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Sample records for psychopathic personality inventory

  1. Effects of positive impression management on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory.

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    Edens, J F; Buffington, J K; Tomicic, T L; Riley, B D

    2001-06-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; S. O. Lilienfeld & B. P. Andrews, 1996) is a self-report test that has shown considerable promise as a screening measure for psychopathy. A current limitation of the PPI is that no data exist regarding the impact of response sets such as positive impression management. Although the PPI contains a validity scale (Unlikely Virtues) designed to identify response biases such as "faking good," its utility has not yet been assessed. In this study a repeated measures analogue design was employed in which 186 respondents completed the PPI both under standard conditions and with specific instructions to create a favorable impression of themselves. In the "fake good" condition, participants were able to appear significantly less psychopathic, with those who obtained higher scores in the standard instruction condition showing the largest decreases in their PPI scores. Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses indicated that, although the Unlikely Virtues scale significantly differentiated between "fake good" and honest protocols (area under the curve = .73), a considerable number of misclassifications occurred. The clinical and forensic implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Concurrent Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory with Offender and Community Samples

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    Malterer, Melanie B.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Neumann, Craig S.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) is a frequently used and well-validated measure of psychopathy but is relatively time-intensive and expensive to administer. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) is a self-report measure that provides a less time-intensive and less expensive method for identifying psychopathic individuals. Using…

  3. Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Two-Factor Model with Offenders

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    Patrick, Christopher J.; Edens, John F.; Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Benning, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Much of the research on psychopathy has treated it as a unitary construct operationalized by total scores on one (or more) measures. More recent studies on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) suggest the existence of two distinct facets of psychopathy with unique external correlates. Here, the authors report reanalyses of two offender…

  4. A Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory Full-Length and Short-Form Versions

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    Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…

  5. Factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Criterion-Related Validity and Relationship to the BIS/BAS and Five-Factor Models of Personality

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    Ross, Scott R.; Benning, Stephen D.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Thompson, Angela; Thurston, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that includes interpersonal-affective and antisocial deviance features. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) contains two underlying factors (fearless dominance and impulsive antisociality) that may differentially tap these two sets of features. In a mixed-gender sample of undergraduates and prisoners,…

  6. "Let's get down to business: a validation study of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory among a sample of MBA students.".

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    Heinze, Peter; Allen, Rhianon; Magai, Carol; Ritzler, Barry

    2010-08-01

    While the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has gained increasing attention as a measure of noncriminal psychopathy, absent has been research involving samples including business people. This study investigated the validity of the PPI with such a population by examining the association between psychopathic traits and moral decision-making among MBA students. Sixty-six MBA students were assessed using the PPI, the MACH-IV (a measure of Machiavellianism), the Ethical Position Questionnaire (EPQ), and the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2). Only PPI Machiavellian Egocentricity was associated with level of post-conventional moral reasoning. MACH-IV Machiavellianism was a stronger predictor of the Subjectivist ethical position than were PPI subscales. However, a combination of MACH-IV Machiavellianism and four PPI scales accounted for 46% of the variance in Subjectivism. Results suggested that Machiavellian Egocentricity and Machiavellianism are distinct constructs. Benning, Patrick, Hicks, Blonigen, & Krueger (2003)'s two factor model of the PPI was also supported. In general, the findings provided further validation for the PPI as a tool for assessing psychopathic traits among "mainstream" individuals, including business people.

  7. An examination of the three components of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory: Profile comparisons and tests of moderation.

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    Miller, Joshua D; Maples-Keller, Jessica L; Lynam, Donald R

    2016-06-01

    There are a number of prominent trait-based models and assessments of psychopathy that posit the existence of a varying number of central traits, which differ in their relation to one another and the degree to which they manifest similar empirical networks. In the current study (N = 347), we examined Lilienfeld's popular 3-factor model and measure (Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Short Form; Kastner, Sellbom, & Lilienfeld, 2012; Lilienfeld & Andrews, 1996) in relation to adverse developmental factors, self and informant ratings of general personality and "near neighbor" personality styles from the Dark Triad (e.g., narcissism), as well as internalizing symptoms and externalizing behaviors. The 3 factors-Fearless Dominance, Self-centered Impulsivity, and Coldheartedness-manifested relatively limited relations with one another (median r = .22) and demonstrated varying empirical networks such that Self-centered Impulsivity was associated with substantial maladaptivity, Fearless Dominance was associated with a mixture of adaptive and maladaptive correlates, and Coldheartedness' relations to the external criteria fell in between and manifested a relatively small number of significant correlations. There was little evidence that the psychopathy factors in general, and Fearless Dominance more specifically, interacted with one another in the prediction of externalizing behaviors or interacted with adverse developmental/parental experiences to predict these behaviors. These results are relevant to ongoing discussions regarding the manner in which psychopathy is conceptualized and assessed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

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    Sörman, Karolina; Nilsonne, Gustav; Howner, Katarina; Tamm, Sandra; Caman, Shilan; Wang, Hui-Xin; Ingvar, Martin; Edens, John F; Gustavsson, Petter; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Petrovic, Predrag; Fischer, Håkan; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227) in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i) the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), (ii) self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii) additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively). Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency) and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  9. Reliability and Construct Validity of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised in a Swedish Non-Criminal Sample - A Multimethod Approach including Psychophysiological Correlates of Empathy for Pain.

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    Karolina Sörman

    Full Text Available Cross-cultural investigation of psychopathy measures is important for clarifying the nomological network surrounding the psychopathy construct. The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R is one of the most extensively researched self-report measures of psychopathic traits in adults. To date however, it has been examined primarily in North American criminal or student samples. To address this gap in the literature, we examined PPI-R's reliability, construct validity and factor structure in non-criminal individuals (N = 227 in Sweden, using a multimethod approach including psychophysiological correlates of empathy for pain. PPI-R construct validity was investigated in subgroups of participants by exploring its degree of overlap with (i the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV, (ii self-rated empathy and behavioral and physiological responses in an experiment on empathy for pain, and (iii additional self-report measures of alexithymia and trait anxiety. The PPI-R total score was significantly associated with PCL:SV total and factor scores. The PPI-R Coldheartedness scale demonstrated significant negative associations with all empathy subscales and with rated unpleasantness and skin conductance responses in the empathy experiment. The PPI-R higher order Self-Centered Impulsivity and Fearless Dominance dimensions were associated with trait anxiety in opposite directions (positively and negatively, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrated solid reliability (test-retest and internal consistency and promising but somewhat mixed construct validity for the Swedish translation of the PPI-R.

  10. Interpersonal and Personal Construct Systems in Psychopaths

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    Widom, Cathy S.

    1976-01-01

    The repertory grid technique was used to explore psychopaths' interpersonal and personal construct systems. Subjects were asked to construe as individuals, and subjects were asked how they thought people in general construed the situations. Psychopaths showed a significant degree of general misperception about people in general. (Author)

  11. Latent personality profiles and the relations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits in detained adolescents.

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    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-04-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish part of Belgium. All adolescents provided self-reports on the quick big five, the youth self report, and the youth psychopathic traits inventory to assess general traits, psychopathology, and psychopathic traits respectively. Latent class analyses based on general personality traits were performed and suggested three personality types, consisting of an emotionally labile, close-minded and goal-oriented class, an undercontrolled class, and an emotionally labile-careless class. These three personality types within detained minors showed particular constellations of general traits and differed meaningfully in terms of their mean-scores on externalizing psychopathology and psychopathy measures.

  12. Psychopathic personality traits in 5 year old twins: the importance of genetic and shared environmental influences.

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    Tuvblad, Catherine; Fanti, Kostas A; Andershed, Henrik; Colins, Olivier F; Larsson, Henrik

    2016-09-28

    There is limited research on the genetic and environmental bases of psychopathic personality traits in children. In this study, psychopathic personality traits were assessed in a total of 1189 5-year-old boys and girls drawn from the Preschool Twin Study in Sweden. Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory, a teacher-report measure of psychopathic personality traits in children ranging from 3 to 12 years old. Univariate results showed that genetic influences accounted for 57, 25, and 74 % of the variance in the grandiose-deceitful, callous-unemotional, and impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, while the shared environment accounted for 17, 48 and 9 % (n.s.) in grandiose-deceitful and callous-unemotional, impulsive-need for stimulation dimensions, respectively. No sex differences were found in the genetic and environmental variance components. The non-shared environment accounted for the remaining 26, 27 and 17 % of the variance, respectively. The three dimensions of psychopathic personality were moderately correlated (0.54-0.66) and these correlations were primarily mediated by genetic and shared environmental factors. In contrast to research conducted with adolescent and adult twins, we found that both genetic and shared environmental factors influenced psychopathic personality traits in early childhood. These findings indicate that etiological models of psychopathic personality traits would benefit by taking developmental stages and processes into consideration.

  13. The Development and Preliminary Validation of a Brief Questionnaire of Psychopathic Personality Traits

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    Sonja Etzler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of psychopathic personality traits via self-report has become an important tool in legal psychology. One prominent instrument is the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld and Andrews, 1996, a well-validated questionnaire that is widely applied in many countries. In Germany, it is the only questionnaire assessing psychopathic traits that is available from a publisher with a manual edited for easy administration. Nevertheless, the PPI shows certain shortcomings: the high number of 154 items makes it less economic, it was developed on a non-representative undergraduate sample, and studies revealed an inconsistent factor structure. To overcome these points, a new questionnaire, the Questionnaire of Psychopathic Personality Traits [German: Fragebogen Psychopathischer Persönlichkeitseigenschaften (FPP] was developed. The sample consists of n = 132 civilians (56% female and n = 173 inmates of German correctional facilities (30% female. The FPP comprises 30 items, whose wording was short and adequate for inmates. It shows satisfying psychometric properties regarding factorial structure, item properties, and reliability. Partial invariance regarding both subsamples allows for interpretation of latent means. Results supported validity such as associations with self-reported crime, and inmates’ misconduct. The factorial structure was cross-validated on a second sample of N = 517 participants (71% female from an online study. The FPP is useful in large-scale research studies as well as for clinical settings, e.g., for treatment planning in correctional facilities.

  14. Agreeableness accounts for the factor structure of the youth psychopathic traits inventory.

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    Sherman, Emily D; Lynam, Donald R; Heyde, Brianne

    2014-04-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Ker, Stattin, & Levander, 2002) in an undergraduate sample. It was hypothesized that Agreeableness would saturate the lower- and higher-order scales of the YPI, and that taking Agreeableness into account would reduce the intercorrelations among the three factors of the YPI. These hypotheses were explored in a sample of 466 undergraduates who completed the YPI and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results demonstrated that Agreeableness was the strongest, most consistent correlate of the lower-order scales and three higher-order factors of the YPI. Additionally, analyses showed that Agreeableness accounted for large portions of the three YPI factors, as well as the overlap among factors, helping explain their intercorrelations. Current results underscore the centrality of Agreeableness to the assessment and understanding of psychopathy, particularly as measured by the YPI.

  15. Self-esteem and styles of coping with stress versus strategies of planning in people with psychopathic personality disorders.

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    Pastwa-Wojciechowska, Beata; Kaźmierczak, Maria; Błażek, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    Psychopathy is a notion that has been difficult to define. The operational definition of psychopathy by Hare is one of the most commonly used in psychology and it is usually identified with the scale used to measure this type of personality, which is the Psychopathy Checklist - Revision (PCL-R). PCL-R is composed of two factors: Factor 1 describes a constellation of psychopathic traits considered by many clinicians to be basic for this type of personality, and Factor 2 describes types of behaviour indicating impulsiveness, lack of stability and antisocial lifestyle. The aim of the research was to verify a hypothesis that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress. The group of participants included 30 people at the age of 22-36 convicted with a legally binding sentence. Methods were: 1. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revision (PCL-R); 2. Antisocial Personality Questionnaire (APQ); 3. Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS); 4. Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES). The participants were diagnosed as psychopaths (PCL-R), and more specifically - as primary psychopaths (APQ). They revealed a grandiose sense of self-worth, increased self-control, impulsive style of functioning, perceived high self-efficacy (which might be considered as a defence mechanism). Psychopaths prefer a coping style focused on emotions and avoidance. The hypothesis was confirmed, that people with psychopathic personality disorders are characterised by high self-esteem, unconstructive strategies of planning actions and non-adaptive styles of coping with stress.

  16. The Genetic and Environmental Covariation among Psychopathic Personality Traits, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood

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    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…

  17. A Longitudinal Twin Study of the Direction of Effects between Psychopathic Personality and Antisocial Behaviour

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    Forsman, Mats; Lichtenstein, Paul; Andershed, Henrik; Larsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Antisocial behaviour may partly develop as a consequence of psychopathic personality. However, neither the direction of effects nor the aetiology of the association has previously been clarified. The aim in this study was to investigate the direction of effects between psychopathic personality and antisocial behaviour, and to…

  18. Default network deactivations are correlated with psychopathic personality traits.

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    Tong Sheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The posteromedial cortex (PMC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are part of a network of brain regions that has been found to exhibit decreased activity during goal-oriented tasks. This network is thought to support a baseline of brain activity, and is commonly referred to as the "default network". Although recent reports suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with affective, social, and self-referential processes, the relationship between these default network components and personality traits, especially those pertaining to social context, is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current investigation, we assessed the relationship between PMC and mPFC deactivations and psychopathic personality traits using fMRI and a self-report measure. We found that PMC deactivations predicted traits related to egocentricity and mPFC deactivations predicted traits related to decision-making. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with processes involving self-relevancy and affective decision-making, consistent with previous reports. More generally, these findings suggest a link between default network activity and personality traits.

  19. Unique roles of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits in distress tolerance.

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    Sargeant, Marsha N; Daughters, Stacey B; Curtin, John J; Schuster, Randi; Lejuez, C W

    2011-11-01

    Previous research indicates that individuals with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) evidence low distress tolerance, which signifies impaired ability to persist in goal-directed behavior during an aversive situation, and is associated with a variety of poor interpersonal and drug use outcomes. Based on theory and research indicating that psychopathic traits are associated with hypo-reactivity in emotional responding, a unique hypothesis emerges where psychopathic traits should have the opposite effect of ASPD and be related to high levels of distress tolerance. In a sample of 107 substance-dependent patients in an inner-city substance use residential treatment facility, this hypothesis was supported. ASPD was related to lower distress tolerance, while psychopathic traits were related to higher distress tolerance, with each contributing unique variance. Findings are discussed in relation to different presentations of distress tolerance as a function of psychopathic traits among those with an ASPD diagnosis.

  20. Positive symptoms, substance use, and psychopathic traits as predictors of aggression in persons with a schizophrenia disorder.

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    van Dongen, Josanne D M; Buck, Nicole M L; van Marle, Hjalmar J C

    2016-03-30

    It is still not clear what the unique contribution of particular psychopathological factors is in explaining aggression in schizophrenia. The current study examined whether persecutory ideations, psychopathy and substance use are associated with different measures of aggressive behavior. We expected that persecutory ideations are associated with reactive aggression, and psychopathic traits are more associated with proactive aggression of inpatients. 59 inpatients with schizophrenia were included. Persecutory ideations we assessed using the Persecutory Ideation Questionnaire (PIQ), psychopathic traits with the revised version of Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI-R) and substance use was assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Symptoms and History (CASH). In addition, aggression was measured with the Reactive and Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), in an experimental task using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and on the ward using the Social Dysfunction and Aggression Scale (SDAS). Results showed that psychopathy explains most of the variance in self-reported proactive and reactive aggression. In contrast, persecutory ideations explain most of the variance in observed aggression on the ward. Results implicate that it is important to acknowledge comorbid factors in patients with schizophrenia for more precise risk assessment and appropriate treatment for aggressive patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Correlates of Psychopathic Personality Traits in Everyday Life:Results from a Large Community Survey

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    Scott O Lilienfeld

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the traits of psychopathic personality (psychopathy have received extensive attention from researchers in forensic psychology, psychopathology, and personality psychology, the relations of these traits to aspects of everyday functioning are poorly understood. Using a large internet survey of members of the general population (N=3398, we examined the association between psychopathic traits, as measured by a brief but well-validated self-report measure, and occupational choice, political orientation, religious affiliation, and geographical residence. Psychopathic traits, especially those linked to fearless dominance, were positively and moderately associated with holding leadership and management positions, as well as high-risk occupations. In addition, psychopathic traits were positively associated with political conservatism, lack of belief in God, and living in Europe as opposed to the United States, although the magnitudes of these statistical effects were generally small in magnitude. Our findings offer preliminary evidence that psychopathic personality traits display meaningful response penetration into daily functioning, and raise provocative questions for future research.

  2. Psychopathic and Non-Psychopathic Alcoholic Offenders.

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    Walsh, Thomas C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the incidence of psychopathy among an alcoholic-offender population (N=128) and compares psychopathic and non-psychopathic alcoholics in relation to childhood history, demographics, alcohol dependence, violence, and suicide. Results indicate that 20% of offenders could be classified as psychopaths. These persons were more alcohol…

  3. The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory: Measurement Invariance and Psychometric Properties among Portuguese Youths

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    Pedro Pechorro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI among a mixed-gender sample of 782 Portuguese youth (M = 15.87 years; SD = 1.72, in a school context. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the expected three-factor first-order structure. Cross-gender measurement invariance and cross-sample measurement invariance using a forensic sample of institutionalized males were also confirmed. The Portuguese version of the YPI demonstrated generally adequate psychometric properties of internal consistency, mean inter-item correlation, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity of statistically significant associations with conduct disorder symptoms, alcohol abuse, drug use, and unprotected sex. In terms of known-groups validity, males scored higher than females, and males from the school sample scored lower than institutionalized males. The use of the YPI among the Portuguese male and female youth population is psychometrically justified, and it can be a useful measure to identify adolescents with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  4. Personality Correlates of Machiavellianism: VI. Machiavellianism and the Psychopath.

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    Skinner, Nicholas F.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have not demonstrated hypothesized link between Machiavellianism (interpersonally manipulative behavior) and psychopathy. Results from two studies using college student samples revealed that High Machs obtained significantly higher Psychopathy scores than did Low Machs, and Mach V totals for Primary Psychopaths were significantly…

  5. Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits in combined antisocial personality disorder and substance use disorder.

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    Alcorn, Joseph L; Gowin, Joshua L; Green, Charles E; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Aggression, impulsivity, and psychopathic traits are prominent in both antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and substance use disorders (SUD), but have rarely been examined collectively. The authors' results show that all three variables were elevated in adults with comorbid ASPD/SUD, relative to SUD-only and control subjects.

  6. Self-Report Measures of Juvenile Psychopathic Personality Traits: A Comparative Review

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    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated self-report instruments currently being used to assess children and adolescents with psychopathic personality traits with respect to their reliability, validity, and research utility. Comprehensive searches across multiple computerized bibliographic databases were conducted and supplemented with manual searches. A total of 30…

  7. Interpersonal Conflict and Cooperation in Psychopaths

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    Widom, Cathy Spatz

    1976-01-01

    Interpersonal behavior in psychopaths was explored using the Prisoner's Dilemma game. Various personality characteristics frequently cited as distinguishing psychopaths from others were operationalized and studied. (Editor)

  8. The Association between Persistent Disruptive Childhood Behaviour and the Psychopathic Personality Constellation in Adolescence: A Twin Study

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    Forsman, Mats; Larsson, Henrik; Andershed, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This study tested if persistent externalizing behaviour and symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood are associated with personality and behavioural aspects of the psychopathic personality constellation in adolescence. The target sample consisted of all 1,480 twin pairs born in Sweden between 1985 and 1986.…

  9. The Personality Assessment Inventory as a Proxy for the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised: Testing the Incremental Validity and Cross-Sample Robustness of the Antisocial Features Scale

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    Douglas, Kevin S.; Guy, Laura S.; Edens, John F.; Boer, Douglas P.; Hamilton, Jennine

    2007-01-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory's (PAI's) ability to predict psychopathic personality features, as assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), was examined. To investigate whether the PAI Antisocial Features (ANT) Scale and subscales possessed incremental validity beyond other theoretically relevant PAI scales, optimized regression…

  10. Forensic mental health professionals' perceptions of psychopathy: a prototypicality analysis of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality in Sweden.

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    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Svensson, Olof; Howner, Katarina; Kristiansson, Marianne; Fischer, Håkan

    2014-10-01

    Assessments of psychopathic traits are used on a routine basis in forensic evaluations across Westernized countries. Despite this, consensus has not yet emerged concerning what exactly are the "core" features of this construct. Moreover, relatively little is known about how practitioners in the field construe this disorder. This study explored perceptions and attitudes regarding psychopathy among individuals working in the forensic mental health system (N = 90) in Sweden. Participants provided prototype ratings of what they considered to be core psychopathy features based on the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP), a model that increasingly is the focus of research in North America and Europe. The study protocol also included questions regarding (a) global perceptions and attitudes about a number of aspects of the psychopathy construct (e.g., personal experience, perceived prevalence), and (b) attitudinal scales that assessed perceived correlates of psychopathic traits across a variety of domains (e.g., violence proneness, treatment amenability) and moral judgments and attitudes concerning how psychopathic offenders should be treated within the legal system. The majority of the 33 individual CAPP items and the six CAPP scales were rated as at least moderately prototypical of psychopathy, with Dominance, Self, and Attachment domains obtaining the highest mean ratings. Participants viewed psychopaths as more likely to commit crimes than the average criminal, without being blatantly "evil" people. We believe our results help to advance our understanding of the psychopathy construct by exploring forensic professionals' perceptions of this disorder in general and in relation to the CAPP model specifically.

  11. The utility of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI)--Is it meaningful to measure psychopathy in young offenders?

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    Shepherd, Stephane M; Strand, Susanne

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the convergent validity of 2 youth psychopathy instruments, the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and the Youth Psychopathic Trait Inventory (YPI) and their relationship with problem behaviors and recidivism in an Australian sample of young offenders in custody. The PCL: YV demonstrated a capacity to identify severely antisocial youth; however, the tool was unable to differentiate between potentially psychopathic and nonpsychopathic antisocial youth. The YPI was receptive to a wide variety of problem behaviors which precluded the unique identification of core psychopathic traits in the sample. Both instruments were unable to meaningfully distinguish between recidivists and nonrecidivists. As such, the PCL: YV and the YPI demonstrate limited utility for antisocial young offenders in custody. Further research on the durability and developmental manifestation of psychopathy in adolescents is necessary before these instruments are employed in similar contexts. Implications for the clinical use of psychopathy measures are discussed.

  12. Domains of psychopathy: evaluating the structure of a lexical model of psychopathic personality disorder.

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    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2015-04-01

    This study examines the structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) from a card sort perspective. The CAPP is a lexically based construct map of psychopathy comprising 33 symptoms organized by its developers into 6 broad functional domains of personality (i.e., Attachment, Behavioral, Cognitive; Dominance; Emotional, Self). Groups of mental health workers and students were asked to sort the CAPP symptoms into the model's 6 proposed domains. Overall, both mental health workers and students were able to categorize the symptoms speedily and intuitively according to model. This suggests that the CAPP model's hierarchical structure is plausible, and that the lexical nature of the model is successful in facilitating people's ability to understand features of psychopathy in a way that requires limited cognitive effort. Together, these findings support the validity of the CAPP model as a lexically based concept map of psychopathy. Yet, some exceptions to the overall pattern of agreement with model were identified.

  13. Relations of Distinct Psychopathic Personality Traits with Anxiety and Fear: Findings from Offenders and Non-Offenders.

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    Gillespie, Steven M; Mitchell, Ian J; Satherley, Rose-Marie; Beech, Anthony R; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Early descriptions of psychopathy emphasise fearlessness and a lack of nervousness or anxiety as key characteristics of the disorder. However, conflicting evidence suggests that anxiety may be positively correlated with some aspects of the psychopathy construct. This position may seem somewhat paradoxical when considered alongside impaired processing of fear related stimuli in psychopathic personality. The aim of the current paper was to examine the distinct relations of callous, egocentric, and antisocial psychopathic traits with measures of anxiety and social anxiety in samples of non-offenders (Study 1) and violent offenders (Study 2). In Study 2 we also used an emotion recognition task to examine fearful face recognition. In Studies 1 and 2 we showed distinct and opposite significant relationships of egocentric and antisocial psychopathic traits with trait anxiety. Thus, while trait anxiety was negatively predicted by egocentric traits, it was predicted in a positive direction by antisocial traits in both samples. In Study 2 we found that callous traits were predictive of greater impairments in fearful face recognition. These findings suggest that anxiety and fear are distinguishable constructs in relation to psychopathic personality traits, and are discussed in terms of potentially separable mechanisms for these two constructs.

  14. A Prototypicality Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) Model Spanish Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Casas, Alfonso; Kreis, Mette K F; Forti, Leonello; Martínez, Joaquín; Fernández, Juan; Conde, Manuel; Vázquez-Noguerol, Raúl; Blanco, Tania; Hoff, Helge A; Cooke, David J

    2015-10-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is a newly developed, lexically based, conceptual model of psychopathy. The content validity of the Spanish language CAPP model was evaluated using prototypicality analysis. Prototypicality ratings were collected from 187 mental health experts and from samples of 143 health professionals and 282 community residents. Across the samples the majority of CAPP items were rated as highly prototypical of psychopathy. The Self, Dominance, and Attachment domains were evaluated as being more prototypical than the Behavioral and Cognitive domains. These findings are consistent with findings from similar studies in other languages and provide further support for the content validation of the CAPP model across languages and the lexical approach.

  15. Structural coherence and temporal stability of psychopathic personality features during emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Samuel W; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-08-01

    Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder characterized by affective, interpersonal, and behavioral dimensions. Although features of psychopathy have been extended downwardly to earlier developmental periods, there is a discerning lack of studies that have focused on critically important issues such as longitudinal invariance and stability/change in these features across time. The current study examines these issues using a large sample of male adolescent offenders (N = 1,170) assessed across 7 annual time points during the transition into emerging adulthood (ages ∼17 to 24 years). Findings demonstrated that features of psychopathy remained longitudinally invariant across this developmental period, and showed temporally consistent and theoretically coherent associations with other measures of personality, psychopathology, and criminal behaviors. Results also demonstrated that mean levels of psychopathic personality features tended to decrease into emerging adulthood and showed relatively modest rank-order stability across assessments with 7-year lags. These findings suggest that reductions in maladaptive personality features seem to parallel the well-documented decreases in offending that occur during the early 20s.

  16. A prototypicality validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality model (CAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Helge Andreas; Rypdal, Knut; Mykletun, Arnstein; Cooke, David J

    2012-06-01

    Cooke and colleagues recently developed the lexically based model of psychopathy named the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP, Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2004). The current study was the first to evaluate aspects of the validity of a translated version of the CAPP model, which comprises 33 symptoms from six domains of personality functioning. Prototypicality ratings from 796 Norwegian community residents, forensic mental health professionals, and corrections professionals were obtained. Most CAPP symptoms were evaluated as highly prototypical of psychopathy by all three groups. Symptoms from the Self, Dominance, and Attachment domains were perceived as more prototypical than those from the Behavioral domain. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated that two CAPP domains were unidimensional whereas evidence of unidimensionality was somewhat weaker for the other domains, but improved substantially after removal of problematic symptoms. Overall, the findings support the content validity of the CAPP model. This may have relevance to the current considerations regarding reformulation of the criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder in DSM-V.

  17. Motor Empathy in Individuals With Psychopathic Traits: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvatskaya, Yelena; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2016-10-01

    The present laboratory study examined motor empathy in male and female individuals, who were either high or low on psychopathic traits, drawn from a nonclinical university population. Past findings suggest that psychopathic individuals are impaired in affective empathy, but findings on impairments in cognitive empathy are mixed. Research on motor empathy in psychopathy is scarce. The authors hypothesized that individuals high on psychopathic traits would have deficient motor empathy (similar to affective empathy) related to valenced emotion stimuli because of the automatic nature of motor empathy. Potential participants completed the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R). Participants were chosen for the study on the basis of their PPI-R scores. All participants viewed photographic images drawn from a well-established set of stimuli (the International Affective Picture System) and were video recorded while doing so. Intensity for eight emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, fear, sad, joy, surprise, and neutral) in participants' facial expressions was measured objectively using an automated program, the Computer Expression Recognition Toolbox. Individuals high on psychopathic traits as compared with low PPI-R scorers displayed significantly less emotional congruence when viewing negative images. The study results suggest that deficits in motor empathy related to psychopathic trait levels are relatively restricted to negative emotions.

  18. A Comparison of Four Personality Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorr, Maurice; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Factor analysis was used to measure the equivalence of the personality constructs measures by four different rationally devised inventories. The tests were administered to high school and college student samples. Twelve dimensions were found to be common to two or more inventories and consistent across the two samples. (Author/MV)

  19. Psychopathic personality traits and environmental contexts: Differential correlates, gender differences, and genetic mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Carlson, Marie D; Blonigen, Daniel M; Patrick, Christopher J; Iacono, William G; Mgue, Matt

    2012-07-01

    Theorists have speculated that primary psychopathy (or Factor 1 affective-interpersonal features) is prominently heritable whereas secondary psychopathy (or Factor 2 social deviance) is more environmentally determined. We tested this differential heritability hypothesis using a large adolescent twin sample. Trait-based proxies of primary and secondary psychopathic tendencies were assessed using Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) estimates of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality, respectively. The environmental contexts of family, school, peers, and stressful life events were assessed using multiple raters and methods. Consistent with prior research, MPQ Impulsive Antisociality was robustly associated with each environmental risk factor, and these associations were significantly greater than those for MPQ Fearless Dominance. However, MPQ Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality exhibited similar heritability, and genetic effects mediated the associations between MPQ Impulsive Antisociality and the environmental measures. Results were largely consistent across male and female twins. We conclude that gene-environment correlations rather than main effects of genes and environments account for the differential environmental correlates of primary and secondary psychopathy.

  20. Psychopathic personality development from ages 9 to 18: Genes and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2016-02-01

    The genetic and environmental etiology of individual differences was examined in initial level and change in psychopathic personality from ages 9 to 18 years. A piecewise growth curve model, in which the first change score (G1) influenced all ages (9-10, 11-13, 14-15, and 16-18 years) and the second change score (G2) only influenced ages 14-15 and 16-18 years, fit the data better did than the standard single slope model, suggesting a turning point from childhood to adolescence. The results indicated that variations in levels and both change scores were mainly due to genetic (A) and nonshared environmental (E) influences (i.e., AE structure for G0, G1, and G2). No sex differences were found except on the mean values of level and change scores. Based on caregiver ratings, about 81% of variance in G0, 89% of variance in G1, and 94% of variance in G2 were explained by genetic factors, whereas for youth self-reports, these three proportions were 94%, 71%, and 66%, respectively. The larger contribution of genetic variance and covariance in caregiver ratings than in youth self-reports may suggest that caregivers considered the changes in their children to be more similar as compared to how the children viewed themselves.

  1. Perspectives on treatment of criminal psychopaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the theoretical background of psychopathic personality in therapy. Research shows that the most of therapeutic techniques and correctional programmes are unsuccessful in dealing with psychopathic prisoners. However, the theory of psychopathy by R. Hare and PCL-R is able to improve the process of the diagnosis of the psychopathic personality and can also accelerate subsequent research into this disorder. At the end of the paper author presents some principles for creating a correctional treatment programme for psychopaths which is based on Pospiszyl’s theory and current knowledge regarding the psychopathic personality.

  2. The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.A.J.; Hofstee, W.K.B.; De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Five-Factor Personality Inventory (FFPI) assesses the Big Five factors of personality, both for self-ratings and for others' ratings. It consists of 100 brief and concrete statements, and can be administered in 10-15 min. in addition to the five factor scores, the FFPI may be used to assess 40 b

  3. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  4. Latent Personality Profiles and the Relations with Psychopathology and Psychopathic Traits in Detained Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; Colins, Olivier F.; De Clercq, Barbara; Vermeiren, Robert; Broekaert, Eric; Bijttebier, Patricia; Roose, Annelore; De Fruyt, Filip

    2013-01-01

    The present study constructed empirically derived subtypes of adolescent offenders based on general traits and examined their associations with psychopathology and psychopathic traits. The sample included 342 detained minors (172 boys and 170 girls; mean age 15.85 years, SD = 1.07) recruited in various Youth Detention Centers across the Flemish…

  5. Young and Old Alcoholics: Some Personality Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLatte, Joseph G., Jr.; DeLatte, Gale M.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to alcoholic males (N=91). Results indicated a significant negative correlation between age and psychopathic deviance, paranoia, schizophrenia, and mania; and a significant positive correlation between age and hypochrondriasis. (LLL)

  6. Normal Personality Assessment in Clinical Practice: The NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) is described as a measure of five factors of personality and its use in clinical assessment and treatment practice is reviewed. Data from 17 adult men and women show links between NEO-PI scales and other measures of psychopathology. (SLD)

  7. Eysenck Personality Inventory Item Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comrey, Andrew L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Three methods were used to test the factor structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory administered to 583 Australians. The preferred method was to extract factors by the minimum residual method, use the Tandem Criteria Method, and then rotate that number of factors by the Tandem Criteria I method. (SLD)

  8. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  9. "Corporate Psychopaths" in Public Agencies?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee Hanson; David L Baker

    2017-01-01

    ..., Machiavellian, and sadistic personalities. Via a brief scenario, we illustrate how the term "corporate psychopath " might be used by lay employees lacking psychiatric expertise as a catchall term for any one of the four dark types in a leadership role...

  10. The inverse relation between psychopathy and faking good: Not response bias but true variance in psychopathic personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Uzieblo, K.; De Schryver, M.; Douma, H.; Onraedt, T.; Crombez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to assess psychopathy through self-report is debated, amongst others, because psychopathic individuals may deliberately underreport psychopathic features (fake good). Meta-analytic research has shown an inverse relation between faking good and self-reported psychopathy, possibly indi

  11. The inverse relation between psychopathy and faking good: Not response bias but true variance in psychopathic personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Uzieblo, K.; De Schryver, M.; Douma, H.; Onraedt, T.; Crombez, G.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility to assess psychopathy through self-report is debated, amongst others, because psychopathic individuals may deliberately underreport psychopathic features (fake good). Meta-analytic research has shown an inverse relation between faking good and self-reported psychopathy, possibly indi

  12. Fearless dominance and the U.S. presidency: implications of psychopathic personality traits for successful and unsuccessful political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienfeld, Scott O; Waldman, Irwin D; Landfield, Kristin; Watts, Ashley L; Rubenzer, Steven; Faschingbauer, Thomas R

    2012-09-01

    Although psychopathic personality (psychopathy) is marked largely by maladaptive traits (e.g., poor impulse control, lack of guilt), some authors have conjectured that some features of this condition (e.g., fearlessness, interpersonal dominance) are adaptive in certain occupations, including leadership positions. We tested this hypothesis in the 42 U.S. presidents up to and including George W. Bush using (a) psychopathy trait estimates derived from personality data completed by historical experts on each president, (b) independent historical surveys of presidential leadership, and (c) largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance. Fearless Dominance, which reflects the boldness associated with psychopathy, was associated with better rated presidential performance, leadership, persuasiveness, crisis management, Congressional relations, and allied variables; it was also associated with several largely or entirely objective indicators of presidential performance, such as initiating new projects and being viewed as a world figure. Most of these associations survived statistical control for covariates, including intellectual brilliance, five factor model personality traits, and need for power. In contrast, Impulsive Antisociality and related traits of psychopathy were generally unassociated with rated presidential performance, although they were linked to some largely or entirely objective indicators of negative job performance, including Congressional impeachment resolutions, tolerating unethical behavior in subordinates, and negative character. These findings indicate that the boldness associated with psychopathy is an important but heretofore neglected predictor of presidential performance, and suggest that certain features of psychopathy are tied to successful interpersonal behavior.

  13. Parallel syndromes: two dimensions of narcissism and the facets of psychopathic personality in criminally involved individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Sadeh, Naomi; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-04-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally involved individuals. In this study, we examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version. As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to (a) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and (b) self- and other-directed aggression, measured with the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed.

  14. Correlation of scores on the Eysenck and SONSO Personality inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentle, R L

    1995-04-01

    Correlations of scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory with those of the SONSO Personality Inventory, a test of five factors of personality, were estimated for 300 junior college students. Extraversion and Neuroticism show reasonably close correspondence to the Shyness and Nervousness scales of the SONSO.

  15. Revision of the Aggressiveness dimension of Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Lucas de Francisco; Pianowski, Giselle; Miguel,Fabiano Koich

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to review the Aggressiveness dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP) in two steps: the first focused on developing new and the second for testing the psychometric properties in a sample of 230 subjects, 176 women, aged between 18 and 63 years, with minimum education of undergraduate (52.6%). The subjects answered the IDCP, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). The first step resulted...

  16. Comparing the utility of DSM-5 Section II and III antisocial personality disorder diagnostic approaches for capturing psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; Maples, Jessica L; MacKillop, James; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-01-01

    The current study compares the 2 diagnostic approaches (Section II vs. Section III) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) for diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in terms of their relations with psychopathic traits and externalizing behaviors (EBs). The Section III approach to ASPD, which is more explicitly trait-based than the Section II approach, also includes a psychopathy specifier (PS) that was created with the goal of making the diagnosis of ASPD more congruent with psychopathy. In a community sample of individuals currently receiving mental health treatment (N = 106), ratings of the 2 DSM-5 diagnostic approaches were compared in relation to measures of psychopathy, as well as indices of EBs. Both DSM-5 ASPD approaches were significantly related to the psychopathy scores, although the Section III approach accounted for almost twice the amount of variance when compared with the Section II approach. Relatively little of this predictive advantage, however, was due to the PS, as these traits manifested little evidence of incremental validity in relation to existing psychopathy measures and EBs, with the exception of a measure of fearless dominance. Overall, the DSM-5 Section III diagnostic approach for ASPD is more convergent with the construct of psychopathy, from which ASPD was originally derived. These improvements, however, are due primarily to the new trait-based focus in the Section III ASPD diagnosis rather than the assessment of personality dysfunction or the inclusion of additional "psychopathy-specific" traits.

  17. Correlation of scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory with those on the Gordon Personal Profile and Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentle, R L

    1994-10-01

    Correlations of scores on the Eysenck Personality Inventory with those on the Gordon Personal Profile (for 160 university undergraduates) and with the Gordon Personal Inventory (for 260 undergraduates) showed that Eysenck and Eysenck's Extraversion and Neuroticism bear reasonably close correspondence to Gordon's Sociability and Emotional Stability.

  18. Early traumatic events in psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Karina; Ostrosky, Feggy

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between diverse early traumatic events and psychopathy was studied in 194 male inmates. Criminal history transcripts were revised, and clinical interviews were conducted to determine the level of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) Form, and the Early Trauma Inventory was applied to assess the incidence of abuse before 18 years of age. Psychopathic inmates presented a higher victimization level and were more exposed to certain types of intended abuse than sociopathic inmates, while the sum of events and emotional abuse were associated with the PCL-R score. Our studies support the influence of early adverse events in the development of psychopathic offenders.

  19. The Influence of Nutritional Factors on Verbal Deficits and Psychopathic Personality Traits: Evidence of the Moderating Role of the MAOA Genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-12-10

    The current study explores whether: (a) nutritional factors among adolescent males predict their risk of exhibiting verbal deficits and psychopathic traits during adulthood and (b) the link between nutritional factors and these outcomes is conditioned by the MAOA genotype. The study analyzes data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative, genetically informative sample. We find evidence that meal deprivation increases the likelihood of both verbal deficits and psychopathic personality traits, whereas poor quality nutrition increases the risk of verbal deficits. We detect the presence of a number of gene-environment interactions between measures of food quality and MAOA genotype, but no evidence of GxE in the case of meal deprivation. Limitations are noted and avenues for future research are discussed.

  20. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version ...

  1. Characteristics and consequences of psychopathic domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem to which more attention is paid today. However, in its theoretical consideration, as well as in practical reaction, one must not lose sight of characteristics of domestic violence of one, rather numerous category of perpetrators who have psychopathic structure of personality. Domestic violence which offenders are psychopaths must be treated very carefully, because each mistake in intervention can cause much bigger damage to the victim than absence of reaction at all. Due to that, before any intervention, it would be necessary to make a diagnosis on whether the perpetrator has psychopathic structure of personality or not.

  2. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Characteristics of Parricide Offenders with Schizophrenia in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yeop; Lee, Jangkyu; Shim, Geumsook; Kim, Yeon; Do, Jin Ah; Lee, Soo Jung; Choi, Jong Hyuck; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study aims to examine the personality characteristics in parricide offenders, by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) test, which is commonly used in clinical medicine. Methods A total of 73 parricide offenders with schizophrenia who were admitted to National Forensic Hospital in Gongju city between September 2014 and February 2015, and 104 comparison schizophrenia patients who had been admitted to Dankook University Hospital in Cheonan city the same hospital, completed the Korean version of the MMPI. Results The parricide offender group showed significantly higher on L, F, Hs, Hy and Pd than the comparison group. The result of the regression analysis indicated that Pd and Si significantly increased the odd ratio of the sexual offender group by 2.77 times and 0.32 times, respectively (p=0.029 and p=0.023). The offenders of parricide may have developed the following characteristics: hypochondriasis, hysteria and psychopathic deviate. Conclusion These results suggested that the psychopatholgy in the offenders of parricide might be different, compared to the control group.

  3. “It’s not my fault, it was my brain”. Could such a statement lead to an excuse for individuals with personality disorders and psychopaths?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodia Jiménez Martínez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study both the criminal responsibility and the mental state as excuse for indivisuals with personality disorders and psychopaths, as well as the arguments offered by the neuroscience to deny a basic, central, main, nuclear stone of our modern criminal law, the idea of a free will. According to that idea, the human being is free to choose between the right and wrong (unlawful behavior. For neuroscience we don’t have such a freedom that would be merely an illusion, a mirage. Our brain would have decided and ordered formerly our behavior.

  4. An Australian Evaluation of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, B. C.; Neidhart, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using 463 fifteen year old girls from five girls' schools in the metropolitan area of Sydney, this study examines four aspects of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory that has been subject to criticism, namely the terminology used in certain JEPI items, item response rate ceilings, factorial structure of the inventory, and the relationship…

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis on the Big 5 Personality Test Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, Wirawani; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2012-01-01

    This paper is intended to examine the validity of Big 5 Personality test inventory of 44 questions with 5-Likert Scale measurement. Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) was conducted to determine the good fit indices of the 5 personality types. Those types are 1) extraversion, 2) agreeableness, 3) conscientiousness, 4) openness and 5) neuroticism.…

  6. The Latent Personality Structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, James W.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    Among the more recent personality assessment tools used by counseling psychologists is Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI). This instrument was created, in part, to reflect the changes that had occurred in psychologists' understanding of personality, psychopathology, and diagnostic assessment. The MCMI is derived from Millon's biosocial…

  7. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Douglas H; Balderston, Nicholas L; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Larson, Christine L; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into "primary" and "secondary" psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional "fearlessness," while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  8. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  9. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  10. An item response theory analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Robins, Richard W

    2012-01-01

    This research uses item response theory methods to evaluate the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Analyses using the 2-parameter logistic model were conducted on the total score and the Corry, Merritt, Mrug, and Pamp (2008) and Ackerman et al. (2011) subscales for the NPI. In addition to offering precise information about the psychometric properties of the NPI item pool, these analyses generated insights that can be used to develop new measures of the personality constructs embedded within this frequently used inventory.

