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Sample records for psychomotor speed level

  1. Cognitive Retardation in a Patient with Preservation of Psychomotor Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Willison

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient (R.S. who after a bout of probable TB exhibited an unusual pattern of response retardation, although given time he was able to score at a satisfactory level. He was strikingly slow to initiate speaking and to carry out higher level cognitive tasks, at a time when he could complete a variety of psychomotor activities at normal speed. He showed many similarities with patients previously described as having subcortical dementia. The selective preservation of psychomotor responding in the context of his gross bradyphrenia, however, was unexpected.

  2. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  3. Psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance in rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five

  4. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael N. Kinuthia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS is associated with cognitive impairment which affects psychomotor speed. Psychomotor slowing is a predictor of dementia and death in people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS. Objective: To determine the relationship between psychomotor speed neurocognitive score and the HIV disease stage in adults at initiation of care. Setting: This study was conducted at Kangundo Sub-county hospital comprehensive care centre. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All HIV seropositive patients aged 18 to 50 years recently initiated into care were studied. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. The World Health Organization (WHO stage was used during data collection to classify study participants into asymptomatic and symptomatic groups. The grooved pegboard test was used to obtain psychomotor speed neurocognitive scores. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise data. Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s rho and multiple linear regression were employed in the analysis; p-value of 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The WHO stage did not have a significant effect on the psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p ≥ 0.05. The CD4 count had a significant effect on psychomotor speed neurocognitive score (p = 0.001. Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between CD4 counts and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score. Efforts should be made to ensure that the CD4 counts of people living with HIV and AIDS do not continue to fall after initiation into care in order to preserve psychomotor function.

  5. Effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance. Sixty-eight (68) volunteer male and female students who were randomly selected from different academic faculties at the University of Lagos participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 32 years, with body weights ...

  6. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  7. Disease severity and slower psychomotor speed in adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Dana R; Metti, Andrea; Butters, Meryl A; Mettenburg, Joseph M; Rosano, Caterina; Novelli, Enrico M

    2017-09-26

    Psychomotor slowing is common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), but little is known about its severity in adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study to quantify psychomotor speed, measured with the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), in relationship with disease severity in adults with SCD attending an outpatient clinic (n = 88, age 36.3 years). Genotype was used to group patients in "severe" (homozygous for hemoglobin S or compound heterozygous with β 0 thalassemia) or "moderate" groups (compound heterozygous for HbS, with either HbC or β + thalassemia). Analyses were repeated after exclusion of patients with a history of stroke (n = 11). Mild impairment in processing speed was detectable in both the "severe" and the "moderate" group (30% and 9%, respectively; age-adjusted P = .14). Compared with the "moderate" group, those in the "severe" group had significantly lower standardized DSST scores ( P = .004), independent of adjustment for factors that differed between the groups: hemoglobin, ferritin, hydroxyurea use, blood pressure parameters, and stroke history. Results were similar after excluding patients with stroke. Psychomotor slowing in SCD differs in relationship to genotype; this difference appears unrelated to history of stroke or severity of anemia and other risk factors examined cross-sectionally. Although less prevalent, mild cognitive impairment was also detectable in patients with a less severe genotype. Longitudinal studies of SCD should include all diseases genotypes and examine factors that would reduce the risk of slow processing speed and perhaps more general cognitive impairment in each subgroup.

  8. Psychomotor speed : Possibly a new marker for overtraining syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Visscher, Chris; Meeusen, Romain; Mulder, Theo

    2006-01-01

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is a major threat for performance and health in athletes. OTS is caused by high levels of (sport-specific) stress in combination with too little regeneration, which causes performance decrements, fatigue and possibly other symptoms. Although there is general consensus

  9. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Hanna; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    in a compound measure of cognitive speed and motor control, but not in those of executive functions, memory, or global cognitive function. Total CC area and midbody remained significant predictors of speed also after adjusting for baseline WML volume, WML progression, and global brain atrophy. However......, the relationship between anterior CC and speed performance was mediated by WML volume. In conclusion, the overall and regional rate of CC tissue loss parallels longitudinal slowing of psychomotor performance. The adverse effect of CC tissue loss on psychomotor function may be driven by altered interhemispheric...

  10. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  11. Previous hepatitis a virus infection is related to slower psychomotor speed in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Fang; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Fang, Tzu-Jung; Yu, Yau-Hua; Lai, Chiou-Lian; Kuo, Hsu-Ko

    2009-10-01

    Patients with chronic viral hepatitis are at a higher risk for cognitive dysfunction. Little is known about the association between hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and cognitive function. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002, we selected study participants (> or =60 years, n = 1,529) without hepatitis B, C, or D virus infection; without previous hepatitis A vaccination; and without abnormal liver function. HAV-seropositive participants represented people with previous HAV infection. Psychomotor speed and executive functioning domain of cognitive function were measured by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). HAV-seropositive participants had lower DSST scores than HAV-seronegative participants (weighted mean, 44.4 vs 53.9, p a multivariable model, the weighted adjusted beta coefficient of DSST score was -2.48 (95% CI -2.49 to -2.46, p < .001) for the HAV-seropositive participants. HAV seropositivity is associated with slower psychomotor speed among the U.S. community-dwelling elders.

  12. Assessing Impairment of Executive Function and Psychomotor Speed in Premanifest and Manifest Huntington's Disease Gene-expansion Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unmack Larsen, Ida; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Gade, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions (EF) and psychomotor speed (PMS) has been widely studied in Huntington's disease (HD). Most studies have focused on finding markers of disease progression by comparing group means at different disease stages. Our aim was to investigate performances on nine measures of EF and PMS...

  13. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical

  14. Perceptual speed and psychomotor ability predict laparoscopic skill acquisition on a simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H; Miedema, Helene A.T.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Objective Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon’s cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon’s learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical

  15. Cognitive Aging in the Seattle Longitudinal Study: Within-Person Associations of Primary Mental Abilities with Psychomotor Speed and Cognitive Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Hülür

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been proposed that cognitive aging in fluid abilities is driven by age-related declines of processing speed. Although study of between-person associations generally supports this view, accumulating longitudinal between-person and within-person evidence indicates less strong associations between speed and fluid cognitive performance. Initial evidence also suggests that cognitive flexibility may explain within-person variability in cognitive performance. In the present study, we used up to nine waves of data over 56 years from a subsample of 582 participants of the Seattle Longitudinal Study to examine (a within-person associations of psychomotor speed and cognitive flexibility with cognitive aging in primary mental abilities (including inductive reasoning, number ability, verbal meaning, spatial orientation, and word fluency; and (b how these within-person associations change with age. In line with the processing speed theory, results revealed that within persons, primary mental abilities (including fluid, crystallized, and visualization measures were indeed associated with psychomotor speed. We also observed age-related increases in within-person couplings between primary mental abilities and psychomotor speed. While the processing speed theory focuses primarily on associations with fluid abilities, age-related increases in coupling were found for a variety of ability domains. Within-person associations between primary mental abilities and cognitive flexibility were weaker and relatively stable with age. We discuss the role of speed and flexibility for cognitive aging.

  16. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    -measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk...... states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states....

  17. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  18. Callosal tissue loss parallels subtle decline in psychomotor speed. A longitudinal quantitative MRI study. The LADIS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokinen, H.; Frederiksen, K.S.; Garde, E.; Skimminge, A.; Siebner, H.; Waldemar, G.; Ylikoski, R.; Madureira, S.; Verdelho, A.; van Straaten, E.C.W.; Barkhof, F.; Fazekas, F.; Schmidt, R.; Pantoni, L.; Inzitari, D.; Erkinjuntti, T.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have suggested that corpus callosum (CC) atrophy is related to impairment in global cognitive function, mental speed, and executive functions in the elderly. Longitudinal studies confirming these findings have been lacking. We investigated whether CC tissue loss is associated

  19. Post-traumatic stress is associated with verbal learning, memory, and psychomotor speed in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p memory scores (p memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.

  20. Psychomotor skills learning under chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H

    1999-09-29

    Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.

  1. [Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B

    2008-05-01

    Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.

  2. Psychomotor Skill Acquisition in the Technical Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PaDelford, Harry

    Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…

  3. Characterizing speed-independence of high-level designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishinevsky, Michael; Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes the speed-independence of high-level designs. The characterization is a condition on the design description ensuring that the behavior of the design is independent of the speeds of its components. The behavior of a circuit is modeled as a transition system, that allows data...... types, and internal as well as external non-determinism. This makes it possible to verify the speed-independence of a design without providing an explicit realization of the environment. The verification can be done mechanically. A number of experimental designs have been verified including a speed-independent...

  4. The Learning Called Psychomotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banville, Tom

    1976-01-01

    The nature of psychomotor skills and their relationship to academic achievement and positive self concept are discussed. Illustrations of program implementation and instructor preparation in several schools are presented. (RW)

  5. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  6. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  7. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  8. The assessment of psychomotor domain among reserve officers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed all psychomotor skills were rated only at a 'good' and 'moderate' level. The skill item showed the highest percentage of 65.7% cadets at 'good' level and 34.3% cadets are at 'moderate' level with mean value of 3.66. The overall mean of psychomotor skills (physical skills) is at a 'good' level of 3.56. Results ...

  9. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  10. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers. Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol. Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  11. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  12. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of a chronic mental disorder associated with psychomotor epilepsy, like those of the seizures, are... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  13. Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region

    OpenAIRE

    Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Santos, Nadine Correia; Ares, Susana; Saenz-Rico, Belen; Escobar, Gabriella Morreale de; Palha, Joana Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychomotor development of the progeny of women from a moderately iodine-deficient area for whom thyroid function during pregnancy was measured. STUDY DESIGN: The development of 86 children was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: Maternal serum free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in the first trimester of pregnancy were the major determin...

  14. PRIMARY TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCES OCCURING IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.

  15. Psychomotor development differences between Czech adolescents from orphanages and adolescents from majority society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Holický

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of foreign studies have shown that psychomotor development of adolescents from orphanages falls significantly behind common developmental norms. In the Czech Republic, there is a lack of evidence of this issue despite the fact that some experts emphasize the possible defects of institutional care in the Czech Republic.Objective: The purpose of the study was to compare the level of psychomotor development of 13 year old adolescents from orphanages located in Prague and their counterparts from majority society. Methods: Psychomotor development of adolescents was tested with the complete form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2, which consists of 52 items, divided into 12 dimensions assessing the level of fine motor skills, gross motor skills, coordination and agility. The study sample consisting of 57 adolescents (age 13.47 ± 0.26 years included a sample of 21 adolescents from orphanages and 36 adolescents from majority society living in the Prague region. Results: Compared to their counterparts from majority society, adolescents from orphanages achieved significantly lower scores only in the fine motor precision dimension (η2 = .13; p = .032. The study showed significant difference between boys from orphanages and boys from majority society in the fine motor precision dimension (η2 = .13; p = .028, boys from majority society achieved significantly higher scores in this dimension. The results did not find significant difference in any BOT-2 dimensions between girls from majority society and girls from orphanages. Adolescents from orphanages achieved higher scores in the dimensions of strength and agility, running speed and agility and strength. Conclusion: Differences in psychomotor development were not confirmed in the observed dimensions of bilateral coordination and balance between the sample of adolescents from orphanages in Prague and their counterparts from

  16. Analysis backpropagation methods with neural network for prediction of children's ability in psychomotoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhari, F.; Dhany, H. W.; Zarlis, M.; Sutarman

    2018-03-01

    A good age in optimizing aspects of development is at the age of 4-6 years, namely with psychomotor development. Psychomotor is broader, more difficult to monitor but has a meaningful value for the child's life because it directly affects his behavior and deeds. Therefore, there is a problem to predict the child's ability level based on psychomotor. This analysis uses backpropagation method analysis with artificial neural network to predict the ability of the child on the psychomotor aspect by generating predictions of the child's ability on psychomotor and testing there is a mean squared error (MSE) value at the end of the training of 0.001. There are 30% of children aged 4-6 years have a good level of psychomotor ability, excellent, less good, and good enough.

  17. The issue of scientific thesaurus differentiation of table tennis sportsmen's psychomotor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Essence of psychomotor capabilities opens up for tennis sportsmen-players. Clear differentiation of the most essential psychomotor capabilities is conducted. They will present the constituent of competent training process and successful competition period. It is necessary to take to the group of general psychomotor qualities of tennis players: spatial orientation, kinesthetic sensitiveness, exactness of motions. The special attention is deserved by the group of psychomotor capabilities: difficult visile-motor reaction, functional mobility and force of nervous processes. Determination of level of their development on the initial stage of long-term preparation is the prerogative of forming of skilled sportsman high level trades.

  18. Objective classification of residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chmarra (Magdalena); S. Klein (Stefan); J.C.F. van Winter (Joost); F-W. Jansen (Frank-Willem); J. Dankelman (Jenny)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground From the clinical point of view, it is important to recognize residents' level of expertise with regard to basic psychomotor skills. For that reason, surgeons and surgical organizations (e.g., Acreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, ACGME) are calling for

  19. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Eric [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Krejci, Michael [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Mathieu, Olivier [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Vissotski, Andrew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ravi, Sankat [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Plichta, Drew [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Sikes, Travis [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Levacque, Anthony [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Camou, Alejandro [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Aul, Christopher [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This final report documents the technical results of the 3-year project entitled, “Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels,” funded under the NETL of DOE. The research was conducted under six main tasks: 1) program management and planning; 2) turbulent flame speed measurements of syngas mixtures; 3) laminar flame speed measurements with diluents; 4) NOx mechanism validation experiments; 5) fundamental NOx kinetics; and 6) the effect of impurities on NOx kinetics. Experiments were performed using primary constant-volume vessels for laminar and turbulent flame speeds and shock tubes for ignition delay times and species concentrations. In addition to the existing shock- tube and flame speed facilities, a new capability in measuring turbulent flame speeds was developed under this grant. Other highlights include an improved NOx kinetics mechanism; a database on syngas blends for real fuel mixtures with and without impurities; an improved hydrogen sulfide mechanism; an improved ammonia kintics mechanism; laminar flame speed data at high pressures with water addition; and the development of an inexpensive absorption spectroscopy diagnostic for shock-tube measurements of OH time histories. The Project Results for this work can be divided into 13 major sections, which form the basis of this report. These 13 topics are divided into the five areas: 1) laminar flame speeds; 2) Nitrogen Oxide and Ammonia chemical kinetics; 3) syngas impurities chemical kinetics; 4) turbulent flame speeds; and 5) OH absorption measurements for chemical kinetics.

  20. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saygin Ali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  1. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  2. Ground reaction forces in shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupenthal, Alessandro; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Ruschel, Caroline; dos Santos, Daniela Pacheco; Roesler, Helio

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the effect of depth of immersion, running speed and gender on ground reaction forces during water running. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty adults (ten male and ten female) participated by running at two levels of immersion (hip and chest) and two speed conditions (slow and fast). Data were collected using an underwater force platform. The following variables were analyzed: vertical force peak (Fy), loading rate (LR) and anterior force peak (Fx anterior). Three-factor mixed ANOVA was used to analyze data. Significant effects of immersion level, speed and gender on Fy were observed, without interaction between factors. Fy was greater when females ran fast at the hip level. There was a significant increase in LR with a reduction in the level of immersion regardless of the speed and gender. No effect of speed or gender on LR was observed. Regarding Fx anterior, significant interaction between speed and immersion level was found: in the slow condition, participants presented greater values at chest immersion, whereas, during the fast running condition, greater values were observed at hip level. The effect of gender was only significant during fast water running, with Fx anterior being greater in the men group. Increasing speed raised Fx anterior significantly irrespective of the level of immersion and gender. The magnitude of ground reaction forces during shallow water running are affected by immersion level, running speed and gender and, for this reason, these factors should be taken into account during exercise prescription. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A prediction model for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, N.; Ikeda, Y.; Hagishima, A.; Razak, A. A.; Tanimoto, J.

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review and improve prediction models for wind speed ratios at pedestrian level with simplified urban canopies. We adopted an extensive database of velocity fields under various conditions for arrays consisting of cubes, slender or flattened rectangles, and rectangles with varying roughness heights. Conclusions are summarized as follows: first, a new geometric parameter is introduced as a function of the plan area index and the aspect ratio so as to express the increase in virtual density that causes wind speed reduction. Second, the estimated wind speed ratios in the range 0.05 coefficients between the wind speeds averaged over the entire region, and the front or side region values are larger than 0.8. In contrast, in areas where the influence of roughness elements is significant, such as behind a building, the wind speeds are weakly correlated.

  4. A Simulation Method Measuring Psychomotor Nursing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Helena; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The development of a simulation technique to evaluate performance of psychomotor skills in an undergraduate nursing program is described. This method is used as one admission requirement to an alternate route nursing program. With modifications, any health profession could use this technique where psychomotor skills performance is important.…

  5. [Psychomotor skills and initial bonds in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In neonatology units, the professional approach of the psychomotor therapist focuses on the observation of the baby to favour his or her psychomotor development. She acts in close cooperation with the medical and nursing teams and includes the parents in her work.

  6. [Regulatory peptides and psychomotor development in infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article.

  7. White matter alterations in the internal capsule and psychomotor impairment in melancholic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Matthew P; Perry, Alistair; Breakspear, Michael; Wen, Wei; Parker, Gordon B

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that structural brain abnormalities may play a role in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression. We set out to test whether diffusion-derived estimates of white matter structure were disrupted in melancholia in regions underpinning psychomotor function. We hypothesized that those with melancholia (and evidencing impaired psychomotor function) would show disrupted white matter organization in internal capsule subdivisions. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) data were acquired from 22 melancholic depressed, 23 non-melancholic depressed, and 29 healthy control participants. Voxel-wise fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) values were derived for anterior, posterior, and retrolenticular limbs of the internal capsule and compared between groups. Neuropsychological (reaction time) and psychomotor functioning were assessed and correlated against FA. Fractional anisotropy was distinctly increased, whilst RD was decreased, in the right anterior internal capsule in those with melancholia, compared to controls. The right anterior limb of the internal capsule correlated with clinical ratings of psychomotor disturbance, and reduced psychomotor speed was associated with increased FA values in the right retrolenticular limb in those with melancholia. Our findings highlight a distinct disturbance in the local white matter arrangement in specific regions of the internal capsule in melancholia, which in turn is associated with psychomotor dysfunction. This study clarifies the contribution of structural brain integrity to the phenomenology of melancholia, and may assist future efforts seeking to integrate neurobiological markers into depression subtyping.

  8. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  9. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines) recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  10. Level of recall, retrieval speed, and variability on the Cued-Recall Retrieval Speed Task (CRRST) in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramratan, Wendy S; Rabin, Laura A; Wang, Cuiling; Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Buschke, Herman

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show deficits on traditional episodic memory tasks and reductions in speed of performance on reaction time tasks. We present results on a novel task, the Cued-Recall Retrieval Speed Task (CRRST), designed to simultaneously measure level and speed of retrieval. A total of 390 older adults (mean age, 80.2 years), learned 16 words based on corresponding categorical cues. In the retrieval phase, we measured accuracy (% correct) and retrieval speed/reaction time (RT; time from cue presentation to voice onset of a correct response) across 6 trials. Compared to healthy elderly adults (HEA, n = 303), those with aMCI (n = 87) exhibited poorer performance in retrieval speed (difference = -0.13; p cued-learning and processing speed variability may facilitate early detection of dementia in at-risk older adults.

  11. Psychomotor Agitation Following Treatment with Hydroxychloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Manzo, Ciro; Gareri, Pietro; Castagna, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    We describe the case of an elderly woman with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis, where the use of 4 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was followed by the onset of psychomotor agitation with marked physical and verbal violence towards her partner, including throwing objects at her partner. No disturbance in sleep and no anxiety, nervousness, or irritability had emerged before the onset of her psychomotor agitation. The disappearance of agitation following targeted pharmacologic interventi...

  12. Increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in subjects with early psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Montalvo

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects with an early psychosis (55 psychotic disorders with <3 years of illness, 23 high-risk subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Cognitive Battery, and prolactin levels were determined as well as total cortisol levels in plasma. Psychopathological status was assessed and the use of psychopharmacological treatments (antipsychotics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines recorded. Prolactin levels were negatively associated with cognitive performance in processing speed, in patients with a psychotic disorder and high-risk subjects. In the latter group, increased prolactin levels were also associated with impaired reasoning and problem solving and poorer general cognition. In a multiple linear regression analysis conducted in both high-risk and psychotic patients, controlling for potential confounders, prolactin and benzodiazepines were independently related to poorer cognitive performance in the speed of processing domain. A mediation analysis showed that both prolactin and benzodiazepine treatment act as mediators of the relationship between risperidone/paliperidone treatment and speed of processing. These results suggest that increased prolactin levels are associated with impaired processing speed in early psychosis. If these results are confirmed in future studies, strategies targeting reduction of prolactin levels may improve cognition in this population.

  13. THE EFFECT OF FUN ATHLETICS EXERCISES ON PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Güler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of fun athletics exercises on the psychomotor development. The research group consisted of 9 boys and 27 girls with a total of 36 students between 11-14 ages in Kocaeli. In the study, the fun athletics exercises (featured somersault, obstacles to jump, slip under the barrier, slalom, training ladder, double jump, medicine ball handling applied for 90 minutes a day and 3 days a week over 8 weeks. The data was analyzed with Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test and significance level was determined as α=0.05. According to findings of this study significant differences were found between pre and post tests results. As a result this study showed that fun athletic exercises have a positive effect on 11-14 aged children’s psychomotor development.

  14. Learning Psychomotor Skills in TAFE (or The Psychology of Psychomotor Skills). Educational Psychology for TAFE Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Anthony

    Developed for use in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teacher education, this module is intended to widen teachers' knowledge and understanding of the psychology of psychomotor skills to improve teaching of psychomotor skills in the TAFE classroom or workshop. The module is divided into two parts: basic and advanced. The first part,…

  15. Analysis of the Flicker Level Produced by a Fixed-Speed Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppioni, Vinicius; P. Grilo, Ahda

    2013-10-01

    In this article, the analysis of the flicker emission during continuous operation of a mid-scale fixed-speed wind turbine connected to a distribution system is presented. Flicker emission is investigated based on simulation results, and the dependence of flicker emission on short-circuit capacity, grid impedance angle, mean wind speed, and wind turbulence is analyzed. The simulations were conducted in different programs in order to provide a more realistic wind emulation and detailed model of mechanical and electrical components of the wind turbine. Such aim is accomplished by using FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence) to simulate the mechanical parts of the wind turbine, Simulink/MatLab to simulate the electrical system, and TurbSim to obtain the wind model. The results show that, even for a small wind generator, the flicker level can limit the wind power capacity installed in a distribution system.

  16. [Psychomotor development in offspring of mothers with post partum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.

  17. The Processing Speed of Scene Categorization at Multiple Levels of Description: The Superordinate Advantage Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Hayaki; Saiki, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies have sought to determine which levels of categories are processed first in visual scene categorization and have shown that the natural and man-made superordinate-level categories are understood faster than are basic-level categories. The current study examined the robustness of the superordinate-level advantage in a visual scene categorization task. A go/no-go categorization task was evaluated with response time distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian template. A visual scene was categorized as either superordinate or basic level, and two basic-level categories forming a superordinate category were judged as either similar or dissimilar to each other. First, outdoor/ indoor groups and natural/man-made were used as superordinate categories to investigate whether the advantage could be generalized beyond the natural/man-made boundary. Second, a set of images forming a superordinate category was manipulated. We predicted that decreasing image set similarity within the superordinate-level category would work against the speed advantage. We found that basic-level categorization was faster than outdoor/indoor categorization when the outdoor category comprised dissimilar basic-level categories. Our results indicate that the superordinate-level advantage in visual scene categorization is labile across different categories and category structures. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  18. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    -red-light stimulus (LED-digital counter) as soon as the stimulus appears, which stops the stimulus counter and displays the reaction time for each trial in milliseconds for a 1-sec period. Simple to perform, the PVT has only very minor learning effects, is widely used in human risk assessments in operational environments, and has been recently developed and adopted for use on the ISS for astronauts as a "self test" to provide performance feedback, detect changes in alertness, prevent errors, and manage fatigue from sleep loss, circadian dis-ruption, and high workload requirements. A rodent version of the PVT, the rPVT, has been developed and demonstrated to track the same types of performance variables as the human PVT -i.e., general motor function and speed, fine motor control, inhibitory control ("impul-sivity"), timing, selective attention, motivation, and basic sensory function. Five cohorts of 16 rats each (total N = 80) were trained on the rPVT, exported to BNL for head-only radiation exposure (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 cGy protons @ 150 MeV/n), then returned to Johns Hopkins for follow-up testing. RESULTS The rPVT was readily learned by all rats and required as little as 5-7 days of training to acquire baseline performance levels. Following irradiation, performances in the rPVT were disrupted at exposure levels of 50, 100, and 200 cGy, showing a consistent, significant increase (i.e., slowing) in reaction times and increased lapses in responding, both indicative of a decrease in sustained attention. Additionally, premature responses showed consistent increases at the higher radiation levels. None of these changes were observed in the non-exposed control animals. Over this same time period, no significant changes were observed in discrimination accuracy, motivation (as indicated by trials completed), or food intake. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS The results of these experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of tests such as the rPVT for assessing the effects of head-only space radiation

  19. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Increased Psychomotor Skill through Eclectic Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Frank E.; Heikkinen, Michael

    1985-01-01

    This study measured the effect of an eclectic instructional approach on psychomotor skills achievement of 156 junior high school students when implemented in lieu of the teacher's preferred instructional style. The eclectic approach produced higher scores in nine of twelve tests and showed insignificant gains in the other three tests. (MT)

  1. Air pollution during pregnancy and childhood cognitive and psychomotor development: six European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M T; Verhulst, Frank C; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-09-01

    Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATION R (The Netherlands), DUISBURG (Germany), EDEN (France), GASPII (Italy), RHEA (Greece), and INMA (Spain)-that recruited mother-infant pairs from 1997 to 2008. Air pollution levels-nitrogen oxides (NO2, NOx) in all regions and particulate matter (PM) with diameters of psychomotor development was assessed between 1 and 6 years of age. Adjusted region-specific effect estimates were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. A total of 9482 children were included. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2, was associated with reduced psychomotor development (global psychomotor development score decreased by 0.68 points [95% confidence interval = -1.25 to -0.11] per increase of 10 μg/m in NO2). Similar trends were observed in most regions. No associations were found between any air pollutant and cognitive development. Air pollution exposure during pregnancy, particularly NO2 (for which motorized traffic is a major source), was associated with delayed psychomotor development during childhood. Due to the widespread nature of air pollution exposure, the public health impact of the small changes observed at an individual level could be considerable.

  2. Comparison of Psychomotor Development Screening Test and Clinical Assessment of Psychomotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmilović, Goranka; Matijević, Valentina; Zavoreo, Iris

    2016-12-01

    Numerous adverse factors are acting in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period of life and may be the cause of later mild or severe deviations from normal psychomotor development. Therefore, it is crucial to identify infants with neurological risk factors and infants that already have a delay from orderly development, in order to immediately initiate the rehabilitation process. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is difference in the assessment of psychomotor development in neurological risk children based on the psychomotor development test (Croatian, Razvoj psihomotorike, RPM test) and clinical evaluation of neuromotor development. RPM test is designed for rough estimate of psychomotor development in children in the first two years of life. The study included 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) with clinical diagnosis of mild paraparesis and mild deviation from normal psychological and social development, and 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) without neurological risk factors and deviations from normal psychomotor development, all at the age of 12-24 months. Of the 15 children diagnosed with mild paraparesis, none had delayed psychomotor development, 6.7% had suspect development and 93.3% had normal development on RPM test. All children in the control group had normal development on RPM test. According to the results, the RPM test is not sensitive enough to detect mild neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  4. Sex differences in the relationship between prolactin levels and impaired processing speed in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Itziar; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Cabezas, Ángel; Solé, Montse; Algora, Maria José; Sánchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia is commonly observed in people with psychotic disorders due to D2 receptor blockade by antipsychotic drugs, although it may also exist in drug-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis. Recent studies suggest that hyperprolactinaemia may have a negative impact on cognitive function in people with early psychosis. We aimed to explore whether there are sex differences in the association between prolactin levels and cognitive performance in early psychosis patients. We studied 60 young patients with early psychosis (aged 18-35 years, 35% females) and a sex- and age-matched control group of 50 healthy subjects. Cognitive assessment was performed with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Prolactin, total cortisol, follicular-stimulating hormone, luteal hormone and sex steroids (testosterone in men, oestradiol and progesterone in women) were measured in plasma. Salivary cortisol was measured at different sampling times (awakening response, 10:00 and 23:00). Psychopathological status was assessed, and antipsychotic treatment was registered. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between prolactin and cognitive tasks while adjusting for covariates. Prolactin levels were associated with impaired processing speed in men, and this association was independent of cortisol and testosterone. In women, prolactin levels were not associated with processing speed tasks, although we observed a negative effect of prolactin on verbal learning and spatial working memory in female healthy subjects. The male-dependent effect maintained its significance after adjusting for education status, antipsychotic treatment and negative symptoms. Our study demonstrates that the previously reported association between high prolactin levels and impaired cognitive processes in early psychosis is restricted to men.

