreased levels, mood and thought disturbances (subscales 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of SCL-90r which are associated to Body Attitude ( BAT total scale and Dissociative Experiences (DES II total scale.

    Conclusions: Decreased sexual hormones levels could have a role in ED psychological disturbances, not inquired yet

  11. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rotella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  12. Hysteria, hypnosis, psychopathology. History and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, L

    1975-12-01

    A historical outline is given of the search for an explanation of the still elusive nature of hysteria and hypnosis, their mutual relationship, and that which they bear to psychopathology. Charcot regarded hypnosis as an artificially induced hysterical neurosis, and it was he who first introduced Freud to these two states. Freud was the first to see in hypnosis an experimental instrument for understanding psychopathological mechanisms. His subsequent conceptualization of psychoanalysis derived from these two phenomena at this decisive period. In 1895 Freud attempted to achieve a psychophysiological synthesis of the mental apparatus in his "Project for a Scientific Psychology," but then decided not to publish it. Whether or not recent advance in neurophysiology are sufficiently important bo bring about this synthesis remains an open question. In recent years some psychoanalysts have become interested in hypnosis, which one of them described as a focus for psychophysiological and psychoanalytic investigations. Any theory of the psychical apparatus which does not account for such an obvious psychical phenomenon must necessarily be incomplete. Since Charcot, hysteria presents hardly any new openings for experimental work. It is suggested that the solution of psyche-soma interaction might be sought in the study of hypnosis. It is postulated that hypnosis is a "fourth organismic state," not as yet objectifiable (in contradistinction to the waking state, sleep, and dreaming): a kind of natural or inborn mechanism which acts as one of the regulators of man's relationships with the environment. The author discusses briefly the aims and methodology of future interdisciplinary research on hypnosis, and the study of the transition from one state of consciousness to another, and their potential application to a wide range of subjects, namely, wherever man's relations with the environment are involved.

  13. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  14. Parental psychopathology moderates the influence of parental divorce on lifetime alcohol use disorders among Israeli adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Stohl, Malki; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental divorce and psychopathology are well-documented risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the United States and other countries where divorce is common and per capita total alcohol consumption is moderate to high. However, little is known about these relationships in countries where divorce and alcohol problems are less common, such as Israel. Methods Israeli adult household residents (N=797) age 21–45 were interviewed in person between 2007 and 2009. Logistic regression models were used to examine main and additive interaction effects of parental divorce and psychopathology on lifetime DSM-IV AUD, adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity. Results Parental divorce (OR=2.18, p≤.001) and parental psychopathology (OR=1.61, p≤.01) were independently associated with lifetime AUD and, when considered together, showed significant interaction (p=.026). Specifically, the effect of divorce on AUD was only significant among those who also reported parental psychopathology. Conclusions This is the first study showing the influence of parental divorce and psychopathology on risk for AUD among Israeli adults, where both divorce and AUD are less common than in the United States. Alcohol prevention and treatment professionals should recognize that children who experience parental divorce and/or psychopathology could be more vulnerable to later developing AUD than those whose parents remain together and without psychopathology. PMID:24939440

  15. Exploring the complexity of the childhood trait-psychopathology association: Continuity, pathoplasty, and complication effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; De Caluwé, Elien; Verbeke, Lize

    2016-02-01

    Four different models have been generally proposed as plausible etiological explanations for the relation between personality and psychopathology, namely, the vulnerability, complication, pathoplasty, and spectrum or continuity model. The current study entails a joint investigation of the continuity, pathoplasty, and complication models to explain the nature of the associations between early maladaptive traits and psychopathology over time in 717 referred and community children (54.4% girls), aged from 8 to 14 years. Across a 2-year time span, maladaptive traits and psychopathology were measured at three different time points, thereby relying on comprehensive and age-specific dimensional operationalizations of both personality symptoms and psychopathology. The results demonstrate overall compelling evidence for the continuity model, finding more focused support for pathoplasty and complication effects for particular combinations of personality symptoms and psychopathology dimensions. As expected, the continuity associations were found to be more robust for those personality-psychopathology associations that are conceptually closer, such as the emotional instability/introversion-internalizing problems association and the disagreeableness-externalizing problems association. Continuity associations were also stronger when personality was considered from a maladaptive rather than from a general trait perspective. The implication of the findings for the treatment of psychopathology and personality symptoms are briefly discussed.

  16. Associations with quality of life and the effect of psychopathology in a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jonathan; Hengartner, Michael P; Angst, Jules; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-09-01

    Quality of life (QoL) is considerably impaired in mental illness and especially in depression. In this study, we aimed to determine the demographic, personality-related and psychopathological associations with QoL. In addition, we studied how the associations with QoL differ depending on the burden of psychopathology. We used a longitudinal observational cohort study, enriched for high levels of psychopathology, to examine data for QoL when the subjects were 34-35. We conducted a hierarchical linear regression analysis to determine how sex, personality, sociodemographics, somatic symptoms and psychopathology affect QoL. Once all the variables were included in the model, total psychopathology is strongly negatively associated with QoL, while mastery and income were shown to have positive associations with QoL. Sex, personality and somatic symptoms had no significant associations with QoL once the other variables had been introduced into the regression. Due to the outstanding association with psychopathology, we tested whether the relationship had any interaction with the other predictors, but none reached statistical significance. The most important association with QoL is psychopathology, regardless of sex, personality, coping resources, sociodemographics or the extent somatic symptoms. The relationship holds across the other variables included and the results are, thus, widely applicable.

  17. Isotretinoin and psychopathology: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havaki-Kontaxaki Beata J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Isotretinoin, a synthetic oral retinoid that is used against severe nodulocystic acne, has been associated with various psychiatric side effects such as depression, suicidality and psychotic symptoms. A great number of reports on its effects have been published since its introduction into the market. However, a causal relationship has not been established and the link between isotretinoin use and psychiatric events remains controversial. The present paper reviews the available evidence regarding the association of isotretinoin and psychiatric side effects. All published material reporting psychiatric side effects following isotretinoin treatment, including case reports, case series, reports from adverse drug event reporting systems, prospective surveys and retrospective case-control studies, are presented. In addition, the neurobiology of the retinoids and possible biological mechanisms that may lead to psychopathology are described.

  18. Fathers, fathering and child psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Beth; Iles, Jane E; Ramchandani, Paul G

    2017-06-01

    The last few years have seen a steady increase in research addressing the potential influence of fathers on their children's development. There has also been a clearer acknowledgement of the need to study families as a complex system, rather than just focusing on individual aspects of functioning in one or other parent. Increased father involvement and more engaged styles of father-infant interactions are associated with more positive outcomes for children. Studies of paternal depression and other psychopathology have begun to elucidate some of the key mechanisms by which fathers can influence their children's development. These lessons are now being incorporated into thinking about engaging both mothers and fathers in effective interventions to optimise their children's health and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Continuities and discontinuities of psychopathology from childhood to adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karantanos, G

    2012-06-01

    Important data about possible continuities and discontinuities of psychopathology from childhood to adulthood have been provided by findings from well scheduled prospective longitudinal studies of community-based samples. Findings from clinical populations have contributed as well. This presentation relies on data from selected studies of reference. An effort is made to combine results demonstrating the extent of continuity at a more general level with those indicating continuities or discontinuities concerning disorders commonly presented in clinical practice. These disorders are those included in the internalizing (anxiety and mood disorders) and externalizing (ADHD, oppositional, conduct disorder-antisocial personality disorder) domains of psychopathology. Discontinuities do exist, however findings also suggest considerable longitudinal links between childhood-adolescence and adulthood. Reports from the Dunedin longitudinal study showed that half of those with psychiatric diagnoses at the age of 26 had met criteria for psychiatric disorder by the age of 15, and that figure approached 75% by the age of 18. Homotypic continuity is the most prominent. There are also heterotypic continuities, while homotypic and heterotypic continuities may co-occur. Among common disorders, findings suggest continuity tendencies even for anxiety disorders and for subclinical cases with obsessive and compulsive symptoms as well. Comorbidity between different anxiety disorders (strict homotypic continuity) as well as between them and depression (broad homotypic continuity) is very common. In the externalizing domain, longitudinal links between conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder, including adverse consequences in psychosocial functioning, have been repeatedly found. Childhood onset subtype of conduct disorder is more prone to this adverse outcome, however all cases with conduct disorder need early recognition and intervention. During the course of conduct disorder

  20. A three-year longitudinal study of affective temperaments and risk for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeorge, Daniella P; Walsh, Molly A; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2014-08-01

    Affective temperaments are presumed to underlie bipolar psychopathology. The TEMPS-A has been widely used to assess affective temperaments in clinical and non-clinical samples. Cross-sectional research supports the association of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology; however, longitudinal research examining risk for the development of bipolar disorders is lacking. The present study examined the predictive validity of affective temperaments, using the TEMPS-A, at a three-year follow-up assessment. The study interviewed 112 participants (77% of the original sample) at a three-year follow-up of 145 non-clinically ascertained young adults psychometrically at-risk for bipolar disorders, who previously took part in a cross-sectional examination of affective temperaments and mood psychopathology. At the reassessment, 29 participants (26%) met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorders, including 13 participants who transitioned into disorders during the follow-up period (14% of the originally undiagnosed sample). Cyclothymic/irritable and hyperthymic temperaments predicted both total cases and new cases of bipolar spectrum disorders at the follow-up. Cyclothymic/irritable temperament was associated with more severe outcomes, including DSM-IV-TR bipolar disorders, bipolar spectrum psychopathology, major depressive episodes, and substance use disorders. Hyperthymic temperament was associated with bipolar spectrum psychopathology and hypomania, whereas dysthymic temperament was generally unassociated with psychopathology and impairment. The present sample of young adults is still young relative to the age of onset of mood psychopathology. These results provide the first evidence of the predictive validity of affective temperaments regarding risk for the development of bipolar psychopathology. Affective temperaments provide a useful construct for understanding bipolar psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lack of guilt, guilt, and shame: a multi-informant study on the relations between self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Meesters, Cor; Heijmans, Jolina; van Hulten, Sandra; Kaanen, Linsy; Oerlemans, Birgit; Stikkelbroeck, Tessa; Tielemans, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between dysregulations in self-conscious emotions and psychopathology in clinically referred children and adolescents. For this purpose, parent-, teacher-, and self-report Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment data of 1000 youth aged 4-18 years was analyzed as this instrument not only provides information on the intensity levels of lack of guilt, guilt, and shame, but also on the severity of various types of psychopathology. The results first of all indicated that dysregulations of self-conscious emotions were more common in this clinical sample than in the general population. Further, a consistent pattern was found with regard to the relationships between self-conscious emotions and childhood psychopathology. That is, lack of guilt was predominantly associated with oppositional defiant and conduct (i.e., externalizing) problems, while guilt and shame were primarily linked with affective and anxiety (i.e., internalizing) problems. By and large, these findings confirm what has been found in non-clinical youth, and suggest that self-conscious emotions play a small but significant role in the psychopathology of children and adolescents.

  2. A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study of pravastatin as an adjunctive therapy in schizophrenia patients: effect on inflammation, psychopathology, cognition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenzi, Brenda; Stock, Shannon; Borba, Christina P C; Cleary, Sarah M; Oppenheim, Claire E; Petruzzi, Liana J; Fan, Xiaoduo; Copeland, Paul M; Freudenreich, Oliver; Cather, Corinne; Henderson, David C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of pravastatin, as an adjunctive therapy, on inflammatory markers, lipid and glucose metabolism, psychopathology, and cognition in subjects with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia or schizoaffective subjects (N=60) were randomized to receive either a 12-week supply of pravastatin 40 mg/day or placebo treatment. Anthropometric measures, lipids and glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, psychopathology and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Pravastatin use was associated with a significant decrease in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and LDL particle number levels, but was not associated with any significant changes in cognition or psychopathology in the participants, except a significant decrease in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive symptom score from baseline to week 6. However, this decrease failed to remain significant at 12 weeks. Interestingly, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL particle number, small LDL particle number, large very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle number and C-reactive protein (CRP) followed a similar pattern at 6 and 12 weeks as psychopathology. These results suggest that a randomized trial with a larger sample size and a higher dosage of pravastatin would be helpful in further evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of pravastatin, its association with improvements in cognitive symptoms, and its potential to reduce positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can masturbatory guilt lead to severe psychopathology: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Aneja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Masturbation is common in all societies. Despite being common, it is admonished culturally and almost all religions prohibit masturbation and consider it an act of immorality. The prohibition for masturbation leads to a lot of cultural beliefs, including certain myths, which influence sexual behavior of the person. The impact of these common cultural myths associated with masturbation, are clinically understood as Dhat syndrome and masturbatory guilt. Although there is a reasonable literature on Dhat syndrome, there is limited literature with regard to masturbatory guilt especially linking the same with axis-I psychopathology. In this case series, three cases of masturbatory guilt are presented in whom masturbatory guilt was associated with manifestation of severe psychopathology. This report suggests that masturbatory guilt must be enquired for in patients presenting with severe mental disorder.

  4. The RDoC initiative and the structure of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Robert F; DeYoung, Colin G

    2016-03-01

    The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project represents a welcome effort to circumvent the limitations of psychiatric categories as phenotypes for psychopathology research. Here, we describe the hierarchical and dimensional structure of phenotypic psychopathology and illustrate how this structure provides phenotypes suitable for RDoC research on neural correlates of psychopathology. A hierarchical and dimensional approach to psychopathology phenotypes holds great promise for delineating connections between neuroscience constructs and the patterns of affect, cognition, and behavior that constitute manifest psychopathology.

  5. Competing Factor Models of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Mark M; Murphy, Jamie; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-11-01

    Co-occurring psychological disorders are highly prevalent among children and adolescents. To date, the most widely utilised factor model used to explain this co-occurrence is the two factor model of internalising and externalising (Achenbach 1966). Several competing models of general psychopathology have since been reported as alternatives, including a recent three factor model of Distress, Fear and Externalising Dimensions (Krueger 1999). Evidence for the three factor model suggests there are advantages to utilising a more complex model. Using the British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 2004 data (B-CAMHS; N = 7997), confirmatory factor analysis was used to test competing factor structure models of child and adolescent psychopathology. The B-CAMHS was an epidemiological survey of children between the ages of 5 and 16 in Great Britain. Child psychological disorders were assessed using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman 1997), and the Development and Wellbeing Assessment (Goodman et al. 2000). A range of covariates and risk variables including trauma, parent mental health and family functioning where subsequently utilised within a MIMIC model framework to predict each dimension of the 2 and three factor structure models. Two models demonstrated acceptable fit. The first complimented Achenbach's Internalising and Externalising structure. The three factor model was found to have highly comparable fit indices to the two factor model. The second order models did not accurately represent the data nor did an alternative three factor model of Internalising, Externalising and ADHD. The two factor and three factor MIMIC models observed unique profiles of risk for each dimension. The findings suggest that child and adolescent psychopathology may also be accurately conceptualised in terms of distress, fear and externalising dimensions. The MIMIC models demonstrated that the Distress and Fear dimensions have their own unique etiological profile of

  6. The shared and specific relationships between exposure to potentially traumatic events and transdiagnostic dimensions of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Matthew; Carragher, Natacha; Chapman, Cath; Mills, Katherine; Teesson, Maree; Lockwood, Emma; Forbes, David; Slade, Tim

    2016-03-01

    The experience of traumatic events has been linked to the development of psychopathology. Changing perspectives on psychopathology have resulted in the hypothesis that broad dimensional constructs account for the majority of variance across putatively distinct disorders. As such, traumatic events may be associated with several disorders due to their relationship with these broad dimensions rather than any direct disorder-specific relationship. The current study used data from 8871 Australians to test this hypothesis. Two broad dimensions accounted for the majority of relationships between traumatic events and mental and substance use disorders. Direct relationships remained between post-traumatic stress disorder and six categories of traumatic events in the total population and between drug dependence and accidents/disasters for males only. These results have strong implications for how psychopathology is conceptualized and offer some evidence that traumatic events are associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing psychopathology in general.

  7. Associations among emergency room visits, parenting styles, and psychopathology among pediatric patients with sickle cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Natasha E; Elkin, T David; Majumdar, Suvankar

    2014-10-01

    To examine associations between frequency of emergency room (ER) visits and various parenting styles, both conjointly and interactively, and psychopathological outcomes among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Ninety-eight parents/caregivers of 6- to 18-year-old patients with SCD completed instruments assessing parenting style, child psychopathology, and reported on the frequency of ER visits during the previous year. ER visits were found to significantly explain Withdrawn/Depressed problems and parenting styles were found to incrementally contribute to the explanation of all forms of psychopathology. Further, Permissive parenting was found to explain Rule Breaking Behavior for those patients with low ER visit frequency but not for those with high ER visit frequency. Results of the current study confirm the importance of considering both the frequency of ER visits and parenting style in the explanation of psychopathology among pediatric patients with SCD. Results have important implications for both research and treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  9. Psychopathology and clinical definition of schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado, Honorio; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    Dementia praecox or schizophrenia, psychosis common in youth and fundamentally conditioned by heredity age has an external cause appear without evident and manifest a special set of organic and mental symptoms. Among the latter are some characteristic. Hence the interest of psychopathological study of this psychosis. The most important psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia are the following: 1 In the field of perceptual activity: the impression of strangeness of the world, pseudo...

  10. Nature and main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Oulis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with two central issues in the philosophy of neuroscience and psychiatry, namely those of the nature and the major kinds and types of psychopathological mechanisms. Contrary to a widespread view, I argue that mechanisms are not kinds of systems but kinds of processes unfolding in systems or between systems. More precisely, I argue that psychopathological mechanisms are sets of actions and interactions between brain-systems or circuits as well as between the latter and other systems in one's body and external environment, both physical and social, involved in human psychopathology. According to the kinds of properties of the interacting systems or their component-parts, psychopathological mechanisms may be physical, chemical, biological, psychological, social, or, typically, mixed ones. Furthermore, I focus on two main kinds of psychopathological mechanisms involved in the causation of mental disorders, namely the pathogenetic and pathophysiological ones, stressing the importance of their careful distinction for the integrative understanding of otherwise disparate and apparently incommensurable psychiatric research findings. I illustrate my analysis with an example drawn from contemporary research on the mechanisms of acute psychosis. Finally, I stress the relevance of psychopathological mechanisms to a more scientifi cally-grounded classifi cation of mental disorders.

  11. 40 CFR Figure C-1 to Subpart C of... - Suggested Format for Reporting Test Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Results for Methods for SO 2, CO, O 3, NO 2 C Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-1 Figure C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Suggested Format for Reporting Test... Difference Table C-1 spec. Pass or fail Low 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm 3 4 5 6 Medium 1 ____ ppm 2 to ____ ppm...

  12. The Bender-Gestalt psychopathology scale: failure to infer validity in a school-aged sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, E D

    1993-06-01

    The concurrent validity of Hutt's (1977) empirical psychopathology scale of the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test was evaluated among three groups of younger school-aged children within the 7-to-10- year age range (M = 109.1): adjustment disordered, conduct disordered, and nonclinical controls (n = 40/group). Excellent interscorer reliability was achieved with approximately 2 hr of self-study of the scoring manual. Although the conduct-disordered group was significantly more immature on Koppitz' Developmental Scoring System, there were no significant differences among groups on the psychopathology scale when visual-motor development was covaried (M = 50.5). This was an unexpected result, given Hutt's initial validation study among school-aged children. The psychopathology scale was not inferred to be valid among adolescents in the only known concurrent validation study. Pending supportive validation research, the psychopathology scale should not be employed in the clinical assessment of younger school-aged children.

  13. Broadening the scope of research on emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; Dixon-Gordon, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in the study of emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology, researchers have predominantly focused on covert emotion regulation strategies-that is, those strategies that occur within the individual (e.g., cognitive reappraisal, suppression). Conversely, less attention has been devoted to the examination of the relationship between psychopathology and overt emotion regulation strategies (e.g., drinking alcohol, seeking advice). This has resulted in a limited understanding of the complex repertoire of emotion regulation strategies that individuals possess, and how patterns in the use of strategies might relate to psychopathology. We asked 218 undergraduates to report on their habitual use of 15 covert and overt emotion regulation strategies and symptoms of seven different mental disorders. Overt strategies were associated with symptoms and, at times, they predicted psychopathology above and beyond the more frequently studied covert strategies. These findings have implications for developing a more sophisticated understanding of patterns of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation.

  14. Psychopathology and Parenting Practices of Parents of Preschool Children with Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Elizabeth; Stoessel, Brian; Herbert, Sharonne

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study investigated associations among different types of parental psychopathology and several specific parenting practices. Design Mothers (n = 182) and fathers (n = 126) of preschool-aged children with behavior problems completed questionnaires assessing parental psychopathology and parenting practices, and participated in observed parent-child interactions. Results Maternal depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and several different personality disorder traits were related to maternal negativity, laxness, and lack of warmth. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and borderline personality disorder symptoms predicted mothers’ parenting practices, even when statistically controlling for other types of psychopathology. For fathers, those same symptoms, dependent and avoidant symptoms, and substance abuse symptoms were associated with self-reported lax parenting. Evidence emerged that psychopathology in one parent was associated with less overreactivity in the other parent. Conclusions Many aspects of parents’ psychological functioning play a role in determining specific parenting practices, including personality disorder symptoms. PMID:22737040

  15. Parent and child psychopathology and suicide attempts among children of parents with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kenneth R; Bossarte, Robert M; Lu, Naiji; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Chan, Grace; Wyman, Peter; Tu, Xin M; Goldston, David B; Houston, Rebecca J; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Parents with psychopathology such as alcohol use disorder (AUD) that confers risk for suicide attempt (SA) may have children who are more likely to develop such psychopathology and to attempt suicide, suggesting that risk may be "transmitted" from parents to children. We examined this phenomenon during the transition from childhood to adolescence, when risk for SA increases dramatically. A cohort of 418 children were examined at average age 9.4 (range 7-14) years at enrollment (Time 1, childhood) and approximately 5 years later, prior to reaching age 18 (Time 2, adolescence). One or both biological parents, oversampled for AUD, were also interviewed. Structural equation models (SEM) examined father-child, mother-child, and either/both parent-child associations. The primary outcome was SA over follow-up among offspring, assessed at Time 2. As hypothesized, parental antisocial personality disorder predicted conduct disorder symptoms in offspring both during childhood and adolescence (parent-child model, father-child model) and maternal AUD predicted conduct disorder symptoms during childhood (mother-child model). However, we did not find evidence to support transmission of depression from parents to offspring either during childhood or adolescence, and parent psychopathology did not show statistically significant associations with SA during adolescence. In conclusion, we conducted a rare study of parent-to-child "transmission" of risk for SA that used a prospective research design, included diagnostic interviews with both parents and offspring, and examined the transition from childhood to adolescence, and the first such study in children of parents with AUD. Results provided mixed support for hypothesized parent-child associations.

  16. The dopaminergic response to acute stress in health and psychopathology: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaessen, Thomas; Hernaus, Dennis; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse

    2015-09-01

    Previous work in animals has shown that dopamine (DA) in cortex and striatum plays an essential role in stress processing. For the first time, we systematically reviewed the in vivo evidence for DAergic stress processing in health and psychopathology in humans. All studies included (n studies=25, n observations=324) utilized DA D2/3 positron emission tomography and measured DAergic activity during an acute stress challenge. The evidence in healthy volunteers (HV) suggests that physiological, but not psychological, stress consistently increases striatal DA release. Instead, increased medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) DAergic activity in HV was observed during psychological stress. Across brain regions, stress-related DAergic activity was correlated with the physiological and psychological intensity of the stressor. The magnitude of stress-induced DA release was dependent on rearing conditions, personality traits and genetic variations in several SNPs. In psychopathology, preliminary evidence was found for stress-related dorsal striatal DAergic hyperactivity in psychosis spectrum and a blunted response in chronic cannabis use and pain-related disorders, but results were inconsistent. Physiological stress-induced DAergic activity in striatum in HV may reflect somatosensory properties of the stressor and readiness for active fight-or-flight behavior. DAergic activity in HV in the ventral striatum and mPFC may be more related to expectations about the stressor and threat evaluation, respectively. Future studies with increased sample size in HV and psychopathology assessing the functional relevance of stress-induced DAergic activity, the association between cortical and subcortical DAergic activity and the direct comparison of different stressors are necessary to conclusively elucidate the role of the DA system in the stress response.

  17. Lifetime psychopathology among the offspring of Bipolar I parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Zappitelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated high rates of psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to identify psychiatric diagnoses in a sample of children of bipolar parents. METHOD: This case series comprised 35 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years, with a mean age of 12.5 + 2.9 years (20 males and 15 females, who had at least one parent with bipolar disorder type I. The subjects were assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children - Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL. Family psychiatric history and demographics were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the offspring studied, 71.4% had a lifetime diagnosis of at least one psychiatric disorder (28.6% with a mood disorder, 40% with a disruptive behavior disorder and 20% with an anxiety disorder. Pure mood disorders (11.4% occurred less frequently than mood disorders comorbid with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (17.1%. Psychopathology was commonly reported in second-degree relatives of the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (71.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support previous findings of an increased risk for developing psychopathology, predominantly mood and disruptive disorders, in the offspring of bipolar individuals. Prospective studies with larger samples are needed to confirm and expand these results.

  18. Comparison of alternate personality models in psychopathology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios D; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios D

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the results from the parallel application of two alternate personality models, the Zuckerman-Kuhlman trait model and Bond's Defense Styles, in a sample of 268 Greek medical students (172 women, M age = 22.0 yr., SD = 1.1; 95 men, M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 1.2) in relation to psychopathological symptoms, so as to clarify whether this practice yielded accurate results while avoiding shared variance. Data from both models are cross-checked with canonical correlation analysis to validate whether there was significant conceptual overlap between them that would mean that their parallel use is an ineffective research practice. Following this analysis, factors from both models are utilized to predict variance in sample psychopathology, so as to compare their relative usefulness. Results indicated that the two models did not share a significant amount of variance, while a combination of personality aspects from both models, including Impulsive Sensation-Seeking, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Aggression-Hostility, and Sociability traits and Maladaptive Action, Image Distorting, and Adaptive Action defense styles, predicted high variance in psychopathology symptoms.

  19. The structure of psychopathology in adolescence : Replication of a general psychopathology factor in the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laceulle, O.M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Ormel, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to replicate a study by Caspi and colleagues, which proposed that the structure of psychopathology is characterized by a general psychopathology factor, in addition to smaller internalizing and externalizing factors. Our study expanded the approach of the original by using

  20. Exploring learning potential in schizophrenic inpatients in different psychopathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David González Pando

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore empirically the learning potential of people with schizophrenia in opposite conditions of psychopathological stability. For this purpose, a general procedure of conditional discrimination learning was introduced by conducting a study on the formation of equivalence classes. The sample consisted of 8 inpatient adults included in the program of Severe Mental Disorders, aged between 20 and 53 years. Because of dropouts, the initial procedure was modified in order to reduce the duration and attentional effort of the task. The results showed that people with schizophrenia can acquire stimulus equivalence with standard procedure both in terms of stability and psychopathological decompensation, in the presence of strong positive symptoms. This finding is relevant both for therapy, conceived in terms of learning, and for designing programs in the context of rehabilitation and recovery in schizophrenia.

  1. A general psychopathology factor (P factor) in children: Structural model analysis and external validation through familial risk and child global executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Maurício S; Gadelha, Ary; do Rosário, Maria C; Mari, Jair J; Manfro, Gisele G; Miguel, Eurípedes C; Paus, Tomás; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Rohde, Luis A; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    High rates of comorbidities and poor validity of disorder diagnostic criteria for mental disorders hamper advances in mental health research. Recent work has suggested the utility of continuous cross-cutting dimensions, including general psychopathology and specific factors of externalizing and internalizing (e.g., distress and fear) syndromes. The current study evaluated the reliability of competing structural models of psychopathology and examined external validity of the best fitting model on the basis of family risk and child global executive function (EF). A community sample of 8,012 families from Brazil with children ages 6-12 years completed structured interviews about the child and parental psychiatric syndromes, and a subsample of 2,395 children completed tasks assessing EF (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and time processing). Confirmatory factor analyses tested a series of structural models of psychopathology in both parents and children. The model with a general psychopathology factor ("P factor") with 3 specific factors (fear, distress, and externalizing) exhibited the best fit. The general P factor accounted for most of the variance in all models, with little residual variance explained by each of the 3 specific factors. In addition, associations between child and parental factors were mainly significant for the P factors and nonsignificant for the specific factors from the respective models. Likewise, the child P factor-but not the specific factors-was significantly associated with global child EF. Overall, our results provide support for a latent overarching P factor characterizing child psychopathology, supported by familial associations and child EF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Adolescent brain development in normality and psychopathology.

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    Luciana, Monica

    2013-11-01

    Since this journal's inception, the field of adolescent brain development has flourished, as researchers have investigated the underpinnings of adolescent risk-taking behaviors. Explanations based on translational models initially attributed such behaviors to executive control deficiencies and poor frontal lobe function. This conclusion was bolstered by evidence that the prefrontal cortex and its interconnections are among the last brain regions to structurally and functionally mature. As substantial heterogeneity of prefrontal function was revealed, applications of neuroeconomic theory to adolescent development led to dual systems models of behavior. Current epidemiological trends, behavioral observations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging based brain activity patterns suggest a quadratic increase in limbically mediated incentive motivation from childhood to adolescence and a decline thereafter. This elevation occurs in the context of immature prefrontal function, so motivational strivings may be difficult to regulate. Theoretical models explain this patterning through brain-based accounts of subcortical-cortical integration, puberty-based models of adolescent sensation seeking, and neurochemical dynamics. Empirically sound tests of these mechanisms, as well as investigations of biology-context interactions, represent the field's most challenging future goals, so that applications to psychopathology can be refined and so that developmental cascades that incorporate neurobiological variables can be modeled.

  3. Psychopathological responses of physically injured persons

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    Lešić Aleksandar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea to monitor and research psychopathological responses of physically injured persons in a more systematic manner has come from our observation of huge differences in patient behavior, whose psychological responses were noticeably changed and often inappropriate. The behavior aberrations were all the more striking because we treated wartime injuries in addition to peacetime ones. Our sample had 175 patient subjects, of both sexes different ages, marital status and professions. A group of 70 patients treated in the Institute for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology were divided into two subgroups. The first experimental subgroup (E1 consisted of 26 (37.1% patients physically injured in combat. The second subgroup (E2 had 44 (62.9% patients physically injured in peacetime circumstances (car accidents, work accidents, etc. The physical injuries encompassed injuries to spinal column and extremities. The control (K consisted of 105 subjects without physical injuries. The clinical picture and psychological reactions of the patients were examined by means of 4 instruments - PTSD-10 scale or posttraumatic symptoms scale [1 ], Family Homogeneity Index /FHI with 19 variables, applied to measure the relation between the family system homogeneity and accident effects [2], Short Eysenck's Personality Inventory applied to investigate neuroticism and extroversion and introversion traits [3], Late Effects of Accidental Injury Questionnaire [4]. Our observations of psychological responses of patients in our ward (insomnia, sedatives intake were mostly confirmed by tests conducted with the above instruments. In the group of the wartime injured (E1, as well as in the control (K, Eysenck's scale proved a significantly higher degree of neuroticism in comparison to the peacetime injured. Such results indicated that the wartime injured would most probably develop the picture of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Such a conclusion was related not only to the

  4. Psychopathology in Substance Use Disorder Patients with and without Substance-Induced Psychosis

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    Simon Zhornitsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Substance-induced psychotic disorder (SIPD is a diagnosis constructed to distinguish substance-induced psychotic states from primary psychotic disorders. A number of studies have compared SIPD persons with primary psychotic patients, but there is little data on what differentiates substance use disorder (SUD individuals with and without SIPD. Here, we compared psychopathology, sociodemographic variables, and substance use characteristics between SUD patients with and without SIPD. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted on newly admitted patients at a rehabilitation centre between 2007 and 2012. Results. Of the 379 patients included in the study, 5% were diagnosed with SIPD n=19 and 95% were diagnosed with SUDs without SIPD n=360. More SIPD patients reported using cannabis and psychostimulants, and fewer SIPD patients reported using alcohol than SUDs patients without SIPD. SIPD patients scored higher on the “schizophrenia nuclear symptoms” dimension of the SCL-90R psychoticism scale and exhibited more ClusterB personality traits than SUD patients without SIPD. Discussion. These data are consistent with previous studies suggesting that psychopathology, substance type, and sociodemographic variables play important role in the development of SIPD. More importantly, the results highlight the need for paying greater attention to the types of self-reported psychotic symptoms during the assessment of psychotomimetic effects associated with psychoactive substances.