  11. Corporate Psychopaths: They exist and degrade the organizational climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Turrioni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This Article discusses the corporate psychopath subject, a term that refers to psychopaths of performance in the workplace. The research is justified by the need for organizations to maintain positive organizational climate in the pursuit of productivity and competitiveness. Research indicates that after the judicial prisons and asylums is within organizations that these personalities cause enormous damage. The study aims to identify the action of corporate psychopath within organizations and its consequences to the organizational climate. To this end it carried out a literature review and a quantitative research with employees of public and private companies. It was observed that these personalities exist within organizations, are identified by colleagues and actually cause inconvenience and loss to businesses. It is the management of people trying to prevent their entry in the companies or developing a strong organizational culture that becomes a barrier to the operation of these personalities. Keywords: Psychopath, Corporate Psychopath, Climate Organizational, People Management

  12. Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Structure of the adapted Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. C

  13. The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Detection of Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashel, Mary Louise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The use of scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to detect defensiveness in criminal and nonclinical samples was evaluated with 45 male inmates and 38 male undergraduates under standard conditions or under instructions to feign a positive role. Results indicate that the PAI is susceptible to defensive dissimulation. (SLD)

  14. Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) Profiles of Adult Female Abuse Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepon, Joseph Adam; Prinzhorn, Bradford

    1994-01-01

    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles of 91 adult female Caucasians were examined to see if significant differences existed between those who reported abuse in childhood or adolescence and those who did not. Significant differences were obtained on several PAI scales and subscales. (SLD)

  15. Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Structure of the adapted Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses. C

  16. What Does the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Really Measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A.; Witt, Edward A.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Robins, Richard W.; Kashy, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies…

  17. Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Structure of the adapted Dutch version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present study examined the structure of a Dutch adaptation of the 40-item Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Raskin & Terry, 1988) in a community sample (n = 460) and a student sample (n = 515). Altering the response format of the NPI to a Likert-scale had no apparent effect on the responses.

  18. Personal Style Scales of the Strong Interest Inventory: Linking Personality and Interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lori D.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the personal style scales of the Strong Interest Inventory and the Big Five model of personality was investigated with 740 undergraduates and a cross-validation sample of 321. No significant gender differences were observed. Personal style scales indicating living and working preferences were correlated with personality…

  19. Problems and opportunity of personality inventories in clinical - psychological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Benedik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with possibilities and problems of usage of personality inventories in psychological diagnostic of persons with "heavy pathology", from aspect of validity and applicability in the first place. Personality inventories are usually designed for health population. By their usage in clinical psychology we often meet problems like specific tendencies when answering defined questions. This could be the result of situational factors but also the impact of their disorders and personality. The possibilities of classical interpretation of results are in this way limited. Do we have the opportunity of development of the diagnostic instruments that we could, not only recognise, but use such deformations (which represent cognitive style or defence of person in diagnostic purpose? The MMPI-2, most famous inventory in this field, offer us great aid, especially because its items are selected empirically. By the analysis of its items from aspect of sensing and localisation of subjects problems, we found differences between clinical scales which represent patients of different clinical groups. These differences are in accordance with psychoanalytical assumptions about characteristics of sensing self and other people.

  20. Preliminary Data on the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Mediating the Relationship Between Psychopathic Characteristics and Detention Terms of Property Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Antonietta; Soleti, Emanuela; Manuti, Amelia

    2017-09-01

    We present preliminary data on the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in mediating the relationship between psychopathy and detention term of authors of property crimes. We assumed that the detention term is an approximation of the severity of criminal behavior. A sample of 24 property offenders were individually administered a brief anamnestic interview, the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R), and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Information concerning the detention term was obtained from prison records. A mediation model was applied to the data showing that offenders high in psychopathic traits (i.e., total PPI-R score and Self-centered dimension of PPI-R) have a low level of ability EI and this is in turn negatively associated with the duration of their prison sentence. Results encourage the investigation of ability EI as a protective factor against the antisocial outcomes of psychopathic disorder. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Maladaptive Personality Trait Models: Validating the Five-Factor Model Maladaptive Trait Measures With the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-05-01

    Eight measures have been developed to assess maladaptive variants of the five-factor model (FFM) facets specific to personality disorders (e.g., Five-Factor Borderline Inventory [FFBI]). These measures can be used in their entirety or as facet-based scales (e.g., FFBI Affective Dysregulation) to improve the comprehensiveness of assessment of pathological personality. There are a limited number of studies examining these scales with other measures of similar traits (e.g., DSM-5 alternative model). The current study examined the FFM maladaptive scales in relation to the respective general personality traits of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the pathological personality traits of the DSM-5 alternative model using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5. The results indicated the FFM maladaptive trait scales predominantly converged with corresponding NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, and Personality Inventory for DSM-5 traits, providing further validity for these measures as extensions of general personality traits and evidence for their relation to the pathological trait model. Benefits and applications of the FFM maladaptive scales in clinical and research settings are discussed.

  2. Examination of personality characteristics in a Turkish sample: development of Basic Personality Traits Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençöz, Tülin; Öcül, Öznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor nature of personality. For this aim, an indigenous, psychometrically strong instrument measuring the basic personality dimensions within Turkish culture and language was developed through three consecutive studies. The first study aimed to reveal the adjectives that have been most frequently used to define people in the Turkish culture. In the second study, factor analysis of these personality characteristics revealed big five personality factors, along with the sixth factor, which had been called as the Negative Valence factor. The adjectives that most strongly represented and differentiated each factor constituted 45-item "Basic Personality Traits Inventory". Finally, in the third study, psychometric characteristics of the Basic Personality Traits Inventory were examined. Factor structure and psychometric properties of this instrument confirmed that five-factor nature of personality may not hold true in every culture.

  3. Parallel Syndromes: Two Dimensions of Narcissism and the Facets of Psychopathic Personality in Criminally-Involved Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Little research has examined different dimensions of narcissism that may parallel psychopathy facets in criminally-involved individuals. The present study examined the pattern of relationships between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16 and the Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, respectively, and the four facets of psychopathy (interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial) assessed via the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV). As predicted, grandiose and vulnerable narcissism showed differential relationships to psychopathy facets, with grandiose narcissism relating positively to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy and vulnerable narcissism relating positively to the lifestyle facet of psychopathy. Paralleling existing psychopathy research, vulnerable narcissism showed stronger associations than grandiose narcissism to 1) other forms of psychopathology, including internalizing and substance use disorders, and 2) self- and other-directed aggression, measured using the Life History of Aggression and the Forms of Aggression Questionnaire. Grandiose narcissism was nonetheless associated with social dysfunction marked by a manipulative and deceitful interpersonal style and unprovoked aggression. Potentially important implications for uncovering etiological pathways and developing treatment interventions for these disorders in externalizing adults are discussed. PMID:22448731

  4. Invariabilidad de la estructura factorial del "California Personality Inventory" (CPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio J. A. Rimoldi

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Tbe factor analysis of the California Personality Inventory (CPI and Rokeaeh Dogmatism Scale was performed using the results obtained from 161 college students, of both sexes, between 18 and 22 years of age, Four factors were extracted using the principal axes solution and graphic rotations. The results were compared with other factorial studíes, They showed a highly satistory agreement with some other solution strenghtening the factorial invariance of the CPI.

  5. Use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 with Persons Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Danielle; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2009-01-01

    Counselors who assess persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; T. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) may find scale elevations on Scales 1, 2, 3, and 8. These elevations may be due, at least in part, to specific questions on the MMPI-2 that…

  6. Use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 with Persons Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Danielle; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2009-01-01

    Counselors who assess persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; T. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) may find scale elevations on Scales 1, 2, 3, and 8. These elevations may be due, at least in part, to specific questions on the MMPI-2 that assess…

  7. Use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 with Persons Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Danielle; Granello, Darcy Haag

    2009-01-01

    Counselors who assess persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; T. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989) may find scale elevations on Scales 1, 2, 3, and 8. These elevations may be due, at least in part, to specific questions on the MMPI-2 that…

  8. Personality traits inventory in patients with vocal nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Alexia; Revis, Joana; Giovanni, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze temperament and character in females with vocal nodules (VN) compared to a vocally healthy control population. 61 females were examined over a 17-month period for dysphonia with VN (mean age 46 years, duration of vocal complaints from 2 months to 6 years). 71 control females were recruited in their environment (mean age 34 years). The validated French Version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used. Patients with VN had significantly (p personality-specific maladaptive behaviors. A possible personalized approach to voice therapy could be organized on the basis of the TCI findings.

  9. Development of the Personality Inventory for Youth: a self-report companion to the Personality Inventory for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachar, D; Gruber, C P

    1993-08-01

    This research explored the ability of parent-informant Personality Inventory for Children (PIC; Lachar, 1982) questionnaire items to form the foundation for self-report scales. An iterative rational and internal consistency approach using 585 clinical protocols constructed nine nonoverlapping clinical scales. Twenty-four complementary subscales were also constructed through scale item analysis. Acceptable estimates of scale reliability and internal consistency were established in substantial, diverse normal and clinical samples. Personality Inventory for Youth scales effectively separated normal and clinical protocols. Age and sex effects were investigated as were correlations with parent-informant PIC scales. Follow-up research includes the development of validity and adjustment screening scales, as well as the collection of diverse psychometric and clinical rating data to advance scale construct validity.

  10. Clozapine: an effective treatment for seriously violent and psychopathic men with antisocial personality disorder in a UK high-security hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Darcy; Larkin, Fintan; Sengupta, Samrat; Romero-Ureclay, Jose L; Ross, Callum C; Gupta, Nitin; Vinestock, Morris; Das, Mrigendra

    2014-10-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the anti-aggressive properties of clozapine in schizophrenia and its positive effect in borderline personality disorder. There is no published literature on the treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with clozapine. We present a case series of 7 patients with primary ASPD and high psychopathic traits treated with clozapine, having a significant history of serious violence and currently detained in a UK based high-security hospital. A retrospective review of case notes was carried out to formulate Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scores and record incidents of violence and aggression. Effect on specific symptom domains (cognitive-perceptual, impulsive-behavioural dyscontrol, affective dysregulation) was also noted. Metabolic parameters and serum clozapine levels were also sampled. All 7 patients showed significant improvement on clozapine. It was shown to benefit all symptom domains, especially impulsive behavioral dyscontrol and anger. The number of violent incidents committed by 6 of the 7 patients reduced significantly, and all patients' risk of violence reduced. Clozapine serum levels for 6 of the 7 patients were in the range 150-350 ng/mL. Clozapine is of benefit in reducing the clinical severity of ASPD. It improved all symptom domains, especially impulsive-behavioral dyscontrol and anger, and reduced levels of aggression and violence, especially at lower doses (serum levels <350 ng/m). To our knowledge, this is the first account of clozapine treatment in patients with ASPD and high psychopathy.

  11. The development of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R D

    1994-04-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) was constructed at the University of Minnesota before and during World War II. In its developmental phase, the MMPI was conceptualized as an efficient way of detecting psychiatric disturbance. The test's construction was made possible by atypical cooperation between psychologists and psychiatrists, within the context of a crisis in the U.S. public mental health care system. The MMPI was designed to meet the diagnostic needs of psychiatrists. As such, it represented the operationalization of medical hegemony. However, the interpretation of the MMPI shifted significantly after the war, reflecting organizational reform in clinical psychology and changing professional relationships between psychologists and psychiatrists.

  12. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined:…

  13. Psychometric Characteristics and Clinical Correlates of NEO-PI-R Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Edward A.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Morey, Leslie C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Sanislow, Charles A.; Shea, M. Tracie; Skodol, Andrew E.; Gunderson, John G.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the validity of derived measures of the psychopathic personality traits of Fearless Dominance and Impulsive Antisociality from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) using data from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (baseline N = 733). These 3 issues were examined: (a)…

  14. Psychopathic characters in fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechowski-Jozwiak, Bartlomiej; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The theme of psychopathy has fascinated artists and the general public for centuries. The first concepts on psychopathy came from the parasciences, such as phrenology where anatomical features were linked to certain psychopathic/immoral behaviors. The concept of psychopathy was recognized by forensic psychiatry a few decades ago and this official recognition was followed by the emergence of scientific and clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and prognosis of psychopaths. These modern tools can also be used for historical purposes by allowing us to look back on fictional works and identify psychopaths in literature. Interpretation of fictitious psychopaths needs to be related to the historical situation in which the novels were written; such investigations can be both enriching and thrilling.

  15. Personality Factors Associated with the Decision to Accept or Reject Mobility Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adventitiously blind adults (n=79) who had accepted mobility training were compared to 60 subjects who had rejected training. Personality profiles varied significantly between groups on seven scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: psychasthenia; schizophrenia; psychopathic deviate; depression; hypomania; paranoia; and…

  16. 成年男性服刑人员家庭功能与应对方式病态人格的关系%Family functioning, coping style and psychopathic personality for adult male prisoners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志民; 李丽; 梅松丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship among family functioning,coping style,and psychopathic personality for adult male prisoners.Methods 328 adult male prisoners were surveyed with Family APGAR Index,Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire and Psychopathic Deviate Scale.Different demographic variables were compared on male prisoners'family functioning,coping style and psychopathic personality.Coping style and psychopathic personality were compared among family functioning groups,then a relationship model was set up by structural equation modeling.Results The low age male prisoners showed significant lower growth (1.17 ±0.76),resolve (1.11 ±0.79),negative coping style(1.15 ± 0.51),the total scale of family APGAR (5.61 ± 2.73) and higher psychopathic personality (22.11 ± 4.95) than the high age male prisoners ((1.35 ± 0.72),(1.45 ± 0.68),(1.30±0.58),(6.29 ±2.63),(19.40 ±5.06),t=2.17,4.15,2.51,2.31,4.89).The rural male prisoners showed significant lower adaptation (1.04 ± 0.69) and higher positive coping style (1.95 ± 0.40) than the city male prisoners ((1.21 ± 0.74),(1.81 ± 0.43),t =2.07,3.09).The positive coping style (P =0.024)and psychopathic personality (P =0.000) of adult male prisoners among family functioning groups showed significantly difference.The strongest positive effect that adult male prisoners' positive coping style forecast family functioning was 0.275.The strongest negtive effect that male prisoners' psychopathic personality forecast family functioning was 0.257.The strongest negtive effect that male prisoners' negative coping style forecast psychopathic personality was 0.197.The strongest positive effect that male prisoners' family functioning forecast psychopathic personality was 0.266.Conclusions Positive coping style and good family functioning could effectively adjust adult male prisoners' personality.Positive coping style and perfect personality could effectively improve adult male prisoners' family functioning.Family functioning

  17. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item  Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  18. Capturing abnormal personality with normal personality inventories: an item response theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kate E; Roberts, Brent W; Krueger, Robert F; Blonigen, Daniel M; Hicks, Brian M

    2008-12-01

    Correlational and factor-analytic methods indicate that abnormal and normal personality constructs may be tapping the same underlying latent trait. However, they do not systematically demonstrate that measures of abnormal personality capture more extreme ranges of the latent trait than measures of normal range personality. Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, in contrast, do provide this information. In the present study, we use IRT methods to evaluate the range of the latent trait assessed with a normal personality measure and a measure of psychopathy as one example of an abnormal personality construct. Contrary to the expectation that the measure of psychopathy would be more extreme than the measure of normal personality traits, the measures overlapped substantially in terms of the regions of the latent trait for which they provide information. Moreover, both types of inventories were limited in terms of measurement bandwidth, such that they did not provide information across the entire latent trait continuum. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  19. Teaching Accounting for Inventory by Calling on Students' Personal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briginshaw, John

    2010-01-01

    This essay seeks to give practical guidance to accounting instructors seeking to convey the difficult concepts of accounting for inventory. Techniques to convey the concepts of assumed inventory flow, inventory valuation under inflation and deflation, impairment of inventories, LIFO [Last In, First Out] liquidations and the concept of the periodic…

  20. Social desirability in personality inventories: symptoms, diagnosis and prescribed cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Martin; Björklund, Fredrik

    2013-04-01

    An analysis of social desirability in personality assessment is presented. Starting with the symptoms, Study 1 showed that mean ratings of graded personality items are moderately to strongly linearly related to social desirability (Self Deception, Impression formation, and the first Principal Component), suggesting that item popularity may be a useful heuristic tool for identifying items which elicit socially desirable responding. We diagnose the cause of socially desirable responding as an interaction between the evaluative content of the item and enhancement motivation in the rater. Study 2 introduced a possible cure; evaluative neutralization of items. To test the feasibility of the method lay psychometricians (undergraduates) reformulated existing personality test items according to written instructions. The new items were indeed lower in social desirability while essentially retaining the five factor structure and reliability of the inventory. We conclude that although neutralization is no miracle cure, it is simple and has beneficial effects. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  1. STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSITY PERSONALITY INVENTORY FOR CHINESE COLLEGE STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jieting; Lanza, Stephanie; Zhang, Minqiang; Su, Binyuan

    2015-06-01

    The University Personality Inventory, a mental health instrument for college students, is frequently used for screening in China. However, its unidimensionality has been questioned. This study examined its dimensions to provide more information about the specific mental problems for students at risk. Four subsamples were randomly created from a sample (N = 6,110; M age = 19.1 yr.) of students at a university in China. Principal component analysis with Promax rotation was applied on the first two subsamples to explore dimension of the inventory. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted on the third subsample to verify the exploratory dimensions. Finally, the identified factors were compared to the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to support validity, and sex differences were examined, based on the fourth subsample. Five factors were identified: Physical Symptoms, Cognitive Symptoms, Emotional Vulnerability, Social Avoidance, and Interpersonal Sensitivity, accounting for 60.3% of the variance. All the five factors were significantly correlated with the SCL-90. Women scored significantly higher than men on Cognitive Symptoms and Interpersonal Sensitivity.

  2. Psychopathic traits of Dutch adolescents in residential care: identifying subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhof, Karin S; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H J; van Dam, Coleta; Veerman, Jan Willem; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined whether a sample of 214 (52.8% male, M age = 15.76, SD = 1.29) institutionalized adolescents could be classified into subgroups based on psychopathic traits. Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed a relationship between the subscales of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the three latent constructs of the original model on which it is based. Latent Class Analyses showed that adolescents showing psychopathic traits could be classified into three subgroups. The first group showed low scores on the grandiose/manipulative dimension, the callous/unemotional dimension, and the impulsive/irresponsible dimension (normal group). The second group scored moderate on the grandiose/manipulative dimension and the callous/unemotional dimension and high on the impulsive/irresponsible dimension (impulsive, non-psychopathic-like group). The third group scored high on all three dimensions (psychopathy-like group). The findings revealed that the impulsive, non-psychopathic like group scored significantly higher on internalizing problem behavior compared to the normal group, while the psychopathy-like and the impulsive, non-psychopathic-like group both scored higher on externalizing problem behavior compared to the normal group. Based on a self-report delinquency measure, it appeared that the psychopathy-like group had the highest delinquency rates, except for vandalism. Both the impulsive and psychopathy-like group had the highest scores on the use of soft drugs.

  3. What does the narcissistic personality inventory really measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Witt, Edward A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H; Robins, Richard W; Kashy, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a widely used measure of narcissism. However, debates persist about its exact factor structure with researchers proposing solutions ranging from two to seven factors. The present research aimed to clarify the factor structure of the NPI and further illuminate its nomological network. Four studies provided support for a three-factor model consisting of the dimensions of Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness. The Leadership/Authority dimension was generally linked to adaptive outcomes whereas the other two dimensions, particularly Entitlement/Exploitativeness, were generally linked to maladaptive outcomes. These results suggest that researchers interested in the psychological and behavioral outcomes associated with the NPI should examine correlates at the facet level. In light of the findings, we propose a hierarchical model for the structure of the NPI and provide researchers with a scoring scheme for this commonly used instrument.

  4. A test of two brief measures of grandiose narcissism: the narcissistic personality inventory-13 and the narcissistic personality inventory-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Brittany; Miller, Joshua D; Hoffman, Brian J; Reidy, Dennis E; Zeichner, Amos; Campbell, W Keith

    2013-12-01

    The most widely used measure of trait narcissism is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI), which can provide both total and subscale scores. However, with a length of 40 items, this measure may not be ideal in settings in which time or participant attention may limit the types of measures that can be administered. In response, Ames, Rose, and Anderson (2006) created the NPI-16, which provides a shorter, unidimensional measure of the construct. In the present research, we examine the reliability and validity of the NPI-16 in conjunction with a new short measure of narcissism, the NPI-13, which provides both a total score and 3 subscale scores (Leadership/Authority; Grandiose Exhibitionism; Entitlement/Exploitativeness). Across 2 studies, we demonstrate that both short measures manifest good convergent and discriminant validity and adequate overall reliability. The NPI-13 may be favored over the NPI-16 because it allows for the extraction of 3 subscales, consistent with the use of its parent measure.

  5. Testosterone dynamics and psychopathic personality traits independently predict antagonistic behavior towards the perceived loser of a competitive interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Busseri, Michael A; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2013-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the influence of changes in testosterone on subsequent competitive, antagonistic behavior in humans. Further, little is known about the extent to which such effects are moderated by personality traits. Here, we collected salivary measures of testosterone before and after a rigged competition. After the competition, participants were given the opportunity to act antagonistically against the competitor (allocate a low honorarium). We hypothesized that changes in testosterone throughout the competition would predict antagonistic behavior such that greater increases would be associated with the allocation of lower honorariums. Further, we investigated the extent to which personality traits related to psychopathy (fearless dominance, FD; self-centered impulsivity, SCI; and coldheartedness) moderated this relationship. In men (n=104), greater increases in testosterone and greater FD were associated with more antagonistic behavior, but testosterone concentrations did not interact with personality measures. In women (n=97), greater FD and SCI predicted greater antagonistic behavior, but there were no significant endocrine predictors or interactions with personality measures. In a secondary set of analyses, we found no support for the dual-hormone hypothesis that the relationship between baseline testosterone concentrations and behavior is moderated by cortisol concentrations. Thus, results are consistent with previous findings that in men, situation-specific testosterone reactivity rather than baseline endocrine function is a better predictor of future antagonistic behavior. The results are discussed with respect to the Challenge Hypothesis and the Biosocial Model of Status, and the possible mechanisms underlying the independent relations of testosterone and personality factors with antagonistic behavior.

  6. Analysing deception in a psychopath's speech: a quantitative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela ALMELA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy involves a series of specific cognitive, social and emotional features which make the psychopath different from the general population; the two most significant characteristics are extreme selfishness and deep emotional deficit that is reflected in apathy. Notably, psychopaths are skilled communicators who that use language to lie. As there has been little examination of the speech associated specifically with psychopaths, especially in the Spanish language, the present study aims to contrast different veracious excerpts to others which are deceptive. The text analysis is framed within forensic computational linguistics, and complemented with some information related to the stylometric profile of the text. The investigation shows how the parameter mainly affected by the psychological condition of the psychopath subject is the distribution of grammatical persons; in addition, some further evidence includes the frequency of certainty adverbs and verbs related to cognitive processes.

  7. Domains and facets: hierarchical personality assessment using the revised NEO personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1995-02-01

    Personality traits are organized hierarchically, with narrow, specific traits combining to define broad, global factors. The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992c) assesses personality at both levels, with six specific facet scales in each of five broad domains. This article describes conceptual issues in specifying facets of a domain and reports evidence on the validity of NEO-PI-R facet scales. Facet analysis-the interpretation of a scale in terms of the specific facets with which it correlates-is illustrated using alternative measures of the five-factor model and occupational scales. Finally, the hierarchical interpretation of personality profiles is discussed. Interpretation on the domain level yields a rapid understanding of the individual interpretation of specific facet scales gives a more detailed assessment.

  8. The Relation Between Item Format and the Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicer, Wayne F.; Stevenson, John F.

    1978-01-01

    A Likert seven-choice response format for personality inventories allows finer distinctions by subjects than the traditional two-choice format. The Eysenck Personality Inventory was employed in the present study to test the hypothesis that use of the expanded format would result in a clearer and more accurate indication of test structure.…

  9. Psychopaths know right from wrong but don’t care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnaer, Franca; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as causally necessary for moral judgment, have led to the conclusion that psychopaths lack an understanding of moral rights and wrongs. We test an alternative explanation: psychopaths have normal understanding of right and wrong, but abnormal regulation of morally appropriate behavior. We presented psychopaths with moral dilemmas, contrasting their judgments with age- and sex-matched (i) healthy subjects and (ii) non-psychopathic, delinquents. Subjects in each group judged cases of personal harms (i.e. requiring physical contact) as less permissible than impersonal harms, even though both types of harms led to utilitarian gains. Importantly, however, psychopaths’ pattern of judgments on different dilemmas was the same as those of the other subjects. These results force a rejection of the strong hypothesis that emotional processes are causally necessary for judgments of moral dilemmas, suggesting instead that psychopaths understand the distinction between right and wrong, but do not care about such knowledge, or the consequences that ensue from their morally inappropriate behavior. PMID:20053752

  10. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention.

  11. Test Review: A Review of the Five Factor Personality Inventory-Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, David A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a review of the Five Factor Personality Inventory-Children (FFPI-C), a quick and easily administered personality assessment for children and adolescents with clear and straightforward scoring and interpretation procedures. The FFPI-C is based on a theoretical model of personality developed through the work of Allport (Allport…

  12. 7 CFR 767.52 - Disposition of personal property from real estate inventory property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of personal property from real estate..., personal property has been left on the real estate inventory property, the Agency will notify the former real estate owner and any known lienholders that the Agency will dispose of the personal property...

  13. The Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality: A Review and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Priscilla

    The Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality (SLIP) was developed by two Jungian analysts to allow examination of personality from the perspective of Jung's typology and to solve problems perceived with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, based on Jungian dichotomies. The SLIP is designed to clarify and describe the user's personality based on the…

  14. The maladaptive Personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO Personality factors and Schizotypy/Dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Ashton; K. Lee (Kibeom); R.E. de Vries (Reinout); R.G. Hendrickse; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and th

  15. The maladaptive Personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO Personality factors and Schizotypy/Dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Ashton; K. Lee (Kibeom); R.E. de Vries (Reinout); R.G. Hendrickse; M.Ph. Born (Marise)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and

  16. Evaluation of personality dimensions using the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory in subjects with borderline personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Farid Hoseini F; Asadi SM; Kaviani H; Ali Malayeri N

    2008-01-01

    "nBackground: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) efficiently diagnoses personality disorders, differentiating the individual subtypes. This research aimed to evaluate personality dimensions using the Cloninger TCI (TCI-125) in a group of people with borderline personality disorders at Ruzbeh Hospital, Tehran, Iran. "nMethods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 27 borderline personality patients were evaluated with a clinical interview based on the Diagnostic and S...

  17. Social cognition deficits and psychopathic traits in young people seeking mental health treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita van Zwieten

    Full Text Available Antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits place an individual at risk for criminality, mental illness, substance dependence, and psychosocial dysfunction. Social cognition deficits appear to be associated with psychopathic traits and are believed to contribute to interpersonal dysfunction. Most research investigating the relationship of these traits with social cognition has been conducted either in children or adult forensic settings. We investigated whether psychopathic traits were associated with social cognition in 91 young people presenting for mental healthcare (aged between 15 and 25 years. Participants completed symptom severity measures, neuropsychological tests, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test of social cognition (RMET, and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD to assess psychopathic personality traits. Correlation analyses showed poorer social cognition was associated with greater psychopathic traits (r = -.36, p = .01. Interestingly, social cognition performance predicted unique variance in concurrent psychopathic personality traits above gender, IQ sustained attention, and working memory performance. These findings suggest that social cognitive impairments are associated with psychopathic tendencies in young people presenting for community mental healthcare. Research is needed to establish the directionality of this relationship and to determine whether social cognition training is an effective treatment amongst young people with psychopathic tendencies.

  18. Are self-report measures of adaptive functioning appropriate for those high in psychopathic traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Lundquist, Bethany A; Boccaccini, Marcus T; Simpler, Amber

    2012-01-01

    There is ongoing debate about the methods that evaluators should use to assess the adaptive functioning of an individual in an Atkins claim, including the appropriateness of using self-report measures and extent to which adaptive functioning measures are valid for persons with a history of violent offending. This study examined whether offenders' self-report adaptive functioning scores tended to decrease as their level of psychopathic traits increased. Eighty-five male felony probationers completed the self-report version of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System - II (ABAS-II: Harrison & Oakland, 2003), the Psychopathic Personality Inventory - Revised (PPI-R: Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005), and a brief intelligence screening measure. ABAS-II composite scores were negatively correlated with PPI-R Self-Centered Impulsivity and Coldheartedness scores, but positively correlated with Fearless Dominance scores. These relationships appeared to be due, in part, to over-reporting symptoms of impairment across measures, suggesting that scores on self-report adaptive functioning measures may be especially susceptible to feigning.

  19. Age Trends and Age Norms for the NEO Personality Inventory-3 In Adolescents and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Martin, Thomas A.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The NEO Personality Inventory-3 (NEO-PI-3) is a modification of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) designed to be more understandable to adolescents. Data from adults aged 21 to 91 showed that the NEO-PI-3 also functions as well or better than the NEO-PI-R in adults. Age trends from combined adolescent (n = 500) and adult (n = 635)…

  20. Brief report: self-reported psychopathic-like features among Finnish community youth: investigation of the factor structure of the Antisocial Personality Screening Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Lipsanen, Jari; Aronen, Eeva T

    2014-10-01

    The Antisocial Process Screening Device- Self-Report (APSD-SR) is a self-report measure for assessment of psychopathic traits in adolescents. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure and internal consistency of the APSD-SR in a sample of 4855 Finnish community adolescents. A three-factor structure with factors representing impulsivity (IMP), narcissism (NAR) and callous-unemotional (CU) features was found. Internal consistency indices ranged from moderate to good. The findings provide promising data on applicability of the APSD-SR instrument to Scandinavian youth. Results have implications for researchers and clinicians interested in measuring adolescent psychopathy.

  1. A redundancy analysis for the Inwald Personality Inventory and the MMPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shusman, E

    1987-01-01

    A redundancy analysis between two psychological preemployment screening inventories was conducted with 2,438 male correction officer candidates. One canonical variate accounted for the majority of overlapping variance. When cross-validated, redundancy indices were. 17 for the Inwald Personality Inventory (IPI) and. 15 for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Three areas of overlap-control over actions, external control, and restlessness-were suggested. Less pathological behavioral patterns predictive of future job performance appeared measured only by the IPI. These results, combined with results from predictive validity studies, provide evidence that pathology is not sufficient for identifying "high risk" candidates.

  2. The modulation of somatosensory resonance by psychopathic traits and empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Voisin, Julien I A; Lemelin, Sophie; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L

    2013-01-01

    A large number of neuroimaging studies have shown neural overlaps between first-hand experiences of pain and the perception of pain in others. This shared neural representation of vicarious pain is thought to involve both affective and sensorimotor systems. A number of individual factors are thought to modulate the cerebral response to other's pain. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of psychopathic traits on the relation between sensorimotor resonance to other's pain and self-reported empathy. Our group has previously shown that a steady-state response to non-painful stimulation is modulated by the observation of other people's bodily pain. This change in somatosensory response was interpreted as a form of somatosensory gating (SG). Here, using the same technique, SG was compared between two groups of 15 young adult males: one scoring very high on a self-reported measure of psychopathic traits [60.8 ± 4.98; Levenson's Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP)] and one scoring very low (42.7 ± 2.94). The results showed a significantly greater reduction of SG to pain observation for the high psychopathic traits group compared to the low psychopathic traits group. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with affective and interpersonal facet of psychopathy in the whole sample. The high psychopathic traits group also reported lower empathic concern (EC) scores than the low psychopathic traits group. Importantly, primary psychopathy, as assessed by the LSRP, mediated the relation between EC and SG to pain observation. Together, these results suggest that increase somatosensory resonance to other's pain is not exclusively explained by trait empathy and may be linked to other personality dimensions, such as psychopathic traits.

  3. A Review of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) with an Emphasis on Juvenile Justice Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Linda J.; Archer, Robert P.; Forbey, Johnathan D.; Handel, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) and Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) are frequently used objective personality self-report measures. Given their widespread use, the purpose of the current study was to examine and compare the literature base for the two instruments. A comprehensive review of the…

  4. Personality and Intentional Binding: An exploratory study using scores on the narcissistic personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann eHascalovitz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed ‘intentional binding’, and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI. We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience.

  5. Personality and intentional binding: an exploratory study using the narcissistic personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hascalovitz, Ann Chen; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-01-01

    When an individual estimates the temporal interval between a voluntary action and a consequent effect, their estimates are shorter than the real duration. This perceived shortening has been termed "intentional binding", and is often due to a shift in the perception of a voluntary action forward towards the effect and a shift in the perception of the effect back towards the action. Despite much work on binding, there is virtually no consideration of individual/personality differences and how they affect it. Narcissism is a psychological trait associated with an inflated sense of self, and individuals higher in levels of subclinical narcissism tend to see themselves as highly effective agents. Conversely, lower levels of narcissism may be associated with a reduced sense of agency. In this exploratory study, to assess whether individuals with different scores on a narcissism scale are associated with differences in intentional binding, we compared perceived times of actions and effects (tones) between participants with high, middle, and low scores on the narcissistic personality inventory (NPI). We hypothesized that participants with higher scores would show increased binding compared to participants with lower scores. We found that participants in our middle and high groups showed a similar degree of binding, which was significantly greater than the level of binding shown by participants with the lowest scores. To our knowledge, these results are the first to demonstrate that different scores on a personality scale are associated with changes in the phenomenological experience of action, and therefore underscore the importance of considering individual/personality differences in the study of volition. Our results also reinforce the notion that intentional binding is related to agency experience.

  6. The NEO Personality Inventory: Using the Five-Factor Model in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Reviews NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), which is based on Five-Factor Model taxonomy of personality traits. Summarizes characteristics of test, features for administration and scoring, and studies of reliability, stability, and validity. Claims NEO-PI may be particularly appropriate for use in counseling because it is brief,…

  7. Characteristics of Items in the Eysenck Personality Inventory Which Affect Responses When Students Simulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, R. P.; Macrae, K. D.

    1977-01-01

    A large sample of students completed Form A of the Eysenck Personality Inventory, and four subgroups were later asked to simulate extraversion, introversion, neuroticism or stability. It was found that subjects could simulate these four personalities successfully. The changes in individual item responses were correlated with the items' factor…

  8. Auditors' Experience with Corporate Psychopaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Leder, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse auditors’ experience with corporate psychopaths in their client management. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted as a survey among Danish state-authorized auditors, to which 179 auditors responded, representing 9% of the total...... actually exist and are a phenomenon worthy of research attention in areas such as accounting, auditing, internal control, fraud investigation, performance management and human resource management. Practical implications: As auditors are likely to come across corporate psychopaths from time to time...... auditors’ experience with corporate psychopaths. It adds value by confirming the relevance of the topic for practice and research....

  9. The psychopathic intimate partner batterer: a non-psychopathological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Pozueco-Romero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical study reviews two of the most cited profiles of intimate partner batterers in the scientific literature, paying special attention to the most notable differences between them, as well as to their common criteria. The study also discusses one of the longest standing controversies in various research studies, including the particular overview with respect to Spain: it being the constant yet erroneous reference to the equivalence of psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder. Similarly, special attention is paid to the implications of considering intimate partner batterers as having either a psychopathological or psychopathic profile, while also stressing the specific role played by psychopathy in the intimate partner batterer and, concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers, such aspects as their specific motives for perpetrating intimate partner violence and the evaluation instruments of this particular profile. Finally, a series of future directives for research concerning psychopathic intimate partner batterers are also pointed out.

  10. The discriminant (and convergent) validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crego, Cristina; Gore, Whitney L; Rojas, Stephanie L; Widiger, Thomas A

    2015-10-01

    A considerable body of research has rapidly accumulated with respect to the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) dimensional trait model as it is assessed by the Personality Inventory for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (PID-5; Krueger et al., 2012). This research though has not focused specifically on discriminant validity, although allusions to potentially problematic discriminant validity have been raised. The current study addressed discriminant validity, reporting for the first time the correlations among the PID-5 domain scales. Also reported are the bivariate correlations of the 25 PID-5 maladaptive trait scales with the personality domain scales of the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (Costa & McCrae, 1992), the International Personality Item Pool-NEO (Goldberg et al., 2006), the Inventory of Personal Characteristics (Almagor et al., 1995), the 5-Dimensional Personality Test (van Kampen, 2012), and the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (Lee & Ashton, 2004). The results are discussed with respect to the implications of and alternative explanations for potentially problematic discriminant validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. 10 Aspects of the Big Five in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Colin G DeYoung; Carey, Bridget E.; Krueger, Robert F; Ross, Scott R.

    2016-01-01

    DSM-5 includes a dimensional model of personality pathology, operationalized in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), with 25 facets grouped into five higher-order factors resembling the Big Five personality dimensions. The present study tested how well these 25 facets could be integrated with the 10-factor structure of traits within the Big Five that is operationalized by the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS). In two healthy adult samples, 10-factor solutions largely confirmed our hypothe...

  12. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Swami, V.; Weis, L.; Ley, A.; Barron, D.; Furnham, A.

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across...

  13. Demand effects on positive response distortion by police officer applicants on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Paul; Chibnall, John T; Call, Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and detecting response distortion is important in the high-demand circumstances of personnel selection. In this article, we describe positive response distortion on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) among police officer applicants under high and low demand conditions. Positive response distortion primarily reflected denial/minimization of Neuroticism and accentuation of traits associated with moralistic bias (Agreeableness and Conscientiousness). Validity of the NEO PI-R research validity scale, Positive Presentation Management, was weakly supported with respect to the Neuroticism domain only. Results will be useful in interpreting personality inventory results in the police personnel selection process.

  14. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  15. Revisiting Lynam's notion of the "fledgling psychopath": are HIA-CP children truly psychopathic-like?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michonski Jared D

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In his developmental model of emerging psychopathy, Lynam proposed that the "fledgling psychopath" is most likely to be located within a subgroup of children elevated in both hyperactivity/inattention/impulsivity (HIA and conduct problems (CP. This approach has garnered some empirical support. However, the extent to which Lynam's model captures children who resemble psychopathy with regard to the core affective and interpersonal features remains unclear. Methods In the present study, we investigated this issue within a large community sample of youth (N = 617. Four groups (non-HIA-CP, HIA-only, CP-only, and HIA-CP, defined on the basis of teacher reports of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ, were compared with respect to parent-reported psychopathic-like traits and subjective emotional reactivity in response to unpleasant, emotionally-laden pictures from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS. Results Results did not support Lynam's model. HIA-CP children did not appear most psychopathic-like on dimensions of callous-unemotional and narcissistic personality, nor did they report reduced emotional reactivity to the IAPS relative to the other children. Post-hoc regression analyses revealed a significant moderation such that elevated HIA weakened the association between CP and emotional underarousal. Conclusions Implications of these findings with regard to the development of psychopathy are discussed.

  16. Examining faking on personality inventories using unfolding item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, Charles A; Sabet, Jennifer; Kern, Michael J; Agnello, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A concern about personality inventories in diagnostic and decision-making contexts is that individuals will fake. Although there is extensive research on faking, little research has focused on how perceptions of personality items change when individuals are faking or responding honestly. This research demonstrates how the delta parameter from the generalized graded unfolding item response theory model can be used to examine how individuals' perceptions about personality items might change when responding honestly or when faking. The results indicate that perceptions changed from honest to faking conditions for several neuroticism items. The direction of the change varied, indicating that faking can operate to increase or decrease scores within a personality factor.

  17. Are indigenous personality dimensions culture specific? Philippine inventories and the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katigbak, Marcia S; Church, A Timothy; Guanzon-Lapeña, Ma Angeles; Carlota, Annadaisy J; del, PilarGregorioH

    2002-01-01

    The authors addressed the culture specificity of indigenous personality constructs, the generalizability of the 5-factor model (FFM), and the incremental validity of indigenous measures in a collectivistic culture. Filipino college students (N = 508) completed 3 indigenous inventories and the Filipino version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). On the basis of the factor and regression analyses, they concluded that (a) most Philippine dimensions are well encompassed by the FFM and thus may not be very culture specific: (b) a few indigenous constructs are less well accounted for by the FFM: these constructs are not unknown in Western cultures, but they may be particularly salient or composed somewhat differently in the Philippines; (c) the structure of the NEO-PI-R FFM replicates well in the Philippines: and (d) Philippine inventories add modest incremental validity beyond the FFM in predicting selected culture-relevant criteria.