  5. Neurologic Complications of Psychomotor Stimulant Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse. Chronic use is associated with adverse effects including psychosis, seizures, and cerebrovascular accidents, though these complications usually occur in individuals with preexisting risk factors. This chapter reviews the adverse neurologic consequences of chronic psychomotor stimulant use and abuse, with a focus on two prototypical stimulants methamphetamine and cocaine. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, validation and administration of an observation tool for assessing water psychomotor skills in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to create a new observation tool that lets the assessment of water psychomotor skills as well as the knowledge of its current state of development through its administration. In order to that, 8 experts (Physical Education teachers and swimming monitors all of them, have analyzed the Observation Tool for Assessing Water Psychomotor skills, composed by 5 factors (familiarization with the context, balance, displacement, handling and social relationships reporting satisfactory results. Furthermore, the water psychomotor development of 58 children aged between 3 and 6 years old was studied. Displacement and handling factors got the highest values meanwhile social relationships got the lowest value. Likewise, 5-6 years old group showed significant higher levels of water psychomotor development than 3-4 years old group.

  7. Comparative field evaluation of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration level impacts on hot stabilized emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shawarby, Ihab; Ahn, Kyoungho; Rakha, Hesham

    2005-01-01

    The main objectives of this paper are two fold. First, the paper evaluates the impact of vehicle cruise speed and acceleration levels on vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates using field data gathered under real-world driving conditions. Second, it validates the VT-Micro model for the modeling of real-world conditions. Specifically, an on-board emission-measurement device was used to collect emissions of oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide using a light-duty test vehicle. The analysis demonstrates that vehicle fuel-consumption and emission rates per-unit distance are optimum in the range of 60-90 km/h, with considerable increase outside this optimum range. The study demonstrates that as the level of aggressiveness for acceleration maneuvers increases, the fuel-consumption and emission rates per maneuver decrease because the vehicle spends less time accelerating. However, when emissions are gathered over a sufficiently long fixed distance, fuel-consumption and mobile-source emission rates per-unit distance increase as the level of acceleration increases because of the history effects that accompany rich-mode engine operations. In addition, the paper demonstrates the validity of the VT-Micro framework for modeling steady-state vehicle fuel-consumption and emission behavior. Finally, the research demonstrates that the VT-Micro framework requires further refinement to capture non-steady-state history behavior when the engine operates in rich mode. (Author)

  8. Turbulent flame speeds and NOx kinetics of HHC fuels with contaminants and high dilution levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Plichta, Drew; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Petersen, Eric

    2012-09-30

    This progress report documents the second year of the project, from October 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012. Characterization of the new turbulent flame speed vessel design was completed. Turbulence statistics of three impellers with different geometric features were measured using particle image velocimetry inside a Plexiglas model (~1:1 scale) of a cylindrical flame speed vessel (30.5 cm ID × 35.6 cm L). With four impellers arranged in a central-symmetric configuration, turbulence intensities between 1.2 and 1.7 m/s with negligible mean flow (0.1u´) were attained at the lowest fan speeds. Acceptable ranges for homogeneity and isotropy ratios of the velocity fields were set within a narrow bandwidth near unity (0.9-1.1). Homogeneity ratios were unaffected by changes to the impeller geometry, and the prototype with the higher number of blades caused the flow to become anisotropic. The integral length scale of the flow fields varied between 27 and 20 mm, which correlates well with those typically observed inside a gas turbine combustor. The mechanism to independently vary the intensity level and the integral length scale was established, where turbulence intensity level was dependent on the rotational speed of the fan, and the integral length scale decreased with increasing blade pitch angle. Ignition delay times of H₂/O₂ mixtures highly diluted with Ar and doped with various amounts of N₂O (100, 400, 1600, 3200 ppm) were measured in a shock tube behind reflected shock waves over a wide range of temperatures (940-1675 K). The pressure range investigated during this work (around 1.6, 13, and 30 atm) allows studying the effect of N₂O on hydrogen ignition at pressure conditions that have never been heretofore investigated. Ignition delay times were decreased when N₂O was added to the mixture only for the higher nitrous oxide concentrations, and some changes in the activation energy were also observed at 1.5 and 30 atm. When it occurred, the decrease in

  9. Influence of the level of speed-strength preparedness on the agility of volleyball players 12–13 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Shevchenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the impact level of indicators of speed-strength preparedness for the agility of young volleyball players 12–13 years. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical testing of speed-strength qualities and agility, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical statistics. The study involved 25 volleyball players aged 12–13 years, training in the basic training group of the second year of training of the sports club "Lokomotiv" in Kharkov. Young athletes were divided into an experimental – 13 people and a control –12 volleyball team. Results: after the introduction of the experimental methodology, a link was found between the level of speed-strength abilities and the agility of volleyball players. Conclusion: the positive influence of development of speed-strength qualities on indicators of agility of volleyball players that is necessary for selection of means and methods in training process of young athletes is proved.

  10. Application of a fuzzy control algorithm with improved learning speed to nuclear steam generator level control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gee Yong; Seong, Poong Hyun

    1994-01-01

    In order to reduce the load of tuning works by trial-and-error for obtaining the best control performance of conventional fuzzy control algorithm, a fuzzy control algorithm with learning function is investigated in this work. This fuzzy control algorithm can make its rule base and tune the membership functions automatically by use of learning function which needs the data from the control actions of the plant operator or other controllers. Learning process in fuzzy control algorithm is to find the optimal values of parameters, which consist of the membership functions and the rule base, by gradient descent method. Learning speed of gradient descent is significantly improved in this work with the addition of modified momentum. This control algorithm is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the good performance of this control algorithm for level control and show that the fuzzy learning algorithm has the generalization capability for the relation of inputs and outputs and it also has the excellent capability of disturbance rejection

  11. Modafinil for attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in advanced cancer: a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorff, L E; Jønsson, B H; Sjøgren, P

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment seems to be highly prevalent in patients with advanced cancer. Modafinil, a novel vigilance and wake-promoting agent, may be an alternative treatment. We wanted to investigate this treatment on attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in cancer patients. 28 cancer patients wit...... cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and attention. Furthermore subjective scores of depression and drowsiness were significantly improved by modafinil.......Cognitive impairment seems to be highly prevalent in patients with advanced cancer. Modafinil, a novel vigilance and wake-promoting agent, may be an alternative treatment. We wanted to investigate this treatment on attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in cancer patients. 28 cancer patients...... were statistically significantly improved on modafinil (p-values=0.006 and 0.042, respectively). On ESAS, depression and drowsiness also improved statistically significantly (p-values=

  12. Bimanual Psychomotor Performance in Neurosurgical Resident Applicants Assessed Using NeuroTouch, a Virtual Reality Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    Current selection methods for neurosurgical residents fail to include objective measurements of bimanual psychomotor performance. Advancements in computer-based simulation provide opportunities to assess cognitive and psychomotor skills in surgically naive populations during complex simulated neurosurgical tasks in risk-free environments. This pilot study was designed to answer 3 questions: (1) What are the differences in bimanual psychomotor performance among neurosurgical residency applicants using NeuroTouch? (2) Are there exceptionally skilled medical students in the applicant cohort? and (3) Is there an influence of previous surgical exposure on surgical performance? Participants were instructed to remove 3 simulated brain tumors with identical visual appearance, stiffness, and random bleeding points. Validated tier 1, tier 2, and advanced tier 2 metrics were used to assess bimanual psychomotor performance. Demographic data included weeks of neurosurgical elective and prior operative exposure. This pilot study was carried out at the McGill Neurosurgical Simulation Research and Training Center immediately following neurosurgical residency interviews at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. All 17 medical students interviewed were asked to participate, of which 16 agreed. Performances were clustered in definable top, middle, and bottom groups with significant differences for all metrics. Increased time spent playing music, increased applicant self-evaluated technical skills, high self-ratings of confidence, and increased skin closures statistically influenced performance on univariate analysis. A trend for both self-rated increased operating room confidence and increased weeks of neurosurgical exposure to increased blood loss was seen in multivariate analysis. Simulation technology identifies neurosurgical residency applicants with differing levels of technical ability. These results provide information for studies being developed for longitudinal studies on the

  13. Effects of Sport-Specific Training Intensity on Sleep Patterns and Psychomotor Performance in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.

  14. How to objectively classify residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, Magdalena K.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a surgeon needs to acquire a certain level of basic psychomotor MIS skills to perform surgery safely. Evaluation of those skills is a major impediment. Although various assessment methods have been introduced, none of them came as a superior. Three aspects of

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... NOISE Pt. 772, App. A Appendix A to Part 772—National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a...

  16. Dissociable effects of a single dose of ecstasy (MDMA) on psychomotor skills and attentional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, C T J; Ramaekers, J G; Muntjewerff, N D; Sikkema, K L; Samyn, N; Read, N L; Brookhuis, K A; Riedel, W J

    2003-12-01

    Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, psychomotor performance and driving-related task performance. Twelve healthy recreational ecstasy users participated in an experimental study conducted according to a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over design. MDMA improved psychomotor performance, such as movement speed and tracking performance in a single task, as well as in a divided attention task. MDMA impaired the ability to predict object movement under divided attention. However, the inability to accurately predict object movement after MDMA may indicate impairment of particular performance skills relevant to driving. There was no effect of MDMA on visual search, planning or retrieval from semantic memory.

  17. Dietary Tyrosine Benefits Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance During Body Cooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

    2007-01-01

    ... examined. This study evaluated the effect of tyrosine supplementation on cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance following a cold water immersion protocol that lowered body core temperature...

  18. Computer-aided system for interactive psychomotor testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, Karina G.; Ignashchuk, Olena V.; Koval, Leonid G.; Kilivnik, Volodymyr S.; Zlepko, Alexandra S.; Sawicki, Daniel; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan; Smailova, Saule

    2017-08-01

    Nowadays research of psychomotor actions has taken a special place in education, sports, medicine, psychology etc. Development of computer system for psychomotor testing could help solve many operational problems in psychoneurology and psychophysiology and also determine the individual characteristics of fine motor skills. This is particularly relevant issue when it comes to children, students, athletes for definition of personal and professional features. The article presents the dynamics of a developing psychomotor skills and application in the training process of means. The results of testing indicated their significant impact on psychomotor skills development.

  19. Cognitive and psychomotor effects of risperidone in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houthoofd, Sofie A M K; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G C

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this review was to discuss data from double-blind, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have investigated the effects of oral and long-acting injectable risperidone on cognitive and psychomotor functioning in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PubMed/MEDLINE and the Institute of Scientific Information Web of Science database were searched for relevant English-language double-blind RCTs published between March 2000 and July 2008, using the terms schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, cognition, risperidone, psychomotor, processing speed, attention, vigilance, working memory, verbal learning, visual learning, reasoning, problem solving, social cognition, MATRICS, and long-acting. Relevant studies included patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Cognitive domains were delineated at the Consensus Conferences of the National Institute of Mental Health-Measurement And Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (NIMH-MATRICS). The tests employed to assess each domain and psychomotor functioning, and the within-group and between-group comparisons of risperidone with haloperidol and other atypical antipsychotics, are presented. The results of individual tests were included when they were individually presented and interpretable for either drug; outcomes that were presented as cluster scores or factor structures were excluded. A total of 12 articles were included in this review. Results suggested that the use of oral risperidone appeared to be associated with within-group improvements on the cognitive domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal and visual learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Risperidone and haloperidol seemed to generate similar beneficial effects (on the domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, [verbal and nonverbal] working memory, and visual learning and memory, as well as psychomotor

  20. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  1. PsyMot : An instrument for psychomotor diagnosis and indications for psychomotor therapy in child psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.

    2010-01-01

    Psychomotor therapy is a movement-oriented and body-oriented therapy which resembles dance movement psychotherapy, although some differences remain. Despite historical differences, theoretical backgrounds as well as practical methods of both therapies converge at large. Both fields are in need of

  2. Lactate as an early predictor of psychomotor development in neonates with asphyxia receiving therapeutic hypothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackova, Renata; Salounova, Dana; Kantor, Lumir

    2017-12-04

    This prospective study aimed to evaluate the relationship between persistently elevated lactate values in the arterial blood of newborns with grade II and III hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (treated with therapeutic hypothermia) and psychomotor development at 24 months. 51 neonates of gestational age from 36 to 41 weeks receiving therapeutic hypothermia for moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy had arterial blood lactate levels regularly analysed. At 24 months the infants' psychomotor development was evaluated and they were divided into two groups - those where the outcome was favourable (i.e. normal psychomotor development) and adverse (severe motor or sensory impairment or death). The lactate dynamics over time were retrospectively evaluated from the data collected, with the normal upper limit set at 4 mmol/L. Of the 51 affected neonates, 7 died over the course of the study. 34 of the remaining 44 infants demonstrated normal psychomotor findings at 2 years old, with adverse findings in 10 cases. Although both groups experienced significant reductions in lactate over time, there were statistically significant differences between them regarding currently measured lactate levels. Absolute lactate values and their development over time can be a used as an auxiliary factor in making early estimates of the long-term outcome for newborns with neonatal asphyxia being treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  3. Binge drinking and psychomotor performance in female social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...

  4. Assessment of validity of an OSATS for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Thekke Adiyat; Pedro, Renato N; Monga, Manoj; Sweet, Robert M

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the construct validity of an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) developed for cystoscopic and ureteroscopic cognitive and psychomotor skills. An OSATS was designed based on a 14-point comprehensive curriculum prepared by two experts that targeted both cognitive and psychomotor cystoscopic and ureteroscopic skills. Ten urology residents from a single institution with different levels of training were assessed on a series of stations that targeted these skills. Evaluation of cognitive skills was done via a written examination, and psychomotor skills assessment was done by experts using both subjective and objective metrics. Twelve of 15 cognitive tasks and 5 of 5 psychomotor tasks demonstrated construct validity with correlation coefficient (r) more than .75. All three of the cognitive tasks that failed to initially demonstrate validity did so on editorial revision and restructuring of the questions. Our cystoscopic and ureteroscopic OSATS showed excellent construct validity for our population of residents, and we have incorporated it into our urologic skills curriculum.

  5. Psychomotor skills assessment in practicing surgeons experienced in performing advanced laparoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.

  6. Psychomotor assessment of 2nd grade children of elementary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Carvalho Silvério

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.

  7. Psychomotor Ability and Short-term Memory, and Reading and Mathematics Achievement in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrihy, Cherée; Bailey, Maria; Roodenburg, John

    2017-08-01

    The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping). The Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive battery and the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA) provided two measures of short-term memory (Numbers Reversed and Digit Recall) and the WJIII Achievement battery provided two measures of reading achievement (Letter-word Identification and Passage Comprehension) and two measures of mathematics achievement (Applied Problems and Calculation). Structural equation modeling was used, controlling for age, processing speed, crystallized, and fluid intelligence where appropriate. The results found support for the hypothesis that short-term memory fully mediates the relationship between psychomotor ability and reading and mathematics achievement. These findings indicate the significant affect of psychomotor ability on learning outcomes and consequently the need to assess these in considering learning difficulties, and as such these findings also advance understanding of developmental neural mechanisms underpinning the relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  9. High speed bending of 2nd level interconnects on printed circuit boards for automotive electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouters, M.H.M.; Ubachs, R.; Wiel, H.J. van de; Waal, A. van der; Veer, J. van der

    2011-01-01

    Standard drop tests for portable electronics are not representative for the qualification of automotive electronics. High-frequency vibrations are more dominant than abrupt shocks during normal operation. In this work a high speed board bending (HSB) method is developed to mimic the constant cyclic

  10. Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaya, E M; Shtark, M B

    2009-06-01

    The influences of individual musical practice and the same practice supplemented with biofeedback using electrophysiological markers for optimum music-performing activity were studied in 39 music students. Traditional technical practice produced increases in integral EMG power and decreases in alpha activity in most of the students with initially low maximum alpha activity peak frequencies. Similar practice but combined with individual sessions of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback were accompanied by increases in the frequency, bandwidth, and activation responses of EEG alpha rhythms in all subjects, along with decreases in EEG integral power. The efficacy of training with biofeedback and the ability to experience psychomotor learning depended on the initial individual characteristics of EEG alpha activity.

  11. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  12. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  13. Selenium status during pregnancy and child psychomotor development-Polish Mother and Child Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Krol, Anna; Sobala, Wojciech; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Brodzka, Renata; Calamandrei, Gemma; Chiarotti, Flavia; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    The studies on the impact of selenium (Se) levels in different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prenatal Se on child neurodevelopment. The study population consisted of 410 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort. Se levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery, and in cord blood by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 y using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Plasma Se levels decreased through pregnancy (from 48.3 ± 10.6 µg/l in the first trimester to 38.4 ± 11.8 µg/l at delivery; P development (β = 0.2, P = 0.002) at 1 y of age, and language development (β = 0.2, P = 0.03) at 2 y of age was observed. The positive effect of Se levels on cognitive score at 2 y of age was of borderline significance (β = 0.2, P = 0.05). Prenatal selenium status was associated with child psychomotor abilities within the first years of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are needed to confirm the association and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  14. Psychomotor development of preterm babies in the context of biomedical predictors in a Polish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Bidzan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth represents the most frequent complication of pregnancy all over the world. Much research is addressed to psychomotor development of preterm infants during the initial years of their life. Many authors emphasize the role of birth weight, gestational age, and gender in determining the child’s psychomotor development. This study adds to this knowledge as we analyzed the synergistic effect of biomedical predictors such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, time in incubator, type of pregnancy defined based on its outcome, neonatal status immediately after delivery, infant’s gender, and possessing twin sibling. Combined effects of these factors represent an important niche in the studies of the developmental psychology of preterm infants. Participants and procedure The study included 49 preterm infants born in 2008-2009 at the Department of Obstetrics of the Medical University of Gdańsk. The psychomotor development of preterm infants was evaluated according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development®, Third Edition (BSID-III at a mean, non-corrected age of 33.80 months (SD = 5.16. For the purpose of the study we developed a basic model in the form of a pathway diagram, describing the cumulative influence of eight biomedical predictors on the development of the infants during early childhood. Results Our study revealed a synergistic influence of biomedical predictors on the development of preterm infants with regards to cognitive functioning (28% of variance, language skills (10% of variance, motor skills (18% of variance, fine motor skills (16% of variance, and gross motor skills (20% of variance. Moreover, we observed an independent effect of birth weight, child’s gender, and final Apgar score on the psychomotor development of preterm infants. Higher birth weight was associated with higher level of cognitive function and fine motor skills. Male gender of a child was reflected by a higher level of

  15. Turbulent Flame Speeds and NOx Kinetics of HHC Fuels with Contaminants and High Dilution Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Eric; Krejci, Michael; Mathieu, Olivier; Vissotski, Andrew; Ravi, Sankar; Sikes, Travis; Levacque, Anthony; Aul, Christopher; Peterson, Eric

    2011-09-30

    This progress report documents the first year of the project, from October 1, 2010 through September 30, 2011. Laminar flame speeds and ignition delay times have been measured for hydrogen and various compositions of H2/CO (syngas) at elevated pressures and elevated temperatures. Two constant-volume cylindrical vessels were used to visualize the spherical growth of the flame through the use of a schlieren optical setup to measure the laminar flame speed of the mixture. Hydrogen experiments were performed at initial pressures up to 10 atm and initial temperatures up to 443 K. A syngas composition of 50/50 was chosen to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide on H2-O2 chemical kinetics at standard temperature and pressures up to 10 atm. All atmospheric mixtures were diluted with standard air, while all elevated-pressure experiments were diluted with a He:O2 of 7:1 to minimize hydrodynamic instabilities. The laminar flame speed measurements of hydrogen and syngas are compared to available literature data over a wide range of equivalence ratios where good agreement can be seen with several data sets. Additionally, an improved chemical kinetics model is shown for all conditions within the current study. The model and the data presented herein agree well, which demonstrates the continual, improved accuracy of the chemical kinetics model. A high-pressure shock tube was used to measure ignition delay times for several baseline compositions of syngas at three pressures across a wide range of temperatures. The compositions of syngas (H2/CO) presented in this study include 80/20, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80, and 10/90, all of which are compared to previously published ignition delay times from a hydrogen-oxygen mixture to demonstrate the effect of carbon monoxide addition. Generally, an increase in carbon monoxide increases the ignition delay time, but there does seem to be a pressure dependency. At low temperatures and

  16. A Rotating Speed Controller Design Method for Power Levelling by Means of Inertia Energy in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Power fluctuation caused by wind speed variations may be harmful for the stability of the power system as well as the reliability of the wind power converter, since it may induce thermal excursions in the solder joints of the power modules. Using the wind turbine rotor inertia energy for power...... in the frequency domain for power leveling. Moreover, the impact of other parameters on power leveling, including the time constant of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and the rotor inertia, are also studied. With the proposed optimal design, the power fluctuations are mitigated as much as possible, while...

  17. Using Interactive Videodisc To Teach Psychomotor Skills to Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Sharon M.; Beadenkopf, F. Scott; Murray, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    An interactive videodisc program on the process of administering medications to clients will be demonstrated. Discussion will center on the strengths and limitations of interactive video for teaching psychomotor skills to healthcare professionals as well as design modifications that will facilitate this process. Interactive videodisc technology provides an exciting new medium for teaching psychomotor clinical skills to health care professionals. It is a particularly valuable approach for complex skills which involve visualization of motor activities and extensive client assessments.

  18. Acquiring psychomotor skills in operative dentistry: do innate ability and motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksudaj, N; Townsend, G C; Kaidonis, J; Lekkas, D; Winning, T A

    2012-02-01

    The acquisition of psychomotor skills is a key competence in the practice of dentistry, and innate abilities and motivation have been shown to influence motor performance. However, the explicit integration of these factors into the design of research projects about skill acquisition in dentistry has been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of how dental students' abilities and motivation affected their performance in an operative task. A longitudinal study with two cohorts of dental students was conducted in laboratory classes forming part of an operative technique course. A range of standardised psychometric tests was used to assess different abilities before completing a cavity preparation on Frasaco teeth. This was followed immediately by completion of an Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Low but statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) were found between dental performance and psychomotor ability (r=0.22), and also dental performance and motivation (r=0.19). A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the grades obtained for the cavity preparation exercise in one cohort between students with higher levels of psychomotor ability compared with those with lower levels (Tracing scores) (P<0.05). No significant differences in grades obtained for the cavity preparation exercise were found between students with higher and lower levels of motivation. Both innate psychomotor ability and motivation showed only weak positive associations with dental performance on cavity preparation exercises. Our study suggests that student-related factors only provide limited information to explain differences in performance or to be useful as specific predictors of future performance by individuals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Psychomotor activities in the context of kinanthropology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Běla Hátlová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any scholar developing a therapeutic method shall be concerned with its historical and theoretical groundings, scientifically verifiedfacts, and information from professional publications. As a result of that, one is qualifi ed to discuss relevancy of the method.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to highlight the ideas that the current psychomotoricity draws.METHODS: We assume that psychomotor activity is based on natural cognitive and social movement behavior. In its essence, the inherited principles that develop throughout life. Development is strengthened primarily by personal experiences with positive and negative feedback of social relations. The foundations of psychomotr activity developed upon scientific knowledge stem from the needs of psychosomatic rehabilitation. The term gradually came to be used for movement therapies and movement education. This study mentions the scientific orientations and the authors who most influenced the development of psychomotor skills used for personal development.CONCLUSION: Psychomotor activities are developed from two basic areas of operation. Psychomotor development as a pedagogical direction linking the physical and mental is used in the teaching process with an eff ort by moving positively with an influence from the human psyche. By monitoring the simple actions there is stimulated the physical and psychical development. Psychomotor development and sports therapy inherently encourages the patient to actively participate in therapy. Physical activity is one of supporting policies which affect the psychical „negative“ symptoms and may enhance the patient’s resistance to daily stress.

  20. 4D Model on Assessing Psychomotor Aspect in Continental Food Processing Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurafiati, P.; Ana, A.; Ratnasusanti, H.; Maulana, I.

    2018-02-01

    This research aims to develop and find out the response of observers for the assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice. This research belongs to development research with 4P model that confined till the definition, design, and development stages. The data that gained during the research is analyzed descriptively. Research’s product is assessment instrument rubric form that consists of performance’s aspect which should be assessed and performance’s quality which stated in gradation score with 0-4 level and performance description that completed with picture illustration in every single score. Product was validate and responded based on material, construction, language, objectively, systematic, and practicability aspects. The result show that assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice which developed gain very good response with percentage of 84,47%.

  1. The Effects of Psychomotor Skills Instruction on Attitude toward Singing and General Music among Students in Grades 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth H.; Aitchison, Randall E.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the relationship of psychomotor skills instruction on student attitudes in grades 4-6 towards singing and general music instruction. Finds females have more positive attitudes, interest declines as grade-level increases, group vocal instruction may produce more positive attitudes, and a positive relationship between liking to sing in…

  2. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children’s Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    agreement analysis (intraclass correlation 0.961, 95% CI 0.937-0.967), suggesting that the process was successful to separate different levels of performance. A factor analysis of collected data showed that three factors, trembling, speed, and accuracy, accounted for 76.79% of the total variance, but only two of them were predictors of performance in a regression analysis: accuracy (P=.001) and speed (P=.002). The other factor, trembling (P=.79), did not have a significant effect on this dependent variable. Conclusions The EDUCERE DDSS is ready to use the regression equation obtained for the dependent variable “performance” as an algorithm for the automatic detection of psychomotor developmental delays. The results of the factor analysis are valuable to simplify the design of the smart toy by taking into account only the significant variables in the collector module. The fine-tuning of the toy process module will be carried out by following the specifications resulting from the analysis of the data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the product. PMID:28526666

  3. A Smart Toy to Enhance the Decision-Making Process at Children's Psychomotor Delay Screenings: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez García, María Angeles; Martín Ruiz, María Luisa; Rivera, Diego; Vadillo, Laura; Valero Duboy, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-19

    .961, 95% CI 0.937-0.967), suggesting that the process was successful to separate different levels of performance. A factor analysis of collected data showed that three factors, trembling, speed, and accuracy, accounted for 76.79% of the total variance, but only two of them were predictors of performance in a regression analysis: accuracy (P=.001) and speed (P=.002). The other factor, trembling (P=.79), did not have a significant effect on this dependent variable. The EDUCERE DDSS is ready to use the regression equation obtained for the dependent variable "performance" as an algorithm for the automatic detection of psychomotor developmental delays. The results of the factor analysis are valuable to simplify the design of the smart toy by taking into account only the significant variables in the collector module. The fine-tuning of the toy process module will be carried out by following the specifications resulting from the analysis of the data to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the product. ©María Angeles Gutiérrez García, María Luisa Martín Ruiz, Diego Rivera, Laura Vadillo, Miguel Angel Valero Duboy. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 19.05.2017.

  4. Shifts in information processing level: the speed theory of intelligence revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, S S

    2000-06-01

    A hypothesis is proposed here to reconcile the inconsistencies observed in the IQ-P3 latency relation. The hypothesis stems from the observation that task-induced increase in P3 latency correlates positively with IQ scores. It is hypothesised that: (a) there are several parallel information processing pathways of varying complexity which are associated with the generation of P3 waves of varying latencies; (b) with increasing workload, there is a shift in the 'information processing level' through progressive recruitment of more complex polysynaptic pathways with greater processing power and inhibition of the oligosynaptic pathways; (c) high-IQ subjects have a greater reserve of higher level processing pathways; (d) a given 'task-load' imposes a greater 'mental workload' in subjects with lower IQ than in those with higher IQ. According to this hypothesis, a meaningful comparison of the P3 correlates of IQ is possible only when the information processing level is pushed to its limits.