  5. DISC1 gene and affective psychopathology: a combined structural and functional MRI study.

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    Opmeer, Esther M; van Tol, Marie-José; Kortekaas, Rudie; van der Wee, Nic J A; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A; Penninx, Brenda W; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André

    2015-02-01

    The gene Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) has been indicated as a determinant of psychopathology, including affective disorders, and shown to influence prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus functioning, regions of major interest for affective disorders. We aimed to investigate whether DISC1 differentially modulates brain function during executive and memory processing, and morphology in regions relevant for depression and anxiety disorders (affective disorders). 128 participants, with (n = 103) and without (controls; n = 25) affective disorders underwent genotyping for Ser704Cys (with Cys-allele considered as risk-allele) and structural and functional (f) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) during visuospatial planning and emotional episodic memory tasks. For both voxel-based morphometry and fMRI analyses, we investigated the effect of genotype in controls and explored genotypeXdiagnosis interactions. Results are reported at p < 0.05 FWE small volume corrected. In controls, Cys-carriers showed smaller bilateral (para)hippocampal volumes compared with Ser-homozygotes, and lower activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral PFC during visuospatial planning. In anxiety patients, Cys-carriers showed larger (para)hippocampal volumes and more ACC activation during visuospatial planning. In depressive patients, no effect of genotype was observed and overall, no effect of genotype on episodic memory processing was detected. We demonstrated that Ser704Cys-genotype influences (para)hippocampal structure and functioning the dorsal PFC during executive planning, most prominently in unaffected controls. Results suggest that presence of psychopathology moderates Ser704Cys effects.

  6. Personality assessment with children of superior intelligence: divergence versus psychopathology.

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    Gallucci, N T

    1989-01-01

    The perceptual and cognitive functioning of children with intelligence quotients greater than 135 was examined with the Rorschach Inkblot Test. A criterion measure, the Child Behavior Checklist, was also administered so as to determine whether deviations for Rorschach variables from age-appropriate norms indicated the presence of psychopathology or were evidence of nonentrenched, novel, or creative styles of encoding and processing information. Rorschach variables indicative of intellectual sophistication, nonentrenched thinking or inaccurate reality perception, and cognitive slippage were reliably elevated for this sample versus norms. Results for the Child Behavior Checklist demonstrated that the incidence of psychopathology in the intellectually superior and average samples were comparable. There was a lack of covariance between Rorschach makers of inaccurate reality perception, cognitive slippages, and schizophrenia, and the sum of behavior problems on the Child Behavior Checklist. Results for the Rorschach and Child Behavior Checklist variables were comparable for children with intelligence quotients greater than 150 versus between 136 and 140. It was concluded that the intellectually superior children did process the Rorschach stimuli in a manner that was nonentrenched and reliably different from norms, but that these differences should not routinely be considered as indications of psychopathology.

  7. Mad genius revisited: Vulnerability to psychopathology, biobehavioral approach-avoidance, and creativity.

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    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A; Boot, Nathalie C; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2016-06-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be linked to basic motivational approach and avoidance systems, and that approach and avoidance motivation differentially influences creativity. Based on this reasoning, we predict that propensity for approach-based psychopathologies (e.g., positive schizotypy and risk of bipolar disorder) associates with increased creativity, whereas propensity for avoidance-based psychopathologies (e.g., anxiety, negative schizotypy, and depressive mood) associates with reduced creativity. Previous meta-analyses resonate with this proposition and showed small positive relations between positive schizotypy and creativity and small negative relations between negative schizotypy and creativity and between anxiety and creativity. To this we add new meta-analytic findings showing that risk of bipolar disorder (e.g., hypomania, mania) positively associates with creativity (k = 28, r = .224), whereas depressive mood negatively associates (albeit weakly) with creativity (k = 39, r = -.064). Our theoretical framework, along with the meta-analytic results, indicates when and why specific psychopathologies, and their inclinations, associate with increased or, instead, reduced creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Childhood trauma and eating psychopathology: a mediating role for dissociation and emotion dysregulation?

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    Moulton, Stuart J; Newman, Emily; Power, Kevin; Swanson, Vivien; Day, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood trauma and eating psychopathology using a multiple mediation model that included emotion dysregulation and dissociation as hypothesised mediators. 142 female undergraduate psychology students studying at two British Universities participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed measures of childhood trauma (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect), eating psychopathology, dissociation and emotion dysregulation. Multiple mediation analysis was conducted to investigate the study's proposed model. Results revealed that the multiple mediation model significantly predicted eating psychopathology. Additionally, both emotion dysregulation and dissociation were found to be significant mediators between childhood trauma and eating psychopathology. A specific indirect effect was observed between childhood emotional abuse and eating psychopathology through emotion dysregulation. Findings support previous research linking childhood trauma to eating psychopathology. They indicate that multiple forms of childhood trauma should be assessed for individuals with eating disorders. The possible maintaining role of emotion regulation processes should also be considered in the treatment of eating disorders.

  9. Including subjectivity in the teaching of Psychopathology

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    Octavio Domont de Serpa Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current psychopathology studies have often been presented in their descriptive dimension. This perspective is important for teaching because it helps the students to recognize and identify the symptomatology of each psychopathology case. However, subjectivity, the experience of suffering and interpersonal aspects are all lost in this perspective. Coming from another psychopathology tradition - existential anthropology - this paper presents practical psychopathology teaching experience which considers such dimensions as being relevant to the understanding of mental suffering. The features and limitations of such traditions are briefly reviewed to support this teaching experience. Two new modalities of practical teaching, used in the discipline of "Special Psychopathology I" offered by the Department of Psychiatry and Forensic Medicine at the medical school of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro for students of psychology, will be presented according to descriptive case study methodology. With these activities we also expect to change the practice of teaching. Traditionally, interviewing of in-patients by a large group of students who observe passively what is happening is the center of this kind of education. We intend to develop a model of teaching which is closer to the proposal of the Brazilian Psychiatric Reform which views mental illness as a complex phenomenon, always involving the relationship that the subject establishes with the world.

  10. Parental incarceration, attachment and child psychopathology.

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    Murray, Joseph; Murray, Lynne

    2010-07-01

    Theory and evidence relating parental incarceration, attachment, and psychopathology are reviewed. Parental incarceration is a strong risk factor for long-lasting psychopathology, including antisocial and internalizing outcomes. Parental incarceration might threaten children's attachment security because of parent-child separation, confusing communication about parental absence, restricted contact with incarcerated parents, and unstable caregiving arrangements. Parental incarceration can also cause economic strain, reduced supervision, stigma, home and school moves, and other negative life events for children. Thus, there are multiple possible mechanisms whereby parental incarceration might increase risk for child psychopathology. Maternal incarceration tends to cause more disruption for children than paternal incarceration and may lead to greater risk for insecure attachment and psychopathology. Children's prior attachment relations and other life experiences are likely to be of great importance for understanding children's reactions to parental incarceration. Several hypotheses are presented about how prior insecure attachment and social adversity might interact with parental incarceration and contribute to psychopathology. Carefully designed longitudinal studies, randomized controlled trials, and cross-national comparative research are required to test these hypotheses.

  11. Gender differences in psychopathologic features of agoraphobia with panic disorder

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    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. To examine gender differences in the major psychopathologic features in agoraphobia with panic disorder. Method. The study was conducted as a clinical study. The sample consisted of 119 patients, 32 men (26.9% and 87 women (73.1% with the basic diagnosis of agoraphobia with panic disorder. All the patients were evaluated with the clinical instruments suitable for the assessment of various clinical features associated with agoraphobia with panic disorder - questionnaires (the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 90, the Panic Appraisal Inventory, the Fear Questionnaire, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory, and the clinical rating scale (the Panic and Agoraphobia Scale. After the data collection, the sample was divided into two groups by the gender. Then the groups were compared. Results. There were no differences between the genders in the global psychopathologic features (the age at the onset of a disorder, duration of a disorder, severity and frequency of panic attacks, intensity of general psychiatric symptoms, intensity of general anxiety and depression. The women, however, reported a subjective perception of a more severe agoraphobic avoidance and males were significantly more likely than the females to anticipate the serious somatic consequences of panic attacks and worry about somatic health. Conclusion. There were a few gender specific psychopathologic features in patients with agoraphobia with panic disorder, so further studies would be necessary to come to a more precise conclusion.

  12. Quality of life in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: associations with insight and psychopathology.

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    Margariti, Maria; Ploumpidis, Dimitris; Economou, Marina; Christodoulou, George N; Papadimitriou, George N

    2015-02-28

    Therapeutic interventions in chronic mental illness face the important challenge to pursuit the quality of life (QOL) of patients. Insight into chronic mental illness, though a prerequisite for treatment adherence and a positive therapeutic outcome, has shown adverse associations with subjective QOL. This study aims to explore the contribution of psychopathological symptoms on the ambiguous role of insight on QOL. Seventy-two outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were assessed using the positive and negative syndrome scale, the scale to assess unawareness of mental disorder, and the WHOQOL-100 instrument for the assessment of quality of life. Insight was found to associate inversely with quality of life. Among psychopathological symptoms, depressive symptoms were the strongest negative contributor on QOL. Mediation analysis revealed that the effects of awareness of the consequences of illness on QOL were largely mediated by depressive symptoms (full mediation for the effect on physical and psychological domain and partial mediation for the effect on independence and environment domain of the QOL). Our results suggest that the inverse relationship between insight and subjective quality of life is partially mediated by depressive symptoms. We discuss theoretical and therapeutic implications of the findings, in conjunction with similar recent research data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Benefits of Exercise with Mini Tennis in Intellectual Disabilities: Effects on Body Image and Psychopathology

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    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Seruis, Maria Luisa; Floris, Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Mellino, Gisa; Lecca, Maria Efisia; Adamo, Siria; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an introductory mini tennis programme as a therapeutic aid in the psychosocial rehabilitation of participants affected by mild/moderate intellectual disability in semi-residential care. Two groups (N=12) of participants diagnosed with intellectual disability, one of which followed the mini tennis rehabilitation programme, were compared at time t0, t1 (after 2 months) and t2 (after 6 months). Psychopathological status was assessed by means of the Italian version of the Assessment and Information Rating Profile (AIRP). Motor coordination, lateral dominance and body scheme were assessed by means of structured tools. Psychopathological total scores showed a statistically significant decrease in the experimental group in comparison with the control group. A statistical decrease in the group with the mini tennis rehabilitation programme was found also in the anxiety sub-scale while the sub-scales schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorder, personality problems, somatoform disorders and psychosexual disorders did not reach any statistical difference between groups. A statistically significant increase in the visuo manual coordination was highlighted in the experimental versus the control group. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to general movement skills, dynamic balance and coordination. In spite of the limitations of this study, the results obtained are encouraging and suggest the potential efficacy of mini tennis as an auxiliary aid in rehabilitation programmes, particularly to improve visuo manual coordination skills and to boost the patient/participants' self esteem. These findings warrant confirmation by further research studies. PMID:22016751

  14. Defining reactivity: how several methodological decisions can affect conclusions about emotional reactivity in psychopathology.

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    Nelson, Brady D; Shankman, Stewart A; Olino, Thomas M; Klein, Daniel N

    2011-12-01

    There are many important methodological decisions that need to be made when examining emotional reactivity in psychopathology. In the present study, we examined the effects of two such decisions in an investigation of emotional reactivity in depression: (1) which (if any) comparison condition to employ; and (2) how to define change. Depressed (N = 69) and control (N = 37) participants viewed emotion-inducing film clips while subjective and facial responses were measured. Emotional reactivity was defined using no comparison condition (i.e., raw scores), baseline comparison condition (i.e., no stimulus presented), and neutral comparison condition (i.e., neutral stimulus presented). Change in emotional reactivity was assessed using four analytic approaches: difference scores, percentage change, residualised change, and ANCOVA. Results differed among the three comparison conditions and among several of the analytic approaches. Overall, our investigation suggests that choosing a comparison condition and the definition of change can significantly influence the presence of group differences in emotional reactivity. Recommendations for studies of emotional reactivity in psychopathology are discussed.

  15. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

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    Konstantinos Kontoangelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ; (b The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90; (c The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; (d State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results: State anxiety and trait anxiety were correlated, to a statistically significant degree, with the family status of the students (p = 0.024 and the past visits to the psychiatrist (p = 0.039 respectively. The subscale of psychoticism is significantly related with the students’ origin, school, family status and semester. The subscale of neuroticism is significantly related with the students’ school. The subscale of extraversion is significantly related with the students’ family psychiatric history. Students, whose place of origin is Attica, have on average higher scores in somatization, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation than the other students. Students from abroad have, on average, higher scores in interpersonal sensitivity and psychoticism than students who hail from other parts of Greece. The majority of the students (79.7% do not suffer from depression, according to the Beck’s depression inventory scale. Conclusions: Anxiety, somatization, personality traits and depression are related with the students’ college life.

  16. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

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    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  17. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

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    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  18. Negative affect mediates the relationship between interpersonal problems and binge-eating disorder symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample: a test of the interpersonal model.

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    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Hammond, Nicole; Balfour, Louise; Ritchie, Kerri; Koszycki, Diana; Bissada, Hany

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the interpersonal model of binge-eating disorder (BED) psychopathology in a clinical sample of women with BED. Data from a cross-sectional sample of 255 women with BED were examined for the direct effects of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology, and indirect effects mediated by negative affect. Structural equation modelling analyses demonstrated that higher levels of interpersonal problems were associated with greater negative affect, and greater negative affect was associated with higher frequency of BED symptoms and psychopathology. There was a significant indirect effect of interpersonal problems on BED symptoms and psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Interpersonal problems may lead to greater BED symptoms and psychopathology, and this relationship may be partially explained by elevated negative affect. The results of the study are the first to provide support for the interpersonal model of BED symptoms and psychopathology in a clinical sample of women.

  19. Polyvagal Theory and developmental psychopathology: emotion dysregulation and conduct problems from preschool to adolescence.

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    Beauchaine, Theodore P; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa; Mead, Hilary K

    2007-02-01

    In science, theories lend coherence to vast amounts of descriptive information. However, current diagnostic approaches in psychopathology are primarily atheoretical, emphasizing description over etiological mechanisms. We describe the importance of Polyvagal Theory toward understanding the etiology of emotion dysregulation, a hallmark of psychopathology. When combined with theories of social reinforcement and motivation, Polyvagal Theory specifies etiological mechanisms through which distinct patterns of psychopathology emerge. In this paper, we summarize three studies evaluating autonomic nervous system functioning in children with conduct problems, ages 4-18. At all age ranges, these children exhibit attenuated sympathetic nervous system responses to reward, suggesting deficiencies in approach motivation. By middle school, this reward insensitivity is met with inadequate vagal modulation of cardiac output, suggesting additional deficiencies in emotion regulation. We propose a biosocial developmental model of conduct problems in which inherited impulsivity is amplified through social reinforcement of emotional lability. Implications for early intervention are discussed.

  20. Experimental data suggesting that inflammation mediated rat liver mitochondrial dysfunction results from secondary hypoxia rather than from direct effects of inflammatory mediators

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    Adelheid eWeidinger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response (SIR comprises direct effects of inflammatory mediators (IM and indirect effects, such as secondary circulatory failure which results in tissue hypoxia (HOX. These two key components, SIR and HOX, cause multiple organ failure (MOF. Since HOX and IM occur and interact simultaneously in vivo, it is difficult to clarify their individual pathological impact. To eliminate this interaction, precision cut liver slices (PCLS were used in this study aiming to dissect the effects of HOX and IM on mitochondrial function, integrity of cellular membrane and the expression of genes associated with inflammation. HOX was induced by incubating PCLS or rat liver mitochondria at pO2<1% followed by reoxygenation (HOX/ROX model. Inflammatory injury was stimulated by incubating PCLS with IM (IM model. We found upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression only in the IM model, while heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 expression was upregulated only in the HOX/ROX model. Elevated expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6 was found in both models reflecting converging pathways regulating the expression of this gene. Both models caused damage to hepatocytes resulting in the release of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (AST was observed only during the hypoxic phase in the HOX/ROX model. The reoxygenation phase of HOX, but not IM, drastically impaired mitochondrial electron supply via complex I and II. Additional experiments performed with isolated mitochondria showed that free iron, released during HOX, is likely a key prerequisite of mitochondrial dysfunction induced during the reoxygenation phase. Our data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction, previously observed in in vivo SIR-models is the result of secondary circulatory failure inducing HOX rather than the result of a direct interaction of IM with liver cells.

  1. Theoretical modeling suggests that synergy may result from combined use of two biocontrol agents for controlling foliar pathogens under spatial heterogeneous conditions.

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    Xu, X-M; Jeger, M J

    2013-08-01

    There has been a trend for combined use of several biocontrol agents (BCAs) with an expectation of synergistic interactions among BCAs. However, previous modeling studies suggested that, under homogeneous and temporal-fluctuating conditions, combined use of two BCAs, in most cases, only results in efficacies similar to the more efficacious one used alone; a result consistent with published experimental data. The present modeling study investigated whether combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs, two competitive BCAs, or a mycoparasitic and a competitive BCA leads to synergistic interactions under spatially heterogeneous conditions. In the model, there were two patches with varying relative sizes and two BCAs differentially adapted to the two patches. Within the range of model parameter values considered, combined use of two BCAs is more effective than the more efficacious BCA used alone in 72% of the simulated cases. There was also a considerable proportion (≈21%) of model simulations in which combined use of two BCAs led to synergy (i.e., efficacy was greater than expected under the assumption of Bliss independence, especially when each of the two BCAs can only survive in one [different] patch). Combined use of a mycoparasitic BCA with a competitive one is more likely to result in synergy than the other two BCA combinations. When biocontrol activities of individual BCAs are low or moderate, biocontrol efficacy arising from combined use of two BCAs does not depend greatly on biocontrol mechanisms. However, for high BCA activities, combined use with at least one competitive BCA resulted in better control than combined use of two mycoparasitic BCAs. The present modeling study emphasized the need for understanding the degree of spatial patchiness and quantitative relationships between biocontrol activities and external conditions in order to apply commercial BCAs effectively.

  2. Coupling survey data with drift model results suggests that local spawning is important for Calanus finmarchicus production in the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvile, Kristina Øie; Fiksen, Øyvind; Prokopchuk, Irina; Opdal, Anders Frugård

    2017-01-01

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is an important part of the diet for several large fish stocks feeding in the Atlantic waters of the Barents Sea. Determining the origin of the new generation copepodites present on the Barents Sea shelf in spring can shed light on the importance of local versus imported production of C. finmarchicus biomass in this region. In this study, we couple large-scale spatiotemporal survey data (> 30 years in both Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea areas) with drift trajectories from a hydrodynamic model to back-calculate and map the spatial distribution of C. finmarchicus from copepod to egg, allowing us to identify potential adult spawning areas. Assuming the adult stage emerges from overwintering in the Norwegian Sea, our results suggest that copepodites sampled at the Barents Sea entrance are a mix of locally spawned individuals and long-distance-travellers advected northwards along the Norwegian shelf edge. However, copepodites sampled farther east in the Barents Sea (33°30‧E) are most likely spawned on the Barents Sea shelf, potentially from females that have overwintered locally. Our results support that C. finmarchicus dynamics in the Barents Sea are not, at least in the short-term, solely driven by advection from the Norwegian Sea, but that local production may be more important than commonly believed.

  3. Cyclical processes in personality and psychopathology.

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    Wachtel, P L

    1994-02-01

    Both the understanding of psychopathology and the ability to intervene therapeutically are enhanced by an appreciation of the central role of vicious circles in the development and maintenance of psychological disorder. It is usually possible to discern a structure to people's difficulties in which internal states and external events continually re-create the conditions for the re-occurrence of each other in all too real psychological version of the mythical perpetual motion machine. The present article illustrates how such circular processes work in a number of representative types of psychological difficulty and discusses the implications of this conception for understanding psychopathology and for therapeutic intervention.

  4. The contextual brain: implications for fear conditioning, extinction and psychopathology

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    Maren, Stephen; Phan, K. Luan; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Contexts surround and imbue meaning to events; they are essential for recollecting the past, interpreting the present and anticipating the future. Indeed, the brain’s capacity to contextualize information permits enormous cognitive and behavioural flexibility. Studies of Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction in rodents and humans suggest that a neural circuit including the hippocampus, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex is involved in the learning and memory processes that enable context-dependent behaviour. Dysfunction in this network may be involved in several forms of psychopathology, including post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23635870

  5. Stream of consciousness: Quantum and biochemical assumptions regarding psychopathology.

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    Tonello, Lucio; Cocchi, Massimo; Gabrielli, Fabio; Tuszynski, Jack A

    2017-04-01

    The accepted paradigms of mainstream neuropsychiatry appear to be incompletely adequate and in various cases offer equivocal analyses. However, a growing number of new approaches are being proposed that suggest the emergence of paradigm shifts in this area. In particular, quantum theories of mind, brain and consciousness seem to offer a profound change to the current approaches. Unfortunately these quantum paradigms harbor at least two serious problems. First, they are simply models, theories, and assumptions, with no convincing experiments supporting their claims. Second, they deviate from contemporary mainstream views of psychiatric illness and do so in revolutionary ways. We suggest a possible way to integrate experimental neuroscience with quantum models in order to address outstanding issues in psychopathology. A key role is played by the phenomenon called the "stream of consciousness", which can be linked to the so-called "Gamma Synchrony" (GS), which is clearly demonstrated by EEG data. In our novel proposal, a unipolar depressed patient could be seen as a subject with an altered stream of consciousness. In particular, some clues suggest that depression is linked to an "increased power" stream of consciousness. It is additionally suggested that such an approach to depression might be extended to psychopathology in general with potential benefits to diagnostics and therapeutics in neuropsychiatry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuroticism : a non-informative marker of vulnerability to psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Rosmalen, Judith; Farmer, Ann

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neuroticism measures are very popular in psychopathological research, but it is unclear how useful neuroticism is in studies of the aetiology of psychopathology. METHOD: A conceptual examination was made of the literature on the association of neuroticism and psychopathology, the ontolog

  7. Evaluating Computer Screen Time and Its Possible Link to Psychopathology in the Context of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Aviv; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Ross, Sharon; Silman, Zmira; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that high levels of computer use are linked to psychopathology. However, there is ambiguity about what should be considered normal or over-use of computers. Furthermore, the nature of the link between computer usage and psychopathology is controversial. The current study utilized the context of age to address these questions. Our hypothesis was that the context of age will be paramount for differentiating normal from excessive use, and that this context will allow a better understanding of the link to psychopathology. In a cross-sectional study, 185 parents and children aged 3-18 years were recruited in clinical and community settings. They were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding demographics, functional and academic variables, computer use as well as psychiatric screening questionnaires. Using a regression model, we identified 3 groups of normal-use, over-use and under-use and examined known factors as putative differentiators between the over-users and the other groups. After modeling computer screen time according to age, factors linked to over-use were: decreased socialization (OR 3.24, Confidence interval [CI] 1.23-8.55, p = 0.018), difficulty to disengage from the computer (OR 1.56, CI 1.07-2.28, p = 0.022) and age, though borderline-significant (OR 1.1 each year, CI 0.99-1.22, p = 0.058). While psychopathology was not linked to over-use, post-hoc analysis revealed that the link between increased computer screen time and psychopathology was age-dependent and solidified as age progressed (p = 0.007). Unlike computer usage, the use of small-screens and smartphones was not associated with psychopathology. The results suggest that computer screen time follows an age-based course. We conclude that differentiating normal from over-use as well as defining over-use as a possible marker for psychiatric difficulties must be performed within the context of age. If verified by additional studies, future research should integrate

  8. Anubhoothi: a psychopathology of unusual sexual experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ragesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The case history and management of a 26 years old adult is reported who presented with an unusual symptom of sexual experience, in the background of symptoms of depression and anxiety; had been given multiple diagnoses at multiple points of time and treated with multiple medications. On establishment of rapport, he revealed details of his unusual experiences, which had been unexplored. When he was about 11 years and ten months, he sat next to a lady; he could perceive a particular experience for the first time in his life. And next time with another lady too he perceived a particular type of smell (“madaka gandha” meaning an intoxicating smell along with the other feelings. He began to have these feelings whenever he was in the vicinity of a female except his mother and sister. The smell reminded him of roses vaguely and was at least ten to 20 times more pleasurable than an orgasm that he got with masturbation. These feelings were more pleasurable than he could ever imagine and happened always with the presence of a female in the vicinity. This was never associated with periods of unresponsiveness or any other history suggestive of seizures. He titled the experience as “anubhoothi”. These experiences occurred on a regular basis for a period of ten months following which there was abrupt cessation of the same, without any intervention. Later he developed all symptoms. A coordinated management plan spearheaded by the multi-disciplinary treatment team could bring down his symptoms as well as make him functional. This case indicates that it is essential to explore abnormalities of experiences to understand the psychopathology and plan management.

  9. Food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology: Exploring the moderating roles of gender and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ariana M; Grilo, Carlos M; Sinha, Rajita

    2016-04-01

    To examine the moderating effects of gender and race on the relationships among food cravings, binge eating, and eating disorder psychopathology in a community sample. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 320 adults (53% male; mean age 28.5±8.2years; mean BMI 27.1±5.2kg/m(2); mean education 15.1±2.2years; 64% white, 24% black, and 13% other race) participating in a cross-sectional study examining the interactions between stress, self-control and addiction. Participants completed a comprehensive assessment panel including a demographic questionnaire, the Food Craving Inventory, and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression for binge eating behavior and multiple linear regression for eating disorder psychopathology. Overall, food cravings demonstrated significant main effects for binge eating behavior (adjusted OR=2.65, pdisorder psychopathology (B=.47±.09, pfood cravings and eating disorder psychopathology than males; there were no statistically significant differences by race. These findings, based on a diverse sample recruited from the community, suggest that food cravings are associated with binge eating and eating disorder psychopathology and may represent an important target for interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Shame memories and eating psychopathology: the buffering effect of self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Matos, Marcela; Duarte, Cristiana; Pinto-Gouveia, José

    2014-11-01

    Research suggests that self-compassion may protect against shame in eating disorders. This study examines the association between shame memories, self-compassion, self-judgment and eating psychopathology severity and tests the moderator effect of self-compassion on the relationships between shame memories and eating psychopathology. Participants were 34 patients with the diagnosis of an eating disorder, who were assessed using Eating Disorder Examination and the Shame Experiences Interview and self-report instruments measuring the traumatic and centrality to identity features of shame memories, self-compassion and self-judgment. Self-compassion was negatively correlated to shame memory features and eating psychopathology, and self-judgment was positively associated with such variables. Self-compassion had a moderator effect on the association between shame traumatic and central memories and eating psychopathology severity. This is the first study to explore the buffering effect of self-compassion against the pathogenic effects of shame memories on eating psychopathology severity in eating disorders, with relevant clinical and research implications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  12. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Validity;Measures (Individuals);Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b) experimental…

  13. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  14. Aggression and psychopathology in detained adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlynck, Sannie M J J; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert; Jansen, Lucres M C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2008-05-30

    The aim of the study was to investigate a group of detained females with regard to aggression and psychopathology and to examine the relationship between the two conditions. For this purpose, a representative sample of 216 detained adolescent females aged 12-18 (mean 15.5) was studied with a standard set of self-report instruments, while a subgroup of 73 parents was interviewed by telephone on the participants' externalizing psychopathology. Based on aggression items derived from the Conduct Disorder section of the Kiddie-SADS, the following three aggression subgroups were identified: (1) non-aggressive (NA; 41%), (2) mildly aggressive (MA; 39%), and (3) severely aggressive (SA; 20%). In addition to high levels of psychopathology for the group as a whole, differences were found between aggression groups, with the NA group demonstrating the lowest levels, the MA group intermediate levels, and the SA group the highest levels. These differences were most pronounced for externalizing psychopathology, and were also found for post-traumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) and suicidality. The clinical implications of these findings should be investigated in the future, but may well relate to issues of diagnostic identification and administration of adequate and targeted treatment, especially with regard to PTSS and suicidality. Since the current study was cross-sectional, the predictive effect of the investigated relationships should be the focus of further study.

  15. Dissociation and the Development of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    This paper reviews the research on dissociation and the development of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Definitions and dimensions of dissociation are addressed, noting its range from normative daydreaming to the extremes found in individuals with multiple personality disorder. Memory dysfunctions, disturbances of identity, passive…

  16. Implicit measures of association in psychopathology research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, A.; Huijding, J.; Smulders, F.T.Y.; MacLeod, C.M.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.; Jansen, A.T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis I psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  17. Implicit Measures of Association in Psychopathology Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roefs, Anne; Huijding, Jorg; Smulders, Fren T. Y.; MacLeod, Colin M.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.; Jansen, Anita T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies obtaining implicit measures of associations in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) Axis 1 psychopathology are organized into three categories: (a) studies comparing groups having a disorder with controls, (b)

  18. Specific phobia predicts psychopathology in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trumpf, J.; Margraf, J.; Vriends, N.; Meyer, A.H.; Becker, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Although specific phobia is characterized by an early age at onset and by high rates of comorbidity, few studies have examined comorbid relationships prospectively. The present study investigated the association between specific phobia and the risk of a broad range of psychopathology among young wom

  19. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  20. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  1. Psychopathology and the Ability to Do Otherwise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    When philosophers want an example of a person who lacks the ability to do otherwise, they turn to psychopathology. Addicts, agoraphobics, kleptomaniacs, neurotics, obsessives, and even psychopathic serial murderers, are all purportedly subject to irresistible desires that compel the person to act: no alternative possibility is supposed to exist. I argue that this conception of psychopathology is false and offer an empirically and clinically informed understanding of disorders of agency which preserves the ability to do otherwise. First, I appeal to standard clinical treatment for disorders of agency and argue that it undermines this conception of psychopathology. Second, I offer a detailed discussion of addiction, where our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underpinning the disorder is relatively advanced. I argue that neurobiology notwithstanding, addiction is not a form of compulsion and I explain how addiction can impair behavioural control without extinguishing it. Third, I step back from addiction, and briefly sketch what the philosophical landscape more generally looks like without psychopathological compulsion: we lose our standard purported real-world example of psychologically determined action. I conclude by reflecting on the centrality of choice and free will to our concept of action, and their potency within clinical treatment for disorders of agency. PMID:25929318

  2. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  3. [Psychopathological phenomena and personality disorders (the issue of dynamic aspects of psychopathologies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the interaction between pathocharacterological and psychopathological (affective, anxious-phobic and hysterical) phenomena within "borderline psychiatry" (reactions, phases, development) gives evidence to the existence of 2 clinically heterogeneous variations of comorbid interactions. The first variation: primary psychopathological syndromes manifesting without any significant correlation with personality disorders and transform into pathocharacterological ones (neurotic, postreactive) personality development by means of "amalgamating" mechanism. The second variation: secondary (in regard to personality disorders) psychopathological phenomena forming on the basis of constitutional personality traits by means of "splitting off" mechanism and are defined as personality disorders with predisposition to manifest positive psychopathological symptomatology. Formation of isolated obsessive and dissociative disorders within the structure of "basic" pathocharacterological phenomena (variation 2) predicts a future absence of growing severity of personality disorders (i.e. a dynamics traditionally defined as the development--variation 1) and stabilization of psychopathic traits with features of compensation of the latter. The possibilities of pathological dynamics in psychopathic personality with a "splitting off" of the isolated psychopathological syndromes exhausted; for decades neither growing severity of personality disorders, nor an exacerbation of those psychopathological complexes which provided a primary base for manifestation of positive symptomatology may be observed.

  4. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  5. Max Scheler's theory of the hierarchy of values and emotions and its relevance to current psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J

    2016-06-01

    The philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) set out a hierarchical theory of values and emotions in the early twentieth century. This inspired Kurt Schneider to distinguish two sorts of depressive illness, each conforming to a Störung (disorder) in different levels of Scheler's hierarchy. No other psychopathologist, except Stanghellini, gave the matter much attention. I believe that Scheler's theory is a rich source of insight into psychopathology, general and neuropsychiatric. I therefore give an account of Scheler's scheme, review its extant applications (Schneider's, Stanghellini's), and present suggestions as to its continuing potential relevance in a wide range of psychopathological conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Perception of racial discrimination and psychopathology across three U.S. ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.

  7. Monitoring challenges: A closer look at parental monitoring, maternal psychopathology, and adolescent sexual risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Wendy; Hunter, Heather L.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Lescano, Celia; Thompson, Ariel; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study sought to examine associations between maternal psychopathology, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual activity among adolescents in mental health treatment. Method Seven hundred and ninety mother-adolescent dyads recruited from adolescent mental health treatment settings completed audio computer-assisted structured interview assessments examining parent psychiatric symptoms, parental monitoring, and adolescent sexual risk behavior. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between variables of interest. Results Maternal caregivers who reported more mental health symptoms were more likely to have adolescents who reported recent sex and this relationship was mediated by less parental monitoring. Conclusions These findings suggest that maternal caregivers with mental health symptoms may need specific interventions that provide assistance and support in monitoring their teens in order to reduce sexual risk taking among adolescents in mental health treatment. PMID:21417519

  8. A Social-Cognitive Perspective on Early Childhood Influences in Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C.