  18. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory of patients with allergic rhinitis%变应性鼻炎患者心理人格特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    锡琳; 张伟; 赵岩; 张罗

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between allergic rhinitis(AR) and personality traits in nonpsychiatric population of allergic status. Methods Subjects were assigned to the allergic (84 cases) or nonallergic health group (37 cases) on the basis of skin prick test (SPT) and allergic symptoms. The psychological aspects of subjects were assessed by using the minnesota muliphasic personality inventory (MMPI). Results The allergic group scored higher than the nonallergic group on five clinical scales, hypochondriasis ( Hs ), depression ( D), hysteria ( Hy ), hypomania ( Ma ), social introversion ( Si ), and one research scale manifest aniety scale (Mas). The differences were significant ( t value was respectively 2. 169, 2.711, 2.010, 2.577, 2.390 and 2. 196, all P <0.05). In addition, the grade of resultant skin wheal was positively correlated with T scores on the Hs, Hy, psychopathic deviance (Pd) and psychasthenia ( Pt ). The r value was 0. 366, 0. 449, 0. 345 and 0. 355 respectively ( all P < 0. 05 ).Conclusion Subjects with AR show poorer psychological functioning, indicating the close relationship between AR and psychological status.%目的 探讨变应性鼻炎(allergic rhinitis,AR)患者的基本心理人格特征.方法 应用明尼苏达多相个性调查表(minnesota muliphasic personality inventory,MMPI)分析84例AR患者和37例健康对照者的心理人格特征.结果 AR患者在疑病量表(hypochondriasis,Hs)、抑郁量表(depression,D)、癔病量表(hysteria,Hy)、轻躁狂量表(hypomania,Ma)、社会内向量表(social introversion,Si)5个临床量表T分和外显焦虑量表(manifest aniety scale,Mas)T分明显高于健康对照(t值分别为2.169、2.711、2.010、2.577、2.390、2.196,P值均<0.05).皮肤点刺风团等级与Hs、Hy、精神病态量表(psychopathic deviance,Pd)、精神衰弱量表(psychasthenia,Pt)的T分呈正相关(r值分别为0.366、0.449、0.345、0.355,P值均<0.05),风团直径越大患者Hs、Hy、Pd

  19. Structure of Interests in Japan: Application of the Personal Globe Inventory Occupational Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Lirong; Watanabe, Naotaka; Tracey, Terence J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Japanese college students (N = 2,492) completed the translated Personal Globe Inventory (PGI: T. J. G. Tracey, 2002b) Occupational Title scales, and the structural validity of vocational interests was examined. Support was provided for the RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional), octant, and spherical…

  20. Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Magaletta, Philip R.; Geyer, Matthew D.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    The Antisocial Features (ANT) scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis in a group of 2,135 federal prison inmates. Scores on the three ANT subscales--Antisocial Behaviors (ANT-A), Egocentricity (ANT-E), and Stimulus Seeking (ANT-S)--served as indicators in this study and were evaluated using the…

  1. Differential Item Functioning By Sex and Race in The Hogan Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Richard; Han, Kyunghee; Colarelli, Stephen M.; Dai, Guangdong; King, Daniel W.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined measurement bias in the Hogan Personality Inventory by investigating differential item functioning (DIF) across sex and two racial groups (Caucasian and Black). The sample consisted of 1,579 Caucasians (1,023 men, 556 women) and 523 Blacks (321 men, 202 women) who were applying for entry-level, unskilled jobs in factories.…

  2. Eysenck Personality Inventory: A Normative Study on an Adult Industrial Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Reid K.; Brown, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Developed norms for an adult industrial population for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. An analysis of scale scores by age, sex, marital status, and occupational category revealed significant differences in extraversion scale scores by age and sex. Norm tables are presented by sex. (Author)

  3. Stability of Scores on the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory in an Outpatient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrys, Jan Bernard

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports a test-retest study of the Junior Eysenck Personality Inventory for 257 children, ages 7-16, receiving psychological services in a British Columbia public health facility. Findings support the test author's claims over a 30-day period of relative score stability on extraversion and neuroticism. (Author/SJL)

  4. Screening Preschoolers with Special Problems: Use of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, P. A.; Lachar, David

    The Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) is an objectively scored, multidimensional measure of child and adolescent behavior, affect, and cognitive ability and can be completed by parents. The overall goal of this project was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the PIC as a screening device for use with preschool populations. The…

  5. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  6. A Factor Analysis of the Bem Sex Role Inventory and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namok; Jenkins, Stephen J.

    This study investigated the dimensions of sex role orientation measured by the revised Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; S. Bem, 1974) and the revised Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; J. Spence, R. Helmreich, and J. Strapp, 1975). Participants were 651 undergraduates in introductory psychology courses. The sample was approximately 50% male and…

  7. Comparative Factor Analyses of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antill, John K.; Cunningham, John D.

    1982-01-01

    Compared the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) as measures of androgyny. Results showed that femininty (Concern for Others) and masculinity (Dominance) accounted for most of the variance, but for PAQ, clusters of male- and female-valued items (i.e., Extroversion and Insecurity) formed subsidiary factors.…

  8. Personality Assessment Inventory Profiles of Deployed Combat Troops: An Empirical Investigation of Normative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lowmaster, Sara E.; Coldren, Rodney L.; Kelly, Mark P.; Parish, Robert V.; Russell, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the normative scores and psychometric properties of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) within a non-treatment-seeking sample of soldiers deployed to combat zones in Iraq, compared with a sample of community adults matched with respect to age and gender. Results indicate the scores and properties of…

  9. Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Neo Personality Inventory facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D A; Anderson, P E; Tsagarakis, C I; Holland, C J

    1995-04-01

    Using data obtained from 48 male and 161 female undergraduate students in psychology, correlations between scores on the scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the facets of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domains of the NEO Personality Inventory were low to moderate.

  10. Trait Variance and Response Style Variance in the Scales of the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Michael C.; de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Lee, Kibeom

    2017-01-01

    Using self- and observer reports on the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory–Revised (HEXACO–PI–R), we identified for each inventory several trait dimensions (each defined by both self- and observer reports on the facet-level scales belonging to the same

  11. Trait Variance and Response Style Variance in the Scales of the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Michael C.; Vries, de Reinout E.; Lee, Kibeom

    2016-01-01

    Using self- and observer reports on the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory–Revised (HEXACO–PI–R), we identified for each inventory several trait dimensions (each defined by both self- and observer reports on the facet-level scales belonging to the same domai

  12. Trait Variance and Response Style Variance in the Scales of the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Michael C.; de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Lee, Kibeom

    2017-01-01

    Using self- and observer reports on the Personality Inventory for DSM–5 (PID–5) and the HEXACO Personality Inventory–Revised (HEXACO–PI–R), we identified for each inventory several trait dimensions (each defined by both self- and observer reports on the facet-level scales belonging to the same domai

  13. Evaluation of personality dimensions using the Cloninger Temperament and Character Inventory in subjects with borderline personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Hoseini F

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI efficiently diagnoses personality disorders, differentiating the individual subtypes. This research aimed to evaluate personality dimensions using the Cloninger TCI (TCI-125 in a group of people with borderline personality disorders at Ruzbeh Hospital, Tehran, Iran. "nMethods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 27 borderline personality patients were evaluated with a clinical interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition text revision (DSM-ІV-TR and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-ІV Axis IІ (SCIDII. Depression and anxiety scores of patients were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI questionnaires. Dimensions of temperament and character traits were assessed using the TCI-125. The findings were compared with parameters of the normal Iranian population. "nResults: Results showed higher scores for novelty seeking and harm avoidance and lower scores for self directedness, self transcendence and cooperativeness in borderline personality disorder patients. "nConclusion: The results of the Cloninger TCI in this study showed higher scores for novelty seeking and harm avoidance and lower scores for self directedness than those of the normal Iranian population. Scores for reward dependence fell within the range of the normal population. Lower scores for character factors, such as self directedness, cooperativeness and self transcendence, are usually associated with cluster B personality traits. Higher scores for novelty seeking and harm avoidance are usually characteristic of borderline personality disorder patients. In this study, there is the possibility that the small sample size or other factors, such as medication or substance abuse, might affect the study, resulting in normal scores for reward dependence.

  14. Eysenck personality inventory: impulsivity/neuroticism and social desirability response set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, V

    1996-02-01

    The Hindi version of the Eysenck Personality Inventory and the Trait scale of the Hindi version of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered to 945 female Indian students (M age = 20.4 yr., SD = 1.4) to study the personalities of those scoring low and high on the Lie scale, and the association of Lie scale scores in the intercorrelation between Impulsivity and Neuroticism under no motivation to fake good. The group with low scores on the Lie scale had lower scores on Impulsivity and higher scores on Neuroticism and Trait Anxiety than a group scoring high on the Lie scale. No association of Lie scale scores was observed with scores on Extraversion. Lie scale scores were differentially associated with scores on Impulsivity and Neuroticism. The need to consider the Lie scale in addition to other scales in studies of personality is emphasised.

  15. Psychometric Properties of Scores on the French and Korean Versions of the Hexaco Personality Inventory. Validity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boies, Kathleen; Yoo, Tae-Yong; Ebacher, Annik; Lee, Kibeom; Ashton, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Recent lexical studies of personality structure suggest that there are six independent major dimensions of personality. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI), a new questionnaire that measures these six lexically derived personality constructs, was examined in two different cultural contexts using samples of 149 Francophone and 211 Korean…

  16. A competitively designed version of the point subtraction aggression paradigm is related to proactive aggressive and psychopathic traits in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Thorben; Schliwa, Evita S; May, Valerie D; Lammertz, Sarah E; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2017-06-20

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) is a well-validated and frequently applied behavioral paradigm for provocation and quantification of reactive aggressive behavior in laboratory settings. Here, we design and test a newly developed PSAP version in its ability to quantify proactive aggressive behavior. A group of 119 male volunteers was allocated to the conventional PSAP and two other variants of the PSAP. The first PSAP adaptation intended to abet proactive aggression by monetary reward for aggressive actions. In the second variant, a highly competitive situation was created. In addition, two sets of aggression questionnaires, related to proactive and reactive aggressive and psychopathic traits, were used (Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R)). Our results showed strong positive correlations among RPQ/PPI-R and aggressive behavior only for the new competitive version of the PSAP. In contrast, the scores of these scales showed weak and non-significant correlations with observed aggression in the two PSAP variants. The scores for reactive aggression were not significantly associated with any of the PSAP versions. These data indicate that aggression on the newly developed competitive PSAP design is mainly driven by proactive aggressive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychopathy subtypes and psychopathic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Koshkina Ekaterina Nikolaevna

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses two main subtypes of psychopathy and its characteristic traits that allow to differ them from each other. Following that, the existence of more specific subtypes of psychopathy and sociopathy is argued on the basis of the recent researches. Also, the inclination of psychopaths and sociopaths to various kinds of violence is examined.

  18. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  19. The Narcissistic Personality Inventory: a useful tool for assessing pathological narcissism? Evidence from patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Ritter, Kathrin; Renneberg, Babette; Schulze, Lars; Bosson, Jennifer K; Roepke, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) has dominated research on narcissism in the field of social and personality psychology. Surprisingly, it is unclear whether the NPI is useful for identifying pathological narcissism in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD). The goal of this study was to close this research gap. We used an extreme-group approach by including NPD patients and healthy controls and comparing their narcissism scores. We further investigated whether explicit self-esteem (assessed with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) suppressed the relationship between group membership and NPI narcissism. According to our results, NPD patients do not score higher on the NPI in comparison to healthy controls. Analysis of indirect effects revealed that differences in NPI scores are suppressed by NPD patients' low self-esteem. Our results indicate that the NPI is not a valid indicator of NPD, unless one controls for self-esteem. Implications for future research are discussed.

  20. Associations between belief in conspiracy theories and the maladaptive personality traits of the personality inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Weis, Laura; Lay, Alixe; Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-02-28

    Conspiracy theories can be treated as both rational narratives of the world as well as outcomes of underlying maladaptive traits. Here, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and individual differences in personality disorders. An Internet-based sample (N=259) completed measures of belief in conspiracy theories and the 25 facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Preliminary analyses showed no significant differences in belief in conspiracy theories across participant sex, ethnicity, and education. Regression analyses showed that the PID-5 facets of Unusual Beliefs and Experiences and, to a lesser extent, Suspiciousness, significantly predicted belief in conspiracy theories. These findings highlight a role for maladaptive personality traits in understanding belief in conspiracy theories, but require further investigation.

  1. An Integrative Analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the Hypomanic Personality Scale: Implications for Construct Validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kasey; Daly, Elizabeth; Stasik-O'Brien, Sara M; Ellickson-Larew, Stephanie; Clark, Lee Anna; Watson, David

    2016-01-15

    The primary goal of this study was to explicate the construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) by examining their relations both to each other and to measures of personality and psychopathology in a community sample (N = 255). Structural evidence indicates that the NPI is defined by Leadership/Authority, Grandiose Exhibitionism, and Entitlement/Exploitativeness factors, whereas the HPS is characterized by specific dimensions reflecting Social Vitality, Mood Volatility, and Excitement. Our results establish that (a) factor-based subscales from these instruments display divergent patterns of relations that are obscured when relying exclusively on total scores and (b) some NPI and HPS subscales more clearly tap content specifically relevant to narcissism and mania, respectively, than others. In particular, our findings challenge the construct validity of the NPI Leadership/Authority and HPS Social Vitality subscales, which appear to assess overlapping assertiveness content that is largely adaptive in nature.

  2. Effect of neurolinguistic programming training on self-actualization as measured by the Personal Orientation Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R C; Konefal, J; Spechler, M M

    1990-06-01

    Neurolinguistic programming training is based on principles that should enable the trainee to be more "present"-oriented, inner-directed, flexible, self-aware, and responsive to others, that is, more self-actualized. This study reports within-person changes on self-actualization measures of the Personal Orientation Inventory following a 24-day residential training in neurolinguistic programming. Significant positive mean changes were found for 18 master practitioners on nine of the 12 scales and for 36 practitioners on 10 of the 12 scales. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that training increases individual self-actualization scores.

  3. Capturing Abnormal Personality With Normal Personality Inventories: An Item Response Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Correlational and factor-analytic methods indicate that abnormal and normal personality constructs may be tapping the same underlying latent trait. However, they do not systematically demonstrate that measures of abnormal personality capture more extreme ranges of the latent trait than measures of normal range personality. Item Response Theory (IRT) methods, in contrast, do provide this information. In the present study, we use IRT methods to evaluate the range of the latent trait assessed wi...

  4. Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Wygant, Dustin B; Salekin, Randall T; Krueger, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    The current investigation examined the associations between personality traits representing DSM-5 Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), its psychopathy specifier, and contemporary models of psychopathic personality disorder. We used two samples consisting of university students (n = 463) and community-dwelling participants (n = 148) recruited for subclinical psychopathic proclivities. Both samples were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (Krueger et al., 2012), Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (Patrick, 2010), and versions of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI; Lilienfeld & Widows, 2005). University students also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders-Personality Questionnaire (First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997). Across both samples, the Section III ASPD traits were moderately strongly correlated with psychopathy measures, except the fearless-dominance/boldness domain. However, as would be expected, traits representing the Section III psychopathy specifier accounted for a substantial amount of variance within this domain. Furthermore, additional DSM-5 Section III personality traits augmented the characterization of psychopathy from the PPI and Triarchic perspectives.

  5. The psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Rute; Sousa Ferreira, Ana; Guedes, David

    2017-10-01

    The DSM-5 Section III proposes a hybrid dimensional-categorical model of conceptualizing personality and its disorders that includes assessment of impairments in personality functioning (criterion A) and maladaptive personality traits (criterion B). The Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 is a new dimensional tool, composed of 220 items organized into 25 facets that delineate five higher order domains of clinically relevant personality differences, and was developed to operationalize the DSM-5 model of pathological personality traits. The current studies address the internal consistency (study 1), the test-retest reliability (study 2) and the criterion validity (studies 3 and 4) of the Portuguese version of the PID-5 in samples of native speaking psychology students. Results indicated good internal consistency reliabilities and good temporal stability reliabilities for the majority of the PID-5 traits. The correlational pattern of the PID-5 traits with two measures of personality was in accordance with theoretical expectations and showed its concurrent validity. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Auditors' Experience with Corporate Psychopaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Leder, Christina

    2016-01-01

    in their careers, awareness of this type of risk needs to be increased and better integrated into the risk assessment in audit planning. Auditing standards relating to fraud also need to be updated according to the latest developments in fraud theory. Originality/value: This is the first research to address...... of cases were detected in the execution and completion phases of the audit and resulted in increased professional scepticism, the use of more experienced auditors and the requirement for more and better audit evidence. Research limitations/implications: The findings confirm that corporate psychopaths...... actually exist and are a phenomenon worthy of research attention in areas such as accounting, auditing, internal control, fraud investigation, performance management and human resource management. Practical implications: As auditors are likely to come across corporate psychopaths from time to time...

  7. Evaluation of potential kidney donors with the personality assessment inventory: normative data for a unique population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Duane F; Locke, Dona E C; Osborne, David

    2010-09-01

    Many transplant centers require personality assessment and/or psychiatric clearance prior to allowing an individual to donate a kidney. This is a unique cohort for personality assessment, and there is no normative information available for this population on standardized self-report measures such as the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). We evaluated a prospective sample of 434 kidney donor candidates with development of normative T-scores relevant to this specific comparison group. Compared to the original normative group from the PAI manual, potential kidney donors are 5-7 T-score points above the mean on PIM, RXR, DOM, and WRM and 4-6 points below the mean on the majority of the remaining scales. Raw score/T score conversion tables are provided. The normative data provided here is meant to supplement the original normative information and aid psychologists in evaluation of this unique medical population.

  8. Effects of positive impression management on the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised in a clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, J F; Caldwell-Andrews, A; Baer, R A

    2001-06-01

    Sixty adults in outpatient psychotherapy completed the NEO Personality Inventory--Revised (NEO PI-R, P. T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992a). Half were instructed to fake good and half were given standard instructions. All completed the Interpersonal Adjective Scale--Revised, Big Five (J. S. Wiggins & P. D. Trapnell, 1997) under standard instructions, and their therapists completed the observer rating form of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. A comparison group of 30 students completed the NEO PI-R under standard instructions. Standard and fake-good participants obtained significantly different NEO PI-R domain scores. Correlations between the NEO PI-R and criterion measures were significantly lower for faking than for standard patients. Validity scales for the NEO PI-R (J. A. Schinka, B. N. Kinder, & T. Kremer, 1997) were moderately accurate in discriminating faking from standard patients, but were only marginally accurate in discriminating faking patients from students.

  9. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  10. Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, R F; Derringer, J; Markon, K E; Watson, D; Skodol, A E

    2012-09-01

    DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors. An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models). A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism. We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.

  11. Personality inventory for children and childhood migraine. A case-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, V; Fornara, R; Ottaviano, S; Petrilli, A; Seri, S; Cortesi, F

    1987-12-01

    The personality inventory for children (PIC), which is similar in structure to the MMPI and hence free from subjective interpretation, is applicable to children from 6 to 16 years of age. We used it in 40 children with common migraine aged 8 to 14 years and in 40 controls comparable in age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Although the migraine subjects did not emerge as globally different from the controls, they presented significantly higher scores on the Somatic concern, Depression, and Anxiety scales, irrespective of sex. These results underline the value of PIC in the diagnostic assessment of childhood migraine.

  12. Egos inflating over time: a cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Konrath, Sara; Foster, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Bushman, Brad J

    2008-07-01

    A cross-temporal meta-analysis found that narcissism levels have risen over the generations in 85 samples of American college students who completed the 40-item forced-choice Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) between 1979 and 2006 (total n=16,475). Mean narcissism scores were significantly correlated with year of data collection when weighted by sample size (beta=.53, pnarcissism score, a 30% increase. The results complement previous studies finding increases in other individualistic traits such as assertiveness, agency, self-esteem, and extraversion.

  13. Criminal offences of schizophrenics and psychopaths from the aspect of authorized expertise in jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichá, M

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of an analysis of criminal offences committed by persons with the diagnosis of schizophreny and psychopathy revealed that the generally assumed dangerous character of schizophrenics did not appear in our set of subjects that were examined. The results of the comparison of the two diagnostic groups suggest a much greater danger of aggressive criminal offences in psychopaths, in whom also a much higher percentage was influenced by alcohol and in whom repetition of criminal offences was found more often. The problem of prevention of delinquency in psychopaths appears to be rather complex because of the complexity of the problems found in psychopaths--their ethiopathogenesis, insufficient effect of therapy, and insufficient effect of the reformatory measures. The problem of prevention of criminal offences in persons with diagnosis of schizophreny involves early identification of the disease or a deterioration of the patient's condition, and an early treatment including rehabilitation in a wide sense of the word.

  14. Successful and unsuccessful psychopaths: a neurobiological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psychopaths, and serial killers. An initial neurobiological model of successful and unsuccessful psychopathy is outlined. It is hypothesized that successful psychopaths have intact or enhanced neurobiological functioning that underlies their normal or even superior cognitive functioning, which in turn helps them to achieve their goals using more covert and nonviolent methods. In contrast, in unsuccessful, caught psychopaths, brain structural and functional impairments together with autonomic nervous system dysfunction are hypothesized to underlie cognitive and emotional deficits and more overt violent offending.

  15. Self-reported psychopathic traits in sexually offending juveniles compared with generally offending juveniles and general population youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonmann, Cyril; Jansen, Lucres M C; 't Hart-Kerkhoffs, Lisette A; Vahl, Pauline; Hillege, Sanne L; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to gain a better insight into the relationship between sexually aggressive behaviour and psychopathy in youths; juveniles who sexually offended (JSOs) were compared with generally offending youths and a general population group. Seventy-one JSOs, 416 detained general offenders, and 331 males from the general population were assessed by means of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI), a self-report instrument. Sexually and generally offending juveniles had significantly lower levels of self-reported psychopathic traits than youths from the general population. Juvenile sexual offenders and generally offending juveniles did not differ in self-reported psychopathic traits. Furthermore, no differences in self-reported psychopathic traits were found between subgroups of JSOs (i.e., child molesters, solo offenders, and group offenders). The finding that self-reported psychopathic traits are less prevalent in offending juveniles than in general population youths raises questions about the usefulness of the YPI when comparing psychopathic traits between clinical samples and general-population samples.

  16. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context.Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items.Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability.Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited.Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  17. Assessment of borderline personality features in population samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features scale measurement invariant across sex and age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, de M.H.M.; Distel, M.A.; Trull, T.J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderl

  18. Assessment of Borderline Personality Features in Population Samples: Is the Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features Scale Measurement Invariant across Sex and Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moor, Marleen H. M.; Distel, Marijn A.; Trull, Timothy J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is more often diagnosed in women than in men, and symptoms tend to decline with age. Using a large community sample, the authors investigated whether sex and age differences in four main features of BPD, measured with the "Personality Assessment Inventory-Borderline Features" scale (PAI-BOR; Morey,…

  19. Career Pathing among General Administrative and Support Services Employees Based on Holland?s Typology of Personality Theory and Personal Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Catalino N.

    2009-01-01

    The study is about the prevailing differences, commonalities and significant contributions of the career pathing among the general administrative and support services employees based on Holland's Typology of Personality Theory and Personal Style Inventory of selected higher educational institutions in Metro Manila.

  20. Neurocognitive parameters should be incorporated in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 assessment of patients with alcohol use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, S.J.W.; Wester, A.J.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Aims. Treatment planning for alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients is often preceded by the assessment of psychopathology and personality with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). However, during periods of abstinence, cognitive impairments (e.g. attention,

  1. Ten aspects of the Big Five in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Colin G; Carey, Bridget E; Krueger, Robert F; Ross, Scott R

    2016-04-01

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) includes a dimensional model of personality pathology, operationalized in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), with 25 facets grouped into 5 higher order factors resembling the Big Five personality dimensions. The present study tested how well these 25 facets could be integrated with the 10-factor structure of traits within the Big Five that is operationalized by the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS). In 2 healthy adult samples, 10-factor solutions largely confirmed our hypothesis that each of the 10 BFAS would be the highest loading BFAS on 1 and only 1 factor. Varying numbers of PID-5 scales were additional markers of each factor, and the overall factor structure in the first sample was well replicated in the second. Our results allow Cybernetic Big Five Theory (CB5T) to be brought to bear on manifestations of personality disorder, because CB5T offers mechanistic explanations of the 10 factors measured by the BFAS. Future research, therefore, may begin to test hypotheses derived from CB5T regarding the mechanisms that are dysfunctional in specific personality disorders.

  2. 10 Aspects of the Big Five in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeYoung, Colin. G.; Carey, Bridget E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Ross, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    DSM-5 includes a dimensional model of personality pathology, operationalized in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), with 25 facets grouped into five higher-order factors resembling the Big Five personality dimensions. The present study tested how well these 25 facets could be integrated with the 10-factor structure of traits within the Big Five that is operationalized by the Big Five Aspect Scales (BFAS). In two healthy adult samples, 10-factor solutions largely confirmed our hypothesis that each of the 10 BFAS scales would be the highest loading BFAS scale on one and only one factor. Varying numbers of PID-5 scales were additional markers of each factor, and the overall factor structure in the first sample was well replicated in the second. Our results allow Cybernetic Big Five Theory (CB5T) to be brought to bear on manifestations of personality disorder, because CB5T offers mechanistic explanations of the 10 factors measured by the BFAS. Future research, therefore, may begin to test hypotheses derived from CB5T regarding the mechanisms that are dysfunctional in specific personality disorders. PMID:27032017

  3. Profile analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory following military-related traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E; Cooper, Douglas B; Reid, Matthew W; Tate, David F; Lange, Rael T

    2015-05-01

    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate-severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled "High Distress", "Moderate Distress", "Somatic Distress," and "No Distress". Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies.

  4. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  5. Profile Analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory Following Military-Related Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E.; Cooper, Douglas B.; Reid, Matthew W.; Tate, David F.; Lange, Rael T.

    2015-01-01

    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild–severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate–severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled “High Distress”, “Moderate Distress”, “Somatic Distress,” and “No Distress”. Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies. PMID:25857403

  6. Development and internal structure investigation of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a dimensional instrument to assess personality disorders based on Millon's theoretical perspective and on DSM-IV-TR diagnoses criteria, and seek validity evidence based on internal structure and reliability indexes of the factors. In order to do that, a self-report test composed of 215 items, the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (DCPI was developed and applied to 561 respondents aged between 18 and 90 years (M = 28,8; SD = 11.4, with 51.8% females. Exploratory factor analysis and verification of reliability were performed using Cronbach's alpha. Data provided validity evidence based on internal structure of the instrument according to the theory of Millon and DSM-IV-TR.

  7. Strengths and Limitations of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in Juvenile Delinquency Assessments

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    Robert A. Semel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights and discusses the usefulness of the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments. Psychiatric disorders have high prevalence rates among youths in the juvenile justice system. The PIY was developed to evaluate a broad range of behavioral and psychological characteristics, which may make it useful in juvenile delinquency assessment contexts. Practical and psychometric strengths and limitations of the PIY in the juvenile delinquency assessment context are presented, with reference to relevant research literature. The effectiveness of this instrument in detecting response bias, particularly under-reporting, and for identifying problems associated with delinquency is discussed. The issue of item overlap and spurious influences on scale correlations, especially between the PIY Defensiveness and Delinquency scales, is also addressed. A comparison of findings with the PIY and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–Adolescent (MMPI-A in juvenile justice samples helps to identify broader considerations about how youths in juvenile justice settings respond to self-report psychological inventories. Finally, the author offers some practical considerations for evaluators when using the PIY in juvenile delinquency assessments, and suggestions for future research.

  8. Development of the Multi-Trait Personality Inventory (MTPI): comparison among four Chinese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, P C; Conger, A J; Hau, K T; Lew, W J; Lau, S

    1992-12-01

    Anemic approach was adopted to develop a culture-specific instrument for the assessment of Chinese personality. The Multi-Trial Personality Inventory (MTPI) was administered to 1,673 men and 944 women in four major Chinese populations. It was found that Chinese in mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the United States possess some common traits deeply rooted in the Chinese culture characterized by Confucian thoughts (e.g., self-discipline and moderation) and some additional traits nurtured by their respective environments. Consequently, findings of this study lent support to the hypothesis that, in spite of superficial discontinuities, there are basic continuities in the personality traits of mainland and overseas Chinese. The cross-cultural differences in personality were examined from a political-social perspective and also explained with a cultural-ecological model. In the development of the MTPI, a new methodology that relies on forming factor-consistent clusters was employed to deal successfully with the problem of complex factor space.

  9. Beyond the big five: the Dark Triad and the supernumerary personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, Livia; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A

    2011-04-01

    The Dark Triad of personality, comprising Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, was investigated in relation to the Supernumerary Personality Inventory (SPI) traits, because both sets of variables are predominantly distinct from the Big Five model of personality. Correlational and principal factor analyses were conducted to assess the relations between the Dark Triad and SPI traits. Multivariate behavioral genetic model-fitting analyses were also conducted to determine the correlated genetic and/or environmental underpinnings of the observed phenotypic correlations. Participants were 358 monozygotic and 98 same-sex dizygotic adult twin pairs from North America. As predicted, results revealed significant correlations between the Dark Triad and most SPI traits, and these correlations were primarily attributable to common genetic and non-shared environmental factors, except in the case of Machiavellianism, where shared environmental effects emerged. Three correlated factors were extracted during joint factor analysis of the Dark Triad and SPI traits, as well as a heritable general factor of personality - results that clarified the structure of the Dark Triad construct. It is concluded that the Dark Triad represents an exploitative and antisocial construct that extends beyond the Big Five model and shares a theoretical space with the SPI traits.

  10. Personality structure in Slovenian three-year-olds: The inventory of child individual differences

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    Maja Zupančič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the validity of the newly developed culturally- and age-decentered instrument (International Inventory of Individual Differences, ICID, an internationally designed measure of individual differences in children, aged 3 to 12 years, based on a child personality lexicon from parental free descriptions. Using the fifteen of the ICID mid-level scales, three hundred and fifty-two Slovenian three-years-old children were assessed independently by their mothers, fathers and preschool teachers. The preschool teachers also rated children's social adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale. Data on satisfactory internal reliability of the childhood personality scales, their congruence across multiple observers and occasions of observed behavior as well as evidence of differential links of these scales to other measures of individual differences (social competence and maladaptive behavior are reported. The factor structure of the ICID scales across the observers is also shown in comparison to the data collected in other countries. The composition of the mid-level scales into four broad-band personality dimensions (Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism appeared remarkably similar when the factor structures of mothers' and fathers' assessments of three-year-old children were compared, while the preschool teachers' perceived organization of the child personality was found somewhat less differentiated (represented by the combined Conscientiousness/Openness, Extraversion/Neuroticism, and Agreeableness dimensions in comparison to the parental one.

  11. Response Bias and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: Contrasting Self- and Informant-Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Cosentino, Nicole; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-04-03

    Previous research has raised concerns that scores derived from the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) may be compromised by response styles such as underreporting or overreporting. The informant-report form of the PID-5 (PID-5-IRF; Markon, Quilty, Bagby, & Krueger, 2013) has been recommended for use when response bias is an assessment concern. The purpose of the current investigation was to evaluate PID-5 and PID-5-IRF scale score elevations across participants exhibiting signs of overreporting or underreporting. A total of 245 adults completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). A family member or friend of at least 1 year's acquaintance completed the PID-5-IRF for 216 of these. A total of 211 target-informant pairs were available for analysis. Participants were categorized as overreporting and underreporting according to NEO PI-R validity scale cutoffs. The majority of PID-5 scale scores were elevated in those identified as overreporting; more than half of the PID-5-IRF scale scores were similarly elevated. The majority of PID-5 scale scores were lower in those scoring above underreporting cut-offs; however, PID-5-IRF scales were not as consistently or strongly impacted. PID-5 scales were strongly impacted by response bias, whereas PID-5-IRF scores were less strongly impacted overall, and more so by overreporting bias. Caution when using these instruments in the assessment of personality disorders prone to over- or underreporting may be warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Personality assessment inventory profile and predictors of elevations among dissociative disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnik, Ryan D; Brand, Bethany; Savoca, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Assessing patients with dissociative disorders (DD) using personality tests is difficult. On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 ( J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989 ), DD patients often obtain elevations on multiple clinical scales as well as on validity scales that were thought to indicate exaggeration yet have been shown to be elevated among traumatized individuals, including those with DD. No research has been conducted to determine how DD patients score on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991 ), which includes the symptom exaggeration scale Negative Impression (NIM) and the malingering scales Malingering Index (MAL) and Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF). The goals of this study were to document the PAI profile of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) patients and to determine how the validity and Schizophrenia scales are related to other PAI scales as well as dissociation. A total of 42 inpatients with DID or DDNOS were assessed on the PAI as well as the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II. The DID/DDNOS patients were elevated on many PAI scales, including NIM and, to a lesser extent, MAL, but not RDF. Dissociation scores significantly and uniquely predicted NIM scores above and beyond Depression and Borderline Features. In addition, after we controlled for MAL and RDF, dissociation was positively associated with NIM. In contrast, after we controlled for the other 2 scales, dissociation was not related to MAL and was negatively related to RDF, indicating that RDF and, to a lesser extent, MAL are better correlates of feigning in DD patients than NIM.

  13. Developing and testing items for the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A multicultural country like South Africa needs fair cross-cultural psychometric instruments.Research purpose: This article reports on the process of identifying items for, and provides a quantitative evaluation of, the South African Personality Inventory (SAPI items.Motivation for the study: The study intended to develop an indigenous and psychometrically sound personality instrument that adheres to the requirements of South African legislation and excludes cultural bias.Research design, approach and method: The authors used a cross-sectional design. They measured the nine SAPI clusters identified in the qualitative stage of the SAPI project in 11 separate quantitative studies. Convenience sampling yielded 6735 participants. Statistical analysis focused on the construct validity and reliability of items. The authors eliminated items that showed poor performance, based on common psychometric criteria, and selected the best performing items to form part of the final version of the SAPI.Main findings: The authors developed 2573 items from the nine SAPI clusters. Of these, 2268 items were valid and reliable representations of the SAPI facets.Practical/managerial implications: The authors developed a large item pool. It measures personality in South Africa. Researchers can refine it for the SAPI. Furthermore, the project illustrates an approach that researchers can use in projects that aim to develop culturally-informed psychological measures.Contribution/value-add: Personality assessment is important for recruiting, selecting and developing employees. This study contributes to the current knowledge about the early processes researchers follow when they develop a personality instrument that measures personality fairly in different cultural groups, as the SAPI does.

  14. Revision of the grandiosity dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory and verification of its psychometric properties

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    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Personality disorders are among the most common disorders seen in clinical psychology. However, in Brazil there are few instruments for assessing the pathological characteristics of personality. Objective: To revise the grandiosity dimension of the Brazilian Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (Inventário Dimensional Clínico da Personalidade [IDCP] and investigate its psychometric properties. Methods: A total of 225 people participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 66 years (mean [M] = 26.2, standard deviation [SD] = 8.1 and the majority were female (n = 162, 70.1%. The IDCP and the Brazilian versions of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 were administered to all participants. Results: A total of 285 new items were developed and content analysis was used to select 33 of these to comprise the final version destined for administration. The results of parallel analysis and factor analysis identified four interpretable factors. Internal consistency coefficients were deemed acceptable and varied from 0.73 to 0.84 for the factors. Additionally, the expected correlations between the IDCP Inventory and the other tests were observed. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the revised dimension's suitability for assessment of the pathological traits of narcissistic personality disorder.

  15. Identifying the Manipulative Mating Methods Associated With Psychopathic Traits and BPD Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Centifanti, Luna C; Thomson, Nicholas D; Kwok, Angela H

    2016-12-01

    Psychopathy and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are associated with coercion and manipulation within relationships. The authors investigated whether BPD traits were uniquely associated with manipulation for emotional closeness whereas psychopathy was used for the purpose of attaining physical closeness. A community sample (N = 164) reported on mating behaviors, psychopathic traits, and BPD traits. Hierarchical regressions were conducted to predict mating behaviors that would account for the overlap between psychopathy and BPD. Total psychopathic traits were associated with lower levels of relationship exclusivity, greater use of partner poaching, and perpetration of sexual coercion. Specifically, callousness and egocentricity were related to lower relationship exclusivity. BPD traits were associated with the use of mate retention strategies, mate poaching, and victimization in sexual coercion. These findings indicate that manipulative mating behaviors encompass tools to achieve sex and intimacy. Those with BPD traits use these tools for emotional closeness, whereas those with psychopathic traits use them to obtain physical closeness and gratification.

  16. What makes a psychopath? Neuro-developmental pathways to immoral and antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.

    2016-01-01

    Before specific psychological and pharmacological treatments can be designed, or pre-emptive measures taken to reduce the impact of psychopathic individuals on society, it is paramount that we first reach consensus on (1) which personality styles comprise this heterogeneous group, (2) how these

  17. Clarifying the heterogeneity in psychopathic samples: Towards a new continuum of primary and secondary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals identified through contemporary instruments vary considerably in personality and etiological background, which creates confusion in practice and inconsistency in data. The goal of this paper is to clarify this heterogeneity and introduce a new typology to narrow down psychop

  18. Clarifying the heterogeneity in psychopathic samples: Towards a new continuum of primary and secondary psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathic individuals identified through contemporary instruments vary considerably in personality and etiological background, which creates confusion in practice and inconsistency in data. The goal of this paper is to clarify this heterogeneity and introduce a new typology to narrow down psychop

  19. The Psychometric Properties of the French Version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

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    Isabelle Roskam

    Full Text Available In the context of the publication of DSM-5, the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5 has been proposed as a new dimensional assessment tool for personality disorders. This instrument includes a pool of 220 items organized around 25 facets included in a five-factor second-order domain structure. The examination of the replicability of the trait structure across methods and populations is of primary importance. In view of this need, the main objective of the current study was to validate the French version of the PID-5 among French-speaking adults from a European community sample (N=2,532. In particular, the assumption of unidimensionality of the 25 facet and the five domain scales was tested, as well as the extent to which the five-factor structure of the PID-5 and the DSM-5 personality trait hierarchical structure are replicated in the current sample. The results support the assumption of unidimensionality of both the facets and the domains. Exploratory factor and hierarchical analyses replicated the five-factor structure as initially proposed in the PID-5.

  20. Assessment of Sex Offenders With the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality /Inventory-2-Restructured Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Cappo, Bruce M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2016-08-31

    This study examined the association between scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) with static and dynamic risk assessment instruments, including the STATIC-99 and Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R). The sample included 304 male adults who were convicted of sexual offenses against children and were referred to a sex offender treatment program. On average, the sample had a Low-Moderate risk of re-offending according to the STATIC-99 and LSI-R. The results indicated that MMPI-2-RF scale scores in this setting are characterized by relatively high levels of under-reporting and externalizing psychopathology compared with the normative sample. We also found that scale scores in this sample produced reliability estimates that were similar to the normative sample. Finally, external correlations between the MMPI-2-RF scales and the risk assessment instruments indicated that the test was associated in expected ways with constructs measured by these instruments. Correlations were most robust among scales in the externalizing/behavioral dysfunction domain of the MMPI-2-RF. Overall, the results of the study support and guide use of the test in this population.

  1. The maladaptive personality traits of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in relation to the HEXACO personality factors and schizotypy/dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Michael C; Lee, Kibeom; de Vries, Reinout E; Hendrickse, Joshua; Born, Marise Ph

    2012-10-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), a new measure of maladaptive personality traits, has recently been developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup. The PID-5 variables were examined within the seven-factor space defined by the six HEXACO factors and the Schizotypy/Dissociation factor (Ashton & Lee, 2012) using participant samples from Canada (N = 378) and the Netherlands (N = 476). Extension analyses showed that several PID-5 facet-level scales represented each of the Honesty-Humility, Emotionality, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Schizotypy/Dissociation factors. In contrast, only one PID-5 scale loaded strongly on HEXACO Agreeableness, and no PID-5 scales loaded strongly on Openness to Experience. In addition, a joint factor analysis involving the PID-5 variables and facets of the Five-Factor Model was conducted in the Canadian sample and recovered a set of seven factors corresponding rather closely to the HEXACO factors plus Schizotypy/Dissociation. The authors discuss implications for the assessment and structure of normal and abnormal personality.

  2. The NEO-PI-3: a more readable revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R; Costa Jr, Paul T; Martin, Thomas A

    2005-06-01

    Use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992) in adolescent samples has shown that a few respondents have difficulty with a subset of items. We identified 30 items that were not understood by at least 2% of adolescent respondents and 18 additional items with low item-total correlations, and we wrote 2 trial replacement items for each. We used self-report and observer rating data from 500 respondents aged 14 to 20 to select replacement items. The modified instrument retained the intended factor structure and showed slightly better internal consistency, cross-observer agreement, and readability (Flesch-Kincaid grade level = 5.3). The NEO-PI-3 appears to be useful in high school and college samples and may have wider applicability to adults as well.

  3. Predicting law enforcement officer job performance with the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowmaster, Sara E; Morey, Leslie C

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the descriptive and predictive characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) in a sample of 85 law enforcement officer candidates. Descriptive results indicate that mean PAI full-scale and subscale scores are consistently lower than normative community sample scores, with some exceptions noted typically associated with defensive responding. Predictive validity was examined by relating PAI full-scale and subscale scores to supervisor ratings in the areas of job performance, integrity problems, and abuse of disability status. Modest correlations were observed for all domains; however, predictive validity was moderated by defensive response style, with greater predictive validity observed among less defensive responders. These results suggest that the PAI's full scales and subscales are able to predict law enforcement officers' performance, but their utility is appreciably improved when taken in the context of indicators of defensive responding.

  4. The German Adaptation and Standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julia A; Engel, Rolf R

    2007-02-01

    We developed the German Adaptation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) under careful consideration of current adaptation literature and guidelines. The adaptation process included the translation of the 344 items into German, a back translation into English as well as the testing of the language equivalence using a bilingual sample. We then standardized the final German version of the PAI for the German population. We compared the American and German norm and reliability data. The observed differences in PAI scale means did not exceed 5 T scores. Internal consistency reliability showed a similar pattern in both language versions, although the German alpha coefficients were on average slightly lower than the American ones. Factor structure was similar in both versions. We discuss expectations about the German PAI and possible problems for its practical usefulness for the German-speaking population.

  5. Neural processing of moral violations among incarcerated adolescents with psychopathic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV), Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia–Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL) Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits–Youth version (ICU-Y). While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment. PMID:25279855

  6. Neural processing of moral violations among incarcerated adolescents with psychopathic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla L. Harenski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have found that adult male psychopaths show reduced engagement of limbic and paralimbic circuitry while making moral judgments. The goal of this study was to investigate whether these findings extend to adolescent males with psychopathic traits. Functional MRI was used to record hemodynamic activity in 111 incarcerated male adolescents while they viewed unpleasant pictures that did or did not depict moral transgressions and rated each on “moral violation severity”. Adolescents were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version (PCL-YV, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (KSADS-PL Conduct Disorder supplement, and Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits-Youth Version (ICU-Y. While viewing pictures depicting moral transgressions, CD scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the anterior temporal cortex. Adolescents scoring low on the ICU-Y showed a positive correlation between right amygdala responses and severity of violation ratings; those with high ICU-Y scores showed a negative correlation. While viewing unpleasant pictures with and without moral transgressions, PCL-YV scores were negatively correlated with hemodynamic responses in the left amygdala. Overall, the results are consistent with those previously found in adult male psychopaths, but vary depending on the type of psychopathy assessment.

  7. Empirical correlates for the minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2-restructured form in a german inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moultrie, Josefine K; Engel, Rolf R

    2016-12-05

    We identified empirical correlates for the 42 substantive scales of the German language version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Higher Order, Restructured Clinical, Specific Problem, Interest, and revised Personality Psychopathology Five scales. We collected external validity data by means of a 177-item chart review form in a sample of 488 psychiatric inpatients of a German university hospital. We structured our findings along the interpretational guidelines for the MMPI-2-RF and compared them with the validity data published in the tables of the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual. Our results show significant correlations between MMPI-2-RF scales and conceptually relevant criteria. Most of the results were in line with U.S. validation studies. Some of the differences could be attributed to sample compositions. For most of the scales, construct validity coefficients were acceptable. Taken together, this study amplifies the enlarging body of research on empirical correlates of the MMPI-2-RF scales in a new sample. The study suggests that the interpretations given in the MMPI-2-RF manual may be generalizable to the German language MMPI-2-RF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Child behavior check list and Korean personality inventory for children with functional visual loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyung, Sung Eun; Lee, Sang Mi; Lim, Myung Ho

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the clinical psychiatric characteristics of children with the main complaint of functional visual loss, their behavior and personality were evaluated by the means of the Korean child behavior check list (K-CBCL), and the Korean personality inventory for children (KPI-C). The evaluation was carried out by the K-CBCL and the KPI-C, the domestically standardized tools, with 20 child subjects suspected of functional visual loss, among the patients who visited our hospital, between August, 2005 and December, 2012. The control group included 160 children in general schools of the same region. The 20 patients whose main complaint was functional visual loss were diagnosed as having a functional visual disorder. The child patient group showed a higher score for the K-CBCL and KPI-C sub-scales of somatic complaints, social problems, aggressive behavior, internalizing problems, externalizing problems, total behavioral problems, somatization and hyperactivity, than that of the control group. The results of the K-CBCL and KPI-C tests among children with functional visual loss, were significantly different from those of the normal control group. This result suggested that psychological factors may influence children with a main complaint of functional visual loss.