  5. Influence of growth hormone replacement on neurological and psychomotor development. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Felipe; Eisencraft, Adriana Pasmanik; Crisostomo, Lindiane Gomes

    2018-05-14

    The height response to the use of growth hormone in short height cases has already been confirmed in the literature. The influence of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH-IGF1) axis components on development, function, regeneration, neuroprotection, cognition, and motor functions has been evaluated in experimental studies and in adults with central nervous system lesions. However, there is still little research on the clinical impact of hormone replacement on neurological and psychomotor development. This report presents the case of a patient with excellent weight-height recovery and, even more surprisingly, neurological and psychomotor development in response to use of growth hormone. The result strengthens the correlation between experimental and clinical findings related to cerebral plasticity response to growth hormone in children. A preterm male patient with multiple health problems during the neonatal and young infancy period, who for six years presented with a relevant deficit in growth, bone maturation, and neurological and psychomotor development. At six years of age, he had low stature (z-score -6.89), low growth rate, and low weight (z-score -7.91). He was incapable of sustaining his axial weight, had not developed fine motor skills or sphincter control, and presented with dysfunctional swallowing and language. Supplementary tests showed low IGF-11 levels, with no changes on the image of the hypothalamus-pituitary region, and bone age consistent with three-year-old children - for a chronological age of six years and one month. Growth hormone replacement therapy had a strong impact on the weight-height recovery as well as on the neurological and psychomotor development of this child.

  6. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  7. The impact of antipsychotics on psychomotor performance with regards to car driving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnauer, Alexander; Laux, Gerd; Geiger, Elisabeth; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-04-01

    Cognitive and psychomotor impairments are a core feature of most patients with schizophrenia and may have an important influence on driving ability. The present study investigated the effects of neuroleptic monotherapy on psychomotor functions related to car driving skills in schizophrenic patients. Consecutively admitted schizophrenic inpatients (n = 120) were tested under steady state plasma level conditions before discharge to outpatient treatment. Patients met the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for schizophrenia. The study followed a naturalistic nonrandomized design. Data were collected with the computerized Act & React Testsystem and were analyzed according to medication, severity of illness, and age. Only 32.5% of the schizophrenic inpatients passed the tests without major impairments. Patients treated with atypical neuroleptics or clozapine showed a better test performance on skills related to driving ability when compared with patients on typical neuroleptics. Differences were most pronounced in measures of divided attention, stress tolerance, and attention. Data also suggest that treatment with clozapine had an overall positive impact on measures of reactivity and stress tolerance. These results show that even under steady state pharmacologic conditions psychomotor functions of most schizophrenic patients partly remitted must be considered as impaired. To evaluate these effects, a systematic neuropsychologic examination is recommended.

  8. Information processing speed in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, R; Saunamäki, T; Jehkonen, M

    2014-04-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of studies on information processing speed in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) as compared to healthy controls and normative data, and to determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improves information processing speed. A systematic review was performed on studies drawn from Medline and PsycINFO (January 1990-December 2011) and identified from lists of references in these studies. After inclusion criteria, 159 articles were left for abstract review, and after exclusion criteria 44 articles were fully reviewed. The number of patients in the studies reviewed ranged from 10 to 157 and the study samples consisted mainly of men. Half of the studies reported that patients with OSAS showed reduced information processing speed when compared to healthy controls. Reduced information processing speed was seen more often (75%) when compared to norm-referenced data. Psychomotor speed seemed to be particularly liable to change. CPAP treatment improved processing speed, but the improvement was marginal when compared to placebo or conservative treatment. Patients with OSAS are affected by reduced information processing speed, which may persist despite CPAP treatment. Information processing is usually assessed as part of other cognitive functioning, not as a cognitive domain per se. However, it is important to take account of information processing speed when assessing other aspects of cognitive functioning. This will make it possible to determine whether cognitive decline in patients with OSAS is based on lower-level or higher-level cognitive processes or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. M7--a high speed digital processor for second level trigger selections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droege, T.F.; Gaines, I.; Turner, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    A digital processor is described which reconstructs mass and momentum as a second-level trigger selection. The processor is a five-address, microprogramed, pipelined, ECL machine with simultaneous memory access to four operands which load two parallel multipliers and an ALU. Source data modules are extensions of the processor

  10. A high-speed DAQ framework for future high-level trigger and event building clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caselle, M.; Perez, L.E. Ardila; Balzer, M.; Dritschler, T.; Kopmann, A.; Mohr, H.; Rota, L.; Vogelgesang, M.; Weber, M.

    2017-01-01

    Modern data acquisition and trigger systems require a throughput of several GB/s and latencies of the order of microseconds. To satisfy such requirements, a heterogeneous readout system based on FPGA readout cards and GPU-based computing nodes coupled by InfiniBand has been developed. The incoming data from the back-end electronics is delivered directly into the internal memory of GPUs through a dedicated peer-to-peer PCIe communication. High performance DMA engines have been developed for direct communication between FPGAs and GPUs using 'DirectGMA (AMD)' and 'GPUDirect (NVIDIA)' technologies. The proposed infrastructure is a candidate for future generations of event building clusters, high-level trigger filter farms and low-level trigger system. In this paper the heterogeneous FPGA-GPU architecture will be presented and its performance be discussed.

  11. Increased Prolactin Levels Are Associated with Impaired Processing Speed in Subjects with Early Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Montalvo, Itziar; Gutiérrez-Zotes, Alfonso; Creus, Marta; Monseny, Rosa; Ortega, Laura; Franch, Joan; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Vilella, Elisabet; Labad, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Hyperprolactinaemia, a common side effect of some antipsychotic drugs, is also present in drug-naïve psychotic patients and subjects at risk for psychosis. Recent studies in non-psychiatric populations suggest that increased prolactin may have negative effects on cognition. The aim of our study was to explore whether high plasma prolactin levels are associated with poorer cognitive functioning in subjects with early psychoses. We studied 107 participants: 29 healthy subjects and 78 subjects w...

  12. Interplanetary radio storms. II - Emission levels and solar wind speed in the range 0.05-0.8 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeret, J.-L.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Storms of interplanetary type III radio bursts (IP storms) are commonly observed in the interplanetary medium by the ISEE-3 radio instrument. This instrument has the capability of accurately determining the arrival direction of the radio emission. At each observing frequency, the storm radio sources are tracked as they cross the line-of-sight to the sun. Using a simple model, the emission levels are determined at a number of radio frequencies for four separate storms. The IP storm radiation is found to occur in regions of enhanced density at levels of 0.05 to 0.8 AU. The density in these enhancements falls off faster than R(-2). The solar wind speed in the storm region is also measured. The analysis is consistent with steady conditions in the storm region during a few days around the III storm burst radio emission at the harmonic of the local plasma frequency.

  13. Assessment of driving capability through the use of clinical and psychomotor tests in relation to blood cannabinoids levels following oral administration of 20 mg dronabinol or of a cannabis decoction made with 20 or 60 mg Delta9-THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménétrey, Annick; Augsburger, Marc; Favrat, Bernard; Pin, Marie A; Rothuizen, Laura E; Appenzeller, Monique; Buclin, Thierry; Mangin, Patrice; Giroud, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is frequently found in the blood of drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis or involved in traffic crashes. The present study used a double-blind crossover design to compare the effects of medium (16.5 mg THC) and high doses (45.7 mg THC) of hemp milk decoctions or of a medium dose of dronabinol (20 mg synthetic THC, Marinol on several skills required for safe driving. Forensic interpretation of cannabinoids blood concentrations were attempted using the models proposed by Daldrup (cannabis influencing factor or CIF) and Huestis and coworkers. First, the time concentration-profiles of THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) (active metabolite of THC), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in whole blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative ion chemical ionization. Compared to smoking studies, relatively low concentrations were measured in blood. The highest mean THC concentration (8.4 ng/mL) was achieved 1 h after ingestion of the strongest decoction. Mean maximum 11-OH-THC level (12.3 ng/mL) slightly exceeded that of THC. THCCOOH reached its highest mean concentration (66.2 ng/mL) 2.5-5.5 h after intake. Individual blood levels showed considerable intersubject variability. The willingness to drive was influenced by the importance of the requested task. Under significant cannabinoids influence, the participants refused to drive when they were asked whether they would agree to accomplish several unimportant tasks, (e.g., driving a friend to a party). Most of the participants reported a significant feeling of intoxication and did not appreciate the effects, notably those felt after drinking the strongest decoction. Road sign and tracking testing revealed obvious and statistically significant differences between placebo and treatments. A marked impairment was detected after ingestion of the strongest decoction. A CIF value, which relies on the

  14. Accuracy and Reliability of Peer Assessment of Athletic Training Psychomotor Laboratory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Melissa C.; Henning, Jolene M.; Willse, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. Objective: To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Entry-level master's athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: First-year (n  =  5) and second-year (n  =  8) students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Results: Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the ϕ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (ϕ  =  0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (ϕ  =  0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (ϕ  =  0.72). Conclusions: Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was

  15. Accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training psychomotor laboratory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Melissa C; Henning, Jolene M; Willse, John T

    2010-01-01

    Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level master's athletic training education program. First-year (n  =  5) and second-year (n  =  8) students. Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the φ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (φ  =  0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (φ  =  0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (φ  =  0.72). Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was less reliable than having more than 1 student assess those skills on more than 1 occasion. Peer assessment of psychomotor skills

  16. Influence of Preparatory Workshops on Dental Students' Academic Performance and Stress on Their First Operative Dentistry Psychomotor Exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbone, Deborah A; Feng, Xiaoying; Su, Yu; Xirau-Probert, Patricia; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Nascimento, Marcelle M

    2018-06-01

    Predoctoral dental psychomotor examinations are known to generate high levels of stress among dental students, which may compromise their academic performance. At one U.S. dental school, all 93 first-year dental students were invited to attend a series of three workshop sessions prior to enrollment in their initial operative dentistry course. The workshops were developed to facilitate academic transition from the dental anatomy course to the operative dentistry course; provide early exposure to materials, instruments, and laboratory techniques; support the early development of psychomotor and self-assessment skills; and lessen students' stress and anxiety levels regarding psychomotor examinations. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the workshops on the students' academic performance and self-reported stress and preparedness. All students who attended the workshop sessions and all who did not were asked to complete a pre-exam survey (immediately preceding the exam) and a post-exam survey (immediately after the exam) on the day of their first operative dentistry psychomotor exam. Of the 93 students, 21 attended one, 34 attended two, and 25 attended three workshop sessions, while 13 students did not attend any. Response rates for the pre- and post-exam surveys were 100% and 98.9%, respectively. Students who attended all three workshop sessions reported being significantly less stressed about taking the exam than the other groups. The mean exam grade of students who attended the workshop sessions was significantly higher than that of students who did not attend the sessions. These findings support the development and implementation of preparatory workshops to improve academic performance and decrease the stress levels of dental students prior to the first operative dentistry psychomotor exam.

  17. PSYCHOMOTOR PROFILE OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD-A SCHOOL IN THE CITY OF PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rodrigues Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder which is common in the population of children at school age and the psychomotor activity in these children can be substantially lower than that expected in 30% to 50% of the cases. Thus, this study aims at describing the psychomotor profile of children diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, the research was assessed and authorized by the Education Department of Presidente Prudente-SP. Five children with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness isorder took part in the study, none of them carrying comorbidities, aging between six and nine years, of both sexes, regularly enrolled in a public school in President Prudente-SP and participating in an extension project developed by the school. For the collection of data, the Motor Development Scale was used, as described by Rosa Neto (2002,in which all the tests proposed were used: fine motor skills, global motor skills, balance, body schema/ speed, spatial and temporal organization. The test was individually applied, in a single session, lasting 35 minutes on average. The data were analyzed according to the criteria established by the author. By analyzing the data, the motor performance of the children was between lower normal and medium.

  18. A reusable suture anchor for arthroscopy psychomotor skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, Edward D; Rogers, Rainie; Nyland, John

    2003-03-01

    For residents to adequately develop the early arthroscopy psychomotor skills required to better learn how to manage the improvisational situations they will encounter during actual patient cases, they need to experience sufficient practice repetitions within a contextually relevant environment. Unfortunately, the cost of suture anchors can be a practice repetition-limiting factor in learning arthroscopic knot-tying techniques. We describe a technique for creating inexpensive reusable suture anchors and provide an example of their application to repair the anterior glenoid labrum during an arthroscopy psychomotor skills laboratory training session.

  19. Facial nerve activity disrupts psychomotor rhythms in the forehead microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Peter D; O'Brien, Geraldine

    2011-10-28

    Forehead blood flow was monitored in seven participants with a unilateral facial nerve lesion during relaxation, respiratory biofeedback and a sad documentary. Vascular waves at 0.1Hz strengthened during respiratory biofeedback, in tune with breathing cycles that also averaged 0.1Hz. In addition, a psychomotor rhythm at 0.15Hz was more prominent in vascular waveforms on the denervated than intact side of the forehead, both before and during relaxation and the sad documentary. These findings suggest that parasympathetic activity in the facial nerve interferes with the psychomotor rhythm in the forehead microvasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Examination of psychomotor development in relation to social-environmental factors in preterm children at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyhercz, Flóra; Nagy, Beáta

    2017-01-01

    The development of children born prematurely is an important aspect in public health, because preterm birth rates are not decreasing with the development of medical sciences. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children related to potentially influencing environmental factors. Children born below 2.500 grams at the age of two (n = 75). Psychomotor development, quality of home environment, socio-demographic background were measured. Lower birth weight was associated with lower development quotients. Psychomotor development was also negatively affected by child deprivation, low levels of cognitive stimulation and maternal empathy, regardless of birth weight. Increased performance loss was found related to lower sociodemographic variables, such as low maternal education or ethnicity. Psychomotor development of 2-year-old premature children is affected by the examined social-environmental factors. We recommend the screening and developmental interventions for premature children as early as possible, thus preventing difficulties in mental and motor development in the future. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(1), 31-38.

  1. The Effectiveness of Cognitive and Psychomotor Domain of Culinary Art Students’ Performance after Internship in Private Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Hairuddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demand of culinary arts graduates in hospitality industry, more higher learning institutions especially private colleges offer the programs. The course syllabus of culinary arts is specifically designed to provide a strong foundation for students who aspire to be chefs in the local and international fields. Students are equipped with a basic education in the culinary skills and knowledge associated with the cognitive and psychomotor domain. This study investigates the influence of the cognitive and psychomotor domain effect to private college student’s performance after internship. The internship program is gradually enhancing the students’ knowledge; confidence level and psychomotor performance which enable them to at least gain confidence when performing their practical assessment after coming back from internship. This is a positive indication in the beginning of the students’ life before expose into a real life work situation. Thus, this research can be a guidance for the private institutional lecturers to look into the effectiveness of cognitive and psychomotor domain of culinary art students’ performance in their internship programs.

  2. The role of complementary foods in the psychomotor development of a baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Yatsyshina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the impact of complementary feeding on the psychomotor development of a baby. It describes possible psychomotor developmental disorders due to inadequate feeding of an infant during the first year of life.

  3. To Err or Not to Err: A Question for the Instruction of Psychomotor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Robert N.

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of guided and nonguided instructional strategies for teaching psychomotor skills is reviewed from the perspectives of learning theories, psychomotor research, transfer of learning, and the function and desirability of making errors in the learning process. (EVH)

  4. A mixed signal multi-chip module with high speed serial output links for the ATLAS Level-1 trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, U

    2000-01-01

    We have built and tested a mixed signal multi-chip module (MCM) to be used in the Level-1 Pre-Processor system for the Calorimeter Trigger of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The MCM performs high speed digital signal processing on four analogue input signals. Results are transmitted serially at a serial data rate of 800 MBd. Nine chips of different technologies are mounted on a four layer Cu substrate. ADC converters and serialiser chips are the major consumers of electrical power on the MCM, which amounts to 9 W for all dies. Special cut-out areas are used to dissipate heat directly to the copper substrate. In this paper we report on design criteria, chosen MCM technology for substrate and die mounting, experiences with the MCM operation and measurement results. (4 refs).

  5. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 18 Appendix Q - Historical Maximum Near-Surface Wind Speed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconom ic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  6. The Effect of “Kashi Practices” on the Improvement of Psycho-Motor Skills in People with Down Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of “Kashi practices” on the improvement of psycho-motor skills in people with Down syndrome. Methods: In this research, 28 men with Down syndrome between 21 and 43 years of age (mean age 25.917±3.889 were randomly assigned to either a control (n=14 or an experimental group (n=14. All persons in the experimental group followed 12 weeks of selected exercise training (Kashi practices three times a week. Prior to the start of the study, and after the three-month training period, each member in both groups was assessed according to the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP. Results: The results indicated that Kashi practices could cause a significant improvement in psycho-motor skills in several variables such as strength, endurance, power, agility, reaction time, balance and running speed in the experimental group (P0.05 in any compression. Discussion: These results showed that Kashi practices could cause a significant improvement in psycho-motor skills and can be an important step to improve physical fitness, physical activity and quality of life in people with Down syndrome.

  7. [Object permanence in children with neurological and psychomotor disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisaturo, C; Frassoni, S; Borreani, A; Battaglia, F; Meruzzi, B

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate whether the development of object permanence is an available sign of the cognitive development in infants with psychomotor handicaps. Subjects consisted of 5 males, ranging in age from 12 to 33 months, with handicaps as a result of perinatal brain injury. Four were preterm infants. All of the children received psychomotor treatment. Their stage of object permanence was assessed using traditional (B-L) and non traditional test (U-H). (The children's performances on the U-H scales have an "Intrinsic validity"). Four children achieved the first stages of the development of object permanence. The acquisition of object permanence was delayed in comparison with the age-appropriated time, but it may be considered adequate in comparison with the "developmental age" (B-L). One children with severe mental and motor disorders solved no task, the findings suggest that the children with psychomotor handicaps may gain the concept of object permanence and that psychomotor treatment may assist them in the development of the concept. This performance is not age-dependent. So the acquisition of the concept of object permanence may be considered an accurate and sensitive tool for the follow-up of the sensorimotor development in the handicapped children.

  8. Effectiveness of equine therapy in children with psychomotor impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M

    2015-09-01

    Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented

  10. No psychomotor slowing in fine motor tasks in dysthymia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pier, M.P.B.I.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Few studies using objective and sensitive measuring techniques have investigated whether psychomotor retardation (PR), an important symptom of a major depressive disorder (MDD), is also present in dysthymic patients. In this study, the following questions were addressed: (1) is PR also

  11. A Model for Evaluating Student Clinical Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Fiel, Nicholas J.

    1979-01-01

    A long-range plan to evaluate medical students' physical examination skills was undertaken at the Ingham Family Medical Clinic at Michigan State University. The development of the psychomotor skills evaluation model to evaluate the skill of blood pressure measurement, tests of the model's reliability, and the use of the model are described. (JMD)

  12. Psychomotor Skills for the General Professional Education of the Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, David M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A University of Washington medical faculty survey identified 43 psychomotor skills deemed essential for physicians by over 60 percent of respondents. A committee of clerkship directors refined the list to 28 skills that should be required for graduation. The data are used to specify educational objectives and design tests. (Author/MSE)

  13. Methods Used for Teaching Psychomotor Skills in Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of psychomotor skill instruction in crop production provided by agricultural production teachers in Illinois and the methods used for this teaching. Responses from 79 of 100 teachers indicated that most do not have students observe or practice a procedure for skill improvement. More experienced…

  14. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  15. Investigating laparoscopic psychomotor skills in veterinarians and veterinary technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (r s ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of  .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Dentistry: An Experimental Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, William F., Jr.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A traditional method of teaching psychomotor skills in a preclinical restorative dentistry laboratory course was compared with an experimental method. The experimental group was taught using a guided systematic approach that relied on detailed checklists and exhaustive faculty feedback. (Author/MLW)

  17. Residual effects of middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon and zolpidem on driving ability, memory functions, and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Schreuder, Antonia H C M L; Eijken, Erik J E; van Heuckelum, Janet H G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Verbaten, Marinus N; Paty, Isabelle; Darwish, Mona; Danjou, Philippe; Patat, Alain

    2002-12-01

    Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this two-part study. Part 1 was a single-blind, two-period crossover design to determine the effects of a single dose of ethanol (0.03% driving ability, memory, and psychomotor performance. Part 2 was a double-blind, five-period crossover design to measure the effects of a middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon 10 or 20 mg, zolpidem 10 or 20 mg, or placebo on driving ability 4 hours after administration and memory and psychomotor performance 6 hours after administration. The on-the-road driving test consisted of operating an instrumented automobile over a 100-km highway circuit at a constant speed (95 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position between the right lane boundaries. The standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) was the primary performance parameter of the driving test. The psychomotor and memory test battery consisted of the Word Learning Test, the Critical Tracking Test, the Divided Attention Test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data for each part were analyzed separately using ANOVA for crossover designs. Zaleplon 10 and 20 mg did not significantly impair driving ability 4 hours after middle-of-the-night administration. Relative to placebo, after zolpidem 10 mg, SDLP was significantly elevated, but the magnitude of the difference was small and not likely to be of clinical importance. Memory and psychomotor test performance was unaffected after both doses of zaleplon and zolpidem 10 mg. In contrast, zolpidem 20 mg significantly increased SDLP and speed variability. Further, zolpidem 20 mg significantly impaired performance on all psychomotor and memory tests. Finally, driving performance, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Divided Attention Test, and immediate and delayed free recall of the Word Learning Test were significantly impaired after ethanol. The results show that zaleplon (10 and 20 mg) is a safe hypnotic devoid of next-morning residual impairment when used in the middle of

  18. Background noise levels measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    The acoustic capability of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel has been significantly improved by reducing the background noise levels measured by in-flow microphones. This was accomplished by incorporating streamlined microphone holders having a profile developed by researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center. These new holders were fabricated for fixed mounting on the tunnel wall and for an axially traversing microphone probe which was mounted to the tunnel floor. Measured in-flow noise levels in the tunnel test section were reduced by about 10 dB with the new microphone holders compared with those measured with the older, less refined microphone holders. Wake interference patterns between fixed wall microphones were measured and resulted in preferred placement patterns for these microphones to minimize these effects. Acoustic data from a model turbofan operating in the tunnel test section showed that results for the fixed and translating microphones were equivalent for common azimuthal angles, suggesting that the translating microphone probe, with its significantly greater angular resolution, is preferred for sideline noise measurements. Fixed microphones can provide a local check on the traversing microphone data quality, and record acoustic performance at other azimuthal angles.

  19. Interplanetary radio storms. 2: Emission levels and solar wind speed in the range 0.05-0.8 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougeret, J. L.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    Storms of interplanetary type III radio bursts (IP storms) are commonly observed in the interplanetry medium by the ISEE-3 radio instrument. This instrument has the capability of accurately determining the arrival direction of the radio emission. At each observing frequency, the storm radio sources are tracked as they cross the line-of-sight to the Sun. Usng a simple model, the emission levels are determined at a number of radio frequencies for four separate storms. The IP storm radiation is found to occur in regions of enhanced density at levels of 0.05 to 0.8 AU. The density in these enhancements falls off faster than R(-2). The solar wind speed in the storm region is also measured. The analysis is consistent with steady conditions in the storm region during a few days around the central meridian passage of the storm. The comparison with average in situ density measurements compiled from the HELIOS 1-2 observations favors type III storm burst radio emission at the harmonic of the local plasma frequency.

  20. Peer-assisted learning and orthopaedic evaluation psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Thomas G; Popp, Jennifer K

    2007-01-01

    Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education to provide evidence for PAL's current use or for its use as a pedagogic tool. To assess the effectiveness of intentional, formal PAL on the performance of psychomotor skills and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Athletic Training Research and Education Laboratory. Fifty-one undergraduate students (27 athletic training majors, 24 nonmajors). Review sessions led by either an Approved Clinical Instructor or peer tutor. We assessed pretest and posttest performance scores (number of correct skills) and the amount of time to complete the psychomotor skills in 3 categories of orthopaedic evaluation of the hand and wrist for subjects assigned to either a peer tutor or an Approved Clinical Instructor review group. Using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey, we evaluated the perceptions of students assigned to the peer-tutor group regarding the benefits of, and preferences for, PAL. Differences in the pretest-posttest skill scores were noted in both groups (P psychomotor skills with peer tutors than with the laboratory instructor, and many students (n = 12, 44.4%) felt more self-confident when practicing psychomotor skills with a peer tutor. Peer-assisted learning appears to be a valid method for improving athletic training psychomotor skills. Peers can be resources for practicing clinical skills and report benefiting from the collaboration. Peer-assisted learning should be deliberately integrated into athletic training education programs to enhance student learning and collaboration.

  1. Effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws and associated factors – Exploratory empirical analysis using a bivariate ordered probit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behram Wali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary traffic safety research comprises little information on quantifying the simultaneous association between drink driving and speeding among fatally injured drivers. Potential correlation between driver's drink driving and speeding behavior poses a substantial methodological concern which needs investigation. This study therefore focused on investigating the simultaneous impact of socioeconomic factors, fatalities, vehicle ownership, health services and highway agency road safety policies on enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws. The effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws has been investigated through development of bivariate ordered probit model using data extricated from WHO's global status report on road safety in 2013. The consistent and intuitive parameter estimates along with statistically significant correlation between response outcomes validates the statistical supremacy of bivariate ordered probit model. The results revealed that fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, hospital beds per hundred thousand population and road safety policies are associated with a likely medium or high effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws, respectively. Also, the model encapsulates the effect of several other agency related variables and socio-economic status on the response outcomes. Marginal effects are reported for analyzing the impact of such factors on intermediate categories of response outcomes. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary insights to elemental enforcement programs. Also, marginal effects of explanatory variables may provide useful directions for formulating effective policy countermeasures for overcoming driver's speeding and drink driving behavior.

  2. Caffeine reversal of ethanol effects on the multiple sleep latency test, memory, and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Turner, Lauren; Scofield, Holly M; Roth, Thomas

    2003-02-01

    Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043+/-0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the highest dose increased mean latency (greater alertness) significantly beyond placebo levels. Ethanol also impaired psychomotor performance and memory. The 300-mg caffeine dose restored performance and memory measures to placebo levels. Although visual analog ratings of dizziness were increased by ethanol, they were not diminished by either caffeine dose. In conclusion, Low-dose caffeine prevented the sleepiness and performance impairment associated with a moderate dose of ethanol. Thus, caffeine, similar to other stimulants, can reverse the physiologically sedating effects of ethanol, although other negative effects remain.

  3. The Relationship between Multiplication Fact Speed-Recall and Fluency and Higher Level Mathematics Learning with Eighth Grade Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Steven James

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated relationships between higher level mathematics learning and multiplication fact fluency, multiplication fact speed-recall, and reading grade equivalency of eighth grade students in Algebra I and Pre-Algebra. Higher level mathematics learning was indicated by an average score of 80% or higher on first and second…

  4. Parallel changes in the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) and threshold of psychomotor performance deterioration during incremental exercise after training in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jan; Nazar, Krystyna

    2010-03-01

    During aerobic exercise with increasing intensities choice reaction time (CRT) progressively shortens up to 60-80% of maximal workload, and then it rapidly increases. The aim of this study was to determine whether workload associated with the shortest CRT operationally called "the psychomotor fatigue threshold" is related to the metabolic response to exercise. Thirteen male soccer players (aged 23.3 + or - 1.0 yrs) participated in this study. Before and after 6 weeks of training in the pre-competition period they underwent treadmill test at 0 grade with running speed increasing every 3 min by 2 km/h starting from 6 km/h until exhaustion. At each stage of exercise CRT, heart rate, respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate [LA] were measured and the workload corresponding to [LA] of 4 mmol/l (OBLA) was recorded. After training, CRT was significantly shortened at rest (from m + or - SEM = 345 + or - 12 to 317 + or - 12 ms) and during exercise (from 304 + or - 10 to 285 + or - 11 ms at the psychomotor fatigue threshold and from 359 + or - 13 to 331 + or - 13 ms, pchanges in OBLA occurring during training and those in psychomotor fatigue threshold (r = 0.88). It is concluded that endurance training not only increases exercise tolerance due to its influence on metabolism but also facilitates psychomotor performance during heavy exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantum driving of a two level system: quantum speed limit and superadiabatic protocols – an experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malossi, N; Arimondo, E; Ciampini, D; Mannella, R; Bason, M G; Viteau, M; Morsch, O

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and in many other areas of science is the capability of precisely controlling a quantum system by preparing a quantum state with the highest fidelity and/or in the fastest possible way. Here we present an experimental investigation of a two level system, characterized by a time-dependent Landau-Zener Hamiltonian, aiming to test general and optimal high-fidelity control protocols. The experiment is based on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into an optical lattice, then accelerated, which provides a high degree of control over the experimental parameters. We implement generalized Landau-Zener sweeps, comparing them with the well-known linear Landau-Zener sweep. We drive the system from an initial state to a final state with fidelity close to unity in the shortest possible time (quantum brachistochrone), thus reaching the ultimate speed limit imposed by quantum mechanics. On the opposite extreme of the quantum control spectrum, the aim is not to minimize the total transition time but to maximize the adiabaticity during the time-evolution, the system being constrained to the adiabatic ground state at any time. We implement such transitionless superadiabatic protocols by an appropriate transformation of the Hamiltonian parameters. This transformation is general and independent of the physical system.