    The Freudian view of psychopathology suggests that the individual is motivated to distort reality. In contrast, social-cognitive theory views the individual as a naive social scientist, who observes his behavior, others' behavior, and the social context. Out of these observations come meaning structures which organize, guide, and structure…

  9. Gender Performance Stress and Risk for Psychopathology: Looking beyond Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oost, Kathryn M.; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Gleason, Hillary A.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on the risk factors for, and prevalence of, psychological disorders as they relate to gender nonconformity in adolescence and adulthood. Findings from existing literature suggest gender nonconforming individuals are more likely to experience a variety of risk factors associated with psychopathology when compared with…

  10. The Dominance Behavioral System and Psychopathology: Evidence from Self-Report, Observational, and Biological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Leedom, Liane J.; Muhtadie, Luma

    2012-01-01

    The dominance behavioral system (DBS) can be conceptualized as a biologically based system that guides dominance motivation, dominant and subordinate behavior, and responsivity to perceptions of power and subordination. A growing body of research suggests that problems with the DBS are evident across a broad range of psychopathologies. We begin by…

  11. The Impact of Leptin on Perinatal Development and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleau, Jeanette C.; Sullivan, Elinor L.

    2014-01-01

    Leptin has long been associated with metabolism as it is a critical regulator of both food intake and energy expenditure, but recently, leptin dysregulation has been proposed as a mechanism of psychopathology. This review discusses the evidence supporting a role for leptin in mental health disorders and describes potential mechanisms that may underlie this association. Leptin plays a critical role in pregnancy and in fetal growth and development. Leptin’s role and profile during development is examined in available human studies and the validity of applying studies conducted in animal models to the human population are discussed. Rodents experience a postnatal leptin surge, which does not occur in humans or larger animal models. This suggests that further research using large mammal models, which have a leptin profile across pregnancy and development similar to humans, are of high importance. Maternal obesity and hyperleptinemia correlate with increased leptin levels in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetus. Leptin levels are thought to impact fetal brain development; likely by activating proinflammatory cytokines that are known to impact many of the neurotransmitter systems that regulate behavior. Leptin is likely involved in behavioral regulation as leptin receptors are widely distributed in the brain, and leptin influences cortisol release, the mesoaccumbens dopamine pathway, serotonin synthesis, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. In humans, both high and low levels of leptin are reported to be associated with psychopathology. This inconsistency is likely due to differences in the metabolic state of the study populations. Leptin resistance, which occurs in the obese state, may explain how both high and low levels of leptin are associated with psychopathology, as well as the comorbidity of obesity with numerous mental illnesses. Leptin resistance is likely to influence disorders such as depression and anxiety where both high and low leptin levels have been

  12. Phenotypic factor analysis of psychopathology reveals a new body-related transdiagnostic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Patrizia; Antfolk, Jan; Santtila, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Comorbidity challenges the notion of mental disorders as discrete categories. An increasing body of literature shows that symptoms cut across traditional diagnostic boundaries and interact in shaping the latent structure of psychopathology. Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, we reveal the latent sources of covariation among nine measures of psychopathological functioning in a population-based sample of 13024 Finnish twins and their siblings. By implementing unidimensional, multidimensional, second-order, and bifactor models, we illustrate the relationships between observed variables, specific, and general latent factors. We also provide the first investigation to date of measurement invariance of the bifactor model of psychopathology across gender and age groups. Our main result is the identification of a distinct "Body" factor, alongside the previously identified Internalizing and Externalizing factors. We also report relevant cross-disorder associations, especially between body-related psychopathology and trait anger, as well as substantial sex and age differences in observed and latent means. The findings expand the meta-structure of psychopathology, with implications for empirical and clinical practice, and demonstrate shared mechanisms underlying attitudes towards nutrition, self-image, sexuality and anger, with gender- and age-specific features.

  13. Dynamic interventions and art for patients with severe psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez La Rotta, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    This study points to the benefits of dynamic psychotherapy with art on patients with severe psychopathology. Participants were patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and drug abuse, from a psychiatric clinic in Bogotá. Colombia. The paper shows the techniques and the results of art in the psychotherapeutic process. Esta investigación es un aporte a la comprensión de los beneficios de la terapia dinámica que involucra el arte con pacientes aquejados de psicopatologías severas. Se tr...

  14. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Tzvetan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  15. Thought disorder in the meta-structure of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K. M.; Eaton, N. R.; Krueger, R. F.; Skodol, A. E.; Wall, M. M.; Grant, B.; Siever, L. J.; Hasin, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dimensional models of co-morbidity have the potential to improve the conceptualization of mental disorders in research and clinical work, yet little is known about how relatively uncommon disorders may fit with more common disorders. The present study estimated the meta-structure of psychopathology in the US general population focusing on the placement of five under-studied disorders sharing features of thought disorder: paranoid, schizoid, avoidant and schizotypal personality disorders, and manic episodes as well as bipolar disorder. Method Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a face-to-face interview of 34 653 non-institutionalized adults in the US general population. The meta-structure of 16 DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders, as assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version (AUDADIS-IV), was examined using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results We document an empirically derived thought disorder factor that is a subdomain of the internalizing dimension, characterized by schizoid, paranoid, schizotypal and avoidant personality disorders as well as manic episodes. Manic episodes exhibit notable associations with both the distress subdomain of the internalizing dimension as well as the thought disorder subdomain. The structure was replicated for bipolar disorder (I or II) in place of manic episodes. Conclusions As our understanding of psychopathological meta-structure expands, incorporation of disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism grows increasingly important. Disorders characterized by detachment and psychoticism may be well conceptualized, organized and measured as a subdimension of the internalizing spectrum of disorders. Manic episodes and bipolar disorder exhibit substantial co-morbidity across both distress and thought disorder domains of the internalizing dimension. Clinically, these results

  16. Nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, and psychopathology in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mylène; McDuff, Pierre; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence.

  17. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term "sleep experiences," coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions ("general sleep experiences"). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor-measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)-with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., "transliminality"), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a "rebound effect." The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness-including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries-may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  18. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001, denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”. The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”, or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation, which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality.

  19. Arousal in Nocturnal Consciousness: How Dream- and Sleep-Experiences May Inform Us of Poor Sleep Quality, Stress, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit

    2017-01-01

    The term “sleep experiences,” coined by Watson (2001), denotes an array of unusual nocturnal consciousness phenomena; for example, nightmares, vivid or recurrent dreams, hypnagogic hallucinations, dreams of falling or flying, confusional arousals, and lucid dreams. Excluding the latter, these experiences reflect a single factor of atypical oneiric cognitions (“general sleep experiences”). The current study is an opinionated mini-review on the associations of this factor—measured with the Iowa sleep experiences survey (ISES, Watson, 2001)—with psychopathological symptoms and stress. Findings support a strong relation between psychological distress and general sleep experiences. It is suggested that that they should be viewed as a sleep disturbance; they seem to represent involuntary intrusions of wakefulness into sleep, resulting in aroused sleep. These intrusions may stem from excessively thin boundaries between consciousness states (e.g., “transliminality”), or, conversely, they may follow an attempt at disconnecting mental elements (e.g., dissociation), which paradoxically results in a “rebound effect.” The extent to which unusual dreaming is experienced as intrusive, rather than controlled, may explain why general sleep experiences are related to psychopathology, whereas lucid dreams are related to psychological resilience. In conclusion, the exploration of the interplay between psychopathology and sleep should be expanded from focusing almost exclusively on quantitative aspects (e.g., sleep efficiency, latency) to including qualitative conscious experiences which may reflect poor sleep quality. Taking into account nocturnal consciousness—including unusual dreaming and permeable sleep-wake boundaries—may unveil rich information on night-time emotional states and broaden our definition of poor sleep quality. PMID:28539902

  20. Psychophysiological markers of vulnerability to psychopathology in men with an extra X chromosome (XXY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van Rijn

    Full Text Available Studying genetically defined syndromes associated with increased risk for psychopathology may help in understanding neurodevelopmental mechanisms related to risk for psychopathology. Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY is one of the most common sex chromosomal aneuploidies (1 in 650 male births and associated with increased vulnerability for psychopathology, including psychotic symptoms. Yet, it remains unknown whether this increased risk is associated with underlying psychophysiological mechanisms that are typically deficient in individuals with psychotic disorders. The present study assessed three "classic" psychophysiological markers of psychosis in Klinefelter syndrome (KS: smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM, prepulse inhibition (PPI and P50 suppression. Fourteen adults with KS and 15 non-clinical adults participated in the study. Data on SPEM (reflecting visuo-motor control as well as PPI and P50 suppression (reflecting sensory gating were collected. Dysfunctions in SPEM were observed in individuals with KS, with less smooth pursuit as expressed in lower position gain. Also, reduced sensory gating in individuals with KS was suggested by significantly reduced prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI (effect size 1.6. No abnormalities were found in suppression of the P50 (effect size 0.6. We speculate that impairments in these psychophysiological mechanisms may reflect core brain dysfunctions that may also mediate the described increased vulnerability for psychotic symptoms in KS. Although speculative, such deficit specific, rather than disorder specific, psychophysiological dysfunctions in KS might convey vulnerability to other types of psychopathology as well. As KS already can be diagnosed prenatally, the predictive value of childhood impairments in prepulse inhibition and smooth pursuit for development of psychopathology later in life could be assessed. In sum, studying individuals with KS may prove to be an avenue of research leading to

  1. Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal bereavement stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class, Quetzal A.; Abel, Kathryn M.; Khashan, Ali S.; Rickert, Martin E.; Dalman, Christina; Larsson, Henrik; Hultman, Christina M.; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul; D’Onofrio, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconception, prenatal, and postnatal maternal stress are associated with increased offspring psychopathology, but findings are inconsistent and need replication. We estimated associations between maternal bereavement stress and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempt, and completed suicide. Methods Using Swedish registers, we conducted the largest population-based study to date examining associations between stress exposure in 738,144 offspring born 1992–2000 for childhood outcomes and 2,155,221 offspring born 1973–1997 for adult outcomes with follow-up through 2009. Maternal stress was defined as death of a first degree relative during 6 months before conception, across pregnancy, or the first two postnatal years. Cox proportional survival analyses were used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results Marginal increased risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia following preconception bereavement stress was not significant. Third trimester prenatal stress increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.58, 95% CI: 1.15–2.17) and ADHD (adjusted HR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.04–1.66). First postnatal year stress increased risk for offspring suicide attempt (adjusted HR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.02–1.25) and completed suicide (adjusted HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.08–2.11). Bereavement stress during the second postnatal year increased risk of ASD (adjusted HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09–1.55). Conclusions Further research is needed on associations between preconception stress and psychopathological outcomes. Prenatal bereavement stress increases risk of offspring ASD and ADHD. Postnatal bereavement stress moderately increases risk of offspring suicide attempt, completed suicide, and ASD. Smaller previous studies may have overestimated associations between early stress and psychopathological outcomes. PMID:23591021

  2. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Katja; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Borgelt, Jens; Awiszus, Barbara; Popov, Tzvetan; Hoffmann, Klaus; Schonauer, Klaus; Watzl, Hans; Pröpster, Karl

    2008-07-23

    Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD) and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years), before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  3. [Psychopathology of asylum seekers in Europe, trauma and defensive functioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, V M-L; Chahraoui, K; Bissler, L

    2015-06-01

    Refugees seeking asylum are a particularly vulnerable population. It has been observed that among the most commonly-occurring disorders exhibited in this population, there is a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and depression. These disorders may be linked to the difficult paths that refugees are forced to undertake, as well as to different traumatic events which are particularly destructive psychologically (deliberate physical, sexual and/or psychological violence, traumatic bereavements in the context of war, or social and political instability, socio-economic, familial or administrative difficulties), which compromise their view of their short-term futures. In the face of the weight of these life events, the question of the psychological resources of the individual is at the forefront of our understanding of mental health and the capacity to adjust to trauma. Our study aims to apprehend in a dynamic way, the different strategies used by asylum seekers in our western countries to adjust psychologically to traumatic and stressful events. The aim of this research is to study the links between mental health and anxious and depressive psychopathologies as well as the defensive modalities of these subjects. One hundred and twenty adult asylum seekers, living in refugee centres in Slovakia, France and Norway have agreed to participate in this study. We tried to assess the psychopathological disorders manifesting in these populations, notably PTSD, major depression and generalized anxiety disorder. Using the DSQ-60 we also tried to establish the links between the psychopathologies observed in this population and the defence mechanisms employed. Our results reveal that 60% of subjects do indeed suffer from psychopathological disorders with an important comorbidity of PTSB and depression (64.2%). Furthermore, the seriousness of the symptoms is correlated with less adaptive defence mechanisms (a higher incidence of defence

  4. 'Craziness' and creativity: Psychopathology and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Ahmed; Zaman, Rashid

    2015-09-01

    Not all poets have experienced psychopathology. Conversely, not all those who have experienced psychopathology become poets. The notion, nonetheless, of there being an association between 'craziness' and creativity, contentious though it may be, remains a seductive one. Poetry is both beneficial for the person who is composing or reciting it as well as the person who may be reading or listening to it. Poetry Therapy, which falls under the remit of Art Therapy, is increasingly being recognised as an effective form of adjunctive therapy for the treatment of mental health problems. The main aims of this paper are to explore (and to attempt to elucidate) if there is indeed a relationship between the artistic temperament and mental illness and to comment on the rise and recognition of Art Therapy.

  5. Psychopathology according to behaviorism: a radical restatement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Alvarez, Marino

    2004-11-01

    This article is a radical restatement of the predominant psychopathology, which is characterized by nosological systems and by its approach towards a neurobiological conception of the so-called mental disorders. The "radical" sense of this restatement is that of radical behaviorism itself. As readers will recall, "radical" applied to behaviorism means total (not ignoring anything that interests psychology), pragmatic (referring to the practical sense of knowledge), and it also derives from the Latin word for "root" (and thus implies change beginning at a system's roots or getting to the root of things, in this case, of psychological disorders). Based on this, I introduce the Aristotelian distinction of material and form, which, besides being behaviorist avant la lettre, is used here as a critical instrument to unmask the hoax of psychopathology as it is presented. The implications of this restatement are discussed, some of them already prepared for clinical practice.

  6. Rates, Associations, and Predictors of Psychopathology in a Convenience Sample of School-Aged Latino Youth: Identifying Areas for Mental Health Outreach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Lauren M; Kapke, Theresa L; Gerdes, Alyson C

    2016-07-01

    The Latino youth population is rapidly growing and expected to comprise nearly 40% of the total youth population by 2060. Unfortunate disparities exist in the United States (U.S.), such that young Latinos are less likely than non-Hispanic Whites to receive and benefit from mental health services. In order to identify and prioritize specific areas of mental health outreach, the current study examined preliminary rates, associations, and predictors of child psychopathology in a convenience sample of Latino youth. 123 Spanish and English speaking Latino parents of school-aged children completed a series of questionnaires regarding child and family functioning. Latino youth in the current sample demonstrated comparable rates of psychopathology to non-referred, normative samples. Parental acculturation (particularly Separated parental acculturation status: high orientation to Latino culture and low orientation to U.S. mainstream culture) was associated with an increased prevalence of clinically significant psychopathology across several domains, and socioeconomic status was associated with an increased prevalence of thought problems. Additionally, Separated parental acculturation status significantly predicted the prevalence of clinically significant anxious/depressed problems, such that youth of parents displaying Separated acculturation status were significantly more represented in the clinically-elevated groups than the functional groups. These preliminary results suggest that prioritizing outreach to Latino youth of parents maintaining orientation to Latino culture but not U.S. mainstream culture may be necessary in order to begin addressing existing mental health disparities in the U.S.

  7. Relationships among adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and psychopathology during the treatment of comorbid anxiety and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, Laren R; Cassiello-Robbins, Clair; Brake, C Alex; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Farchione, Todd J; Ciraulo, Domenic A; Barlow, David H

    2015-10-01

    Both maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation strategies have been linked with psychopathology. However, previous studies have largely examined them separately, and little research has examined the interplay of these strategies cross-sectionally or longitudinally in patients undergoing psychological treatment. This study examined the use and interplay of adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in 81 patients receiving cognitive-behavioral interventions for comorbid alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Patients completed measures of emotion regulation strategy use and symptoms of psychopathology pre- and post-treatment. Cross-sectionally, higher use of maladaptive strategies (e.g., denial) was significantly related to higher psychopathology pre- and post-treatment, whereas higher use of adaptive strategies (e.g., acceptance) only significantly related to lower psychopathology post-treatment. Prospectively, changes in maladaptive strategies, but not changes in adaptive strategies, were significantly associated with post-treatment psychopathology. However, for patients with higher pre-treatment maladaptive strategy use, gains in adaptive strategies were significantly associated with lower post-treatment psychopathology. These findings suggest that psychological treatments may maximize efficacy by considering patient skill use at treatment outset. By better understanding a patient's initial emotion regulation skills, clinicians may be better able to optimize treatment outcomes by emphasizing maladaptive strategy use reduction predominately, or in conjunction with increasing adaptive skill use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Level of religiosity and disordered eating psychopathology among modern-orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Orna, Tzischinsky; Gefen, Shira

    2007-01-01

    To examine the relation between level of religiosity, grade level, self-esteem, and level of disordered eating-related psychopathology among Modem Orthodox Jewish adolescent girls in Israel. The sample consisted of 320 Jewish religious adolescent schoolgirls in the 9th to 12th grades of middle and high schools. The girls completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the religious questionnaire based on Guttman's instrument. The more religious the student, the less eating-related psychopathology was found. The youngest students (grade 9) were found to be the least religious and to have the highest eating-related psychopathology. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that level of religiosity might to some extent protect adolescent girls against developing body dissatisfaction and disordered eating pathology. A high level of religiosity is associated with less emphasis on the physical attractiveness of women and less pressure for their success and achievement outside the home.

  9. The role of resting frontal EEG asymmetry in psychopathology: afferent or efferent filter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Jetha, Michelle K; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2014-01-01

    Resting EEG asymmetry evident early in life is thought to bias affective behaviors and contribute to the development of psychopathology. However, it remains unclear at what stage of information processing this bias occurs. Asymmetry may serve as an afferent filter, modulating emotional reactivity to incoming stimuli; or as an efferent filter, modulating behavioral response tendencies under emotional conditions. This study examines 209 kindergarten children (M = 6.03 years old) to test predictions put forth by the two models. Resting asymmetry was examined in conjunction with electrodermal and cardiac measures of physiological reactivity to four emotion-inducing film clips (fear, sad, happy, anger) and teacher ratings of psychopathology. Results confirm an association between increased right side cortical activation and internalizing symptom severity as well as left activation and externalizing symptom severity. Significant interactions between resting asymmetry and physiological reactivity to emotion indicate that physiological reactivity moderates the association between resting asymmetry and symptoms of psychopathology.

  10. Theory of Mind in Schizophrenia: Associations With Clinical and Cognitive Insight Controlling for Levels of Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Raffaele; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Luther, Lauren; Vinci, Giancarlo; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-03-01

    Poor insight in schizophrenia is a risk factor for both poor outcomes and treatment adherence. Accordingly, interest in identifying causes of poor insight has increased. This study explored whether theory of mind (ToM) impairments are linked to poor clinical and cognitive insight independent of psychopathology. Participants with schizophrenia (n = 37) and control subjects (n = 40) completed assessments of ToM with the Hinting Task and the Brüne Picture Sequencing Task, clinical insight and psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and cognitive insight with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. Results indicated that the schizophrenia group had greater impairments in ToM relative to control subjects. In the schizophrenia group, the Hinting Task performance was related to both cognitive and clinical insight, with only the relationship with cognitive insight persisting after controlling for psychopathology. Picture Sequencing Task performance was related to cognitive insight only. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Gene-environment interactions in psychopathology throughout early childhood: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Raquel Q; Soares, Isabel; Carvalho-Correia, Eduarda; Mesquita, Ana R

    2015-12-01

    Up to 20% of children and adolescents worldwide suffer from mental health problems. Epidemiological studies have shown that some of these problems are already present at an early age. The recognition that psychopathology is a result of an interaction between individual experiences and genetic characteristics has led to an increase in the number of studies using a gene-environment approach (G×E). However, to date, there has been no systematic review of G×E studies on psychopathology in the first 6 years of life. Following a literature search and a selection process, 14 studies were identified and most (n=12) of the studies found at least one significant G×E effect. This review provides a systematic characterization of the published G×E studies, providing insights into the neurobiological and environmental determinants involved in the etiology of children's psychopathology.

  12. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Gregory A. Miller

    2008-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored the...

  13. Self-reported psychopathology in polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumnall, Harry R; Wagstaff, Graham F; Cole, Jon C

    2004-03-01

    There is a large body of work investigating concurrent associations between polysubstance use and psychopathology, but much of this work has either pre-dated or failed to account for the complex and culturally specific patterns of contemporary drug use. In particular, attendees of dance music events report a greater drug history than their peers and engage in a unique lifestyle. To further investigate the consequences of this type of drug use, 100 subjects who regularly attended dance music events were administered a battery of self-report psychiatric symptom scales. This battery contained the Anxiety Sensitivity Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D), the Dissociative Experiences Scale, the Padua Inventory Revised and additional questions about substance use. Our study population included abstainers and drug users with a wide history of use. We demonstrated strong associations between use of many different drugs, suggesting that polydrug use is the norm in this type of population. We found weak, but statistically significant, correlations between use of alcohol (p < 0.05), amphetamine (p < 0.01) and ecstasy (p < 0.01) with self-reported score on the BAI. There were also positive associations between dissociative symptomatology and the use of amphetamine (p < 0.05) and cocaine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, weekly unit intake of alcohol positively correlated with score on the CES-D (p < 0.05). As polydrug use was the norm in this sample, we performed regression analysis to investigate the contribution of multiple drug use on self-report. This showed that weekly use of alcohol, and frequency of use of amyl nitrate and cigarettes were significant predictors of BAI score. However, the majority of subjects reported being unworried by these symptoms, which may represent a lack of self-awareness, or acceptance of them as the subacute effects of substance use. It remains to be determined at what point adverse

  14. The relationship between social stressors and psychopathology: a short-term longitudinal study of moderating factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Eileen Saczawa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rationale : Problematic peer relationships in adolescence have long been linked with various psychological disorders, but there remain questions as to why adolescents with similar social experiences may suffer no psychological effects or why some respond with depression or anxiety while others become aggressive. Parenting style and level of chaos in the home environment have also been shown to have protective or detrimental effects in conjunction with social stressors. Adolescence is typified by substantial hormonal changes and maturation of both the pubertal and the stress systems. Ian Goodyer has suggested that atypical ratios of stress and pubertal hormones may be indicative of vulnerability for psychopathology. High cortisol and low DHEAS have been linked to depression, whereas the opposite has been found in those with aggression. This study is the first to examine the cortisol/DHEAS ratio as a moderator of peer stress in the development of psychopathology in adolescents. This investigation uses a biopsychosocial model to test the moderating role of parenting style, environmental chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios on the association between social stress and aggression or depression over a 1-year period. Methods : Participants were 156 young adolescents (50% f; M age = 11 years, SD = 0.7, ethnically diverse, and predominantly middle to lower SES. Depressive symptoms, aggression, social stress, and environmental chaos were assessed via survey and interview reports from mothers and children. Parenting characteristics were assessed via mother survey. Saliva and urine samples were collected on multiple mornings to measure cortisol and DHEAS, respectively. Results : Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate significant main effects of parenting style, chaos, and adrenal hormone ratios in predicting depressive symptoms and aggression and significant moderating effects on the relationship between social stressors and psychopathology

  15. Psychopathological features of irritable bowel syndrome patients with and without functional dyspepsia: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallotta Nadia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and functional dyspepsia (FD show considerable overlap and are both associated with psychiatric comorbidity. The present study aimed to investigate whether IBS patients with FD show higher levels of psychopathology than those without FD. As a preliminary analysis, it also evaluated the psychopathological differences, if any, between IBS patients featuring the two Rome III-defined FD subtypes, i.e. postprandial distress syndrome (PDS and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS. Methods Consecutive outpatients (n = 82, F = 67, mean age 41.6 ± 12.7 years referred to our third level gastroenterological centre, matching the Rome III criteria for IBS and, if present, for concurrent FD, were recruited. They were asked to complete a 90-item self-rating questionnaire, the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R, in order to assess the psychological status. Comparisons between groups were carried out using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. Results Patients with IBS only were 56 (68.3%, F = 43, mean age 41.6 ± 13.3 years and patients with both IBS and FD were 26 (31.7%, F = 24, mean age 41.8 ± 11.5 years, 17 of whom had PDS and 9 EPS. Patients with both IBS and FD scored significantly higher on the SCL-90-R GSI and on eight out of the nine subscales than patients with IBS only (P ranging from 0.000 to 0.03. No difference was found between IBS patients with PDS and IBS patients with EPS (P ranging from 0.07 to 0.97, but this result has to be considered provisional, given the small sample size of the two subgroups. Conclusions IBS-FD overlap is associated with an increased severity of psychopathological features. This finding suggests that a substantial subset of patients of a third level gastroenterological centre with both IBS and FD may benefit from psychological assessment and treatment.

  16. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Review on W.R.D.Fairnbairn's Psychopathology%费尔贝恩的精神病理学观述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐萍萍

    2011-01-01

    英国客体关系理论家费尔贝恩在纯粹性客体关系理论的基础上提出了一套独特的精神病理学观.他认为精神分裂是一切精神病理状态的基础,心裂样心态是最基本的心态.他批判了亚伯拉罕关于神经症起源的观点,认为恐惧症、偏执狂、癔症和强迫症都由过渡阶段的基本冲突所导致.他还用对坏客体的道德防御来解释受虐儿童的心理困境.这一精神病理学观不仅具有强大的解释力,且对精神分析的精神病理学和临床实践产生了巨大影响.%Fairbairn, a British theorist of object relations advanced a unique psychopathology based on his pure personality theory of object relations. He considered that schizoid position is the foundation of all conditions of psychopathology. He criticized Abraham's view of the origin of neuroses, and suggested that all kinds of neuroses, including the states of phobic, paranoid, obsessional and hysterical result from the basic conflict of transition phase. He also explained the psychological problem of abused children on term of the moral defense against bad object. Fairbairn's psychopathology not only has strong capability of interpretation, but also has largely influenced psychopathology and the practice of psychoanalysis.

  18. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology and well-being: The mediator role of global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne K; Myhre, Arne K; Klöckner, Christian A; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to be associated with a broad variety of psychopathology and deteriorated well-being in adolescent populations. In the present nationwide study, we aimed to explore global self-esteem, attachment difficulties and substance use as possible mediators of these associations in a high-risk adolescent population. We included 400 adolescents (aged 12-20 years) living in residential youth care in Norway (response rate 67%). The participants completed a semistructured psychiatric interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA)), a study-specific questionnaire, a revised version of the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (SPPA) and the Questionnaire for Measuring Health-related Quality of Life in Children and Adolescents (KINDL-R). Information was also provided by the adolescent's primary contact at the institution. Two models were tested using structural equation modelling; one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and psychopathology, and one assessed the association between childhood maltreatment and well-being. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, well-being, global self-esteem and attachment difficulties were treated as latent variables, and substance use was added as an observed variable. The results of this study showed that global self-esteem was a mediator of paths in both models, whereas attachment difficulties and substance use were not. Preventing decline in health and well-being in high-risk adolescents is a main goal, and this study suggests that improving self-esteem, in addition to providing psychiatric health services, could be an important tool for achieving this goal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Belief system, meaningfulness, and psychopathology associated with suicidality among Chinese college students: a cross-sectional survey

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    Zhao Jiubo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that Chinese religious believers are more likely to commit suicide than those identifying as non-religious among rural young adults, contrary to findings in Western countries. However, one cannot conclude that religiosity is associated with elevated suicide risk without examining the effect of political and religious beliefs in a generally atheist country like China where political belief plays a dominant role in the belief system of young adults. The present study investigated the effects of political and religious belief on suicidality with meaningfulness and psychopathology as potential mediators in a large representative sample of Chinese college students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1390 first-year college students randomly sampled from 10 colleges and universities in mainland China. Results A total of 1168 respondents (84.0% provided complete data on all variables. Lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were 45.1%, 6.8%, and 1.9% respectively, with one-year suicidal ideation showing at 19.3%. Female gender was associated with elevated risk of suicidality. Political belief but not religious belief was associated with decreased suicide risk. A significant interactive effect of political belief and religious belief was found, indicating that for political believers, being religious was associated with decreased suicide risk; for non-political believers, being religious was associated with increased suicide risk. Multi-group structural equation modeling showed that meaningfulness completely mediated and psychopathology partially mediated the effect of belief system on suicidality. Gender differences were found in pathways of political belief by religious beliefs to suicidality and political belief to psychopathology. The coefficients were significant for males but not for females. Conclusions In less religious societies, political belief may serve as a means of

  1. The Development of the General Factor of Psychopathology 'p Factor' Through Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja Louise; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the structure of psychopathology may be usefully represented in terms of a general factor of psychopathology (p-factor) capturing variance common to a broad range of symptoms transcending diagnostic domains in addition to specific factors capturing variance common to smaller subsets of more closely related symptoms. Little is known about how the general co-morbidity captured by this p-factor develops and whether general co-morbidity increases or decreases over childhood and adolescence. We evaluated two competing hypotheses: 1) dynamic mutualism which predicts growth in general co-morbidity and associated p-factor strength over time and 2) p-differentiation which predicts that manifestations of liabilities towards psychopathology become increasingly specific over time. Data came from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths (z-proso), a longitudinal study of a normative sample (approx. 50 % male) measured at 8 time points from ages 7 to 15. We operationalised general co-morbidity as p-factor strength in a bi-factor model and used omega hierarchical to track how this changed over development. In contrast to the predictions of both dynamic mutualism and p-differentiation, p-factor strength remained relatively constant over the studied period suggesting that such processes do not govern the interplay between psychopathological symptoms during this phase of development. Future research should focus on earlier phases of development and on factors that maintain the consistency of symptom-general covariation across this period.

  2. The developmental psychopathology of perinatal depression: implications for psychosocial treatment development and delivery in pregnancy.

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    Goodman, Sherryl H; Dimidjian, Sona

    2012-09-01

    Taking a developmental psychopathology perspective, our objective was to identify ways in which psychosocial treatment of depression during pregnancy may be enhanced. We first consider the state of evidence on psychosocial interventions for antenatal depression, next define key developmental psychopathology concepts that are relevant to antenatal depression, and finally discuss implications for clinical practice and research. We found a limited, but promising, evidence base for effective psychosocial interventions for depression during pregnancy. Examining antenatal depression from a developmental psychopathology perspective revealed suggestions for improving treatment. A developmental psychopathology perspective suggests that treatment of depression during pregnancy may be improved by attention to the continuum of depression, from subclinical to severe major depressive disorder; personalized care based on individual women's pattern of risk and resilience factors and correlated risks; consideration of the potential benefits of treating the couple's relationship, the mother's qualities of parenting, and infants' and children's mental health needs; and, including a detailed understanding of the developmental pathways to antenatal depression for each patient in treatment planning.

  3. Effects of antidepressants, but not psychopathology, on cardiac sympathetic control: a longitudinal study.

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    Licht, Carmilla M M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2012-10-01

    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of antidepressant medication. The aim of this study was to test longitudinally whether cardiac sympathetic control, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP), was increased by depression/anxiety status and by antidepressant use. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were from a depression and anxiety cohort: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline data of 2838 NESDA subjects (mean age 41.7 years, 66.7% female) and 2-year follow-up data of 2226 subjects were available for analyses. Included were subjects with and without depressive/anxiety disorders, using or not using different antidepressants at baseline or follow-up. The PEP was measured non-invasively by 1.5 h of ambulatory impedance cardiography. Cross-sectional analyses compared PEP across psychopathology and antidepressant groups. Longitudinal analyses compared 2-year changes in PEP in relation to changes in psychopathology and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analyses showed that antidepressant-naïve depressive/anxious subjects had comparable PEP as controls, whereas subjects using tricyclic (TCA) or combined serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants (SNRI) had significantly shorter PEP compared with controls. In contrast, subjects using selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had longer PEP than controls. Longitudinal results confirmed these findings: compared with 2-year change in PEP in continuous non-users (+2 ms), subjects who started TCA or SNRI treatment showed significantly shortened PEP (-11 ms, p=0.005 and pantidepressant use. These findings suggest that depressive and anxiety disorders are not associated with increased cardiac sympathetic control. However, results pose

  4. Differential parenting and risk for psychopathology: a monozygotic twin difference approach.

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    Long, E C; Aggen, S H; Gardner, C; Kendler, K S

    2015-10-01

    Consistent and non-specific associations have been found between parenting style and major depression, anxiety disorders, and externalizing behavior. Although often considered part of twins' shared environment, parenting can also be conceptualized as non-shared environment. Non-shared environmental influences have important effects on development but are difficult to test and sort out because of the possible confounding effects of gene-environment interactions and evocative gene-environment correlations. The monozygotic (MZ) differences approach is one way to analytically investigate non-shared environment. The aim of the present study is to use the MZ differences approach to investigate the relationship between differential parenting among 1303 twin pairs (mean age 36.69 ± 8.56) and differences in total symptom counts of major depression (MD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), conduct disorder (CD), and anti-social behavior (ASB) during adulthood. Although effect sizes tended to be small, a number of results were significantly different from zero. Perceived differences in parental coldness was positively associated with internalizing disorders. Differences in protectiveness were negatively associated with MD, GAD, and ASB. Differences in authoritarianism were positively associated with MD and CD, but negatively associated with ASB. Perceived differences in parenting style are associated with differences in MD, GAD, CD, and ASB outcomes in a sample of MZ twins. Despite the lack of a basis for making causal inferences about parenting style and psychopathology, these results are suggestive of such a relationship and show that non-shared environmental influence of parenting does in some cases significantly predict adult psychopathology.