  9. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students (n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  10. Revision of the Dependency Dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of personality in pathologic levels is a field that requires investment. This study aimed to review the Dependency Dimension of the Dimensional Clinical Personality Inventory (IDCP. The study was conducted through the development of new items based on the literature, and by investigating the psychometric properties in a sample of 199 participants, aged between 18 and 54 years (M = 26.37, SD = 8.13, 71.4% female, who responded to the IDCP, the NEO-PI-R, and the PID-5. The first step resulted in 57 items that were tested psychometrically. Then, the dimension remained with 18 items, with internal consistency of .89, and three factors: Self-devaluation, Avoidance of abandonment, and Insecurity, with internal consistency between .79 and .91. The expected correlations coefficients were found between the Dependency dimension and the correlated dimensions and facets of the NEO-PI-R and PID-5. The results evidence the adequacy of the revised dimension.

  11. The Validity and Utility of the Positive Presentation Management and Negative Presentation Management Scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the "Revised NEO Personality Inventory" (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting--the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting--the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these…

  12. Cultural Validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Empirical Correlates: Is This the Best We Can Do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jill S.; Robbins, Rockey R.; Pace, Terry M.

    2012-01-01

    This article critically reviews empirical correlates of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), based on several validation studies conducted with different racial, ethnic, and cultural groups. A major critique of the reviewed MMPI-2 studies was focused on the use of…

  13. Equivalency of Computer-Assisted and Paper-and-Pencil Administered Versions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsoneault, Terry B.

    1996-01-01

    Computer-assisted and paper-and-pencil-administered formats for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories were investigated. Subjects were 32 master's and doctoral-level counseling students. Findings indicated that the two formats were comparable and that students preferred the computer-assisted format. (AEF)

  14. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

  15. Is the Narcissistic Personality Inventory Still Relevant? A Test of Independent Grandiosity and Entitlement Scales in the Assessment of Narcissism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Price, Joanna; Campbell, W. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Some scholars have called for the replacement of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) with more narrow scales measuring grandiosity and entitlement instead. In the current study, the authors examined the relations among the NPI and measures of grandiosity and entitlement, as well as in relation to a measure of the Five-Factor Model (FFM).…

  16. Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 to Develop a Scale to Identify Test Anxiety among Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufi, Dubi; Awwad, Abeer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe an initial step developing a new scale to identify individuals with learning disabilities (LD) and test anxiety. Eighty-eight students answered the "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2" (MMPI-2). The participants were drawn from the following three groups: (a) adults with LD and test…

  17. The Multifactorial Nature of Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipps, Gary J.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1987-01-01

    The construct validity of extraversion-introversion was explored, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Findings supported the complexity of extraversion-introversion. Two MBTI scales, Extraversion Introversion and Judging Perceiving, were factorially valid measures of impulsivity…

  18. A Comparison of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory in a Delinquent Sample and a Comparison Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Barry J.; Bolton, Neil

    1981-01-01

    Compared the scores of reformatory inmates and technical college students on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Psychological Screening Inventory. Two factors accounted for most of the variance. Neuroticism was common to both groups. The second factor in the delinquent group was extraversion. (Author/JAC)

  19. A Family Study of the DSM-5 Section III Personality Pathology Model Using the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Andrea C; Hee, Danelle; Hooker, Christine I; Shankman, Stewart A

    2017-10-03

    In Section III of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) proposes a pathological personality trait model of personality disorders. The recommended assessment instrument is the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5), an empirically derived scale that assesses personality pathology along five domains and 25 facets. Although the PID-5 demonstrates strong convergent validity with other personality measures, no study has examined whether it identifies traits that run in families, another important step toward validating the DSM-5's dimensional model. Using a family study method, we investigated familial associations of PID-5 domain and facet scores in 195 families, examining associations between parents and offspring and across siblings. The Psychoticism, Antagonism, and Detachment domains showed significant familial aggregation, as did facets of Negative Affect and Disinhibition. Results are discussed in the context of personality pathology and family study methodology. The results also help validate the PID-5, given the familial nature of personality traits.

  20. Treating the untreatable: a single case study of a psychopathic inpatient treated with schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhssi, Farid; Kersten, Truus; de Ruiter, Corine; Bernstein, David P

    2014-09-01

    From its first conceptualization in modern psychiatry, psychopathy has been considered difficult if not impossible to treat. Schema Therapy (ST) is a psychotherapeutic approach that has shown efficacy in patients with borderline personality disorder. ST has recently been adapted for personality disordered forensic patients, including patients with high levels of psychopathy. The present case study examined the process of individual ST, combined with movement therapy and milieu therapy by the nursing staff, with a forensic inpatient with psychopathic features (Psychopathy Checklist-Revised total score = 28.4). The patient had been sentenced to a mandatory treatment order in relation to a sexual assault. We assessed change using independent assessments of psychopathic traits, cognitive schemas, and risk-related behaviors over the 4-year treatment period and a 3-year follow-up. We also assessed the quality of the working alliance. Reliable change analyses showed significant improvements in psychopathic traits, cognitive schemas, and risk-related outcomes. At 3 years posttreatment, the patient was living independently outside of the forensic institution without judicial supervision and he had not reoffended. While many questions remain about the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic treatment for psychopathic patients, our study challenges the view that they are untreatable.

  1. The psychometric properties of the personality inventory for DSM-5 in an APA DSM-5 field trial sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena C; Ayearst, Lindsay; Chmielewski, Michael; Pollock, Bruce G; Bagby, R Michael

    2013-06-01

    Section 3 of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes a hybrid model of personality pathology, in which dimensional personality traits are used to derive one of seven categorical personality disorder diagnoses. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed by the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup and their consultants to produce a freely available instrument to assess the personality traits within this new system. To date, the psychometric properties of the PID-5 have been evaluated primarily in undergraduate student and community adult samples. In the current investigation, we extend this line of research to a psychiatric patient sample who participated in the APA DSM-5 Field Trial (Centre for Addiction and Mental Health site). A total of 201 psychiatric patients (102 men, 99 women) completed the PID-5 and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). The internal consistencies of the PID-5 domain and facet trait scales were acceptable. Results supported the unidimensional structure of all trait scales but one, and the convergence between the PID-5 and analogous NEO PI-R scales. Evidence for discriminant validity was mixed. Overall, the current investigation provides support for the psychometric properties of this diagnostic instrument in psychiatric samples.

  2. [Assessment of personality disorders with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) in a forensic sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winberg Nodal, Máximo; Vilalta Suárez, Ramón J

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, the presence of personality disorders in a forensic sample is analysed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). The sample was made up of 86 individuals from both civil and criminal settings: plaintiffs in family cases and complainants and defendants in various crimes, especially in partner abuse. The results reveal a great number of records of Compulsive Personality Disorder, reaching 70%, regardless of whether they were from the civil or the criminal setting or whether they were a plaintiff or a defendant. It is concluded that this inventory seems to lack statistical validity for this purpose. Moreover, this test may only describe the typical characteristics of forensic evaluation rather than the personality of the individuals assessed, and it is oversensitive to context; hence, the conclusions derived from the use of the MCMI-II in the forensic field may accept as valid a great deal of distorted or unspecific profiles.

  3. The association between bodily anxiety symptom dimensions and the scales of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Temperament and Character Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2009-01-01

    symptoms with 1 second-order severity factor and 5 first-order factors: cardio-respiratory, gastro-intestinal, autonomic, vertigo, and tension. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits were differentially related to distinct symptom subdimensions or exclusively related...... the Temperament and Character Inventory dimensions, harm avoidance and novelty seeking, and the severity factor became nonsignificant. Harm avoidance was negatively associated with the vertigo first-order factor, whereas neuroticism was negatively associated with the cardio-respiratory first-order factor...

  4. Contributions to the dimensional assessment of personality disorders using Millon's model and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI9-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, Stephen; Millon, Theodore

    2007-08-01

    For over 35 years, Mllion's (1996) model of personality and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Millon, 1977, 1987, 2006) have been useful resources for clinicians to understand and assess personality disorders (PDs) and clinical syndromes in psychiatric patients. In this article, we highlight significant features of the model and test that have proved valuable to personologists in their quest for a more satisfactory taxonomy of PDs based on continuously distributed traits. We also describe Millon's (1996)prototypal domain approach to personality that combines dimensional and categorical elements for the description of PDs and their normal counterparts.

  5. Moral reasoning, executive function, and personality in violent and nonviolent adult offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rebekkah; Valliant, Paul M

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate moral reasoning and personality, inmates from a maximum security jail were administered the Porteus Maze, the Defining Issues Test, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-168, and the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence. Scores of 20 violent and 19 nonviolent offenders were compared. The control group consisted of 20 university students who indicated they did not have criminal ords. All were over the age of 18. Analysis showed the violent offenders had mature moral reasoning and were more elevated on the Antiestablishment scale of the Defining Issues Test. Furthermore, inmates displayed significantly elevated scores on depression, Psychopathic Deviance, and Social Introversion relative to the control group.

  6. Neuropsychiatric Inventory data in a Belgian sample of elderly persons with and without dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squelard GP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gilles P Squelard,1 Pierre A Missotten,1 Louis Paquay,2 Jan A De Lepeleire,2 Frank JVM Buntinx,2 Ovide Fontaine,1 Stephane R Adam,1 Michel JD Ylieff11Clinical Psychology of Ageing, Qualidem Research Project, University of Liège (ULg, Liège, Belgium; 2KU Leuven, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leuven, BelgiumBackground/aims: This study assesses and compares prevalence of psychological and behavioral symptoms in a Belgian sample of people with and without dementia.Methods: A total of 228 persons older than 65 years with dementia and a group of 64 non-demented persons were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI in 2004.Results: Within the group without dementia, the most frequent symptoms were depression, agitation, and irritability. Within the group with dementia, the most common symptoms were depression, irritability, apathy, and agitation. Prevalence of delusions (P < 0.05, hallucinations (P < 0.05, anxiety (P < 0.05, agitation (P < 0.05, apathy (P < 0.01, aberrant motor behavior (P < 0.01, and eating disorders (P < 0.05 were significantly higher in the group with dementia.Conclusion: Depression, elation, irritability, disinhibition, and sleeping disorders are not specific to dementia. Agitation, apathy, anxiety, and delusions are more frequent in dementia but were not specific to the dementia group because their prevalence rates were close to 10% in the group without dementia. Hallucinations, aberrant motor behavior, and eating disorders are specific to dementia. The distinction between specific and nonspecific symptoms may be useful for etiological research on biological, psychological, and environmental factors.Keywords: behavior, behavior disorders, epidemiology, dementia, psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychiatry

  7. Neural connectivity during reward expectation dissociates psychopathic criminals from non-criminal individuals with high impulsive/antisocial psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, Dirk E M; von Borries, Katinka; Volman, Inge; Bulten, Berend Hendrik; Cools, Roshan; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2016-08-01

    Criminal behaviour poses a big challenge for society. A thorough understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying criminality could optimize its prevention and management. Specifically,elucidating the neural mechanisms underpinning reward expectation might be pivotal to understanding criminal behaviour. So far no study has assessed reward expectation and its mechanisms in a criminal sample. To fill this gap, we assessed reward expectation in incarcerated, psychopathic criminals. We compared this group to two groups of non-criminal individuals: one with high levels and another with low levels of impulsive/antisocial traits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify neural responses to reward expectancy. Psychophysiological interaction analyses were performed to examine differences in functional connectivity patterns of reward-related regions. The data suggest that overt criminality is characterized, not by abnormal reward expectation per se, but rather by enhanced communication between reward-related striatal regions and frontal brain regions. We establish that incarcerated psychopathic criminals can be dissociated from non-criminal individuals with comparable impulsive/antisocial personality tendencies based on the degree to which reward-related brain regions interact with brain regions that control behaviour. The present results help us understand why some people act according to their impulsive/antisocial personality while others are able to behave adaptively despite reward-related urges.

  8. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in a sample of law enforcement officers. MMPI-2-RF scores were collected from preemployment psychological evaluations of 136 male police officers, and supervisor ratings of performance and problem behavior were subsequently obtained during the initial probationary period. The sample produced meaningfully lower and less variant substantive scale scores than the general population and the MMPI-2-RF Police Candidate comparison group, which significantly affected effect sizes for the zero-order correlations. After applying a correction for range restriction, MMPI-2-RF substantive scales demonstrated moderate to strong associations with criteria, particularly in the Emotional Dysfunction and Interpersonal Functioning domains. Relative risk ratio analyses showed that cutoffs of 45T and 50T maintained reasonable selection ratios because of the exceptionally low scores in this sample and were associated with significantly increased risk for problematic behavior. These results provide support for the predictive validity of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales in this setting. Implications of these findings and limitations of these results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Profiles of Patients with Gender Identity Disorder Requesting Sex Reassignment Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karia, Sagar; Jamsandekar, Sanhita; Alure, Alpa; De Sousa, Avinash; Shah, Nilesh

    2016-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) is a distressing disorder characterized by a persistent unhappiness with one's own sex and a desire to be of the opposite sex as well as seeking sex reassignment surgery for the same. The aim of the study was to assess the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) profiles in patients with GID and examine differences in the profiles based on original gender of the patients. Twenty-seven patients with GID that fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision criteria for the same were participants of the study. They were administered the MMPI-2 and the scores across various scales were statistically analyzed. Before analysis, the sample was divided into groups according to gender, i.e., male-to-female and female-to-male patients who were requesting sex reassignment surgery. No significant elevation of scores on any of the scales was noted in keeping with the fact that patients with GID usually demonstrate minimal psychopathology. All patients showed elevation on at least one subscale other than the masculinity-femininity subscale. No differences across gender were noted indicating that gender was probably not a determinant of psychopathology in GID. MMPI-2 profiles in patients with GID failed to reveal major psychopathology though the MMPI still remains a useful tool in the assessment of this population.

  10. Personality Inventory for Children: a measure of biopsychosocial status in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Magne Ingul

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the discriminant and convergent validity of the Personality Inventory for Children revised version (PIC-R with respect to DSM-IV Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD; n = 21, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD; n = 22 and non-patient controls (NC; n = 42. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional comparative study conducted in Trondheim, Norway, with children between 9-13 years old, referred to an university outpatient clinic. Results: One way ANOVA with bonferroni post hoc test showed significant differences between ODD and GAD groups on 8 PIC-R scales, between the GAD and NC groups on 9 PIC-R scales and between ODD and NC groups on all PIC-R scales excluding the intellectual screening scale. Multigroup discriminant analysis (MDA was performed to discriminate between the groups on a data driven basis. It identified two discriminant functions as important in differentiating between the three groups. These functions were able to correctly identify 92.2 % of the cases. Conclusions: The results indicate that specific PIC-R profiles have high discriminant and convergent validity for distinguishing GAD, ODD and NC groups. The PIC-R seems to be a useful screening tool in paediatric and neuropsychological settings.

  11. The influence of impression management scales on the Personality Assessment Inventory in the epilepsy monitoring unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdom, Catherine L; Kirlin, Kristin A; Hoerth, Matthew T; Noe, Katherine H; Drazkowski, Joseph F; Sirven, Joseph I; Locke, Dona E C

    2012-12-01

    The Somatic Complaints scale (SOM) and Conversion subscale (SOM-C) of the Personality Assessment Inventory perform best in classifying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) from epileptic seizures (ES); however, the impact of positive impression management (PIM) and negative impression management (NIM) scales on SOM and SOM-C classification has not been examined. We studied 187 patients from an epilepsy monitoring unit with confirmed PNES or ES. On SOM, the best cut score was 72.5 T when PIM was elevated and 69.5 T when there was no bias. On SOM-C, when PIM was elevated, the best cut score was 67.5 T and 76.5 T when there was no bias. Negative impression management elevations (n=9) were too infrequent to analyze separately. Despite similarities in classification accuracy, there were differences in sensitivity and specificity with and without PIM, impacting positive and negative predictive values. The presence of PIM bias generally increases positive predictive power of SOM and SOM-C but decreases negative predictive power.

  12. The Structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory With Binary and Rating Scale Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldero, Jennifer M; Bell, Richard C; Davies, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) items typically have a forced-choice format, comprising a narcissistic and a nonnarcissistic statement. Recently, some have presented the narcissistic statements and asked individuals to either indicate whether they agree or disagree that the statements are self-descriptive (i.e., a binary response format) or to rate the extent to which they agree or disagree that these statements are self-descriptive on a Likert scale (i.e., a rating response format). The current research demonstrates that when NPI items have a binary or a rating response format, the scale has a bifactor structure (i.e., the items load on a general factor and on 6 specific group factors). Indexes of factor strength suggest that the data are unidimensional enough for the NPI's general factor to be considered a measure of a narcissism latent trait. However, the rating item general factor assessed more narcissism components than the binary item one. The positive correlations of the NPI's general factor, assessed when items have a rating response format, were moderate with self-esteem, strong with a measure of narcissistic grandiosity, and weak with 2 measures of narcissistic vulnerability. Together, the results suggest that using a rating format for items enhances the information provided by the NPI.

  13. Relationship between semiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Nathan M; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Schefft, Bruce K; Isaradisaikul, David; Meckler, Jason M; McNally, Kelly A; Privitera, Michael D

    2007-08-01

    Subtypes of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) have emerged via classification of seizure semiology, psychological variables, or both. PNES subtypes that differ with respect to etiology may be amenable to targeted treatment strategies. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between semiology type and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) profile among patients with PNES. We did so by modifying a classification scheme proposed by Selwa et al. Our main hypothesis was that there would be significant associations of semiology-based subtypes with psychological profiles among patients with PNES. We found significant differences in mean scores on MMPI-2 clinical scales 1 (Hypochondriasis) and 3 (Hysteria) and Harris-Lingoes subscales D5 (Brooding) and Sc5 (Lack of Ego Mastery, Defective Inhibition) across PNES subtypes (catatonic, minor motor, major motor). The results of the present study enhance understanding of the nosology of PNES by identifying psychopathological correlates of semiology-based subtypes of PNES. Our study also may inform the methodology of future investigations of psychopathology among patients with PNES by providing support for content-based interpretation of the MMPI.

  14. Developmental Trajectories of Marijuana Use among Men: Examining Linkages with Criminal Behavior and Psychopathic Features into the Mid-30s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Dustin; Bechtold, Jordan; Loeber, Rolf; White, Helene

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Examine whether young men who chronically use marijuana are at risk for engaging in drug-related and non-drug-related criminal offending and exhibiting psychopathic personality features in their mid-30s. Methods Patterns of marijuana use were delineated in a sample of predominately Black and White young men from adolescence to the mid-20s using latent class growth curve analysis. Self-report and official records of criminal offending and psychopathic personality features were assessed in the mid-30s. Analyses controlled for multiple factors indicative of a preexisting antisocial lifestyle and co-occurring use of other substances and tested for moderation by race. Results Four latent marijuana trajectory groups were identified: chronic high, adolescence-limited, late increasing, and low/nonusers. Relative to low/nonusers, chronic high and late increasing marijuana users exhibited more adult psychopathic features and were more likely to engage in drug-related offending during their mid-30s. Adolescence-limited users were similar to low/nonusers in terms of psychopathic features but were more likely to be arrested for drug-related crimes. No trajectory group differences were found for violence or theft, and the group differences were not moderated by race. Conclusions Young men who engage in chronic marijuana use from adolescence into their 20s are at increased risk for exhibiting psychopathic features, dealing drugs, and enduring drug-related legal problems in their mid-30s relative to men who remain abstinent or use infrequently. PMID:26568641

  15. Hierarchical Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in a Large Population Sample: Goldberg's Trait-Tier Mapping Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures.

  16. The validity and utility of the positive presentation management and negative presentation management scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Bagby, R Michael

    2008-06-01

    Schinka, Kinder, and Kremer developed "validity" scales for the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae) to detect underreporting-the Positive Presentation Management (PPM) Scale and overreporting-the Negative Presentation Management (NPM) Scale. In this investigation, the clinical utility of these scales was examined using the established validity scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al.) as the referent. The sample was composed of 370 psychiatric patients who completed the NEO PI-R and the MMPI-2 as part of a routine evaluation. Results indicated that response distortion compromised the utility of the NEO PI-R domain scales. Moreover, the PPM and NPM scales and an NPM-PPM index significantly differentiated invalid under-and overreporting groups from a valid responding group. The PPM and NPM-PPM index were adequate in classifying under- and overreporters, respectively.

  17. Significant effects due to rephrasing the Maslach Burnout Inventory's personal accomplishment items.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Bouman; J. Hoogstraten; H. te Brake

    2002-01-01

    Subjects, 292 Dutch psychology students answering negatively phrased Personal Accomplishment items, reported a more personally competent feeling than subjects answering positively phrased personal accomplishment items. The way of phrasing personal accomplishment items significantly affects the answe

  18. Significant effects due to rephrasing the Maslach Burnout Inventory's personal accomplishment items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Anne Marthe; Te Brake, Hans; Hoogstraten, Johan

    2002-12-01

    Subjects, 292 Dutch psychology students answering negatively phrased Personal Accomplishment items, reported a more personally competent feeling than subjects answering positively phrased personal accomplishment items. The way of phrasing personal accomplishment items significantly affects the answers given.

  19. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, S. M.; de Moor, M. H. M.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    -analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item...... data were analyzed in > 160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful...... for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta...

  20. Trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: Phenotypic and genetic support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few, Lauren R.; Miller, Joshua D.; Grant, Julia D.; Maples, Jessica; Trull, Timothy J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Agrawal, Arpana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the reliability and validity of a trait-based assessment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Correlations between the Five-Factor Inventory-BPD composite (FFI-BPD) and explicit measures of BPD were examined across six samples, including undergraduate, community, and clinical samples. The median correlation was .60, which was nearly identical to the correlation between measures of BPD and a BPD composite generated from the full Revised NEO Personality Inventory (i.e., NEO-BPD; r =.61). Correlations between FFI-BPD and relevant measures of psychiatric symptomatology and etiology (e.g., childhood abuse, drug use, depression, and personality disorders) were also examined and compared to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. As expected, the FFI-BPD composite correlated most strongly with measures associated with high levels of Neuroticism, such as depression, anxiety, and emotion dysregulation, and the pattern of correlations generated using the FFI-BPD was highly similar to those generated using explicit measures of BPD and NEO-BPD. Finally, genetic analyses estimated that FFI-BPD is 44% heritable, which is comparable to meta-analytic research examining genetics associated with BPD, and revealed that 71% of the genetic influences are shared between FFI-BPD and a self-report measure assessing BPD (Personality Assessment Inventory – Borderline subscale; Morey, 1991). Generally, these results support the use of FFI-BPD as a reasonable proxy for BPD, which has considerable implications, particularly for potential gene-finding efforts in large, epidemiological datasets that include the NEO FFI. PMID:25984635

  1. Personality dimensions measured using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO-FFI on a Polish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk, Elzbieta; Zietek, Joanna; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    The results of two self-administered, paper-and-pencil tests based on biosocial theory of personality have been compared simultaneously: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The stability of the personality dimensions was assessed across age, sex and education level samples in a group of 406 Polish adults with major mental diseases excluded by use of PRIME-MD questionnaire. Significant effects of age, sex, and education have been found while comparing personality dimensions in both temperamental (novelty seeking, NS; harm avoidance, HA; reward dependence, RD; persistence, P) and character scales (cooperativeness, C; self-transcendence, ST) in TCI. Among subscales of temperament only NS1, RD4 were stable according to concerning factors. All converted to their age and sex norms NEO-FFI dimensions were stable according to sex. Extraversion scale was changeable depending on age (p = 0.04). Neuroticism dimension was a little higher in lower educated group (p = 0.035).To sum up, it was concluded that sex- and age-specific norms for the dimensions of the Polish version of TCI are necessary considering the established significant differences. Particular personality genetic studies should account for age, sex and also educational differences in their methods of associative studies. In the exploration of personality dimensions on healthy volunteers the Polish version of NEO-FFI corresponds better than TCI to theory of stability and genetic determinants of human personality. As the study included persons with excluded major mental diseases, the sample is appropriate to provide a control group in the research of psychiatric patients using both TCI and NEO-FFI. TCI scores for persons with excluded mental disease are highly changeable depending on age, sex and education. Adjusted to sex and age scores NEO-FFI corresponded better than TCI to stability and genetic determinants of human personality.

  2. Scores on Adjective Check List, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Depression Adjective Chck List for a male prison pupulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, B; Horned, C M; Knapp, R R

    1977-10-01

    Normative data are presented for a male prison population on the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1965), Form A of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) and Form C of Depression Adjective Check List (Lubin, 1967). The intercorrelations among the instruments also are presented. In the sample were 60 recently admitted male inmates of a maximum security correctional institution randomly drawn from a large sample of 205 consecutive admissions. Subjects described themselves as markedly depressed, high on neuroticism, low in personal adjustment, low in self-confidence, and low in self-control.

  3. Personality assessment inventory internalizing and externalizing structure in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: associations with aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E; Dennis, Paul A; Elbogen, Eric B; Clancy, Carolina P; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with aggressive behavior in veterans, and difficulty controlling aggressive urges has been identified as a primary postdeployment readjustment concern. Yet only a fraction of veterans with PTSD commit violent acts. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the higher-order factor structure of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) scales in a sample of U.S. military veterans seeking treatment for PTSD; and (2) to evaluate the incremental validity of higher-order latent factors of the PAI over PTSD symptom severity in modeling aggression. The study sample included male U.S. Vietnam (n = 433) and Iraq/Afghanistan (n = 165) veterans who were seeking treatment for PTSD at an outpatient Veterans Affairs (VA) clinic. Measures included the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, the PAI, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The sample was randomly split into two equal subsamples (n's = 299) to allow for cross-validation of statistically derived factors. Parallel analysis, variable clustering analysis, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to evaluate the factor structure, and regression was used to examine the association of factor scores with self-reports of aggression over the past year. Three factors were identified: internalizing, externalizing, and substance abuse. Externalizing explained unique variance in aggression beyond PTSD symptom severity and demographic factors, while internalizing and substance abuse did not. Service era was unrelated to reports of aggression. The constructs of internalizing versus externalizing dimensions of PTSD may have utility in identifying characteristics of combat veterans in the greatest need of treatment to help manage aggressive urges.

  4. Constructing a short form of the hierarchical personality inventory for children (HiPIC): the HiPIC-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Margarete E; Hampson, Sarah E; Torgersen, Svenn

    2016-05-01

    Children's personality traits are invaluable predictors of concurrent and later mental and physical health. Several validated longer inventories for assessing the widely recognized Five-Factor Model of personality in children are available, but short forms are scarce. This study aimed at constructing a 30-item form of the 144-item Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC) (Mervielde & De Fruyt, ). Participants were 1543 children aged 6-12 years (sample 1) and 3895 children aged 8 years (sample 2). Sample 1 completed the full HiPIC, from which we constructed the HiPIC-30, and the Child Behaviour Checklist (Achenbach, ). Sample 2 completed the HiPIC-30. The HiPIC-30 personality domains correlated over r = .90 with the full HiPIC domains, had good Cronbach's alphas and correlated similarly with CBCL behaviour problems and gender as the full HiPIC. The factor structures of the HiPIC-30 were convergent across samples, but the imagination factor was not clear-cut. We conclude that the HiPIC-30 is a reliable and valid questionnaire for the Five-Factor personality traits in children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile and sub-typing in alcoholic patients: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiaux, P; le Bon, O; Dramaix, M; Massat, I; Souery, D; Mendlewicz, J; Pelc, I; Verbanck, P

    2001-01-01

    Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile was used to compare alcohol-dependent patients with non-psychiatric control subjects, and a search made for sub-types of alcoholics with different TCI profiles, using the criteria age of onset of alcohol-related problems, paternal dependence on alcohol and familial antecedents of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients (n = 38) were characterized by higher Novelty-Seeking [corresponding to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) group B personality type] and lower Self-Directedness than non-psychiatric control subjects (n = 47). Lower Self-Directedness indicates a higher probability of personality disorder in the alcohol-dependent population. Only age of onset of alcohol-related problems delineated the two sub-populations with different TCI profiles: early-onset alcoholics (TCI data add to evidence concerning a higher probability of personality disorder in alcohol-dependent patients, particularly those with early-onset.

  6. Personality Assessment Inventory Scores as Predictors of Evaluation Referrals, Evaluator Opinions, and Commitment Decisions in Sexually Violent Predator Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaccini, Marcus T; Harris, Paige B; Schrantz, Kathryn; Varela, Jorge G

    2017-01-01

    We used data from more than 1,500 offenders to examine the association between Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991 ) scores and progress through the sexually violent predator (SVP) screening, evaluation, and commitment process. There was no clear association between PAI scores and referrals for full evaluations, but PAI scores were small to moderate predictors of evaluator opinions and diagnoses among offenders who underwent full evaluations. Higher Antisocial Features (ANT) scores were associated with diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder, but this association was moderated by offender response style. ANT scores were more strongly associated with antisocial personality disorder diagnoses among those responding defensively (d = .71) than among those responding openly (d = .48). The mean ANT score among defensive responders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder was about 55T, suggesting that even moderate ANT scale elevations could indicate a clinically significant level of antisocial traits among some offenders.

  7. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot scores for discriminating psychopaths from non-psychopaths in forensic populations: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James M; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Nezworski, M Teresa; Garb, Howard N; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L

    2010-06-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All studies included the Hare Psychopathy Checklist or one of its versions (Hare, 1980, 1991, 2003) and Exner's (2003) Comprehensive System for the Rorschach. Mean validity coefficients of Rorschach variables in the meta-analysis ranged from -.113 to .239, with a median validity of .070 and a mean validity of .062. Psychopathy displayed a significant and medium-sized association with the number of Aggressive Potential responses (weighted mean validity coefficient = .232) and small but significant associations with the Sum of Texture responses, Cooperative Movement = 0, the number of Personal responses, and the Egocentricity Index (weighted mean validity coefficients = .097 to .159). The remaining 32 Rorschach variables were not significantly related to psychopathy. The present findings contradict the view that the Rorschach is a clinically sensitive instrument for discriminating psychopaths from nonpsychopaths.

  8. Emotional intelligence: painting different paths for low-anxious and high-anxious psychopathic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Sarah; Skeem, Jennifer; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-04-01

    Psychopathic individuals may be disaggregated into low-anxious (emotionally stable "primary psychopaths") and high-anxious (emotionally disturbed "secondary psychopaths") variants that may differ in their capacity for adaptive behavior. In turn, the skills encompassed by emotional intelligence (EI) predict social and business success. Based on a sample of 188 male undergraduates, we evaluate the performance of low-anxious psychopathic, high-anxious psychopathic, and low psychopathic comparison groups on a measure of EI. High-anxious psychopaths manifested significantly lower EI than the other two groups, particularly with respect to managing emotions and facilitating thoughts. In contrast, low-anxious psychopaths manifested intact EI, with skill in facilitating thoughts. High-anxious (but not low anxious) psychopaths were more likely than low psychopathic comparisons to manifest violence. These results are consistent with the notion that primary psychopaths have greater capacity to attain success in traditional society than secondary psychopaths, and invite a direct test of this hypothesis in future research.

  9. A Self-Report Measure for the ICD-11 Dimensional Trait Model Proposal: The Personality Inventory for ICD-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Joshua R; Widiger, Thomas A

    2017-02-23

    Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model. Item selection and scale construction proceeded through 3 initial data collections assessing potential item performance. Two subsequent studies were conducted for scale validation. In Study 1, the PiCD was evaluated in a sample of 259 MTurk participants (who were or had been receiving mental health treatment) with respect to 2 measures of general personality structure: The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and the 5-Dimensional Personality Test. In Study 2, the PiCD was evaluated in an additional sample of 285 participants with respect to 2 measures of maladaptive personality traits: The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and the Computerized Adaptive Test for Personality Disorders. Study 3 provides an item-level exploratory structural equation model with the combined samples from Studies 1 and 2. The results are discussed with respect to the validity of the measure and the potential benefits for future research in having a direct, self-report measure of the ICD-11 trait proposal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Identifying Psychopathy Subtypes on the Basis of Personality Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Markon, Kristian E.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Krueger, Robert F.; Newman, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    The authors used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of criminal psychopaths on the basis of differences in personality structure. Participants included 96 male prisoners diagnosed as psychopathic, using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). Personality was assessed using the brief form of the Multidimensional…

  11. A Methodology for Studying Noninstitutionalized Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy S.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a methodological approach to studying noninstitutionalized psychopaths and presents data on criteria associated with psychopathy. The recruitment procedure involved incorporating the characteristics of psychopathy into an advertisement. The present sample fulfilled the criteria for psychopathy, and the recruitment method used was a…

  12. Conscience as the Rational Deficit of Psychopaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujošević, Marijana

    I develop here a Kantian framework for understanding conscience in order to examine whether moral flaws of psychopaths are traceable to their dysfunctional conscience. When understood as the reflective capacity for moral self-assessment that triggers certain emotional reactions, conscience proves to

  13. Conscience as the Rational Deficit of Psychopaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujošević, Marijana

    2015-01-01

    I develop here a Kantian framework for understanding conscience in order to examine whether moral flaws of psychopaths are traceable to their dysfunctional conscience. When understood as the reflective capacity for moral self-assessment that triggers certain emotional reactions, conscience proves to

  14. Associations between DSM-5 section III personality traits and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales in a psychiatric patient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Ayearst, Lindsay; Quilty, Lena C; Chmielewski, Michael; Bagby, R Michael

    2015-09-01

    Our aim in the current study was to evaluate the convergence between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) Section III dimensional personality traits, as operationalized via the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5), and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scale scores in a psychiatric patient sample. We used a sample of 346 (171 men, 175 women) patients who were recruited through a university-affiliated psychiatric facility in Toronto, Canada. We estimated zero-order correlations between the PID-5 and MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores, as well as a series of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyses to examine how these scales converged in multivariate latent space. Results generally showed empirical convergence between the scales of these two measures that were thematically meaningful and in accordance with conceptual expectations. Correlation analyses showed significant associations between conceptually expected scales, and the highest associations tended to be between scales that were theoretically related. ESEM analyses generated evidence for distinct internalizing, externalizing, and psychoticism factors across all analyses. These findings indicate convergence between these two measures and help further elucidate the associations between dysfunctional personality traits and general psychopathology. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Low openness on the revised NEO personality inventory as a risk factor for treatment-resistant depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Takahashi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that low reward dependence, and to a lesser extent, low cooperativeness in the Temperature and Character Inventory (TCI may be risk factors for treatment-resistant depression. Here, we analyzed additional psychological traits in these patients. METHODS: We administered Costa and McCrae's five-factor model personality inventory, NEO Personality Inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R, to antidepressant-treatment resistant depressed patients (n=35, remitted depressed patients (n=27, and healthy controls (n=66. We also evaluated the relationships between scores on NEO and TCI, using the same cohort of patients with treatment-resistant depression, as our previous study. RESULTS: Patients with treatment-resistant depression showed high scores for neuroticism, low scores for extraversion, openness and conscientiousness, without changes in agreeableness, on the NEO. However, patients in remitted depression showed no significant scores on NEO. Patients with treatment-resistant depression and low openness on NEO showed positive relationships with reward dependence and cooperativeness on the TCI. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression.

  16. Feeling but not caring: empathic alteration in narcissistic men with high psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Louis-Alexandre; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Lemelin, Sophie; Voisin, Julien A; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Jackson, Philip L

    2014-12-30

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by specific interpersonal-affective deficits and social deviance often marked by reduced empathy and decreased affective response to the suffering of others. However, recent findings in community samples suggest that the somatosensory resonance to other's pain measured with electroencephalography (EEG) is increased by psychopathic traits. This study aimed at comparing both the response to physical pain and the observation of pain being inflicted to another person in individuals with clinically significant psychopathic traits, namely patients with severe narcissistic personality disorder (NPD, n=11), and community controls (CC, n=13). The gating of somatosensory responses to a tactile steady-state stimulation (25 Hz) during the observation of pain-evoking and non-painful visual stimuli of hands was measured using EEG. Pain thresholds were assessed with a quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery. NPD compared with CC subjects showed similar thermal pain thresholds, but significantly higher pain pressure thresholds (PPT). Significantly greater somatosensory gating (SG) during the anticipation and the observation of pain in others was observed in NPD compared with CC subjects, but this difference was not associated with differences in self-pain perception. SG to pain observation was positively correlated with the Impulsivity-Egocentricity (IE) dimension of psychopathy. These findings demonstrated a stronger somatosensory resonance in the high psychopathic trait NPD group that suggests an increased somatic representation of observed pain despite lower dispositional empathy.

  17. Analysis of General Personality Characteristics of High School Students Who Take and Do not Take Vocational Music Training according to Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Yağışan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authorities claim that music training helps children and young people gain insight and actualize themselves and it contributes to their self-expression, self-confidence and socialization process. As known, music education that children and adolescences get varies for several reasons, and particularly the aims, the ways, and the intensity of courses differ according to the school types. From this context, the students of the high schools of fine arts getting vocational musical training and the students of general high schools not getting the vocational training were investigated by means of a general personality inventory, and a research was conducted to examine whether or not music education supports the personality development of the high school students. In the study, 140 students attending the last grade of high schools of fine arts, 140 students attending last grade of general high schools with total amount of 280 were randomly selected. The students were administered a 168 item personality inventory to determine their characteristics of ‘social, personal and general adaptation’ levels. Following findings were obtained as a result of the survey: When the total scales “general adaptation”, “social adaptation” and “personal adaptation” levels, including the sub-scales of ‘family affairs, social affairs, social norms, anti-social tendencies’, ‘self-actualization, emotional decisiveness, neurotic tendencies and psychotic symptoms’, were examined, the scores of students who get vocational music training were found significantly higher than the students who do not get it. The results of the study show that music training supports the personality development of adolescences positively.

  18. Analysis of General Personality Characteristics of High School Students Who Take and Do not Take Vocational Music Training according to Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Yağışan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authorities claim that music training helps children and young people gain insight and actualize themselves and it contributes to their self-expression, self-confidence and socialization process. As known, music education that children and adolescences get varies for several reasons, and particularly the aims, the ways, and the intensity of courses differ according to the school types. From this context, the students of the high schools of fine arts getting vocational musical training and the students of general high schools not getting the vocational training were investigated by means of a general personality inventory, and a research was conducted to examine whether or not music education supports the personality development of the high school students. In the study, 140 students attending the last grade of high schools of fine arts, 140 students attending last grade of general high schools with total amount of 280 were randomly selected. The students were administered a 168 item personality inventory to determine their characteristics of ‘social, personal and general adaptation’ levels. Following findings were obtained as a result of the survey: When the total scales “general adaptation”, “social adaptation” and “personal adaptation” levels, including the sub-scales of ‘family affairs, social affairs, social norms, anti-social tendencies’, ‘self-actualization, emotional decisiveness, neurotic tendencies and psychotic symptoms’, were examined, the scores of students who get vocational music training were found significantly higher than the students who do not get it. The results of the study show that music training supports the personality development of adolescences positively.

  19. Nonintellective intelligence and personality: variance shared by the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirrison, C L; Gordy, C C

    1994-04-01

    The Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI; Epstein & Meier, 1989), a recently developed scale assessing patterns of habitual everyday thoughts, was compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to ascertain areas of common variance. CTI and MBTI data from 65 men and 109 women were evaluated. A series of standard multiple regression procedures indicated that, in most instances, CTI scales were predictive of MBTI continuous scores, although gender mediated several of the effects. The results suggest that the variance assessed by the CTI is similar to that addressed by traditional measures of personality but that the CTI partitions the variance in an atypical, yet coherent, manner.

  20. Synthesizing Results from an Interest and a Personality Inventory to Improve Career Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    Illustrates how career counselors can integrate results of Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory (SCII) to enhance client's decision-making ability. Includes detailed description of MBTI and brief explanation of SCII and discussion of how both instruments can be used jointly to promote career decision making.…

  1. Assessment of Personality Types in an Urban Community of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand using Introversion- Extroversion Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi Bhargava, Jayanti Semwal, Ruchi Juyal, Shaili Vyas, Deepshikha Varshney

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Personality can be defined as a person’s pattern of internal experience and social interaction that arises from his action. The trait of extroversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. Objectives: To study the difference in personality in adults according to age and sex and the association of education and personality. Methods: The study was conducted in Rishikesh, Dehradun. A judgemental-purposive sampling was done in view of explor...

  2. Utility of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Brief Form (PID-5-BF) in the Measurement of Maladaptive Personality and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jaime L; Sellbom, Martin; Salekin, Randall T

    2016-11-07

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition (DSM-5) Personality and Personality Disorders workgroup developed the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) for the assessment of the alternative trait model for DSM-5 Along with this measure, the American Psychiatric Association published an abbreviated version, the PID-5-Brief form (PID-5-BF). Although this measure is available on the DSM-5 website for use, only two studies have evaluated its psychometric properties and validity and no studies have examined the U.S. version of this measure. The current study evaluated the reliability, factor structure, and construct validity of PID-5-BF scale scores. This included an evaluation of the scales' associations with Section II PDs, a well-validated dimensional measure of personality psychopathology, and broad externalizing and internalizing psychopathology measures. We found support for the reliability of PID-5-BF scales as well as for the factor structure of the measure. Furthermore, a series of correlation and regression analyses showed conceptually expected associations between PID-5-BF and external criterion variables. Finally, we compared the correlations with external criterion measures to those of the full-length PID-5 and PID-5-Short form. Intraclass correlation analyses revealed a comparable pattern of correlations across all three measures, thereby supporting the use of the PID-5-BF as a screening measure of dimensional maladaptive personality traits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  4. Weapon carrying and psychopathic-like features in a population-based sample of Finnish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukkonen, Suvi; Laajasalo, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Kivivuori, Janne; Salmi, Venla; Aronen, Eeva T

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of juvenile weapon carrying and psychosocial and personality-related risk factors for carrying different types of weapons in a nationally representative, population-based sample of Finnish adolescents. Specifically, we aimed to investigate psychopathic-like personality features as a risk factor for weapon carrying. The participants were 15-16-year-old adolescents from the Finnish self-report delinquency study (n = 4855). Four different groups were formed based on self-reported weapon carrying: no weapon carrying, carrying knife, gun or other weapon. The associations between psychosocial factors, psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying were examined with multinomial logistic regression analysis. 9% of the participants had carried a weapon in the past 12 months. Adolescents with a history of delinquency, victimization and antisocial friends were more likely to carry weapons in general; however, delinquency and victimization were most strongly related to gun carrying, while perceived peer delinquency (antisocial friends) was most strongly related to carrying a knife. Better academic performance was associated with a reduced likelihood of carrying a gun and knife, while feeling secure correlated with a reduced likelihood of gun carrying only. Psychopathic-like features were related to a higher likelihood of weapon carrying, even after adjusting for other risk factors. The findings of the study suggest that adolescents carrying a weapon have a large cluster of problems in their lives, which may vary based on the type of weapon carried. Furthermore, psychopathic-like features strongly relate to a higher risk of carrying a weapon.