  6. Effect of Acute, Subacute, and Repeated Exposure to High Altitude (5050 m on Psychomotor Vigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiram Pun

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: High altitude (HA hypoxia may affect cognitive performance and sleep quality. Further, vigilance is reduced following sleep deprivation. We investigated the effect on vigilance, actigraphic sleep indices, and their relationships with acute mountain sickness (AMS during very HA exposure, acclimatization, and re-exposure.Methods: A total of 21 healthy altitude-naive individuals (25 ± 4 years; 13 females completed 2 cycles of altitude exposure separated by 7 days at low altitude (LA, 520 m. Participants slept at 2900 m and spent the day at HA, (5050 m. We report acute altitude exposure on Day 1 (LA vs. HA1 and after 6 days of acclimatization (HA1 vs. HA6. Vigilance was quantified by reaction speed in the 10-min psychomotor vigilance test reaction speed (PVT-RS. AMS was evaluated using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire Cerebral Score (AMS-C score. Nocturnal rest/activity was recorded to estimate sleep duration using actigraphy.Results: In Cycle 1, PVT-RS was slower at HA1 compared to LA (4.1 ± 0.8 vs. 4.5 ± 0.6 s-1, respectively, p = 0.029, but not at HA6 (4.6 ± 0.7; p > 0.05. In Cycle 2, PVT-RS at HA1 (4.6 ± 0.7 and HA6 (4.8 ± 0.6 were not different from LA (4.8 ± 0.6, p > 0.05 and significantly greater than corresponding values in Cycle 1. In both cycles, AMS scores were higher at HA1 than at LA and HA6 (p < 0.05. Estimated sleep durations (TST at LA, 1st and 5th nights were 431.3 ± 28.7, 418.1 ± 48.6, and 379.7 ± 51.4 min, respectively, in Cycle 1 and they were significantly reduced during acclimatization exposures (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.012; and 1st vs. 5th night, p = 0.054. LA, 1st and 5th nights TST in Cycle 2 were 477.5 ± 96.9, 430.9 ± 34, and 341.4 ± 32.2, respectively, and we observed similar deteriorations in TST as in Cycle 1 (LA vs. 1st night, p > 0.05; LA vs. 5th night, p = 0.001; and 1st vs. 5th night, p < 0.0001. At HA1, subjects who reported higher AMS-C scores exhibited slower

  7. The contribution to immediate serial recall of rehearsal, search speed, access to lexical memory, and phonological coding: an investigation at the construct level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehan, Gerald; Fogarty, Gerard; Ryan, Katherine

    2004-07-01

    Rehearsal speed has traditionally been seen to be the prime determinant of individual differences in memory span. Recent studies, in the main using young children as the participant population, have suggested other contributors to span performance. In the present research, we used structural equation modeling to explore, at the construct level, individual differences in immediate serial recall with respect to rehearsal, search, phonological coding, and speed of access to lexical memory. We replicated standard short-term phenomena; we showed that the variables that influence children's span performance influence adult performance in the same way; and we showed that speed of access to lexical memory and facility with phonological codes appear to be more potent sources of individual differences in immediate memory than is either rehearsal speed or search factors.

  8. Comparative evaluation of twenty pilot workload assessment measure using a psychomotor task in a moving base aircraft simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, S. A.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison of the sensitivity and intrusion of twenty pilot workload assessment techniques was conducted using a psychomotor loading task in a three degree of freedom moving base aircraft simulator. The twenty techniques included opinion measures, spare mental capacity measures, physiological measures, eye behavior measures, and primary task performance measures. The primary task was an instrument landing system (ILS) approach and landing. All measures were recorded between the outer marker and the middle marker on the approach. Three levels (low, medium, and high) of psychomotor load were obtained by the combined manipulation of windgust disturbance level and simulated aircraft pitch stability. Six instrument rated pilots participated in four seasons lasting approximately three hours each.

  9. Tools for the direct observation and assessment of psychomotor skills in medical trainees: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelovsek, J Eric; Kow, Nathan; Diwadkar, Gouri B

    2013-07-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Milestone Project mandates programmes to assess the attainment of training outcomes, including the psychomotor (surgical or procedural) skills of medical trainees. The objectives of this study were to determine which tools exist to directly assess psychomotor skills in medical trainees on live patients and to identify the data indicating their psychometric and edumetric properties. An electronic search was conducted for papers published from January 1948 to May 2011 using the PubMed, Education Resource Information Center (ERIC), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Web of Science electronic databases and the review of references in article bibliographies. A study was included if it described a tool or instrument designed for the direct observation of psychomotor skills in patient care settings by supervisors. Studies were excluded if they referred to tools that assessed only clinical or non-technical skills, involved non-medical health professionals, or assessed skills performed on a simulator. Overall, 4114 citations were screened, 168 (4.1%) articles were reviewed for eligibility and 51 (1.2%) manuscripts were identified as meeting the study inclusion criteria. Three authors abstracted and reviewed studies using a standardised form for the presence of key psychometric and edumetric elements as per ACGME and American Psychological Association (APA) recommendations, and also assigned an overall grade based on the ACGME Committee on Educational Outcome Assessment grading system. A total of 30 tools were identified. Construct validity based on associations between scores and training level was identified in 24 tools, internal consistency in 14, test-retest reliability in five and inter-rater reliability in 20. The modification of attitudes, knowledge or skills was reported using five tools. The seven-item Global Rating Scale and the Procedure-Based Assessment received an

  10. Neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration and psychomotor development at preschool age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; De Schepper, Jean; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo; Tafforeau, Jean; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for normal brain development. The aim of this study is to assess if high concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L) at neonatal screening is linked to psychomotor development impairments in the offspring at preschool age. A total of 284 Belgian preschool children 4-6 years old and their mothers were included in the study. The children were randomly selected from the total list of neonates screened in 2008, 2009 and 2010 by the Brussels newborn screening centre. The sampling was stratified by gender and TSH range (0.45-15 mIU/L). Infants with congenital hypothyroidism (>15 mIU/L), low birth weight and/or prematurity were excluded. Psychomotor development was assessed using the Charlop-Atwell scale of motor coordination. The iodine status of children was determined using median urinary iodine concentration. Socioeconomic, parental and child potential confounding factors were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. TSH level was not significantly associated with total motor score (average change in z-score per unit increase in TSH is 0.02 (-0.03, 0.07), p=0.351), objective motor score (p=0.794) and subjective motor score (p=0.124). No significant associations were found using multivariate regression model to control confounding factors. Mild thyroid dysfunction in the newborn-reflected by an elevation of TSH that is below the clinical threshold (5-15 mIU/L)-was not associated with impaired psychomotor development at preschool age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Development of a Field-Deployable Psychomotor Vigilance Test to Monitor Helicopter Pilot Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2016-04-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.

  12. Accurate prediction of complex free surface flow around a high speed craft using a single-phase level set method

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    Broglia, Riccardo; Durante, Danilo

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of a challenging free surface flow problem involving a surface vessel moving at high speeds, or planing. The investigation is performed using a general purpose high Reynolds free surface solver developed at CNR-INSEAN. The methodology is based on a second order finite volume discretization of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (Di Mascio et al. in A second order Godunov—type scheme for naval hydrodynamics, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, Dordrecht, pp 253-261, 2001; Proceedings of 16th international offshore and polar engineering conference, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2006; J Mar Sci Technol 14:19-29, 2009); air/water interface dynamics is accurately modeled by a non standard level set approach (Di Mascio et al. in Comput Fluids 36(5):868-886, 2007a), known as the single-phase level set method. In this algorithm the governing equations are solved only in the water phase, whereas the numerical domain in the air phase is used for a suitable extension of the fluid dynamic variables. The level set function is used to track the free surface evolution; dynamic boundary conditions are enforced directly on the interface. This approach allows to accurately predict the evolution of the free surface even in the presence of violent breaking waves phenomena, maintaining the interface sharp, without any need to smear out the fluid properties across the two phases. This paper is aimed at the prediction of the complex free-surface flow field generated by a deep-V planing boat at medium and high Froude numbers (from 0.6 up to 1.2). In the present work, the planing hull is treated as a two-degree-of-freedom rigid object. Flow field is characterized by the presence of thin water sheets, several energetic breaking waves and plungings. The computational results include convergence of the trim angle, sinkage and resistance under grid refinement; high-quality experimental data are used for the purposes of validation, allowing to

  13. Training to acquire psychomotor skills for endoscopic endonasal surgery using a personal webcam trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Umegaki, Masao; Kagawa, Naoki; Kinoshita, Manabu; Hashimoto, Naoya; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2013-05-01

    Existing training methods for neuroendoscopic surgery have mainly emphasized the acquisition of anatomical knowledge and procedures for operating an endoscope and instruments. For laparoscopic surgery, various training systems have been developed to teach handling of an endoscope as well as the manipulation of instruments for speedy and precise endoscopic performance using both hands. In endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), especially using a binostril approach to the skull base and intradural lesions, the learning of more meticulous manipulation of instruments is mandatory, and it may be necessary to develop another type of training method for acquiring psychomotor skills for EES. Authors of the present study developed an inexpensive, portable personal trainer using a webcam and objectively evaluated its utility. Twenty-five neurosurgeons volunteered for this study and were divided into 2 groups, a novice group (19 neurosurgeons) and an experienced group (6 neurosurgeons). Before and after the exercises of set tasks with a webcam box trainer, the basic endoscopic skills of each participant were objectively assessed using the virtual reality simulator (LapSim) while executing 2 virtual tasks: grasping and instrument navigation. Scores for the following 11 performance variables were recorded: instrument time, instrument misses, instrument path length, and instrument angular path (all of which were measured in both hands), as well as tissue damage, max damage, and finally overall score. Instrument time was indicated as movement speed; instrument path length and instrument angular path as movement efficiency; and instrument misses, tissue damage, and max damage as movement precision. In the novice group, movement speed and efficiency were significantly improved after the training. In the experienced group, significant improvement was not shown in the majority of virtual tasks. Before the training, significantly greater movement speed and efficiency were demonstrated in

  14. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Preschool Children's Psychomotor Development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Sofía; Prieto, José Antonio; Nistal, Paloma; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; López, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    This study analyzed the psychomotor profiles of preschool stage students and to determine how these data agreed with the students' teachers' subjective assessment. We also correlated these data with other variables such as age, gender, and family influence. A total of 211 children aged 3 to 6 years, in the second cycle of preschool from 30 classes of 10 schools in Spain participated. Additionally, 30 preschool teachers from these classes participated. Study results revealed serious teacher misperceptions regarding their students' psychomotor development, with low agreement rates between students and teachers in the motor dimension and slight agreement rates in communicative, cognitive, and social areas. The reasons for and implications of these misperceptions are discussed.

  16. Objective psychomotor skills assessment of experienced and novice flexible endoscopists with a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, E Matt; McClusky, David A; Lederman, Andrew B; Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel

    2003-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the GI Mentor II virtual reality simulator can distinguish the psychomotor skills of intermediately experienced endoscopists from those of novices, and do so with a high level of consistency and reliability. A total of five intermediate and nine novice endoscopists were evaluated using the EndoBubble abstract psychomotor task. Each subject performed three repetitions of the task. Performance and error data were recorded for each trial. The intermediate group performed better than the novice group in each trial. The differences were significant in trial 1 for balloons popped (P=.001), completion time (P=.04), and errors (P=.03). Trial 2 showed significance only for balloons popped (P=.002). Trial 3 showed significance for balloons popped (P=.004) and errors (P=.008). The novice group showed significant improvement between trials 1 and 3 (P<0.05). No improvement was noted in the intermediate group. Measures of consistency and reliability were greater than 0.8 in both groups with the exception of novice completion time where test-retest reliability was 0.74. The GI Mentor II simulator can distinguish between novice and intermediate endoscopists. The simulator assesses skills with levels of consistency and reliability required for high-stakes assessment.

  17. The laparoscopic performance of novice surgical trainees: testing for acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, J A; Zoha, F

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested that virtual reality (VR) might be useful for the selection of surgical trainees and the measurement of technical performance during preoperative training and retraining. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to define and measure the acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills in novice surgical trainees. Novice surgical trainees (NSTs n = 10, junior surgical registrars with little or no prior experience with laparoscopic surgery) were tested and retested after 1 month using the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality. Two tasks were used: the simple task [stretch diathermy (SD)] and the more complex task [manipulation diathermy (MD)]. The score was derived from the time taken to complete the task and the number of errors that occurred. Acquisition is the difference between the first and last score of the first training session, loss is the difference in score that occurs between the last score of the first training session and the first score of the second training session, and reacquisition is the difference in the first and last scores of the second training session. A performance criterion level was defined for each task by testing a group of experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n = 10). Groups were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, with p psychomotor skills in individual NSTs and to compare them with a predefined performance criterion level. This study defines parameters that will be useful in repeated training sessions of NSTs in the preoperative phase of training and during retraining.

  18. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  19. Systematization of the Psychomotor Activity and Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Mas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show how the habitual practices of psychomotricity from 12 months old can raise the cognitive development of children. Over the last years there has been an increase of studies related to the effect of the practice of physical-motor exercise on the cognitive function. The psychomotor development in childhood is the basis of the mental development in the scholastic age. The knowledge that the studies can bring from Cognitive Neuroscience allows optimising the process of training-apprenticeship. We selected 26 children between 12 and 22 months old divided in three groups: G0, G1, and G2. During the training period (5 months G0 took part in psychomotricity sessions, G1 performed a psychomotor session per week, and G2 performed two sessions per week. All groups held one session every week during the practice period (23 months. The comparison of results obtained from the measures gathered in pre-post training phases and the post-final practice phase concludes that the systematization of the psychomotor activity has influenced cognitive capacities.

  20. Systematization of the Psychomotor Activity and Cognitive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Mas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show how the habitual practices of psychomotricity from 12 months old can raise the cognitive development of children. Over the last years there has been an increase of studies related to the effect of the practice of physical-motor exercise on the cognitive function. The psychomotor development in childhood is the basis of the mental development in the scholastic age. The knowledge that the studies can bring from Cognitive Neuroscience allows optimising the process of training-apprenticeship. We selected 26 children between 12 and 22 months old divided in three groups: G0, G1, and G2. During the training period (5 months G0 took part in psychomotricity sessions, G1 performed a psychomotor session per week, and G2 performed two sessions per week. All groups held one session every week during the practice period (23 months. The comparison of results obtained from the measures gathered in pre-post training phases and the post-final practice phase concludes that the systematization of the psychomotor activity has influenced cognitive capacities.

  1. Psychomotor skills training in pediatric airway endoscopy simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Noel; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert M; Sidman, James D

    2011-07-01

    To develop a robust psychomotor skills curriculum to teach pediatric airway foreign body retrieval and to assess the effect of this curriculum on residents' confidence in and ability to perform the complete task in an infant airway mannequin. Instructional course. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Surgical simulation laboratory. A half-day simulation-based course was developed to train otolaryngology residents in bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. This complex psychomotor skill was deconstructed into subtasks. The following curricular learning objectives were presented and assessed: understanding of tracheobronchial anatomy, ability to adequately visualize the larynx with laryngoscopy, proficiency in rigid bronchoscopy, and familiarity with foreign body instrumentation. Residents were objectively evaluated on their ability to perform the complete task on a simulator before and after the course using an OSATS grading system. Confidence in successfully assembling the instruments and completing the task was assessed at these time periods. Seventeen otolaryngology residents completed the study. Confidence in assembling the instruments and in performing the complete task increased on average by 81% and 43%, respectively (P < .001). Using a 15-point OSATS grading system, the average score for the precourse was 7 and for the postcourse was 11.3 (P < .001). Simulation-based subtask training shows promise as an effective and reproducible method to teach the complex psychomotor task of airway foreign body retrieval. Completion of the curriculum led to a significant improvement in residents' confidence in and ability to perform bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval in an infant airway mannequin.

  2. A prospective study of psychomotor performance of driving among two kinds of shift work in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Ashayeri, Hassan; Fayaz, Mahsa; Rostami, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim Driving after a night shift imposes a risk on health care professionals and other road users. The aim of this study was to measure psychomotor performance of driving of night shift nurses compared to day-shift nurses. Methods Forty-seven volunteer female nurses working at Sina hospital in Tehran, Iran, with a call in all departments of hospital, participated in this study (23 night shift and 24 day shift nurses) in 2016. The tests included RT for simple reaction time, ATAVT for perceptual speed, LVT for visual orientation and ZBA for time anticipation. Data collection tools were individual characteristics, 11-item circadian type inventory (CTI), Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and Swedish occupational fatigue inventory (SOFI-20) questionnaires. Psychomotor driving performance was assessed using validated computerized traffic psychological battery of Vienna Test System (VTS), before and after the shifts. Data analysis was performed using paired-samples t-test and Linear Regression. Results The mean age of day and night-shift nurses were 31.4±5.6 and 28.7±3.9 years respectively, no significant difference between two groups. Thirty percent of night shift and 16.7% of day shift nurses reported traffic accidents in the past year. The results revealed that, scores based on viewing times in visual orientation test (p=0.005), and median reaction time score in choice reaction time and reactive stress tolerance test (p=0.045), had a significant association with a 12-hour night shift with a 3-hour nap. Conclusions Twelve-hour night shift work impairs choice reaction time and visual orientation in nurses, even though they take a 3- hour nap during the shift. These skills are required for safe driving. PMID:29629067

  3. Comparison of psychomotor function between music students and students participating in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirinukor, Wunpen; Khemthong, Supalak

    2014-07-01

    To compare psychomotor function between a music student group who had music education and a non-music student group who participated in music training. Consecutive sampling was used for completing questionnaires, testing reaction times (visual, auditory, and tactile system), measuring electromyography of upper trapezius muscles both sides and taking photos of the Craniovertebral (CV) angle in the sitting position. Data collection was made twice for each student group: the music students at one-hour intervals for resting and conducting nonmusic activities, the non-music students at two-day intervals, 20 minutes/session, and performed music training (by a manual of keyboard notation). The non-music students (n = 65) improved reaction times, but responded slower than the music students except for the tactile system. The music students (n = 28) showed faster reaction times and higher activities of the trapezius muscle than the non-music students at post-test. In addition, the CV angle of the non-music students was significantly improved. The level of musical ability may influence the psychomotor function. Significant improvement was observed in visual, auditory and tactile reaction time, and CV angle in the non-music students. However upper trapezius muscle activities between both student groups were unchanged.

  4. Association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's mental, psychomotor and language development in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N

    2012-06-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.

  5. Design of therapeutic clothing for sensory stimulation of children with psychomotor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ângela; Miguel, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This research work was based on an experimental concept of functional clothing for children with psychomotor development limitations. No matter the analyzed pathology, all these children need sensorial stimulation because of their psychomotor difficulties, especially at fine motor skills level. The main objective was to develop functional and comfortable clothing with sensorial stimulation elements (colours, textures, fragrances, sounds, etc.). It is intended, on the one hand, to increase the autonomy of the children in what concerns the act of dressing/undressing and, on the other hand, to stimulate their learning, coordination and self-esteem. A study about the specific needs of these children concerning clothing was worked out, which consisted in inquiring their parents and therapists. Based on the inquiries results, bibliographic revision in the area of therapeutic/ interactive clothing and analysis of didactic and therapeutic material catalogues we developed a clothing prototype (sweat-shirt). The prototype was then tested by the children of the study sample and the test results were, once again, explained by the parents through the fulfilling of a prototype evaluation inquiry. This study supplied some important conclusions, more directed to the confirmation of the theme significance and to the definition of a methodology to be used in future research.

  6. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON ASQISITION OF NEW PSYCHOMOTOR ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of tuition according to the program of nine-year elementary school demanded that many schools had to fit out their classrooms and gymnasiums with modern audio and visual devices and computers. The preview of the recording of the expertly demonstrated motion followed by the precisely formulated explanation, the drawing or the the kinogram may contribute the learning process, since it enables children to create a clear conception of the motion that has to be learned. It is useful to mention that we can always use either slow motion or show the recording over and over. By using the mentioned advantages the teacher can focus his attention on motivation, assistance, error correction and feedback giving instead of on demonstration and explanation of the movenent itself. In order to evaluate and compare the influence of different sources of information on acquisition of the new psychomotor activity this paper offers the experiment on the sample of 43 second grade students (nine-year elementary school divided into two homogenous subspecimens. Both groups were learning the same new psychomotor activity, but according to two different sources of information. The first group was learning through the method usually employed in the practice of lower elementary teaching on that level. The other group was learning by watching the video recording of the expertly demonstrated motion combined with the audio recording. According to the data obtained through statistical processing it is possible to conclude that the other group learned statistically more successful.

  7. Outcome measures and psychomotor skills related to shoulder conditions for clinical orthopedic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Surreya; Al-Obaidi, Saud; Al-Zoabi, Baker

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the ability of physical therapy (PT) students to utilize selected outcome measures such as range of motion (ROM), pain and a number of psychomotor skills and to determine the efficacy of treatment they carried out during orthopedic clinical training. The clinical education booklets in orthopedics of all PT students over a 6-year period were reviewed. Students' application of psychomotor skills such as peripheral joint mobilizations (PJM), proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques, therapeutic exercise techniques as well as utilization of basic outcome measures such as ROM and pain were analyzed with descriptive statistics and paired t test. A majority of students used PJM techniques (78.6%) and PNF techniques (58.6%). The paired t test indicated that treatment interventions used by the students were associated with improved shoulder joint ROM and decreased pain levels (p < 0.001). At the same time, therapeutic exercises were employed by the students after PJM and PNF. The most common 'comparable joint sign' was limitation in shoulder abduction ROM, which occurred in 44% of patients seen by the students. PT students' application of PJM, PNF, and therapeutic exercise improved ROM and decreased pain in patients with shoulder pathologies. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Methods and tools for objective assessment of psychomotor skills in laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Lamata, Pablo; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Pagador, José B; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2011-11-01

    Training and assessment paradigms for laparoscopic surgical skills are evolving from traditional mentor-trainee tutorship towards structured, more objective and safer programs. Accreditation of surgeons requires reaching a consensus on metrics and tasks used to assess surgeons' psychomotor skills. Ongoing development of tracking systems and software solutions has allowed for the expansion of novel training and assessment means in laparoscopy. The current challenge is to adapt and include these systems within training programs, and to exploit their possibilities for evaluation purposes. This paper describes the state of the art in research on measuring and assessing psychomotor laparoscopic skills. It gives an overview on tracking systems as well as on metrics and advanced statistical and machine learning techniques employed for evaluation purposes. The later ones have a potential to be used as an aid in deciding on the surgical competence level, which is an important aspect when accreditation of the surgeons in particular, and patient safety in general, are considered. The prospective of these methods and tools make them complementary means for surgical assessment of motor skills, especially in the early stages of training. Successful examples such as the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery should help drive a paradigm change to structured curricula based on objective parameters. These may improve the accreditation of new surgeons, as well as optimize their already overloaded training schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Method of forming psychomotor skills during the process of physical culture in general school.

    OpenAIRE

    Artyushenko O.F.; Artyushenko A.O.; Nechyporenko D.L.

    2012-01-01

    The essence of the concept of "psychomotor skills" as a component of preparedness for managing voluntary movements is considered. In experiment took part 690 pupils among them were 362 pupils of middle school age and 328 senior pupils. It is proved that the essence of the problem of formation of psychomotor abilities is to increase the influence of psychological factors on the efficiency of motor activity of schoolchildren. Systematized, and developed new test psychomotor task and special gam...

  10. Objective psychomotor skills assessment of experienced, junior, and novice laparoscopists with virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A G; Richie, K; McClure, N; McGuigan, J

    2001-11-01

    Objective assessment of psychomotor skills in surgery is now a priority; however, this assessment is difficult to achieve because of measurement difficulties associated with the reliability and validity of assessing surgical skills in vivo and in the laboratory. In this study virtual reality (VR) was used to overcome these problems in the objective psychomotor assessment of senior, junior, and novice laparoscopists. Twelve experienced laparoscopic surgeons (performed >50 Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) procedures), 12 inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons (psychomotor skills for laparoscopic surgery.

  11. Influence of breastfeeding and iron status on mental and psychomotor development during the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardí, Cristina; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Arija, Victoria; Bedmar, Cristina; Voltas, Núria; Aranda, Núria

    2018-02-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) confers numerous benefits on the developing infant in both the short and the long term including psychological development, but there are multiple other factors that must be taken into account when these relationships are studied. To analyse how breastfeeding during the first 4 months of life affects infant mental and psychomotor development (MPD) at 6 and 12 months in a group of healthy infants from a Mediterranean Spanish city considering many important potential confounds. This is a longitudinal study conducted on infants from birth until the age of 12 months. A total of 154 healthy infants were evaluated by Paediatric Unit of Sant Joan University Hospital in Reus, Spain. Type of feeding, clinical history, anthropometry, iron status and mental and psychomotor development were assessed and analysed. At 4 months, 24% of infants received BF and 26% received mixed feeding (MF). Multiple Linear Regression models were applied adjusting for potential prenatal, perinatal and postnatal confounds showing that infants who received BF for at least four months presented higher psychomotor development index (PDI) at 6 and at 12 months of age. Also, gestational age and BMI at 6m were associated positively with PDI at 6 m, and haemoglobin levels at 12m and birth height were associated with PDI and MDI at 12m (respectively). In conclusion, after the adjustment of important potential confounds, BF during at least four months and adequate infant iron status are related to better psychomotor development during the first year. No associations were found between BF and mental development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modulation of the effects of alcohol on driving-related psychomotor skills by chronic exposure to cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A; Terry, P

    2002-03-01

    Many previous studies have reported that alcohol and cannabis produce additive psychomotor effects in acute combination, but few have explicitly tested whether chronic exposure to cannabis, in the absence of acute administration, alters the effects of alcohol on psychomotor performance. To test whether long-term cannabis use modulates the effects of alcohol on psychomotor skills and self-reported mood and sensation. Regular cannabis users (minimum: daily use for at least 3 years) and infrequent users (maximum: once-monthly use for at most 3 years) were matched for sex, age, alcohol intake and other drug use (14 participants in each group). Participants received alcohol (females 0.35 g/kg; males 0.45 g/kg) and placebo drinks. By urinalysis, only regular users tested positive for metabolites of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol; breath alcohol levels were similar between groups. Participants were tested on a computerised tracking task that has been used to screen drugs for adverse effects on driving. The task involved tracking a moving target on a computer screen while simultaneously responding to occasional presentations of stimuli in the periphery of the screen. Tracking accuracy was similar for both groups after placebo, but alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance among infrequent cannabis users relative to regular users. These changes were mirrored by significant changes in self-reported scores for dizziness, measured by visual analogue scales. Alcohol slowed reaction times, but not differentially between groups. For psychomotor skills relevant to driving, chronic cannabis use (in the absence of acute administration) does not potentiate the effects of alcohol. In fact, the superior tracking accuracy of regular users relative to infrequent users after alcohol, and their lower scores for dizziness, suggest that chronic cannabis use may instead confer cross-tolerance to specific effects of alcohol on behaviour.