  5. [Narcissism in the world of Facebook. An evolutionary psychopathological interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Adám; Tisljár, Roland

    2013-01-01

    In the last few decades there has been a considerable increase in the levels of narcissism among the population of individualistic, western cultures. The phenomena of narcissism induced a large number of psychological researches, some of which approaches the issue from changes in environmental factors. The modern environment of these days is substantially different from the one to which our ancestors have adapted over millions of years of evolution. The research results of narcissism from the perspective of evolutionary psychopathology approach have yet to integrate.The present review focuses on two studies and empirical findings induced by them in which an attempt is made to explore the evolutionary origins of narcissism. Relating to these studies we present the main mechanisms by which evolution may have played a role in the development and maintenance of narcissism. One of the significant elements of the current, changing social environment allowing virtual contacts is the social networking site called Facebook. Following the presentation of the main features of the site we discuss research results in connection with narcissistic traits and Facebook usage. Finally an attempt is made to integrate these findings into an evolutionary psychopathological framework.

  6. Child physical abuse and neglect in Kenya, Zambia and the Netherlands: a cross-cultural comparison of prevalence, psychopathological sequelae and mediation by PTSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbagaya, Catherine; Oburu, Paul; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of self-reported childhood physical abuse and neglect and the associated psychopathological sequelae among Kenyan, Zambian, and Dutch university students. In addition, we sought to find out the differentiated role of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in mediating the associations between childhood maltreatment experiences and psychopathology symptoms. The sample consisted of 862 university students from Kenya (n = 375), Zambia (n = 182), and The Netherlands (n = 305) who completed the Personal and Relationships Profile (PRP). Results showed that physical abuse was highly prevalent in Kenya (59%) and Zambia (40%), and that neglect was even more prevalent than physical abuse in Zambia and The Netherlands at 59%, 54%, and 42% for the Kenyan, Zambian, and Dutch samples respectively. Neglect was associated with psychopathological symptoms in all three samples, whereas physical abuse was associated with psychopathological sequelae in the Kenyan and Zambian samples only. PTSS mediated the association between neglect and psychopathology symptoms in the Dutch sample and between physical abuse and psychopathology symptoms in the Dutch and Kenyan samples. We conclude that physical abuse and neglect are associated with psychopathology symptoms independently of country and cultural context. However, the pathways through which physical abuse and neglect may lead to psychopathological sequelae may be dependent on perceptions of specific parental behavior in different sociocultural contexts.

  7. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

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    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  8. Psychopathology beyond semiology. An essay on the inner workings of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejón Altable, Carlos; Dening, Tom

    2013-03-01

    This text develops three interwoven issues: first, a succinct comparative analysis of medical and psychiatric semiology, which proposes that the lack of referring relations between psychiatric symptoms and brain/psychic dysfunction is a fundamental distinction between medical and psychiatric semiology. Second, the multiple features of psychiatric semiology are reviewed. Third, a new approach to psychopathology is introduced, proposing three different ways to shape symptoms (perception, linguistic structure, praxis); highlighting its role as a cognitive activity that creates intelligibility from undifferentiated experiences; and distinguishing psychopathology and semiology on an activity/product relation basis.

  9. Phenotypic and Causal Structure of Conduct Disorder in the Broader Context of Prevalent Forms of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2011-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the nature and etiology of conduct disorder (CD) can inform nosology and vice-versa. We posit that any prevalent form of psychopathology, including CD, can be best understood if it is studied in the context of other correlated forms of child and adolescent psychopathology using formal models to guide inquiry. Methods Review of both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of the place of CD in the phenotypic and causal structure of prevalent psychopathology, with an emphasis on similarities and differences between CD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Papers were located using Web of Science by topic searches with no restriction on year of publication. Results Although some important nosologic questions remain unanswered, the dimensional phenotype of CD is well defined. CD differs from other disorders in its correlates, associated impairment, and course. Nonetheless, it is robustly correlated with many other prevalent dimensions of psychopathology both concurrently and predictively, including both other “externalizing” disorders and some “internalizing” disorders. Based on emerging evidence, we hypothesize that these concurrent and predictive correlations result primarily from widespread genetic pleiotropy, with some genetic factors nonspecifically influencing risk for multiple correlated dimensions of psychopathology. In contrast, environmental influences mostly act to differentiate dimensions of psychopathology from one another both concurrently and over time. CD and ODD share half of their genetic influences, but their genetic etiologies are distinct in other ways. Unlike most other dimensions of psychopathology, half of the genetic influences on CD appear to be unique to CD. In contrast, ODD broadly shares nearly all of its genetic influences with other disorders and has little unique genetic variance. Conclusions CD is a relatively distinct syndrome at both phenotypic and etiologic levels, but much is revealed

  10. Barahona-Fernandes and his Contribute for Psychopathology

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    João Gama Marques

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Henrique João Barahona-Fernandes (1907-1992 was one of the most important psychiatrists of the 20th century. Thanks to his direct contact with Egas Moniz, Sobral Cid, Carl Kleist, Kurt Schneider, Karl Jaspers among others, and thanks to his mastery and impressive capacity of publication, he left an extensive contribute to psychopathology that is not at all out of date, and must be shown to the new generations. Aims: A brief revision was made including the most important psychopatological concepts within all Barahona-Fernandes’ works. Methods: Research and reflection, using all of the relevant material found in the «Professor Doutor Barahona-Fernandes Library» (Hospital Júlio de Matos, Centro Hospitalar Psiquiátrico de Lisboa – HJM CHPL, where most of his works are kept. Results: Within the many works that we have consulted, we emphasis three concepts: «The model of personality in situation», «The model of Symptomatic Psychosis», and «The group of the Holodysphrenias». All of these concepts are assessed in this article. Conclusions: The work of Barahona-Fernandes deserves all the attention of students and academics in the field of psychopathology. Its richness goes much further than a merely historical interest. It can be applied to nowadays psychiatry and neurosciences, and can be used in teaching of psychology and psychiatry.

  11. A case of cerebellar psychopathology.

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    Rosinski, Amy; Goldman, Mona; Cameron, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Pathology of the cerebellum has traditionally been associated with motor symptoms, vertigo, and nystagmus. Patients with cerebellar disorders do not usually receive psychiatric evaluations. The authors seek to alert clinicians to the association between cerebellar disease and psychiatric symptoms. The authors describe a patient with uncommon psychiatric morbidity associated with cerebellar dysfunction, and provide a brief review of previous research on this phenomenon. Neurology consultants suggested that physical exam findings and behavioral changes could be accounted for by cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. This syndrome involves dysfunction of the cerebellum, including classic cerebellar findings, in addition to cognitive difficulties and affective/personality changes. The suspected etiology was post-infectious cerebellitis from Epstein-Barr virus infection.

  12. From emotional abuse in childhood to psychopathology in adulthood: a path mediated by immature defense mechanisms and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finzi-Dottan, Ricky; Karu, Toby

    2006-08-01

    The present study examined the course traveled from childhood emotional abuse to adulthood psychopathology. One hundred ninety-six undergraduate students age 20 to 45 (M = 27; SD = 8.17), answered self-report questionnaires assessing emotional abuse in childhood (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire), parental attitudes (Parental Bonding Instrument), psychopathological symptomatology (Brief Symptom Inventory), self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), and defense mechanism organization (Defense Style Questionnaire). Results indicated that reported psychopathological symptomatology highly exceeded the Israeli norm. Structure Equation Modeling provided a statistically significant explanation (52%) of the target variable of psychopathological symptomatology. According to the path model, emotional abuse in childhood and perceptions of controlling and noncaring parents had an indirect effect on the psychopathology. This was mediated by immature defenses and low self-esteem. We conclude that the manifest psychopathology among adults who suffered emotional abuse in childhood is produced by the detrimental effect of abuse on personality, and takes the form of immature defense organization and damaged self-representation.

  13. Positive Attributes Buffer the Negative Associations Between Low Intelligence and High Psychopathology With Educational Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mauricio Scopel; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Laporte, Paola Paganella; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines the extent to which children’s positive attributes are distinct from psychopathology. We also investigate whether positive attributes change or “buffer” the impact of low intelligence and high psychopathology on negative educational outcomes. Method In a community sample of 2,240 children (6–14 years of age), we investigated associations among positive attributes, psychopathology, intelligence, and negative educational outcomes. Negative educational outcomes were operationalized as learning problems and poor academic performance. We tested the discriminant validity of psychopathology versus positive attributes using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and propensity score matching analysis (PSM), and used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models to test main effects and interactions among predictors of educational outcomes. Results According to both CFA and PSM, positive attributes and psychiatric symptoms were distinct constructs. Positive attributes were associated with lower levels of negative educational outcomes, independent of intelligence and psychopathology. Positive attributes buffer the negative effects of lower intelligence on learning problems, and higher psychopathology on poor academic performance. Conclusion Children’s positive attributes are associated with lower levels of negative school outcomes. Positive attributes act both independently and by modifying the negative effects of low intelligence and high psychiatric symptoms on educational outcomes. Subsequent research should test interventions designed to foster the development of positive attributes in children at high risk for educational problems. PMID:26703909

  14. White matter disruptions in adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment and vulnerability to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Gundapuneedi, Tejasvi; Rao, Uma

    2012-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been known to produce long-lasting impairments in behavioral, cognitive and social functioning, but their underlying mechanisms are not well-understood. A better understanding of their underlying mechanisms will aid in developing effective preventive interventions. Nineteen adolescent volunteers with no personal history of a psychiatric illness, but who were exposed to maltreatment during childhood, and 13 adolescent volunteers with no personal or family history of a psychiatric disorder (controls) underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies. The participants were then followed longitudinally at 6-month intervals for up to 5 years to determine the onset of mood and substance use disorders. The associations among fractional anisotropy (FA) values obtained from the DTI scans at baseline and psychopathology at follow-up were examined. At baseline, adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment had significantly lower FA values in the left and right superior longitudinal fasciculi, right cingulum bundle projecting to the hippocampus, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and splenium of the corpus callosum compared with controls. Adolescents who developed major depressive disorder at follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the superior longitudinal fasciculi and the right cingulum-hippocampal projection compared with their counterparts who did not develop the illness. Adolescents who developed substance use disorder during follow-up had significantly lower FA values in the right cingulum-hippocampal projection than their counterparts without the disorder. These preliminary results suggest that white matter disruptions observed in adolescents exposed to childhood maltreatment may be associated with increased vulnerability to psychopathology, specifically depressive and substance use disorders.

  15. Benefits of exercise with mini tennis in intellectual disabilities: effects on body image and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoy, Maria Carolina; Seruis, Maria Luisa; Floris, Francesca; Sancassiani, Federica; Moro, Maria Francesca; Mellino, Gisa; Lecca, Maria Efisia; Adamo, Siria; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    The present study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy of an introductory mini tennis programme as a therapeutic aid in the psychosocial rehabilitation of participants affected by mild/moderate intellectual disability in semi-residential care.Two groups (N=12) of participants diagnosed with intellectual disability, one of which followed the mini tennis rehabilitation programme, were compared at time t0, t1 (after 2 months) and t2 (after 6 months).Psychopathological status was assessed by means of the Italian version of the Assessment and Information Rating Profile (AIRP). Motor coordination, lateral dominance and body scheme were assessed by means of structured tools.Psychopathological total scores showed a statistically significant decrease in the experimental group in comparison with the control group. A statistical decrease in the group with the mini tennis rehabilitation programme was found also in the anxiety sub-scale while the sub-scales schizophrenia, depression, adjustment disorder, personality problems, somatoform disorders and psychosexual disorders did not reach any statistical difference between groups.A statistically significant increase in the visuo manual coordination was highlighted in the experimental versus the control group. No statistically significant differences were reported with regard to general movement skills, dynamic balance and coordination.In spite of the limitations of this study, the results obtained are encouraging and suggest the potential efficacy of mini tennis as an auxiliary aid in rehabilitation programmes, particularly to improve visuo manual coordination skills and to boost the patient/participants' self esteem. These findings warrant confirmation by further research studies.

  16. N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids through the Lifespan: Implication for Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G

    2016-12-01

    The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease. Relevant literature was identified through a search of MEDLINE via PubMed using the following words, "n-3 PUFAs," "EPA," and "DHA" in combination with "stress," "cognition," "ADHD," "anxiety," "depression," "bipolar disorder," "schizophrenia," and "Alzheimer." The principal focus was on the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids throughout the lifespan and their implication for psychopathologies. Recommendations for future investigation on the potential clinical value of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were examined. The inconsistent and inconclusive results from randomized clinical trials limits the usage of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in clinical practice. However, a body of literature demonstrates an inverse correlation between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels and quality of life/ psychiatric diseases. Specifically, older healthy adults showing low habitual intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids benefit most from consuming them, showing improved age-related cognitive decline. Although further studies are required, there is an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential clinical value in the prevention and treatment of psychopathologies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  17. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2016-01-01

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  19. Psychopathology and Academic Performance, Social Well-Being, and Social Preference at School : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, J. J.; Verboom, C. E.; Penninx, Brenda; Verhulst, F. C.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology during adolescence has been associated with poor academic performance, low social well-being, and low social preference by peers at school. However, previous research has not accounted for comorbid psychopathology, informant-specific associations between psychopathology and functioni

  20. Mad Genius Revisited : Vulnerability to Psychopathology, Biobehavioral Approach-Avoidance, and Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Boot, Nathalie C.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Although many believe that creativity associates with a vulnerability to psychopathology, research findings are inconsistent. Here we address this possible linkage between risk of psychopathology and creativity in nonclinical samples. We propose that propensity for specific psychopathologies can be

  1. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hernandez-Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy drinks (ED are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders.

  2. Psychopathology of Time in Brain Disease and Schizophrenia

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    John Cutting

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature on disturbance of time-sense in brain disease and schizophrenia is reviewed and the subjective experience of altered time-sense reported by 45 out of 350 personally interviewed schizophrenics is analyzed. A review of the literature on the effect of brain damage revealed that some phenomena (déjà vu, reduplication of time, altered tempo to events were linked with right hemisphere dysfunction, one phenomenon (incorrect sequencing of events was linked with left anterior brain damage, and others (disrupted “biological clock”, disturbed serise of rate of flow of current or past events could arise from subcortical as well as focal cortical damage. The sparse literature on disturbed time-sense in schizophrenia suggested that there was a shared psychopathology in this respect with right hemisphere dysfunction. The phenomena encountered in the 45 schizophrenics are described and classified.

  3. Psychopathology Related to Energy Drinks: A Psychosis Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Larregola, Maria; Gomez-Arnau, Jorge; Correas-Lauffer, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Energy drinks (ED) are nonalcoholic beverages that have caffeine as their most common active substance. The rapid expansion of ED consumption has created concern in the scientific community as well as in the public opinion. We report a psychotic episode probably triggered by ED abuse in a young adult without previous psychotic disorders. We have reviewed the literature regarding the relationship between caffeine, energy drinks, and psychopathology. Few articles have been published about mental health effects of energy drinks and caffeine abuse. Nevertheless, this relationship has been suggested, specifically with anxiety disorders, manic episodes, suicide attempts, psychotic decompensation, and substance use disorder. ED consumption could represent a global public health problem because of the potential severe adverse effects in mental and physical health. To our knowledge, this article is probably the first case of psychosis related to ED abuse in an individual without previous psychotic disorders. PMID:28116203

  4. Psychopathological risks in children with migrant parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Romana Montecchi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In Western societies many immigrants live in difficult social and working conditions. Together with other factors, this state of affairs represents a risk for the well being of their children. This article will consider the principle risk factors for child psychopathology and/or distress, with a distinction between temporary and permanent factors and with a peculiar attention to the interplay between risk and protective factors. Risk factors can be ordered in cultural, social, familiar/parental and individual factors. Some of these are general risk factors, applying to child and adolescent psychopathology and distress independently from the status of immigrants’ offspring (among them there are some risk factors related to poor social conditions, independently from being an immigrant or a low-social-class Western citizen. Other factors are specific of migration, some of them being related to: a different ways of immigrated families to situate themselves within the host society (assimilation, separation, integration, marginality; b cultural/familiar attitudes in child’s nurture and education; c the family role of women as well as factors specific of the pregnancy period in immigrants; d the ability of the school system to enhance and support children’s abilities to integrate within the new society; e the political/bureaucratic facilitation/impediment to the regularization of VISA, with the consequent effect on the sense of identity/rejection within/from the host society.In conclusion, the programs for monitoring immigrants’ living and health conditions should also include: the assessment of parental skills, the dynamic indicators of risk and protection indexes, the assessment of living conditions and social school environment, with a careful attention to those early signs of discomfort that might precede possible later onset of psychopathology and/or social distress.

  5. Broad implications for respiratory sinus arrhythmia development: associations with childhood symptoms of psychopathology in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, Michelle A; Lorenzi, Jill; Scarpa, Angela; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2015-01-01

    Replicating the group-based developmental trajectory methodology from our prior study (Patriquin, Lorenzi, Scarpa, & Bell. 2014. Developmental Psychobiology, 56, 317-326), the current study examines the development of baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across a new, larger cohort of typically developing children at 5, 10, 24, 36, and 48 months of age and examines the trajectory relationship with symptoms of childhood psychopathology. Group-based developmental trajectory modeling replicated our prior findings of a two-group model fit: a "High RSA" and "Low RSA" group. The "Low RSA" group, which demonstrated lower baseline RSA across all time points, had significantly more childhood problems at 48 months, namely increased withdrawal, aggressive behavior, pervasive developmental problems, and oppositional defiant problems. All participants for whom there were developmental or autism spectrum concerns (n = 6; based on maternal report at 48 months) were allocated to the Low RSA trajectory group. These results suggest that consistent developmental trajectories of RSA may point to protective factors (i.e., high RSA) against developing symptoms of childhood psychopathology.

  6. Integrating theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development and psychopathology: a proposal for DSM V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Patrick; Blatt, Sidney J

    2011-02-01

    Although there is growing consensus that the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) should replace the categorical view of mental disorders with a dimensional approach rooted in personality theory, no consensus has emerged about the dimensions that should be the basis of the new classification system. Moreover, recent attempts to bridge the gap between psychiatric nosology and personality theories have primarily relied on empirically-derived dimensional personality models. While this focus on empirically-derived personality theories may result in a psychometrically valid classification system, it may create a classification system that lacks theoretical and empirical comprehensiveness and has limited clinical utility. In this paper, we first argue that research findings increasingly suggest that an integration of theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality development is not only possible, but also has the potential to provide a more comprehensive and clinically-relevant approach to classification and diagnosis than either approach alone. Next, we propose a comprehensive model of personality development and psychopathology based on an integration of contemporary theory-driven and empirically-derived models of personality. Finally, we outline the implications of this approach for the future development of DSM, and especially its potential for developing research that addresses the interactions between psychosocial and neurobiological processes implicated in personality development and psychopathology.

  7. 精神分裂症患者表情辨别与精神病理的相关研究%The Correlation between Facial Expression Differentiation and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺庆芝; 吕淑云; 张庆梅; 孟昭兰

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between disability to differentiate facial expression and psychopathology in schizophrenics. Methods: The facial expression differentiate ability and psychopathology of 60 schizophrenics were assessed.Results:The facial expression differentiation ability of schizophrenics was negatively correlated with the total score of BPRS and most of its symptom scores. Conclusion: The disability to differentiate facial expression in schizophrenics was related to the psychopathological conditions.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders Among Offspring of Depressed Mothers: Associations With Paternal Psychopathology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmorstein, Naomi R; Malone, Stephen M; Iacono, William G

    2004-01-01

    ...; however, little attention has been paid to psychopathology in the partners of these depressed mothers or to how paternal psychopathology might influence the relationship between maternal depression...

  9. Mapping the MMPI-2-RF Specific Problems Scales Onto Extant Psychopathology Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin

    2017-01-01

    A main objective in developing the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) was to link the hierarchical structure of the instrument's scales to contemporary psychopathology and personality models for greater enhancement of construct validity. Initial evidence published with the Restructured Clinical scales has indicated promising results in that the higher order structure of these measures maps onto those reported in the extant psychopathology literature. This study focused on evaluating the internal structure of the Specific Problems and Interest scales, which have not yet been examined in this manner. Two large, mixed-gender outpatient and correctional samples were used. Exploratory factor analyses revealed consistent evidence for a 4-factor structure representing somatization, negative affect, externalizing, and social detachment. Convergent and discriminant validity analyses in the outpatient sample yielded a pattern of results consistent with expectations. These findings add further evidence to indicate that the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy of scales map onto extant psychopathology literature, and also add support to the notion that somatization and detachment should be considered important higher order domains in the psychopathology literature.

  10. Developmental genetics and psychopathology: some new feathers for a fine old hat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wendy

    2012-11-01

    Without even knowing of their existence, Mendel discovered how genes operate when they are completely penetrant, although they rarely are, at least with respect to human personality and psychopathology; yet quantitative genetics results have conclusively demonstrated their substantial macrolevel influence. Now we need to understand just how incompletely penetrant genes make their contributions to psychopathology. Exciting new developments in molecular genetics and epigenetics provide new insight into gene action in principle but have been of limited value so far in understanding the emergence of psychopathology. Some of the most helpful postulates might come from evolutionary and developmental biology and agricultural breeding experiments. I describe the all but forgotten evolutionary mechanisms articulated by Schmalhausen, a Russian evolutionary biologist whose work was suppressed by Stalin in the 1940s. I focus on Schmalhausen's law, the observation that organisms living in conditions at the boundary of their tolerance in any one aspect of existence will be vulnerable to expression of genetic liabilities related to all other aspects of existence. I show how Schmalhausen's ideas are relevant to the results of a century-long corn-breeding experiment and the current concepts of facilitated variation and cryptic genetic variation. I then discuss the relevance of all of these to understanding genetic influences on personality and psychopathology.

  11. Close Friends’ Psychopathology as a Pathway from Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults’ close friends’ psychological symptoms, and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. Method A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants’ mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure prior to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20’s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about their own psychopathology at age 20. Results Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends’ psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms two to five years later. Conclusions Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood, and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity. PMID:24871609

  12. The Structure of Psychopathology in a Community Sample of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jennifer; Keller, Jennifer; Lavigne, John V.; Gouze, Karen; Hopkins, Joyce; LeBailly, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the development of alternative diagnostic classification systems for psychopathology in young children, little is known about the adequacy of the DSM symptom structure for describing psychopathology in this population. This paper examines the fit of the DSM-IV emotional (ED) and disruptive behavior disorder (DD) symptom…

  13. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  14. Psychopathology and urine toxicology in methadone patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Sadek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies reported high rates of psychiatric commorbidity among methadone patients. We examined the relationships of measures of psychopathology to outcomes of screening urine tests for cocaine, opiates, and benzodiazepines in a sample of 56 methadone patients. They also completed the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. The highest scales in the SCL-90-R profile of our patients were those indicating somatic discomfort, anger, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and also obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms (scores above the 39th percentile. The only significant correlations between urine tests and SCL-90-R psychopathology were those involving benzodiazepines: patients with urine tests positive for benzodiazepines had lower social self-confidence (r=0.48, were more obsessive-compulsive (r=0.44, reported a higher level of anger (r=0.41, of phobic tendencies (r=40, of anxiety (r=0.39, and of paranoid tendencies (r=0.38, and also reported more frequent psychotic symptoms (r=0.43.

  15. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  16. Single Mother Parenting and Adolescent Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanani, Issar; Hamilton, Jessica L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2016-10-01

    Children raised in single-mother families are at increased risk for psychopathology, but the mechanisms that help explain this relationship are understudied. In a community sample of diverse adolescents (N = 385, 52 % female, 48 % Caucasian) and their mothers, we hypothesized that single mothers would be more likely than cohabitating mothers to engage in negative parenting behaviors, which would predict adolescent psychopathology prospectively. Single mothers were more likely to engage in psychologically controlling behaviors, which predicted to their adolescent offspring experiencing higher rates of depressive symptoms and externalizing disorders. Girls were more susceptible to depressive symptoms via psychologically controlling parenting than boys in single-mother families. Further, single mothers were more likely to engage in rejecting parenting behaviors, which predicted to a higher prevalence of adolescent externalizing disorders. Surprisingly, rejection in single-mother families predicted to less severe anxiety symptoms in adolescents relative to two-parent families. It is likely that single mothers are not inherently inferior parents relative to cohabitating mothers; rather, their parenting practices are often compromised by a myriad of demands and stressors. Consistent with this postulate, low socioeconomic status was associated with single motherhood and negative parenting behaviors. Clinical implications and study limitations are discussed.

  17. Misunderstanding psychopathology as medical semiology: an epistemological enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorostiza, Pablo Ramos; Manes, Jaime Adan

    2011-01-01

    In our everyday clinical experience we encounter significant problems directly related to the instability of psychopathological concepts. In order to trace the origin of this inconsistency, the nature of these concepts will be explored in their historical development. They will be compared to those pertaining to medical semiology, paying special attention to the specific nature of the 'object' each of them refers to. While concepts belonging to medical semiology refer to natural objects and retain their meaning independently of the patient's context, psychopathological concepts refer to fragments of experience, which lose their significance if detached from their contextual horizon. The instability of psychopathological concepts is a consequence of the misunderstanding of psychopathology as medical semiology. As an alternative to this view, it will be argued that psychopathology represents an active and never-ending process aimed at the creation of intelligibility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymamí, N.; Jiménez-Murcia, S.; Granero, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Fernández-Aranda, F.; Claes, L.; Sauvaget, A.; Grall-Bronnec, M.; Gómez-Peña, M.; Savvidou, L. G.; Fagundo, A. B.; del Pino-Gutierrez, A.; Moragas, L.; Casas, M.; Penelo, E.; Menchón, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2) to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3) to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4) to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits. PMID:26229967

  19. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  20. Psychopathology of Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Adolescents Living in the Mountainous Region of Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents who live in the same mountainous region of southern Taiwan, and to test the hypothesis by controlling other individual and environmental factors. In this study, a total of 251 aboriginal and 79 non-aboriginal Taiwanese adolescents were enrolled. Their psychopathology was measured by the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale; demographic and family characteristics, and their affinity with their peer group and with their school were also assessed. The results of the multiple regression analysis revealed that aboriginal adolescents feature more severe psychopathology than non-aboriginal adolescents, and indicated that females and adolescents perceiving higher levels of family conflict and lower family support were more likely to experience more severe psychopathology than those perceiving the contrary. Those who devise strategies to improve the mental health of adolescents living in impoverished regions must take into consideration their ethnicity, gender, and family context when devising such treatment strategies.

  1. Psychopathology and cognition in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchou, Maria; Zammit, Stanley; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Thapar, Anita; Tierling, Hayley M.; Owen, Michael J.; van den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been reported to have high rates of cognitive and psychiatric problems. Aims To establish the nature and prevalence of psychiatric disorder and neurocognitive impairment in children with 22q11.2DS and test whether risk of psychopathology is mediated by the children’s intellectual impairment. Method Neurocognition and psychopathology were assessed in 80 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age 10.2 years, s.d. = 2.1) and 39 sibling controls (mean age 10.9 years, s.d. = 2.0). Results More than half (54%) of children with 22q11.2DS met diagnostic criteria for one or more DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorder. These children had lower IQ (mean 76.8, s.d. = 13.0) than controls (mean 108.6, s.d. = 15.2) (Ppsychopathology was not mediated by intellectual impairment. Conclusions 22q11.2DS is not related to a specific psychiatric phenotype in children. Moreover, the deletion has largely independent effects on IQ and risk of psychopathology, indicating that psychopathology in 22q11.2DS is not a non-specific consequence of generalised cognitive impairment. PMID:24115343

  2. Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Characteristics Associated with ADHD among Individuals Seeking Treatment for Gambling Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aymamí

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To assess the current presence of ADHD symptoms among patients seeking treatment for gambling disorder; (2 to explore clinical and sociodemographic differences between patients who score high and low on the measure of ADHD symptoms; (3 to analyze whether the presence of ADHD symptoms is associated with more severe psychopathology and with specific personality traits; (4 to analyze the mediating role of ADHD symptoms in the relationship between novelty seeking and gambling severity. Method. A total of 354 consecutive patients were administered an extensive battery assessing gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality traits. Results. Male and female gamblers did not differ significantly in their mean scores on the ADHD measure. However, younger participants aged 18–35 scored higher. Higher ADHD scores were also associated with greater severity of gambling disorder and more general psychopathology. Regarding personality traits, high persistence and self-directedness were negatively related to ADHD scores, while in women alone a positive correlation was found between ADHD scores and scores on harm avoidance and self-transcendence. Conclusion. The presence of ADHD symptoms in both male and female gambling disorder patients may act as an indicator of the severity of gambling, general psychopathology, and dysfunctional personality traits.

  3. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Chóliz, Mariano; La Verde, Melania; Aguglia, Eugenio; Signorelli, Maria S.; Sá, Gustavo M.; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Fagundo, Ana B.; Sauchelli, Sarah; Fernández-Formoso, José A.; Menchón, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU) and addiction (VGA) in gambling disorder (GD) patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU) in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA) consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT), symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction) was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7% ÷ 44.3),VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0% ÷ 28.7), and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7% ÷ 20.7). Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients' sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD. PMID:25126551

  4. Video Game Addiction in Gambling Disorder: Clinical, Psychopathological, and Personality Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Jiménez-Murcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We studied the prevalences of video game use (VGU and addiction (VGA in gambling disorder (GD patients and compared them with subjects with non-video game use (non-VGU in relation to their gambling behavior, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. Method. A sample of 193 GD patients (121 non-VGU, 43 VGU, and 29 VGA consecutively admitted to our pathological gambling unit participated in the study. Assessment. Measures included the video game dependency test (VDT, symptom checklist-90-revised, and the temperament and character inventory-revised, as well as a number of other GD indices. Results. In GD, the observed prevalence of VG (use or addiction was 37.3% (95% CI :30.7%÷44.3,VGU 22.3% (95% CI :17.0%÷28.7, and VGA 15% (95% CI :10.7%÷20.7. Orthogonal polynomial contrast into logistic regression showed positive linear trends for VG level and GD severity and other measures of general psychopathology. After structural equation modeling, higher VG total scores were associated with younger age, general psychopathology, and specific personality traits, but not with GD severity. Patients’ sex and age were involved in the mediational pathways between personality traits and VG impairment. Conclusions. GD patients with VG are younger and present more dysfunctional personality traits, and more general psychopathology. The presence of VG did not affect the severity of GD.

  5. Psychopathology and its risk and protective factors in hearing-impaired children and adolescents: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Stephanie C P M; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P; Briaire, Jeroen J; Soede, Wim; Schoones, Jan W; Frijns, Johan H M

    2014-02-01

    Pediatric hearing impairment is a chronic handicap that can potentially lead to the development of psychopathology. Yet, for hearing-impaired children and adolescents, the exact occurrence of various forms of psychopathology and its causes are unclear, while this knowledge is essential to enable targeted screenings and interventions. To investigate the level of psychopathological symptoms in hearing-impaired children and adolescents as compared with normally hearing peers. Second, the influence of type of hearing device and possible risk and protective factors on psychopathology were examined. A systematic literature search was performed covering relevant databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Two independent researchers identified the relevant articles. The final search was performed on May 2, 2013, and resulted in a total of 35 articles. Literature consistently demonstrated that hearing-impaired children and adolescents were more prone to developing depression, aggression, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and psychopathy than their normally hearing peers. Levels of anxiety, somatization, and delinquency were elevated in some, but not all, hearing-impaired participants, for reasons related to sex, age, and type of school. Divergent results were obtained for the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and the influence of type of hearing device on psychopathology. Possible risk and protective factors were identified, including age at detection and intervention of hearing loss, additional disabilities, communication skills, intelligence, type of school, and number of siblings. Literature on psychopathology in hearing-impaired children and adolescents is scarce and sometimes inconsistent. To define a more precise occurrence of psychopathology, more studies are needed. These studies should have a longitudinal design to draw firmer conclusions on causality. Hopefully, this will lead to more knowledge in the future to help and

  6. [Psychopathology of schizophrenia and brain imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G; Huber, G

    2008-05-01

    While in the midth the 19th century Griesinger and 80 years later Mayer-Gross regarded schizophrenia as a brain disease, a far-reaching change in the view of schizophrenia found expression in the review of Manfred Bleuler in 1951: All classical assumptions of the schizophrenia doctrine and especially, that schizophrenia could be classified a somatically conditioned illness and not psychogenic, would be, as he wrote, shaken severely. On the 1st International Meeting of Neuropathology in Rome (1952) the opinion became generally accepted that pathological changes of the brain could not be expected in schizophrenias. The neuropathological research into psychoses, considered as unfruitful, has been practically stopped. The World Congress of Zürich "The group of schizophrenias" has summarized through Walter Schulte that schizophrenia must be understood as a "riddle of the human being", unapproachable for the methods of scientific medicine. In contrary to the main trends of psychiatry of that time, we were convinced that schizophrenias have a pathological-somatic basis and considered the search for empirical indications of the somatosis hypothesis an aim of research having priority. Thus, we tried to associate findings gained with the available somatic methods (neurohistopathology, neuroradiology, neurophysiology, neuropsychology, neurochemistry) with clinical syndromes and course of the disorder. These investigations, directed to psychopathological-somatic correlations went already since the monograph of 1957 hand in hand with the gradual development of the basic symptom concept (BSC) and of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic symptoms (BSABS) and with our long-term course- and early recognition research. I originated with three observations, made at the Heidelberg Clinic of Kurt Schneider, (1.) the cenesthetic schizophrenia; (2.) the asthenic pure defect and (3.) lethal catatonias, patients who were diagnosed clinically as idiopathic schizophrenias, but could be

  7. Personality and psychopathological profiles in individuals exposed to mobbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Prestigiacomo, Claudio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ruberto, Amedeo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, mental health and medical professionals have been asked to assess claims of psychological harm arising from harassment at the workplace, or "mobbing." This study assessed the personality and psychopathological profiles of 146 individuals exposed to mobbing using validity, clinical, and content scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2. Profiles and factor analyses were obtained. Two major dimensions emerged among those exposed to mobbing: (a) depressed mood, difficulty in making decisions, change-related anguish, and passive-aggressive traits (b) somatic symptoms, and need for attention and affection. This cross-sectional pilot study provides evidence that personality profiles of mobbing victims and psychological damage resulting from mobbing may be evaluated using standardized assessments, though a longitudinal study is needed to delineate cause-and-effect relationships.