  5. The association between affective psychopathic traits, time incarcerated, and cortisol response to psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Megan M; Mikolajewski, Amy; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Eckel, Lisa A; Taylor, Jeanette

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that psychopathic personality traits are significantly predictive of blunted cortisol reactivity to a performance-based stressor task (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) in college students. However, the relationship between cortisol reactivity and psychopathy has not been explored in high risk samples such as incarcerated populations. Further, the role of imprisonment in relation to cortisol stress reactivity has not been previously explored, but could have practical and conceptual consequences in regard to rehabilitation and biological sensitivity to context, respectively. The current study tested the hypotheses that both psychopathic personality traits and amount of time incarcerated are related to cortisol blunting in response to stress among incarcerated young adults. A sample of 49 young adult male offenders was recruited to complete the TSST. Salivary hormone samples were taken just prior to and 20 min post-stressor, and participants were interviewed with the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version. Variables quantifying the amount of time at the present facility prior to the date of testing and number of commitments in juvenile facilities were also collected. Correlational analyses indicated that only number of incarcerations was related to blunted cortisol. Hierarchical Linear Modeling revealed that time incarcerated and number of commitments were related to a blunted cortisol response among responders and declining cortisol reactivity among nonresponders, respectively. Controlling for time incarcerated, psychopathic traits were significantly related to cortisol decline in response to the stressor among nonresponders, but were not related to blunted cortisol among responders. Results of this project highlight the potential biological effects of prolonged and repeated incarcerations, and extend our understanding about the relationship between psychopathic traits and cortisol reactivity in an incarcerated sample.

  6. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Short Form (PID-5-SF): psychometric properties and association with big five traits and pathological beliefs in a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo

    2016-12-07

    With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF. Further, criterion validity with the five factor model of personality (FFM) and pathological personality beliefs was examined. A derivation sample of university students (N = 503) completed the PID-5, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire - Short Form (PBQ-SF), whereas a replication sample of 127 students completed the PID-5-SF along with the aforementioned measures. The short PID-5 showed overall good score reliability and structural validity. The associations with FFM traits and pathological personality beliefs were conceptually coherent and similar for the two forms of the PID-5. The results suggest that the Norwegian PID-5 short form is a reliable and efficient measure of the trait criterion of the alternative model for personality disorders in DSM-5.

  7. Moral Development and Parent Behavior Antecedents in Adolescent Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Eugene M.

    1973-01-01

    Psychopaths, as against nonpsychopathic delinquents, saw their fathers as having been less nurturant toward them and as having given them less praise. The mothers of psychopaths were reported to have demanded less achievement of their sons than the mothers of nonpsychopathic delinquents. (Author)

  8. A Cognitive Developmental Approach to Morality: Investigating the Psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, R. J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Examined the efficacy of a causal model suggesting that lack of a violence inhibitor when confronted with distress cues may explain psychopathic behavior. Compared to control subjects, the psychopaths made no moral/conventional distinction about transgressions, treated conventional transgressions like moral transgressions, and were much less…

  9. The role of fearless dominance in differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: comment on Marcus, Fulton, and Edens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Christopher J; Venables, Noah C; Drislane, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Comments on the original article by Marcus et al. (see record 2011-23134-001). Based on their meta-analytic review of the correlates of the two factors of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), Fearless Dominance (FD) and Self-Centered Impulsivity (SCI), Marcus, Fulton, and Edens (this issue, pp. 70-79) raise important questions about the role of FD in diagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathy. In considering their findings, general limitations of metaanalyses (e.g., Ioannidis & Lau, 1999) should be borne in mind, along with specific limitations of their analysis. These limitations are discussed here.

  10. Personality in adulthood: a six-year longitudinal study of self-reports and spouse ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P T; McCrae, R R

    1988-05-01

    Previous longitudinal studies of personality in adulthood have been limited in the range of traits examined, have chiefly made use of self-reports, and have frequently included only men. In this study, self-reports (N = 983) and spouse ratings (N = 167) were gathered on the NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985b), which measures all five of the major dimensions of normal personality. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses on data from men and women aged 21 to 96 years showed evidence of small declines in Activity, Positive Emotions, and openness to Actions that might be attributed to maturation, but none of these effects was replicated in sequential analyses. The 20 other scales examined showed no consistent pattern of maturational effects. In contrast, retest stability was quite high for all five dimensions in self-reports and for the three dimensions measured at both times in spouse ratings. Comparable levels of stability were seen for men and women and for younger and older subjects. The data support the position that personality is stable after age 30.

  11. Reliability and validity of the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5): predicting DSM-IV personality disorders and psychopathy in community-dwelling Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena; Maffei, Cesare

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the internal consistency, factor structure, and ability to recover DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) scales, 710 Italian adult community dwelling volunteers were administered the Italian translation of the PID-5, as well as the Italian translation of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+). Cronbach's alpha values were >.70 for all PID-5 facet scales and greater than .90 for all PID-5 domain scales. Parallel analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported the theoretical five-factor model of the PID-5 trait scales. Regression analyses showed that both PID-5 trait and domain scales explained a substantial amount of variance in the PDQ-4+ PD scales, with the exception of the Passive-Aggressive PD scale. When the PID-5 was administered to a second independent sample of 389 Italian adult community dwelling volunteers, the basic psychometric properties of the scale were replicated. In this second sample, the PID-5 trait and domain scales proved to be significant predictors of psychopathy measures. As a whole, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that the PID-5 is a reliable instrument which is able to recover DSM-IV PDs, as well as to capture personality pathology that is not included in the DSM-IV (namely, psychopathy).

  12. Diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder and criminal responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Barendregt, M.; Haan, B.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Beurs, E. de

    2011-01-01

    The present study empirically investigates whether personality disorders and psychopathic traits in criminal suspects are reasons for diminished criminal responsibility or enforced treatment in high security hospitals. Recently, the tenability of the claim that individuals with personality disorders

  13. Psychopathic Traits and Moral Disengagement Interact to Predict Bullying and Cyberbullying Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orue, Izaskun; Calvete, Esther

    2016-07-19

    The aim of this study was to test a model in which psychopathic traits (callous-unemotional, grandiose-manipulative, and impulsive-irresponsible) and moral disengagement individually and interactively predict two types of bullying (traditional and cyberbullying) in a community sample of adolescents. A total of 765 adolescents (464 girls and 301 boys) completed measures of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits at Time 1, and measures of bullying and cyberbullying at Time 1 and 1 year later, at Time 2. The results showed that callous-unemotional traits predicted both traditional bullying and cyberbullying, grandiose-manipulative and impulsive-irresponsible traits only predicted traditional bullying, and moral disengagement only predicted cyberbullying. Callous-Unemotional Traits × Moral Disengagement and Grandiose-Manipulative × Moral Disengagement were significantly correlated with the residual change in cyberbullying. Callous-unemotional traits were positively related to cyberbullying at high levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was low. In contrast, grandiose-manipulative traits were positively related to cyberbullying at low levels of moral disengagement but not when moral disengagement was high. These findings have implications for both prevention and intervention. Integrative approaches that promote moral growth are needed, including a deeper understanding of why bullying is morally wrong and ways to stimulate personality traits that counteract psychopathic traits.

  14. Personality and mental health: Arabic Scale of Mental Health, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Neo Five Factor Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore associations of mental health and personality factors through two studies. Two separate convenience samples of volunteer Kuwaiti college students took part in the study (n1 = 193, n2 = 128). Their ages ranged between 18 and 32 years. They responded, in small group sessions, to the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and to Costa and McCrae's Five Personality Factors in their Arabic forms. In addition, both samples responded to the Arabic Scale of Mental Health (ASMH). In the first study, scorers on the ASMH were significantly correlated (r) with Neuroticism (-.63), Extraversion (.57), and Lie (.22) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health and Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Psychoticism versus Lie." In Study 2, mental health scores were significantly positively correlated with Conscientiousness (.62), Extraversion (.59), Agreeableness (.34), and Openness (.26) scores, and negatively with Neuroticism (-.62) scores. Two orthogonal components were retained and labeled "Mental health, Agreeableness, Extraversion versus Neuroticism," and "Openness, Conscientiousness, and Mental health." It was concluded that the salient associations of the ASMH were with positive traits and scores on Extraversion, Conscientiousness (positive), and with Neuroticism (negative), indicating good construct validity of the ASMH.

  15. A Comparison of the Nomological Networks Associated With Forced-Choice and Likert Formats of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Gentile, Brittany; Carter, Nathan T; Crowe, Michael; Hoffman, Brian J; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-04-24

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is one of the most popular measures of narcissism. However, its use of a forced-choice response set might negatively affect some of its psychometric properties. The purpose of this research was to compare a Likert version of the NPI, in which only the narcissistic response of each pair was given, to the original NPI, in 3 samples of participants (N = 1,109). To this end, we compared the nomological networks of the forced-choice and Likert formats of the NPI in relation to alternative measures of narcissism, narcissistic personality disorder, entitlement, self-esteem, general personality traits (reported by self and informants), interpersonal styles, and general pathological traits included in the DSM-5. The Likert format NPI-total and subscales-manifested similar construct validity to the original forced-choice format across all criteria with only minor differences that seem to be due mainly to the increased reliability and variability found in the Likert NPI Entitlement/Exploitativeness subscale. These results provide evidence that a version of the NPI that employs a Likert format can justifiably be used in place of the original.

  16. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) normative elevation rates: comparisons with epidemiological prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Marek, Ryan J; Finn, Jacob A; Hicks, Adam; Rapier, Jessica L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2013-01-01

    Odland, Berthelson, Sharma, Martin, and Mittenberg ( 2013 ) caution that clinically elevated scale scores produced by members of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 /2011) normative sample raise concerns about the potential for false positive findings of psychopathology. However, the MMPI-2-RF normative sample is intended to represent the general population of the United States, 26.2% of which met criteria for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (APA, 1994 ) disorder in a 12-month period (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005 ). In the current study we compare scale elevation rates in the MMPI-2-RF normative sample to prevalence rates of mental disorders primarily drawn from the National Comorbidity Study Replication (Kessler et al., 2005 ). Our objective was to evaluate MMPI-2-RF elevation rates in an epidemiological context. Results indicate that MMPI-2-RF scale elevation rates were generally consistent with epidemiological data when examined in the context of standard interpretation guidelines for the inventory. We also reiterate Ben-Porath and Tellegen's (2008/2011) caution that MMPI-2-RF scale elevations alone are not sufficient to indicate the presence of psychiatric disorder. Rather they are best viewed as indications of the need to evaluate the individual for possible disorder(s). Implications of these results, limitations of this study, and future directions in research are discussed.

  17. Investigating the Relationship Between DSM-5 Personality Disorder Domains and Facets and Aggression in an Offender Population Using the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Ashley L; Gilbert, Flora; Daffern, Michael

    2017-10-03

    This study explored associations between aggression and the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 (PID-5) domains and facets in 208 male offenders. Regression analyses revealed no significant domain-level relationships using either the APA-three facets only (Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2013) or the Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, and Skodol (2012) scoring algorithms. The PID-5 facets of Hostility and Risk Taking were significantly associated with aggression. These findings highlight the importance of a facet-level analysis when exploring the PD-aggression relationship. The authors call attention to how this knowledge can contribute to clinical-forensic practice and note limitations associated with using only PID-5 domain-level scoring approaches. More research is required to determine whether a universally accepted scoring approach can be adopted and promoted alongside future versions of the PID-5.

  18. The Utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory in the Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellet, Benjamin W; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Thomas, Danielle H; Luciano, Matthew T

    2017-01-01

    We examined the use of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in a small sample of 47 U.S. military veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Approximately half of the sample met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. PAI profiles were compared between the PTSD and non-PTSD groups. The PTSD group had clinically significant scores (≥ 70 T) on the PAI for 5 clinical scales (anxiety, anxiety-related disorders, depression, paranoia, and schizophrenia) and 10 clinical subscales consistent with the typical symptom picture for PTSD. Effect size correlations ( r) between scales and diagnosis group membership were large ( r ≥ .5) for several scales that reflect PTSD symptoms and for the PTSD LOGIT function. In a receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the PTSD LOGIT function and the Traumatic Stress Subscale both demonstrated good diagnostic utility (areas under the curve > .80).

  19. Fiabilidad y validez de la versión castellana del E.P.I. (Eysenck Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluis García Sevilla

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Se calculó la fiabilidad de la versión castellana del Eysenck Personality Inventory (E. P. L mediante test-retest (una semana, y tres años y medio y mediante formas paralelas utilizando una muestra universitaria (n=74. Se calculó la validez paralela respecto al cuestionario español "Control, Extraversión y Paranoidismo (C. E. P. utilizando una muestra universitaria (n=318. La fiabilidad es ligeramente inferior a la versión original inglesa. La escala de Sinceridad presenta grandes deficiencias. La validez Paralela es alta, por tanto el E. P. I. sería válido en tanto lo fuera el cuestionario C. E. P.

  20. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pera-Guardiola

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths' impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects.

  1. A Pictorial Version of the RIASEC Scales of the Personal Globe Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Holland's theory of six work personalities has become a staple of vocational psychology, providing a robust and simple model for understanding the structure of vocational interests. Though Holland's types provide a common vocabulary for vocational psychologists working with a variety of populations, until this point there has not been a measure of…

  2. An Empirical Test of Roskam's Conjecture about the Interpretation of an ICC Parameter in Personality Inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbo, Bruno D.; Pope, Gregory A.; Watson, Jackie E.; Hubley, Anita M.

    1997-01-01

    E. Roskam's (1985) conjecture that steeper item characteristic curve (ICC) "a" parameters (slopes) (and higher item total correlations in classical test theory) would be found with more concretely worded test items was tested with results from 925 young adults on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (H. Eysenck and S. Eysenck, 1975).…

  3. A Pictorial Version of the RIASEC Scales of the Personal Globe Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Holland's theory of six work personalities has become a staple of vocational psychology, providing a robust and simple model for understanding the structure of vocational interests. Though Holland's types provide a common vocabulary for vocational psychologists working with a variety of populations, until this point there has not been a measure of…

  4. Fitting Item Response Theory Models to Two Personality Inventories: Issues and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshenko, Oleksandr S.; Stark, Stephen; Chan, Kim-Yin; Drasgow, Fritz; Williams, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Compared the fit of several Item Response Theory (IRT) models to two personality assessment instruments using data from 13,059 individuals responding to one instrument and 1,770 individuals responding to the other. Two- and three-parameter logistic models fit some scales reasonably well, but not others, and the graded response model generally did…

  5. [Validation of a French translation of Krueger's personality inventory for DSM-5 in its brief form (PID-5 BF)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combaluzier, S; Gouvernet, B; Menant, F; Rezrazi, A

    2016-09-27

    Since the publication of the DSM-5 (APA, 2013), the dimensional conception of the personality disorders is co-existing with the classical categorical paradigm. Tools have been proposed for the evaluations of five big pathological factors to be explored further according to the APA (negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, psychoticism). Despite numerous works using these questionnaires (30 works in 3 years according to Al-Adjani et al., 2015), none of them have yet been translated into French. Also, the main objective of the paper is to present a French translation of the Personality Inventory for DSM -5 by Kruegger et al. (2013) in its brief form of 25 items (PID-5 BF). To reach this goal, we have employed the classic translation-retranslation method (Vallerand, 1989) and tested the consistence and the validity of this French version among a non-clinical sample (n=216) of young adults (age=31.4, SD=4.8), in joining some other questionnaires in their short forms to study the external validity of the PID-5 about the psychological distress (SCL-10, Nguyen, 1983), the categorical diagnosis of personality disorders (SAPAS, Moran et al., 2003) and the classical Big Five dimensions of the personality (BDI 10, Ramamstedt and John, 2007). The internal consistency of this translation has been studied through the classical outcomes on factor analysis for the dimensional repartitions of the items in 5 scales and Cronbach's alpha for the consistency of each found dimensions. The external validity has been explored by studying Pearson's correlations between the outcomes on each dimension of the PID-5 BF and both the clinical dimensions of SCL-10, personality dimensions of the BFI-10 or personality disorders (SAPAS). Factor analysis led to the same repartition of the 25 items as the original versions. Each of the dimensions is consistent enough (α>.65) to be taken into account as clinically significant. The items of the French version of the PID-5 BF follow

  6. Dreaming and personality: Wake-dream continuity, thought suppression, and the Big Five Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Josie E

    2015-12-15

    Studies have found relationships between dream content and personality traits, but there are still many traits that have been underexplored or have had questionable conclusions drawn about them. Experimental work has found a 'rebound' effect in dreams when thoughts are suppressed prior to sleep, but the effect of trait thought suppression on dream content has not yet been researched. In the present study participants (N=106) reported their Most Recent Dream, answered questions about the content of the dream, and completed questionnaires measuring trait thought suppression and the 'Big Five' personality traits. Of these, 83 were suitably recent for analyses. A significant positive correlation was found between trait thought suppression and participants' ratings of dreaming of waking-life emotions, and high suppressors reported dreaming more of their waking-life emotions than low suppressors did. The results may lend support to the compensation theory of dreams, and/or the ironic process theory of mental control.

  7. The five-factor narcissism inventory: a five-factor measure of narcissistic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Natalie; Miller, Joshua D; Lynam, Donald R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    This study provides convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity data for a new measure of narcissistic personality traits created from the perspective of the Five-factor model (FFM) of general personality structure. Fifteen scales were constructed as maladaptive variants of respective facets of the FFM (e.g., Reactive Anger as a narcissistic variant of angry hostility), with item selection made on the basis of a criterion-keying approach using results from 167 undergraduates. On the basis of data from 166 additional undergraduates, the convergent validity of these 15 scales was tested with respect to 8 established measures of narcissism (including measures of both grandiose and vulnerable narcissism) and the respective facets of the FFM. Discriminant validity was tested with respect to facets from other FFM domains. Incremental validity was tested with respect to the ability of the FFM narcissism trait scales to account for variance in 2 alternative measures of narcissism, after variance accounted for by respective NEO PI-R facet scales and other established measures of narcissism were first removed. The findings support the validity of these new scales as measures of narcissistic personality traits and as maladaptive variants of the FFM.

  8. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  9. Assessment of Mindfulness with the French Version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills in Community and Borderline Personality Disorder Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Rosetta; Jermann, Francoise; Bondolfi, Guido; McQuillan, Annabel

    2010-01-01

    This article explores mindfulness skills in community and borderline personality disorder (BPD) samples. Study 1 includes 173 community volunteers and explores the psychometric properties of the French version of the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). Study 2 explores the KIMS factor structure in 130 BPD patients and compares KIMS…

  10. Detecting Over- and Underreporting of Psychopathology with the Spanish-Language Personality Assessment Inventory: Findings from a Simulation Study with Bilingual Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Krissie; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Noland, Ramona M.

    2008-01-01

    Existing research on the Spanish-language translation of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991) suggests that the validity scales from the English- and Spanish-language versions may not be equivalent measures. In the current study, 72 bilingual participants completed both the English- and Spanish-language versions of the PAI…

  11. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pera-Guardiola, Vanessa; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    .... However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results...

  12. Psychopaths know right from wrong but don't care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Tonnaer, F.; Hauser, M.

    2010-01-01

    Adult psychopaths have deficits in emotional processing and inhibitory control, engage in morally inappropriate behavior, and generally fail to distinguish moral from conventional violations. These observations, together with a dominant tradition in the discipline which sees emotional processes as c

  13. Panic disorder: Psychobiological aspects of personality dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draganić-Gajić Saveta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to understand the underlying mechanisms of association between psychological factors and panic disorder have been mostly based on psychodynamic description. Evidence of the importance of serotonergic (5-HT system in panic disorder (PD, however, has substanti ally increased in recent years. OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to determine whether there was a specific personality profile of panic disorder patients and how it was related to possible neurobiological mechanisms underlying personality dimensions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Sample consisted of 14 inpatients with ICD-X diagnosis of panic disorder and 34 healthy control subjects. Personality dimensions were assessed by Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 and Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ. To assess central 5-HT function, platelet monoamine-oxidase (MAO activity was measured. RESULTS In panic disorder group, higher scores of histrionic, depressive and hypochondriac subscales and significant increase of harm avoidance (HA scale as well as low MAO activity were found. Negative correlation was established between MAO activity and psychopathic deviance MMPI scale. CONCLUSION The obtained results might indicate a specific personality profile of patients with panic disorder, which is characterized by high neuroticism, fearfulness, inhibition, shyness and apprehensive worry. Low MAO activity and high HA scores possibly indicate underlying hyperserotonergic state. The observed correlation between personality traits and MAO activity provide additional support for the hypothesized functional relationship between underlying central monoaminergic activity and temperament traits associated with anxiety, depression and impulsivity.

  14. Overgeneralization of validity generalization in personality inventories: applied issues in testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, D W; Tiffany, P G

    1999-04-01

    Generalization of validity asserts that a predictor or criterion generalizes across studies and will continue to show similar parameters when the situation changes. Kurt Lewin explored situation-behavior relationships, and Mischel examined the situation-behavior association showing predictive accuracy between behaviors and contexts. Investigators have critically reproached the assumed generalization of assessment instruments that ignore contextual variance. The validity hypothesis confirmed that using nonsituation-specific scales does not focus on the contextual effects relevant to the criterion measured and consequently has no practical application for focused evaluation in clinical and employment settings. This study describes a model and technique for the measurement of contextual variance in personality dimensions thereby introducing situation-specificity in evaluation for more focused research, treatment, and a more specific job fit in employment settings.

  15. 个人评价问卷的中文修订%The Revised Chinese Version of Personal Evaluation Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍; 毕重增

    2012-01-01

    以大学生为对象修订个人评价问卷并考察其信度和效度,结果发现:455份问卷的验证性因素分析表明,个人评价问卷的原因素结构未得到支持;对联合量表进行探索性因素分析,共提取出7个因子,即修订后的问卷包括社交焦虑、交友自信、恋爱自信、体育自信、学业自信、外表自信、当众讲话自信、一般自信及影响自信判断的心境状态共9个因子,各个题目在相应因子上的载荷在0.40~0.81之间.修订后的问卷分半信度和内部一致性信度分别为0.81和0.86,与主观幸福感呈极其显著正相关,表明个人评价问卷中文修订版具有良好的信度和效度,可以用于中国大学生自信的研究.%In current study, a revised Chinese version of Personal Evaluation Inventory (PEI) is developed and its reliability and validity are examined. Confirmatory factor analysis of 455 subjects does not offer support for the factor structure of the PEI. Exploratory factor analysis of the combined subscales shows that the Chinese version of PEI consists of 9 subscales: social anxiety, making friends, romantic relationship, athletics, academic, appearance, speaking in public, general confidence and mood. The loads of various items on their relevant factors are distributed in the range of 0. 40 - 0. 81. The split-half and internal consistency reliability of the revised Chinese version are 0. 81 and 0. 86, respectively, which are in highly significant correlation with subjective happiness, thus demonstrating that the revised Chinese Version of Personal Evaluation Inventory has acceptable validity and reliability and is recommended for use in the study of self-confidence of Chinese students.

  16. Frontal and striatal alterations associated with psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L; Baker, Laura A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Jahanshad, Neda; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-03-30

    Neuroimaging research has demonstrated a range of structural deficits in adults with psychopathy, but little is known about structural correlates of psychopathic tendencies in adolescents. Here we examined structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data obtained from 14-year-old adolescents (n=108) using tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to isolate global and localized differences in brain tissue volumes associated with psychopathic traits in this otherwise healthy developmental population. We found that greater levels of psychopathic traits were correlated with increased brain tissue volumes in the left putamen, left ansa peduncularis, right superiomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior frontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, and right medial temporal regions and reduced brain tissues volumes in the right middle frontal cortex, left superior parietal lobule, and left inferior parietal lobule. Post hoc analyses of parcellated regional volumes also showed putamen enlargements to correlate with increased psychopathic traits. Consistent with earlier studies, findings suggest poor decision-making and emotional dysregulation associated with psychopathy may be due, in part, to structural anomalies in frontal and temporal regions whereas striatal structural variations may contribute to sensation-seeking and reward-driven behavior in psychopathic individuals. Future studies will help clarify how disturbances in brain maturational processes might lead to the developmental trajectory from psychopathic tendencies in adolescents to adult psychopathy.

  17. Aberrant neural processing of moral violations in criminal psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenski, Carla L.; Harenski, Keith A.; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2010-01-01

    A defining characteristic of psychopathy is the willingness to intentionally commit moral transgressions against others without guilt or remorse. Despite this ‘moral insensitivity’, the behavioral and neural correlates of moral decision-making in psychopathy have not been well studied. To address this issue, the authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 72 incarcerated male adults, stratified into psychopathic (N = 16) and nonpsychopathic (N = 16) groups based on scores from the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, while they made decisions regarding the ‘severity of moral violations’ of pictures that did or did not depict moral situations. Consistent with hypotheses, an analysis of brain activity during the evaluation of pictures depicting moral violations in psychopaths vs. nonpsychopaths showed atypical activity in several regions involved in moral decision-making. This included reduced moral/non-moral picture distinctions in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior temporal cortex in psychopaths relative to nonpsychopaths. In a separate analysis, the association between severity of moral violation ratings and brain activity across participants was compared in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths. Results revealed a positive association between amygdala activity and severity ratings that was greater in nonpsychopaths than psychopaths, and a negative association between posterior temporal activity and severity ratings that was greater in psychopaths than nonpsychopaths. These results reveal potential neural underpinnings of moral insensitivity in psychopathy and are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of morality and psychopathy. PMID:21090881

  18. Brain Structural Correlates of Emotion Recognition in Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla, Iolanda; Kosson, David; Menchón, José M; Pifarré, Josep; Bosque, Javier; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy present deficits in the recognition of facial emotional expressions. However, the nature and extent of these alterations are not fully understood. Furthermore, available data on the functional neural correlates of emotional face recognition deficits in adult psychopaths have provided mixed results. In this context, emotional face morphing tasks may be suitable for clarifying mild and emotion-specific impairments in psychopaths. Likewise, studies exploring corresponding anatomical correlates may be useful for disentangling available neurofunctional evidence based on the alleged neurodevelopmental roots of psychopathic traits. We used Voxel-Based Morphometry and a morphed emotional face expression recognition task to evaluate the relationship between regional gray matter (GM) volumes and facial emotion recognition deficits in male psychopaths. In comparison to male healthy controls, psychopaths showed deficits in the recognition of sad, happy and fear emotional expressions. In subsequent brain imaging analyses psychopaths with better recognition of facial emotional expressions showed higher volume in the prefrontal cortex (orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices), somatosensory cortex, anterior insula, cingulate cortex and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. Amygdala and temporal lobe volumes contributed to better emotional face recognition in controls only. These findings provide evidence suggesting that variability in brain morphometry plays a role in accounting for psychopaths’ impaired ability to recognize emotional face expressions, and may have implications for comprehensively characterizing the empathy and social cognition dysfunctions typically observed in this population of subjects. PMID:27175777

  19. The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4+(PDQ-4+) in a Mixed Italian Psychiatric Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Bottesi, G; Novara, C.; Ghisi, M; Ferracuti, S; Lang, M.; Sanavio, E; Zennaro, A.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires play a crucial role in the assessment of Personality Disorders (PDs); in such a context, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) and the Personality Disorder Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) are frequently adopted. The aim of this preliminary study was to examine the association between the MCMI-III and the PDQ-4+ in a mixed Italian psychiatric sample. All the correlations between the MCMI-III personality scales and the correspondent PDQ-4+ scales were posi...

  20. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuere, Bruno; in ´t Hout, Willem

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We explored the costs of instructed lying versus truth telling through RTs and error rates in 52 violent male offenders, who were assessed with the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI). Our deception paradigm also included trials with the free choice to lie or tell the truth. By coupling monetary loss to slow and erroneous responding, we hypothesized that the frequency of lying despite likely negative consequences, would provide an index of compulsive lying. Offenders were slower and erred more often when lying than when telling the truth, and there was no robust association between psychopathy and the cognitive cost of lying. From an applied perspective, this suggests that psychopathy may not threaten the validity of computerized cognition-based lie detection. In the face of probable negative consequences, high grandiose-manipulative offenders chose to lie three times as often as low grandiose-manipulative offenders. Our new lying frequency index is a first attempt to create a much needed tool to empirically examine compulsive lying, and provides preliminary support for the compulsive nature of lying in grandiose-manipulative offenders. Alternative interpretation of the findings are discussed. PMID:27391854

  1. Discharge inventory of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixia Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs are emerging environmental contaminants, whose potential risk for the ecological environment has caused wide attention in recent years. In China, quite a large amount of PPCPs were annually emitted into the environment. Their existence in different matrix has been reported frequently, including river water, sediment and soil. However, the contribution from different sources was seldom reported and still unclear in China. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP was usually considered to be the main source to the urban river, but livestock and aquaculture farms were also reported as significant pollution sources of PPCPs due to poor environmental management in China. This study summarized environmental discharges of different PPCPs from various sources and obtained the discharge data through different environment media in Beijing, the statistical source of PPCPs was analyzed in detail. The sources comprised WWTPs, excess sludge, hospital wastewater, municipal untreated wastewater, aquaculture wastewater and landfill leachate. This article helps understand the general situation and the potential risk of PPCPs in Beijing.

  2. Clusters of Financially Incentivized Chronic Pain Patients Using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerrevere, Luis E; Calamia, Matthew R; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Curtis, Kelly L; Ramirez, Veronica

    2017-06-19

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has been shown to have clinical utility in the assessment of individuals with chronic pain (e.g., predicting surgical outcomes). The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales in profiling patients with chronic pain who had external financial incentive (e.g., workers' compensation claims) and determine the associations between Validity Scale response patterns and important outcomes. Cluster analysis identified 2 similarly sized clusters of patients with very different MMPI-2-RF profiles. Cluster 1 was characterized by valid responding and showed mean elevations on the somatic and low positive emotion Restructured Clinical scales. Cluster 2 was characterized by patients overreporting on the MMPI-2-RF Validity Scales, who also demonstrated elevations on 7 of the 9 RC scales. Cluster membership was differentially associated with clinical variables: patients in Cluster 2 had greater self-reported pain and disability, were less likely to have spine-related findings on imaging and were more likely to be classified as probable or definite malingerers. These results support the utility of the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales in distinguishing between credible and noncredible responses from patients with chronic pain seen within a medico-legal context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Testing the predictive validity of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in relation to inmate misconduct and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Thomas J; Sorensen, Jon R; Davidson, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) has been widely employed in correctional settings as a screening tool to assess inmates' risk for committing various types of institutional misconduct. Evaluations have generally found the PAI scales Antisocial Features (ANT), Aggression (AGG), and the Violence Potential Index (VPI) to be modestly related to institutional misbehavior, thus supporting its construct validity. The current study provides the most comprehensive examination of the predictive and incremental validity of the PAI and its subscales among a large sample of imprisoned offenders to date. In particular, the size of the sample (n = 15,546) and follow-up period (mean time at risk of 2.2 years) allowed for the disaggregation of institutional misconduct by levels of seriousness and separate examinations by conviction offense and criminal history variables. The 3 scales most strongly related to general rule infractions were ANT, AGG, and the VPI. After controlling for age at intake, violent conviction history, prior violent arrests, and time at risk, the PAI scales were shown to add incremental validity to the classification of 4 types of disciplinary infractions ranging from 2 to 4 percentage points. The study also explored the relationship of the PAI's response bias scales to institutional misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. An item-level psychometric analysis of the personality assessment inventory: clinical scales in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, Caleb J; Sinclair, Samuel J; Kehl-Fie, Kendra A; Blais, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Multi-item multiscale self-report measures are increasingly used in inpatient assessments. When considering a measure for this setting, it is important to evaluate the psychometric properties of the clinical scales and items to ensure that they are functioning as intended in a highly distressed clinical population. The present study examines scale properties for a self-report measure frequently employed in inpatient assessments, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). In addition to examining internal consistency statistics, this study extends prior PAI research by considering key issues related to inpatient assessment (e.g., scale distinctiveness, ceiling effects). Coefficient alphas, interitem correlations, and item- scale relationships suggest that the PAI clinical scales and subscales are internally consistent. Items for respective clinical scales generally showed significantly higher item-scale correlations with their intended scale (as compared with their item-scale correlation with scales they were not intended to measure). In addition, scales' coefficient alpha scores were higher than their interscale correlations. Taken as a whole, these results support the hypothesis that PAI scales were measuring relatively distinct constructs in this inpatient sample. Findings are discussed with regard to the implications for scale interpretation in inpatient assessment, functioning of individual scales and subscales, and functioning of specific items. Limitations of the present study and directions for future research are discussed.

  5. Interpretive Reliability of Six Computer-Based Test Interpretation Programs for the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deskovitz, Mark A; Weed, Nathan C; McLaughlan, Joseph K; Williams, John E

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of six Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Second edition (MMPI-2) computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) programs was evaluated across a set of 20 commonly appearing MMPI-2 profile codetypes in clinical settings. Evaluation of CBTI reliability comprised examination of (a) interrater reliability, the degree to which raters arrive at similar inferences based on the same CBTI profile and (b) interprogram reliability, the level of agreement across different CBTI systems. Profile inferences drawn by four raters were operationalized using q-sort methodology. Results revealed no significant differences overall with regard to interrater and interprogram reliability. Some specific CBTI/profile combinations (e.g., the CBTI by Automated Assessment Associates on a within normal limits profile) and specific profiles (e.g., the 4/9 profile displayed greater interprogram reliability than the 2/4 profile) were interpreted with variable consensus (α range = .21-.95). In practice, users should consider that certain MMPI-2 profiles are interpreted more or less consensually and that some CBTIs show variable reliability depending on the profile.

  6. Making sense of behavioral disturbances in persons with dementia: Latino family caregiver attributions of neuropsychiatric inventory domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Ladson; Chambers, Darin; Velásquez, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and frequency of Latino family caregiver attributions for dementia-related neuropsychiatric symptoms. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the Sacramento, California area. Participants were 30 Latino family caregivers of community-dwelling Latino elderly meeting research criteria for dementia who were selected from an ongoing cohort study of older Latinos (Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging). Open-ended probes were used to elicit caregiver attributions for each symptom domain of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Across the 30 caregivers, 121 explanations for neuropsychiatric domains were present. Content analysis of these explanations revealed 7 different attribution categories (ie, Alzheimer disease, interpersonal problems, other medical conditions, personality, mental, aging, and genetics). Overall, Alzheimer disease was the most frequent attribution category but accounted for less than 30% of the total attributions. In conclusion, this study found that Latino caregivers were more likely to attribute neuropsychiatric symptoms to causes other than Alzheimer disease or a related dementia.

  7. Cognitive status and profile validity on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) in offenders with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlasz, Tatiana M; Brylski, Jamie L; Leidenfrost, Corey M; Scalco, Matt; Sinclair, Samuel J; Schoelerman, Ronald M; Tsang, Valerie; Antonius, Daniel

    Cognitive impairment among seriously mentally ill offenders has implications for legal matters (e.g., competency to stand trial), as well as clinical treatment and care. Thus, being able to identify potential cognitive concerns early in the adjudication process can be important when deciding on further interventions. In this study, we examined the validity scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), scores on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV), and competency findings in male inmates (n=61) diagnosed with a serious mental illness. Lower scores on the WAIS-IV significantly (p=0.001) predicted invalid, versus valid, PAI profiles, with working memory impairment being the most significant (p=0.004) predictor of an invalid profile. Ancillary analyses on a smaller sample (n=18) indicate that those with invalid PAI profiles were more likely to be deemed legally incompetent (p=0.03). These findings suggest that the PAI validity scales may be informative in detecting cognitive concerns and help clinicians make determinations about competency restoration and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Should I stay or should I go? Personality Assessment Inventory and Rorschach indices of early withdrawal from psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnas, Jocelyn W; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Zodan, Jennifer; Blais, Mark A

    2010-12-01

    The Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) and the Rorschach were used to investigate differences between patients who withdrew early from university-based outpatient psychodynamic psychotherapy and those who continued in treatment. The study employs two sets of analyses, one utilizing the complete sample (N = 101) and a second comprised of comparison pairs matched on the specific therapist delivering treatment (n = 36 for Rorschach; n = 38 for PAI). It was hypothesized that early withdrawers would score higher on the PAI Treatment Rejection Scale (RXR) and the PAI Treatment Process Index (TPI) than treatment continuers. It was also hypothesized that early treatment withdrawers will have better overall interpersonal relationships, less need for closeness and intimacy, less available psychological resources and more current stimulus demands, and lower levels of psychological/cognitive disturbance as measured by the Rorschach. In addition, differences between the two groups on PAI treatment and clinical scales and subscales were examined. Results indicated that PAI RXR differentiated between the two groups (pRorschach and other PAI scales. Potential explanations for the findings as well as a discussion of clinical applicability are presented.

  9. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2-restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of violating probation after felonious crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Luna-Jones, Lynn; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2014-12-01

    We compared Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores of 25 individuals convicted of felonies who violated probation within 1 year of sentencing with those of 45 similarly sentenced defendants who completed probation successfully. The sample (51 males, 19 females) ranged in age from 18 to 81 years (M = 35.2, SD = 13.8) and had 8 to 16 years of education (M = 11.7, SD = 2.1). The majority were Caucasian (85.7%), but African Americans were also represented (14.3%). Individuals in the sample were primarily convicted of mid-level felonies (F-1: 2.9%; F-2: 14.3%; F-3: 22.9%; F-4: 31.4%; F-5: 12.9%). As hypothesized, moderate to large statistically significant differences between probation completers and violators were found on several MMPI-2-RF scales, including Behavioral/Externalizing Dysfunction, Antisocial Behavior, Juvenile Conduct Problems, Substance Abuse, Aggression, Activation, and Disconstraint. Relative risk ratio analyses indicated that probationers who produced elevated scores on these scales were up to 3 times more likely to violate probation than were those with non-elevated scores. Implications of these results and limitations of our findings are discussed.

  10. Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Stéphanie M; de Moor, Marleen H M; McGue, Matt; Pettersson, Erik; Terracciano, Antonio; Verweij, Karin J H; Amin, Najaf; Derringer, Jaime; Esko, Tõnu; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hansell, Narelle K; Huffman, Jennifer; Konte, Bettina; Lahti, Jari; Luciano, Michelle; Matteson, Lindsay K; Viktorin, Alexander; Wouda, Jasper; Agrawal, Arpana; Allik, Jüri; Bierut, Laura; Broms, Ulla; Campbell, Harry; Smith, George Davey; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franke, Barbera; Fox, Jean-Paul; de Geus, Eco J C; Giegling, Ina; Gow, Alan J; Grucza, Richard; Hartmann, Annette M; Heath, Andrew C; Heikkilä, Kauko; Iacono, William G; Janzing, Joost; Jokela, Markus; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Lehtimäki, Terho; Madden, Pamela A F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Northstone, Kate; Nutile, Teresa; Ouwens, Klaasjan G; Palotie, Aarno; Pattie, Alison; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Polasek, Ozren; Pulkkinen, Lea; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Rose, Richard J; Ruggiero, Daniela; Seppälä, Ilkka; Slutske, Wendy S; Smyth, David C; Sorice, Rossella; Starr, John M; Sutin, Angelina R; Tanaka, Toshiko; Verhagen, Josine; Vermeulen, Sita; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wright, Margaret J; Zgaga, Lina; Rujescu, Dan; Metspalu, Andres; Wilson, James F; Ciullo, Marina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Deary, Ian J; Räikkönen, Katri; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Costa, Paul T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Krueger, Robert F; Evans, David M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pedersen, Nancy L; Martin, Nicholas G; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2014-07-01

    Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.

  11. P3 Event-Related Potentials and Childhood Maltreatment in Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball…

  12. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  13. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  14. P3 Event-Related Potentials and Childhood Maltreatment in Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball…

  15. Reduced eye gaze explains "fear blindness" in childhood psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R; El Masry, Yasmeen; Wimalaweera, Subodha; Guastella, Adam J

    2008-04-01

    Damage to the amygdala produces deficits in the ability to recognize fear due to attentional neglect of other people's eyes. Interestingly, children with high psychopathic traits also show problems recognizing fear; however, the reasons for this are not known. This study tested whether psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eye region of other people's faces. Adolescent males (N = 100; age mean 12.4 years, SD 2.2) were stratified by psychopathic traits and assessed using a Tobii eye tracker to measure primacy, number, and duration of fixations to the eye and mouth regions of emotional faces presented via the UNSW Facial Emotion Task. High psychopathic traits predicted poor fear recognition (1.21 versus 1.35; p eye fixations, and fewer first foci to the eye region (1.01 versus 2.01; p region. All indices of gaze to the eye region correlated positively with accurate recognition of fear for the high psychopathy group, especially the number of times that subjects looked at the eyes first (r = .50; p eyes is reduced in young people with high psychopathic traits, thus accounting for their problems with fear recognition, and is consistent with amygdala dysfunction failing to promote attention to emotional salience in the environment.

  16. Assessing psychosocial functioning of bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Windover, Amy; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Lavery, Megan; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2013-11-01

    Psychological comorbidity is common in bariatric surgery candidates. Many multidisciplinary teams incorporate psychometric testing to screen for psychological factors that, if left unattended, may negatively impact surgical results. Here, we report descriptive findings and empirical correlates of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales among of bariatric surgery candidates undergoing a pre-surgical psychological evaluation. The sample consisted of male (n = 324) and female (n = 658) patients seeking bariatric surgery who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their psychological evaluation. Psychosocial and medical variables were retrospectively coded from the patients' medical records. These criteria included history/current mental health diagnoses and treatments, maladaptive eating behaviors/diagnoses, past/current substance use, abuse history, sleep apnea, and denial of surgery. Descriptive analyses demonstrated similar findings for male and female candidates and replicated previous reports. MMPI-2-RF scales measuring emotional dysfunction were associated with maladaptive eating patterns, a history of Major Depressive Disorder, and previous suicide attempts. Scale scores measuring behavioral dysfunction were associated with current/past substance use and previous physical abuse. MMPI-2-RF scale scores measuring somatic problems were associated with a higher BMI at the time of surgery, sleep apnea diagnosis/adherence, physical/sexual abuse history, active mood disorder, previous mental health diagnoses, and maladaptive eating patterns. The MMPI-2-RF can aid in identifying a broad range of psychological comorbidity among bariatric surgery candidates. When used in conjunction with a pre-surgical psychological interview, it can aid in the assessment of psychological factors relevant to pre-surgical psychological assessment of bariatric surgery candidates.