  13. Behavioural typologies of experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in patients with chronic shoulder pain: A grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Anne Schinkel; Pedersen, Lise Lang; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Sørensen, Dorthe

    2018-05-01

    In this study we aimed to develop a theoretical account of the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in addition to treatment as usual in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The qualitative study design was based on a grounded theory approach. Open-ended face-to-face interviews were conducted after treatment was completed. We generated data and performed analyses by constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling that focused on the patients' behavioural characteristics related to the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy. We conducted 12 interviews, eight of which were with men. "Regaining capability" emerged as representative of the pattern of behaviour. Through this pattern, the patients resolved concern about losing capability. Regaining capability involved three behavioural typologies: taking advice, minding the body, and encompassing life changes. The patients' behavioural typologies revealed different levels of life changes. Psychomotor therapy offered the patients in our study new and better ways of coping with their shoulder pain. Copyright © 2018 Department of Physio- and Occupational Therapy, Hospital Lillebaelt - Vejle Hospital. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of iodine status and other nutritional factors on psychomotor and cognitive performance of Filipino schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Bongga, Demetria C; Peñano-Ho, Leticia; Cruz, Federico B; Solis, José S; Barrios, Erniel B

    2007-03-01

    Until 1998, iodine deficiency was a public health problem in the Philippines. A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency. The contribution of salt iodization, as well as dietary, health, and environmental factors, to improving the intellectual performance of Filipino schoolchildren remains to be determined. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between iodine status and levels of psychomotor and cognitive performance in first-grade children aged 6 to 10 years, and to examine the extent to which dietary, biochemical, health, and environmental factors contribute to children's mental performance. Two hundred ninety children in six classroom sections from a public school in Manila were examined by measurement of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid palpation. The median UIE level for each section was determined. Sixty-five children classified as iodine deficient (UIE 100 microg/L without goiter, n = 31) were given psychomotor and cognitive function tests (Bender-Gestalt and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices). Scores from the two tests were used to determine each child's general ability percentile rank. Other variables examined were dietary intake (% RDA of nutrients ingested based on two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls); deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and selenium; parasitic infection; coliform contamination of drinking water; household use of iodized salt; illness in the past 2 weeks; and wasting and stunting. Children whose general ability scores were at or above the 50th percentile had higher UIE levels, but the relationship was not significant. Children from sections with higher median UIE levels had higher percentile ranks for general ability (p = .002). Backward logistic regression showed that the variance in deficient and adequate mental performance was explained by dietary intakes that met > or = 80% of the RDA for energy

  15. [Psychomotor reaction in primates placed in ballistic flight in rockets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, R; Chatelier, G

    1968-01-01

    Psychomotor reactions have been studied in Nemestrina Macaques during flights in rockets in which there were periods of weightlessness lasting about 10 minutes. The animals had undergone motor conditioning and responded to a light signal by pressing on a button placed on a panel where there were four other undifferentiated buttons. The lighting of the panel and pressing on the different buttons in reply was recorded with respect to time. Movement was observed by film recording, and electrical activity of the brain was kept under observation by six different recordings of the cortex. Activity of stretching and bending muscles of the legs was recorded, as well as breathing, and heart activity was recorded on an electrocardiogram. These psychological parameters were transmitted to the earth by long-distance measurement during the entire flight. The recordings made it possible to confirm that the absence of the sensation of weight seems to reduce the alertness of the animals. This fact had already been observed in Wistar's rat and cat. The sensor-psychomotor responses undergo important individual variations and depend on the motivation of the subjects. A very well motivated one reacted after a short period of adaption, as it did in the laboratory: one that was much less motivated would not work until after weightlessness has ended, and showed signs of drowsiness. These observations made during the flights in rockets confirm those of Chambers et al., Harris et al., Lilly et al. made in immersion studies; they show the important role of weight in maintaining alertness, but that changes of psychomotor activity are particularly related to motivation.

  16. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  17. Simulated Evaluation of Drug-Impaired Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Richmond R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized-crossover study was to evaluate a computer-based divided-attention task as a method for measure impaired human psychomotor performance. The ability of the divided-attention task to detect and differentiate was evaluated using single oral doses of placebo, caffeine and diphenhydramine. Ten healthy men were the subjects of the study. Subject performance on divided-attention was compared with tests of short-term memory and a set of visual analog...

  18. A study of psychomotor skills in minimally invasive surgery: what differentiates expert and nonexpert performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina; Langø, Thomas; Kuhry, Esther; Mårvik, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    A high level of psychomotor skills is required to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) safely. To assure high quality of skills, it is important to be able to measure and assess these skills. For that, it is necessary to determine aspects that indicate the difference between performances at various levels of proficiency. Measurement and assessment of skills in MIS are best done in an automatic and objective way. The goal of this study was to investigate a set of nine motion-related metrics for their relevance to assess psychomotor skills in MIS during the performance of a labyrinth task. Thirty-two surgeons and medical students were divided into three groups according to their level of experience in MIS; experts (>500 MIS procedures), intermediates (31-500 MIS), and novices (no experience in MIS). The participants performed the labyrinth task in the D-box Basic simulator (D-Box Medical, Lier, Norway). The task required bimanual maneuvering and threading a needle through a labyrinth of 10 holes. Nine motion-related metrics were used to assess the MIS skills of each participant. Experts (n = 7) and intermediates (n = 14) performed significantly better than the novices (n = 11) in terms of time and parameters measuring the amount of instrument movement. The experts had significantly better bimanual dexterity, which indicated that they made more simultaneous movements of the two instruments compared to the intermediates and novices. The experts also performed the task with a shorter instrument path length with the nondominant hand than the intermediates. The surgeon's performance in MIS can be distinguished from a novice by metrics such as time and path length. An experienced surgeon in MIS can be differentiated from a less experienced one by the higher ability to control the instrument in the nondominant hand and the higher degree of simultaneous (coordinated) movements of the two instruments.

  19. Effects of befloxatone, a reversible selective monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor, on psychomotor function and memory in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Berlin, I; Patat, A; Durrieu, G; Zieleniuk, I; Puech, A J

    1996-10-01

    Befloxatone is a new reversible and selective monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) inhibitor that has been shown to have antidepressant activity in various animal models. To assess the effects of single oral doses of befloxatone (5, 10, and 20 mg) on psychomotor performance and memory, a randomized, double-blind, five-way, crossover study with both placebo and amitriptyline (50 mg) was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were evaluated using both objective measures, including Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a picture memory test and subjective measures, including Visual Analog Scales (VAS) and Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI), before and 2, 4, and 8 hours after administration. Pupil diameter was recorded by videopupillography. Single doses of befloxatone from 5 to 20 mg did not result in any detrimental effects on skilled performance and memory. In contrast, amitriptyline significantly impaired arousal (CFF), speed of reaction (CRT), information processing (DSST) and long-term memory (delayed free recall of pictures) and produced subjective sedation from 2 to 8 hours after administration. At the doses studied amitriptyline induced miosis but befloxatone did not modify pupil diameter. There was no evidence in this study to suggest that befloxatone, at the doses studied, has any sedative or amnesic effects in healthy subjects.

  20. Distribution of innate psychomotor skills recognized as important for surgical specialization in unconditioned medical undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moglia, Andrea; Morelli, Luca; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2018-03-14

    There is an increasing interest for a test assessing objectively the innate aptitude for surgery as a craft specialty to complement the current selection process of surgical residents. The aim of this study was to quantify the size of individuals with high, average, and low level of innate psychomotor skills among medical students. A volunteer sample of 155 medical students, without prior experience with surgical simulator, executed five tasks at a virtual simulator for robot-assisted surgery. They had to reach proficiency twice consecutively in each before moving to the next one. A weighting based on time and number of attempts needed to reach proficiency was assigned to each task. Nine students (5.8%) out of 155 significantly outperformed all the others on median (i.q.r.) weighted time [44.7 (42.2-47.3) min vs. 98.5 (70.8-131.8) min, p specialization in other (non-craft) medical specialties.

  1. Psychomotor skills in medical ultrasound imaging: an analysis of the core skill set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon

    2014-08-01

    Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Establishing a curriculum for the acquisition of laparoscopic psychomotor skills in the virtual reality environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsky, Daniel M; Fernando, Bimbi; Berlingieri, Pasquale

    2012-09-01

    The unique psychomotor skills required in laparoscopy result in reduced patient safety during the early part of the learning curve. Evidence suggests that these may be safely acquired in the virtual reality (VR) environment. Several VR simulators are available, each preloaded with several psychomotor skills tasks that provide users with computer-generated performance metrics. This review aimed to evaluate the usefulness of specific psychomotor skills tasks and metrics, and how trainers might build an effective training curriculum. We performed a comprehensive literature search. The vast majority of VR psychomotor skills tasks show construct validity for one or more metrics. These are commonly for time and motion parameters. Regarding training schedules, distributed practice is preferred over massed practice. However, a degree of supervision may be needed to counter the limitations of VR training. In the future, standardized proficiency scores should facilitate local institutions in establishing VR laparoscopic psychomotor skills curricula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta, Jose A.; Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error ε made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R 2 statistic (R a 2 ). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R a 2 statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R a 2 increases

  4. Influence of the level of fit of a density probability function to wind-speed data on the WECS mean power output estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carta, Jose A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Campus de Tafira s/n, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain); Ramirez, Penelope; Velazquez, Sergio [Department of Renewable Energies, Technological Institute of the Canary Islands, Pozo Izquierdo Beach s/n, 35119 Santa Lucia, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Static methods which are based on statistical techniques to estimate the mean power output of a WECS (wind energy conversion system) have been widely employed in the scientific literature related to wind energy. In the static method which we use in this paper, for a given wind regime probability distribution function and a known WECS power curve, the mean power output of a WECS is obtained by resolving the integral, usually using numerical evaluation techniques, of the product of these two functions. In this paper an analysis is made of the influence of the level of fit between an empirical probability density function of a sample of wind speeds and the probability density function of the adjusted theoretical model on the relative error {epsilon} made in the estimation of the mean annual power output of a WECS. The mean power output calculated through the use of a quasi-dynamic or chronological method, that is to say using time-series of wind speed data and the power versus wind speed characteristic of the wind turbine, serves as the reference. The suitability of the distributions is judged from the adjusted R{sup 2} statistic (R{sub a}{sup 2}). Hourly mean wind speeds recorded at 16 weather stations located in the Canarian Archipelago, an extensive catalogue of wind-speed probability models and two wind turbines of 330 and 800 kW rated power are used in this paper. Among the general conclusions obtained, the following can be pointed out: (a) that the R{sub a}{sup 2} statistic might be useful as an initial gross indicator of the relative error made in the mean annual power output estimation of a WECS when a probabilistic method is employed; (b) the relative errors tend to decrease, in accordance with a trend line defined by a second-order polynomial, as R{sub a}{sup 2} increases. (author)

  5. Effects of Video Podcasting on Psychomotor and Cognitive Performance, Attitudes and Study Behaviour of Student Physical Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. Allen; Smith, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Multimedia is an effective tool to teach psychomotor skills to health care students. Video podcasting is a next step as educators seek methods to present psychomotor skills efficiently. The purposes of this pilot study were (1) compare the effectiveness of video podcasting to live demonstration for teaching psychomotor skills to Doctor of…

  6. EVA: laparoscopic instrument tracking based on Endoscopic Video Analysis for psychomotor skills assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Ignacio; Sánchez-González, Patricia; Chmarra, Magdalena K; Lamata, Pablo; Fernández, Alvaro; Sánchez-Margallo, Juan A; Jansen, Frank Willem; Dankelman, Jenny; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Gómez, Enrique J

    2013-03-01

    The EVA (Endoscopic Video Analysis) tracking system is a new system for extracting motions of laparoscopic instruments based on nonobtrusive video tracking. The feasibility of using EVA in laparoscopic settings has been tested in a box trainer setup. EVA makes use of an algorithm that employs information of the laparoscopic instrument's shaft edges in the image, the instrument's insertion point, and the camera's optical center to track the three-dimensional position of the instrument tip. A validation study of EVA comprised a comparison of the measurements achieved with EVA and the TrEndo tracking system. To this end, 42 participants (16 novices, 22 residents, and 4 experts) were asked to perform a peg transfer task in a box trainer. Ten motion-based metrics were used to assess their performance. Construct validation of the EVA has been obtained for seven motion-based metrics. Concurrent validation revealed that there is a strong correlation between the results obtained by EVA and the TrEndo for metrics, such as path length (ρ = 0.97), average speed (ρ = 0.94), or economy of volume (ρ = 0.85), proving the viability of EVA. EVA has been successfully validated in a box trainer setup, showing the potential of endoscopic video analysis to assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills. The results encourage further implementation of video tracking in training setups and image-guided surgery.

  7. Marijuana's effects on human cognitive functions, psychomotor functions, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J B

    1986-01-01

    Marijuana is complex chemically and not yet fully understood, but it is not a narcotic. Like alcohol, marijuana acts as both stimulant and depressant, but it lingers in body organs longer than alcohol. Smoking marijuana can injure mucosal tissue and may have more carcinogenic potential than tobacco. Research has indicated that marijuana intoxication definitely hinders attention, long-term memory storage, and psychomotor skills involved in driving a car or flying a plane. Expectations and past experience with marijuana have often influenced results more than pharmacological aspects have. Marijuana has triggered psychotic episodes in those more vulnerable. Psychological and some instances of physiological dependence on marijuana have been demonstrated. As a psychoactive drug, marijuana surely alters mental functioning. Although it is possible that chronic use of marijuana produces irreversible damage to mind or brain areas, this has not been determined by research.

  8. SSRI antidepressants: altered psychomotor development following exposure in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) are sometimes prescribed to pregnant women. The potential consequences for the unborn child are gradually becoming clearer. In a case-control study of 298 children with autism and 1507 controls, 6.7% of mothers of autistic children had been prescribed an antidepressant during the year before delivery, compared to 3.3% of control mothers. The antidepressant was usually an SSRI. A dozen other small epidemiological studies of neurological development in children exposed to antidepressants in utero have provided mixed results. Two of these studies suggested a risk of psychomotor retardation. In practice, SSRI antidepressants should only be considered for pregnant women when non-drug measures fail and when symptoms are sufficiently serious to warrant drug therapy.

  9. Assessment of psychomotor skills acquisition during laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Julian; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Undre, Shabnam; Darzi, Ara

    2005-09-01

    Standardized short courses in laparoscopic cholecystectomy aim to teach laparoscopic skills to surgical trainees, although end-of-course assessments of performance remain subjective. The current study aims to objectively assess psychomotor skills acquisition of trainees attending laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses. Thirty-seven junior surgical trainees had their laparoscopic skills assessed before and after attending 1 of 3 separate 2-day courses (A, B, and C), all with identical format. Assessments were comprised of a standardized simulated laparoscopic task, with performance measured using a valid electromagnetic hand-motion tracking device. Overall, trainees made significant improvements in path length (P=.006), number of movements (Ppsychomotor skills on courses. In addition to providing participants with an insight into their skills, these data can be used to demonstrate course efficacy.

  10. Does sleep deprivation impair orthopaedic surgeons' cognitive and psychomotor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew

    2012-11-07

    Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.

  11. Transesophageal echocardiography simulation is an effective tool in teaching psychomotor skills to novice echocardiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohmer, Benjamin; Hudson, Christopher; Hudson, Jordan; Posner, Glenn D; Naik, Viren

    2014-03-01

    Performance of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) requires the psychomotor ability to obtain interpretable echocardiographic images. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a simulation-based curriculum in which a TEE simulator is used to teach the psychomotor skills to novice echocardiographers and to compare instructor-guided with self-directed online delivery of the curriculum. After institutional review board approval, subjects inexperienced in TEE completed an online review of TEE material prior to a baseline pre-test of TEE psychomotor skills using the simulator. Subjects were randomized to two groups. The first group received an instructor-guided lesson of TEE psychomotor skills with the simulator. The second group received a self-directed slide presentation of TEE psychomotor skills with the simulator. Both lessons delivered identical information. Following their respective training sessions, all subjects performed a post-test of their TEE psychomotor skills using the simulator. Two assessors rated the TEE performances using a validated scoring system for acquisition of images. Pre-test TEE simulator scores were similar between the two instruction groups (9.0 vs 5.0; P = 0.28). The scores in both groups improved significantly following training, regardless of the method of instruction (P psychomotor skills. There was no difference in improvement between the different modalities of instruction. Further research will examine the need for a faculty resource for a curriculum in which a simulator is used as an adjunct.

  12. An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not

  13. Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein Levels and 9-Year Cognitive Decline in Community-Dwelling Older Women: The Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Priya; Xue, Qian-Li; Deal, Jennifer A; Fried, Linda P; Walston, Jeremy D; Carlson, Michelle C

    2015-07-01

    Elevated inflammation is a proposed mechanism relating chronic diseases to cognitive dysfunction. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that greater levels of inflammation, as measured by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein, are associated with faster rates of cognitive decline among cognitively intact community-dwelling older women. We analyzed 336 women from the Women's Health and Aging Study II. Cognitive assessments were performed at baseline and every 18-36 months, and included the following domains: immediate and delayed memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test), psychomotor speed (Trail Making Test, Part A), and executive function (Trail Making Test, Part B). Aggregate measures of IL-6 and C-reactive protein, based on the average from visits one and two, were analyzed categorically. Random effects models were employed to test the relationship between tertiles of each inflammatory marker and changes in cognitive domain scores over 9 years. Moderate and high levels of IL-6 predicted early declines in psychomotor speed by 1.0 connection/min per year. There were no differences in baseline scores or rates of change across tertiles of IL-6 in memory or executive function. No differences were observed across tertiles of C-reactive protein for all cognitive domains. Higher levels of serum IL-6 were associated with greater declines in psychomotor speed over 9 years. This finding could suggest that elevated IL-6 may result in microvascular changes that may lead to damage of myelin sheaths that line neuronal axons, leading to decreased neuron propagation and impaired processing speed; however, mechanistic studies are needed to evaluate these hypotheses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  15. The impact of a single 24 h working day on cognitive and psychomotor performance in staff anaesthesiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanovic, Nenad; Carev, Mladen; Kardum, Goran; Pecotic, Renata; Valic, Maja; Karanovic, Sandra; Ujevic, Ante; Dogas, Zoran

    2009-10-01

    working day in the emergency department altered cognitive and psychomotor function in comparison with ordinary working days. Speed, reliability and mental endurance (measured by TTST) were significantly impaired in all four tests. Stability and reaction time (measured by total variability) were only slightly impaired. Paradoxically, attention and alertness (measured by total number of errors) were not adversely affected. In conclusion, anaesthesiologists' psychomotor performance was impaired during the single 24 h shift.

  16. Do Basic Psychomotor Skills Transfer Between Different Image-based Procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Schoon, E.J.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing

  17. Method of forming psychomotor skills during the process of physical culture in general school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyushenko O.F.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the concept of "psychomotor skills" as a component of preparedness for managing voluntary movements is considered. In experiment took part 690 pupils among them were 362 pupils of middle school age and 328 senior pupils. It is proved that the essence of the problem of formation of psychomotor abilities is to increase the influence of psychological factors on the efficiency of motor activity of schoolchildren. Systematized, and developed new test psychomotor task and special games for the formation of students' readiness for playing time, power and spatial characteristics of movements. Shown that this is significantly update and enrich the methodological arsenal of physical culture and greatly improved psychomotor qualities students of secondary schools.

  18. Information and psychomotor skills knowledge acquisition: A student-customer-centered and computer-supported approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.

  19. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (pwork system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  20. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovan, Denise; Almeida, Luis; Romach, Myroslava K; Nunes, Teresa; Rocha, José Francisco; Sokowloska, Marta; Sellers, Edward M; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence of adverse events was lower with eslicarbazepine acetate than with oxcarbazepine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. BOBATH THERAPY IN CORRECTION OF PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ORGANIC INJURIES CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.; Romanchuk, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The article represents therapy of Bobath such as one of the most effective author method which use in correction psychomotor development of children with disorders of musculoskeletal system. Bobath method is not new in the correction of movement disorders since last century and still supplementing and improving. In this work highlight topic of the effective use Bobath therapy in correction of psychomotor development in children age 3 – 6 years with organic involvement CNS. the experiment w...

  2. Preparing nursing students for contemporary practice: restructuring the psychomotor skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, M D; Fitzloff, B M; Fiedler, R; Lambke, M R

    2000-05-01

    The restructured laboratory experience offered a safe environment that supported student experimentation with psychomotor skills and self-initiated approaches to problem solving. Restructuring psychomotor laboratory experiences with emphasis on communication and conceptualization of principles supported students to begin addressing clinical problems with flexibility, creativity, and the premise for lifelong skill acquisition. Students who have skills that extend beyond technique will inevitably be better prepared to meet the demands of health care systems and patients now and in the future.

  3. Rett syndrome: an overlooked diagnosis in women with stereotypic hand movements, psychomotor retardation, Parkinsonism, and dystonia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Emmanuel; Cochen, Valérie; Sangla, Sophie; Bienvenu, Thierry; Roubergue, Anne; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Vidaihet, Marie

    2007-02-15

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder resulting in profound psychomotor retardation. It is usually diagnosed by a pediatrician or pediatric neurologist. Adult neurologists may, therefore, overlook the possibility of Rett syndrome in women with psychomotor retardation of unknown etiology. We report the case of a woman diagnosed with Rett syndrome at age 49 years. This report emphasizes the diagnostic value of movement disorders, including hand stereotypies, Parkinsonism, and dystonia, in adults with Rett syndrome.

  4. A Rare Case of Psychomotor Disturbances Linked to the Use of an Adulterated Dietary Supplement Containing Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Barak; Goldstein, Lee; Reshef, Amikam; Poperno, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Sibutramine, an oral anorexiant, is often found as an adulterant in various counterfeit herbal slimming products and dietary supplements. The use of sibutramine has been associated with various cardiovascular and psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of psychomotor disturbances, in a patient with no previously diagnosed movement disorders. A 26-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior, visual hallucinations, hyperkinesia, facial flushing, and dizziness after taking a counterfeit dietary supplement which contained undeclared sibutramine and phenolphtalein. Laboratory work-up revealed microcytic anemia; leucopenia; and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and antistreptolysin O titer, but rheumatic fever was ruled out. After a neurologic examination, involuntary movements were classified as chorea. The psychiatric examination result was unremarkable. The patient responded well to haloperidol therapy. Body temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels eventually normalized. The patient was discharged. This is the first report we are aware of about a transient, chorea-like psychomotor movement disorder associated with sibutramine. Although the causal relationship between sibutramine and the patient's symptoms cannot be proven definitely, the temporal dimension does suggest sibutramine initiation and termination led to onset and resolution of symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, because of the widespread availability of adulterated food supplements containing sibutramine, physicians should be more aware of their implications for patients.

  5. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, I.; Santucci, M.; Tula, S.; González, E.

    2007-11-01

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingeniería Clínica of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Córdoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  6. [Psychomotor agitation, pharmaceutical sedation and psychiatric emergency in psychotic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamar, M; Tellier, O; Vilamot, B

    2011-12-01

    Psychomotor agitation, very common among psychiatric emergencies, raises the question of pharmaceutical sedation, its indications, and its issues, notably with regard to the observance in postemergency. A new approach to sedation places it within its therapeutic aim and also takes into account the sometimes harmful impact on the course of the patient's care. A pretherapeutical, analysis both clinical and environmental is crucial. The time spent on the initial meeting and assessment is essential. The evolution of professional practices in mental health allows us to distinguish three kinds of sedation (vigilance, behaviour and psychical) that guide the choice and the mode of psychotropic drug use. The harmful effects of an ever-increasing use of sedation is debated. The use of atypical antipsychotics and injectable forms is argued. Early psychical sedation is preferable to the obsolete practice of vigilance sedation and to behavioural sedation with its limited indications. The use of excessive or prolonged sedation might have a detrimental effect on the care offered after psychiatric emergency treatment. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trento, I; Santucci, M; Tula, S; Gonzalez, E

    2007-01-01

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities

  8. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trento, I [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Santucci, M [Facultad de PsicologIa, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Tula, S [Escuela de Educacion Especial y Formacion Laboral Beatriz MartInez Allio. Av. M. Lopez N0 2620 Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  9. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Nowak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  10. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trento, I [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Santucci, M [Facultad de PsicologIa, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Tula, S [Escuela de Educacion Especial y Formacion Laboral Beatriz MartInez Allio. Av. M. Lopez N0 2620 Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  11. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  12. The effect of chronotype on sleepiness, fatigue, and psychomotor vigilance of ICU nurses during the night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Laurens; Özbay, Yusuf; Dieperink, Willem; Tulleken, Jaap E

    2015-04-01

    In general, sleeping and activity patterns vary between individuals. This attribute, known as chronotype, may affect night shift performance. In the intensive care unit (ICR), night shift performance may impact patient safety. We have investigated the effect of chronotype and social demographics on sleepiness, fatigue, and night shift on the performance of nurses. This was a prospective observational cohort study which assessed the performance of 96 ICU night shift nurses during the day and night shifts in a mixed medical-surgical ICU in the Netherlands. We determined chronotype and assessed sleeping behaviour for each nurse prior to starting shift work and before free days. The level of sleepiness and fatigue of nurses during the day and night shifts was determined, as was the effect of these conditions on psychomotor vigilance and mathematical problem-solving. The majority of ICU nurses had a preference for early activity (morning chronotype). Compared to their counterparts (i.e. evening chronotypes), they were more likely to nap before commencing night shifts and more likely to have young children living at home. Despite increased sleepiness and fatigue during night shifts, no effect on psychomotor vigilance was observed during night shifts. Problem-solving accuracy remained high during night shifts, at the cost of productivity. Most of the ICU night shift nurses assessed here appeared to have adapted well to night shift work, despite the high percentage of morning chronotypes, possibly due to their 8-h shift duration. Parental responsibilities may, however, influence shift work tolerance.

  13. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was to establish consensus on exercise configurations and on a validated training program for a virtual reality simulator, based on the experience of international experts to set criterion levels to construct a proficiency-based training program. A consensus meeting was held with eight European teams, all extensively experienced in using the VR simulator. Construct validity of the training program was tested by 20 experts and 60 novices. The data were analyzed by using the t test for equality of means. Consensus was achieved on training designs, exercise configuration, and examination. Almost all exercises (7/8) showed construct validity. In total, 50 of 94 parameters (53%) showed significant difference. A European, multicenter, validated, training program was constructed according to the general consensus of a large international team with extended experience in virtual reality simulation. Therefore, a proficiency-based training program can be offered to training centers that use this simulator for training in basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery.

  14. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  15. Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Deniz; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Karadağ, Ayise; Karabulut, Hatice

    2015-02-01

    Basic psychomotor skill training starts in the first year in nursing education. The psychomotor skills taught in the first year of nursing training constitute a foundation for all professional practices. Conducting periodic training for skills with which students are deficient can support mastery learning. The study was conducted as an interventional study for determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills learned in the Fundamentals of Nursing course. The sample consisted of 70 students attending the Fundamentals of Nursing course at nursing students in a university in Ankara, over 4 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was conducted as an interventional study for a period of 4 years. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was applied 4 times at the end of each academic year. According to the results of the forms evaluated at the end of each year, 4 additional laboratory activities were conducted addressing the deficient psychomotor skills of students at the beginning of the new academic semester in the 2nd and 3rd years. In the 4th-year clinic practice, courses were arranged to practice still deficient psychomotor skills. It was determined that students practiced nearly all of the basic psychomotor skills during clinical practice and that the practices with which they felt themselves to be inadequate gradually decreased following periodic training; this decrease was significant (ppsychomotor skills of nursing students was effective. We recommend that students' psychomotor skills be evaluated periodically and repetitive training based on the results of this evaluation be provided throughout the undergraduate nursing education process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor current signature analysis for gearbox condition monitoring under transient speeds using wavelet analysis and dual-level time synchronous averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.