  8. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Shatla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.

  9. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis.

  10. [Attachment and Adoption: Diagnostics, Psychopathology, and Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisch, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of attachment between adopted children and their adoptive parents with a focus on the particular issues seen in international adoptions. The questions of settling in, trauma in the country of origin, and the motivations of the adoptive parents will be discussed. Diagnosis and various psychopathological manifestations will be examined, as will outpatient and inpatient modes of therapy. The treatment of children of various ages will be covered along with the necessity for intensive counseling and psychotherapy for the adoptive parents. This will enable the parents to work through early trauma, which will give them and their adopted child the basis for developing healthy attachment patterns. This in turn will enable the child to mature and integrate into society. Possibilities of prevention are discussed. Many of the approaches discussed here regarding attachment and adoption may be applied to foster children and their foster parents.

  11. Nightmares: personality dimensions and psychopathological attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Iannis M; Soldatos, Constantin R

    2005-08-01

    In this article, in an attempt to integrate recent findings with existing knowledge, we provide an overview of issues related to nightmares that could be useful as a guide to clinical work. After defining what should be considered as a nightmare, we look into the relationship of nightmares with issues such as normal development and maturation, as well as culture. Issues of stress and personality are then discussed in their relation to situational and chronic nightmares. State and trait factors are further elaborated on as we explore the relationship of nightmares and psychopathology. A brief review of organic and pharmacological causes of nightmares follows before we embark on a discussion of issues that relate nightmares to psychological trauma. Some final remarks on treatment conclude our review.

  12. Control theory and psychopathology: an integrative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Warren

    2005-06-01

    Perceptual control theory (PCT; Powers, 1973) is presented and adapted as a framework to understand the causes, maintenance, and treatment of psychological disorders. PCT provides dynamic, working models based on the principle that goal-directed activity arises from a hierarchy of negative feedback loops that control perception through control of the environment. The theory proposes that psychological distress arises from the unresolved conflict between goals. The present paper integrates PCT, control theory, and self-regulatory approaches to psychopathology and psychotherapy and recent empirical findings, particularly in the field of cognitive therapy. The approach aims to offer fresh insights into the role of goal conflict, automatic processes, imagery, perceptual distortion, and loss of control in psychological disorders. Implications for psychological therapy are discussed, including an integration of the existing work on the assessment of control profiles and the use of assertive versus yielding modes of control.

  13. [Music, composers and psychopathology: the psychiatrist's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, E

    2011-01-01

    A first reason for the psychiatrist to be interested in music, musicians and their artistic work, comes from the strong biographical and scientific evidence linking mood disorders and in particular, bipolar disorder, to artistic creativity. Moreover, a family association between psychopathology and creativity has been found in several studies. Important changes in mood, but also cognition, personality and behaviour can occur during all phases of manic-depressive illness and these changes have potentially important effects on creativity and productivity. Those changes are usually opposite in mania and depression. Many bipolar artists see emotional turmoil as essential to their creativity, which has therapeutical but also ethical consequences. A second area of interest is the impaired emotional recognition in schizophrenic patients, not only for visual material (faces or contextual scenes) but also for auditive material (voice or music) leading to impaired social interactions in this condition.

  14. [Definition and psychopathology of chronic hand dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahfa, M

    2014-06-01

    Psychopathology in patients with DCM is as complex as its clinical forms where the factors are numerous and often intricate. It combines psychophysiological, psychopathological factors, behavioral disorders which can be the cause or the consequence of DCM but also the negative impact on quality of life and the simplest daily activities. DCM affects the quality of life of every patient, regardless of the severity. Women are more affected by the DCM that man older age, male sex, atopy and the existence of a contact sensitization are independent risk factors of severity. Depression may affect up to 10 % of patients, should involve greater attention from dermatologists and general practitioners. Health authorities and all health actors should be aware of interactions between secondary cognitive troubles or inherent to DCM and efforts required in terms of preventive measures. Thus, the presence of psychiatric comorbidity is more common in patients with chronic dermatoses. Today it is considered that the emotional environment, built by the mother - child relationship must be optimal, otherwise the mental stability of body image may be compromised. Diminished self-esteem, affects less well managed and somatic expression of emotional content. Recently, a surprising study showed that most patients with refractory occupational dermatitis were not able to recognize the warning sign of flare or the role of psychological factors in the formation and maintenance of the dermatose. In fact, they rejected their personal responsibility in the occurrence of the new flare. To address this public health problem, health authorities, trainers and caregivers should be aware of the cognitive impact of DCM in these patients and interactions with current means of prevention. The role of obsessive-compulsive washing as part of an anxiety disorder or personality disorder is most likely a contributing or maintaining factor systematically underestimated in the pathogenesis of DCM and in the

  15. Quality of life and Psychopathology in Essential Hypertension with Dyslipidaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsartsalis D.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Patients with chronic conditions like hypertension may experience many negative emotions which increase their risk for poor quality of lifeas well as the development of anxiety and depression symptomatology. However little is known about hypertension accompanied by dyslipidaemia. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the possible differences between hypertensive patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertensive patients without dyslipidaemia on quality of life and mental health. Methods:One hundred and nineteen-seven patients with essential hypertension participated and classified into two groups― dyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemic ― based on the levels of hypertension and cholesterol after medical examination. Along with a questionnaire regarding demographics and clinical features the SF-36 Health Survey, the Symptom Checklist-90-R, and the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire were administered. Results: Lower levels of Physical Functioning (p=.001, Role –Physical (p=.046, Vitality (p=.000, Bodily Pain (p=.004, General Health (p=.000 and Physical Component Summary (p=.000betweendyslipidemic and non dyslipidaemichypertensive patients were found. Significant differences between groups were also observed in all dimensions of psychopathology with exception to Hostility (p=.097, and Phobic Anxiety (p=.472. Apart from the avoidance subscale (p=.018, no difference onheart focused anxiety between the two groups was found. Logistic regression model found that dyslipidaemic hypertensive patients had in general a higher risk of impairment regarding quality of life and psychopathology. Conclusions: There is a significant association between presence of dyslipidaemia and deteriorated quality of life as well as mental symptomatology inhypertensive patients. The need for a more target therapeutic schema is outlined.

  16. Relationships of diet-related blood parameters and blood lead levels with psychopathology and aggression in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaalberg, A.; Wielders, J.; Bulten, B.H.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Wouters, A.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have suggested associations between diet-related blood parameters and both aggression and psychopathological symptoms, but little is known about this in forensic psychiatric inpatients. Aim: This article aims to explore the levels of diet-related blood parameters and

  17. Muscle dysmorphia and psychopathology: Findings from an Italian sample of male bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Claudio; Prino, Laura Elvira; Fabris, Matteo Angelo; Settanni, Michele

    2017-06-17

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the risk of muscle dysmorphia and psychopathological symptoms in an Italian sample of male bodybuilders. The sample was recruited online (145 men with a mean age of 30.0 years) and participants were asked to fill out the Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI), Symptom Cheklist-90-R (SCL-90-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II), and to provide other socio-demographic data. Bodybuilders at risk of muscle dysmorphia display greater global psychopathology and present higher scores on all SCL-90-R dimensions when compared to bodybuilders not at risk of muscle dysmorphia. Furthermore, risk of muscle dysmorphia is positively associated to dissociative symptoms. The Competitiveness dimension and anabolic steroid intake were not related to muscle dysmorphia, while age appeared to be more significant. Findings are discussed based upon previous studies and directions for future research are suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Burden of epigenetic reprogramming, synaptic remodeling, and adult psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kyzar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can delay these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood.

  19. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  20. Predictors of psychopathology among Nigerian adolescents: the role of psychosocial, demographics, personality and medical condition reports domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiwo, A O

    2011-06-01

    Psychopathology among adolescents has become a global concern in the last decade. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of psychopathology among adolescents in Ibadan region using a multi-theoretical approach. Eight hundred and eighty-nine (889) male and female adolescents drawn from different parts of Ibadan region of the South-West Nigeria, participated in the study. The study is a cross-sectional survey and adopted an ex-post facto design. A questionnaire divided into six sections, with two versions was used for data collection. Analysis of data involved multiple/stepwise regressions, F-test & T-test. SPSS 10.0 computer programme was utilized for all analyses. Data showed that all the predictors jointly contributed 37% (Ppsychopathology. The domains of psychosocial, personality, demographic and medical condition reports all independently and significantly predicted psychopathology among the adolescents but psychosocial domain had the highest contribution of 16% (Ppsychopathology among the sampled adolescents was 0.152 (15.2%) at the criteria of one standard deviation above the mean. It is concluded that a multi-theoretical approach to the understanding of psychopathology among adolescents will be more appropriate in the Nigerian community. Results have implication for further assessment and treatments. Parents are advised to report any behavioural dysfunction observed in their wards to experts early enough to avoid degeneration to greater psychopathology in the later years.

  1. Unique Associations between Childhood Temperament Characteristics and Subsequent Psychopathology Symptom Trajectories from Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Miriam K; Rapee, Ronald M; Camberis, Anna-Lisa; McMahon, Catherine A

    2016-12-09

    Existing research suggests that temperamental traits that emerge early in childhood may have utility for early detection and intervention for common mental disorders. The present study examined the unique relationships between the temperament characteristics of reactivity, approach-sociability, and persistence in early childhood and subsequent symptom trajectories of psychopathology (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) from childhood to early adolescence. Data were from the first five waves of the older cohort from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n = 4983; 51.2% male), which spanned ages 4-5 to 12-13. Multivariate ordinal and logistic regressions examined whether parent-reported child temperament characteristics at age 4-5 predicted the study child's subsequent symptom trajectories for each domain of psychopathology (derived using latent class growth analyses), after controlling for other presenting symptoms. Temperament characteristics differentially predicted the symptom trajectories for depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and ADHD: Higher levels of reactivity uniquely predicted higher symptom trajectories for all 4 domains; higher levels of approach-sociability predicted higher trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD, but lower trajectories of anxiety; and higher levels of persistence were related to lower trajectories of conduct disorder and ADHD. These findings suggest that temperament is an early identifiable risk factor for the development of psychopathology, and that identification and timely interventions for children with highly reactive temperaments in particular could prevent later mental health problems.

  2. Descriptive psychopathology, phenomenology, and the legacy of Karl Jaspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    With his early publications (1910-1913), Karl Jaspers created a comprehensive methodological arsenal for psychiatry, thus laying the foundation for descriptive psychopathology. Following Edmund Husserl, the founder of philosophical phenomenology, Jaspers introduced phenomenology into psychopathology as "static understanding," ie, the unprejudiced intuitive reproduction (Vergegenwärtigung) and description of conscious phenomena. In a longitudinal perspective, "genetic understanding" based on empathy reveals how mental phenomena arise from mental phenomena. Severance in understanding of, or alienation from, meaningful connections is seen as indicating illness or transition of a natural development into a somatic process. Jaspers opted for philosophy early. After three terms of law, he switched to studying medicine, came to psychopathology after very little training in psychiatry; to psychology without ever studying psychology; and to a chair in philosophy without ever studying philosophy. In the fourth and subsequent editions of his General Psychopathology, imbued by his existential philosophy, Jaspers partly abandoned the descriptive method.

  3. Assessment of psychopathology across and within cultures: issues and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draguns, Juris G; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko

    2003-07-01

    Research based information on the impact of culture on psychopathology is reviewed, with particular reference to depression, somatization, schizophrenia, anxiety, and dissociation. A number of worldwide constants in the incidence and mode of expression of psychological disorders are identified, especially in relation to schizophrenia and depression. The scope of variation of psychopathological manifestations across cultures is impressive. Two tasks for future investigations involve the determination of the generic relationship between psychological disturbance and culture and the specification of links between cultural characteristics and psychopathology. To this end, hypotheses are advanced pertaining to the cultural dimensions investigated by Hofstede and their possible reflection in psychiatric symptomatology. It is concluded that the interrelationship of culture and psychopathology should be studied in context and that observer, institution, and community variables should be investigated together with the person's experience of distress and disability.

  4. Affect regulation and psychopathology in women with borderline personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Andersen, Rune; Timmerby, Nina

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dysfunction in affect regulation is a prominent feature that grossly impairs behavioural and interpersonal domains of experience and underlies a great deal of the psychopathology in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, no study has yet been published that evaluates...

  5. Posttraumatic nightmares and psychopathology in children after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Schredl, Michael; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2010-04-01

    Posttraumatic nightmares are considered as a reexperiencing symptom of the DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Different types of posttraumatic nightmares, however, may differ in their relation to psychopathology. Thirty-two children were longitudinally assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after traffic accidents. Occurrence and characteristics of nightmares were examined and their relation to psychopathology assessed. Thirty-four percent of children reported posttraumatic nightmares during at least one assessment. Exact replicative nightmares at baseline assessment predicted PTSD symptoms 2 and 6 months postaccident, but not depressive symptoms. Exact replicative nightmares revealed the strongest cross-sectional association with trauma-specific psychopathology but not with depression. The authors conclude that posttraumatic nightmares--especially exact replicative ones--may be closely related to psychopathological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress in children.

  6. Examining whether offspring psychopathology influences illness course in mothers with recurrent depression using a high-risk longitudinal sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Ruth; Hammerton, Gemma; Harold, Gordon T; Mahedy, Liam; Potter, Robert; Langley, Kate; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2016-02-01

    Depression is known to be influenced by psychosocial stressors. For mothers with recurrent depressive illness, the presence of psychopathology in their children may have important effects on their own mental health. Although the impact of maternal depression on child mental health is well-established, no study to date, as far as we are aware, has examined the extent to which offspring psychopathology influences the course of depression in mothers with a history of recurrent depressive illness, what types of child psychopathology impact maternal mental health, or whether risks vary by child gender. Aims were to (a) Use a longitudinal design to examine whether adolescent psychopathology (depression, disruptive behavior disorder; DBD) predicts recurrence of a depressive episode and depression symptom course in women with a history of recurrent depression; and (b) To test if observed effects vary by child gender. 299 mothers with recurrent major depressive disorder and their adolescent offspring were assessed on 2 occasions, 29 months apart. Maternal depression and offspring psychopathology were assessed using semistructured interview measures. Cross-generational links across time were assessed using structural equation modeling. Analyses were adjusted for past severity of maternal depression. Offspring depression symptoms but not DBD symptoms at baseline predicted future episode recurrence in mothers. Depression symptoms in daughters (β = .16, p = .039) but not sons (β = -.07, p = .461), predicted an increase in maternal depression symptoms across time. Psychopathology in daughters is associated with long-term depressive symptoms in women (mothers) with a history of recurrent depression. Findings highlight the importance of careful assessment and management of mental health problems in adolescents for more effective management of maternal depression. This study suggests that offspring symptoms of depression may be important for the recurrence of maternal depression

  7. [Alterity in psychopathologic languages. 3: the sex of words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Zoïla, A

    1983-03-01

    This study of alterity in psychopathological language includes three parts: 1) The double without dialogue; 2) The ego(s) in the soliloguy; and here: 3) The sex of words. Two clinical cases (an asexuation delusion, an agressive misogyny) show the systemic interrelations in one of their sides only. The relations between neurosis, perversion, psychosis are operating into the sexuation and into the insatured dialogical structure of language. Enclosed alterity in language is the specific fact of psychopathology.

  8. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  9. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  10. A hierarchical causal taxonomy of psychopathology across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B; Krueger, Robert F; Rathouz, Paul J; Waldman, Irwin D; Zald, David H

    2017-02-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the 3 levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. [Psychopathology related to women pubertal precocity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Didillon, A

    2016-10-01

    Puberty is a developmental process characterized by hormonal and physical changes leading to the ability of reproduction. Precocious puberty, especially in girls, has been associated with an increased incidence of emotional and behavioral problems. Adolescence is a life stage influenced both by the biological changes of puberty and the emergence of new social challenges. In individuals facing these developmental issues at a younger age than expected, the exposure to internal and external stress factors may be greater than in other young people. This narrative review provides an overview of psychopathology associated with precocious puberty in order to raise awareness of clinicians dealing with adolescents at risk for adverse behavioral and emotional outcomes. Developmental challenges of standard puberty and adolescence will be outlined before a more detailed description of recent findings from clinical and epidemiological studies. Putative mechanisms underlying the association between precocious puberty and psychopathology will also be discussed. Epidemiological studies have shown that an early onset of puberty in girls is associated with an earlier onset of sexuality, an earlier age of first birth and a lesser professional qualification regardless of cognitive abilities and socio-economic status. In both population studies and clinical cohorts, girls with an early age of puberty or in treatment for precocious puberty have more disruptive behavior disorders such as conduct disorders, more substance abuse disorders and delinquent behavior compared to their standard developing peers. Precocious puberty and behavioral problems may have common genetic and environmental risk factors. In young people with conduct disorders and early puberty, findings have emphasized the role of non-shared environmental factors. Low birth weight, obesity, exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and adoption are potentially shared between both conditions. Early puberty in girls is also

  12. The association among food addiction, binge eating severity and psychopathology in obese and overweight patients attending low-energy-diet therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Innamorati, Marco; Contardi, Anna; Continisio, Massimo; Tamburello, Stella; Lamis, Dorian A; Tamburello, Antonino; Fabbricatore, Mariantonietta

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have shown that food addiction (FA) is strongly related with psychopathology. However, this relationship may be partly mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. The aim of the current study was to assess the strength of the association between FA and psychopathology, and whether this relationship was mediated by the presence and severity of binge eating. Participants were 112 patients seeking weight loss interventions. All the participants were administered the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS), The Symptom Check list-90-R (SCL-90), and the Binge Eating Scale (BES). Thirty-eight (33.9%) individuals were diagnosed as having FA. FA severity was strongly associated with binge eating, whereas both FA and binge eating were positively and moderately associated with psychopathology. A mediational model analyzing direct and indirect (through the mediating role of binge eating) effects of FA on psychopathology indicated that the relation between FA and psychopathology was fully mediated by the severity of binge eating. This finding suggests that FA may contribute to the development of psychopathology through its effect on binge eating.

  13. Serotonergic function, substance craving, and psychopathology in detoxified alcohol-addicted males undergoing tryptophan depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Dirk; Herchenhein, Thomas; Kirchhainer, Julia; Bandelow, Borwin; Falkai, Peter; Engel, Kirsten; Malchow, Berend; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol addiction is associated with alterations of central nervous dopaminergic and serotonergic functions. Acute tryptophan depletion has not yet been applied in detoxified alcohol-addicted patients in order to investigate its impact on psychopathology, psychoneuroendocrinology, and substance craving behaviour. 25 alcohol-addicted males randomly either received a tryptophan-free or tryptophan-containing amino acid drink and 7 days later the respective other drink. Anxiety, depression, and craving were assessed before and 5 h after the drink. Tryptophan, 5-HIAA, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and HVA in serum were measured before and after both treatments. Nocturnal urinary cortisol measurements and genotyping for the HTTLPR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene were performed. Tryptophan depletion resulted in a significant reduction of total and free serum tryptophan while the tryptophan-rich drink increased serum levels. Both treatments caused a significant increase of serum serotonin levels, however, serum 5-HIAA was decreased after depletion but increased after sham depletion. Dopamine and norepinephrine were elevated after tryptophan depletion and sham. Depletion increased depression scores (MADRS), while the full amino acid drink improved state and trait anxiety ratings (STAI) and substance craving. Urinary cortisol excretion was not affected by both treatments. Patients with the ll genotype of the serotonin transporter gene displayed lower baseline tryptophan levels compared to patients with the heterozygous genotype. Results suggest an impaired serotonergic function in alcohol-addicted males.

  14. Effects of Antidepressants, but not Psychopathology, on Cardiac Sympathetic Control: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, Carmilla M M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J C

    2012-01-01

    Increased sympathetic activity has been hypothesized to have a role in the elevated somatic disease risk in persons with depressive or anxiety disorders. However, it remains unclear whether increased sympathetic activity reflects a direct effect of anxiety or depression or an indirect effect of antidepressant medication. The aim of this study was to test longitudinally whether cardiac sympathetic control, measured by pre-ejection period (PEP), was increased by depression/anxiety status and by antidepressant use. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data were from a depression and anxiety cohort: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Baseline data of 2838 NESDA subjects (mean age 41.7 years, 66.7% female) and 2-year follow-up data of 2226 subjects were available for analyses. Included were subjects with and without depressive/anxiety disorders, using or not using different antidepressants at baseline or follow-up. The PEP was measured non-invasively by 1.5 h of ambulatory impedance cardiography. Cross-sectional analyses compared PEP across psychopathology and antidepressant groups. Longitudinal analyses compared 2-year changes in PEP in relation to changes in psychopathology and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analyses showed that antidepressant-naïve depressive/anxious subjects had comparable PEP as controls, whereas subjects using tricyclic (TCA) or combined serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants (SNRI) had significantly shorter PEP compared with controls. In contrast, subjects using selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) had longer PEP than controls. Longitudinal results confirmed these findings: compared with 2-year change in PEP in continuous non-users (+2 ms), subjects who started TCA or SNRI treatment showed significantly shortened PEP (−11 ms, p=0.005 and p<0.001), whereas subjects who started SSRI treatment showed significant prolongation of PEP (+9 ms, p=0.002). Reversed findings were observed among those who

  15. Assessment and classification of psychopathology in epidemiological research of children 0-3 years of age: a review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Houmann, T; Landorph, S L;

    2004-01-01

    The research of psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age is dominated by clinical case studies and theoretical reflections, and epidemiological studies are few. This paper reviews methods to assess and classify psychopathology in children 0-3 years old in an epidemiological context. Diagnostic...... psychopathology in children 0-3 years of age: screening instruments with established psychometric properties, such as the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (CHAT), and methods of in-depth assessment known from both clinical practice and research: developmental tests......, such as the Bayley Scales, and relationship assessments, such as the Early Relational Assessment (ERA). The classification of psychopathology in young children can be approved by the Diagnostic Classification 0-3. The reliability and validity of DC 0-3 have not yet been established, but preliminary results seem...

  16. How Transdiagnostic Factors of Personality and Psychopathology Can Inform Clinical Assessment and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that many mental disorders-mood and anxiety, substance use, and personality psychopathology-are related through relatively few latent transdiagnostic factors. With regard to the comorbidity of personality disorders and common mental disorders, factor structures such as internalizing-externalizing have been replicated in numerous samples, across the life span, and around the globe. One critical feature of transdiagnostic factors is that they serve as a point of intersection between personality and psychopathology, making them particularly relevant phenomena for applied clinical work. Although numerous studies have supported the significance of transdiagnostic factors for research and classification purposes, there has been comparatively less articulation of how such factors might be of benefit to practicing assessment clinicians. Herein, we present an overview of transdiagnostic factor research findings, and we apply these findings to the clinical topics of assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. For clinicians as well as researchers, the use of transdiagnostic constructs presents positive implications for efforts to understand, characterize, and ameliorate psychopathology-including its manifestations as personality disorder-in a valid, effective, and efficient way.

  17. Increased prevalence of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits after long-term cure of Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemensma, Jitske; Biermasz, Nienke R; Middelkoop, Huub A M; van der Mast, Roos C; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-10-01

    Psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits are often observed during the active phase of Cushing's disease (CD). We hypothesized that patients with long-term cure of CD show persistent psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits. Four questionnaires on frequently occurring psychopathology in somatic illnesses were used, including the Apathy Scale, Irritability Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire short-form. Personality was assessed using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology short-form (DAPPs). We included 51 patients cured of CD (16% men, 53 ± 13 yr) and 51 matched controls. In addition, we included 55 patients treated for nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas (55% men, 62 ± 10 yr), and 55 matched controls. Mean duration of remission was 11 yr (range 1-32 yr). Compared with matched controls, patients cured from CD scored significantly worse on virtually all questionnaires. Compared with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma patients, patients treated for CD scored worse on apathy (P Personality Pathology short-form (P maladaptive personality traits. These observations suggest irreversible effects of previous glucocorticoid excess on the central nervous system rather than an effect of pituitary tumors and/or their treatment in general. This may also be of relevance for patients treated with high doses of exogenous glucocorticoids.

  18. The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Ella L; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Clark, Ian A; Visser, Renée M; Hagenaars, Muriel A; Holmes, Emily A

    2016-07-01

    A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas associated with dimensional and categorical psychopathology in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Álvaro; Navarro, Sara; Palma, Carol; Farriols, Núria; Aliaga, Ferrán; Salvador, Ana; Aluco, Elena; Martínez, Bárbara; Solves, Laia

    2017-08-17

    To ascertain the foundations for a schema-focused therapy model for the treatment of borderline personality disorder. The sample consisted of 102 borderline personality disorder outpatients. Dimensional psychopathology was assessed using the Scale for Suicidal Ideation, the Aggression Questionnaire, and the Symptom CheckList Revised. Categorical psychopathology was measured using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis I Disorders, Patient Edition. Stepwise linear/logistic multiple regression analyses were used to determine the predictive role of the schema domains tested by the Young Schema Questionnaire on both types of psychopathology. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated for those binary outcomes. Regarding dimensional psychopathology, disconnection/rejection predicted greater suicidal ideation (β = .39, p = .002), physical/overt aggressiveness (β = .27, p = .05), and psychotic-like symptoms, such as paranoid ideation (β = .35, p = .003). Other-directedness predicted greater anger/inner aggressiveness (β = .22, p = .05) and internalizing symptoms, such as phobic anxiety (β = .39, p = .001). Regarding categorical psychopathology, disconnection/rejection significantly predicted the presence of lifetime comorbidities with eating disorders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.99-1.24) and posttraumatic stress disorder (AOR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.04-1.3), resulting in a good balance of sensitivity/specificity, respectively (.97/.96 and .88/.89). Other-directedness significantly predicted the absence of lifetime comorbidity with substance-use disorders (AOR = .74, 95% CI = 0.57-0.95). These relationships remained significant after controlling for confounders (e.g., comorbidity with other personality disorders, clinical global severity). Two schema domains, disconnection/rejection and other-directedness, were directly associated with

  20. Loneliness mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and adult psychopathology: evidence from the adult psychiatric morbidity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevlin, Mark; McElroy, Eoin; Murphy, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    Childhood abuse (CA) has been found to be related to the development of a variety of psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Although CA is also associated with adult loneliness, few studies have investigated the role of loneliness as a mediator in the relationship between CA and adult psychopathology. Using data from a large, general population sample a mediation model was proposed and tested. Controlling for a range of background variables, the results from a series of regression analyses found that loneliness mediated the association between CA and six adult psychiatric disorders. The findings of this study highlight the importance of loneliness to the development of psychopathology. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  1. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning.

  2. Service engagement: psychopathology, recovery style and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  3. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  4. Eating disorders need more experimental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Anita

    2016-11-01

    Eating disorders are severe and disabling mental disorders. The scientific study of eating disorders has expanded dramatically over the past few decades, and provided significant understanding of eating disorders and their treatments. Those significant advances notwithstanding, there is scant knowledge about key processes that are crucial to clinical improvement. The lack of understanding mechanisms that cause, maintain and change eating disorders, currently is the biggest problem facing the science of eating disorders. It hampers the development of really effective interventions that could be fine-tuned to target the mechanisms of change and, therefore, the development of more effective treatments. It is argued here that the science of eating disorders and eating disorder treatment could benefit tremendously from pure experimental studies into its mechanisms of change, that is, experimental psychopathology (EPP). To illustrate why eating disorders need more EPP research, some key symptoms - restriction of intake, binge eating and body overvaluation - will be discussed. EPP studies challenge some generally accepted views and offer a fresh new look at key symptoms. This will, consequently, better inform eating disorder treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  6. Samson's suicide: psychopathology (Grossman) vs. heroism (Jabotinsky).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfeld, Netta; Strous, Rael D

    2008-03-01

    The biblical story of Samson may be understood at various levels and from different perspectives. Since the story of Samson in the Bible is sketchily drawn, the interpretations of the narrative are numerous. One version, according to David Grossman, a contemporary writer and liberal Israeli political activist, regards Samson critically, viewing him as a tormented individual who opts to end his life in order to end his suffering. Another version is that of Ze'ev Jabotinsky, a twentieth century author and nationalistic Jewish political activist, who regards Samson as a heroic figure exemplifying the ultimate Jewish hero who killed himself to help his people. While suicide is considered a tragic event, viewed as the outcome of an unstable state of mind from a psychopathological point of view, and a controversial issue in Judaism (as in other religions), there is value in examining how each of these authors explains the act. Since the personal and political opinions of the authors influenced their interpretations, the discussion will briefly expound on their biographies. A comparison between their two versions of the narrative will be made. A word of caution is introduced regarding the merits and demerits of artistic and creative analysis of the biblical narrative.

  7. Enhanced fear expression in a psychopathological mouse model of trait anxiety: pharmacological interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Simone B; Hauschild, Markus; Bunck, Mirjam; Gaburro, Stefano; Landgraf, Rainer; Singewald, Nicolas

    2011-02-28

    The propensity to develop an anxiety disorder is thought to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here we investigated the relationship between a genetic predisposition to trait anxiety and experience-based learned fear in a psychopathological mouse model. Male CD-1 mice selectively bred for either high (HAB), or normal (NAB) anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze were subjected to classical fear conditioning. During conditioning both mouse lines showed increased fear responses as assessed by freezing behaviour. However, 24 h later, HAB mice displayed more pronounced conditioned responses to both a contextual or cued stimulus when compared with NAB mice. Interestingly, 6 h and already 1 h after fear conditioning, freezing levels were high in HAB mice but not in NAB mice. These results suggest that trait anxiety determines stronger fear memory and/or a weaker ability to inhibit fear responses in the HAB line. The enhanced fear response of HAB mice was attenuated by treatment with either the α(2,3,5)-subunit selective benzodiazepine partial agonist L-838,417, corticosterone or the selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-822,429. Overall, the HAB mouse line may represent an interesting model (i) for identifying biological factors underlying misguided conditioned fear responses and (ii) for studying novel anxiolytic pharmacotherapies for patients with fear-associated disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias.

  8. Enhanced fear expression in a psychopathological mouse model of trait anxiety: pharmacological interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone B Sartori

    Full Text Available The propensity to develop an anxiety disorder is thought to be determined by genetic and environmental factors. Here we investigated the relationship between a genetic predisposition to trait anxiety and experience-based learned fear in a psychopathological mouse model. Male CD-1 mice selectively bred for either high (HAB, or normal (NAB anxiety-related behaviour on the elevated plus maze were subjected to classical fear conditioning. During conditioning both mouse lines showed increased fear responses as assessed by freezing behaviour. However, 24 h later, HAB mice displayed more pronounced conditioned responses to both a contextual or cued stimulus when compared with NAB mice. Interestingly, 6 h and already 1 h after fear conditioning, freezing levels were high in HAB mice but not in NAB mice. These results suggest that trait anxiety determines stronger fear memory and/or a weaker ability to inhibit fear responses in the HAB line. The enhanced fear response of HAB mice was attenuated by treatment with either the α(2,3,5-subunit selective benzodiazepine partial agonist L-838,417, corticosterone or the selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist L-822,429. Overall, the HAB mouse line may represent an interesting model (i for identifying biological factors underlying misguided conditioned fear responses and (ii for studying novel anxiolytic pharmacotherapies for patients with fear-associated disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and phobias.