  17. Construct measurement quality improves predictive accuracy in violence risk assessment: an illustration using the personality assessment inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Melissa C; Douglas, Kevin S; Winter, Elizabeth A; Edens, John F

    2013-01-01

    Much of the risk assessment literature has focused on the predictive validity of risk assessment tools. However, these tools often comprise a list of risk factors that are themselves complex constructs, and focusing on the quality of measurement of individual risk factors may improve the predictive validity of the tools. The present study illustrates this concern using the Antisocial Features and Aggression scales of the Personality Assessment Inventory (Morey, 1991). In a sample of 1,545 prison inmates and offenders undergoing treatment for substance abuse (85% male), we evaluated (a) the factorial validity of the ANT and AGG scales, (b) the utility of original ANT and AGG scales and newly derived ANT and AGG scales for predicting antisocial outcomes (recidivism and institutional infractions), and (c) whether items with a stronger relationship to the underlying constructs (higher factor loadings) were in turn more strongly related to antisocial outcomes. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) indicated that ANT and AGG items were not structured optimally in these data in terms of correspondence to the subscale structure identified in the PAI manual. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted on a random split-half of the sample to derive optimized alternative factor structures, and cross-validated in the second split-half using CFA. Four-factor models emerged for both the ANT and AGG scales, and, as predicted, the size of item factor loadings was associated with the strength with which items were associated with institutional infractions and community recidivism. This suggests that the quality by which a construct is measured is associated with its predictive strength. Implications for risk assessment are discussed.

  18. Personality characteristics and irritable bowel syndrome in Shiraz, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavinasab Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder, and its definite etiology is still unclear. It has been shown that personality characteristics can affect the disease presentation and attitude of patient toward symptoms. This study was undertaken to evaluate the personality characteristics in patients with IBS in Shiraz, southern Iran. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, the personality characteristics of 60 patients with IBS and 55 healthy persons were compared using Minnesota II Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2. The cases were selected from patients who were referred to the Mottahari clinic affiliated to the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results: The patients recorded the highest scores on the hypochondriasis and psychoasthenia scales. The scores of the patient on the scales of lie, infrequency, hypochondriasis, depression and hysteria showed significant elevation in comparison to those of the control group. Furthermore, the scores on clinical scales in male subjects were higher for psychopathic-deviate, paranoia and social introversion scales in comparison to the males in the control group. Female subjects recorded lower scores on the social introversion scale in comparison to the females in the control group. Male subjects also recorded a higher score on the psychopathic-deviate, paranoia, psychoasthenia and social introversion scales in comparison to females. Female subjects had a relatively higher score on the masculinity/feminity scale. Based on the clinical interview using DMS-IV criteria, the most prevalent symptoms were anxiety and depression in patients with IBS. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients with IBS, psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy of these patients is recommended.

  19. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the “Short Five” personality inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version

  20. Measuring single constructs by single items: Constructing an even shorter version of the "Short Five" personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version of

  1. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [(11)C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Bagby, R Michael; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-10-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [(11)C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=-0.50 to -0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity.

  2. Lower Monoamine Oxidase-A Total Distribution Volume in Impulsive and Violent Male Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder and High Psychopathic Traits: An [11C] Harmine Positron Emission Tomography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolla, Nathan J; Matthews, Brittany; Wilson, Alan A; Houle, Sylvain; Michael Bagby, R; Links, Paul; Simpson, Alexander I; Hussain, Amina; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) often presents with highly impulsive, violent behavior, and pathological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and ventral striatum (VS) are implicated. Several compelling reasons support a relationship between low monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), an enzyme that regulates neurotransmitters, and ASPD. These include MAO-A knockout models in rodents evidencing impulsive aggression and positron emission tomography (PET) studies of healthy subjects reporting associations between low brain MAO-A levels and greater impulsivity or aggression. However, a fundamental gap in the literature is that it is unknown whether brain MAO-A levels are low in more severe, clinical disorders of impulsivity, such as ASPD. To address this issue, we applied [11C] harmine PET to measure MAO-A total distribution volume (MAO-A VT), an index of MAO-A density, in 18 male ASPD participants and 18 age- and sex-matched controls. OFC and VS MAO-A VT were lower in ASPD compared with controls (multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA): F2,33=6.8, P=0.003; OFC and VS MAO-A VT each lower by 19%). Similar effects were observed in other brain regions: prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal putamen, thalamus, hippocampus, and midbrain (MANOVA: F7,28=2.7, P=0.029). In ASPD, VS MAO-A VT was consistently negatively correlated with self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity (r=−0.50 to −0.52, all P-values<0.05). This study is the first to demonstrate lower brain MAO-A levels in ASPD. Our results support an important extension of preclinical models of impulsive aggression into a human disorder marked by pathological aggression and impulsivity. PMID:26081301

  3. Impaired integration in psychopathy: A unified theory of psychopathic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Rachel K B; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Newman, Joseph P

    2015-10-01

    This article introduces a novel theoretical framework for psychopathy that bridges dominant affective and cognitive models. According to the proposed impaired integration (II) framework of psychopathic dysfunction, topographical irregularities and abnormalities in neural connectivity in psychopathy hinder the complex process of information integration. Central to the II theory is the notion that psychopathic individuals are "'wired up' differently" (Hare, Williamson, & Harpur, 1988, p. 87). Specific theoretical assumptions include decreased functioning of the Salience and Default Mode Networks, normal functioning in executive control networks, and less coordination and flexible switching between networks. Following a review of dominant models of psychopathy, we introduce our II theory as a parsimonious account of behavioral and brain irregularities in psychopathy. The II theory provides a unified theoretical framework for understanding psychopathic dysfunction and integrates principle tenets of affective and cognitive perspectives. Moreover, it accommodates evidence regarding connectivity abnormalities in psychopathy through its network theoretical perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  5. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  6. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  7. Cardiac response and anxiety levels in psychopathic murderers Resposta cardíaca e nível de ansiedade em homicidas psicopatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Pádua Serafim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the emotional response and level of anxiety of psychopathic murderers, non-psychopathic murderers, and nonpsychopathic non-criminals. METHOD: 110 male individuals aged over 18 years were divided into three groups: psychopathic murderers (n = 38; non-psychopathic murderers (n = 37 serving sentences for murder convictions in Maximum Security Prisons in the State of Sao Paulo; and non-criminal, non-psychopathic individuals (n = 35 according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. The emotional response of subjects was assessed by heart rate variation and anxiety level (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory after viewing standardized pictures depicting pleasant, unpleasant and neutral content from the International Affective Picture System. RESULTS: Psychopathic murderers presented lower anxiety levels and smaller heart rate variations when exposed to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli than nonpsychopathic murderers or non-psychopathic non-criminals. The results also demonstrated that the higher the score for factor 1 on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, the lower the heart rate variation and anxiety level. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that psychopathic murderers do not present variation in emotional response to different visual stimuli. Although the non-psychopathic murderers had committed the same type of crime as the psychopathic murderers, the former tended to respond with a higher level of anxiety and heart rate variation.OBJETIVO: Comparar a atividade cardíaca e nível de ansiedade de homicidas psicopatas e não psicopatas e não criminosos não psicopatas. MÉTODO: 110 homens com idade superior a 18 anos, divididos em três grupos: homicidas psicopatas (n = 38, homicidas não psicopatas (n = 37 cumprindo pena por homicídio em Prisões de Segurança Máxima do Estado de São Paulo e não criminosos e não psicopatas (n = 35 de acordo com a Escala de Avaliação de Psicopatia. A resposta emocional foi avaliada pela variação da

  8. Psychopathic Inclination Among Incarcerated Youth of Hazara Division Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sher Dil

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Present study aimed at evaluating the psychopathic inclination among youth and finding the gender differences in psychopathy. An indigenously developed Psychopathy scale (Urdu has been used in this study. Alpha reliability of the scale was .90. The study was conducted on 100 males (50 criminals and 50 non-criminals and 100 females (26 criminals and 74 non-criminals using a convenient sampling technique from three districts of Hazara division: Haripur, Abbottabad, and Mansehra. Results confirmed that there is significant difference in psychopathic inclination of males and females; criminals differed significantly from the non-criminals. The study also paves way for further investigation in the field in Pakistan.

  9. Rorschach Inkblot Method and Big Five Personality Inventory%罗夏墨迹测验和大五人格问卷

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜晶

    2011-01-01

    罗夏墨迹测验和大五人格问卷都属于人格测验的一种,这两种人格测量工具在理论基础、测量工具、施测过程、信效度方面存在着差异。既然它们都属于人格测验,肯定有一定的联系,这个联系存在于两个方面:一是罗夏墨迹测验和大五人格问卷在测量人格的维度上有联系;二是罗夏墨迹测验和大五人格问卷都是人格测验,都测量了人格的特质,但是两者测量的人格特质是属于不同的水平。%Rorschach Inkblot Method and Big Five Personality Inventory both belong to personality test.There are differences between the two methods in theoretical basis,measurement instruments,testing process and reliability and validity.At the same time,there are two correlations.First,Rorschach Inkblot Method and Big Five Personality Inventory correlate with each other in dimensions.Second,they both measure personality traits in different levels.

  10. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) predictors of police officer problem behavior and collateral self-report test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Fischler, Gary L; Cappo, Bruce M; Hill, David O; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    The current study examined the predictive validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) scores in police officer screenings. We utilized a sample of 712 police officer candidates (82.6% male) from 2 Midwestern police departments. The sample included 426 hired officers, most of whom had supervisor ratings of problem behaviors and human resource records of civilian complaints. With the full sample, we calculated zero-order correlations between MMPI-2-RF scale scores and scale scores from the California Psychological Inventory (Gough, 1956) and Inwald Personality Inventory (Inwald, 2006) by gender. In the hired sample, we correlated MMPI-2-RF scale scores with the outcome data for males only, owing to the relatively small number of hired women. Several scales demonstrated meaningful correlations with the criteria, particularly in the thought dysfunction and behavioral/externalizing dysfunction domains. After applying a correction for range restriction, the correlation coefficient magnitudes were generally in the moderate to large range. The practical implications of these findings were explored by means of risk ratio analyses, which indicated that officers who produced elevations at cutscores lower than the traditionally used 65 T-score level were as much as 10 times more likely than those scoring below the cutoff to exhibit problem behaviors. Overall, the results supported the validity of the MMPI-2-RF in this setting. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  11. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling analyses of California Psychological Inventory data from age 33 to 75: an examination of stability and change in adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Constance J; Livson, Norman; Peskin, Harvey

    2003-06-01

    Twenty aspects of personality assessed via the California Psychological Inventory (CPI; Gough & Bradley, 1996) from age 33 to 75 were examined in a sample of 279 individuals. Oakland Growth Study and Berkeley Guidance Study members completed the CPI a maximum of 4 times. We used longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to ask the following: Which personality characteristics change and which do not? Five CPI scales showed uniform lack of change, 2 showed heterogeneous change giving an averaged lack of change, 4 showed linear increases with age, 2 showed linear decreases with age, 4 showed gender or sample differences in linear change, 1 showed a quadratic peak, and 2 showed a quadratic nadir. The utility of HLM becomes apparent in portraying the complexity of personality change and stability.

  12. A General Factor of Personality in 16 sets of the Big Five, the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey, the California Psychological Inventory, and the Temperament and Character Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Irwing, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In four studies, we tested the hypothesis that a General Factor of Personality (GFP) occupies the apex of the hierarchy. In Study 1, a GFP was found in 16 sets of Big Five inter-scale correlations (N = 6412) which explained 54% of the variance in the two first-order factors. In Study 2, a GFP was found in validation samples from the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey (N = 2917) which explained 36% of the variance in three first-order factors and 21% of the total reliable variance in a mode...

  13. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  14. Comorbidity of Conduct Problems and ADHD: Identification of "Fledgling Psychopaths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lambros, Katina M.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the characteristics of children who exhibit a behavior pattern characterized by hyperactivity-impulsivity-inattention coupled with conduct problems such as fighting, stealing, truancy, noncompliance, and arguing. Procedures for early identification of these so-called "fledgling psychopaths" are described and discussed.…

  15. Impaired decision-making in psychopathic heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassileva, Jasmin; Petkova, Pavlina; Georgiev, Stefan; Martin, Eileen M; Tersiyski, Ruslan; Raycheva, Margarita; Velinov, Vladimir; Marinov, Peter

    2007-01-12

    Substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) often show neurocognitive deficits in decision-making, such that their choices are biased toward the greatest immediate reward rather than the optimal future outcome. However, studies of SDIs are often hampered by two significant methodological challenges: polysubstance dependence and comorbid conditions, which are independently associated with neurocognitive impairments. We addressed these methodological challenges by testing heroin addicts in Bulgaria, where heroin addiction is highly prevalent but polysubstance dependence is rare. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the potential contribution of psychopathy to decision-making processes among this group of Bulgarian heroin addicts. We tested 78 male currently abstaining heroin addicts, classified as psychopathic or non-psychopathic using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). Psychopathic heroin addicts showed notable deficits in decision-making in that they made significantly more disadvantageous decisions relative to non-psychopathic heroin addicts. Results indicate that the presence of psychopathy may exacerbate decision-making deficits in heroin addicts.

  16. 论变态人格%On Psychopathic Personality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵桂芬

    2006-01-01

    变态人格是一个颇有研究价值的人格类型.在我国,变态人格已被人格障碍或反社会人格所代替,这种现象反映出理解上的混乱.通过对变态人格术语的演变、变态人格与相关术语之间的关系的探讨可以澄清对变态人格的认识.此外,对变态人格的诊断标准、形成原因及其矫正也作了全面的分析与介绍.

  17. Personality factors differentially predict exercise behavior in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, H C; Blumenthal, J A; Barefoot, J C; Peterson, B L; Saunders, W B; Dahlstrom, W G; Costa, P T; Suarez, E C; Helms, M J; Maynard, K E; Williams, R B

    1997-01-01

    Personality assessed with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) in college was used to predict exercise behavior measured at midlife in 3,630 men and 796 women enrolled in the University of North Carolina Alumni Heart Study. Logistic regression models were fitted for each of the MMPI clinical scales to test the predictive effect of personality, gender, and their interaction on adult exercise behavior. Lower depression, social introversion, and psychopathic deviance scores were associated with increased probability of exercising in midlife for both men and women. Furthermore, better psychological health (indexed by lower hypochondriases and psychasthenia) in college was generally predictive of increased exercise for men, whereas higher scores on these same factors predicted midlife exercise for women. There were two other patterns of gender interactions: (a) for men, lower scores on hysteria and schizophrenia scales were associated with increased probability of exercising at midlife, whereas these factors were unrelated to exercise for women and (b) for women, lower ego strength and higher college scores on paranoia and mania were associated with exercise behavior at midlife. These data suggest that early adulthood personality predictors of exercise behavior at midlife are both gender-neutral and gender-specific; that is, where no gender differences exist, healthier personality traits predict exercise at midlife, and when gender differences do occur, healthier college patterns of personality predict exercise behavior for men and sedentary behavior for women.

  18. Personality Assessment of Rosebud Sioux: A Comparison of Rorschach, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and 16PF Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Richard H.; And Others

    Three standard assessment instruments (Rorschach, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory and 16PF) were administered to 12 participating Rosebud Sioux Indians--6 males, 6 females. Reports were generated for each instrument. Consensual and unique concepts contained in all the reports were analyzed in order to describe the contents. Six judges, all…

  19. Implicit attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression: differences between male community and offender adolescents, and associations with psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Maya; Pihet, Sandrine; de Ridder, Jill; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Stephan, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Research suggests that implicit attitudes play a key role in the occurrence of antisocial behaviours. This study assessed implicit attitudes and self-concepts related to aggression and transgression in community and offender adolescents, using a new set of Implicit Association Tests (IATs), and examined their association with of psychopathic traits. Thirty-six offenders and 66 community adolescents performed 4 IATs assessing 1) implicit attitudes about a) aggression and b) transgression as good, and 2) implicit self-concepts about a) aggression and b) transgression as self-descriptive. They filled in self-report questionnaires: the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, and explicit measures of their attitudes and self-concepts towards transgression and aggression. Results showed few differences between community and offender adolescents on implicit attitudes and self-concepts, and unexpected negative associations between some implicit attitudes and psychopathic traits, while the association was positive for the corresponding explicit attitudes. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  20. The association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in non-referred boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsee, Monica A; Silverthorn, Persephanie; Frick, Paul J

    2005-01-01

    The current study investigated the association of psychopathic traits with aggression and delinquency in a non-referred sample of boys (n=86) and girls (n=114) in the fifth through ninth grades at two public schools in a large urban area. Psychopathic traits were measured by both teacher- and self-report ratings, whereas aggression and delinquency were assessed through self-report ratings. Self-reported psychopathic traits were associated with both aggression and delinquency and teacher-reported psychopathic traits were associated with higher levels of aggression. There were no clear differences for the callous-unemotional, narcissism, or impulsivity dimensions in their associations with aggression and delinquency. Also, psychopathic traits predicted aggression and delinquency for both boys and girls. The one clear gender difference was in the stronger associations between psychopathic traits and relational aggression for girls.

  1. [A short version of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-15): dimensionality and psychometric properties in a representative sample of the German population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Romppel, Matthias; Bormann, Bianca; Hofmeister, Dirk; Brähler, Elmar; Strauß, Bernhard

    2013-08-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is a commonly used measure of narcissism. This study administered a 15 item short version of the NPI (NPI-15). Central aims of the present study were to examine its dimensionality, and to provide data on its psychometric properties. NPI-15 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) were assessed in a representative sample of the German population (N=2,512). According to Scree-plot and model fit, a solution with 2 or 3 factors seemed feasible. Because of factor loadings and item-level associations to depression/anxiety we decided to favour a 2-factor-solution. 2 subscales reflecting different facets of narcissism were compiled (leadership ability/personality [LA/LP], grandiosity [G]). The psychometric properties of these scales were good (LA/LP) respectively unsatisfactory (G). The validity of the NPI-15 needs to be further studied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Validating Female Psychopathy Subtypes: Differences in Personality, Antisocial and Violent Behavior, Substance Abuse, Trauma, and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to non-violent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities. PMID:20582155

  3. Validating female psychopathy subtypes: differences in personality, antisocial and violent behavior, substance abuse, trauma, and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian M; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Patrick, Christopher J

    2010-01-01

    Recent empirical investigations utilizing male prisoners have begun to validate clinical conceptualizations of primary and secondary psychopathy subtypes. We extended this literature by identifying similar psychopathic subtypes in female prisoners on the basis of personality structure using model-based cluster analysis. Secondary psychopaths (n = 39) were characterized by personality traits of negative emotionality and low behavioral constraint, an early onset of antisocial and criminal behavior, greater substance use and abuse, more violent behavior and institutional misconduct, and more mental health problems, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts. Primary psychopaths (n = 31) exhibited few distinguishing personality features but were prolific criminals especially in regards to nonviolent crime, and exhibited relatively few mental health problems despite substantial exposure to traumatic events. The results support alternative etiological pathways to antisocial and criminal behavior that are evident in personality structure as well as gender similarities and differences in the manifestation of psychopathic personalities.

  4. Neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in depressive disorder Correlation between 1H-MRS and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Xia; Minjie Yang; Yi Lei; Yicheng Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and functional MRI to study depression have primarily focused on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H-MRS)appearance in various areas of the brain and volume measurements in the limbic system.However,results have not been consistent.To the best of our knowledge,very little is known about the relationship between 1H-MRS appearance and depression inventory.In the present study,the relationship between 1H-MRS appearance in depressive patients and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale was analyzed.MRI and 1H-MRS exhibited widened sulci and cisterns,as well as an absence of abnormal signals in depressive patients.In addition,N-acetyl aspartate/total creatine ratios in bilateral hippocampi and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly less in depressive patients than in control subjects(P < 0.01).In contrast,choline-containing compounds/total creatine ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly greater in depressive patients than in control subjects(P < 0.01).These ratios significantly and positively correlated with patient total depression scores as assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 scale(r=0.934 7,0.878 7,P < 0.01).These results suggested that 1H-MRS could be used to reveal a reduced number of neurons in the hippocampus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,as well as altered membrane phospholipid metabolism in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex,in patients with depressive disorder.Abnormal mechanisms partially reflected severity of depressive disorder.

  5. Social cognition: empirical contribution. The developmental building blocks of psychopathic traits: revisiting the role of theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Carla; Vanwoerden, Salome

    2014-02-01

    In the context of personality disorder development, theories of typical and atypical development both emphasize social cognition as an important building block for personality development. Prior claims of intact theory of mind (ToM) abilities in psychopathic individuals have relied upon a narrow conception of ToM as equivalent to "cognitive empathy." In this article, the authors make use of a broader conception of ToM comprising top-down and bottom-up processing, as well as the fractionation of ToM in terms of reduced or excessive ToM function, to examine relationships between ToM and psychopathic traits. A total of 342 adolescents (ages 12-17; Mage 15.39; SD = 1.45; 61.5% females) completed the Movie Assessment for Social Cognition (Dziobek, Fleck, Kalbe, et al., 2006) and the Child Eyes Test (Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Hill, Raste, & Plumb, 2001) in addition to three measures of psychopathic traits. Results demonstrated unique relations between the affective components of psychopathy (callous-unemotional traits [CU traits]) and impairment in both top-down and bottom-up ToM. In addition, excessive ToM related to affective components of psychopathy, while reduced or no ToM related to behavioral components of psychopathy. In mediational analyses, bottom-up ToM was shown to be necessary for top-town ToM in its relation with CU traits. Taken together, these results from the study lend support to revisiting the link between ToM and psychopathy.

  6. Heartless and Cunning? The Relationship between Intelligence, Psychopathic Traits and Antisocial Behaviour in Adolescents. Research Briefing No. 99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined two main questions: (1) Is there a direct link between psychopathic traits and intelligence? (2) Is the combination of psychopathic traits and high IQ related to more severe antisocial behaviour in adolescents?

  7. Personalization in the public sector An inventory of organizational and user obstacles towards personalization of electronic services in the public sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem; Ebbers, Wolfgang; Dijk, van Jan

    2007-01-01

    The public sector more and more deploys personalized e-government services. Personalization offers great opportunities to make communication more effective and efficient, to infer and predict citizens' behavior and to even influence behavior. However, some drawbacks must be considered. Important org

  8. A Rorschach investigation of attachment and anxiety in antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R

    1991-09-01

    We investigated the constructs of anxiety and attachment in a group of 42 offenders who met the DSM-III-R criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Each antisocial subject's level of psychopathy was assessed with the Hare Psychopathy Checklist (PCL). Three Rorschach variables related to attachment, anxiety, and coping were compared between subjects scoring greater than or equal to 30 (N = 21) on the PCL and subjects scoring less than 30 (N = 21). Comparison Rorschach variables are also presented from a sample of 60 antisocial personality-disordered offenders. Moderate psychopaths (PCL score, less than 30) produced texture and diffuse shading responses at a significantly greater frequency than severe, or primary, psychopaths (PCL score, greater than or equal to 30). There was no significant difference in the two groups' propensity for producing vista responses. Although there were no significant differences between the coping index scores, the trend suggests less conflictual functioning in the severe psychopaths. A virtual absence of texture responses in the severe psychopaths, and a significantly greater frequency of diffuse shading responses in the moderate psychopaths, add construct validity to the lack of attachment in psychopaths and the role of anxiety in differentiating secondary from primary psychopathy. We view the presence of vista responses in this population as a measure of a failed grandiose self-structure, and note that it often occurs in the records of moderate psychopaths who also present achromatic color responses.

  9. Development of vocabulary-based Chinese seven factors personality inventory%中国人人格词汇7因素量表的编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇中; 王中杰; 贾黎斋; 赵江涛; 张海涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中国人的人格特质和结构,并编制中国人人格特质词汇评定量表.方法 依据中国人人格量表(QZPS)、中国人个性测量表-2(CPAI-2)及中国人5因素人格词汇量表(CPFFI)的小因素命名词汇,编制出包含ii6个项目的人格词汇自评调查量表,通过对1455名被试的自评结果进行探索性因素分析和平行分析.结果 获得7个因素包含52个项目的人格词汇评定量表(VBCP).7个因素累计解释变异量为51.63%,各因素的内部一致性信度在0.663 ~0.912之间,总量表的内部一致性信度为0.800;7个因素重测信度在0.700 ~0.874(P<0.01)之间.结论 外向性和情绪性是跨文化的人格特质内容.该人格因素结构可以包含QZPS、CPAI-2及CPFFI这3个模型的绝大多数人格因素内容,且结构更加清晰.%Objective To explore the structure of Chinese personality based on natural language and to develop a Chinese personality vocabulary data bank.Methods Based on the sub-factors of Chinese personality scale(QZPS),Chinese personality assessment inventory 2(CPAI-2) and Chinese personality five factors inventory (CPFFI),a self-reported personality questionnaire with 116 items was developed.An exploratory factory analysis and parallel analysis were made to the data collected from 1455 Chinese participants.Results A Chinese Personality Seven Factors Inventory (CPSFI) was developed,which included seven factors with 52 items.51.63% of the total variance of the seven factors was explained and the internal reliability coefficient was 0.800,while the internal reliability coefficients among the factors were between 0.663-0.912.The retest reliability coefficients of the factors were between 0.700-0.874 (P < 0.01).Conclusions Outgoing and emotion are the core contents of the crossculture personalities.Most of the factors in QZPS,CPAI-2 and CPFFI can be found in the seven factors structure,of which the structure is clearer.

  10. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  11. Concurrent and Prospective Effects of Psychopathic Traits on Affective and Cognitive Empathy in a Community Sample of Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, Bart H. J.; de Wied, Minet Annette; Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A deficit in affective rather than cognitive empathy is thought to be central to psychopathic traits. However, empirical evidence for empathy deficits in adolescents with psychopathic traits is limited. We investigated the concurrent and prospective effects of psychopathic traits on affective and cognitive trait empathy in late…

  12. Empirical evidence for a four factor framework of personality disorder organization: multigroup confirmatory factor analysis of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III personality disorder scales across Belgian and Danish data samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gina; Elklit, Ask; Simonsen, Erik

    2010-02-01

    The factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (Millon, Millon, Davis, & Grossman, 2006) personality disorder scales was analyzed using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis on data obtained from a Danish (N = 2030) and a Belgian (N = 1210) sample. Two-, three-, and four factor models, a priori specified using structures found by Dyce, O'Connor, Parkins, and Janzen (1997), were fitted to the data. The best fitting model was a four factor structure (RMSEA = .066, GFI = .98, CFI = .93) with partially invariant factor loadings. The robustness of this four-factor model clearly supports the efforts to organize future personality disorder description in a four-factor framework by corroborating four domains that were predominant in dimensional models (Widiger & Simonsen, 2005): Factor 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively corresponded to emotional dysregulation versus stability, antagonism versus compliance, extraversion versus introversion, and constraint versus impulsivity.

  13. Psychopathic Sexuality: The Thin Line Between Fantasy and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Beth A; DeBow, Victoria; Pozzebon, Julie A; Bogaert, Anthony F; Book, Angela

    2015-08-01

    In two studies, we explored the relations between psychopathic traits and sexual fantasy content. In Study 1, we rated content themes in the fantasy narratives of 195 men and women recruited at a Canadian university. In Study 2, we administered a sexual fantasy questionnaire to a sample of 355 Canadian undergraduate students. In Study 1, we found that psychopathic traits predicted themes of anonymous, uncommitted, and nonromantic sexual activity after controlling for participant sex. In Study 2, we found that psychopathy added to the prediction of self-reported engagement in unrestricted, dominant, submissive, deviant, and adventurous sexual activity, even after controlling for participant sex and level of fantasizing about that activity. Furthermore, an interaction between psychopathy and level of fantasizing was observed for unrestricted and deviant sexual behavior, such that participants who reported high levels of fantasizing about these sexual themes were more likely to engage in that behavior if they also reported high levels of psychopathic traits. These findings suggest that psychopathy is related not only to interest in particular sexual behaviors, but also to whether individuals will translate these fantasized behaviors into reality.

  14. Relation between parenting stress and psychopathic traits among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems.

  15. The Effect of Response Format on the Psychometric Properties of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Consequences for Item Meaning and Factor Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Robert A; Donnellan, M Brent; Roberts, Brent W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-04-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is currently the most widely used measure of narcissism in social/personality psychology. It is also relatively unique because it uses a forced-choice response format. We investigate the consequences of changing the NPI's response format for item meaning and factor structure. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: 40 forced-choice items (n = 2,754), 80 single-stimulus dichotomous items (i.e., separate true/false responses for each item; n = 2,275), or 80 single-stimulus rating scale items (i.e., 5-point Likert-type response scales for each item; n = 2,156). Analyses suggested that the "narcissistic" and "nonnarcissistic" response options from the Entitlement and Superiority subscales refer to independent personality dimensions rather than high and low levels of the same attribute. In addition, factor analyses revealed that although the Leadership dimension was evident across formats, dimensions with entitlement and superiority were not as robust. Implications for continued use of the NPI are discussed.

  16. Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L

    2014-01-01

    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.

  17. Brief Report: Interaction between Social Class and Risky Decision-Making in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Wu, Henry; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adult psychopaths are thought to have risky decision-making and behavioral disinhibition, but little is known about the moderating effects of psychosocial factors and whether these associations can be observed in children with psychopathic tendencies. This study tests the biosocial hypothesis that social class will moderate…

  18. Thicker temporal cortex associates with a developmental trajectory for psychopathic traits in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling Yang

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents.

  19. Positive impression management and its influence on the Revised NEO Personality Inventory: a comparison of analog and differential prevalence group designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagby, R Michael; Marshall, Margarita B

    2003-09-01

    Participants (n = 22) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) as part of an authentic job application. Protocols produced by this group were compared with "analog" participants (n = 23) who completed the NEO PI-R under standard instructions and again under instructions designed to mimic the test-taking scenario of the job applicants (the "fake-good" condition). Participants completing the NEO PI-R under fake-good instructions and the job applicants scored lower on the Neuroticism and higher on the Extraversion scales than did the participants responding under standard instructions. Analog participants in the fake-good condition scored higher on the Extraversion and lower on the Agreeableness scales than did the job applicants. These results suggest that outcomes from analog designs are generalizable to real-world samples where response dissimulation is probable.

  20. Testing whether the DSM-5 personality disorder trait model can be measured with a reduced set of items: An item response theory investigation of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Jessica L; Carter, Nathan T; Few, Lauren R; Crego, Cristina; Gore, Whitney L; Samuel, Douglas B; Williamson, Rachel L; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-12-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes an alternative model of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III, consisting in part of a pathological personality trait model. To date, the 220-item Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger, Derringer, Markon, Watson, & Skodol, 2012) is the only extant self-report instrument explicitly developed to measure this pathological trait model. The present study used item response theory-based analyses in a large sample (n = 1,417) to investigate whether a reduced set of 100 items could be identified from the PID-5 that could measure the 25 traits and 5 domains. This reduced set of PID-5 items was then tested in a community sample of adults currently receiving psychological treatment (n = 109). Across a wide range of criterion variables including NEO PI-R domains and facets, DSM-5 Section II PD scores, and externalizing and internalizing outcomes, the correlational profiles of the original and reduced versions of the PID-5 were nearly identical (rICC = .995). These results provide strong support for the hypothesis that an abbreviated set of PID-5 items can be used to reliably, validly, and efficiently assess these personality disorder traits. The ability to assess the DSM-5 Section III traits using only 100 items has important implications in that it suggests these traits could still be measured in settings in which assessment-related resources (e.g., time, compensation) are limited.

  1. QEEG and LORETA in Teenagers With Conduct Disorder and Psychopathic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Reyes, Ana; Alvarez-Amador, Alfredo; Galán-García, Lídice; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell

    2017-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of the psychopathic traits on the EEG of teenagers with conduct disorder (CD). To date, there is no other research studying low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) technique using quantitative EEG (QEEG) analysis in adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits. To find electrophysiological differences specifically related to the psychopathic traits. The current investigation compares the QEEG and the current source density measures between adolescents with CD and psychopathic traits and adolescents with CD without psychopathic traits. The resting EEG activity and LORETA for the EEG fast spectral bands were evaluated in 42 teenagers with CD, 25 with and 17 without psychopathic traits according to the Antisocial Process Screening Device. All adolescents were assessed using the DSM-IV-TR criteria. The EEG visual inspection characteristics and the use of frequency domain quantitative analysis techniques (narrow band spectral parameters) are described. QEEG analysis showed a pattern of beta activity excess on the bilateral frontal-temporal regions and decreases of alpha band power on the left central-temporal and right frontal-central-temporal regions in the psychopathic traits group. Current source density calculated at 17.18 Hz showed an increase within fronto-temporo-striatal regions in the psychopathic relative to the nonpsychopathic traits group. These findings indicate that QEEG analysis and techniques of source localization may reveal differences in brain electrical activity among teenagers with CD and psychopathic traits, which was not obvious to visual inspection. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormalities in a fronto-temporo-striatal network play a relevant role in the neurobiological basis of psychopathic behavior.

  2. The bold and the fearless among us: elevated psychopathic traits and levels of anxiety and fear are associated with specific aberrant driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    In spite of the well-documented connection between personality traits like impulsivity, sensation seeking and fearlessness with aberrant driving behaviors, scarce research exists to examine the association between risky and aggressive driving and psychopathic characteristics, which encompass the above traits. The present investigation examines in two studies the association between specific sub-types of driving misconduct, i.e., unintentional mistakes and deliberate rule violations with psychopathic characteristics, with a focus on the role of levels of fear and anxiety in aberrant driving. Findings support the hypotheses that fearlessness, i.e., the bold, unemotional aspect of psychopathic traits, characterizes drivers who engage in frequent deliberate driving code violations, whereas the more impulsive/antisocial aspect of psychopathy, associated with higher levels of fear and anxiety, is more characteristic of drivers who engage in unintentional mistakes. Fearless features are also associated with higher self-reported driving misconduct and accidents. Study 2 conceptually replicated this finding by showing that mistakes are positively related to high sensitivity to punishment, while violations are negatively related to it. Findings are discussed in light of psychopathy theory and in relation to prevention and intervention.

  3. Assessment of heritability for personality, based on a short-form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory: a study of 12,898 twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floderus-Myrhed, B; Pedersen, N; Rasmuson, I

    1980-03-01

    The influence of genetic factors for two personality dimensions was analyzed using data from 12,898 unselected twin pairs of the Swedish Twin Registry. The heritability index was 0.50 (men) and 0.58 (women) for psychosocial instability. Corresponding figures for psychosocial extraversion were 0.54 and 0.66. Thus, about half the phenotypic variation may be attributed to genetic factors.

  4. Assessment of personality dimensions in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder using the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Hatch, John P; Hunter, Kristina; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven R; Cloninger, C Robert; Soares, Jair C

    2009-02-01

    We compared temperament and character traits in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP) and healthy control (HC) subjects. Sixty nine subjects (38 BP and 31 HC), 8-17 years old, were assessed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime. Temperament and character traits were measured with parent and child versions of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. BP subjects scored higher on novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and fantasy subscales, and lower on reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness compared to HC (all p children and adolescents. Higher parent-rated novelty seeking, lower self-directedness, and lower cooperativeness were associated with co-morbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Lower parent-rated reward dependence was associated with co-morbid conduct disorder, and higher child-rated persistence was associated with co-morbid anxiety. These findings support previous reports of differences in temperament in BP children and adolescents and may assist in a greater understating of BP children and adolescents beyond mood symptomatology.

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Carciofo

    Full Text Available The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82, assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44, and .515-.873 (BFI-10. The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism, and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness. Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness, mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness, and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism. Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  6. A closer look at the lower-order structure of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5: comparison with the Five-Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah A; Samuel, Douglas B

    2014-10-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed as a measure of the maladaptive personality trait model included within Section III of the DSM-5. Although preliminary findings have suggested the PID-5 has a five-factor structure that overlaps considerably with the Five-Factor Model (FFM) at the higher order level, there has been much less attention on the specific locations of the 25 lower-order traits. Joint exploratory factor analysis of the PID-5 traits and the 30 facets of the NEO-PI-R were used to determine the lower-order structure of the PID-5. Results indicated the PID-5's domain-level structure closely resembled the FFM. We also explored the placement of several lower-order facets that have not loaded consistently in previous studies. Overall, these results indicate that the PID-5 shares a common structure with the FFM and clarify the placement of some interstitial facets. More research investigating the lower-order facets is needed to determine how they fit into the hierarchical structure and explicate their relationships to existing measures of pathological traits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. The impact of underreporting and overreporting on the validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5): A simulation analog design investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Sonya; Bagby, R Michael; Kushner, Shauna C; Burchett, Danielle

    2017-04-01

    The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report instrument that assesses the alternative model of personality psychopathology in Section III (Emerging Measures and Models) of DSM-5. Despite its relatively recent introduction, the PID-5 has generated an impressive accumulation of studies examining its psychometric properties, and the instrument is also already widely and frequently used in research studies. Although the PID-5 is psychometrically sound overall, reviews of this instrument express concern that this scale does not possess validity scales to detect invalidating levels of response bias, such as underreporting and overreporting. McGee Ng et al. (2016), using a "known-groups" (partial) criterion design, demonstrated that both underreporting and overreporting grossly affect mean scores on PID-5 scales. In the current investigation, we replicate these findings using an analog simulation design. An important extension to this replication study was the finding that the construct validity of the PID-5 was also significantly compromised by response bias, with statistically significant attenuation noted in validity coefficients of the PID-5 domain scales with scales from other instruments measuring congruent constructs. This attenuation was found for underreporting and overreporting bias. We believe there is a need to develop validity scales to screen for data-distorting response bias in research contexts and in clinical assessments where response bias is likely or otherwise suspected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of Chinese-Language 44-Item and 10-Item Big Five Personality Inventories, Including Correlations with Chronotype, Mindfulness and Mind Wandering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciofo, Richard; Yang, Jiaoyan; Song, Nan; Du, Feng; Zhang, Kan

    2016-01-01

    The 44-item and 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI) personality scales are widely used, but there is a lack of psychometric data for Chinese versions. Eight surveys (total N = 2,496, aged 18-82), assessed a Chinese-language BFI-44 and/or an independently translated Chinese-language BFI-10. Most BFI-44 items loaded strongly or predominantly on the expected dimension, and values of Cronbach's alpha ranged .698-.807. Test-retest coefficients ranged .694-.770 (BFI-44), and .515-.873 (BFI-10). The BFI-44 and BFI-10 showed good convergent and discriminant correlations, and expected associations with gender (females higher for agreeableness and neuroticism), and age (older age associated with more conscientiousness and agreeableness, and also less neuroticism and openness). Additionally, predicted correlations were found with chronotype (morningness positive with conscientiousness), mindfulness (negative with neuroticism, positive with conscientiousness), and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency (negative with conscientiousness, positive with neuroticism). Exploratory analysis found that the Self-discipline facet of conscientiousness positively correlated with morningness and mindfulness, and negatively correlated with mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Furthermore, Self-discipline was found to be a mediator in the relationships between chronotype and mindfulness, and chronotype and mind wandering/daydreaming frequency. Overall, the results support the utility of the BFI-44 and BFI-10 for Chinese-language big five personality research.

  9. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form: Evidence for Reliability and Construct Validity in a Sample of Community-Dwelling Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Borroni, Serena; Markon, Kristian E; Krueger, Robert F

    2017-07-01

    To assess the reliability and construct validity of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 Brief Form (PID-5-BF) among adolescents, 877 Italian high school students were administered the PID-5-BF. Participants were administered also the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning (MDPF) as a criterion measure. In the full sample, Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF scales ranged from .59 (Detachment) to .77 (Psychoticism); in addition, all PID-5-BF scales showed mean interitem correlation values in the .22 to .40 range. Cronbach's alpha values for the PID-5-BF total score was .83 (mean interitem r = .16). Although 2-month test-retest reliability could be assessed only in a small ( n = 42) subsample of participants, all PID-5-BF scale scores showed adequate temporal stability, as indexed by intraclass r values ranging from .78 (Negative Affectivity) to .97 (Detachment), all ps <.001. Exploratory structural equation modeling analyses provided at least moderate support for the a priori model of PID-5-BF items. Multiple regression analyses showed that PID-5-BF scales predicted a nonnegligible amount of variance in MDPF Non-Cooperativeness, adjusted R(2) = .17, p < .001, and Non-Coping scales, adjusted R(2) = .32, p < .001. Similarly, the PID-5-BF total score was a significant predictor of both MDPF Non-Coping, and Non-Cooperativeness scales.

  10. Affective resonance in response to others' emotional faces varies with affective ratings and psychopathic traits in amygdala and anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; Viding, Essi; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Despite extensive research on the neural basis of empathic responses for pain and disgust, there is limited data about the brain regions that underpin affective response to other people's emotional facial expressions. Here, we addressed this question using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses to emotional faces, combined with online ratings of subjective state. When instructed to rate their own affective response to others' faces, participants recruited anterior insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus, and amygdala, regions consistently implicated in studies investigating empathy for disgust and pain, as well as emotional saliency. Importantly, responses in anterior insula and amygdala were modulated by trial-by-trial variations in subjective affective responses to the emotional facial stimuli. Furthermore, overall task-elicited activations in these regions were negatively associated with psychopathic personality traits, which are characterized by low affective empathy. Our findings suggest that anterior insula and amygdala play important roles in the generation of affective internal states in response to others' emotional cues and that attenuated function in these regions may underlie reduced empathy in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits.