  17. Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2002-08-01

    Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of alprazolam (1 mg) on driving ability, memory and psychomotor performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. One hour after oral administration, subjects performed a standardized driving test on a primary highway during normal traffic. They were instructed to drive with a constant speed (90 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Primary performance measures were the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) and the Standard Deviation of Speed (SDS). After the driving test, subjective driving quality, mental effort, and mental activation during driving were assessed. A laboratory test battery was performed 2.5 h after treatment administration, comprising the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, a Continuous Tracking Test, and a Divided Attention Test. Relative to placebo, alprazolam caused serious driving impairment, as expressed by a significantly increased SDLP (F(1,19) = 97.3, p driving quality (F(1,19) = 16.4, p driving (F(1,19) = 26.4, p drive an automobile or operate potentially dangerous machinery.

  18. Age differences in the required coefficient of friction during level walking do not exist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dennis E; Franck, Christopher T; Madigan, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of gait speed and step length on the required coefficient of friction (COF) confound the investigation of age-related differences in required COF. The goals of this study were to investigate whether age differences in required COF during self-selected gait persist when experimentally-controlling speed and step length, and to determine the independent effects of speed and step length on required COF. Ten young and 10 older healthy adults performed gait trials under five gait conditions: self-selected, slow and fast speeds without controlling step length, and slow and fast speeds while controlling step length. During self-selected gait, older adults walked with shorter step lengths and exhibited a lower required COF. Older adults also exhibited a lower required COF when walking at a controlled speed without controlling step length. When both age groups walked with the same speed and step length, no age difference in required COF was found. Thus, speed and step length can have a large influence on studies investigating age-related differences in required COF. It was also found that speed and step length have independent and opposite effects on required COF, with step length having a strong positive effect on required COF, and speed having a weaker negative effect.

  19. Growth and psychomotor development of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, Elisabeth; von der Hagen, Maja; Schara, Ulrike; von Au, Katja; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common hereditary degenerative neuromuscular diseases and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The objective of the retrospective study was to describe growth and psychomotor development of patients with DMD and to detect a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. Data from 263 patients with DMD (mean age 7.1 years) treated at the Departments of Pediatric Neurology in three German University Hospitals was assessed with respect to body measurements (length, weight, body mass index BMI, head circumference OFC), motor and cognitive development as well as genotype (site of mutation). Anthropometric measures and developmental data were compared to those of a reference population and deviations were analyzed for their frequency in the cohort as well as in relation to the genotypes. Corticosteroid therapy was implemented in 29 from 263 patients. Overall 30% of the patients exhibit a short statue (length development at 2-5 years of age, and this is even more prevalent when steroid therapy is applied (45% of patients with steroid therapy). The BMI shows a rightwards shift (68% > 50th centile) and the OFC a leftwards shift (65% development is delayed in a third of the patients (mean age at walking 18.3 months, 30% > 18 months, 8% > 24 months). Almost half of the patients show cognitive impairment (26% learning disability, 17% intellectual disability). Although there is no strict genotype-phenotype correlation, particularly mutations in the distal part of the dystrophin gene are frequently associated with short stature and a high rate of microcephaly as well as cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2013 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety following two different psychomotor therapy programs in nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Jan; Van de Vliet, Peter; Van Coppenolle, Herman; David, Ans; Peuskens, Joseph; Pieters, Guido; Knapen, Koen

    2005-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to compare the changes in physical self-concept, global self-esteem, depression and anxiety after participation in one of two 16-week psychomotor therapy programs for nonpsychotic psychiatric inpatients. The second objective was to study the relationship between changes in these variables. One hundred and ninety-nine inpatients were randomly assigned to either a personalized psychomotor fitness program, consisting of aerobic exercise and weight training, or a general program of psychomotor therapy, consisting of different forms of physical exercises and relaxation training. Physical self-concept was evaluated using the Dutch version of the Physical Self-Perception Profile at baseline, after 8 weeks, and after completion of the 16-week interventions. At the same time points, additional variables of global self-esteem, depression and anxiety were assessed by means of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. After 16 weeks, both groups showed significant improvements in all outcome measures (p values ranged from 0.01 to self-esteem and decreased depression and anxiety levels (p self-esteem, depression and anxiety supports the potential role of the physical self-concept in the recovery process of depressed and anxious psychiatric inpatients. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The psychopharmacological activities of Vietnamese ginseng in mice: characterization of its psychomotor, sedative–hypnotic, antistress, anxiolytic, and cognitive effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Joy I. dela Peña

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: VG, like other ginseng products, has significant and potentially useful psychopharmacological effects. This includes, but is not limited to, psychomotor stimulation, anxiolytic, antistress, and memory enhancing effects.

  2. Psychomotor skills assessment by motion analysis in minimally invasive surgery on an animal organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Bø, Lars Eirik; Langø, Thomas; Kuhry, Esther; Mårvik, Ronald

    2017-08-01

    A high level of psychomotor skills is required to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) safely. To be able to measure these skills is important in the assessment of surgeons, as it enables constructive feedback during training. The aim of this study was to test the validity of an objective and automatic assessment method using motion analysis during a laparoscopic procedure on an animal organ. Experienced surgeons in laparoscopy (experts) and medical students (novices) performed a cholecystectomy on a porcine liver box model. The motions of the surgical tools were acquired and analyzed by 11 different motion-related metrics, i.e., a total of 19 metrics as eight of them were measured separately for each hand. We identified for which of the metrics the experts outperformed the novices. In total, two experts and 28 novices were included. The experts achieved significantly better results for 13 of the 19 instrument motion metrics. Expert performance is characterized by a low time to complete the cholecystectomy, high bimanual dexterity (instrument coordination), a limited amount of movement and low measurement of motion smoothness of the dissection instrument, and relatively high usage of the grasper to optimize tissue positioning for dissection.

  3. Prognosis of psychomotor and mental development in premature infants by early cranial ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin

    2015-04-09

    It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography was performed on them. The developmental outcomes of these premature infants at the age of 12 months were assessed by the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) scale and mental development index (MDI). The relationship between ultrasonic gray-scale value and PDI and MDI was analyzed. The worse prognosis for psychomotor and mental development was associated with the gestational age, Apgar score(1 min), gender, chorioamnionitis, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanic ventilation. The differences between the prognosis of psychomotor and mental development, and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), were statistically significant (Ppsychomotor development and mental development (Ppsychomotor and mental development for premature infants. The higher grade of PIVH and PWMD was associated with the worse prognosis of psychomotor and mental development.

  4. Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Bennabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  5. PROJECT BASED LEARNING (PBL TO IMPROVE PSYCHOMOTORIC SKILLS: A CLASSROOM ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Sumarni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of project-based learning (PBL to improve student’ psychomotor skills and concept understanding, as well as knowing what PBL contribution to the improvement of student’ psychomotor skills in chemistry learning. The study was conducted in three cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection steps. One set of data consists of student’ psychomotor skills assesment, student’ conceptual understanding and questionnaire responses were obtained from the action research. Learning process was performed in the eleventh grade students included 37 students (10 males and 27 females and 3 collaborators. The successful research was indicated by 85% of students achieve the mastery learning on concept understanding and well on psychomotor aspects. Data collection was performed using documentation method by questionnaire, observations, and tests. Data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that all aspects of the psychomotor assessed include sets, mechanical response, complex response, adaptation, and origination were in high category. At the end of the lesson, the project assigned to students were evaluated jointly between teachers and students. The project results in the form of a series of distillation apparatus is applied to separate the natural compounds.

  6. Undergraduate paramedic student psychomotor skills in an obstetric setting: An evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenson, Shane; Mills, Jason

    2018-01-01

    The clinical education of paramedic students is an international concern. In Australia, student placements are commonly undertaken with local district ambulance services, however these placements are increasingly limited. Clinical placements within inter-professional settings represent an innovative yet underdeveloped area of investigation. This paper addresses that gap by reporting a pilot evaluation of paramedic student clinical placements in a specialised obstetrics setting. Using a case study approach, the evaluation aimed to identify paramedic psychomotor skills that could be practised in this setting, and understand the nature of key learning events. A purposive sample of paramedic students was recruited following completion of the obstetrics placement. A combination of student reflection and assessed psychomotor skills data were collected from clinical placement logs. Content analysis of all data was conducted inductively and deductively, as appropriate. Findings indicated a comprehensive range of psychomotor skills can be practised in this setting, with over thirty psychomotor skills identified directly related to the paramedic curriculum; and seven psychomotor skills indirectly related. The themes finding confidence in maternity care, watching the experts, and putting theory into practice provide narrative insight into the clinical learning experience of paramedic students in this setting. Further research is recommended to build upon this pilot. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits. PMID:22330655

  8. [Sleep deprivation effects on cognitive, psychomotor skills and its relationship with personal characteristics of resident doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamui-Sutton, Liz; Barragán-Pérez, Virginia; Fuentes-García, Ruth; Monsalvo-Obregón, Erika Cristina; Fouilloux-Morales, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    In countries such as United States and European Nations changes have been proposed regarding to duty and academic structure of specialists in training, this implies adjustments in the norms concerning the number of hours a week that residents work. The main argument which has underpinned such transformations is based on the assumption that excessive working hours (more than 16 hours uninterrupted) cause cognitive and psychomotor disorders in residents. To evaluate the association between sleep deprivation and cognitive and psychomotor skills of a sample of residents of different specialties of Medicine. Longitudinal study with measurements pre and post shifts, in 31 residents of Medicine. The measured variables were: cognitive and psychomotor skills, demographic data and conditions of the shift, quality of sleep and psychopathology. 81% residents showed detriment in at least one of the tests, however, in psychomotor skills significant different results were found in CPR maneuvers between pre and post shift with an improvement in scores. Sleep deprivation causes detriment of cognitive and psychomotor skills. While our results can't be generalized, they may constitute a precedent for possible changes in the working hours of medical residencies.

  9. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  10. The Importance of Team Sex Composition in Team-Training Research Employing Complex Psychomotor Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.

  11. Muon Excess at Sea Level during the Progress of a Geomagnetic Storm and High-Speed Stream Impact Near the Time of Earth's Heliospheric Sheet Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Navia, C. E.; de Oliveira, M. N.; Nepomuceno, A. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Sinzi, T.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we present results of studying the association between the muon flux variation at ground level, registered by the New-Tupi muon telescopes (22° 53'00'' S, 43° 06'13' W; 3 m above sea level), and the geomagnetic storm on 25 - 29 August 2015 that has raged for several days as a result of a coronal mass ejection (CME) impact on Earth's magnetosphere. A sequence of events started with an M3.5 X-ray class flare on 22 August 2015 at 21:19 UTC. The New-Tupi muon telescopes observed a Forbush decrease (FD) triggered by this geomagnetic storm, which began on 26 August 2015. After Earth crossed the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), an increase in particle flux was observed on 28 August 2015 by spacecraft and ground-level detectors. The observed peak was in temporal coincidence with the impact of a high-speed stream (HSS). We study this increase, which has been observed with a significance above 1.5% by ground-level detectors in different rigidity regimes. We also estimate the lower limit of the energy fluence injected on Earth. In addition, we consider the origin of this increase, such as acceleration of particles by shock waves at the front of the HSS and the focusing effect of the HCS crossing. Our results show possible evidence of a prolonged energetic (up to GeV energies) particle injection within the Earth atmosphere system, driven by the HSS. In most cases, these injected particles are directed to the polar regions. However, the particles from the high-energy tail of the spectrum can reach mid-latitudes, and this could have consequences for the atmospheric chemistry. For instance, the creation of NOx species may be enhanced, and this can lead to increased ozone depletion. This topic requires further study.

  12. Hypercholesterolemia causes psychomotor abnormalities in mice and alterations in cortico-striatal biogenic amine neurotransmitters: Relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Rajib; Choudhury, Amarendranath; Chandra Boruah, Dulal; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Borah, Anupom

    2017-09-01

    The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include motor behavioral abnormalities, which appear as a result of the extensive loss of the striatal biogenic amine, dopamine. Various endogenous molecules, including cholesterol, have been put forward as putative contributors in the pathogenesis of PD. Earlier reports have provided a strong link between the elevated level of plasma cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) and onset of PD. However, the role of hypercholesterolemia on brain functions in terms of neurotransmitter metabolism and associated behavioral manifestations remain elusive. We tested in Swiss albino mice whether hypercholesterolemia induced by high-cholesterol diet would affect dopamine and serotonin metabolism in discrete brain regions that would precipitate in psychomotor behavioral manifestations. High-cholesterol diet for 12 weeks caused a significant increase in blood total cholesterol level, which validated the model as hypercholesterolemic. Tests for akinesia, catalepsy, swimming ability and gait pattern (increased stride length) have revealed that hypercholesterolemic mice develop motor behavioral abnormalities, which are similar to the behavioral phenotypes of PD. Moreover, hypercholesterolemia caused depressive-like behavior in mice, as indicated by the increased immobility time in the forced swim test. We found a significant depletion of dopamine in striatum and serotonin in cortex of hypercholesterolemic mice. The significant decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity in striatum supports the observed depleted level dopamine in striatum, which is relevant to the pathophysiology of PD. In conclusion, hypercholesterolemia-induced depleted levels of cortical and striatal biogenic amines reported hereby are similar to the PD pathology, which might be associated with the observed psychomotor behavioral abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocol for the management of psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Garriga, Marina; Cardete, Laura; Bernardo, Miquel; Lombraña, María; Blanch, Jordi; Catalán, Rosa; Vázquez, Mireia; Soler, Victòria; Ortuño, Noélia; Martínez-Arán, Anabel

    2017-09-08

    Psychomotor agitation (PMA) is a state of motor restlessness and mental tension that requires prompt recognition, appropriate assessment and management to minimize anxiety for the patient and reduce the risk for escalation to aggression and violence. Standardized and applicable protocols and algorithms can assist healthcare providers to identify patients at risk of PMA, achieve timely diagnosis and implement minimally invasive management strategies to ensure patient and staff safety and resolution of the episode. Spanish experts in PMA from different disciplines (psychiatrists, psychologists and nurses) convened in Barcelona for a meeting in April 2016. Based on recently issued international consensus guidelines on the standard of care for psychiatric patients with PMA, the meeting provided the opportunity to address the complexities in the assessment and management of PMA from different perspectives. The attendees worked towards producing a consensus for a unified approach to PMA according to the local standards of care and current local legislations. The draft protocol developed was reviewed and ratified by all members of the panel prior to its presentation to the Catalan Society of Psychiatry and Mental Health, the Spanish Society of Biological Psychiatry (SEPB) and the Spanish Network Centre for Research in Mental Health (CIBERSAM) for input. The final protocol and algorithms were then submitted to these organizations for endorsement. The protocol presented here provides guidance on the appropriate selection and use of pharmacological agents (inhaled/oral/IM), seclusion, and physical restraint for psychiatric patients suspected of or presenting with PMA. The protocol is applicable within the Spanish healthcare system. Implementation of the protocol and the constituent algorithms described here should ensure the best standard of care of patients at risk of PMA. Episodes of PMA could be identified earlier in their clinical course and patients could be managed in

  14. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  15. Fetal ventriculomegalies during pregnancy course, outcome, and psychomotor development of born children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukanac Stamenkovic, J; Steric, M; Srbinovic, L; Janjic, T; Vrzic Petronijevic, S; Petronijevic, M; Cetkovic, A

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: to present the course and outcome of pregnancies complicated with fetal ventriculomegaly, determine the association between prenatal ultrasound diagnoses and definitive postnatal diagnosis or diagnoses after autopsy and additional analysis, and to monitor the psychomotor development of children born with ventriculomegaly. The survey was designed as retrospective study and included 62 pregnant women who were attending a regular ultrasound examinations at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Center of Serbia, or patients who were referred from other institutions in Serbia. Ventriculomegalies were divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe or hydrocephalus. The most common were severe ventriculomegalies, with 34 cases (55%). Of all pregnancies complicated with ventriculomegalies, 61% were terminated. Among those continued, 88% had normal psychomotor development. In 97% ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed. Majority of pregnancies complicated with ventriculomegaly were continued and most of the children born with anomalies had normal psychomotor development.

  16. Correction and development of psychomotor function of deaf children of midchildhood by facilities of mobile games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction and development of psychomotor sphere of deaf children of midchildhood is considered by facilities of physical education, in particular by mobile games. The analysis of publications of research workers is resulted in relation to the problem of development of psychomotor function of deaf children in a theory and practice of correction work. In theory is grounded value of mobile games as effective mean of development of psychomotor sphere of deaf lower boys. The necessity of application of the specially adapted mobile games is set in the process of correction-pedagogical work with the deaf children of midchildhood. The pedagogical looking is presented after the features of playing activity of deaf children of 1-4 classes.

  17. Psychomotor skills for the undergraduate medical curriculum in a developing country--Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rashida; Naqvi, Zoon; Wolfhagen, Ineke

    2005-03-01

    To identify essential psychomotor skills for all the medical graduates of an undergraduate programme in Pakistan. Twenty-five physicians practising in a tertiary care centre and ninety primary care physicians used a Likert's scale, ranging from "very essential" to"not required at all", to mark 99 psychomotor skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Pakistan. Overall the opinions of both the groups about the essential skills matched except for a few areas. This study provides baseline data about psychomotor skills that a medical graduate in developing countries should be able to perform. Further studies will be undertaken by involving other stakeholders to identify and incorporate these skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum, thereby enabling graduates to practice in all the settings in Pakistan.

  18. Association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-12-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Behavioural typologies of experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in patients with chronic shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamp, Anne Schinkel; Pedersen, Lise Lang; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In this study we aimed to develop a theoretical account of the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in addition to treatment as usual in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The qualitative study design was based on a grounded theory approach. Open-ended face-to-face interviews were...... conducted after treatment was completed. We generated data and performed analyses by constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling that focused on the patients' behavioural characteristics related to the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy. We conducted 12 interviews, eight of which were...

  20. [Psychomotor education and speech therapy when weaning a child off artificial feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malécot-Le Meur, Gaëlle; Soulez-Larivière, Laure; Abadie, Véronique; Thouvenin, Béatrice; Rastel, Christine; Chalouhi, Christel

    To support children and their families with weaning off artificial nutrition, a psychomotor therapist and speech therapist from the 'Pierre Robin syndrome and congenital sucking-swallowing disorders' specialist rare disease centre at Necker-Enfant Malades hospital in Paris, have set up a joint consultation, as a complement to medical consultations. This programme shows how speech therapy and psychomotor education can complement each other in order to help children and their parents during this difficult period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, D.A.M.; Wevers, M.; Weerd, A.W. de; Bossche, R.A. van den; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley

  2. Psychomotor and Memory Effects of Haloperidol, Olanzapine, and Paroxetine in Healthy Subjects After Short-Term Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  3. Psychomotor and memory effects of haloperidol, olanzapine, and paroxetine in healthy subjects after short-term administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding

  4. Psychomotor symptoms in depressed elderly patients: Assessment of the construct validity of the Dutch CORE by accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attu, S.D.; Rhebergen, D.; Comijs, H.C.; Parker, G.; Stek, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor symptoms are putative distinguishing features of melancholia that may guide treatment decisions. Hence, there is a need for valid instruments to assess psychomotor symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine the construct validity of the CORE, an observational

  5. Influence of psychomotor skills and innervation patterns on results of latissimus dorsi tendon transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Clément M L; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Müller, Roland; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This investigation was performed to analyze the influence of innervation and psychomotor skills on the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer. Patients with the 10 best and 10 worst results after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears were selected. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 12) were subject to a psychomotor test battery (Motorische Leistungsserie) and electromyographic innervation assessment. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups preoperatively in terms of the commonly tested factors known to influence the results of this procedure adversely. There was a significant difference in both the pattern and selectivity of innervation in the group that had better clinical results. The psychomotor findings were negatively correlated with the range of motion and the strength of the operative shoulder. Function of the operative shoulder could also be predicted by psychomotor function of the uninjured contralateral side. Psychomotor skills testing appears to be a new, potential method by which to predict the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer.

  6. Dopamine D2 receptors in striatal output neurons enable the psychomotor effects of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkwal, Geetika; Radl, Daniela; Lewis, Robert; Borrelli, Emiliana

    2016-10-11

    The psychomotor effects of cocaine are mediated by dopamine (DA) through stimulation of striatal circuits. Gabaergic striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are the only output of this pivotal structure in the control of movements. The majority of MSNs express either the DA D1 or D2 receptors (D1R, D2R). Studies have shown that the motor effect of cocaine depends on the DA-mediated stimulation of D1R-expressing MSNs (dMSNs), which is mirrored at the cellular level by stimulation of signaling pathways leading to phosphorylation of ERKs and induction of c-fos Nevertheless, activation of dMSNs by cocaine is necessary but not sufficient, and D2R signaling is required for the behavioral and cellular effects of cocaine. Indeed, cocaine motor effects and activation of signaling in dMSNs are blunted in mice with the constitutive knockout of D2R (D2RKO). Using mouse lines with a cell-specific knockout of D2R either in MSNs (MSN-D2RKO) or in dopaminergic neurons (DA-D2RKO), we show that D2R signaling in MSNs is required and permissive for the motor stimulant effects of cocaine and the activation of signaling in dMSNs. MSN-D2RKO mice show the same phenotype as constitutive D2RKO mice both at the behavioral and cellular levels. Importantly, activation of signaling in dMSNs by cocaine is rescued by intrastriatal injection of the GABA antagonist, bicuculline. These results are in support of intrastriatal connections of D2R + -MSNs (iMSNs) with dMSNs and indicate that D2R signaling in MSNs is critical for the function of intrastriatal circuits.

  7. Perils of using speed zone data to assess real-world compliance to speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anna; Clarke, Elizabeth; Chevalier, Aran John; Brown, Julie; Coxon, Kristy; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-11-17

    Real-world driving studies, including those involving speeding alert devices and autonomous vehicles, can gauge an individual vehicle's speeding behavior by comparing measured speed with mapped speed zone data. However, there are complexities with developing and maintaining a database of mapped speed zones over a large geographic area that may lead to inaccuracies within the data set. When this approach is applied to large-scale real-world driving data or speeding alert device data to determine speeding behavior, these inaccuracies may result in invalid identification of speeding. We investigated speeding events based on service provider speed zone data. We compared service provider speed zone data (Speed Alert by Smart Car Technologies Pty Ltd., Ultimo, NSW, Australia) against a second set of speed zone data (Google Maps Application Programming Interface [API] mapped speed zones). We found a systematic error in the zones where speed limits of 50-60 km/h, typical of local roads, were allocated to high-speed motorways, which produced false speed limits in the speed zone database. The result was detection of false-positive high-range speeding. Through comparison of the service provider speed zone data against a second set of speed zone data, we were able to identify and eliminate data most affected by this systematic error, thereby establishing a data set of speeding events with a high level of sensitivity (a true positive rate of 92% or 6,412/6,960). Mapped speed zones can be a source of error in real-world driving when examining vehicle speed. We explored the types of inaccuracies found within speed zone data and recommend that a second set of speed zone data be utilized when investigating speeding behavior or developing mapped speed zone data to minimize inaccuracy in estimates of speeding.

  8. High-speed AC motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T.; Arkkio, A. [Helsinki University of Technology Laboratory of Electromechanics, Otaniemi (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with various types of highspeed electric motors, and their limiting powers. Standard machines with laminated rotors can be utilised if the speed is moderate. The solid rotor construction makes it possible to reach higher power and speed levels than those of laminated rotors. The development work on high-speed motors done at Helsinki University of Technology is presented, too. (orig.) 12 refs.

  9. A model to teach concomitant patient communication during psychomotor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Many health professionals use psychomotor or task-based skills in clinical practice that require concomitant communication with a conscious patient. Verbally engaging with the patient requires highly developed verbal communication skills, enabling the delivery of patient-centred care. Historically, priority has been given to learning the psychomotor skills essential to clinical practice. However, there has been a shift towards also ensuring competent communication with the patient during skill performance. While there is literature outlining the steps to teach and learn verbal communication skills, little is known about the most appropriate instructional approach to teach how to verbally engage with the patient when also learning to perform a task. A literature review was performed and it identified that there was no model or proven approach which could be used to integrate the learning of both psychomotor and communication skills. This paper reviews the steps to teach a communication skill and provides a suggested model to guide the acquisition and development of the concomitant -communication skills required with a patient at the time a psychomotor skill is performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Bieleninik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3, including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III and subjectively by their mother. Additionally, medical and nursing documentation was analyzed. Individual psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy is different with regards to various spheres, and has different rates and dynamics throughout consecutive years. Psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancies is determined by gender and postnatal clinical parameters, i.e. birth weight, head circumference, postnatal morbidity, and prematurity-related conditions.

  11. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  12. The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.

  13. Experience of Early Childhood Caries May Positively Correlate with Psychomotor Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chen-Yi; Liu, Yen-Chun; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Lin, Jia-Rong; Tseng, Yi-Chun; Teng, Andy Yen-Tung

    2015-01-01

    To examine the as yet unknown relationship between dental caries and the child's psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was designed by screening the kindergartens from urban areas of two cities in southern Taiwan. Besides the personal, demographic and dietary information, the common measures for caries (dmft) and the amended comprehensive scales (CCDI) for psychomotor development were used to assess their relationship(s). A power analysis showed that 334 subjects would be required. One-way ANOVA vs multiple linear regression analysis were used to compare the differences of variables between gender, age and dmft scales, vs the relationship among all variables tested, respectively. A total of 433 children completed the study. The results demonstrated that there was a positive relationship between higher (i.e. dmft≥4 and 5) but not lower or extremely high caries experience and aspects of psychomotor development (i.e. personal-social and expressive language) in children aged 4 to 6 years. The present results are important for paediatric dentists, as they suggest a positive correlation between caries experience (dmft 3 to 6) and psychomotor development in pre-school children and that such a correlation may occur more significantly as an attribute of the most affected teeth (incisors and molars) during the critical stage of personal-social and expressive language development (speech-communication).

  14. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  15. Teaching physical education by the perspective of psychomotor development and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Dvořáková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teaching physical education should refl ect changes in education and changes in the concept of physical education as a part of health education in the broad sense, it means physical, mental and social health. In addition to provable positive benefi ts of physical activity on health, it is generally considered diffi cult to demonstrate the infl uence of physical education on diff erent ways of life. Results of studies indicate failure of education in physical education in practical and information process. Perceived physical competence, fun, the activity and monitoring individual progress are considered as positive correlates of the infl uence of physical education on lifestyle (Dobrý, 2007.OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper is to point out that psychomotor activities could bring positive changes in teaching physical education.METHODS: This paper examined various studies, personal experiencies from abroad and practice.RESULTS: Physical activities and games in pedagogical concept of ps. development are intentionally aimed at the physical and motoric development in connection with mental processes and social relations, promote personal knowledge and personal development, self-activity and creativity, are fun and lead to the acquisition of key competencies. Using psychomotor teaching methods could support this impact of psychomotor activities and help to make positive changes in physical education.CONCLUSIONS: Psychomotor activities can help the modern concept of physical education if in addition to practical activities there is also included theoretical and didactic knowledge that increase the possibility of rational and intentional use of these activities.