  9. Spasmodic Torticollis—A Multicentre Study on Behavioural Aspects IV: Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Scheidt

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The GSI (General Symptom Index of the Symptom Checklist 90 R (SCL 90 R (as a global indicator of the severity of psychiatric symptoms of 27% of the spasmodic torticollis (ST sample fell outside the 95% range of the normal control group (two standard deviations. Patients with a higher GSI were younger, more functionally disabled and subject to higher psychosocial stress due to the illness. The highest scores were reached on the subscales of somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and depression. On the depression scale, 23% of the patients' scores were abnormal. This scale correlated significantly with the neurological signs, particularly the TSUI-index and laterocollis. A statistically significant correlation also existed between psychiatric morbidity and a family history of mental disorder. More than 50% of the patients reported that stressful life events had triggered their illness. In order of frequency, a death came first, followed by marital strife, changes in employment and family arguments. The data suggest that psychopathology in ST should generally be considered as a result of a variety of interacting factors, biological, psychological and social.

  10. A network approach to psychopathology: new insights into clinical longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Laura F; Vissers, Nathalie; Wichers, Marieke; Geschwind, Nicole; Kuppens, Peter; Peeters, Frenk; Borsboom, Denny; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2013-01-01

    In the network approach to psychopathology, disorders are conceptualized as networks of mutually interacting symptoms (e.g., depressed mood) and transdiagnostic factors (e.g., rumination). This suggests that it is necessary to study how symptoms dynamically interact over time in a network architecture. In the present paper, we show how such an architecture can be constructed on the basis of time-series data obtained through Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM). The proposed methodology determines the parameters for the interaction between nodes in the network by estimating a multilevel vector autoregression (VAR) model on the data. The methodology allows combining between-subject and within-subject information in a multilevel framework. The resulting network architecture can subsequently be analyzed through network analysis techniques. In the present study, we apply the method to a set of items that assess mood-related factors. We show that the analysis generates a plausible and replicable network architecture, the structure of which is related to variables such as neuroticism; that is, for subjects who score high on neuroticism, worrying plays a more central role in the network. Implications and extensions of the methodology are discussed.

  11. Weight acceptance versus body dissatisfaction: Effects on stigma, perceived self-esteem, and perceived psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jessica M; Latner, Janet D

    2015-12-01

    It is unknown whether weight acceptance or body dissatisfaction impact anti-fat stigma. Therefore, this study utilized a 2×2 between-subject experimental design to examine of the relationship between body acceptance and stigmatization. Participants were university undergraduates (N=394, 70% women, mean age=20.8 years, mean BMI=23.61 kg/m(2)) who were randomly assigned to read vignettes describing an obese or normal-weight target described as either accepting or not accepting of her weight. Participants completed measures of stigma (the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), the modified Anti-fat Attitudes Scale (AFA)), perceived self-esteem (assessed with the modified Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)), and perceived psychopathology. Analyses revealed significant main effects for acceptance. Notably, targets who accepted their weight were less stigmatized on the FPS (F(1, 354)=66.82, p<.001) and the AFA willpower subscale (F(1, 373)=37.90, p<.001), and they were perceived as having better self esteem (F(1, 371)=166.16, p<.001) and fewer psychological problems (F(1, 381)=123.19, p<.001) than those who did not accept their weight. Results from this study suggest that size acceptance, even when practiced by obese targets, was significantly less stigmatized than body dissatisfaction and associated with better perceived self esteem and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A network approach to psychopathology: new insights into clinical longitudinal data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura F Bringmann

    Full Text Available In the network approach to psychopathology, disorders are conceptualized as networks of mutually interacting symptoms (e.g., depressed mood and transdiagnostic factors (e.g., rumination. This suggests that it is necessary to study how symptoms dynamically interact over time in a network architecture. In the present paper, we show how such an architecture can be constructed on the basis of time-series data obtained through Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM. The proposed methodology determines the parameters for the interaction between nodes in the network by estimating a multilevel vector autoregression (VAR model on the data. The methodology allows combining between-subject and within-subject information in a multilevel framework. The resulting network architecture can subsequently be analyzed through network analysis techniques. In the present study, we apply the method to a set of items that assess mood-related factors. We show that the analysis generates a plausible and replicable network architecture, the structure of which is related to variables such as neuroticism; that is, for subjects who score high on neuroticism, worrying plays a more central role in the network. Implications and extensions of the methodology are discussed.

  13. Theories of Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W

    1928-02-01

    The word "suggestion" has been used in educational, scientific and medical literature in slightly different senses. In psychological medicine the use of suggestion has developed out of the earlier use of hypnotic influence.Charcot defined hypnosis as an artificial hysteria, Bernheim as an artificially increased suggestibility. The two definitions need to be combined to give an adequate account of hypnosis. Moreover, due allowance should be made for the factors of dissociation and of rapport in hypnotic phenomena.The relationships between dissociation, suggestibility, and hypnotizability.Theories of suggestion propounded by Pierre Janet, Freud, McDougall, Pawlow and others. Ernest Jones's theory of the nature of auto-suggestion. Janet explains suggestion in terms of ideo-motor action in which the suggested idea, because of the inactivity of competing ideas, produces its maximum effect. Freud explains rapport in terms of the sex instinct "inhibited in its aim" (transference) and brings in his distinction of "ego" and "ego-ideal" (or "super-ego") to supplement the theory. Jones explains auto-suggestion in terms of narcissism. McDougall explains hypnotic suggestion in terms of the instinct of self-abasement. But different instincts may supply the driving power to produce suggestion-effects in different circumstances. Such instincts as those of self-preservation (fear) and gregariousness may play their part. Auto-suggestion as a therapeutic factor is badly named. It supplements, but does not supplant the will, and makes complete volition possible.

  14. Energy Drink and Coffee Consumption and Psychopathology Symptoms Among Early Adolescents: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, Naomi R

    2016-06-01

    Background: Little is known about possible links between energy drink use and psychopathology among youth. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between energy drink consumption and psychopathology among early adolescents. In addition, associations between psychopathology and coffee consumption were examined to assess whether findings were specific to energy drinks or also applied to another commonly used caffeinated beverage. Methods: One hundred forty-four youth who participated in the Camden Youth Development Study (72 males; mean age 11.9 at wave 1; 65% Hispanic, 30% African American) were assessed using self-report measures of frequency of energy drink and coffee consumption and depression, anxiety, conduct disorder (CD) symptoms, and teacher reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Youth (92%) were reassessed 16 months later. Results: Concurrently, energy drink and coffee consumption were associated with similar psychopathology symptoms; when the other beverage was adjusted for, energy drinks remained associated with CD and coffee remained associated with panic anxiety. Initial energy drink consumption predicted increasing ADHD and CD over time, though the association with CD dropped to a trend level of significance when coffee was adjusted for. Initial levels of hyperactive ADHD predicted increasing coffee consumption over time; this association remained when energy drinks were controlled. Social anxiety was associated with less increase in energy drink consumption over time, controlling for coffee. Conclusion: Energy drink and coffee consumption among early adolescents are concurrently associated with similar psychopathology symptoms. Longitudinally, the associations between these beverages and psychopathology differ, indicating that these substances have differing implications for development over time.

  15. Social performance is more closely associated with theory of mind and autobiographical memory than with psychopathological symptoms in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Mink, Katharina; Lüllmann, Eva; Lincoln, Tania Marie

    2010-07-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of deficits in theory of mind ability (ToM), deficits in recalling autobiographical memories (AM) and social performance in patients with psychosis. Furthermore, the study aimed to investigate if deficits in ToM and AM are better predictors of social performance than psychopathological symptoms and other neurocognitive variables. In a cross-sectional design, patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (n=55) and healthy controls (n=45) completed a ToM movie paradigm in which they had to infer the characters' intentions and emotions in movies displaying social situations and a first- and second-order false belief ToM paradigm. Recall of AM was investigated using a structured interview. Social performance was assessed in a standardized role-play situation, which was later rated by trained raters, blind to diagnosis. Deficits in AM were associated with deficits in the ability to infer intentions of movie characters and in social performance in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. ToM ability to infer emotions of movie characters and recalling of AM were better predictors of social performance than psychopathological symptoms and other neurocognitive deficits. The results suggest that interventions aiming to enhance ToM deficits and deficits in AM might result in improvement of social performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does maternal psychopathology increase the risk of pre-schooler obesity? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree M; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2015-04-01

    The preschool years may be a critical period for child obesity onset; however, literature examining obesity risk factors to date has largely focused on school-aged children. Several links have been made between maternal depression and childhood obesity risks; however, other types of maternal psychopathology have been widely neglected. The aim of the present review was to systematically identify articles that examined relationships between maternal psychopathology variables, including depressive and anxiety symptoms, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction, and risks for pre-schooler obesity, including weight outcomes, physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels, and nutrition/diet variables. Twenty articles meeting review criteria were identified. Results showed positive associations between maternal depressive symptoms and increased risks for pre-schooler obesity in the majority of studies. Results were inconsistent depending on the time at which depression was measured (i.e., antenatal, postnatal, in isolation or longitudinally). Anxiety and body dissatisfaction were only measured in single studies; however, both were linked to pre-schooler obesity risks; self-esteem was not measured by any studies. We concluded that maternal depressive symptoms are important to consider when assessing risks for obesity in preschool-aged children; however, more research is needed examining the impact of other facets of maternal psychopathology on obesity risk in pre-schoolers.

  17. Personality and Psychopathology of Patients with Grandmal and Complex Partial Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najafi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epileptic patients have special mental profile and experience emotional and psychopathological problems. Some studies have reported that epilepsy and psychopathology occur together. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental profile of Complex partial seizure (CPS and Grandmal seizure (GMS patients and compare them with the control group. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in 2008 at the neurological clinics of Isfahan and included 40 Patients with CPS and GMS epilepsy selected conveniently and control group included relatives of the patients. Psychological and personality profile was measured with MMPI inventory. The obtained data was analyzed with SPSS software, mainly through the analysis of Chi Square and ANOVA. Results: The findings of this research showed that although the scores of clinical scales in MMPI are higher than control group, this psychopathology isn’t abnormal. Epileptic patients in hypochondria, depression and hysteria had more elevated levels in comparison with the control group, but this difference was significant only in CPS patients. Conclusion: The results showed that epileptic patients tend to have more psychological disorders than normal people. These findings emphasize the necessity for psychological treatment along with drug therapy.

  18. The assessment of creativity in creativity/psychopathology research - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, E; Sabbe, B; De Hert, M

    2014-01-01

    The possible link between creativity and psychopathology has been a long time focus of research up to the present day. However, this research is hampered by methodological problems, especially the definition and assessment of creativity. This makes interpretation and comparison of studies difficult and possibly accounts for the contradictory results of this research. In this systematic review of the literature, research articles in the field of creativity and psychopathology were searched for creativity assessment tools. The tools used in the collected articles are presented and discussed. The results indicate that a multitude of creativity assessment tools were used, that many studies only used one tool to assess creativity and that most of these tools were only used in a limited number of studies. A few assessment tools stand out by a more frequent use, also outside psychopathological research, and more solid psychometric properties. Most scales used to evaluate creativity have poor psychometric properties. The scattered methodology to assess creativity compromises the generalizability and validity of this research. The field should creatively develop new validated instruments.

  19. Suggested safeguards an

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    ... COORDINATION. (FACILITATION OR CASE MANAGEMENT) IN SOUTH AFRICA ... SUGGESTED SAFEGUARDS AND LIMITATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE AND .... professional practice.27 They have to assess the situation; educate the parents.

  20. [Psychopathology of violent behavior in mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorowicz, S

    1997-01-01

    The frequency of violent behaviour in mental hospitals has been increasing in recent years. A number of factors may be responsible. Violent and dangerous patients are sent to hospitals, quite often against their will. This may lead to conflicts and assaults against the staff members. There are many factors, both in present situation and in biography, conductive to violent behaviour: unfavourable experiences in childhood (neglect, cruelty, sexual exploitation), psychopathic structure of premorbid personality, frustrations, and eventually deformations of world perception caused by psychotic symptoms. Various mental disorders may lead to the violent behaviour, but it is most frequently observed in exacerbation of paranoid schizophrenia, in young males, particularly in cases with systemized delusions, emotional turmoil and anger. Introduction of a person (nurse, physician, family member, other patient) into psychotic world may also lead to the attack. In particular cases it is difficult to foresee violent behaviour, but some indicators are known. There are very few investigations on the role of the staff in violent behaviour of patients. The danger may be brought by criticism, refusal and rejection, compulsory drug administration, undue limitations of the patient's liberty, or the opposite--no reaction to violations of institutional regulations. Psychopathology of the staff may also encourage the violent behaviour: inability to solve the transference and countertransference, reaction formation and denial are the most important. Fear exaggerates the feeling of danger and induces the staff members to avoid the patient, diminishing the possibility of influence and control of the patient's disturbed behaviour. Recurrent violent behaviour may be connected with brain pathology, so the modern diagnostic procedures may be indicated in such cases.

  1. Association of Eating Disorder Symptoms with Internalizing and Externalizing Dimensions of Psychopathology among Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Wolf, Erika J.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Miller, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A large body of factor analytic research supports the idea that common mental disorders are organized along correlated latent dimensions termed internalizing and externalizing. Eating disorders (EDs) have been associated with both internalizing (mood and anxiety disorders) and externalizing (substance use, antisocial personality disorder) forms of psychopathology. Previous studies found that EDs are best classified as internalizing disorders. However, no previous factor analytic studies of EDs and the internalizing/externalizing dimensions have evaluated if the EDs align with these spectra similarly for men and women. We examined the location of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) symptoms within this model of psychopathology among a sample of veterans, a population traditionally understudied in EDs. Method Data were from two studies of veterans and their intimate partners (N = 453 men and 307 women). Participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV without skip-outs. Lifetime symptom severity scores were used in confirmatory factor analytic models. Results A model with AN, BN, and BED symptoms loading onto the distress sub-factor of the internalizing domain fit the data best in the full sample and the male and female subsamples. This model was statistically equivalent for men and women. Discussion All three EDs loaded onto distress, indicating that these conditions overlap with psychopathology characterized by negative affect. Investigating latent dimensions of psychopathology is one approach to identifying common factors that partially account for patterns of comorbidity among psychiatric disorders which may aid in translating research findings into clinical practice. PMID:24849585

  2. Structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Chugunov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to identify and explore the structure of comorbid psychopathological disorders in patients with type 2nd diabetes mellitus (DM. Materials and methods: 543 patients with type 2nd DM were included into the study. The average age of patients was (56.2 ± 0.65 years. The patients were divided into three groups according to the severity of DM. The first clinical group (CG-1 included 57 patients with type 2nd DM of mild severity, who was treated in outpatient department; the average age in the group was (51.8 ± 1.28 years. The second clinical group (CG-2 made up of 312 patients with type 2nd DM, moderate severity, they were in inpatient department; the median age of the group was (55.1 ± 1.12 years. The third clinical group (CG-3 included 174 patients with type 2nd DM, severe degrees of severity, they undergone inpatient treatment too; average age in the group was (61.8 ± 0.85 years. Research methods: clinical-anamnesis, clinical- psychopathological, statistical. Research results. The study established the incidence of non-psychotic mental disorders of varying severity in patients with type 2nd DM at the level of 94.11 %, among them, for 91.16 % – of psychogenic origin. Proportional correlation between the severity of type 2nd DM and the absence of comorbid psychopathological manifestations was detected (rs = -0.3416, p < 0.01. It is revealed that the dominant psychopathological syndromes among all patients with type 2nd DM were psychoorganic (62.43 %, dyssomnia (60.86 %, asthenic (55.58 % and anxiety (43.05 % syndromes. Structure of the dominant psychopathological syndromes was established depending on severity of type 2nd DM: in CG-1 dominated dyssomnia (36.84 %, anxiety (31.58 %, psychoorganic (21.05 % syndromes; in CG-2 – psychoorganic (65.38 %, asthenic (40.38 %, dyssomnia (38.46 %, anxiety (37, and 82 % syndromes; in CG-3 – dyssomnia (97.70 %, asthenic (89.08 %, organic mental (70.69 %, anxious 48.28 % syndromes. Significant

  3. Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenkranz, S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on arguments of the `reference- dependent' theory of consumer choice we assume that a retailer's discount of a manufacturer's suggested retail price changes consumers' demand. We can show that the producer benefits from suggesting a retail price. If consumers are additionally sufficiently `los

  4. Network analysis: A new way of understanding psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo

    2017-08-14

    Current taxonomic systems are based on a descriptive and categorical approach where psychopathological symptoms and signs are caused by a hypothetical underlying mental disorder. In order to circumvent the limitations of classification systems, it is necessary to incorporate new conceptual and psychometric models that allow to understand, analyze and intervene in psychopathological phenomena from another perspective. The main goal was to present a new approach called network analysis for its application in the field of psychopathology. First of all, a brief introduction where psychopathological disorders are conceived as complex dynamic systems was carried out. Key concepts, as well as the different types of networks and the procedures for their estimation, are discussed. Following this, centrality measures, important for the understanding of the network as well as to examine the relevance of the variables within the network were addressed. These factors were then exemplified by estimating a network of self-reported psychopathological symptoms in a representative sample of adolescents. Finally, a brief recapitulation is made and future lines of research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Centenary of Karl Jaspers's general psychopathology: implications for molecular psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Modern molecular psychiatry benefits immensely from the scientific and technological advances of general neuroscience (including genetics, epigenetics, and proteomics). This "progress" of molecular psychiatry, however, will be to a degree "unbalanced" and "epiphytic" should the development of the corresponding theoretical frameworks and conceptualization tools that allow contextualization of the individual neuroscientific findings within the specific perspective of mental health care issues be neglected. The General Psychopathology, published by Karl Jaspers in 1913, is considered a groundbreaking work in psychiatric literature, having established psychopathology as a space of critical methodological self-reflection, and delineating a scientific methodology specific to psychiatry. With the advance of neurobiology and molecular neuroscience and its adoption in psychiatric research, however, a growing alienation between current research-oriented neuropsychiatry and the classical psychopathological literature is evident. Further, consensus-based international classification criteria, although useful for providing an internationally accepted system of reliable psychiatric diagnostic categories, further contribute to a neglect of genuinely autonomous thought on psychopathology. Nevertheless, many of the unsolved theoretical problems of psychiatry, including those in the areas of nosology, anthropology, ethics, epistemology and methodology, might be fruitfully addressed by a re-examination of classic texts, such as Jaspers's General Psychopathology, and their further development and adaptation for 21st century psychiatry.

  6. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  7. Behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation system scales for children: Relationships with Eysenck's personality traits and psychopathological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); C.M.G. Meesters (Cor); E. de Kanter (Elske); P.E. Timmerman (Petra Eek)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis study examined the psychometric properties of an age-downward version of the Carver and White (1994) BIS/BAS scales. Normal school children (N = 284) aged 8-12 years completed the BIS/BAS scales as well as scales of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and psychopathological symptoms. Results

  8. Psychopathology, trauma and delinquency: subtypes of aggression and their relevance for understanding young offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plattner Belinda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the implications of an ontology of aggressive behavior which divides aggression into reactive, affective, defensive, impulsive (RADI or "emotionally hot"; and planned, instrumental, predatory (PIP or "emotionally cold." Recent epidemiological, criminological, clinical and neuroscience studies converge to support a connection between emotional and trauma related psychopathology and disturbances in the emotions, self-regulation and aggressive behavior which has important implications for diagnosis and treatment, especially for delinquent populations. Method Selective review of preclinical and clinical studies in normal, clinical and delinquent populations. Results In delinquent populations we observe an increase in psychopathology, and especially trauma related psychopathology which impacts emotions and self-regulation in a manner that hotly emotionally charged acts of aggression become more likely. The identification of these disturbances can be supported by findings in cognitive neuroscience. These hot aggressive acts can be delineated from planned or emotionally cold aggression. Conclusion Our findings support a typology of diagnostic labels for disruptive behaviors, such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, as it appears that these acts of hot emotional aggression are a legitimate target for psychopharmacological and other trauma specific interventions. The identification of this subtype of disruptive behavior disorders leads to more specific clinical interventions which in turn promise to improve hitherto unimpressive treatment outcomes of delinquents and patients with disruptive behavior.

  9. Psychotic experiences and incident suicidal ideation and behaviour: Disentangling the longitudinal associations from connected psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honings, Steven; Drukker, Marjan; van Nierop, Martine; van Winkel, Ruud; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; van Dorsselaer, Saskia; van Os, Jim

    2016-11-30

    This study examines the longitudinal associations between psychotic experiences (PE) and incident suicidal ideation and behaviour in the general population, and to what degree the association may be confounded by non-psychotic psychopathology. Data from three prospective, general population cohorts were combined into one dataset (n=15,837) and analysed using logistic regression, controlling for continuous measures of depression, anxiety and mania symptoms. Analyses were conducted in the entire sample, and in subsamples stratified by presence or absence of mental disorders. The presence of PE at baseline increased the risk of incident suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, adjustment for dimensional measures of psychopathology reduced effect sizes, although PE remained significantly associated with suicide attempts. Further examination of the associations revealed that PE were only associated with suicide attempts in individuals with at least one mental disorder. Similarly, in individuals without mental disorders, the risk of suicidal ideation increased as PE co-occurred with more symptom domains. The results of this study confirm that individuals with PE are at increased risk of suicidal ideation and behaviour. However, these associations are not specific, but reflect the increased risk of suicidal ideation in individuals with subthreshold multidimensional psychopathology and suicide attempts in individuals with co-occurring mental disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The 'Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP) study': a 20-year review of methods and findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesdo-Baum, Katja; Knappe, Susanne; Asselmann, Eva; Zimmermann, Petra; Brückl, Tanja; Höfler, Michael; Behrendt, Silke; Lieb, Roselind; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    The "Early Developmental Stages of Psychopathology (EDSP)" study is a prospective-longitudinal study program in a community sample (Munich, Germany) of adolescents and young adults. The program was launched in 1994 to study the prevalence and incidence of psychopathological syndromes and mental disorders, to describe the natural course and to identify vulnerability and risk factors for onset and progression as well as psychosocial consequences. This paper reviews methods and core outcomes of this study program. The EDSP is based on an age-stratified random community sample of originally N = 3021 subjects aged 14-24 years at baseline, followed up over 10 years with up to 3 follow-up waves. The program includes a family genetic supplement and nested cohorts with lab assessments including blood samples for genetic analyses. Psychopathology was assessed with the DSM-IV/M-CIDI; embedded dimensional scales and instruments assessed vulnerability and risk factors. Beyond the provision of age-specific prevalence and incidence rates for a wide range of mental disorders, analyses of their patterns of onset, course and interrelationships, the program identified common and diagnosis-specific distal and proximal vulnerability and risk factors including critical interactions. The EDSP study advanced our knowledge on the developmental pathways and trajectories, symptom progression and unfolding of disorder comorbidity, highlighting the dynamic nature of many disorders and their determinants. The results have been instrumental for defining more appropriate diagnostic thresholds, led to the derivation of symptom progression models and were helpful to identify promising targets for prevention and intervention.

  11. Combining neural and behavioral indicators in the assessment of internalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jason S; Durbin, C Emily; Patrick, Christopher J; Schmidt, Norman B

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders are among the most prevalent mental health problems affecting our youth. We propose that assessment and treatment efforts in this area can benefit from a focus on developmentally sensitive neurobehavioral trait constructs, that is, individual difference constructs with direct referents in both neurobiology and behavior across the lifespan. This approach dovetails with the National Institute of Mental Health's Research Domain Criteria initiative, which aims to improve classification and treatment of psychopathology by delineating dimensions of functioning that transcend measurement domains and traditional diagnostic categories. We highlight two neurobehavioral dimensions with clear relevance for understanding internalizing problems at differing ages: (a) defensive reactivity and (b) cognitive control. Individual differences in defensive reactivity are posited to reflect variations in sensitivity of the brain's negative valence systems, whereas differences in cognitive control are theorized to reflect variations in neural systems dedicated to regulating behavior and affect. Focusing on these target constructs, we illustrate a psychoneurometric approach to assessment of internalizing psychopathology entailing use of neural, self-report, and behavioral indicators. We address the feasibility of the psychoneurometric approach for clinical application and present results from a pilot study demonstrating expected associations for neural, parent-report, and behavioral measures of defensive reactivity and cognitive control with internalizing symptoms in preschoolers. Together, our conceptual and empirical analyses highlight the promise of multimethod, dimensional assessment of internalizing psychopathology in the lab and in the clinic.

  12. Deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood and emerging psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood.

  13. Psychopathology, Psychiatric Symptoms and their Demographic Correlates in Female Adolescents Flood Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.

  14. Are children and adolescents with food allergies at increased risk for psychopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Lilly; Zucker, Nancy; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Living with food allergy is a unique and potentially life-threatening stressor that requires constant vigilance to food-related stimuli, but little is known about whether adolescents with food allergies are at increased risk for psychopathology-concurrently and over time. Data came from the prospective-longitudinal Great Smoky Mountains Study. Adolescents (N=1420) were recruited from the community, and interviewed up to six times between ages 10 and 16 for the purpose of the present analyses. At each assessment, adolescents and one parent were interviewed using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment, resulting in N=5165 pairs of interviews. Cross-sectionally, food allergies were associated with more symptoms of separation and generalized anxiety, disorder, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, and anorexia nervosa. Longitudinally, adolescents with food allergy experienced increases in symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder and depression from one assessment to the next. Food allergies were not, however, associated with a higher likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for a psychiatric disorder. The unique constellation of adolescents' increased symptoms of psychopathology in the context of food allergy likely reflects an adaptive increase in vigilance rather than cohesive syndromes of psychopathology. Support and guidance from health care providers is needed to help adolescents with food allergies and their caregivers achieve an optimal balance between necessary vigilance and hypervigilance and unnecessary restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychopathological traits in college students from top-ranking french schools: Do autistic features impair success in science when associated with schizotypal traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choteau, Laura; Raynal, Patrick; Goutaudier, Nelly; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-03-30

    The link between personality and the interest of individuals for science has not been thoroughly explored. In this report, we studied psychopathological traits in students studying science in French top-ranking institutions. Three hundred and forty seven individuals answered questionnaires assessing autistic and schizotypal dimensions, as well as anxiety, depression symptomatology and attachment quality. A cluster analysis based on autistic and schizotypal traits led to the identification of 4 distinct profiles: a "low trait cluster", a "moderate autistic trait cluster", a "moderate schizotypal trait cluster" and a "high trait cluster" (HTC) composed of individuals with high scores on both autistic and schizotypal scales. Each cluster represented 20.1-27.1% of participants and was clearly different from the three others, both on autistic and on schizotypal dimensions. These groups could be also typified by their level of anxiety, depression or degraded attachment, which are proportional to the extent of psychopathological traits. Moreover, students from the HTC cluster displayed lower academic results, thus implying that autistic traits might impair success in science when they are associated with moderate schizotypal personality features. This study also suggests that depression and anxiety might mediate performance inhibition in the HTC group.

  16. Research Suggestions for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  17. Open to Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Contributors offer suggestions concerning parents as reading stimulators, book discussions, a test bank for the secondary school/college reading lab, standardized reading tests, television reading, plagiarism, vocabulary development, and book reports. (FL)

  18. Open To Suggestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Reading, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Suggests class activities in three short articles including: (1) "Students Evaluate Reading," by Lenore Sandel; (2) "Solving Verbal Analogies," by Edward J. Dwyer; and (3) "Becoming Testwise," by Dean Schoen. (RS)

  19. Event-Related Potentials and Emotion Processing in Child Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia eChronaki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been increasing interest in the neural mechanisms underlying altered emotional processes in children and adolescents with psychopathology. This review provides a brief overview of the most up-to-date findings in the field of Event-Related Potentials (ERPs to facial and vocal emotional expressions in the most common child psychopathological conditions. In regards to externalising behaviour (i.e. ADHD, CD, ERP studies show enhanced early components to anger, reflecting enhanced sensory processing, followed by reductions in later components to anger, reflecting reduced cognitive-evaluative processing. In regards to internalising behaviour, research supports models of increased processing of threat stimuli especially at later more elaborate and effortful stages. Finally, in autism spectrum disorders abnormalities have been observed at early visual-perceptual stages of processing. An affective neuroscience framework for understanding child psychopathology can be valuable in elucidating underlying mechanisms and inform preventive intervention.

  20. Sleep and Developmental Psychopathology: Introduction to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J

    2017-01-01

    Research in the field of pediatric sleep has grown significantly in the past 25 years. However, because much remains to be learned about the complex and dynamic relationship between sleep and developmental psychopathology, this special issue of the Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology was created to provide an influx of cutting-edge research on this important topic. This introduction provides an overview of the special issue, with articles focusing on what different measurement approaches tells us about the intersection of sleep and developmental psychopathology; the overlap between interventions for sleep and anxiety; sleep as a potential mechanism for the development of social, emotional, and behavioral problems; and how population-based studies can be used to consider the interaction between sleep, well-being, and symptoms of psychopathology.

  1. Serotonergic gene variation: implications for personality traits and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, K P

    1999-06-01

    Serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is an important regulator of morphogenetic activities during early central nervous system development, including cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation as well as synapto-genesis. Serotonergic raphe neurons diffusely project to a variety of brain regions (e.g. cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and play known roles in integrating emotion, cognition, motor function as well as in food intake, sleep, pain, and sexual activity. The diversity of physiologic functions is due to the fact that 5-HT acts as a master control neurotransmitter within a highly complex system of neural communication mediated by multiple pre- and postsynaptic 5-HT receptors, thus orchestrating the activity and interaction of several other neurotransmitter systems. Since proteins involved in the regulation of central serotonergic activity (e.g. enzymes, receptors, transporter) play pivotal role in brain 5-HT homeostasis, polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of their genes resulting in variation of expression and function are likely to influence complex traits, such as temperament/personality and psychopathology.

  2. Intimate partner violence perpetrators in a forensic psychiatric outpatient setting : Criminal history, psychopathology, and victimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrichs, J.; Bogaerts, S.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Klerx, F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated criminological, psychopathological, and victimological profiles of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators in a sample of 119 Dutch female and male forensic psychiatric outpatients aged 18 to 58 years. In addition, differences in criminological, psychopathological, and v

  3. Concepts of Causality in Psychopathology: Applications in Clinical Assessment, Clinical Case Formulation and Functional Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haynes, S.H.; O'Brien, W.H.; Kaholokula, J.K.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses and integrates concepts of causality in psychopathology, clinical assessment, clinical case formulation and the functional analysis. We propose that identifying causal variables, relations and mechanisms in psychopathology and clinical assessment can lead to more powerful and e

  4. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and psychopathology among Nigerian university students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olawale, Kamildeen Oladimeji; Mume, Celestine Okorome; Osundina, Adeagbo Funminiyi

    2011-01-01

    ...). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an interrelationship between sleep duration, EDS and psychopathology...

  5. Like mother, like child? : Intergenerational transmission of psychopathology; a focus on genes and parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.M. Cents (Rolieke)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background and aim:__ Psychopathology often recurs in the same families over the course of multiple generations. Only a clear understanding of the processes underlying the transmission of psychopathology will help the formulation of effective prevention and intervention programs

  6. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  7. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  8. Relationship between religiosity and psychopathology in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swapnil; Avasthi, Ajit; Kumar, Suresh

    2011-10-01

    To compare the psychopathology between depressed patients with low religiosity and those with high religiosity and to correlate the level of religiosity with the psychopathology in the psychiatric clinic of a general hospital in Chandigarh, North India. Thirty depressed patients with low religiosity and 30 patients with high religiosity were assessed on the Religiosity Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale and Suicidal Intent Questionnaire. In the patients with depression, hopelessness and suicidal intent correlated negatively with the level of religiosity. In depressed patients, hopelessness and suicidal intent are inversely related to the level of religiosity.

  9. [Clinical aspects and the course of psychopathologic conditions simulating vertebrogenic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    The study of clinical picture and the course of unclear pathological states simulating the vertebral pathology suggested that the major signs were centered around the primary general and muscular sensory disorders. These served as a basis for development of more complicated psychosensory and psychomotor disorders and creation of an interpretative hypochondriac++ delirium system. Domination of psychomotor disorders led to a high incidence of social and labor dysadaptation of the patients. Thus, the study of this unclear mental pathology has a major theoretic, clinico-psychopathological and also practical medico-social importance.

  10. Annual research review: The neuroinflammation hypothesis for stress and psychopathology in children--developmental psychoneuroimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Moynihan, Jan A; Caserta, Mary T

    2014-06-01

    Experimental animal and adult human data suggest that stress exposure is associated with alterations in immune system function that may underlie increased susceptibility to disease and behavioral disorders. The implications of these data for child psychology and psychiatry are not yet clear. The current review seeks to distil and translate the relevant animal and adult human work to children to advance a developmental model of psychoneuroimmunology. In addition to reviewing key specific findings, we consider biological/conceptual models and technical aspects of psychoneuroimmunology work in pediatric populations, and outline the rationales and advantages of integrating hypotheses concerning neuroinflammation in developmental studies of psychopathology.