  11. A Comparison of MMPI--2 measures of Psychopathic Deviance in a Forensic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stafford, Kathleen P.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the convergent and discriminant validity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 (MMPI--2) measures of psychopathy, including the Clinical Scale 4, Restructured Clinical Scale 4 (RC4), Content Scale Antisocial Practices (ASP), and Personality Psychopathology Five Scale Disconstraint (DISC). Comparisons of the empirical…

  12. The influence of parents personality measured by temperamental and character inventory (TCI) on course of alcoholism characterized by Cloninger's and Lesch's typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samochowiec, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    There have been so far no reports in the literature that would discuss how parents' personality characteristics can affect certain predispositions to alcohol dependence in the offspring and can trigger some specific mechanisms of alcohol dependence described in typology developed by Cloninger and Lesch. A total of 81 Polish, Caucasian families were investigated. Fathers' mean age was 61.7 +/- 10.8 and mothers were 59 +/- 10 years of age. None of parents fulfilled the criteria of alcohol dependence. The alcohol dependent probands were male, with confirmed biological descent, mean age 35.2 +/- 9.7 years. In all the participants Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was performed. Characterization of alcohol dependence and the course of withdrawal were obtained by SSAGA (Semi Structural Assessment of Genetics of Alcoholism). Specially designed questionnaires based on Cloninger and Lesch typologies were used. The essential data about both parents were collected and AUDIT was performed. The analysis of personality profiles evaluated by means of TCI confirmed no statistically significant relations between two groups of probands characterized as 1 and 2 subtypes of alcoholics according to Cloninger's typology. A statistically significant difference was recorded between the scores for groups I and II classified according to Lesch's typology in dimensions novelty seeking - NS, NS2--impulsiveness--and NS4--disorderliness. Fathers of probands characterized as type 1 according to Cloninger had statistically lower scores in dimension C--cooperativeness and C5 integrated conscience in comparison to type 2 fathers. Fathers of type II alcoholics according to Lesch's typology had higher NS2--impulsivity. Mothers of type 1 alcoholics according to Cloninger had statistically lower scores in dimension HA2 in comparison with type 2 mothers. On the basis of the above presented findings it can be stated that there is personality profile in non-dependent parents of alcoholics and

  13. Personality features in ultra-high risk for psychosis: a comparative study with schizophrenia and control subjects using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresán, Ana; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Robles-García, Rebeca; Azcárraga, Mariana; Guizar, Diana; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo

    2015-02-01

    Several variables have been identified as risk factors for conversion to overt psychosis in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) individuals. Although almost two-thirds of them do not experience a transition to psychosis, they still exhibit functional disabilities. Other subjective developmental features may be useful for a more precise identification of individuals at UHR. Avoidant behaviors are consistently reported in schizophrenia and in UHR individuals and may be the reflection of a pattern of personality. Thus, personality features in UHR individuals deserves further research. The objective of the present study was to compare temperament and character dimensions between UHR individuals, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. One hundred participants (25 UHR individuals, 25 schizophrenia patients and 50 control subjects) where evaluated with the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Univariate ANOVAs followed by Bonferroni tests were used. UHR individuals and schizophrenia patients exhibited higher levels of Harm Avoidance (HA) when compared to control subjects. For HA1 Anticipatory worry vs Uninhibited optimism and HA4 Fatigability & asthenia, UHR and schizophrenia groups showed similar scores and both groups were higher compared to control subjects. With respect to Cooperativeness (CO), UHR and schizophrenia reported lower scores than control subjects, in particular CO2 Empathy vs Social disinterest and CO3 Helpfulness vs unhelpfulness. This study replicates and extends the consideration of HA as a psychopathological related endophenotype and gives us further information of the possible role of personality features in the expression of some of the social dysfunctions observed both in prodromal subjects and schizophrenia patients.

  14. Combining high-resolution gross domestic product data with home and personal care product market research data to generate a subnational emission inventory for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Juliet Elizabeth Natasha; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher; Rowson, Matthew; Miah, Taqmina; Price, Oliver Richard

    2014-04-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is reliant on good estimates of product usage information and robust exposure models. Over the past 20 to 30 years, much progress has been made with the development of exposure models that simulate the transport and distribution of chemicals in the environment. However, little progress has been made in our ability to estimate chemical emissions of home and personal care (HPC) products. In this project, we have developed an approach to estimate subnational emission inventory of chemical ingredients used in HPC products for 12 Asian countries including Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam (Asia-12). To develop this inventory, we have coupled a 1 km grid of per capita gross domestic product (GDP) estimates with market research data of HPC product sales. We explore the necessity of accounting for a population's ability to purchase HPC products in determining their subnational distribution in regions where wealth is not uniform. The implications of using high resolution data on inter- and intracountry subnational emission estimates for a range of hypothetical and actual HPC product types were explored. It was demonstrated that for low value products (500 US$ per capita/annum required to purchase product) the implications on emissions being assigned to subnational regions can vary by several orders of magnitude. The implications of this on conducting national or regional level risk assessments may be significant. Further work is needed to explore the implications of this variability in HPC emissions to enable the HPC industry and/or governments to advance risk-based chemical management policies in emerging markets. © 2013 SETAC.

  15. Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Known as MRO for Maintenance, Repair and Operating supplies, Tropicana Products, Inc.'s automated inventory management system is an adaptation of the Shuttle Inventory Management System (SIMS) developed by NASA to assure adequate supply of every item used in support of the Space Shuttle. The Tropicana version monitors inventory control, purchasing receiving and departmental costs for eight major areas of the company's operation.

  16. Investigating the relationships between antisocial behaviors, psychopathic traits, and moral disengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott; Eckert, Katy

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations between morally disengaged attitudes, psychopathic affective traits, and a variety of antisocial and risky behaviors in a sample of adults (N=181). A second aim of the study was to examine the unique contributions of moral disengagement and psychopathic traits in predicting problematic behavior while the other construct is statistically controlled. Results indicated that whereas psychopathic traits and moral disengagement were both uniquely predictive of non-violent antisocial behaviors, only remorselessness was uniquely predictive of violence and only morally disengaged attitudes were uniquely predictive of academic cheating. Differing relationships also emerged by gender.

  17. Take the Money and Run: Psychopathic Behavior in the Trust Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Sabater-Grande, Gerardo; Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván; Mezquita, Laura; López-Ovejero, Sandra; Villa, Helena; Perakakis, Pandelis; Ortet, Generós; García-Gallego, Aurora; Georgantzís, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We study the association among different sources of individual differences such as personality, cognitive ability and risk attitudes with trust and reciprocate behavior in an incentivized experimental binary trust game in a sample of 220 (138 females) undergraduate students. The game involves two players, player 1 (P1) and player 2 (P2). In the first stage, P1 decides whether to trust and let P2 decide, or to secure an egalitarian payoff for both players. If P1 trusts P2, the latter can choose between a symmetric payoff that is double than the secure alternative discarded by P1, and an asymmetric payoff in which P2 earns more than in any other case but makes P1 worse off. Before the main experiment, we obtained participants’ scores for Abstract Reasoning (AR), risk attitudes, basic personality characteristics, and specific traits such as psychopathy and impulsivity. During the main experiment, we measured Heart Rate (HR) and ElectroDermal Activity (EDA) variation to account for emotional arousal caused by the decision and feedback processes. Our main findings indicate that, on one hand, P1 trust behavior associates to positive emotionality and, specifically, to the extraversion’s warmth facet. In addition, the impulsivity facet of positive urgency also favors trust behavior. No relation to trusting behavior was found for either other major personality aspects or risk attitudes. The physiological results show that participants scoring high in psychopathy exhibit increased EDA and reduced evoked HR deceleration at the moment in which they are asked to decide whether or not to trust. Regarding P2, we find that AR ability and mainly low disagreeable disinhibition favor reciprocal behavior. Specifically, lack of reciprocity significantly relates with a psychopathic, highly disinhibited and impulsive personality. Thus, the present study suggests that personality characteristics would play a significant role in different behaviors underlying cooperation, with

  18. Take the money and run: Psychopathic behavior in the trust game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the association among different sources of individual differences such as personality, cognitive ability and risk attitudes with trust and reciprocate behavior in an incentivized experimental binary trust game in a sample of 220 (138 females undergraduate students. The game involves two players, player 1 (P1 and player 2 (P2. In the first stage, P1 decides whether to trust and let P2 decide, or to secure an egalitarian payoff for both players. If P1 trusts P2, the latter can choose between a symmetric payoff that is double than the secure alternative discarded by P1, and an asymmetric payoff in which P2 earns more than in any other case but makes P1 worse off. Before the main experiment, we obtained participants’ scores for Abstract Reasoning (AR, risk attitudes, basic personality characteristics, and specific traits such as psychopathy and impulsivity. During the main experiment, we measured Heart Rate (HR and Electrodermal Activity (EDA variation to account for emotional arousal caused by the decision and feedback processes. Our main findings indicate that, on one hand, P1 trust behavior associates to positive emotionality and, specifically, to the extraversion’s warmth facet. In addition, the impulsivity facet of positive urgency also favors trust behavior. No relation to trusting behavior was found for either other major personality aspects or risk attitudes. The physiological results show that participants scoring high in psychopathy exhibit increased EDA and reduced evoked HR deceleration at the moment in which they are asked to decide whether or not to trust. Regarding P2, we find that AR ability and mainly low disagreeable disinhibition favor reciprocal behavior. Specifically, lack of reciprocity significantly relates with a psychopathic, highly disinhibited and impulsive personality. Thus, the present study suggests that personality characteristics would play a significant role in different behaviors underlying cooperation

  19. Take the Money and Run: Psychopathic Behavior in the Trust Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Sabater-Grande, Gerardo; Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván; Mezquita, Laura; López-Ovejero, Sandra; Villa, Helena; Perakakis, Pandelis; Ortet, Generós; García-Gallego, Aurora; Georgantzís, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We study the association among different sources of individual differences such as personality, cognitive ability and risk attitudes with trust and reciprocate behavior in an incentivized experimental binary trust game in a sample of 220 (138 females) undergraduate students. The game involves two players, player 1 (P1) and player 2 (P2). In the first stage, P1 decides whether to trust and let P2 decide, or to secure an egalitarian payoff for both players. If P1 trusts P2, the latter can choose between a symmetric payoff that is double than the secure alternative discarded by P1, and an asymmetric payoff in which P2 earns more than in any other case but makes P1 worse off. Before the main experiment, we obtained participants' scores for Abstract Reasoning (AR), risk attitudes, basic personality characteristics, and specific traits such as psychopathy and impulsivity. During the main experiment, we measured Heart Rate (HR) and ElectroDermal Activity (EDA) variation to account for emotional arousal caused by the decision and feedback processes. Our main findings indicate that, on one hand, P1 trust behavior associates to positive emotionality and, specifically, to the extraversion's warmth facet. In addition, the impulsivity facet of positive urgency also favors trust behavior. No relation to trusting behavior was found for either other major personality aspects or risk attitudes. The physiological results show that participants scoring high in psychopathy exhibit increased EDA and reduced evoked HR deceleration at the moment in which they are asked to decide whether or not to trust. Regarding P2, we find that AR ability and mainly low disagreeable disinhibition favor reciprocal behavior. Specifically, lack of reciprocity significantly relates with a psychopathic, highly disinhibited and impulsive personality. Thus, the present study suggests that personality characteristics would play a significant role in different behaviors underlying cooperation, with extraversion

  20. Psychopathy-related personality traits and shame management strategies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Markus B T; Mikkelsen, Fredrik

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether there is a correlation between the amount of psychopathy-related personality traits and the type of shame management in adolescents. Two hypotheses were examined; first, that there is a positive correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more unconscious and externalized shame management strategies, and second, that there is a negative correlation between psychopathy-related personality traits and more conscious and internalized shame management strategies. Gender differences were also examined. In total, 236 participants were available for the study. All were secondary-level students, aged 16 to 21 years. Of these, 196 were examined: 96 were male and 100 female. The study used two self-assessment forms-the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI) and the Compass of Shame Scale (CoSS)-to measure the relevant personality characteristics. The results indicated gender differences, which led to all the analyses being conducted separately for males and females. Support was found for the study's first hypothesis, but not for the second, which was true for both males and females. Our results may have implications for the treatment of adolescents with a high percentage of psychopathy-related personality traits; they also indicate the need for more research on the association between psychopathy and shame management.

  1. A comparison between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and the 'Mensana Clinic Back Pain Test' for validating the complaint of chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, N; Mollett, A; Talo, S; Levin, S

    1988-02-01

    Reports on the efficacy of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) for selecting patients with valid complaints of pain have been equivocal. The Mensana Clinic Back Pain Test (MPT) was able to predict, with some degree of success, patients who had a definite organic pathologic condition. However, the MMPI measures personality traits, whereas the MPT measures the impact of pain on a patient's life. To determine which of the two tests would be a better predictor of actual physical abnormalities, and hence valid pain complaints, a comparison was undertaken between the two tests. The charts of 83 patients admitted to the Neurosurgery Service of Johns Hopkins Hospital with complaints of back pain were assessed. MMPI test results, as well as test results for the MPT, were compared to the presence or absence of pathologic conditions on electromyography, nerve conduction velocity studies, thermography, myelogram, or computerized axial tomography scan. The MPT had a correlation factor of -.59700, that was significant as P = .000005. Of the 52 patients scoring 17 points or less on the MPT, 85% had objective physical abnormalities, considered moderate or severe by blind review. Of the 31 patients scoring 18 points or greater on the MPT, only 26% had objective physical findings that were considered moderate or severe. Only the F scale (faking badly) of the MMPI correlated with objective physical abnormalities (r = .21340, P less than .033). However, 60% of the patients with T scores of less than 70 on the F scale had objective findings, whereas 75% of patients with T scores greater than 70 had objective physical findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Interactive Inventory Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  3. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): incremental validity in predicting early postoperative outcomes in spine surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Block, Andrew R; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-03-01

    A substantial proportion of individuals who undergo surgical procedures to relieve spine pain continue to report significant pain and dysfunction after recovery. Psychopathology and patient expectations have been linked to poor results, leading to an increasing reliance on presurgical psychological screening (PPS) as part of the surgical diagnostic process. The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) and the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Graham, Ben-Porath, Tellegen, & Dahlstrom, 2001) were among the measures most commonly used in PPS evaluations and research. This study focuses on the newest version of the test, the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011; Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008/2011) as a predictor of outcomes for spine surgery candidates. Using a sample of 172 men and 210 women who underwent a PPS, we examined the ability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores to predict early surgical outcomes independent of other presurgical risk factors identified by other means, as well as patients' presurgical expectations. MMPI-2-RF results accounted for up to 11% of additional variance in measures of early postoperative functioning. MMPI-2-RF scales that assess for emotional/internalizing problems, specifically Demoralization, measures of somatoform dysfunction, and interpersonal problems contributed most to the prediction of diminished outcome. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Use of Prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Police Candidate Scores to Predict Supervisor Ratings of Posthire Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Brewster, JoAnne; Corey, David M; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2015-08-01

    We examined associations between prehire Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and posthire performance ratings for a sample of 131 male police officers. Substantive scale scores in this sample were meaningfully lower than those obtained by the test's normative sample and substantially range restricted, but scores were consistent with those produced by members of the police candidate comparison group (Corey & Ben-Porath). After applying a statistical correction for range restriction, we found several associations between MMPI-2-RF substantive scale scores and supervisor ratings of job-related performance. Findings for scales from the emotional dysfunction and interpersonal functioning domains of the test were particularly strong. For example, scales assessing low positive emotions and social avoidance were associated with several criteria that may be affected by lack of engagement with one's environment and other people, including problems with routine task performance, decision making, assertiveness, conscientiousness, and social competence. Implications of these findings for assessment science and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 – Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores as a function of gender, ethnicity, and age of bariatric surgery candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: F. B. Berezin’s version, the MMIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzherelievskaya, Maria A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In our research we made a substantial psychometric analysis of the scales of F. B. Berezin’s version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, the MMIL, which is widely used in various spheres of psychological practice. Since the mid-1990s in Russia there have been many essential transformations in thinking and values that have been caused by changes in social and economic reality. For this reason, we need to continue our work on specifying the meaning of the MMIL tasks and, then, on updating the test norms and keys. Such psychometric updating is necessary for maintaining the efficiency of the method. For our update, we constructed linear norms for the test; we tested the questionnaire for the normality of the distribution of points; and we checked the validity (including external validity, the reliability coherence of the scales, and the variability of the points. The necessity of readapting the MMIL was thus demonstrated. Questions that display low variability and that are not significantly correlated with the scale they belong to, which reduces their differentiating potential, may be excluded from the test or reformulated.

  7. Relations between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-A scales and Rorschach variables with the scope and severity of maltreatment among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M; Tharinger, Deborah J; Keith, Timothy Z; Lyle-Lahroud, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    This study examined preexisting Rorschach (Exner, 2001) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-A (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) profiles to determine if selected MMPI-A scales and Rorschach variables would jointly associate with the number and severity of maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment) of 157 adolescents (ages 14-17) with documented maltreatment histories. The Maltreatment Classification System was used to systematically code the maltreatment attributes. Six Rorschach variables (MOR, PER, Afr, SumY, SumC', Human Content) were significantly correlated with the number of maltreatment subtypes, but none of the anticipated MMPI-A scales were related. MMPI-A Scale 7 and Rorschach variables Ego, MOR, and PER were jointly associated with physical abuse severity. MMPI-A Scale 0 and Rorschach variables MOR, PER, SumY, SumC', PTI, Human Content, and Texture jointly associated with sexual abuse severity. This study supports the potential for certain MMPI-A scales and Rorschach variables to reflect the impact of adolescents' maltreatment experiences in terms of the number and severity of types of maltreatment experienced. Because both instruments captured different aspects of adolescents' maltreatment experiences, clinicians should consider using both when evaluating the impact of maltreatment on adolescents.

  8. Evaluating chronic suicide risk with the Personality Assessment Inventory: Development and initial validation of the Chronic Suicide Risk Index (S_Chron).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Roche, Michael J; Temes, Christina; Massey, Christina; Chung, Wei-Jean; Stein, Michelle; Richardson, Laura; Blais, Mark

    2016-11-30

    The current study sought to develop and validate a new measure of chronic suicide risk (the S_Chron) from the Personality Assessment Inventory in a mixed sample of psychiatric inpatients and outpatients. In an initial development sample (N=397), hierarchical logistic regression identified six PAI variables uniquely associated with multiple versus single/no prior suicide attempts after controlling for sample demographics: Negative Impression Management, Situational Stress, Mania - Grandiosity, Borderline - Negative Relationships, Borderline - Self-Harm, and Antisocial Behaviors. These indicators were then aggregated into a single index (S_Chron) and evaluated in terms of validity in an independent clinical sample (N=398). Results indicated the S_Chron effectively differentiated between groups with multiple versus single/no prior suicide attempts, even after controlling for the effects of the PAI Suicidal Ideation (SUI) and Suicide Potential (SPI) indices, with moderate to large effect sizes observed (range of Cohen's d's=0.30-0.91). Further, the S_Chron incremented all other PAI indices and SUI in predicting multiple suicide attempts. The potential clinical application and ways in which the S_Chron may augment other existing measures of suicide risk are discussed.

  9. Mental sets in conduct problem youth with psychopathic features: entity versus incremental theories of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features.

  10. Fear conditioning, persistence of disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: an fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; Popma, A.; van den Brink, W.; Pape, L.E.; Kindt, M.; van Domburgh, L.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Veltman, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Children diagnosed with Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBD), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Deficient fear conditioning may be a key mechanism underlying persistence, and has been associated with altered regional brain

  11. Psychopathic traits in adolescents and recognition of emotion in facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio José Lemos Vasconcellos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated the ability of adult psychopaths and children with psychopathy traits to identify specific facial expressions of emotion. Conclusive results have not yet been found regarding whether psychopathic traits are associated with a specific deficit in the ability of identifying negative emotions such as fear and sadness. This study compared 20 adolescents with psychopathic traits and 21 adolescents without these traits in terms of their ability to recognize facial expressions of emotion using facial stimuli presented during 200 milliseconds, 500 milliseconds, and 1 second expositions. Analyses indicated significant differences between the two groups' performances only for fear and when displayed for 200 ms. This finding is consistent with findings from other studies in the field and suggests that controlling the duration of exposure to affective stimuli in future studies may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying the facial affect recognition deficits of individuals with psychopathic traits.

  12. Mapping the association of global executive functioning onto diverse measures of psychopathic traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baskin-Sommers, A.R.; Brazil, I.A.; Ryan, J.; Kohlenberg, N.; Neumann, C.S.; Newman, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychopathic individuals display a callous-coldhearted approach to interpersonal and affective situations and engage in impulsive and antisocial behaviors. Despite early conceptualizations suggesting that psychopathy is related to enhanced cognitive functioning, research examining executive

  13. A test of the International Personality Item Pool representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and development of a 120-item IPIP-based measure of the five-factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Jessica L; Guan, Li; Carter, Nathan T; Miller, Joshua D

    2014-12-01

    There has been a substantial increase in the use of personality assessment measures constructed using items from the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) such as the 300-item IPIP-NEO (Goldberg, 1999), a representation of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). The IPIP-NEO is free to use and can be modified to accommodate its users' needs. Despite the substantial interest in this measure, there is still a dearth of data demonstrating its convergence with the NEO PI-R. The present study represents an investigation of the reliability and validity of scores on the IPIP-NEO. Additionally, we used item response theory (IRT) methodology to create a 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO. Using an undergraduate sample (n = 359), we examined the reliability, as well as the convergent and criterion validity, of scores from the 300-item IPIP-NEO, a previously constructed 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO (Johnson, 2011), and the newly created IRT-based IPIP-120 in comparison to the NEO PI-R across a range of outcomes. Scores from all 3 IPIP measures demonstrated strong reliability and convergence with the NEO PI-R and a high degree of similarity with regard to their correlational profiles across the criterion variables (rICC = .983, .972, and .976, respectively). The replicability of these findings was then tested in a community sample (n = 757), and the results closely mirrored the findings from Sample 1. These results provide support for the use of the IPIP-NEO and both 120-item IPIP-NEO measures as assessment tools for measurement of the five-factor model. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Neuroaffective processing in criminal psychopaths: brain event-related potentials reveal task-specific anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rick; McCullagh, Paul

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to confirm neuroaffective processing deficits in psychopaths by measuring late brain event-related potential (ERP) components and behavior in groups of psychopathic and nonpsychopathic inmates of a Singaporean prison while they performed two tasks. In a Categorization task, affective stimuli were task-relevant and required focused attention, while in a Vigilance task, affective pictures were presented in the background while participants discriminated vertical from oblique lines. Psychopaths showed differences in late positive ERPs that were sensitive to affective stimulus properties (valence and arousal) in the Categorization, but not in the Vigilance task, suggesting that only under conditions of focused attention did psychopaths show a neuroaffective processing deficit. In the Categorization task, psychopaths also showed a significantly larger prefrontal negative ERP (N350) whose amplitude correlated positively with the behavioral facet of psychopathy. In the Vigilance task, psychopaths both missed more targets and showed significantly smaller target-evoked parietal ERPs when viewing arousing pictures, suggesting their attentional focus was disrupted by the affective background.

  15. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.

  16. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  17. The King of Norway: negative individuation, the hero myth and psychopathic narcissism in extreme violence and the life of Anders Behring Breivik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Harri

    2013-11-01

    The paper discusses negative individuation and the hero myth as developmental concepts. It is suggested that in negative individuation healthy psychological development is hindered and goes astray. Aggression then becomes the central psychic system. Repressed anger is the core element in psychopathic narcissism (Diamond) and malignant narcissism (Kernberg). Both Diamond and Kernberg extend narcissistic personality structure to antisocial, psychopathic personality in an effort to better understand extreme violence. According to Freud, love (libido) and hate (the death drive) are the major motivational systems in the human psyche. In contrast to Freud, Jung sees libido as a life force in general, not simply as a sexual drive. Jung writes about evil and the shadow but does not present a comprehensive theory of the negative development of an individual's life. The concept of negative individuation connects the shadow and the death drive with psychopathology, psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this paper, I explore these concepts in the light of contemporary affect theory according to Kernberg. I also ask how ideology is tied to extreme violence and how it is possible that narcissistic personality structures can lead to such radically different outcomes as were manifested in the lives of Anders Behring Breivik and Steve Jobs.

  18. Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory-2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF) scale score differences in bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with binge eating disorder versus BMI-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is among the most common psychiatric disorders in bariatric surgery candidates. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband, psychological test that includes measures of emotional and behavioral dysfunction, which have been associated with BED behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates; however these studies have lacked appropriate controls. In the current study, we compared MMPI-2-RF scale scores of bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with BED (BED+) with BMI-matched controls without BED (BED-). Three-hundred and seven BED+ participants (72.64% female and 67.87% Caucasian; mean BMI of 51.36 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.94]) were drawn from a large, database (N = 1304). Three-hundred and seven BED- participants were matched on BMI and demographics (72.64% female, 68.63% Caucasian, and mean BMI of 51.30 kg/m(2) [SD = 11.70]). The BED+ group scored significantly higher on measures of Demoralization, Low Positive Emotions, and Dysfunctional Negative Emotions and scored lower on measures of Antisocial Behaviors, reflecting behavioral constraint. Optimal T-Score cutoffs were below the traditional 65 T score for several MMPI-2-RF scales. MMPI-2-RF externalizing measures also added incrementally to differentiating between the groups beyond the Binge Eating Scale (BES). BED+ individuals produced greater elevations on a number of MMPI-2-RF internalizing scales and externalizing scales. Use of the test in conjunction with a clinical interview and other self-report data can further aid the clinician in guiding patients to appropriate treatment to optimize outcome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Validity of the clinical and content scales of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Barrio, A; Jiménez-Huete, A; Toledano, R; García-Morales, I; Gil-Nagel, A

    2016-03-01

    The use of the Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minnesota 2 (MMPI-2) for the diagnosis of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) is controversial. This study examines the validity of the clinical scales and, unlike previous works, the content scales. Cross-sectional study of 209 patients treated in the epilepsy unit. We performed a logistic regression analysis, taking video-electroencephalography as the reference test, and as predictor variables age, sex, IQ and clinical (model A) or content scales (model B) of the MMPI-2. The models were selected according to the Aikake index and compared using the DeLong test. We analyzed 37 patients with PNES alone, or combined with seizures, and 172 patients with seizures only. The model consisting of sex, Hs (hypochondriasis) and Pa (paranoia) showed a sensitivity of 77.1%, a specificity of 76.8%, a percentage of correct classification of 76.8%, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.836 for diagnosing CNEP. Model B, consisting of sex, HEA (health concerns) and FRS (fears), showed a sensitivity of 65.7%, a specificity of 78.0%, a percentage of correct classification of 75.9% and an AUC of 0.840. DeLong's test did not detect significant differences. The MMPI-2 has a moderate validity for the diagnosis of PNES in patients referred to an epilepsy unit. Using content scales does not significantly improve results from the clinical scales. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory and Acknowledgment of Barriers for Improving Breastfeeding Initiation Rates in an Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diwata Bose

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breastfeeding (BF is recognized as the preferred method of infant nutrition by American Academy of Pediatricians, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the World Health Organization. Despite the benefits of BF, in 1998 only 69% of new mothers in the United States initiated BF and 29% continued to breastfeed at 6 months. Objective: To assess perceived breastfeeding confidence (BFC and determine barriers in regards to BF in an urban population. Methods: The Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI was used to determine perceived BFC. The survey was distributed to 271 women during prenatal appointments at an urban Milwaukee medical center. BF initiation rate at discharge was determined by records review. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was used to examine the structure of the BPEBI in this population. Results: Survey response rate was 89%. Overall BFC was 74%. BF initiation rate at discharge was 62%, exclusively BF (EBF at discharge (no bottle-feeding was 55%. In multivariate models, EBF decreased with black race (p=0.02 and with residence in the low socioeconomic status zip codes of the central city of Milwaukee (p=0.01. BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.03, EBF (p=0.03 and length of BF (p=0.02. Factor analysis identified two constructs: BFC increased with prior exposure to BF (p=0.006 and EBF (p=0.001 within the motivation construct, and BFC increased with EBF (p=0.000 within the technique/environment construct. Conclusions: The main barriers to increased BFC were lack of prior exposure to BF and nonexclusive breastfeeding practices. BF initiation rate at discharge was low compared to self-reported level of confidence. EBF decreased with black race and with closer proximity to the central city of Milwaukee.

  1. Inventory parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.

  2. Riparian Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...

  3. Self-reported psychopathic traits and socio-emotional function in 9-12 year old children from the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baardewijk, Joost van

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to enhance our understanding of the concept of psychopathic traits in preadolescent children. It did so by investigating a new assessment tool providing a previously unexplored perspective on psychopathic traits in preadolescent children: that of the child itself. This is

  4. Les psychopathes sont-ils heureux ? Un défi pour la moralité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Giroux

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Dans le but de défendre la thèse de la correspondance entre le comportement moral et le bonheur, j’analyse dans cet article le cas problématique des psychopathes. Les psychopathes sont des individus qui ne reculent devant aucun interdit moral pour satisfaire leurs désirs, et qui ne ressentent aucun remord ou scrupule face à leurs agissements. En ce sens, ils paraissent obtenir un « ticket gratuit » dans le domaine de la moralité. Comment un défenseur de la thèse de la correspondance entre moralité et bonheur peut-il rendre compte du cas du psychopathe ? Le psychopathe vient-il réfuter cette thèse, ou représente-t-il plutôt une exception légitime ? Je défendrai ici une solution alternative ; après avoir proposé une version plausible de la thèse de la correspondance, je tenterai de démontrer que les psychopathes ne sont pas heureux, et ce en vertu de caractéristiques essentielles de la psychopathie. Leur statut de « criminel en puissance » et leur faible capacité de contentement sont les deux éléments centraux qui m’amèneront à conclure que les psychopathes ne sont pas heureux. Loin de réfuter ou d’échapper à la thèse de la correspondance, le cas des psychopathes vient donc en réalité renforcer cette thèse.My goal in this paper is to defend the idea of a general correspondence between happiness and morality, and I do so by analyzing the problematic case of psychopaths. Psychopaths are individuals who are not bothered by moral restrictions when it comes to satisfying their desires. They feel no remorse and have no scruples, and as such they appear to be “free-riders” in the realm of morality. The unusual case of psychopaths will therefore pose a problem to someone who argues that there is a correspondence between happiness and morality: should psychopaths be seen as refuting the correspondence rule, or are they merely a legitimate exception to that rule? I will propose an alternative explanation; after

  5. Psychopathology and personality traits associated with driving while intoxicated in Beijing, China: Implications for interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rong-Jiang; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Li-Li; Bao, Yan-Ping; Huang, Liang; Dong, Ping; Zhou, Shuang-Jiang; Wang, Zhi-Qing; Kosten, Thomas R; Sun, Hong-Qiang

    2017-06-01

    Driving while intoxicated (DWI) represents an area of grave concern in China, yet little research has focused on it or on the personality traits and psychiatric disorders among these drivers. We enrolled 325 of 382 residents charged with DWI in a compulsory detention center in Beijing, China. And 351 male drivers who had never had any alcohol arrests as control participants. All were screened for Axis I disorders using the Chinese version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV-TR (SCID), the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2), and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). The subjects were all males with a mean (±SD) age of 34.41 ± 8.48 years, and almost 30% met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (n = 92). Compared to normal controls they showed greater Social Boldness, Abstractedness, Apprehension, Liveliness and Tension, and poorer Reasoning, Vigilance, Openness to Change, and Self-reliance. On the MMPI-2, DWI subjects showed greater Hypochondriasis, Psychopathic Deviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia and Hypomania; and lower Social introversion. Severe alcohol problems are more common in Beijing's drunk drivers than in the Chinese general population. These DWI drivers also have a broad variety of traits that increase their tendency to be venturesome and socially bold while enjoying excitement and risk-taking. (Am J Addict 2017;26:374-378). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. Methods of inventory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, C; Mackowiak, J

    1985-01-01

    Various methods for controlling inventory are described, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. The open-to-buy (OTB) budget method limits purchases to a specific amount of funds available for purchasing pharmaceuticals during a specified period. The emphasis of the OTB method is financial control of the pharmacy inventory. Although it is useful in monitoring and adjusting the dollar value of the inventory, it should be combined with other methods for a total inventory control system. The primary emphasis of the short-list method is to provide accurate and timely inventory information to the person responsible for order placement. The short list identifies the items that are in short supply. It is the most common feedback and control mechanism in use, but it is best suited for settings where duplicate or reserve stock is maintained and monitored by more rigorous methods. The main objective of the minimum and maximum method is to determine when and how much to order of each item. It also provides limited dollar control. The major disadvantage of this method is the time it requires to establish the minimum and maximum levels and to update them regularly to reflect changes in demand. The stock record card method is used to record information on the movement of goods in and out of the storage area. Stock cards can also be used to monitor inventory levels and facilitate order initiation. It is probably the optimum method to be used alone. The most effective system of inventory control is one employing a combination of these methods tailored to meet the institution's needs and available resources.

  7. Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannot properly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls. Using a modified version of the classic Moral/Conventional Transgressions task (Nucci & Turiel, 1978) that employs a forced-choice format to minimize strategic responding, the present study found that total psychopathy score did not predict performance on the task. Task performance was explained by some individual sub-facets of psychopathy and by other variables unrelated to psychopathy, such as IQ. The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong. PMID:21842959

  8. Psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of right uncinate fasciculus in a community population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Mona; Baker, Laura; Martins, Bradford; Tuvblad, Catherine; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF)) between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala–VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala–VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits. PMID:26106525

  9. Psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of right uncinate fasciculus in a community population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Sobhani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC. Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala–VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala–VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits.

  10. Theta phase coherence in affective picture processing reveals dysfunctional sensory integration in psychopathic offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillem, Scott; Ryan, Jonathan; Wu, Jia; Crowley, Michael J; Mayes, Linda C; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle

    2016-09-01

    Psychopathic offenders are described as emotionally cold, displaying deficits in affective responding. However, research demonstrates that many of the psychopathy-related deficits are moderated by attention, such that under conditions of high attentional and perceptual load psychopathic offenders display deficits in affective responses, but do not in conditions of low load. To date, most studies use measures of defensive reflex (i.e., startle) and conditioning manipulations to examine the impact of load on psychopathy-related processing, but have not examined more direct measures of attention processing. In a sample of adult male offenders, the present study examined time-frequency EEG phase coherence in response to a picture-viewing paradigm that manipulated picture familiarity to assess neural changes in processing based on perceptual demands. Results indicated psychopathy-related differences in the theta response, an index of readiness to perceive and integrate sensory information. These data provide further evidence that psychopathic offenders have disrupted integration of sensory information.

  11. "A Psychopath by Any Other Name?": Juror Perceptions of the DSM-5 "Limited Prosocial Emotions" Specifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Mowle, Elyse N; Clark, John W; Magyar, Melissa S

    2017-02-01

    DSM-5 recently added the specifier "Limited Prosocial Emotions" (LPE) to the Conduct Disorder (CD) diagnosis, yet little is known about how these traits will affect attitudes toward CD youth. Laypersons attending jury duty (N = 326) were randomly assigned to one of four case vignette conditions in which a male juvenile offender was identified as having (a) CD symptoms only, (b) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label, (c) CD symptoms plus a diagnostic label and description of LPE traits, or (d) CD symptoms plus a description of LPE traits and a "psychopath" label. LPE traits led to more negative perceptions of the youth (e.g., more dangerous, evil, and psychopathic) and adding the psychopath label to the LPE specifier resulted in somewhat stronger support for punishment and mandated treatment. The LPE specifier may provide useful diagnostic information, but these findings raise serious concerns that it will stigmatize youth in the legal system.

  12. Relationships of the Big Five Personality Domains and Facets to Dimensions of the Healthy Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Nancy E.; Borgen, Fred H.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare a new inventory measuring concepts of the "healthy personality" with the most widely used inventory of the Big Five personality traits, the NEO personality inventory-Revised (NEO-PI-R). Using adjectives as the stimulus materials, Borgen and Betz (2008) developed a 17-scale inventory called the Healthy personality…

  13. Does Classification of Persons with Fibromyalgia into Multidimensional Pain Inventory Subgroups Detect Differences in Outcome after a Standard Chronic Pain Management Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Verra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to replicate and validate the empirically derived subgroup classification based on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI in a sample of highly disabled fibromyalgia (FM patients. Second, it examined how the identified subgroups differed in their response to an intensive, interdisciplinary inpatient pain management program.

  14. Does classification of persons with fibromyalgia into Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroups detect differences in outcome after a standard chronic pain management program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verra, M.L.; Angst, F.; Brioschi, R.; Lehmann, S.; Keefe, F.J.; Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Aeschlimann, A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to replicate and validate the empirically derived subgroup classification based on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) in a sample of highly disabled fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Second, it examined how the identified subgroups differed in their response to

  15. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent

  16. Moral Disengagement Moderates the Link between Psychopathic Traits and Aggressive Behavior among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Bussey, Kay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between three psychopathic dimensions (callousness/unemotionality, grandiosity/manipulation, and impulsivity/irresponsibility) and reactive and instrumental aggression in a community sample of early adolescents (N = 243, age M = 12.29, SD = 1.18). The moderating role of moral disengagement (MD) was also…

  17. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits : fMRI in late adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, M.D.; van Lith, K.; Kindt, M.; Pape, L.E.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Popma, A.

    2016-01-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent ant

  18. Learning to "Talk the Talk": The Relationship of Psychopathic Traits to Deficits in Empathy across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; Hawes, David J.; Frost, Aaron D. J.; Vassallo, Shane; Bunn, Paul; Hunter, Kirsten; Merz, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychopathy is characterised by profound deficits in the human tendency to feel and care about what other people feel, often known as "affective empathy". On the other hand, the psychopath often has intact "cognitive" empathy skills, that is, he is able to describe what and why other people feel, even if he does not share or care about…

  19. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  20. Psychopathic Traits and Their Relationship with the Cognitive Costs and Compulsive Nature of Lying in Offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; in 't Hout, W.

    2016-01-01

    The cognitive view on deception holds that lying typically requires additional mental effort as compared to truth telling. Psychopathy, however, has been associated with swift and even compulsive lying, leading us to explore the ease and compulsive nature of lying in psychopathic offenders. We

  1. White Matter Deficits in Psychopathic Offenders and Correlation with Factor Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppenbrouwers, S.S.; Nazeri, A.; Jesus, D.R. de; Stirpe, T.; Felsky, D.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Daskalakis, Z.J.; Voineskos, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis in 11 ps

  2. Learning to "Talk the Talk": The Relationship of Psychopathic Traits to Deficits in Empathy across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; Hawes, David J.; Frost, Aaron D. J.; Vassallo, Shane; Bunn, Paul; Hunter, Kirsten; Merz, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Psychopathy is characterised by profound deficits in the human tendency to feel and care about what other people feel, often known as "affective empathy". On the other hand, the psychopath often has intact "cognitive" empathy skills, that is, he is able to describe what and why other people feel, even if he does not share or care about…

  3. Psychopathic Traits in Youth: Is There Evidence for Primary and Secondary Subtypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zina; Salekin, Randall T.; Iselin, Anne-Marie R.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed model-based cluster analysis in a sample of male adolescent offenders (n = 94) to examine subtypes based on psychopathic traits and anxiety. Using the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV; Forth et al. 2003) and the self-report Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD; Caputo et al. 1999), analyses identified…

  4. Therapeutic Responses of Psychopathic Sexual Offenders: Treatment Attrition, Therapeutic Change, and Long-Term Recidivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the therapeutic responses of psychopathic sex offenders (greater than or equal to 25 Psychopathy Checklist-Revised; PCL-R) in terms of treatment dropout and therapeutic change, as well as sexual and violent recidivism over a 10-year follow-up among 156 federally incarcerated sex offenders treated in a high-intensity inpatient…

  5. White matter deficits in psychopathic offenders and correlation with factor structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylco S Hoppenbrouwers

    Full Text Available Psychopathic offenders show a persistent pattern of emotional unresponsivity to the often horrendous crimes they perpetrate. Recent studies have related psychopathy to alterations in white matter. Therefore, diffusion tensor imaging followed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis in 11 psychopathic offenders matched to 11 healthy controls was completed. Fractional anisotropy was calculated within each voxel and comparisons were made between groups using a permutation test. Any clusters of white matter voxels different between groups were submitted to probabilistic tractography. Significant differences in fractional anisotropy were found between psychopathic offenders and healthy controls in three main white matter clusters. These three clusters represented two major networks: an amygdalo-prefrontal network, and a striato-thalamo-frontal network. The interpersonal/affective component of the PCL-R correlated with white matter deficits in the orbitofrontal cortex and frontal pole whereas the antisocial component correlated with deficits in the striato-thalamo-frontal network. In addition to replicating earlier work concerning disruption of an amygdala-prefrontal network, we show for the first time that white matter integrity in a striato-thalamo-frontal network is disrupted in psychopathic offenders. The novelty of our findings lies in the two dissociable white matter networks that map directly onto the two major factors of psychopathy.

  6. Psychopathic Traits in a Large Community Sample: Links to Violence, Alcohol Use, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Craig S.; Hare, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted with offender or forensic psychiatric samples have revealed that individuals with psychopathic traits are at risk for violence and other externalizing psychopathology. These traits appear to be continuously distributed in these samples, leading investigators to speculate on the presence of such traits in the general…

  7. Battelle Developmental Inventory and the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Robert; Snyder, Scott

    1990-01-01

    Two forms of the Battelle Developmental Inventory, intended for use with handicapped and nonhandicapped children ages 0-8, are examined. The instruments measure personal-social, adaptive, motor, communication, and cognitive skills, for use in screening, diagnosis, identification, assessment, and program evaluation. The paper discusses test…

  8. Response latencies are alive and well for identifying fakers on a self-report personality inventory: A reconsideration of van Hooft and Born (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Ronald R; Lambert, Christine E

    2015-12-01

    Van Hooft and Born (Journal of Applied Psychology 97:301-316, 2012) presented data challenging both the correctness of a congruence model of faking on personality test items and the relative merit (i.e., effect size) of response latencies for identifying fakers. We suggest that their analysis of response times was suboptimal, and that it followed neither from a congruence model of faking nor from published protocols on appropriately filtering the noise in personality test item answering times. Using new data and following recommended analytic procedures, we confirmed the relative utility of response times for identifying personality test fakers, and our obtained results, again, reinforce a congruence model of faking.

  9. Validating and Using the Career Beliefs Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Results of completion of the Career Beliefs Inventory (CBI), NEO Personality Inventory, Self-Directed Search, Vocational Identity scale, and Preconscious Activity scale verified the construct validity of the CBI. CBI scales appeared to measure variance not assessed by the other instruments. (SK)

  10. Personality, Gender, and Crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in crying as well as associations between basic personality traits and self-reported indices of crying. Forty-eight men and 56 women completed the Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Adult Crying Inventory. Substantial gender differences were demonstrated

  11. "We all go a little mad sometimes": Alfred Hitchcock, American psychoanalysis, and the construction of the Cold War psychopath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the image of the psychopath in Alfred Hitchcock’s 1960 film Psycho. The famed director’s portrayal of a psychologically damaged young man connected with a much larger discussion over political and sexual deviance in the early Cold War, a discussion that cantered on the image of the psychopath as the dominant threat to national security and that played upon normative assumptions about adolescent development and mother-son relations.

  12. Inventory Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Leigh

    2000-11-03

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in

  13. INVENTORY ABSTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ragan

    2001-12-19

    The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M&O 2000e for ICN 02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M&O 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest

  14. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  15. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  16. Unreliable Narration of Psychopathic Personality- Analysis of Allan Poe's Short Story, The Black Cat%病态人格的不可靠叙述——析爱伦·坡的短篇小说《黑猫》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦秋; 冯茜

    2012-01-01

    《黑猫》是美国作家埃德加·爱伦·坡(EdgarAllanPoe)创作的一篇惊悚心理小说,采用第一人称叙事,所讲述的事件折射出了小说主人公心理和行为上的畸形变态。因为叙述者的人格与隐合作者的道德价值观相背离,所以小说的主人公。即叙述者成为了一个“不可靠叙述者”。同时作者也运用了反讽与夸张的写作手法增强了小说叙述者的不可靠性,如此精心的安排,使得小说收到了很好的艺术效果。%The Black Cat is a psychological thriller written by American writer, Edgar Allan Poe. This thriller uses the first person narration strategy and tells the incidents reflecting the protagonist's psychological and behavioral abnormality. Because the narrator's personality deviates from the implied author's moral values, the protagonist of the novel, the narrator becomes an "unreiiable narrator". Meanwhile, the author also uses the techniques of irony and exaggeration to enhance the narrator's unreliability. Such careful arrangement makes the novel receive good artistic effect.