  16. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Klümper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krämer, Ursula; Larroque, Béatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Rémy; Sørensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardón, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Göran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands),

  17. Is there a relationship between ultrasound scanning ability (sonography) and visuospatial perception or psychomotor ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536

  18. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  19. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (II)--Instructional Engineering: Task Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, G. William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The first step in engineering the instruction of dental psychomotor skills, task analysis, is explained. A chart details the procedural, cognitive, desired-criteria, and desired-performance analysis of a single task, occlusal preparation for amalgam restoration with carious lesion. (MSE)

  20. Designing Preclinical Instruction of Psychomotor Skills (IV)--Instructional Engineering: Evaluation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…

  1. The Integration of Psychomotor Skills in a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum: The Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne N.; MacNeil, M. A. J.; Harrison, Rosamund L.; Clark, D. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the restructuring of clinical clerkships at the University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school as part of a new, hybrid, problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, focusing on strategies for integrating development of psychomotor skills. Methods of achieving both horizontal and vertical integration of competencies through grouping…

  2. Designing Preclinical Instruction for Psychomotor Skills (III)--Instructional Engineering: Design Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In the third of a series of articles on teaching psychomotor skills in dental education, the design of instructional materials is discussed. Steps include identifying appropriate teaching strategies for the tasks; organizing and sequencing subskills; identifying and collecting common errors; and drafting learning exercises for each subskill. (MSE)

  3. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  4. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-)

  5. Circulating adrenal hormones are not necessary for the development of sensitization to the psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, A; Morano, M I; Akil, H; Robinson, T E

    1995-02-27

    We reported previously that when amphetamine is given in NOVEL test cages both its acute psychomotor activating effects (rotational behaviour and locomotor activity) and the degree of sensitization are greater than when amphetamine is given in HOME cages that are physically identical to the NOVEL test cages. Since exposure to the NOVEL environment increases plasma corticosterone levels (Experiment 1) it is possible that the enhancement in the effects of amphetamine in the NOVEL condition is mediated by corticosterone. If this hypothesis is correct adrenalectomy (ADX) should abolish the difference between the HOME and NOVEL groups. This was tested in three independent experiments, in which the response (rotational behavior in Experiments 2 and 3; locomotor activity and rearing behavior in Experiment 4) to repeated injections of amphetamine was assessed in rats that underwent adrenalectomy (ADX) or a sham operation (SHAM). ADX animals received either no corticosterone replacement or one of two corticosterone replacement treatments. Adrenalectomy, with or without corticosterone replacement treatment, had no significant effect on the development of amphetamine sensitization, either in the HOME or the NOVEL environment. By contrast, the effects of adrenalectomy on the acute response to amphetamine varied depending on the behavioral measure and possibly on the dose of amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg IP, in Experiments 2, 3 and 4, respectively). We conclude that: (i) a stress-induced secretion of adrenal hormones is not responsible for the enhancement in sensitization to amphetamine seen in animals tested in a NOVEL environment; (ii) circulating adrenal hormones are not necessary for development of sensitization to the psychomotor activating effects of amphetamine.

  6. Extraocular light via the ear canal does not acutely affect human circadian physiology, alertness and psychomotor vigilance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien; Frey, Sylvia; Odermatt, Jonas; Cajochen, Christian

    2014-04-01

    We aimed at testing potential effects of extraocular bright light via the ear canals on human evening melatonin levels, sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance performance. Twenty healthy young men and women (10/10) kept a regular sleep-wake cycle during the 2-week study. The volunteers reported to the laboratory on three evenings, 2 h 15 min before usual bedtime, on average at 21:45 h. They were exposed to three different light conditions, each lasting for 12 min: extraocular bright light via the ear canal, ocular bright light as an active control condition and a control condition (extraocular light therapy device with completely blacked out LEDs). The timing of exposure was on average from 22:48 to 23:00 h. During the 2-h protocol, saliva samples were collected in 15-min intervals for melatonin assays along with subjective sleepiness ratings, and the volunteers performed a 10-min visual psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) prior to and after each light condition. The evening melatonin rise was significantly attenuated after the 12-min ocular bright light exposure while no significant changes were observed after the extraocular bright light and sham light condition. Subjective sleepiness decreased immediately over a short period only after ocular light exposure. No significant differences were observed for mean reaction times and the number of lapses for the PVT between the three light conditions. We conclude that extraocular transcranial light exposure in the late evening does not suppress melatonin, reduce subjective sleepiness or improve performance, and therefore, does not acutely influence the human circadian timing system.

  7. Psychomotor Ability in Children Prenatally Exposed to Methylmercury: The 18-Month Follow-Up of Tohoku Study of Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsuta, Nozomi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Yaginuma-Sakurai, Kozue; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nakai, Kunihiko

    2017-05-01

    Fish contain nutrients essential to the developing fetal brain, but they are contaminated with methylmercury. The Tohoku Study of Child Development, now underway in the Sanriku coastal area of Miyagi prefecture, Japan, follows mother-child pairs to examine the risks and benefits of fish consumption during pregnancy, especially the effects of prenatal exposures to methylmercury, selenium, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on child neurodevelopment. Children aged 18 months were administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development second edition (BSID-II) and Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development (KSPD) in 2004-2008. Complete data of cord-blood total mercury (THg), cord-plasma selenium, maternal-plasma DHA, the above test scores, and confounders for 566 mother-child pairs were available. The median cord-blood THg level was 15.7 (range, 2.7-96.1) ng/g. Since the BSID-II and KSPD scores were significantly lower in the 285 boys than in the 281 girls, analyses were conducted separately. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of BSID-II was significantly correlated with cord-blood THg only in the boys, and significance of the association remained unchanged after adjusting for possible confounders; i.e., a 10-fold increase in cord-blood THg was associated with a 8.3-point decrease in the score of the PDI. Other significant correlations of THg were not seen in the boys or girls. Selenium and DHA showed no significant correlations with the BSID-II or KSPD scores in either sex. In conclusion, intrauterine methylmercury exposure may affect psychomotor development, and boys appear to be more vulnerable to the exposure than girls.

  8. Effects of different arachidonic acid supplementation on psychomotor development in very preterm infants; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshweki, Ayham; Muñuzuri, Alejandro Pérez; Baña, Ana M; de Castro, Ma José; Andrade, Fernando; Aldamiz-Echevarría, Luís; de Pipaón, Miguel Sáenz; Fraga, José M; Couce, María L

    2015-09-30

    Nutritional supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids is important in preterm infants neurodevelopment, but it is not known if the omega-6/omega-3 ratio affects this process. This study was designed to determine the effects of a balanced contribution of arachidonic acid in very preterm newborns fed with formula milk. This was a randomized trial, in which newborns psychomotor development was assessed using the Brunet Lézine scale at 24 months corrected age. A control group, for comparison of Brunet Lézine score, was made up of 25 newborns from the SEN1500 project, who were fed exclusively with breast milk. At 12 months, arachidonic acid values were significantly higher in group A than in group B (6.95 ± 1.55% vs. 4.55 ± 0.78%), as were polyunsaturated fatty acids (41.02 ± 2.09% vs. 38.08 ± 2.32%) achieved a higher average. Group A achieved a higher average Brunet Lézine score at 24 months than group B (99.9 ± 9 vs. 90.8 ± 11, p =0.028). The Brunet Lézine results from group A were compared with the control group results, with very similar scores registered between the two groups (99.9 ± 9 vs. 100.5 ± 7). There were no significant differences in growth or evoked potentials between the two formula groups. Very preterm infants who received formula with an ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 2/1 had higher blood levels of essential fatty acids during the first year of life, and better psychomotor development, compared with very preterm newborns who consumed formula with an ω-6/ω-3 of 1/1. Therefore, formula milk with an arachidonic acid quantity double that of docosahexaenoic acid should be considered for feeding very preterm infants. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02503020.

  9. Differential effects of psychomotor stimulants on attentional performance in rats: nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarro, L; Patel, S; Murtagh, C; Stolerman, I P

    2004-05-01

    Nicotine can improve attentional performance in the rat as assessed by a modified five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), but it is not known if the effect is shared with other psychomotor stimulants. This study compared the effects of nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on performance in the 5-CSRTT and determined whether presenting stimuli at unpredictable times by using variable inter-trial intervals (ITI) influenced the sensitivity of the task to the drugs. One group of male hooded rats was trained to obtain food reinforcers by nose-poking in response to 1 s light stimuli presented randomly in one of five apertures, with fixed ITI; for a second group of rats, ITI varied randomly (n=12 per group). As observed previously, nicotine (tested in doses of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg) produced dose-related improvements in accuracy, reduced omission errors and response latencies, but increased anticipatory responding. Amphetamine (0.1-0.8 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (2.5-10 mg/kg) increased accuracy and reduced response latency, and decreased anticipatory responding. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg) did not improve performance except at a small dose that decreased omission errors only. Training at different levels of stimulus predictability influenced performance in the undrugged state but had little impact on profiles of responses to the drugs. The findings with methylphenidate support the potential value of the 5-CSRTT for testing drugs that may be useful in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  10. Assessment of child psychomotor development in population groups as a positive health indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Passcucci, María C; Masautis, Alicia; Insua, Iván; Lejarraga, Celina; Nunes, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    It is necessary to use health indicators describing the conditions of all individuals in a population, not just of those who have a disease or die. To introduce a method to collect population indicators of psychomotor development in children younger than 6 years old and show its results. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional assessment regarding compliance with 13 developmental milestones (selected from the national reference) conducted in 5465 children using five surveys administered by the Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin Authority in areas of this basin where a high proportion of families with unmet basic needs live. For each survey, a logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the median age at attainment of the 13 developmental milestones. A linear regression model between the estimated age at attainment of the 13 milestones was adjusted for each survey based on the corresponding age at attainment of the national reference. Based on this model, three indicators were defined: overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend. Results from the five surveys ranged between 0.74 and 0.85, 0.88 and 0.81, and -0.15 and -0.26 for the overall developmental quotient, developmental quotient at 4 years old, and developmental trend, respectively. A distinct developmental delay and an increasing trend in delay with age were observed. Indicators are easily interpreted and related to social indicators (unmet basic needs, etc.). Collecting the information necessary to make estimations takes little time and can be applied to population groups, but not on an individual level. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  11. The Differential Effect of Sustained Operations on Psychomotor Skills of Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G

    2018-06-01

    Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.

  12. Video gaming enhances psychomotor skills but not visuospatial and perceptual abilities in surgical trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A M; Boyle, E M; Traynor, O; Walsh, T; Hill, A D K

    2011-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the identification and assessment of underlying aptitudes or innate abilities that could potentially predict excellence in the technical aspects of operating. However, before the assessment of innate abilities is introduced for high-stakes assessment (such as competitive selection into surgical training programs), it is essential to determine that these abilities are stable and unchanging and are not influenced by other factors, such as the use of video games. The aim of this study was to investigate whether experience playing video games will predict psychomotor performance on a laparoscopic simulator or scores on tests of visuospatial and perceptual abilities, and to examine the correlation, if any, between these innate abilities. Institutional ethical approval was obtained. Thirty-eight undergraduate medical students with no previous surgical experience were recruited. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that asked them to detail their video game experience. They then underwent assessment of their psychomotor, visuospatial, and perceptual abilities using previously validated tests. The results were analyzed using independent samples t tests to compare means and linear regression curves for subsequent analysis. Students who played video games for at least 7 hours per week demonstrated significantly better psychomotor skills than students who did not play video games regularly. However, there was no difference on measures of visuospatial and perceptual abilities. There was no correlation between psychomotor tests and visuospatial or perceptual tests. Regular video gaming correlates positively with psychomotor ability, but it does not seem to influence visuospatial or perceptual ability. This study suggests that video game experience might be beneficial to a future career in surgery. It also suggests that relevant surgical skills may be gained usefully outside the operating room in activities that are not

  13. Improved Retention of Chest Compression Psychomotor Skills With Brief "Rolling Refresher" Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Dana E; Nishisaki, Akira; Sutton, Robert M; Elci, Okan U; Meaney, Peter A; OʼConnor, Kathleen A; Leffelman, Jessica; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Berg, Robert A; Nadkarni, Vinay

    2017-08-01

    High-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is critical to improve survival from cardiac arrest. However, cardiopulmonary resuscitation knowledge and psychomotor skill proficiency are transient. We hypothesized that brief, in situ refresher training will improve chest compression (CC) psychomotor skill retention for bedside providers. Nurses completed a baseline skill evaluation of CC quality 6 months after traditional basic life support recertification. Data collected using ResusciAnne with SkillReporter included the following: CC depth, rate, complete release, and correct hand position. Total compliance was defined as 100% CC with depth of 50 mm or greater, rate of 100/min or greater, and more than 90% complete release. After the baseline evaluation, the subjects completed "Rolling Refresher" (RR) CC psychomotor training using audiovisual feedback every 2 to 3 months for 12 months until 30 seconds of CCs fulfilling total compliance criteria was achieved. Chest compression quality evaluations were repeated twice ("RR 6 month" and "RR 12 month" evaluation) after implementation of RR program. Thirty-seven providers enrolled and completed the baseline evaluation. Mean depth was 36.3 (9.7) mm, and 8% met criteria for depth, 35% for rate, and 5% for total compliance. After RRs were implemented, CC quality improved significantly at RR 6-month evaluation: odds ratio for meeting criteria were the following: depth of 35.1 (95% confidence interval = 2.5496, P = 0.009) and total compliance of 22.3 (95% confidence interval = 2.1239, P = 0.010). There was no difference in CC quality at RR 12-month versus RR 6-month evaluation. Retention of CC psychomotor skill quality is limited to 6 months after traditional basic life support recertification. Rolling Refresher CC training can significantly improve retention of CC psychomotor skills. Whether CC skills are improved, maintained, or deteriorate after 12 months of Refresher training and optimal frequency of Refreshers is

  14. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  15. Smoked cannabis' psychomotor and neurocognitive effects in occasional and frequent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  17. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D; Masters, Forrest J

    2012-01-01

    How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  18. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  19. Changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old as a result of the specially selective exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Biykova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine changes of the level of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players of 14–15 years old under the influence of the specially selective sets of exercises. Material and Methods: test exercises, one of which is recommended by the training program of CYSS of beach handball, two others were created proceeding from the content of the game activity in beach handball, the analysis of scientific and methodical literature, pedagogical testing, pedagogical experiment, methods of mathematical information processing were used for the definition of the level of development of high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Results: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature revealed gaps in questions of training of beach handball players, in particular in physical preparation. It moved us making the use of experience of the educational and training work in beach volleyball, to make sets of exercises, which are aimed at the development high-speed and power abilities of beach handball players. Conclusions: the positive reliable changes are received (t=2,19–2,32 at p≤0,05 of the level of high-speed and power abilities of players of 14-15 years old under the influence of the sets of exercises which are offered by us, allows us to recommend them for use in the educational and training process of beach handball players

  20. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  1. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  2. Dietary Tyrosine Benefits Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance During Body Cooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

    2007-01-01

    Supplemental tyrosine is effective at limiting cold-induced decreases in working memory, presumably by augmenting brain catecholamine levels, since tyrosine is a precursor for catecholamine synthesis...

  3. Comparative characteristics of the development of psychomotor sphere deaf primary school children and their peers with hearing preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Іvahnenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators of development of psychomotor function deaf children aged 7-10 years and find out the characteristic features of their manifestation. Material : the study involved 242 children aged 7-10 years, 128 of them deaf. Results : psychomotor development indicators defined functions deaf children aged 7-10 years. A comparative analysis with indicators of their peers with hearing preservation. Lagging indicators revealed psychomotor function deaf children ( ability to regulate spatio-temporal parameters and dynamic movements, orientation in space, coordination movements, the ability to preserve static and dynamic balance, motor memory, a sense of rhythm, the ability to arbitrarily relax muscles, hands and coordination micromovements fingers capable of simultaneously performing movements coordination ballistic movements averaging 14.6 % to 60.6 %. Conclusions : It was found that deaf children of primary school age the development of psychomotor function occurs more slowly compared with hearing children their age.

  4. Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2016-10-01

    A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.

  5. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007–2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept......, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA...... level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive....

  6. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.

  7. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Jonathan Y.; Armand Martine; Forhan Anne; De Agostini Maria; Charles Marie-Aline; Heude Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor...

  8. The Effects of Plyometric Education Trainings on Balance and Some Psychomotor Characteristics of School Handball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search the effects of plyometric education trainings which was applied for 10-week on static-dynamic balance and some psychomotor characteristics of students who were been handball team of school. The female students-players (N = 16) who are in age 14,57 ± 0,92 years. All student have got 3,66 ± 0,63 years sport experience.…

  9. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001, postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048, and 14% (p = 0.006. Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006 and 425% (p = 0.015, respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748 and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715 and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03. Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  10. Acute and subchronic effects of Org 2305 and diazepam on psychomotor performance in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, M J; Koski, J; Strömberg, C

    1987-01-01

    Three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg) of Org 2305 (O 15, O 30 and O 60 respectively), a novel anxiolytic drug chemically related to mianserin, were compared with placebo and 15 mg diazepam (DZ) on human psychomotor performance in a double-blind, cross-over study with 15 healthy volunteers. Objective measurements (choice reaction, tracking, flicker fusion, Maddox wing, digit symbol substitution, memory recall) and subjective assessments (visual analogue scales) were done at baseline and 2 and 13 h af...

  11. Effect of a Single Dose of Dextromethorphan on Psychomotor Performance and Working Memory Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Ashor, Ammar Waham

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the o...

  12. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Eugene F; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Rovers, Maroeska M; van Hasselt, Peter M

    2014-02-01

    The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases between January 1960 and December 2012. Studies that described patients with severe MTHFR deficiency who received betaine treatment. We identified 15 case reports and case series, totaling 36 patients. Data included the following: (1) families with 2 or more patients with severe MTHFR deficiency, of whom at least 1 received betaine, or (2) single patients with severe MTHFR deficiency treated with betaine. To define severe MTHFR deficiency, methionine, homocysteine, MTHFR enzyme activity in fibroblasts, or mutations (in the MTHFR gene) had to be described as well as the effect of treatment (survival and/or psychomotor development). We compared the outcome in treated vs untreated patients and early- vs late-treated patients. Sensitivity analysis was performed to address definition of early treatment. To further assess the impact of treatment on mortality, we performed a subanalysis in families with at least 1 untreated deceased patient. Survival and psychomotor development. Eleven of 36 patients (31%) died. All deaths occurred in patients who did not receive treatment or in patients in whom treatment was delayed. In contrast, all 5 early-treated patients survived. Subgroup analysis of patients with deceased siblings-their genotypically identical controls-revealed that betaine treatment prevented mortality (P = .002). In addition, psychomotor development in surviving patients treated with betaine was normal in all 5 early-treated patients but in none of the 19 surviving patients with delayed treatment (P psychomotor development in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency, highlighting the importance of timely recognition through newborn screening.

  13. Psychomotor skills acquisition of novice learners: a case for contextual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBourgh, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.

  14. Examining Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies and Psychomotor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alattin Ural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of materials are used in which grades in order to improve psychomotor skills and the use of information technologies by students in the courses taught by mathematics teachers and how these materials are used; and to elicit the perceptions of these teachers on the use of these materials. Twenty two mathematics teachers (out of 25 working in 7 secondary schools were given a questionnaire form containing open ended questions and they were asked to write down the answers to those questions on the same form. The research was designed in the scanning model as a qualitative study. The data obtained from teachers were analyzed descriptively and samples from the data were presented categorically. It was observed that, regarding the psychomotor skills, a pair compass-ruler-protractor, dotted-isometric-graph paper, cutting-folding paper in geometry; fraction slips and algebra squares in algebra were the materials used respectively. The grades where these materials are used were 5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively. Regarding the use of information and communication technologies, it was observed that Morpa and Vitamin, the software developed by Turkish Ministery of Education was used to teach the subjects which contain shapes or animation; PowerPoint presentations to teach solid objects, fractals; and animations and videos on the internet to teach solid materials, triangles, fractals, patterns and decoration, equations and symmetry. These activities are used in the grades 8, 7, 6, 5 respectively. The teachers stated that the fact that information technologies and psychomotor skills are not used to the extent they should be stems from the lack of time, lack of computers, the overpopulated classes and the washback effect of the national exams. Keywords: Information and communication technologies (ICT, psychomotor skills, teacher’s opinions

  15. Psychomotor Impairment Detection via Finger Interactions with a Computer Keyboard During Natural Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p < 0.001) regardless of the content and language of the text typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population.

  16. Application of psychomotor reeducation method in the treatment of developmental verbal dyspraxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Katarina N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspraxia is often defined as a disorder or immaturity in the development of motor skills and organized, voluntary movements in the objective space. Considering speech as a motor activity of high specificity and complexity, dyspraxic disorders can also affect the control of oral-buccal-lingual movements and produce problems in oral expression. Developmental verbal dyspraxia is the developmental speech and language disorder that is manifested in the difficulty of programming sequential speech movements, and therefore the production of meaningful verbal messages and its accompanying nonverbal elements. It is diagnosed if the child has no detected peripheral organ damage, severe sensory disturbances, nor muscle weakness or dysfunction. Also, an intellectual functioning is within normal range ande receptive language skills are intact. Good results in the treatment of developmental dyspraxic disorders are achieved by using techniques of psychomotor reeducation method, a kind of developmental therapy that achieves reintegration of practognostical skills and psychomotor activity by using speech, body movements and tonic dialogue as authentic means of communication. This paper will describe certain types of exercises of general psychomotor re-education which can be used in the treatment of developmental verbal dyspraxia, as a supplement to speech and neuropsychological therapy.

  17. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  18. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  19. The influence of different training schedules on the learning of psychomotor skills for endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; van Wijk, R P J; Dankelman, J

    2007-02-01

    Psychomotor skills for endoscopic surgery can be trained with virtual reality simulators. Distributed training is more effective than massed training, but it is unclear whether distributed training over several days is more effective than distributed training within 1 day. This study aimed to determine which of these two options is the most effective for training endoscopic psychomotor skills. Students with no endoscopic experience were randomly assigned either to distributed training on 3 consecutive days (group A, n = 10) or distributed training within 1 day (group B, n = 10). For this study the SIMENDO virtual reality simulator for endoscopic skills was used. The training involved 12 repetitions of three different exercises (drop balls, needle manipulation, 30 degree endoscope) in differently distributed training schedules. All the participants performed a posttraining test (posttest) for the trained tasks 7 days after the training. The parameters measured were time, nontarget environment collisions, and instrument path length. There were no significant differences between the groups in the first training session for all the parameters. In the posttest, group A (training over several days) performed 18.7% faster than group B (training on 1 day) (p = 0.013). The collision and path length scores for group A did not differ significantly from the scores for group B. The distributed group trained over several days was faster, with the same number of errors and the same instrument path length used. Psychomotor skill training for endoscopic surgery distributed over several days is superior to training on 1 day.

  20. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  1. Assessment of the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke patients and the time from stroke onset, the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, proprioception, visual field impairment and functional independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drużbicki Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gait recovery is one of the main objectives in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. The study aim was to assess the correlations between gait speed in post-stroke hemiparetic patients and the level of motor control in the paretic lower limb, the time from stroke onset, the subjects’ age as well as the impairment of proprioception and visual field.

  2. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  3. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score <85) was also evident among children whose mothers took FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d, although the association was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.08). To our knowledge, this is the first time a detrimental effect of high dosages of FA supplements

  4. Crawling at High Speeds: Steady Level Locomotion in the Spider Cupiennius salei-Global Kinematics and Implications for Centre of Mass Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Spiders are an old yet very successful predatory group of arthropods. Their locomotor system differs from those of most other arthropods by the lack of extensor muscles in two major leg joints. Though specific functional characteristics can be expected regarding the locomotion dynamics of spiders, this aspect of movement physiology has been only scarcely examined so far. This study presents extensive analyses of a large dataset concerning global kinematics and the implications for dynamics of adult female specimens of the large Central American spider Cupiennius salei (Keyserling. The experiments covered the entire speed-range of straight runs at constant speeds. The analyses revealed specific characteristics of velocity dependent changes in the movements of the individual legs, as well as in the translational and rotational degrees of freedom of both the centre of mass and the body. In contrast to many other fast moving arthropods, C. salei avoid vertical fluctuations of their centre of mass during fast locomotion. Accordingly, aerial phases were not observed here. This behaviour is most likely a consequence of optimising energy expenditure with regard to the specific requirements of spiders' leg anatomy. A strong synchronisation of two alternating sets of legs appears to play only a minor role in the locomotion of large spiders. Reduced frequency and low centre of mass amplitudes as well as low angular changes of the body axes, in turn, seems to be the result of relatively low leg coordination.

  5. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education.

  7. Corticosteroid therapy for duchenne muscular dystrophy: improvement of psychomotor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko; Yamauchi, Akemi; Urano, Mari; Kondo, Eri; Saito, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Of the numerous clinical trials for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, only the corticosteroid prednisolone has shown potential for temporal improvement in motor ability. In this study, the effects of prednisolone on intellectual ability are examined in 29 cases of Duchenne muscular dystrophy because little information has been reported. And also, motor functions and cardiac functions were evaluated. The treated group was administered prednisolone (0.75 mg/kg) orally on alternate days and the compared with the untreated control group. Gene mutations were investigated. The patients were examined for intelligence quotient adequate for age, brain natriuretic peptide, creatine kinase, and manual muscle testing before treatment and after the period 6 months to 2 years. Intelligence quotient scores of the treated increased to 6.5 ± 11.9 (mean ± standard deviation) were compared with the controls 2.1 ± 4.9 (P = 0.009). Intelligence quotient scores of the patients with nonsense point mutations improved significantly (21.0 ± 7.9) more than those with deletion or duplication (1.9 ± 9.0; P = 0.015). Motor function, such as time to stand up, of those treated improved significantly and brain natriuretic peptide level was reduced to a normal level after treatment in 15 patients (73%). Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of prednisolone in improving intellectual impairment as well as in preserving motor function and brain natriuretic peptide levels. We presume that prednisolone has a read-through effect on the stop codons in the central nervous systems of Duchenne muscular dystrophy because intelligence quotient of point mutation case was improved significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intramuscular aripiprazole in the acute management of psychomotor agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Sergio; Cuomo, Ilaria; Lionetto, Luana; Janiri, Delfina; Simmaco, Maurizio; Caloro, Matteo; De Persis, Simone; Piazzi, Gioia; Simonetti, Alessio; Telesforo, C Ludovica; Sciarretta, Antonio; Caccia, Federica; Gentile, Giovanna; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    To assess acute efficacy and safety of 9.75 mg of intramuscular (IM) injections of the atypical antipsychiatric aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and acute agitation. Open-label trial of IM injections of aripiprazole and 24-hour monitoring of clinical response in patients with major psychoses and acute agitation. Partial analysis of blood levels of the administered drug to correlate with clinical response. Acute psychiatric care wards in a single university hospital. A total of 201 acutely agitated patients (79 with schizophrenia and 122 with bipolar disorder I). Aripiprazole 9.75 mg IM injection. We evaluated clinical response using the Excitatory Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC), the Agitation/Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES), and the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI). Assessments were conducted 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes and 24 hours after the first injection for PANSS-EC and ACES, and 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours for CGI. Response was at least a 40% decrease in PANSS-EC scores. We measured serum aripiprazole and dehydroaripiprazole levels in a subsample. IM aripiprazole significantly improved clinical measures. PANSS-EC improved progressively, starting after 30 minutes. ACES improved after 90 minutes and continued thereafter. Effects were sustained, with steadily decreasing CGI scores, until the 24th hour. Response rate was 83.6% after 2 hours, but with repeat injections, it rose to over 90% with no differences among diagnostic groups. Although there were gender differences in the response to individual PANSS-EC items, the responses were similar overall. Neither clinical monitoring nor patient reporting revealed any side effects. No therapeutic window was identified, and levels did not correlate with any clinical measure. Aripiprazole was effective and safe in reducing acute agitation in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Our results compare favorably to double-blind trials, probably

  9. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  10. Effect of Metformin on Handgrip Strength, Gait Speed, Myostatin Serum Level, and Health-related Quality of Life: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial among Non-diabetic Pre-frail Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmi, Purwita Wijaya; Setiati, Siti; Tamin, Tirza Z; Soewondo, Pradana; Rochmah, Wasilah; Nafrialdi, Nafrialdi; Prihartono, Joedo

    2017-04-01

    sarcopenia contributes to the development of frailty syndrome. Frailty syndrome is potentially improved by modifying insulin resistance, inflammation, and myostatin level. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on handgrip strength, gait speed, myostatin serum level, and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) among non-diabetic pre-frail elderly patients. a double blind randomized controlled trial study was conducted on non-diabetic elderly outpatients aged ≥ 60 years with pre-frail status based on phenotype and/ or index criteria (Cardiovascular Health Study and/ or Frailty Index 40 items) consecutively recruited from March 2015 to June 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. One-hundred-twenty subjects who met the research criteria were randomized and equally assigned into 3 x 500 mg metformin or placebo group. The study outcomes were measured at baseline and after 16 weeks of intervention. out of 120 subjects, 43 subjects in metformin group and 48 subjects in placebo group who completed the intervention. There was a significant improvement on the mean gait speed of metformin group by 0.39 (0.77) second or 0.13 (0.24) meter/second that remained significant after adjusting for important prognostic factors (p = 0.024). There was no significant difference on handgrip strength, myostatin serum level, and HR-QoL between both groups. 3 x 500 mg metformin for 16 weeks was statistically significant and clinically important in improving usual gait speed as one of the HR-QoL dimensions, but did not significantly improve the EQ-5D index score, handgrip strength, nor myostatin serum level.