  11. Attitudes to Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PETER; JOHNSON

    2007-01-01

    As an Australian expat teaching English in China for over four years, I often encourage my students to not only learn the English language but also try to understand Western culture. This includes the fact that Westerners frequently initiate proactive suggestions on any aspects of soci-

  12. The relationship between the genetic and environmental influences on common externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John M; Keyes, Corey L M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between the genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology and mental wellbeing, we examined detailed measures of emotional, social and psychological wellbeing, and a history of alcohol-related problems and smoking behavior in the last year in 1,386 individual twins from same-sex pairs from the MIDUS national US sample assessed in 1995. Cholesky decomposition analyses were performed withthe Mx program. The best fit model contained one highly heritable common externalizing psychopathology factor for both substance use/abuse measures, and one strongly heritable common factor for the three wellbeing measures. Genetic and environmental risk factors for externalizing psychopathology were both negatively associated with levels of mental wellbeing and accounted for, respectively, 7% and 21% of its genetic and environmental influences. Adding internalizing psychopathology assessed in the last year to the model, genetic risk factors unique for externalizing psychopathology were now positively related to levels of mental wellbeing, although accounting for only 5% of the genetic variance. Environmental risk factors unique to externalizing psychopathology continued to be negatively associated with mental wellbeing, accounting for 26% of the environmental variance. When both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology are associated with mental wellbeing, the strongest risk factors for low mental wellbeing are genetic factors that impact on both internalizing psychopathology and externalizing psychopathology, and environmental factors unique to externalizing psychopathology. In this model, genetic risk factors for externalizing psychopathology predict, albeit weakly, higher levels of mental wellbeing.

  13. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  14. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  15. Incidence and Trends in Psychopathology Symptoms over Time in Adults with Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Sipes, Megan; Shoemaker, Mary; Belva, Brian; Bamburg, Jay W.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have a high risk for developing comorbid psychopathology. While researchers have shown that symptoms of psychopathology remain relatively stable in children with ID over time, little research has been conducted to demonstrate symptom stability for adults with ID. Incidence of psychopathology symptoms…

  16. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  17. Suggestions for Teaching Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Na-na

    2013-01-01

    Teacher development and teaching practice(TP) have caught the eyes of researchers at home and abroad for many years. Many western scholars hold that reflective teaching is an efficient way to promote teacher development, but traditional TP is prevailing in China. Based on the merits and demerits of traditional TP and reflective TP, the author hopes to provide some suggestions for the people involved to promote the development of teacher education.

  18. The NGF saga: from animal models of psychosocial stress to stress-related psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirulli, Francesca; Alleva, Enrico

    2009-08-01

    The role of the neurotrophins Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) has been expanding over the last years from trophic factors involved in brain growth and differentiation, to much more complex messengers, involved in psycho-neuro-endocrine adaptations. Much of this research stems from a series of studies inspired by the life-long work of the Nobel laureate Rita Levi-Montalcini. A new field of research started when NGF was found to be released in the bloodstream as a result of psychosocial stressors in male mice. Subsequent studies have shown that, in humans, highly arousing situations also result in increased blood levels of NGF, underlying the unique role of this neurotrophin, compared to other neuroendocrine effectors, and its sensitivity to environmental variables endowed by a social nature. Data are reviewed to support the hypothesis that this neurotrophic factor, together with BDNF, could be involved in the neurobiological changes underlying physiological and pathological reactions to stress that can result in increased vulnerability to disease in humans, including risk for anxiety disorders, or in the complex pathophysiology associated with mood disorders. Indeed, numerous data indicate that neurotrophins are present in brain hypothalamic areas involved in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, circadian rhythms and metabolism. In addition, there is now evidence that, in addition to the nervous system, neurotrophins exert their effects in various tissue compartments as they are produced by a variety of non-neuronal cell types such as endocrine and immune cells, adipocytes, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, thus being in a position to coordinate brain and body reactions to external challenges. Aim of this review is to discuss the evidence suggesting a role for neurotrophins as multifunctional signaling molecules activated during allostatic responses to stressful events and their involvement in the complex

  19. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work.

  20. The neglected role of positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kirsten E

    2012-08-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by elevated stress, heightened risky behaviors, and increases in psychopathology. Emotion dysregulation is a hypothesized contributor to negative outcomes and to the onset of psychopathology during adolescence. However, the dysregulation of negative emotion has been the focus of research while the literature on positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology is limited. This review highlights both the development of normative and dysregulated positive emotion during adolescence. First, the literature on normative adolescent emotional development and on negative emotional regulation is briefly reviewed, followed by a discussion of current theories of positive emotion, which are grounded in the adult literature. From a developmental perspective, the dimension of approach motivation within positive emotion is emphasized throughout and frames the review. This conceptualization guides organization of literatures on normative experiences of positive emotion in adolescence and the role of dysregulated positive emotion in adolescent psychopathology, specifically adolescent depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, externalizing disorders and eating disorders. Last, future directions in the study of adolescent positive emotion and its regulation and the implications of highlighting approach motivation in normative and dysregulated positive emotion in adolescence are detailed.

  1. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  2. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  3. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  4. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  5. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  6. Effects of community stress and problems on residents' psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2014-02-28

    The connection between community stress and problems and community residents' psychopathology is an understudied area, and a limited number of studies have reported inconsistent findings. This research aimed to estimate the effect of perceived social factors in the community environment on the residents' self-reported psychopathology. The study sample consisted of 2034 men and women from 16 selected rural counties in three provinces of China. The social factors in the village community were measured by the World Health Organization Multisite Intervention Study on Suicidal Behaviors (WHO SUPRE-MISS) scale of Community Stress and Problems. The sychological and mental health of the individuals was assessed by (1) suicidal thoughts, plans and attempts (National Comorbidity Survey Replication or NCS-R), (2) pro-suicide attitudes (General Social Survey or GSS), (3) depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale or CES-D) and (4) suicide ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation or SSI). Multiple regressions were performed separately for each of the four psychopathologic traits with the scale of Community Stress and Problems as the major predicting variable and age, gender, education years, marital status, family annual income, family status in village and religion as the confounding correlates. It is found that community stress and problems generally increase rural Chinese residents' psychopathologies, especially issues in health care, housing and transportation, which play more important roles than others. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychopathology of EDNOS Patients: To Whom Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Sasha; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Touyz, Stephen W.; Beumont, P. J. V.

    2004-01-01

    Do the levels of psychopathology displayed by patients with an eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) more closely resemble those displayed by full-criteria anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients than they do those of non-eating-disorder controls? Three groups of eating disorder patients (anorexia nervosa, n = 27; bulimia nervosa, n = 23;…

  8. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  9. Dissociative experiences and psychopathology among Italian and Portuguese inmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavattini, G.C.; Garofalo, C.; Velotti, P.; Saggino, A.; Romanelli, R.; Espírito Santo, H.; Costa, M.; Saggino, A.

    2017-01-01

    The association between dissociation and psychopathological symptoms is well established, yet studies with inmates are lacking. If higher rates of dissociation and psychiatric symptoms are reported in inmate samples, it is not clear whether they represent two separate, albeit related, characteristic

  10. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  11. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  12. A skin-picking disorder case report: a psychopathological explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 44-year-old woman, without known previous psychiatric history, hospitalized after a significant hemorrhage caused by self-inflicted deep facial dermal lesions (with muscle exposition. Psychopathological possible explanations of this case, as in similar reviewed ones, are related to frustration, aggression, and impulsivity.

  13. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  14. Preadolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology : a developmental perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Mesman (Judi)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the field of child psychopathology research, a growing number of longitudinal studies have investigated early developmental precursors of maladaptive outcomes (see for reviews: Campbell, 1995; Koot, 1995; Sameroff and Seifer, 1990). The multitude of theoretical assumptions and related

  15. Dimensions of Adolescent Psychopathology and Relationships to Suicide Risk Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verona, Edelyn; Javdani, Shabnam

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide represents an area of important public and mental health concern. Although diagnostic correlates (e.g., depression) of suicidality have been identified, very few studies of youth have analyzed relationships between empirically-derived dimensions of psychopathology, representing broader dimensions of risk, and different suicidality…

  16. Psychopathology in African Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Julia; Karnik, Niranjan; Voelkl-Kernstock, Sabine; Granditsch, Elisabeth; Plattner, Belinda; Friedrich, Max; Steiner, Hans

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of a range of psychopathology among African unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) in Austria. Additionally, the predictive value of war exposure on PTSD symptoms was examined. Forty-one URMs were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for children and adolescents, the Youth Self-Report, the UCLA…

  17. Problem Video Game Use and Dimensions of Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcevic, Vladan; Berle, David; Porter, Guy; Fenech, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between problem video game use and psychopathology. The Video Game Use Questionnaire (VGUQ) and the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were administered in an international anonymous online survey. The VGUQ was used to identify problem video game users and SCL-90 assessed dimensions of…

  18. Scaling Methods to Measure Psychopathology in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian C.; Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathology prior to the last four decades was generally viewed as a set of problems and disorders that did not occur in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). That notion now seems very antiquated. In no small part, a revolutionary development of scales worldwide has occurred for the assessment of emotional problems in persons with ID.…

  19. Psychopathology and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-08-01

    This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key psychopathological dimensions. In addition, the comorbidity of kleptomania with other psychiatric disorders was examined. Eleven patients with kleptomania recruited over a cumulative 2-year period and 60 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 29 psychiatric comparison patients recruited over a consecutive 6-month period participated in structured clinical interviews to determine the presence of impulse-control and substance-related disorders and of other psychiatric disorders that were comorbid with kleptomania. Psychopathological dimensions were measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Sensation Seeking Scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Significant group effects were found for the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale total and cognitive impulsivity scores, with the patients with kleptomania having higher impulsivity scores than the other groups. Significant group differences were found on the Sensation Seeking Scale total and disinhibition scores. No significant group effects were found for the mood and anxiety measures. Patients with kleptomania had high rates of comorbid psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders, other impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse or dependence (mainly nicotine dependence). Kleptomania presented a specific psychopathological profile that distinguished patients with this disorder from patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and other psychiatric comparison patients. Impulsivity was the major psychopathological feature of kleptomania. A link between kleptomania and affective disorder was supported by the high rate of comorbid affective disorders in patients with kleptomania and a specific pattern of variation in

  20. Psychosocial adversity, delinquent pathway and internalizing psychopathology in juvenile male offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ida; Faísca, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of a set of risk factors relating to childhood life events and other psychosocial factors that may be associated with criminal indicators and with the prevalence of internalizing psychopathology in a sample of adolescent offenders. Fifty male adolescents in the custody of the Portuguese Juvenile Justice System participated in the study (M=15.8 years of age). The Adolescent Psychopathology Scale - Short Form (APS-SF) was administered in a structured interview format, and the sociodemographic, family and criminal data questionnaire was filled in by the justice professional after consulting the adolescent's file. Forty-six percent of all subjects had previous delinquent behavior. About 32% of the boys had committed violent offenses and 88% acted with peers. Also, the persistence of the delinquent behavior (50% of the offenders), coupled with the increase in the severity of the crimes committed (38% of the sample), suggests that these adolescents were at risk for serious and chronic delinquency at the time of the intervention. About 32% of the participants reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, 20% had suicide ideation, and a lower percentage reported other internalizing problems. Institutionalization, maltreatment and conduct problems in childhood, and family risk factors (parental conflict, absence of a father figure, lack of parental control and family substance addiction) were related with the report of internalizing problems. Moreover, the increase in the severity of criminal offenses and living in a correctional facility were associated with higher levels of posttraumatic stress, interpersonal problems, anxiety and depression. This study draws attention to the importance of assessing indicators of psychopathology and of psychosocial risk in intervention programs with young offenders, but also to the need of family focused interventions in order to help prevent recidivism.

  1. Recall of threat and submissiveness in childhood and psychopathology: the mediator effect of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Amaral, Vânia; Duarte, Joana

    2014-01-01

    Research has robustly shown that early negative parenting experiences are associated with psychopathology and self-criticism in adulthood. This study investigates recall of personal feelings of perceived threat and subordination in childhood and its relation to psychopathology. In addition, we explore the mediator role of self-criticism in this association. A sample of 193 subjects from the general population completed self-report questionnaires measuring the study variables. The mediator analyses suggested that the impact of submissiveness experiences in childhood on depression and anxiety is mediated by self-criticism. Our findings highlight the route through which the recall of personal feelings of perceived involuntary subordination to parents contributes to depression and anxiety in adulthood. Although the relation between early experiences of abuse and later psychological problems is now well established, there has been less study on subtler forms of threat and subordinate behaviour in childhood. Given ours and previous findings, therapists should be aware of, and prone to explore, these early experiences. Most studies exploring early negative experiences mainly refer to attachment theory-related constructs (e.g., attachment style). We also highlight the importance of noting rank structure and rank style in the family. Self-criticism seems to be a key process in the relation between early aversive experiences of subordination and psychopathology. Given the idea that self-reassuring operates through a different affect system, helping people develop inner warmth and compassion for the self may be important to counteract feelings of self-hatred and self-attack. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. GAD65 haplodeficiency conveys resilience in animal models of stress-induced psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eMüller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic mechanisms are critically involved in the control of fear and anxiety, but their role in the development of stress-induced psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD and mood disorders is not sufficiently understood. We studied these functions in two established mouse models of risk factors for stress-induced psychopathologies employing variable juvenile stress and/or social isolation. A battery of emotional tests in adulthood revealed the induction of contextually generalized fear, anxiety, hyperarousal and depression-like symptoms in these paradigms. These reflect the multitude and complexity of stress effects in human PTSD patients. With factor analysis we were able to identify parameters that reflect these different behavioral domains in stressed animals and thus provide a basis for an integrated scoring of affectedness more closely resembling the clinical situation than isolated parameters. To test the applicability of these models to genetic approaches we further tested the role of GABA using heterozygous mice with targeted mutation of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD65 (GAD65+/- mice, which show a delayed postnatal increase in tissue GABA content in limbic and cortical brain areas. Unexpectedly, GAD65(+/- mice did not show changes in exploratory activity regardless of the stressor type and were after the variable juvenile stress procedure protected from the development of contextual generalization in an auditory fear conditioning experiment. Our data demonstrate the complex nature of behavioral alterations in rodent models of stress-related psychopathologies and suggest that GAD65 haplodeficiency, likely through its effect on the postnatal maturation of GABAergic transmission, conveys resilience to some of these stress-induced effects.

  3. Learning semantic query suggestions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Meij; M. Bron; L. Hollink; B. Huurnink; M. de Rijke

    2009-01-01

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide faci

  4. Exposure to Community Violence, Psychopathology, and Personality Traits in Russian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koposov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research with the US inner-city youth demonstrated the hazardous effects of community violence exposure. It remains unclear, however, whether these findings are generalizable to other cultures and populations. Furthermore, the role of factors influencing the processing of traumatic events such as personality has not been investigated. Two groups of Russian adolescents (community youth (=546 and male delinquents (=352 completed questionnaires assessing their exposure to community violence, conduct problems, internalizing psychopathology and personality. The study demonstrates that the relationships between exposure to violence and psychopathology are similar across different populations within the same culture (community youth and juvenile delinquents, suggesting similar mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The patterns of these relationships were also similar for boys and girls, suggesting similarities in the mechanisms across gender. Hence, the effects of community violence exposure are generalizable to other cultures outside the US. The associations between personality traits and specific types of behaviors also tend to be similar across different populations. Higher levels of novelty seeking were related to more severe problem behaviors and to higher levels of witnessing and victimization, whereas higher levels of harm avoidance were related to higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress.

  5. Why Does Positive Mental Health Buffer Against Psychopathology? An Exploratory Study on Self-Compassion as a Resilience Mechanism and Adaptive Emotion Regulation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, Hester R.; Kleine, de Elian; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situ

  6. Why Does Positive Mental Health Buffer Against Psychopathology? An Exploratory Study on Self-Compassion as a Resilience Mechanism and Adaptive Emotion Regulation Strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trompetter, H.R.; de Kleine, Elian; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that positive mental health or wellbeing protects against psychopathology. How and why those who flourish derive these resilient outcomes is, however, unknown. This exploratory study investigated if self-compassion, as it continuously provides a friendly, accepting and situ

  7. Psychopathology, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and risk factors in juvenile offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margari F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Margari,1 Francesco Craig,2 Lucia Margari,2 Emilia Matera,2 Anna Linda Lamanna,2 Paola Alessandra Lecce,2 Donatella La Tegola,3 Felice Carabellese3 1Psychiatry Unit, 2Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sense Organs of the Aldo Moro University of Bari, 3Section of Criminology and Forensic Psychiatry, Department of Internal Medicine and Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, Italy Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of potential environmental and psychopathological risk factors, with special focus on symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, in a sample of adolescent offenders in relation to the type of crime committed.Methods: The assessment included data collection and administration of clinical standardized scales such as the Youth Self-Report and Conners’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale. A total of 135 juvenile offenders participated in the study. In relation to the type of crime committed, we identified three groups matched for age and sex (crimes against people, property crimes, and alcohol-drug-related crimes.Results: Fifty-two percent of juvenile offenders reported educational achievement problems and 34% reported a family history of psychiatric disorders. We detected a statistically significant difference between the three groups with regard to ADHD (P=0.01 and conduct problems (P=0.034. Juvenile offenders who had committed crimes against people showed more ADHD symptoms (18% and conduct problems (20% than adolescents who had committed property crimes and alcohol-drug-related crimes. Sixty percent of the juvenile offenders who had committed property crimes and 54% of those who had committed alcohol-drug-related crimes showed problems in academic achievement.Conclusion: These findings suggest the need to implement specific interventions for prevention and treatment of specific criminal behavior. Keywords: juvenile offenders

  8. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    that non-linear dynamical process may be involved in the recurrence of symptoms in troubles such as manic-depressive illness (9) or schizophrenia (51). These observations can contribute to more parcimonious interpretation of the time course of these illnesses than usual theories. In the search of a relationship between brain dynamics and mental troubles, it has been shown in three depressed patients an important correlation between the characteristics of brain dynamics and the intensity of depressive mood (49). This preliminary observation is in accordance with the emergence hypothesis according which changes in neuronal dynamics should be related to changes in mental processes. We reviewed here some theoretical and experimental results related to the use of "physical" dynamical theory in the field of psychopathology. It has been argued that these applications go beyond metaphor and that they are empirically founded. Nevertheless, these studies only constitute first steps on the way of a cautious development and definition of a "dynamical paradigm" in psychopathology. The introduction of concepts from dynamics such as complexity and dynamical changes (i.e. bifurcations) permits a new perspective on function and dysfunction of the mind/brain and the time evolution of symptoms. Moreover, it offers a ground for the hypothesis of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Since this theory can help to throw light on classical problems in psychopathology, we consider that a precise examination of both its theoretical and empirical consequences is requested to define its validity on this topic.

  9. Implications of MMPI/MMPI--a findings for understanding adolescent development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Robert P

    2005-12-01

    The MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) and the MMPI-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) have been used in the evaluation of adolescents for over 60 years, resulting in over 200 studies involving tens of thousands of adolescents. This literature not only informs us concerning characteristics of this test instrument but also holds important implications for our understanding of adolescent development and psychopathology. In this article, based on an invited master lecture at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality Assessment, I present several points illustrating the relevance of MMPI and MMPI--A research in enriching our understanding of adolescence.

  10. Parsing the heterogeneity of impulsivity: A meta-analytic review of the behavioral implications of the UPPS for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Joanna M; Latzman, Robert D; Bliwise, Nancy G; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2015-12-01

    The construct of impulsivity is implicated in a wide variety of psychopathology. However, the heterogeneous factors or subcomponents that differentially predict outcomes are still in the process of being parsed. The present review and meta-analysis focuses on the psychopathological correlates of the Negative Urgency, (lack of) Premeditation, (lack of) perseverance, Sensation Seeking, and Positive Urgency (UPPS/UPPS-P; Whiteside & Lynam, 2001). which provides a relatively new model of impulsivity that posits 5 potentially overlapping pathways to impulsive action. The present meta-analysis included 115 studies that used the UPPS, with a total of 40,432 participants. Findings suggested that the Negative Urgency pathway to impulsivity demonstrated the greatest correlational effect sizes across all forms of psychopathology, with the Positive Urgency pathway demonstrating a pattern of correlations similar to that of Negative Urgency. These findings raise questions regarding the conceptual and practical separability of these pathways. Lack of Premeditation and Lack of Perseverance also demonstrated similar correlational patterns, suggesting that further investigation of the distinctiveness of these pathways is warranted.

  11. Deepening Sleep by Hypnotic Suggestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Maren J.; Schlarb, Angelika A.; Rasch, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Slow wave sleep (SWS) plays a critical role in body restoration and promotes brain plasticity; however, it markedly declines across the lifespan. Despite its importance, effective tools to increase SWS are rare. Here we tested whether a hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” extends the amount of SWS. Design: Within-subject, placebo-controlled crossover design. Setting: Sleep laboratory at the University of Zurich, Switzerland. Participants: Seventy healthy females 23.27 ± 3.17 y. Intervention: Participants listened to an auditory text with hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before napping for 90 min while high-density electroencephalography was recorded. Measurements and Results: After participants listened to the hypnotic suggestion to “sleep deeper” subsequent SWS was increased by 81% and time spent awake was reduced by 67% (with the amount of SWS or wake in the control condition set to 100%). Other sleep stages remained unaffected. Additionally, slow wave activity was significantly enhanced after hypnotic suggestions. During the hypnotic tape, parietal theta power increases predicted the hypnosis-induced extension of SWS. Additional experiments confirmed that the beneficial effect of hypnotic suggestions on SWS was specific to the hypnotic suggestion and did not occur in low suggestible participants. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnotic suggestions to specifically increase the amount and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) in a midday nap using objective measures of sleep in young, healthy, suggestible females. Hypnotic suggestions might be a successful tool with a lower risk of adverse side effects than pharmacological treatments to extend SWS also in clinical and elderly populations. Citation: Cordi MJ, Schlarb AA, Rasch B. Deepening sleep by hypnotic suggestion. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1143-1152. PMID:24882909

  12. Models of stress in nonhuman primates and their relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold S; Hamel, Amanda F

    2014-01-01

    Stressful life events have been linked to the onset of severe psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction in many patients. Moreover, vulnerability to the later development of such disorders can be increased by stress or adversity during development (e.g., childhood neglect, abuse, or trauma). This review discusses the methodological features and results of various models of stress in nonhuman primates in the context of their potential relevance for human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction, particularly mood disorders and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Such models have typically examined the effects of stress on the animals' behavior, endocrine function (primarily the HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems), and, in some cases, immune status. Manipulations such as relocation and/or removal of an animal from its current social group or, alternatively, formation of a new social group can have adverse effects on all of these outcome measures that may be either transient or more persistent depending on the species, sex, and other experimental conditions. Social primates may also experience significant stress associated with their rank in the group's dominance hierarchy. Finally, stress during prenatal development or during the early postnatal period may have long-lasting neurobiological and endocrine effects that manifest in an altered ability to cope behaviorally and physiologically with later challenges. Whereas early exposure to severe stress usually results in deficient coping abilities, certain kinds of milder stressors can promote subsequent resilience in the animal. We conclude that studies of stress in nonhuman primates can model many features of stress exposure in human populations and that such studies can play a valuable role in helping to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the role of stress in human psychopathology and endocrine dysfunction.

  13. Insight, psychopathology, explanatory models and outcome of schizophrenia in India: a prospective 5-year cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Shanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sole focus of models of insight on bio-medical perspectives to the complete exclusion of local, non-medical and cultural constructs mandates review. This study attempted to investigate the impact of insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness on outcome of first episode schizophrenia. Method Patients diagnosed to have DSM IV schizophrenia (n = 131 were assessed prospectively for insight, psychopathology, explanatory models of illness at baseline, 6, 12 and 60 months using standard instruments. Multiple linear and logistic regression and generalized estimating equations (GEE were employed to assess predictors of outcome. Results We could follow up 95 (72.5% patients. Sixty-five of these patients (68.4% achieved remission. There was a negative relationship between psychosis rating and insight scores. Urban residence, fluctuating course of the initial illness, and improvement in global functioning at 6 months and lower psychosis rating at 12 months were significantly related to remission at 5 years. Insight scores, number of non-medical explanatory models and individual explanatory models held during the later course of the illness were significantly associated with outcome. Analysis of longitudinal data using GEE showed that women, rural residence, insight scores and number of non-medical explanatory models of illness held were significantly associated with BPRS scores during the study period. Conclusions Insight, the disease model and the number of non-medical model positively correlated with improvement in psychosis arguing for a complex interaction between the culture, context and illness variables. These finding argue that insight and explanatory models are secondary to psychopathology, course and outcome of the illness. The awareness of mental illness is a narrative act in which people make personal sense of the many challenges they face. The course and outcome of the illness, cultural context

  14. Parental rearing and psychopathology in mothers of adolescents with and without borderline personality symptoms

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    Schuppert H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A combination of multiple factors, including a strong genetic predisposition and environmental factors, are considered to contribute to the developmental pathways to borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, these factors have mostly been investigated retrospectively, and hardly in adolescents. The current study focuses on maternal factors in BPD features in adolescence. Methods Actual parenting was investigated in a group of referred adolescents with BPD features (N = 101 and a healthy control group (N = 44. Self-reports of perceived concurrent parenting were completed by the adolescents. Questionnaires on parental psychopathology (both Axis I and Axis II disorders were completed by their mothers. Results Adolescents reported significantly less emotional warmth, more rejection and more overprotection from their mothers in the BPD-group than in the control group. Mothers in the BPD group reported significantly more parenting stress compared to mothers in the control group. Also, these mothers showed significantly more general psychopathology and clusters C personality traits than mothers in the control group. Contrary to expectations, mothers of adolescents with BPD features reported the same level of cluster B personality traits, compared to mothers in the control group. Hierarchical logistic regression revealed that parental rearing styles (less emotional warmth, and more overprotection and general psychopathology of the mother were the strongest factors differentiating between controls and adolescents with BPD symptoms. Conclusions Adolescents with BPD features experience less emotional warmth and more overprotection from their mothers, while the mothers themselves report more symptoms of anxiety and depression. Addition of family interventions to treatment programs for adolescents might increase the effectiveness of such early interventions, and prevent the adverse outcome that is often seen in adult BPD

  15. Association between resting energy expenditure, psychopathology and HPA-axis in eating disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Castellani, Walter; Lelli, Lorenzo; Sauro, Carolina Lo; Dini, Carla; Lazzeretti, Lisa; Bencini, Lorenza; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ricca, Valdo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the complex relationships between resting energy expenditure (REE), eating psychopathology, and Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal axis functioning in patients with eating disorders. METHODS: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey, and it was planned by the Clinic for Eating Disorders of the University of Florence (Italy). The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institution. Twenty two anorexia nervosa and twenty one Bulimia Nervosa patients were assessed by means of a clinical interview and the structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Eating attitudes and behaviour were specifically investigated by means of the eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q). Patients were also evaluated by means of the symptom checklist (SCL 90-R), REE was measured by means of indirect calorimetry, and blood cortisol morning levels were evaluated. RESULTS: Both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed a reduced REE as compared with predicted REE. Body mass index (BMI) was positively associated with resting energy expenditure in Bulimics, whereas a strong, negative association between BMI and REE was observed in Anorectics. The pattern of associations between variables supported a mediation model, where shape concern accounted for variations in REE and cortisol levels (mediator), and variations in the mediator significantly accounted for variations in REE. When these associations where taken into account together, the relationship between shape concern and REE was no longer significant, whereas the association between cortisol levels and REE retained its significance, showing strong evidence for a single, dominant mediator. Anorectics and Bulimics showed an opposite pattern of association between BMI and REE. In Anorectics only, a higher REE was associated with a more severe eating disorder specific psychopathology, and cortisol levels represent a possible

  16. The clustering of psychopathology among adults seeking treatment for alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Beyond the high prevalence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, little is known about more complex patterns of psychopathology and multimorbidity, particularly in treatment populations. We sought to identify a parsimonious set of latent classes to describe the structure of mental disorder comorbidity among adults entering outpatient addiction treatment, and explore differences in the structure and prevalence of classes across sociodemographic characteristics. Participants (N=544) completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire at treatment admission. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of clients with specific patterns of co-occurring mental disorders. The best-fitting solution identified 3 classes, characterized by no comorbidity (i.e., substance use disorders only), co-occurring major depression, and multimorbidity or a high degree of psychopathology. Older age was associated with lower probability of being in the class with co-occurring major depression, women were more likely than men to be in the multimorbid class, and being married or partnered was associated with a lower probability of being in either of the comorbid classes. These results are consistent with general population research on the patterning of psychiatric disorders, implying that while clients in addiction treatment may have extraordinarily high levels of psychopathology, the patterns of symptoms and the groups most affected are not markedly different than in other settings. By capturing the complexity of interrelationships among the many factors that are known to influence prognosis and outcomes, latent class analysis offers a useful way to examine and represent case-mix in clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between Self-Reported Psychopathology and Future Dropout in a Mexican School

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    Pablo J Chalita

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available School dropout has significant consequences for both individuals and societies. Only 21% of adults in Mexico achieve the equivalent of a high school education. We examined the relationship between school dropout and self-reported psychiatric symptoms in a middle school in a suburb of Mexico City. We used binomial logistic regression to examine the odd ratio of school dropout associated with student’s self-reported psychopathology. Two-hundred thirty seven students participated in the study. Psychosis (Odds Ratio (OR=8.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: 1.7-37.2, depression (OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.2-9.7, tic disorders (OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.4-9.5, ADHD (OR=3.2 (95%CI:1.5-6.4, and social phobia (OR=2.6 (95%CI: 1.2-5.8 were associated with increased risk of school dropout after controlling for age and gender as covariates. Our study suggested that students’ self-reported psychopathology is associated with increased school dropout in Mexico.

  18. Gambling Disorder Due to Brazilian Animal Game ("Jogo do bicho"): Gambling Behavior and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo; Grant, Jon; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-03-01

    Gambling is currently widespread across the globe and despite legally restricted, it is significantly common in Brazil. A traditional and common form of gambling in Brazil is the Brazilian animal game (BAG)--"Jogo do bicho" in Portuguese. In 2013, BAG activities collected approximately 19 billion Brazilian reais--equivalent to more than 8 billon American dollars, a figure almost 60 % higher than legal lotteries. Although a common form of gambling, the gambling behavior and psychopathology of gambling disorder (GD) associated with BAG has never been systematically studied. The aim of this study is to conduct, the first research approaching GD due to BAG. We assessed 897 participants of whom 63 subjects (7.0 %) presented with GD due to BAG and 834 with GD associated with other forms of gambling. After comparing these two groups, major differences were found in demographics, gambling behavior elements and psychopathological variables. This research reinforces the need for further research on BAG and the need for specific approaches in GD. The particularities of BAG may affect treatment strategies as, for example, suggest some adaptations in social and psychotherapeutic approaches. We also highlight the need to acknowledge the "hidden" BAG as a potential addictive game.

  19. Personality and psychopathology in Flemish referred children: five perspectives of continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Clercq, Barbara; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Decuyper, Mieke; Rosseel, Yves; De Fruyt, Filip

    2009-06-01

    The present study investigates five types of continuity of personality and internalizing and externalizing problems (i.e., structural, differential, mean-level, individual-level and ipsative continuity) in a sample of referred children and adolescents (N = 114) with a broad variety of psychological problems. Mothers were administered a child personality and psychopathology measure, i.e., the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children [Handleiding hiërarchische persoonlijkheidsvragenlijst voor kinderen (manual hierarchical personality inventory for children). Ghent University, Department of Developmental, Personality, and Social Psychology, Ghent, 2005] and the Child Behavior Checklist [Handleiding voor de cbcl/4-18: (Manual of the CBCL/4-18), Afdeling Kinder- en Jeugdpsychiatrie. Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 1996] at two measurement occasions, with a 26-months interval. Personality was substantially stable, paralleling findings for non-referred peers. Internalizing and Externalizing Problem Behavior were almost as stable as personality traits, suggesting that childhood psychopathology is more persistent than generally assumed. Strengths and limitations of the present study and implications for further research are discussed.

  20. How low is low? Low self-esteem as an indicator of internalizing psychopathology in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomaa, Rasmus; Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Marttunen, Mauri

    2013-08-01

    Schools are among the most important setting for preventive interventions among adolescents. There are evidence-based intervention programs for adolescents at risk for and with early signs of mental health problems but one demanding task is to detect the ones who are in need of an intervention. The aim of the present study was to analyze associations between self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety in order to determine clinically relevant cut-points for male and female adolescents' self-esteem as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The participants of the present prospective study, started in 2002-2003, were 2070 adolescents aged 15 years (1,167 girls and 903 boys) at two study sites in Finland who participated at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Self-esteem was related to depressive symptoms and social anxiety, and the RSES was able to discriminate between cases of depression and social phobia. The present study suggests a cutoff of 25 points to classify low self-esteem in both girls and boys. Low self-esteem may function as an indicator of various forms of internalizing psychopathology. The RSES is worth further examination as a potential screening tool for adolescents in risk of psychopathology.