  17. The comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales to detect suspected malingering in a disability claimant sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Zhu, Jiani; Burchett, Danielle; Bury, Alison S; Bagby, R Michael

    2017-02-01

    The current study expands on past research examining the comparative capacity of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher et al., 2001) and MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) overreporting validity scales to detect suspected malingering, as assessed by the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST; Miller, 2001), in a sample of public insurance disability claimants (N = 742) who were considered to have potential incentives to malinger. Results provide support for the capacity of both the MMPI-2 and the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales to predict suspected malingering of psychopathology. The MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales proved to be modestly better predictors of suspected psychopathology malingering-compared with the MMPI-2 overreporting scales-in dimensional predictive models and categorical classification accuracy analyses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Prediction of cancer and coronary heart disease mortality by means of a personality inventory: results of a 15-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eysenck, H J

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports on the 1982-1986 follow-up of two samples of healthy persons first studied in 1972 and followed up in 1982 when mortality and cause of death were established (N = 2,146). Both were related to stress and personality type according to clearly elaborated theories, and results were very much in accordance with theory. The second follow-up was instigated to answer criticisms of the first study and to test whether results would still support the theories involved. The data support the previous results strongly and show that psychosocial data can predict with considerable accuracy mortality and cause of death over 14 years ahead.

  19. 27 CFR 19.774 - Record of inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of inventories. 19... of inventories. (a) General. Each proprietor shall make a record of inventories of spirits, denatured... shortages; and (5) Signature, under penalties of perjury, of the proprietor or person taking the...

  20. Efficient and valid assessment of personality traits: population norms of a brief version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Korner

    2015-03-01

    In sum, the 30-item-version of the NEO-FFI constitutes an assessment tool comparable to the full-length instrument regarding psychometric properties. As such, the NEO-FFI-30 is a promising alternative to longer questionnaires, as well as to single-item measures of personality used in research and clinical practice.

  1. Validación de Burnout screening inventory en personal de formación del área de la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián A. Dávila

    2016-10-01

    Conclusiones: La escala BSI demostró validez para medir el desgaste en personal en formación en salud. Se requiere de estudios con medidas antes y después de intervenciones en el ambiente laboral para determinar la sensibilidad al cambio del instrumento.

  2. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  3. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  4. Adult Career Assessment: Personality Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansickle, Timothy R.; Russell, Mary T.

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of five assessment instruments and discusses their contribution to adult career development: (1) California Personality Inventory; (2) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator; (3) Personality Research Form; (4) Occupational Stress Inventory; and (5) Personal Career Development Profile. Includes information about publishers, intended…

  5. Age of crime onset and psychopathic traits in female juvenile delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechorro, Pedro; Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Marôco, João; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of psychopathic traits in the age of crime onset of female juvenile delinquents. Using a sample of 132 young females from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice and from schools in the Lisbon region, a group of early crime onset (n = 44), a group of late crime onset (n = 44), and a nondelinquent school group (n = 44) were formed. Results showed that early crime onset participants score higher on psychopathy measures, self-reported delinquency, and crime seriousness than late crime onset participants and school participants. Psychopathic-traits scores were significantly associated with age of crime onset, age at first trouble with the law, and frequency and seriousness of crime.

  6. Ringleader bullying: association with psychopathic narcissism and theory of mind among child psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellwagen, Kurt K; Kerig, Patricia K

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the association of ringleader bullying with psychopathic traits and theory of mind among 100 youth aged 10-15 (62 boys and 38 girls) receiving inpatient psychiatric services at a state facility. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated a positive association between ringleader bullying and psychopathic narcissism, and a significant interaction effect between narcissism and theory of mind. More specifically, narcissism moderated the relationship between theory of mind and ringleader bullying such that theory of mind was positively associated with ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were high, and theory of mind was negatively associated ringleader bullying when levels of narcissism were low. The discussion of these results focuses on the importance of developing effective treatment techniques for youth whose bullying behavior is associated with narcissistic features and social acuity.

  7. A Rorschach comparison of psychopaths, sexual homicide perpetrators, and nonviolent pedophiles: where angels fear to tread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Bridges, M R

    2000-06-01

    Nonsexually offending psychopaths (N = 32) were compared to sexual homicide perpetrators (N = 38) and nonviolent pedophiles (N = 39) on select Comprehensive System Rorschach variables (Exner et al., 1993). Results indicate similarities among the groups in pathological narcissism, formal thought disorder, and borderline level reality testing. Nonsexually offending psychopaths are distinguished by their lack of interest in and attachment to others and their seemingly conflict-free internal world. While both sexually deviant groups evidenced interest in others and appear to experience a very dysphoric internal world, the sexual homicide perpetrators are distinguished by high levels of obsessional thought and an inability to disengage from environmental stimuli. Pedophiles show significantly more characterological anger, which may stem from their general inadequacy, cognitive rigidness, less alloplastic (acting out) style, and their introversive inability to gratify their needs. Rorschach differences add to our understanding of sexual deviation and violence among these three groups.

  8. Sex-specific Association between Psychopathic Traits and Electrodermal Reactivity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Isen, Joshua; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura; Dawson, Michael; Bezdjian, Serena; LOZANO, DORA ISABEL

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of skin conductance response (SCR) to a child psychopathy measure. Blunted electrodermal activity is a theoretically important characteristic of psychopathy, but has not been fully explored in preadolescents or females. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SCR magnitude is associated with psychopathic-like traits in boys and girls. Participants were drawn from an ethnically diverse community sample of 9-10 year old twins. Given the fact that members o...

  9. Attachment to caregivers and psychopathic characteristics among adolescents at risk for aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Catchpole, Rosalind E. H.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a longstanding interest in adult psychopathy, both in research studies and clinical writings. However, only recently has the study of youth psychopathy garnered attention. Researchers are particularly interested in basic questions about the early course of psychopathy, however little work has investigated the role that attachment plays in this disorder. This dissertation investigated the relationships between adolescent-caregiver attachment patterns and psychopathic traits. Spe...

  10. An exploration of the trauma histories, dissociative experiences and psychopathic features of murderers

    OpenAIRE

    Newberry, Michelle T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of PhD and was awarded by Brunel University London Background: Differential relationships of the dimensions of psychopathy with external factors indicate that psychopathy can be conceptualised as a multifaceted syndrome comprised of distinct subgroups of psychopaths (Blackburn, 1988). However, it is not known whether similar subtypes of psychopathy exist across cultures. The research question which this thesis sought to answer was: Do subtypes of psy...

  11. Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coid, Jeremy; Ullrich, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy are different diagnostic constructs. It is unclear whether they are separate clinical syndromes or whether psychopathy is a severe form of ASPD. A representative sample of 496 prisoners in England and Wales was interviewed in the second phase of a survey carried out in 1997 using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Axis II personality disorders, and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Among those 18 years and older (n = 470), 211 (44.9%) received a diagnosis of ASPD, of whom 67 (31.8%) were classified as psychopaths, indicated by Psychopathy Checklist-Revised scores of 25 and above. Symptoms of ASPD and psychopathy both demonstrated low diagnostic contrast when comparing subgroups of ASPD above and below the cutoff for psychopathy. There were no differences in demography, Axis I comorbidity, and treatment-seeking behavior. Psychopathic individuals with ASPD demonstrated comorbid schizoid and narcissistic personality disorder, more severe conduct disorder and adult antisocial symptoms, and more violent convictions. Psychopathy and ASPD are not separate diagnostic entities, but psychopathic ASPD is a more severe form than ASPD alone with greater risk of violence. Dimensional scores of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition personality disorders (other than ASPD) may be helpful in identifying this specific subgroup. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychopathic traits are associated with reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces among adult male non-offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Mark Gillespie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathic traits are linked with impairments in emotional facial expression recognition. These impairments may, in part, reflect reduced attention to the eyes of emotional faces. Although reduced attention to the eyes has been noted among children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits, similar findings are yet to be found in relation to psychopathic traits among adult male participants. Here we investigated the relationship of primary (selfish, uncaring and secondary (impulsive, antisocial psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes among adult male non-offenders during an emotion recognition task. We measured the number of fixations, and overall dwell time, on the eyes and the mouth of male and female faces showing the six basic emotions at varying levels of intensity. We found no relationship of primary or secondary psychopathic traits with recognition accuracy. However, primary psychopathic traits were associated with a reduced number of fixations, and lower overall dwell time, on the eyes relative to the mouth across expressions, intensity, and sex. Furthermore, the relationship of primary psychopathic traits with attention to the eyes of angry and fearful faces was influenced by the sex and intensity of the expression. We also showed that a greater number of fixations on the eyes, relative to the mouth, was associated with increased accuracy for angry and fearful expression recognition. These results are the first to show effects of psychopathic traits on attention to the eyes of emotional faces in an adult male sample, and may support amygdala based accounts of psychopathy. These findings may also have methodological implications for clinical studies of emotion recognition.

  13. Television's "crazy lady" trope: female psychopathic traits, teaching, and influence of popular culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Cathleen; Friedman, Susan Hatters; Smith, Delaney

    2014-04-01

    This article describes notable illustrations of female psychopathy on modern television to review various characters that will have utility in teaching students about female psychopathy in distinction to male psychopathy and to encourage consideration of the potential effects that viewing these countless examples may have on a generation of young women. The authors use examples from soap operas, crime procedurals, reality television, fantasy, comedies, and young adult programs to illustrate gender differences in psychopathy and make specific teaching points. They also review the research literature related to popular culture's impact on behavior and gender roles. Gender differences in real-world psychopathy are mirrored in television portrayals. For example, female psychopaths, on TV and in reality, use sexual manipulation, demonstrate unstable emotions, and employ social aggression to achieve their ambitions. The examples of female psychopathic traits are prevalent on TV and easily accessible for teaching purposes. Research does give some support for a popular culture impact on behavior and gender roles. As compared to male psychopathy, female psychopathy is less recognized, and there are some notable differences in how the psychopathic traits manifest. Television provides myriad teaching examples that can highlight the gender distinctions such as use of sexual manipulation, emotional instability, and social aggression. Research suggests that the prevalence of "crazy ladies" on television may be negatively impacting gender stereotypes and normalizing bad behavior in young women.

  14. Fear extinction, persistent disruptive behavior and psychopathic traits: fMRI in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Moran D; van Lith, Koen; Kindt, Merel; Pape, Louise E; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Popma, Arne

    2016-07-01

    Children diagnosed with a Disruptive Behavior Disorder (DBD, i.e. Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder), especially those with psychopathic traits, are at risk of developing persistent and severe antisocial behavior. Reduced fear conditioning has been proposed to underlie persistent antisocial development. However, we have recently shown that both DBD persisters and desisters are characterized by increased fear conditioning compared with healthy controls (HCs). In this study, we investigated whether brain function during fear extinction is associated with DBD subgroup-membership and psychopathic traits. Adolescents from a childhood arrestee cohort (mean age 17.6 years, s.d. 1.4) who met criteria for a DBD diagnosis during previous assessments were re-assessed and categorized as persistent DBD (n = 25) or desistent DBD (n = 25). Functional MRI during the extinction phase of a classical fear-conditioning task was used to compare regional brain function between these subgroups and 25 matched controls. Both DBD persisters and desisters showed hyperreactivity during fear extinction, when compared with HCs. Impulsive-irresponsible psychopathic traits were positively associated with responses in the fear neurocircuitry and mediated the association between neural activation and group membership. These results suggest that fear acquisition and fear extinction deficits may provide an endophenotype for an emotionally hyperreactive subtype of antisocial development.

  15. Dysfunctional error-related processing in incarcerated youth with elevated psychopathic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michael Maurer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n = 100 who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV. The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA. Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.

  16. Career Self-Efficacy and Personality: Linking Career Confidence and the Healthy Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Fred H.; Betz, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    This article extends recent work on the relationship between personality and career self-efficacy by examining relationships across two new inventories with scales for identifying human strengths. The Healthy Personality Inventory (HPI) has 17 content scales tapping an array of positive personality measures. The CAPA Confidence Inventory (CCI) has…

  17. Impact of Female Personality on the Pathogenesis of Breast Cancer%女性人格特征对其乳腺癌发病的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岂怀华; 张景华; 姚三巧; 李景武

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨女性人格特征与乳腺癌发病的关系.方法 通过1:1配对的病例对照研究设计,采用国际通用的明尼苏达多相人格测试量表(MMPI)对女性乳腺癌患者的个性因素及人格特征进行调查分析及评价.结果 将P<0.05的一般危险因素与MMPI临床量表中的疑病、抑郁、癔症、精神病态、男子气、偏执、精神衰弱、精神分裂症、轻躁狂和社会内向10项个性特征一起进行条件Logistic回归分析发现,除了体质指数、口服避孕药、不参加体育锻炼、肿瘤家族史和既往灾难经历以外,女性乳腺癌患者所表现出的精神病态、轻躁狂和癔症的人格特征是乳腺癌发病的影响因素(OR值分别为0.865、1.714和0.860,P<0.05).结论 精神病态、轻躁狂和癔症人格特征与女性乳腺癌的发病可能存在一定的联系.%Objective To explore the relationship between female breast cancer and personality. Methods A 1: 1 matched case - control study was designed to investigate the relationship between female breast cancer and personality using Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory ( MMPI ) . Results After introducing risk factors ( P < 0. 05 ) and 10 clinical scales of MMPI together into conditional logistic regression model, it was found that besides BMI, acyeterion use, lack of physical exercise , family history and catastrophic experience, personalities of psychopathic deviate, hypomania and hysteria were among the risk factors of breast cancer ( OR = 0. 865 , 1. 714 and 0. 860 respectively, P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Personalities of psychopathic deviate, hypomania and hysteria might be correlated with the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

  18. Personality of mothers of substance-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Baron

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available David Baron1, Samir AbolMagd2, Salwa Erfan2, Mona El Rakhawy21Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2University of Cairo School of Medicine, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: Drug addicts often come from dysfunctional families. The prevailing view in the literature is that mothers of drug-dependent patients can be characterized by strong emotional bonds and overprotection. Studies suggest that maternal rejection could be a major risk factor of developing drug addiction. This work is a continuation of our previous study of childhood parenting experiences of substance-dependent patients. The aims were to compare the personality profile of mothers of substance-dependent patients and that of mothers of matched control subjects; and to examine the relation between the personality of mothers of addicts, and severity of their offspring’s addiction. The study group consisted of 20 mothers of substance-dependent patients and a control group of 35 mothers of non-dependent subjects; mothers of both groups were age matched. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM IV criteria. Personalities of mothers of both groups were assessed using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI. Substance-dependent patients (sons were administered the Addiction Severity Index (ASI. The mean scores of the MMPI Scales were higher for mothers of dependent patients compared to mothers of non-dependent subjects. Scores on the depression, hysteria and paranoia scales were significantly higher for mothers of patients (P = 0.03, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between scores of hysteria, and psychopathic deviance and the ASI (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively. There were significant negative correlations between scores of social introversion and the ASI drug/alcohol use status (P = 0.007, and family history dimensions (P = 0.003. Mothers of substance-dependent patients showed disturbances in aspects of personalities

  19. Examining the prevalence, role and impact of evidence regarding Antisocial Personality, sociopathy and psychopathy in capital cases: a survey of defense team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Cox, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Although anecdotal case accounts suggest that evidence concerning Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), sociopathy and psychopathy is frequently introduced by the prosecution in capital murder trials, to date there has been no systematic research to determine the actual prevalence, role, or perceived impact of such evidence in these cases. Survey data collected from attendees at a national capital mitigation conference (n=41) indicated that prosecution evidence concerning APD was quite prevalent, with "sociopath" and "psychopath" labels being introduced less frequently. Evidence concerning these disorders, which were assessed primarily via DSM criteria and self-report personality inventories, was most often introduced by the prosecution in the sentencing phase to address a defendant's ostensible risk of future dangerousness and/or to rebut mitigating evidence-although it was also introduced frequently in the guilt/innocence phase of these trials to rebut mental health evidence offered by the defense. Survey respondents believed that evidence concerning APD, sociopathy, and psychopathy had a considerable impact on trial outcomes. Also, although defense objections were common, such evidence was rarely ruled to be inadmissible in these cases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Personality Traits and Their Relationship to Demographic Features in Addicts Referring to a Drug Rehabilitation Center in the City of Isfahan, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alaghemandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is one of the most serious social damages and due to its progressive nature in all aspects, adversely affects people's physical and psychological health. Hence, this paper investigates the characteristics of drug addicts in a drug rehabilitation center in the city of Isfahan.In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, the population consisted of all addicts that referred to Shefa Drug Rehabilitation Center. A sample of 201 individuals was selected randomly. Two questionnaires were drawn up to collect data; the first questionnaire examined demographic characteristics and the second was the 71-item Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory short form. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in SPSS20 to analyze the data.Overall, 98% of participants were men, 65.7% were married, and 13.3% were unemployed. Depression and hypomania were respectively the most and the least prevalent disorders among individuals with high-risk psychological profiles of clinical scales respectively. Psychopathic deviation and schizophrenia were seen among the unemployed more than the employed ones.Considering the fact that depression was the most common personality disorder among the addicts participating, it is recommended that this disorder be given priority in investigations in the treatment programs of these patients. In addition, the scales of disorder, schizophrenia, mental infirmity, mental deviation, and paranoia had a significant relationship to aggression, delirium and hallucination, which must be taken into consideration in the treatment of such patients.

  1. Relationship between the dark triad personality and cyber bullying in student internet users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Hajlo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cyber bullying is defined as a series of deliberate and repeated sadistic behaviors which occur through such tools as computer, phone and other electronic devices. The current study was aimed to determine to what extent the dark triad personality predicts the phenomenon of cyber bullying among the youth. Methods: For this investigation, 200 internet users were selected through snowball sampling and data were obtained by the questionnaires sent via e-mail. Results: The results of investigation indicated that all dark triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, Psychopath and Narcissism had a significantly positive relationship with cyber bullying. Also, Machiavellianism and Psychopath personality traits were respectively the strongest variables in predicting cyber bullying. Conclusion: all dark triad personality traits have the ability to predict cyber bullying phenomenon.

  2. The SRP-II as a Rich Source of Data on the Psychopathic Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Whitney S.; Salekin, Randall T.; Sellbom, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure, external correlates, and predictive utility of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II; Hare, Harpur, & Hemphill, 1989). Despite a revision of the SRP-II to address, among other criticisms, a lack of items reflecting antisocial behavior, we hypothesized that the SRP-II would have a conceptually coherent…

  3. MBTI Personality Types and SII Personal Style Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Johnson, Patrick; Nichols, Cassandra; Miller, Matthew A.; Thomas, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Scores of 426 undergraduates on the Myers Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Strong Interest Inventory (SII) revealed that personal style scales of the SII are related to MBTI polar dimensions in various combinations. Results support the idea that personality traits are related to career interests. (SK)

  4. Application of Emotional Problems Factor of Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory Ⅱ in Anxiety Disorders Patients%中国人个性-情感量表在焦虑障碍患者中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹素霞; 李恒芬; 张勇; 李幼辉

    2008-01-01

    目的:评估中国人个性量表之情感量表(Emotional Problems Factor ofChinese Personality Assessment Invento-ry 2,CPAI2-E)在焦虑障碍患者中的适用性. 方法:以144例焦虑障碍患者和144名健康对照为样本进行信度、效度评定. 结果:①通过探索性因素分析6个CPAI2-E因子分别得到2~4个子因子层面,条目负荷在0.4134~0.779之间.实证效度具有较好的区分能力.②总量表内部一致性系数(Cronbach's α)为0.948,各因子在0.755~0.896之间.重测信度检测发现,CPAI2-E量表为0.718,各因子在0.496~0.730. 结论:中国人个性量表之情感量表(CPAI2-E)在焦虑障碍患者中有较好的适用性.

  5. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores generated from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF test booklets: internal structure comparability in a sample of criminal defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarescavage, Anthony M; Alosco, Michael L; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Wood, Arcangela; Luna-Jones, Lynn

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the internal structure comparability of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores derived from the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets in a sample of 320 criminal defendants (229 males and 54 females). After exclusion of invalid protocols, the final sample consisted of 96 defendants who were administered the MMPI-2-RF booklet and 83 who completed the MMPI-2. No statistically significant differences in MMPI-2-RF invalidity rates were observed between the two forms. Individuals in the final sample who completed the MMPI-2-RF did not statistically differ on demographics or referral question from those who were administered the MMPI-2 booklet. Independent t tests showed no statistically significant differences between MMPI-2-RF scores generated with the MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets on the test's substantive scales. Statistically significant small differences were observed on the revised Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales. Cronbach's alpha and standard errors of measurement were approximately equal between the booklets for all MMPI-2-RF scales. Finally, MMPI-2-RF intercorrelations produced from the two forms yielded mostly small and a few medium differences, indicating that discriminant validity and test structure are maintained. Overall, our findings reflect the internal structure comparability of MMPI-2-RF scale scores generated from MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF booklets. Implications of these results and limitations of these findings are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Predicting one and three month postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors in bariatric surgery candidates with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Merrell, Julie; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-04-01

    Presurgical psychological screening of bariatric surgery candidates includes some form of standardized psychological assessment. However, associations between presurgical psychological screening and postoperative outcome have not been extensively studied. Here, we explore associations between presurgical Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores and early postoperative Somatic Concerns, Psychological Distress, and Maladaptive Eating Behaviors. The sample consisted of male (n = 238) and female (n = 621) patients who were administered the MMPI-2-RF at their presurgical psychological evaluation and received bariatric surgery. Patients were evaluated at their 1- and 3-month postoperative appointments. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that three latent constructs-somatic concerns, psychological distress, and maladaptive eating behaviors-were represented by responses to a postoperative assessment and that these constructs could be measured consistently over time. Presurgical scores on MMPI-2-RF scales measuring internalizing dysfunction were associated with more psychological distress at postoperative follow-ups, scores on scales measuring somatization were associated with more postoperative somatic concerns, and scores on scales assessing emotional/internalizing, behavioral/externalizing, cognitive complaints, and thought dysfunction prior to surgery were associated with maladaptive eating behaviors after surgery. In conjunction with a presurgical psychological interview, the MMPI-2-RF provides information that can assist in anticipating postoperative outcomes and inform efforts to prevent them.

  7. Impact of using DSM-5 criteria for diagnosing binge eating disorder in bariatric surgery candidates: change in prevalence rate, demographic characteristics, and scores on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory--2 restructured form (MMPI-2-RF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Ashton, Kathleen; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    Binge eating disorder (BED) was recently included in the DSM-5. The prevalence rate for BED using the DSM-IV-TR research criteria tends to be higher in bariatric surgery candidates than the normative population; however, no studies have examined how many more bariatric surgery candidates will meet the new, less conservative criteria of DSM-5. We explore the current BED prevalence rate change in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. Data were obtained for 1,283 bariatric surgery candidates. 84 men and 213 women were diagnosed with current BED using DSM-IV-TR research criteria. A semi-structured interview, the binge eating scale (BES), and a Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) were given to every patient as part of standard procedures mandated by the facility. An additional 3.43% (p < .001) of bariatric surgery candidates met the diagnostic threshold for BED when using DSM-5 criteria. These individuals were demographical similar and produced similar MMPI-2-RF and BES scores when compared with patients who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Thus, the current investigation indicates that individuals meeting BED criteria based on DSM-5 are similar to those meeting the more conservative diagnostic threshold outlined in DSM-IV-TR in a sample of bariatric surgery candidates. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Case-Control Study of Relationship between Female Breast Cancer and Personality%个性特征与女性乳腺癌关系的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岂怀华; 张景华; 姚三巧; 李景武

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨女性个性特征与乳腺癌发病的关系.方法 通过1:1配比的病例对照研究设计,采用国际通用的改良明尼苏达多相人格测试量表(MMPI)对女性乳腺癌患者的个性因素及人格特征进行调查分析及评价.结果 将经单因素分析后P<0.05的一般危险因素,以及MMPI临床量表中的疑病、抑郁、癔病、精神病态、男子气、偏执、精神衰弱、精神分裂症、轻躁狂和社会内向10项个性特征一起进行条件Logistic回归分析发现,除了一般的体质指数、口服避孕药、不参加体育锻炼、肿瘤家族史和既往的灾难经历以外,女性乳腺癌患者所表现出的精神病态、轻躁狂和癔病的个性特征是乳腺癌发病的一个危险因素(OR分别为0.865、1.714和0.860,P<0.05).结论 具备精神病态、轻躁狂和癔病的个性特征是乳腺癌发病的危险因素.%Objective To explore the relationship between female breast cancer and personality. Methods A 1: 1 matched case - control study was designed to investigate the relationship between female breast cancer and personality using Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory ( MMPI ). Results After introducing risk factors ( P < 0. 05 ) and 10 clinical scales of MMPI together into conditional logistic regression model, it was found that besides BMI, acyeterion use, lack of physical exercise , family history and catastrophic experience, personalities of psychopathic deviate, hypomania and hysteria were among the risk factors of breast cancer ( OR = 0. 865 , 1. 714 and 0. 860 respectively, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Personalities of psychopathic deviate, hypomania and hysteria were among the risk factors for breast cancer.

  9. Cognitive control deficits associated with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Joshua D; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Hiatt Racer, Kristina D; Newman, Joseph P

    2012-07-01

    Antisociality has been linked to a variety of executive functioning deficits, including poor cognitive control. Surprisingly, cognitive control deficits are rarely found in psychopathic individuals, despite their notoriously severe and persistent antisocial behavior. In fact, primary (low-anxious) psychopathic individuals display superior performance on cognitive control-type tasks under certain circumstances. To clarify these seemingly contradictory findings, we administered a response competition (i.e., flanker) task to incarcerated offenders, who were assessed for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) symptoms and psychopathy. As hypothesized, APD related to poorer accuracy, especially on incongruent trials. Contrary to expectation, however, the same pattern of results was found in psychopathy. Additional analyses indicated that these effects of APD and psychopathy were associated with overlapping variance. The findings suggest that psychopathy and APD symptoms are both associated with deficits in cognitive control, and that this deficit relates to general antisociality as opposed to a specific antisocial syndrome.

  10. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge general biological inventory, Eek River, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about a general biological inventory done in June and July 1985. A three-person field crew completed a general biological inventory of the Eek Rivet...

  11. World Glacier Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...

  12. National Wetlands Inventory Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...

  13. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  14. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  15. HHS Enterprise Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.

  16. Integrated inventory information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.

    The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...

  17. From National Forest Inventory to National Forest GHG Inventories

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Ben; PANDEY Devendra; Achard, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 3.3 presents two national case studies for forest inventories in tropical countries: the Indian and Mexican national forest inventories. These national forest inventories have been use to report GHG inventories to the UNFCC

  18. LINGUISTIC INVENTORY PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    CHIH HSUN HSIEH

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this paper has been motivated primarily by Zadeh's idea of linguistic variables intended to provide rigorous mathematical modeling of natural language and CWW, Computing With Words. This paper reports some modeling of the linguistic inventory problems where CWW have been implemented: linguistic production inventory, linguistic inventory models under linguistic demand and linguistic lead time, linguistic production inventory models based on the preference of a decision ma...

  19. The mask of sanity: facial expressive, self-reported, and physiological consequences of emotion regulation in psychopathic offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nentjes, L.; Bernstein, D.P.; Meijer, E.; Arntz, A.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological, self-reported, and facial correlates of emotion regulation in psychopathy. Specifically, we compared psychopathic offenders (n = 42), nonpsychopathic offenders (n = 42), and nonoffender controls (n = 26) in their ability to inhibit and express emotion while

  20. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  1. Are qualitative and quantitative sleep problems associated with delinquency when controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Heidi; Laajasalo, Taina; Saukkonen, Suvi; Salmi, Venla; Kivivuori, Janne; Aronen, Eeva T

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between sleep, including both qualitative and quantitative aspects, and delinquent behaviour while controlling for psychopathic features of adolescents and parental supervision at bedtime. We analysed data from a nationally representative sample of 4855 Finnish adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, 51% females). Sleep problems, hours of sleep and delinquency were evaluated via self-report. Psychopathic features were measured with the Antisocial Process Screening Device - Self-Report. In negative binomial regressions, gender and sleep-related variables acted as predictors for both property and violent crime after controlling for psychopathic features and parental supervision at bedtime. The results suggest that both sleep problems (at least three times per week, at least for a year) and an insufficient amount of sleep (less than 7 h) are associated with property crime and violent behaviour, and the relationship is not explained by gender, degree of parental supervision at bedtime or co-occurring psychopathic features. These results suggest that sleep difficulties and insufficient amount of sleep are associated with delinquent behaviour in adolescents. The significance of addressing sleep-related problems, both qualitative and quantitative, among adolescents is thus highlighted. Implications for a prevention technique of delinquent behaviour are discussed. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Distinct variants of extreme psychopathic individuals in society at large: evidence from a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drislane, Laura E; Patrick, Christopher J; Sourander, Andre; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Aggen, Steven H; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimäki, Petteri; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2014-04-01

    This study used model-based cluster analysis to identify subtypes of men who scored high in overall psychopathy (i.e., ≥ 95th percentile on the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure; n = 193) from a larger sample evaluated for service in the Finnish military (N = 4043). Cluster variates consisted of scores on distinct facets of psychopathy together with a measure of negative affectivity. The best-fitting model specified 2 clusters, representing "primary" (n = 110) and "secondary" psychopathy (n = 83) groups. Compared to a low-psychopathy comparison group (n = 1878), both psychopathy subgroups showed markedly elevated levels of externalizing symptoms and criminal behavior. Secondary psychopathic participants also reported high levels of internalizing problems including anxiousness, depression, and somatization, and scored higher on the disinhibition facet of psychopathy relative to the primary group. By contrast, primary psychopathic individuals reported fewer internalizing problems than either the secondary psychopathy or comparison groups and scored higher on the boldness facet of psychopathy. Primary psychopathic participants also had higher rates of violent crimes than the secondary psychopaths. Implications for conceptualizing and studying psychopathy in nonforensic populations are discussed.

  3. Disentangling the Role of Psychopathic Traits and Externalizing Behaviour in Predicting Conduct Problems from Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Romero, Laura; Romero, Estrella; Luengo, M. Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Child and youth conduct problems are known to be a heterogeneous category that implies different factors and processes. The current study aims to analyze whether the early manifestation of psychopathic traits designates a group of children with severe, pervasive and persistent conduct problems. To this end, cluster analysis was conducted in a…

  4. Feeling, Caring, Knowing: Different Types of Empathy Deficit in Boys with Psychopathic Tendencies and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alice P.; Happe, Francesca G. E.; Gilbert, Francesca; Burnett, Stephanie; Viding, Essi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Empathy dysfunction is one of the hallmarks of psychopathy, but it is also sometimes thought to characterise autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Individuals with either condition can appear uncaring towards others. This study set out to compare and contrast directly boys with psychopathic tendencies and boys with ASD on tasks assessing…

  5. Validity of Rorschach Inkblot Scores for Discriminating Psychopaths from Nonpsychopaths in Forensic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, James M.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Nezworski, M. Teresa; Garb, Howard N.; Allen, Keli Holloway; Wildermuth, Jessica L.

    2010-01-01

    Gacono and Meloy (2009) have concluded that the Rorschach Inkblot Test is a sensitive instrument with which to discriminate psychopaths from nonpsychopaths. We examined the association of psychopathy with 37 Rorschach variables in a meta-analytic review of 173 validity coefficients derived from 22 studies comprising 780 forensic participants. All…

  6. Sex-specific association between psychopathic traits and electrodermal reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isen, Joshua; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura; Dawson, Michael; Bezdjian, Serena; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the relationship of skin conductance response (SCR) to a child psychopathy measure. Blunted electrodermal activity is a theoretically important characteristic of psychopathy, but it has not been fully explored in preadolescents or females. The authors tested the hypothesis that reduced SCR magnitude is associated with psychopathic-like traits in boys and girls. Participants were drawn from an ethnically diverse community sample of 9- to 10-year-old twins. Given the fact that members of each twin pair were rated by the same individual (i.e., their caregiver) on the Child Psychopathy Scale, the authors examined individual differences at the within-family level. Skin conductance data were collected during a passive auditory task consisting of 75-dB tones as well as miscellaneous sounds (e.g., baby cries, bird noises, and speech-like stimuli). Reduced SCR magnitude (hyporeactivity) was characteristic only of boys with higher psychopathy scores. More specifically, electrodermal hyporeactivity was linked to the interpersonal facet of psychopathy, suggesting that it is a biological marker of a manipulative and deceitful orientation in males. No association was found between SCRs and psychopathic traits in girls, indicating the importance of sex specific etiologies of psychopathy in childhood.

  7. The relationships between triarchic psychopathic traits and value orientations in men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubin-Golub Tajana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to explore the relationship between triarchically conceptualized psychopathic traits and different value orientations. Participants were 180 male and 216 female Croatian university students. Self-report data were collected by using the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM and Value Orientation Scale. As predicted, meanness was negatively related to conventional and self-realization value orientation, and positively to hedonistic value orientation in both men and women, thus suggesting that meanness is the central component of psychopathy operating similarly across gender. Additionally, the results revealed some gender differences in the role of triarchic psychopathy components in value acquisition. In women's sample only, hedonistic value orientation was related to higher boldness and higher disinhibition. Only in men's sample, several interactions were found between psychopathic components predicting value orientations. The negative effect of disinhibition on self-realization and conventional values was more pronounced when associated with high boldness. In addition, the negative effect of disinhibition on the acquisition of self-realization values emerged only under the high meanness conditions, while the opposite trend was demonstrated for low meanness condition. Thus, gender moderated some of the psychopathy-values relationship, although this effect was small.

  8. The strategy of psychopathy: primary psychopathic traits predict defection on low-value relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Matthew M; Kline, Michelle; Ludmer, Mara; George, Rachel; Manson, Joseph H

    2013-04-22

    Recent evidence suggests that psychopathy is a trait continuum. This has unappreciated implications for understanding the selective advantage of psychopathic traits. Although clinical psychopathy is typically construed as a strategy of unconditional defection, subclinical psychopathy may promote strategic conditional defection, broadening the adaptive niche of psychopathy within human societies. To test this, we focus on a ubiquitous real-life source of conditional behaviour: the expected relational value of social partners, both in terms of their quality and the likely quantity of future interactions with them. We allow for conversational interaction among participants prior to their playing an unannounced, one-shot prisoner's dilemma game, which fosters naturalistic interpersonal evaluation and conditional behaviour, while controlling punishment and reputation effects. Individuals scoring higher on factor 1 (callous affect, interpersonal manipulation) of the Levenson self-report psychopathy scale defected conditionally on two kinds of low-value partners: those who interrupted them more during the conversation, and those with whom they failed to discover cues to future interaction. Both interaction effects support the hypothesis that subclinical primary psychopathy potentiates defection on those with low expected relational value. These data clarify the function and form of psychopathic traits, while highlighting adaptive variation in human social strategies.

  9. Dissecting empathy: high levels of psychopathic and autistic traits are characterised by difficulties in different social information processing domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Lockwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution of alexithymia needs further exploration. In a community sample (N=110 we show for the first time that although affective resonance and cognitive perspective-taking are related, high psychopathic traits relate to problems with resonating with others’ emotions, but not cognitive perspective taking. Conversely, high ASD traits relate to problems with cognitive perspective-taking but not resonating with others’ emotions. Alexithymia was associated with problems with affective resonance independently of psychopathic traits, suggesting that different component processes (reduced tendency to feel what others feel and reduced ability to identify and describe feelings comprise affective resonance. Alexithymia was not associated with the reduced cognitive perspective-taking in high ASD traits. Our data suggest that (1 elevated psychopathic and ASD traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains and (2 reduced affective resonance in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits and the reduced cognitive perspective taking in individuals with elevated ASD traits are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. (3 Alexithymia is independently associated with reduced affective resonance. Consequently, our data point to different component processes within the construct of empathy that are suggestive of partially separable cognitive

  10. Inverted social reward: associations between psychopathic traits and self-report and experimental measures of social reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Foulkes

    Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits tend to undervalue long-term, affiliative relationships, but it remains unclear what motivates them to engage in social interactions at all. Their experience of social reward may provide an important clue. In Study 1 of this paper, a large sample of participants (N  =  505 completed a measure of psychopathic traits (Self-Report Psychopathy Scale Short-Form and a measure of social reward value (Social Reward Questionnaire to explore what aspects of social reward are associated with psychopathic traits. In Study 2 (N = 110, the same measures were administered to a new group of participants along with two experimental tasks investigating monetary and social reward value. Psychopathic traits were found to be positively correlated with the enjoyment of callous treatment of others and negatively associated with the enjoyment of positive social interactions. This indicates a pattern of 'inverted' social reward in which being cruel is enjoyable and being kind is not. Interpersonal psychopathic traits were also positively associated with the difference between mean reaction times (RTs in the monetary and social experimental reward tasks; individuals with high levels of these traits responded comparatively faster to social than monetary reward. We speculate that this may be because social approval/admiration has particular value for these individuals, who have a tendency to use and manipulate others. Together, these studies provide evidence that the self-serving and cruel social behaviour seen in psychopathy may in part be explained by what these individuals find rewarding.

  11. Personality Inventory Assessment of Psychiatric Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Harrison G.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The study results in two hypotheses. First, within the interpersonal domain an identifiable pattern of variables relevant to competence in psychiatry is discernible. Second, the higher scorer on this predictive pattern is a complex individual, ambivalent in his relationships to others, and characterized by both nurturant and antinurturant…

  12. 41 CFR 109-1.5108-3 - Stores inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.51-Personal Property Management Standards and Practices § 109-1.5108-3 Stores inventories. Perpetual... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stores inventories....

  13. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  14. 什么是"中国人"的个性?--《中国人个性测量表CPAI-2》的分组差异%What is "Chinese" Personality? Subgroup Differences in the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妙清; 张树辉; 张建新

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI) is an indigenously developed personality measure, which covers both universal and culture-specific personality dimensions. We argue that a combined emic-etic approach reflects the broader psychological reality and is a useful approach to advance our understanding of psychology cross-culturally. We examine subgroup differences in the CPAI-2 normative sample to illustrate variations and continuity of personality characteristics within the same culture. Sex and age differences on mean scores of the CPAI-2 scales are consistent with expected variations associated socialization and developmental stages. There is no consistent pattern of variations across Hong Kong and different geographical regions within Mainland China.Within-culture and cross-cultural differences illustrate the continuity of individual differences in personality, and the dialectics of emic and etic constructs.%是一套本土化发展而成的个性量表,涵盖包括中国文化独有以及在大多数文化共有的性格维度.该文认为结合文化特定与文化共通的研究方法能全面地反映心理现实,亦能加深我们对跨文化心理学的理解.该研究分析了CPAI-2常模的几个子组别,以展示在同一文化之内,性格特质的差异及连续性.性别及年龄组别间的平均分差异均符合相应的社化过程及人生发展阶段所预期的结果.而中国香港及中国不同地区在平均分的差异上则没有特定的模式.文化内及跨文化的差异展示了个人性格差异的连续性,以及文化特定与文化共通概念的相互关系.

  15. Do Concept Inventories Actually Measure Anything?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Colin S.; Bailey, Janelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Although concept inventories are among the most frequently used tools in the physics and astronomy education communities, they are rarely evaluated using item response theory (IRT). When IRT models fit the data, they offer sample-independent estimates of item and person parameters. IRT may also provide a way to measure students' learning gains…

  16. National Wetlands Inventory Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...

  17. Rorschach oral dependency in psychopaths, sexual homicide perpetrators, and nonviolent pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Gacono, Carl B; Schneider, Robert B; Bridges, Michael R

    2004-01-01

    Rorschach Oral Dependency scores (Masling, Rabie, & Blondheim, 1967) were compared among nonsexually offending psychopaths (NSOPs, n = 32), sexual homicide perpetrators (SHPs, n = 38), and non-violent pedophiles (NVPs, n = 39) as initially reported by Gacono, Meloy, and Bridges (2000). The aggressive special scores of Gacono and Meloy (1994; Gacono, unpublished doctoral dissertation, 1998) were also scored and compared with ROD scores. Consistent with theory and predictions, NVPs were found to have significantly higher levels of oral dependency scores than NSOPs or SHPs. Additionally, there was a high degree of association between oral dependency and aggression in the SHP and NSOP groups. These Rorschach differences support the validity of the ROD as an implicit measure of dependency and add to the understanding of the dynamics that fuel sexually deviant violence.

  18. Psychopathic traits in young offenders vs. non-offenders in similar socioeconomic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo B. Castellana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the differences in psychopathic traits between offender and non-offender youths with similar socioeconomic backgrounds. Method: The Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R scale was used to identify whether 39 young offenders with no history of mental disorders or criteria for psychopathy exhibited differences in its total score, and specifically for factor 1 or factor 2 of this scale, when compared with 32 other young people, living in similar socioeconomic conditions, who had not committed offenses. Results: We observed statistically significant between-group differences (p < 0.01 in mean PCL-R scores, with a mean score of 13.4 in the offender group vs. 2.1 in the non-offender group. We also detected significant between-group differences when we analyzed mean factor 1 (p < 0.01 and factor 2 (p < 0.01 scores separately. Although the groups exhibited statistically significant difference in educational attainment, between-group comparison of mean PCL-R scores controlling for educational attainment by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA showed that the difference in PCL-R scores remained statistically significant (p < 0.01. Conclusions: We conclude that, in this sample, the presence of both primary (interpersonal/affective characteristics and secondary (lifestyle/antisocial behavior psychopathic traits differed between offender and non-offender youths, even when excluding psychopathy and other mental disorders from the assessments. These results suggest a need for wide-ranging interventions, not restricted to socioeconomic aspects, for the management of juvenile delinquency.

  19. Personality constellations of adolescents with histories of traumatic parental separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Johanna C; Westen, Drew; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2014-04-01

    Consistent with attachment theory and a developmental psychopathology framework, a growing body of research suggests that traumatic parental separations may lead to unique pathways of personality adaptation and maladaptation. The present study both examined personality characteristics and identified personality subtypes of adolescents with histories of traumatic separations. Randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists provided data on 236 adolescents with histories of traumatic separations using a personality pathology instrument designed for use by clinically experienced observers, the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure. Using a Q factor analysis, five distinct personality subtypes were identified as follows: internalizing/avoidant, psychopathic, resilient, impulsive dysregulated, and immature dysregulated. Initial support for the validity of the subtypes was established on the basis of axis I and axis II pathology, adaptive functioning, developmental history, and family history variables. The personality subtypes demonstrated substantial incremental validity in predicting adaptive functioning, above and beyond demographic variables and histories of other traumatic experiences.

  20. 40 CFR 710.28 - Persons who must report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT TSCA CHEMICAL INVENTORY REGULATIONS 2002 Inventory Update Reporting § 710.28 Persons who must... during the person's latest complete corporate fiscal year before August 25, 1986. (b) Persons subject to recurring reporting. Any person who manufactured for commercial purposes 10,000 pounds (4,540 kilograms)...