  1. Positive Emotion Regulation and Psychopathology: A Transdiagnostic Cultural Neuroscience Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechtman, Lisa A.; Raila, Hannah; Chiao, Joan Y.; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. Given the significant public health costs and the tremendous variance in national prevalence rates associated with many disorders of positive emotion, it is critical to reach an understanding of how cultural factors, along with biological factors, mutually influence positive emotion regulation. Progress in this domain has been relatively unexplored, however, underscoring the need for an integrative review and empirical roadmap for investigating the cultural neuroscientific contributions to positive emotion disturbance for both affective and clinical science domains. The present paper thus provides a multidisciplinary, cultural neuroscience approach to better understand positive emotion regulation and psychopathology. We conclude with a future roadmap for researchers aimed at harnessing positive emotion and alleviating the burden of mental illness cross-culturally. PMID:24812583

  2. THE INTERNET ADDICTION OF PATIENTS WITH PSYCHOPATHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OFCRANIOCEREBRAL INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Voloshyna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Kharkov Regional Clinical Psychiatric Hospital № 3 examined 100 male patients aged 38,35±0,96 years, with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral injury (TBI. The control group consisted of 73 healthy male volunteers aged 36,97±1,73 years. The frequency of different degrees of Internet use was assessed by using AUDIT-like test INTERNET-UDIT (Internet Use Disorders Identification Test and calculation of addictive potential in groups. In patients with psychopathological consequences of craniocerebral trauma, despite the high prevalence of lack of experience “usage” of the Internet, high degrees of addiction and dependence were reported. The addictive potential of the Internet addiction in the study group exceeded 32% of that of the control group.

  3. The sensitivity theory of motivation: implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, S; Havercamp, S

    1996-08-01

    Sensitivity theory holds that people differ in both the types of reinforcement they desire and in the amounts of reinforcement they need to satiate. People who crave too much love, too much attention, too much acceptance, too much companionship, or too much of some other fundamental reinforcer are at risk for aberrant behavior because normative behavior does not produce the desired amounts of reinforcement. People who are intolerant of even everyday amounts of anxiety or frustration also are at risk for aberrant behavior. Individual differences in desired amounts of particular reinforcers may predict person-environment interactions, risk factors for psychopathology, and the occurrence of generalized and durable therapy effects versus the occurrence of relapses. Parallel predictions are made for individual differences in tolerance of aversive stimuli. Implications are discussed for applied behavior analysis, the development of psychopathology, and treatment strategies.

  4. Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.

  5. Assessment of Distress Associated to Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents

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    Wendy Reich

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the distress associated to psychopathology in children and adolescents. The sample included 330 children aged 8 to 17 years attending outpatient mental health services of the public network in Barcelona(Spain assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. A substantial part of children brought to treatment suffered distress associated to internalizing and externalizing psychological symptoms. Psychological distress was most frequent among girls and among adolescents, and was more frequently reported by children and adolescents than by their parents. It was also a marker of perception of need of psychological help, and it was significantly related to diagnosis, subthreshold conditions and functional impairment. Individual symptoms of depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder and oppositional defiant disorder were most associated with psychological distress. Given the potential importance of subjective distress as well as impairment for the identification and definition of psychopathology and planning of treatment, diagnostic assessment should include questions related to distress.

  6. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents

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    Andreas Witt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., [1].

  7. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett; Kim, Young Shin; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them. PMID:24719154

  8. Contributions of psychodynamic approaches to treatment of PTSD and trauma: a review of the empirical treatment and psychopathology literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenbauer, Michele A; Glass, Carol R; Arnkoff, Diane B; Gray, Sheila Hafter

    2008-01-01

    Reviews of currently empirically supported treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show that despite their efficacy for many patients, these treatments have high nonresponse and dropout rates. This article develops arguments for the value of psychodynamic approaches for PTSD, based on a review of the empirical psychopathology and treatment literature. Psychodynamic approaches may help address crucial areas in the clinical presentation of PTSD and the sequelae of trauma that are not targeted by currently empirically supported treatments. They may be particularly helpful when treating complex PTSD. Empirical and clinical evidence suggests that psychodynamic approaches may result in improved self-esteem, increased ability to resolve reactions to trauma through improved reflective functioning, increased reliance on mature defenses with concomitant decreased reliance on immature defenses, the internalization of more secure working models of relationships, and improved social functioning. Additionally, psychodynamic psychotherapy tends to result in continued improvement after treatment ends. Additional empirical studies of psychodynamic psychotherapy for PTSD are needed, including randomized controlled outcome studies.

  9. Cyberbullying, Problematic Internet Use, and Psychopathologic Symptoms among Korean Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Young-Eun; Leventhal, Bennett,; Kim, Young Shin; Park, Tae Won; Lee, Sheen-Hoo; Lee, Myeongmi; Park, Seon Hee; Yang, Jong-Chul; Chung, Young-Chul; Chung, Sang-Keun; Park, Jong-Il

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators...

  10. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (χ(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings.

  11. School failure in early adolescence: the psychopathological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, G; Brovedani, P; Poli, P

    1998-01-01

    School difficulties and learning disorders in adolescence can become significant risk factors for psychopathology. This study investigates emotional and cognitive patterns in adolescents with school difficulties. Four clinical conditions that can determine adolescence-onset learning disorders are outlined. These are adolescent turmoil, intellectual inhibition, delay in reasoning development, and metacognitive dysfunctioning. Cognitive, emotional and behavioral features of these conditions are discussed in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  12. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  13. The Relationship Between Psychopathology and a Hierarchical Model of Normal Personality Traits: Evidence From a Psychiatric Patient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliaszek, Amanda A; Al-Dajani, Nadia; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-12-01

    Shifts in the conceptualization of psychopathology have favored a dimensional approach, with the five-factor model (FFM) playing a prominent role in this research. However, reservations about the utility of the FFM in differentiating disorders have risen. In the current investigation, a "bottom-up" analytical method was used to ascertain the hierarchical structure of personality, with investigation of the specificity of the traits in categorizing diagnostic categories across an expanded array of psychiatric disorders. Following earlier investigations, which used a hierarchical structural approach, this study presents new results relating to the differentiation of several forms of psychopathology not included in these earlier analyses--bipolar disorder, psychotic disorders, problem gambling, posttraumatic stress disorder, and somatoform disorders--across distinct levels of a personality hierarchy based on the FFM. These results bolster the argument for the use of FFM personality traits in characterizing and differentiating psychiatric diagnostic groups.

  14. Comparison of Psychopathological Symptoms in Adolescents Who Experienced Sexual Violence as a Victim and/or as a Perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc

    2017-03-28

    Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.

  15. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.

    2016-09-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 12 November 2014. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ') equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ' performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91% range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependencies. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ' derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ' below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ' obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ' than organic materials.

  16. A porosity gradient in 67P/C-G nucleus suggested from CONSERT and SESAME-PP results: an interpretation based on new laboratory permittivity measurements of porous icy analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Y.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Sabouroux, P.; Neves, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Thomas, N.; Kofman, W.; Le Gall, A.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Lethuillier, A.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.

    2016-11-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft made a rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) in 2014 August, soon after the Philae module landed on the small lobe of the nucleus on 2014 November 12. The CONSERT instrument, onboard Rosetta and Philae, sounded the upper part of the interior of 67P with radiowaves at 90 MHz and determined an average of the real part of the permittivity (hereafter ɛ΄) equal to about 1.27. The SESAME-PP instrument, onboard Philae, sounded the near-surface of the small lobe in the 400-800 Hz range and determined a lower limit of ɛ΄ equal to 2.45. We use a semi-empirical formula obtained from measurements of ɛ΄ performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice and ice-basaltic dust mixtures, with a controlled porosity in the 31-91 per cent range and a dust-to-ice volumetric ratio in the 0.1-2.8 range, to interpret the results of the two instruments, taking into account the temperature and frequency dependences. A graphical method is proposed to derive ranges of porosity and dust-mass fraction from a value of ɛ΄ derived from observations. The non-dispersive behaviour of ɛ΄ below 175 K, allows us to compare the values of ɛ΄ obtained by CONSERT and SESAME-PP. We show that the porosity of the small lobe of 67P increases with depth. Based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter, the so-called tholins, we also suggest that, for the dust component in the cometary material, the presence of silicates has more effect on ɛ΄ than organic materials.

  17. Suicidality, psychopathology, and the internet: Online time vs. online behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Starcevic, Vladan; Ma, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated whether several psychopathology variables, including suicidality, could predict the time people spend using the internet (hours online). Next, we examined a specific at-risk population (suicidal individuals) by their online behaviors, comparing suicidal individuals who went online for suicide-related purposes with suicidal individuals who did not go online for suicide-related purposes. An anonymous online sample of 713 (aged 18-71) reported hours online, psychiatric histories, and completed several standardized scales. After accounting for age and education, hierarchical regression modeling showed that the assessed psychopathology variables, including suicidality, did not explain significant variance in hours online. Hours online were better predicted by younger age, greater willingness to develop online relationships, higher perceived social support, higher curiosity, and lower extraversion. Suicidal participants, who did or did not go online for suicide-related purposes, did not differ on hours online. Multiple regression modeling showed that those who went online for suicide-related purposes were likely to be younger, more suicidal, and more willing to seek help from online mental health professionals. These findings revealed that hours online are not a valid indicator of psychopathology. However, studying online behaviors of specific at-risk groups could be informative and useful, including for suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Developmental psychopathology: a paradigm shift or just a relabeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Developmental psychopathology is described as a conceptual approach that involves a set of research methods that capitalize on developmental and psychopathological variations to ask questions about mechanisms and processes. Achievements are described in relation to attachment and attachment disorders, autism, schizophrenia, childhood antecedents of adult psychopathology, testing for environmental mediation of risk effects, gene-environment interplay, intellectual and language functioning, effects of mentally ill parents on the children, stress and vulnerability to depression, ethnicity and schizophrenia, and drug response. Continuities and discontinuities over the course of development are discussed in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, antisocial behavior, eating disorders, substance abuse and dependency, pharmacological and behavioral addictions, and a range of other disorders. Research challenges are considered in relation to spectrum concepts, the adolescent development of a female preponderance for depression, the mechanisms involved in age differences in response to drugs and to lateralized brain injury, the processing of experiences, the biological embedding of experiences, individual differences in response to environmental hazards, nature-nurture integration, and brain plasticity.

  19. [Psychopathology in families: an integral approach via the family outpatient clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, S C; Batelaan, N M; Wesseldijk, L W; Rozeboom, J; Middeldorp, C M

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders run in families. To bridge the gap between child and youth psychiatry and adult psychiatry, GGZ inGeest has started screening parents of new registered children for psychopathology - and if indicated - offers parents treatment in the same department as their children. To examine the feasibility and usefulness of this procedure, to investigate how many parents agree to screening, further diagnostics and treatment, and to find out how many parents have in fact suffered from recent psychiatric problems. Prior to the children's first appointment, the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, the Adult Self Report (ASR), about their own problems. If these scores were (sub)clinical, parents were invited to participate in a telephonic interview. This consisted of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). If the results indicate psychopathology, further psychiatric assessment and, if necessary, treatment is offered. The first response was 55.7% and, if indicated, most of the parents agreed on further diagnostics. On the ASR 2 out of 5 mothers (42.1%) and 1 out of 5 fathers (21.8%) reported problems that could point to a psychiatric disorder. According to the ASR, within this high-risk group 37% of the mothers met the criteria for an axis I diagnosis (less than one month earlier) compared to 70.6% of the fathers. A mood disorder was the primary diagnosis for women, whereas men most often suffered from an anxiety disorder. In total, 19.1% of the parents screened were suffering from recent psychopathology and 75% of this group agreed to receive mental health care (treatment at the family outpatient clinic or referred to another clinic). Implementation of the family outpatient clinic scheme is feasible. However, further efforts are needed in order to reach a larger group of parents, particularly fathers. The family outpatient clinic is useful because parents who suffer from psychopathology

  20. An interpretation of the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results based on new permittivity measurements of porous water ice and ice-basaltic/organic dust mixtures suggests an increase of porosity with depth in 67P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouet, Yann; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Sabouroux, Pierre; Neves, Luisa; Encrenaz, Pierre; Poch, Olivier; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas; Kofman, Wlodek; Le Gall, Alice; Ciarletti, Valérie; Hérique, Alain; Lethuillier, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    The CONSERT bistatic radar on Rosetta and Philae sounded the interior of the small lobe of 67P/C-G at 90 MHz and determined the average of the real part of the complex permittivity (hereafter ɛ') to be equal to 1.27±0.05 [1,2]. The permittivity probe (PP) of the SESAME package sounded the near-surface in the 400-800 Hz range and derived a lower limit of ɛ' equal to 2.45±0.20 [3,4]. At the time of the measurements, the temperature was found to be below 150 K at Philae's location and expected to be close or below 100 K inside the nucleus [4-6].The complex permittivity depends of the frequency, the composition, the porosity and the temperature of the material [7,8,9]. These parameters have to be taken into account to interpret the permittivity values. The non-dispersive behavior of ɛ' below 150 K [9], allows us to compare the CONSERT and SESAME-PP results and to interpret their difference in terms of porosity and/or composition. For this purpose we use a semi-empirical formula obtained from reproducible permittivity measurements performed in the laboratory at 243 K on water ice particles and ice-basaltic dust mixtures [10], with a controlled porosity in the 26-91% range and dust-to-ice volumetric ratios in the 0.1-2.8 range. The influence of the presence of organic materials on ɛ' is also discussed based on new measurements of analogues of complex extraterrestrial organic matter [11]. Our results suggest an increase of the porosity of the small lobe of 67P with depth [11], in agreement Lethuillier et al. [4]'s conclusion using a different method.[1]Kofman et al., 1998. Adv. Space Res., 21, 1589.[2]Ciarletti et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A40.[3]Seidensticker et al., 2007. Space Sci. Rev., 128, 301.[4]Lethuillier et al., 2016. A&A, 591, A32.[5]Spohn et al., 2015. Science, 349, aab0464.[6]Festou et al. (Eds.), Comets II. Univ. of Arizona Press.[7]Campbell and Ulrichs, 1969. J. Geophys. Res., 74, 5867.[8]Brouet et al., 2015. A&A, 583, A39.[9]Mattei et al., 2014. Icarus

  1. [Addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of women in prison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrá Lanza, Patricia; González Menéndez, Ana; Fernández García, Paula; Casares, Ma José; Martín Martín, José Luis; Rodríguez Lamelas, Filomena

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the addictive, criminal and psychopathological profile of a sample of 59 women incarcerated in the Villabona prison in Asturias (a region in northern Spain). The instruments administered were the EuropASI, the SCL-90-R and a semi-structured interview. Results showed that the profile is a young, single women with family dependents serving an average of 5 years' imprisonment. Of the total sample, 64.4% met criteria for a substance abuse disorder. We found a statistically significant relationship between the variables use-nonuse and type of crime: women who used substances had committed the most crimes against property and against the socioeconomic order. As regards psychopathology, 44.06% of the sample fulfilled the requirements for clinical case according to Derogatis' (1994) criteria. The results of the SCL-90-R showed that the predominant psychological disorders were, in the following order, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder and paranoid ideation. Moreover, in the group of female users, 47.4% had dual pathology. Our results revealed a statistically significant relationship between clinical case and substance use. Finally, statistically significant differences were found between the user and nonuser groups in the EuropASI severity profile. Highest scores were found for the medical, psychiatric and family areas in the user group.

  2. Understanding Youth Antisocial Behavior Using Neuroscience through a Developmental Psychopathology Lens: Review, Integration, and Directions for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Luke W; Shaw, Daniel S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-09-01

    Youth antisocial behavior (AB) is an important public health concern impacting perpetrators, victims, and society. Functional neuroimaging is becoming a more common and useful modality for understanding neural correlates of youth AB. Although there has been a recent increase in neuroimaging studies of youth AB and corresponding theoretical articles on the neurobiology of AB, there has been little work critically examining the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies and using this knowledge to inform the design of future studies. Additionally, research on neuroimaging and youth AB has not been integrated within the broader framework of developmental psychopathology. Thus, this paper provides an in-depth review of the youth AB functional neuroimaging literature with the following goals: 1. to evaluate how this literature has informed our understanding of youth AB, 2. to evaluate current neuroimaging studies of youth AB from a developmental psychopathology perspective with a focus on integrating research from neuroscience and developmental psychopathology, as well as placing this research in the context of other related areas (e.g., psychopathy, molecular genetics), and 3. to examine strengths and weaknesses of neuroimaging and behavioral studies of youth AB to suggest how future studies can develop a more informed and integrated understanding of youth AB.

  3. Self-reported psychopathology and health-related quality of life in heroin users treated with methadone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ying-Zai Chen,1 Wei-Lieh Huang,1,2,5 Jia-Chi Shan,4,5 Yu-Hsuan Lin,1–3,5 Hung-Chieh Wu Chang,1 Li-Ren Chang1,61Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Yun-Lin Branch, 2Institute of Brain Science, National Yang-Ming University, 3Sleep Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Psychiatry, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, 5Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, 6Department of Psychiatry, Medical College, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL remains poor among heroin users, even after being treated with methadone. Evidence regarding self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in heroin users is also limited. The present study aimed to investigate the association between self-reported psychopathology and HRQoL in Asian heroin users treated with methadone.Methods: Thirty-nine heroin users treated with methadone and 39 healthy controls were recruited. Both groups self-reported on demographic data, the Brief Symptom Rating Scale, EuroQoL-5D, and World Health Organization Questionnaire on Quality of Life: Short Form. We compared clinical characteristics, psychopathology, and HRQoL between the two study groups. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between psychopathology and HRQoL in the heroin user group.Results: Heroin users had more psychopathology and worse HRQoL than healthy controls. The HRQoL of heroin users had significant correlations with Brief Symptom Rating Scale scores. HRQoL could be predicted by depression, anxiety, paranoia, and additional symptoms (ie, poor appetite and sleep difficulties independently.Conclusion: Self-reported psychopathology, depression, anxiety, paranoia, poor appetite, and sleep difficulties had a negative impact on each domain of HRQoL among heroin users treated with methadone. The importance of the environmental domain of HRQoL is discussed. Clinicians

  4. Psychopathology predicts the outcome of medial branch blocks with corticosteroid for chronic axial low back or cervical pain: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipirneni Naveen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid psychopathology is an important predictor of poor outcome for many types of treatments for back or neck pain. But it is unknown if this applies to the results of medial branch blocks (MBBs for chronic low back or neck pain, which involves injecting the medial branch of the dorsal ramus nerves that innervate the facet joints. The objective of this study was to determine whether high levels of psychopathology are predictive of pain relief after MBB injections in the lumbar or cervical spine. Methods This was a prospective cohort study. Consecutive patients in a pain medicine practice undergoing MBBs of the lumbar or cervical facets with corticosteroids were recruited to participate. Subjects were selected for a MBB based on operationalized selection criteria and the procedure was performed in a standardized manner. Subjects completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS just prior to the procedure and at one-month follow up. Scores on the HADS classified the subjects into three groups based on psychiatric symptoms, which formed the primary predictor variable: Low, Moderate, or High levels of psychopathology. The primary outcome measure was the percent improvement in average daily pain rating one-month following an injection. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to analyze the analgesia and functional rating differences between groups, and to perform a responder analysis. Results Eighty six (86 subjects completed the study. The Low psychopathology group (n = 37 reported a mean of 23% improvement in pain at one-month while the High psychopathology group (n = 29 reported a mean worsening of -5.8% in pain (p Low group had at least 30% improvement in pain versus 10% in the High group (p Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with diminished pain relief after a MBB injection performed with steroid at one-month follow-up. These findings illustrate the importance

  5. Obsessive musical hallucinations in a schizophrenia patient: psychopathological and FMRI characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Hendler, Talma; Pashinian, Artashes; Faragian, Sarit; Poyurovsky, Michael

    2011-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) are relatively common and clinically significant phenomena in schizophrenia patients, suggesting the existence of a separate schizo-obsessive subgroup of the disorder. Although a majority of schizo-obsessive patients have typical ego-dystonic OCS, a meaningful proportion exhibits diagnostically challenging psychopathological phenomena, psychotic in content and obsessive in form. We report the clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of a schizophrenia patient who developed auditory hallucinations with musical content and obsessive in form. We suggest that "obsessive musical hallucinations", that integrate both psychotic and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-related features, may be mediated by the brain networks believed to be involved in OCD and in auditory musical hallucinations.

  6. Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maren; Leahy, Robert L; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated whether self-compassion and emotional invalidation (perceiving others as indifferent to one's emotions) may explain the relationship of childhood exposure to adverse parenting and adult psychopathology in psychiatric outpatients (N=326). Path analysis was used to investigate associations between exposure to adverse parenting (abuse and indifference), self-compassion, emotional invalidation, and mental health when controlling for gender and age. Self-compassion was strongly inversely associated with emotional invalidation, suggesting that a schema that others will be unsympathetic or indifferent toward one's emotions may affect self-compassion and vice versa. Both self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediated the relationship between parental indifference and mental health outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest the potential utility of self-compassion and emotional schemas as transdiagnostic treatment targets.

  7. The technique of «Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Danilevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available [Pseudo]obsessions therapy in patients with endogenous diseases of schizophrenic round accompanied with difficulties, caused by both psycho etio pathogenetic features of the disease. Disadvantages of the existing methods of therapy are associated with therapeutic conflict between two nosologies. Aim: to develop and test etiopsychopathogenetic technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" as a subsidiary method of treatment of schizophrenia patients with [pseudo] obsessions in the structure of the disease. Methods and results. 137 patients who underwent hospital treatment 65 schizophrenia patients (F20 with the [pseudo]obsessive symptoms in the structure of the disease were examined on the basis of Public Health Institution «Regional clinical mental hospital» of the Zaporizhzhian regional council. 30 patients received standard pharmacotherapy (antipsychotic drugs according to clinical protocols that was combined with proposed technique "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions". The comparison group consisted of 35 patients treated with the use of standard pharmacotherapy: antipsychotic drugs. The next methods were used: medical history assessment, follow-up, clinical-psychopathological, psychodiagnostic. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed. This technique is a combination of suggestion in the waking state and neurolinguistic programming, implemented with specially compiled auditory complex listening. The main therapeutic component s realized through the subthreshold perception of the verbal formulas that are unavailable to awareness. The technique consists of two components – primary and secondary, and three stages. The methodology was tested, its therapeutic efficacy was confirmed. Conclusion. "Subliminal verbal suggestion for the treatment of [pseudo]obsessions" technique was developed as a subsidiary method of the

  8. [Psychopathologic characteristics of conditions simulating spinal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    Combined investigation of 27 patients with unclear pathological states in a vertebral pathology unit yielded a description of a type of concealed mental pathology. A complex of three major determinants of the patients' state was detected: pathological hypochondric notions of delirious or hallucinatory type, psychosensory and psychomotor disorders. The latter were prevalent in clinical picture suggesting the vertebral pathology and thus leading to misdiagnosis of vertebral disorders.

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome: The incidence of concurrent psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to improve understanding of the association between physiology and psychology in Functional Gastrointestinal disorders by considering the co-morbidity of lrritable Bowel Syndrome and psychopathology in a sector of the South African population. A comparison was made between the incidence of concurrent psychopathology in a sample of 48 white female patients, aged 25 to 55 years and diagnosed with lrritable Bowel Syndrome and the incidence of psychopathology in a control group that consisted of 39 white women, aged 25 to 55 years, who did not meet the criteria for lrritable Bowel Syndrome.

    The Personality Assessment Inventory was used to determine the incidence of psychopathological personality traits and symptoms in the lrritable Bowel Syndrome group and the control group. This is a selfadministered, objective measuring instrument of adult personality that was developed to provide information about 18 critical clinical variables. The instrument was developed and standardised for use in the clinical assessment of individuals aged 18 years and older. Earlier studies showed a high incidence of associated psychiatric disorder in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome. This study confirmed this trend and it seems as if age and level of education has no influence on the incidence of psychopathology in patients with lrritable Bowel Syndrome.

    Opsomming
    Dit was die doel van die studie om 'n verbeterde begrip van die assosiasie tussen fisiologie en sielkunde in Funksionele Maagderm Versteurings te bewerkstellig deur die komorbiditeit van Prikkelbare Dermsindroom en psigopatalogie binne 'n sektor van die Suid Afrikaanse populasie te oorweeg. 'n Vergelyking is getref tussen die voorkoms van konkurrente psigopatalogie in 'n steekproef van 48 wit, vroulike pasiente wat wissel in ouderdomme van 25 tot 55 jaar en gediagnoseer is met Prikkelbare Dermsindroom, en die voorkoms van psigopatalogie in 'n kontrolegroep wat bestaan het

  10. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  11. Psicopatologia, exotismo e diversidade: ensaio de antropologia da psicopatologia Psychopathology, exoticism and diversity: some remarks on the anthropology of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Holanda

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto se propõe a uma reflexão em torno de uma perspectiva antropológica da questão da psicopatologia. Partindo da análise antropológica de Tzvetan Todorov, perpassa o ensaio histórico de Theodore Zeldin, alcançando a crítica de Thomas Szasz e a abordagem histórico-antropológica de Michel Foucault, na tentativa de clarear a compreensão do fenômeno psicopatológico. Nesta perspectiva crítico-histórica, a psicopatologia é vista como um fenômeno contextualizado, inserido na construção das mentalidades específicas da cultura ocidental.The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon an anthropological approach of psychopathology. It intends to throw some light upon the phenomenon of the "psychopathologic". It begins with some remarks on the anthropological concept of Tzevan Todorov. It also analyses Theodore Zeldin’s historical essay, Thomas Szasz’s critical reflections and Michel Foucault’s historic-anthropological approach. In this historical perspective, "Psychopathology" is conceived as a rather contextualized phenomenon, part of the specific mentalities constructed by the Western culture.

  12. Temporal stability of network centrality in control and default mode networks: Specific associations with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology.

  13. Characteristics of psychopathology and the relationship between routes of drug administration and psychiatric symptoms in heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Liang; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics of comorbid psychiatric symptoms and the relationship between different routes of drug administration and psychiatric symptoms. Five hundred and nine heroin addicts were studied in Drug Detoxification and Rehabilitation Centers in Yunnan and Heilongjiang provinces of China. The measure instrument, including demographic characteristics, history of drug abuse, and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) scale (Chinese version), was administered to eligible heroin addicts. Among the subjects, comorbid psychopathology conditions were more severe on all dimensions of SCL-90 comparing with normal adults and the average score of Depression was highest among the 9 dimensions in heroin addicts; psychiatric symptoms were more severe in heroin injecting group than in "chasing the dragon" group and only the difference in Obsessive-Compulsive was significant, but more significant differences were found between snorting heroin addicts and chasing or injecting heroin addicts, and the average score of each dimension of SCL-90 was higher in the snorting group than in the other 2 groups. The reasons of the results and meaning for the present study are discussed. In summary, comorbid psychiatric symptoms in the heroin addicts were very common and severe and their severity varied with different routes of drug administration, suggesting that routes of drug administration should be considered as an important risk factor to mental health of heroin addicts.

  14. The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among methadone maintenance treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potik, David; Peles, Einat; Abramsohn, Yahli; Adelson, Miriam; Schreiber, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between vulnerable attachment style, psychopathology, drug abuse, and retention in treatment among patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was examined by the Vulnerable Attachment Style Questionnaire (VASQ), the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), and drug abuse urine tests. After six years, retention in treatment and repeated urine test results were studied. Patients with vulnerable attachment style (a high VASQ score) had higher rates of drug abuse and higher psychopathology levels compared to patients with secure attachment style, especially on the interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation scales. Drug abstinence at baseline was related to retention in treatment and to higher rates of drug abstinence after six years in MMT, whereas a vulnerable attachment style could not predict drug abstinence and retention in treatment. Clinical Implications concerning treatment of drug abusing populations and methodological issues concerning the VASQ's subscales are also discussed.

  15. Non-suicidal self-injury and suicidal ideation in relation to eating and general psychopathology among college-age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichen, Dawn M; Kass, Andrea E; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Gibbs, Elise; Trockel, Mickey; Barr Taylor, C; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-01-30

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal ideation are potent risk factors for suicide and are associated with general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology. Limited research has examined the effects of combined NSSI+suicidal ideation thus concurrent examination is needed to understand potential differential effects on psychopathology. College-aged women (N=508) completed self-report measures of NSSI, suicidal ideation, general psychopathology, and Eating Disorder-specific psychopathology. MANOVAs determined whether the NSSI/SI status groups differed on general and eating disorder pathology measures as a set. Significant MANOVAs were followed up with univariate ANOVAs and posthoc tests. Thirteen women endorsed NSSI+Suicidal Ideation, 70 endorsed NSSI-only, 25 endorsed Suicidal Ideation-only, and 400 endorsed no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. Both general and eating disorder-specific psychopathology differed across groups. NSSI+Suicidal Ideation and Suicidal Ideation-only groups typically endorsed higher general psychopathology than the no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only groups. Regarding eating disorder pathology, the NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was more pathological than no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation and NSSI-only, except on the weight concerns scale, where NSSI+Suicidal Ideation only differed from no NSSI/Suicidal Ideation. The NSSI+Suicidal Ideation group was only greater than Suicidal Ideation-only on measures of depression and eating concern. Results highlight the importance of screening for both NSSI and suicidal ideation, especially for individuals with eating disorder symptoms. Likewise, screening for eating disorder pathology may be beneficial for individuals presenting with NSSI and suicidal ideation.

  16. Unintentional role models : links between maternal eating psychopathology and the modelling of eating behaviours\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between maternal modelling of eating behaviours with reported symptoms of maternal eating psychopathology, anxiety and depression. Mothers (N = 264) with a child aged 1.5 to 8 years completed three self-report measures designed to assess modelling of eating behaviours, eating psychopathology and levels of anxiety and depression. The study found that higher levels of maternal eating psychopathology were positively associated with eating behaviours that wer...

  17. Relationship between parenting styles, psychopathological intensity and type of symptoms in a adolescents clinical sample

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jose Miguel Antón San Martín; David Seguí-Durán; Laura Antón-Torre

    2016-01-01

      An investigation was conducted to analyze the relationship between perceived parenting styles, presented intensity psychopathology and externalizing-internalizing dimensions in a clinical sample of...

  18. Conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology: overlap, developmental patterns, and etiology of two related constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brent W; Jackson, Joshua J; Berger, Jessica M; Burger, Jessica; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the trait domain of conscientiousness, its development, and its relation to psychopathology. The definition of conscientiousness and its interface with specific forms of psychopathology, such as externalizing psychopathology, are discussed first. Then an overview of the known developmental changes in conscientiousness across the life course is provided, as well as the potential shared developmental etiology of conscientiousness and externalizing psychopathology. Given the lack of data, testing etiological factors that may contribute to the development of both conscientiousness and externalizing disorders, we report on three studies examining the childhood experiences associated with both conscientiousness and externalizing behaviors. Last, future directions are discussed.

  19. Testing the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease Hypothesis for Psychopathology Using Family-Based Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Class, Quetzal A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Larsson, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis is a broad theoretical framework that emphasizes how early risk factors have a causal influence on psychopathology. Researchers have raised concerns about the causal interpretation of statistical associations between early risk factors and later psychopathology because most existing studies have been unable to rule out the possibility of environmental and genetic confounding. In this paper we illustrate how family-based quasi-experimental designs can test the DOHaD hypothesis by ruling out alternative hypotheses. We review the logic underlying sibling-comparison, co-twin control, offspring of siblings/twins, adoption, and in vitro fertilization designs. We then present results from studies using these designs focused on broad indices of fetal development (low birth weight and gestational age) and a particular teratogen, smoking during pregnancy. The results provide mixed support for the DOHaD hypothesis for psychopathology, illustrating the critical need to use design features that rule out unmeasured confounding. PMID:25364377

  20. [Relational models and psychopathology of epileptics in a group-psychotherapy perspective (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergonzi, P; Ferro, F M; Mazza, S; Zolo, P

    1976-01-01

    Epileptic patients show a large range of psychopathologic manifestations, both from a qualitative point of view (even with an exact reference to the nature and the site of lesion) and from a quantitative point of view (from the so-called characterial attitude to the psychotic developments). Perhaps all these alterations of psychiatric interest have a common denominator because, after all, they arise from the sum of two essential moments: the experience of the critical event on the one hand, and the interactive network between the patient and those who are present to his critical manifestations on the other. In particular this complex relational psychopathology needs several therapeutic interventions which are to be complementary and concordant so that they may give satisfactory results of psychosocial reinsertion. We think that the model of intervention to be preferred for its effectiveness is that drawn from group-psychotherapy tecniques: the model in which "psychoanalysis meets sociology (Foulkes) seems to be particularly specific to this problem because it concerns the microsocial and investigates (and, by means of the conduction, it resolves) distorted ways of communication and conflictual dynamic interactions. We followed some epileptics in the group-community of the neurological department of a general hospital (of course with other mental, not epileptic, patients). These preliminary studies lead us to point out the theoretical reasons and the practical justifications of such possible management of the psychological manifestations of epileptic patients.