  11. Comparing three pedagogical approaches to psychomotor skills acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Ross E; Richa, Jacqueline; Oppeltz, Richard; Nguyen, Patrick; Wagner, Kelly; Van Sickle, Kent R; Dent, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    We compared traditional pedagogical approaches such as time- and repetition-based methods with proficiency-based training. Laparoscopic novices were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 training conditions. In experiment 1, participants in the time condition practiced for 60 minutes, participants in the repetition condition performed 5 practice trials, and participants in the proficiency condition trained until reaching a predetermined proficiency goal. In experiment 2, practice time and number of trials were equated across conditions. In experiment 1, participants in the proficiency-based training conditions outperformed participants in the other 2 conditions (P < .014); however, these participants trained longer (P < .001) and performed more repetitions (P < .001). In experiment 2, despite training for similar amounts of time and number of repetitions, participants in the proficiency condition outperformed their counterparts (P < .038). In both experiments, the standard deviations for the proficiency condition were smaller than the other conditions. Proficiency-based training results in trainees who perform uniformly and at a higher level than traditional training methodologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking-related correlates of psychomotor restlessness and agitation in a community sample of daily cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jordan A; Leventhal, Adam M

    2015-03-01

    Psychomotor restlessness and agitation (PMA) is a putatively important, yet understudied, psychopathologic correlate of smoking. The scant smoking research on PMA previously conducted has been narrow in scope and conducted among psychiatric patients. To examine the generalizability and relevance of PMA to smoking, this cross-sectional study investigated associations between PMA and a variety of smoking processes in a community sample. Participants in this study were non-treatment-seeking smokers (N = 254, ≥10 cig/day, M age = 44 years) from the community without an active mood disorder. At baseline, they completed a PMA symptom checklist, a composite depressive symptom index, and a battery of smoking questionnaires. Linear regression models adjusting for depressive symptoms and demographics indicated that PMA level was positively associated with severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms during prior quit attempts (β = .18, p smoke for negative reinforcement (β = .14, p smoking expectancies for negative reinforcement (β = .17, p smoking chronicity, frequency, or dependence severity. Smokers with elevated PMA appear to experience greater smoking-induced affect modulation and nicotine withdrawal than the average smoker, regardless of other depressive symptoms. Given that PMA differentiates a qualitatively unique profile of smoking characteristics, PMA warrants consideration in tobacco addiction research and practice. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  13. HIV-associated cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in a Thai cohort on long-term cART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Tanya C; Kerr, Stephen J; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Suksawek, Saowaluk; Klungkang, Supalak; Channgam, Taweesak; Odermatt, Christoph C; Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach; Ruxtungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W

    2018-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting. Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands). Psychomotor test scores in the HIV-positive participants were converted to Z-scores using scores of the HIV-negative participants as normative data. Psychomotor impairment was defined as performance on two tests more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from controls or more than 2 SD on one test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between HIV and non-HIV-related covariates and poorer cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment. HIV-positive participants, mean age 45 (SD 7.69) years received cART for a median of 12.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.1-14.4). Median CD4 cell count was 563 cells/mm 3 (IQR 435-725), and 92.77% had plasma HIV RNA performance (tests all P 90% on long-term cART, we found that inferior cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment were primarily associated with non-HIV-related factors.

  14. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2007-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.

  15. Psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of methoxyflurane in healthy volunteers: implication for post-colonoscopy care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam Q; Burgess, Jenna; Debreceni, Tamara L; Toscano, Leanne

    2016-11-01

    Background and study aims: Colonoscopy with portal inhaled methoxyflurane (Penthrox) is highly feasible with low sedation risk and allows earlier discharge. It is unclear if subjects can return to highly skilled psychomotor skill task shortly after Penthrox assisted colonoscopy. We evaluated the psychomotor and cognitive effects of 15-minute inhalation of Penthrox in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty healthy volunteers (18 to 80 years) were studied on 2 occasions with either Penthrox or placebo in a randomized, double-blind fashion. On each occasion, the subject's psychomotor function was examined before, immediately, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after a 15-minute inhalation of studied drug, using validated psychomotor tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), auditory reaction time (ART), eye-hand coordination (EHC) test, trail making test (TMT) and logical reasoning test (LRT). Results: Compared to placebo, a 15-minute Penthrox inhalation led to an immediate but small impairment of DSST ( P  returns to normal within 30 minutes , indicating that subjects who have colonoscopy with Penthrox can return to highly skilled psychomotor skills tasks such as driving and daily work the same day.

  16. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bellis, Emanuel; Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Brucks, Wernher; Herrmann, Andreas; Hertwig, Ralph

    2018-01-01

    Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume) and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance). Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  17. Cortico-cortical white matter motor pathway microstructure is related to psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bracht

    Full Text Available Alterations of brain structure and function have been associated with psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder (MDD. However, the association of motor behaviour and white matter integrity of motor pathways in MDD is unclear. The aim of the present study was to first investigate structural connectivity of white matter motor pathways in MDD. Second, we explore the relation of objectively measured motor activity and white matter integrity of motor pathways in MDD. Therefore, 21 patients with MDD and 21 healthy controls matched for age, gender, education and body mass index underwent diffusion tensor imaging and 24 hour actigraphy (measure of the activity level the same day. Applying a probabilistic fibre tracking approach we extracted connection pathways between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, the SMA-proper, the primary motor cortex (M1, the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the pallidum and the thalamus. Patients had lower activity levels and demonstrated increased mean diffusivity (MD in pathways linking left pre-SMA and SMA-proper, and right SMA-proper and M1. Exploratory analyses point to a positive association of activity level and mean-fractional anisotropy in the right rACC-pre-SMA connection in MDD. Only MDD patients with low activity levels had a negative linear association of activity level and mean-MD in the left dlPFC-pre-SMA connection. Our results point to structural alterations of cortico-cortical white matter motor pathways in MDD. Altered white matter organisation of rACC-pre-SMA and dlPFC-pre-SMA pathways may contribute to movement initiation in MDD.

  18. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  19. Night awakening in infancy: Developmental stability and longitudinal associations with psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Tiina E; Peltola, Mikko J; Nieminen, Pirkko; Paavonen, E Juulia; Saarenpää-Heikkilä, Outi; Paunio, Tiina; Kylliäinen, Anneli

    2018-03-29

    Fragmented sleep is common in infancy. Although night awakening is known to decrease with age, in some infants night awakening is more persistent and continues into older ages. However, the influence of fragmented sleep on development is poorly known. In the present study, the longitudinal relationship between fragmented sleep and psychomotor development (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development [Bayley-III]; Bayley, 2009) was investigated in infants with (≥3 night awakenings, n = 81) and without fragmented sleep (≤1 night awakening, n = 70) within the CHILD-SLEEP birth cohort at 8 and 24 months of age. Differences in parent-reported (Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire [BISQ]) sleep parameters were studied at 8, 18, and 24 months of age. Group differences in night awakening were stable across all assessment points. Infants with fragmented sleep slept less in total than infants without fragmented sleep and they did not compensate their nocturnal sleep during daytime. Additionally, infants with fragmented sleep spent more time awake at night than infants without fragmented sleep. However, psychomotor development did not differ between infants with and without fragmented sleep at 8 or 24 months of age. Our findings indicate that early onset fragmented sleep did not have a negative effect on psychomotor development within the first 2 years despite the differences in sleep length among infants with and without fragmented sleep. In the future, more specific domains of cognitive development and various factors affecting sleep fragmentation should be taken into account when studying the developmental effects of night awakening in infancy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Do basic psychomotor skills transfer between different image-based procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzink, Sonja N; Goossens, Richard H M; Schoon, Erik J; de Ridder, Huib; Jakimowicz, Jack J

    2010-05-01

    Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing different types of IBP. For example, do basic psychomotor colonoscopy and laparoscopy skills interact? Following a cross-over study design, 29 naïve endoscopists were trained on the Simbionix GI Mentor and the SimSurgery SEP simulators. Group C (n = 15) commenced with a laparoscopy session, followed by four colonoscopy sessions and a second laparoscopy session. Group L (n = 14) started with a colonoscopy session, followed by four laparoscopy sessions and a second colonoscopy session. No significant differences were found between the performances of group L and group C in their first training sessions on either technique. With additional colonoscopy training, group C outperformed group L in the second laparoscopy training session on the camera navigation task. Overall, training in the basic colonoscopy tasks does not affect performance of basic laparoscopy tasks (and vice versa). However, to limited extent, training of basic psychomotor skills for colonoscopy do appear to contribute to the performance of angled laparoscope navigation tasks. Thus, training and assessment of IBP type-specific skills should focus on each type of tasks independently. Future research should further investigate the influence of psychometric abilities on the performance of IBP and the transfer of skills for physicians who are experienced in one IBP type and would like to become proficient in another type of IBP.

  1. PsT1: A Low-Cost Optical Simulator for Psychomotor Skills Training in Neuroendoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Daniel Lorias; González Carranza, Vicente; Chico-Ponce de León, Fernando; Martinez, Arturo Minor

    2015-06-01

    Well-developed psychomotor skills are important for competence in minimally invasive surgery. Neuroendoscopy is no exception, and adaptation to different visual perspectives and careful handling of the surgical instruments are mandatory. Few training systems, however, focus on developing psychomotor skills for neuroendoscopy. Here, we introduce a new training system called PsT1 that provides visual feedback via the use of simple optics that emulate the endoscope at 0° and 30°. Time and error metrics are generated automatically with integrated software to ensure objective assessment. Neuroendoscopic optics were emulated with a low-cost, commercially available universal serial bus 2.0 camera and a light-emitting diode light source. Visual feedback of 30° was obtained by displacing the optical axis of the universal serial bus camera by 30°, and metrics (time, precision, and errors) were generated automatically by the software. Three evaluation modules were developed (spatial adaptation, depth adaptation, and dissection), and 35 expert and nonexpert neurosurgeons performed an initial evaluation of the system. A total of 81% and 90% of surgeons agreed that the visuals were satisfactory and movement and control were accurately replicated, respectively. The advantages and disadvantages of the system were compared. Here, we present a novel, low-cost, and easy-to-implement training system for developing basic neuroendoscopic psychomotor skills. The use of objective metrics, surgical instruments, and emulation of the neuroendoscope at 0° and 30° are competitive advantages of the current system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  3. Electronic monitoring of psychomotor activity as a supplementary objective measure of depression severity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    and bipolar disorder (unadjusted model: B = 0.46, 95% CI 0.037-0.89, P = 0.034). In contrast, correlations between activity energy expenditure (kJ/kg/day), cardio-respiratory fitness (mlO2/min/kg) and HDRS-17 were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that measuring sleeping heart rate in non...... control persons aged 18-60 years were included. Psychomotor activity was measured using a combined heart rate and movement sensor device (Actiheart) for 3 consecutive days, 24 h a day. RESULTS: We found that sleeping heart rate (beats/min) correlated with HDRS-17 in both patients with unipolar disorder...

  4. Asynchronous teaching of psychomotor skills through VR annotations: evaluation in digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Mikko J; Kume, Naoto; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Yoshimura, Koji; Yoshihara, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Many VR technology based training systems use expert's motion data as the training aid, but would not provide any short-cut to teaching medical skills that do not depend on exact motions. Earlier we presented Annotated Simulation Records (ASRs), which can be used to encapsulate experts' insight on psychomotor skills. Annotations made to behavioural parameters in training simulators enable asynchronous teaching instead of just motion training in a proactive way to the learner. We evaluated ASRs for asynchronous teaching of Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) with 3 urologists and 8 medical students. The ASRs were found more effective than motion-based training with verbal feedback.

  5. Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfone, Giampiera; Fida, Roberta; Ghezzi, Valerio; Macale, Loreana; Sili, Alessandro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Palese, Alvisa

    Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.

  6. Evaluating first-year nursing students' ability to self-assess psychomotor skills using videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Wilda Ellen; Rush, Kathy; Wright, Marjorie

    2009-01-01

    Developing confidence in self-assessment is an important skill in becoming a self-regulated learner. This article describes the process undertaken by a group of educators of incorporating self-assessment in combination with psychomotor skill development with freshman students. Students were videotaped performing a wound-dressing change; the videotaping was immediately followed by a self-assessment of their performance using a faculty-generated checklist. Comparison of faculty and student ratings revealed the tendency for students to overrate their performance and identified discordance between students and faculty on several steps of the procedure. These evaluation findings are discussed and future directions explored.

  7. [The connection between maltreatment and preterm birth - in the light of psychomotor development at 2 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szele, Anna Szabina; Nagy, Beáta Erika

    2017-06-01

    Preterm children' development and harmful affecting factors to development are important aspects of public health, because in our country the number of preterm birth is very high. Description of psychomotor development of preterm children (Brunet-Lézine; Bayley-III) and connection between psychomotor development and maternal abuse history (own questionnaire). Extremely (psychomotor development quotients and higher development risk. Strong associations were found between maternal history of childhood abuse and the development quotients. We would like to draw attention to the importance of assessing preterm children, as well as to the importance of maltreatment and the severity of its consequences. With the early recognition of necessity for developmental interventions we can prevent problems in the future. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(25): 976-983.

  8. Jack Barney award: the effect of fatigue on cognitive and psychomotor skills of trauma residents and attending surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdes, Jodi; Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Leyba, Mario J; Ferrara, John J

    2008-12-01

    Fatigue and sleep deprivation and their effects on surgical proficiency have been actively researched areas. Past studies that have focused solely on residents have provided an important insight into how fatigue affects residents' ability to perform. This study aims to quantify the effect of fatigue on attending surgeons. To quantify the effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills of surgical residents and attending surgeons, visiohaptic simulations were created to mimic realistic interactions. Both groups showed a significant decrement in proficiency measures postcall. When tasks were separated based on psychomotor versus cognitive-dominated skills, attending surgeons made 25% fewer (P Psychomotor skills were equally affected in both groups. Call-associated fatigue is associated with increased error rates in the cognitive skill domain, although less so in attending surgeons compared with their resident counterparts.

  9. Teaching psychomotor skills to beginning nursing students using a web-enhanced approach: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, Vincent L

    2007-01-01

    To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats.

  10. A de novo 11q23 deletion in a patient presenting with severe ophthalmologic findings, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek-Kiper, Pelin Özlem; Bayram, Yavuz; Ütine, Gülen Eda; Alanay, Yasemin; Boduroğlu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    Distal 11q deletion, previously known as Jacobsen syndrome, is caused by segmental aneusomy for the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 11. Typical clinical features include facial dysmorphism, mild-to-moderate psychomotor retardation, trigonocephaly, cardiac defects, and thrombocytopenia. There is a significant variability in the range of clinical features. We report herein a five-year-old girl with severe ophthalmological findings, facial dysmorphism, and psychomotor retardation with normal platelet function, in whom a de novo 11q23 deletion was detected, suggesting that distal 11q monosomy should be kept in mind in patients presenting with dysmorphic facial features and psychomotor retardation even in the absence of hematological findings.

  11. Identyfikacja różnic w poziomie zdolności szybkościowych i wytrzymałościowo szybkościowych na przykładzie zawodników drugoligowego zespołu piłki nożnej = The identification of the differences in the level of the speed abilities and the endurance-speed abilities: a case study from the second league football team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Różycki

    2015-11-01

                                                                     Abstract                 The use of technical-tactical abilities is to a great extent dependent on the condition preparation of the player. In order to obtain the information on the players abilities to perform locomotive tasks a collection of tests and trials is carried out. The aim of the work was to identify the differences in the level of speed abilities and endurance-speed abilities of the players of the second league football club basing on a test including multiple effort tasks of maximum intensity with short-term breaks of the active character (modified Rast Test. The analyzed parameters included: start speed, run speed, speed endurance 1, speed endurance 2. The analysis of the research data has proved that the group varies in the abilities to perform locomotive tasks. The highest level of differences was detected in the parameter of start speed, the lowest in speed endurance 1. The cluster analysis appeared to be a sufficient method of identification of relatively homogenous groups of players. Key words: football, condition abilities, cluster analysis. [1] e-mail: waldemarrozycki@op.pl, tel: 608 149 380

  12. Enhancement of autonomic and psychomotor arousal by exposures to blue wavelength light: importance of both absolute and relative contents of melanopic component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuda, Emi; Ogasawara, Hiroki; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hayano, Junichiro

    2017-01-31

    Blue light containing rich melanopsin-stimulating (melanopic) component has been reported to enhance arousal level, but it is unclear whether the determinant of the effects is the absolute or relative content of melanopic component. We compared the autonomic and psychomotor arousal effects of melanopic-enriched blue light of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with those of OLED lights with lesser absolute amount of melanopic component (green light) and with greater absolute but lesser relative content (white light). Using a ceiling light consisting of 120 panels (55 × 55 mm square) of OLED modules with adjustable color and brightness, we examined the effects of blue, green, and white lights (melanopic photon flux densities, 0.23, 0.14, and 0.38 μmol/m 2 /s and its relative content ratios, 72, 17, and 14%, respectively) on heart rate variability (HRV) during exposures and on the performance of psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) after exposures in ten healthy subjects with normal color vision. For each of the three colors, five consecutive 10-min sessions of light exposures were performed in the supine position, interleaved by four 10-min intervals during which 5-min PVT was performed under usual fluorescent light in sitting position. Low-frequency (LF, 0.04-0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF, 0.15-0.40 Hz) power and LF-to-HF ratio (LF/HF) of HRV during light exposures and reaction time (RT) and minor lapse (RT >500 ms) of PVT were analyzed. Heart rate was higher and the HF power reflecting autonomic resting was lower during exposures to the blue light than the green and white lights, while LF/HF did not differ significantly. Also, the number of minor lapse and the variation of reaction time reflecting decreased vigilance were lower after exposures to the blue light than the green light. The effects of blue OLED light for maintaining autonomic and psychomotor arousal levels depend on both absolute and relative contents of melanopic component in the light.

  13. Visuospatial and psychomotor aptitude predicts endovascular performance of inexperienced individuals on a virtual reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, Isabelle; O'Donoghue, Kevin G L; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vermassen, Frank; Darzi, Ara; Cheshire, Nicholas J W

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) simulation for endovascular training of medical students to determine whether innate perceptual, visuospatial, and psychomotor aptitude (VSA) can predict initial and plateau phase of technical endovascular skills acquisition. Twenty medical students received didactic and endovascular training on a commercially available VR simulator. Each student treated a series of 10 identical noncomplex renal artery stenoses endovascularly. The simulator recorded performance data instantly and objectively. An experienced interventionalist rated the performance at the initial and final sessions using generic (out of 40) and procedure-specific (out of 30) rating scales. VSA were tested with fine motor dexterity (FMD, Perdue Pegboard), psychomotor ability (minimally invasive virtual reality surgical trainer [MIST-VR]), image recall (Rey-Osterrieth), and organizational aptitude (map-planning). VSA performance scores were correlated with the assessment parameters of endovascular skills at commencement and completion of training. Medical students exhibited statistically significant learning curves from the initial to the plateau performance for contrast usage (medians, 28 vs 17 mL, P dexterity as well as with image recall at end of the training period. In addition to current recruitment strategies, VSA may be a useful tool for predictive validity studies.

  14. Acute and subchronic effects of Org 2305 and diazepam on psychomotor performance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, M J; Koski, J; Strömberg, C

    1987-02-01

    Three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg) of Org 2305 (O 15, O 30 and O 60 respectively), a novel anxiolytic drug chemically related to mianserin, were compared with placebo and 15 mg diazepam (DZ) on human psychomotor performance in a double-blind, cross-over study with 15 healthy volunteers. Objective measurements (choice reaction, tracking, flicker fusion, Maddox wing, digit symbol substitution, memory recall) and subjective assessments (visual analogue scales) were done at baseline and 2 and 13 h after the first dose. This testing procedure was repeated on day 7 when administering the seventh consecutive daily night-time dose. After the first dose O 15 did not differ from placebo and O 30 rarely differed from placebo. O 60 impaired various objective functions similarly to, or less than DZ. Subjectively, DZ and O 60 were felt as sedative. During subchronic treatment, DZ caused some impairment of baseline due to accumulation of bioassayable benzodiazepines, but significant responses to the last DZ dose were less than those to the first dose. DZ but not O 60 was reported to have caused lethargy and clumsiness during subchronic treatment. In the doses used Org 2305 impaired psychomotor performance less than diazepam did. A dose of 60 mg Org 2305 may offer some advantage over 15 mg diazepam, provided that their anxiolytic effects are about similar.

  15. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery and its effect on psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; López-Montiel, Dolores; González-Mesa, Ernesto Santiago

    2015-12-01

    The main objective is to examine the influence of oxytocin administration during delivery on psychomotor development at age five years. This was a retrospective cohort study involving two groups: children of mothers exposed vs. not exposed to oxytocin during labor. Of the 7,465 newborns registered in our maternity service during 2006 we randomly selected an initial sample of 400 children. Of these, 146 children were assessed using the motor scale of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Other predictor variables that could potentially act as confounders and/or interact with the main relationship were also examined. The data were subjected to bivariate analysis, estimates of measures of strength of association, stratified analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression. The results indicate that exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery is an independent risk factor for a delay in gross and fine motor development. This was the case after controlling for the variables duration of labor and sex of the newborn, none of which modified the effect of oxytocin on gross and fine motor development. However, sex of the newborn were shown to be confounding gross motor development. In light of these results, and with the aim of preventing possible psychomotor alterations, further studies are now needed to analyze the effect that the oxytocin dose and the duration of perfusion may have on children's subsequent development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychomotor development index in children younger than 6 years from Argentine provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Kelmansky, Diana M; Masautis, Alicia; Nunes, Fernando

    2018-04-01

    To obtain a psychomotor development index (PDI) for each Argentine province. Using a national, probabilistic, and stratified sample of 13 323 male and female children younger than 6 years selected for the National Survey on Nutrition and Health (Encuesta Nacional de Nutrición y Salud, ENNyS 2004), we estimated the PDI per province based on compliance with 10 developmental milestones. The median age at attainment (median age) of each milestone was estimated adjusting a logistic regression. The PDI was estimated as 100* (1 + b), where "b" is the regression coefficient of y= a + b x, where "y" is the median age as per the national reference (x) minus the median age at attainment of a milestone. The theoretical value expected for the PDI was 100. The PDI per province ranged between 72.1 and 106.4. Most provinces showed a negative regression coefficient, which indicated a progressive increase of the delay in the age at attainment of milestones. The correlation coefficient between the PDI per province and infant mortality in 2005was extremely high: -0.85, suggesting that both indicators share similar biological and social determinants. The PDI was negative because the higher the mortality, the lower the PDI. We have now a positive health indicator available in Argentina: the psychomotor development index, which is a low-cost, easy to collect, and reliable tool that may be used in national health statistics. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  18. Influence of learning style on instructional multimedia effects on graduate student cognitive and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William

    2006-01-01

    Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.

  19. Appraisal of psychomotor skills of dental students at University Complutense of Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Alfonso García; Sánchez, Esperanza; Hidalgo, Juan J; Díaz, María J

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychomotor skills of the dental students at University Complutense of Madrid (UCM), using a battery of psychometric tests. The sample comprised 306 students of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of Odontology, who, during the last month of the academic term, took the test on rotation of solid shapes, the Embedded Figures test in its group form (GEFT), the O'Connor Tweezer test, the MacQuarrie test for mechanical ability and the indirect vision test. Before these tests began, some personal data of all students were collected. The results showed some statistically significant correlation between several personal variables (sex, manual dominance and previous skills) and performance in the psychometric tests, although no significant relation was found between these variables and the students' academic qualifications. When comparisons were made between the psychomotor tests and the academic results of the students, significant differences appeared in the tracing and dotting subtests of the MacQuarrie test, whereby those students with higher practical qualifications reached the best punctuation. In the O'Connor Tweezer test, the students who obtained the worst results were those with lower qualifications. These data could serve to detect at an early stage those students who need greater educational support. No relation was found between the GEFT and the indirect vision test.

  20. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  1. Deficits of psychomotor and mnesic functions across aging in mouse lemur primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène eLanguille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to a similar cerebral neuro-anatomy, non-human primates are viewed as the most valid models for understanding cognitive deficits. This study evaluated psychomotor and mnesic functions of 41 young to old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus. Psychomotor capacities and anxiety-related behaviors decreased abruptly from middle to late adulthood. However, Mnesic functions were not affected in the same way with increasing age. While results of the spontaneous alternation task point to a progressive and widespread age-related decline of spatial working memory, both spatial reference and novel object recognition memory tasks did not reveal any tendency due to large inter-individual variability in the middle-aged and old animals. Indeed, some of the aged animals performed as well as younger ones, whereas some others had bad performances in the Barnes maze and in the object recognition test. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that declarative-like memory was strongly impaired only in 7 out of 25 middle-aged/old animals. These results suggest that this analysis allows to distinguish elder populations of good and bad performers in this non-human primate model and to closely compare this to human aging.

  2. "Sexy stimulants": the interaction between psychomotor stimulants and sexual behavior in the female brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarraci, Fay A; Bolton, Jessica L

    2014-06-01

    Research indicates gender differences in sensitivity to psychomotor stimulants. Preclinical work investigating the interaction between drugs of abuse and sex-specific behaviors, such as sexual behavior, is critical to our understanding of such gender differences in humans. A number of behavioral paradigms can be used to model aspects of human sexual behavior in animal subjects. Although traditional assessment of the reflexive, lordosis posture of the female rat has been used to map the neuroanatomical and neurochemical systems that contribute to uniquely female copulatory behavior, the additional behavioral paradigms discussed in the current review have helped us expand our description of the appetitive and consummatory patterns of sexual behavior in the female rat. Measuring appetitive behavior is particularly important for assessing sexual motivation, the equivalent of "desire" in humans. By investigating the effects of commonly abused drugs on female sexual motivation, we are beginning to elucidate the role of dopaminergic neurotransmission, a neural system also known to be critical to the neurobiology of drug addiction, in female sexual motivation. A better understanding of the nexus of sex and drugs in the female brain will help advance our understanding of motivation in general and explain how psychomotor stimulants affect males and females differently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Kinetic Structure on Knowledge About and Performance of a Psychomotor Skill: Teaching Students to Use the Compound Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Ellen Stephanie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates effects of method of presentation and structure on secondary student's acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills in teaching use of the compound microscope. Psychomotor skills and knowledge acquisitions were both found to be directly related to high structure and separated presentations. (SL)

  4. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  5. Multimedia Design Principles in the Psychomotor Domain: The Effect of Multimedia and Spatial Contiguity on Students' Learning of Basic Life Support with Task Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…

  6. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  7. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  8. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  9. Multi-level storage and ultra-high speed of superlattice-like Ge50Te50/Ge8Sb92 thin film for phase-change memory application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weihua; Chen, Shiyu; Zhai, Jiwei; Liu, Xinyi; Lai, Tianshu; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-10-06

    Superlattice-like Ge 50 Te 50 /Ge 8 Sb 92 (SLL GT/GS) thin film was systematically investigated for multi-level storage and ultra-fast switching phase-change memory application. In situ resistance measurement indicates that SLL GT/GS thin film exhibits two distinct resistance steps with elevated temperature. The thermal stability of the amorphous state and intermediate state were evaluated with the Kissinger and Arrhenius plots. The phase-structure evolution revealed that the amorphous SLL GT/GS thin film crystallized into rhombohedral Sb phase first, then the rhombohedral GeTe phase. The microstructure, layered structure, and interface stability of SLL GT/GS thin film was confirmed by using transmission electron microscopy. The transition speed of crystallization and amorphization was measured by the picosecond laser pump-probe system. The volume variation during the crystallization was obtained from x-ray reflectivity. Phase-change memory (PCM) cells based on SLL GT/GS thin film were fabricated to verify the multi-level switching under an electrical pulse as short as 30 ns. These results illustrate that the SLL GT/GS thin film has great potentiality in high-density and high-speed PCM applications.

  10. Analysis of Precipitation (Rain and Snow) Levels and Straight-line Wind Speeds in Support of the 10-year Natural Phenomena Hazards Review for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dewart, Jean Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Deola, Regina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-10

    This report provides site-specific return level analyses for rain, snow, and straight-line wind extreme events. These analyses are in support of the 10-year review plan for the assessment of meteorological natural phenomena hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These analyses follow guidance from Department of Energy, DOE Standard, Natural Phenomena Hazards Analysis and Design Criteria for DOE Facilities (DOE-STD-1020-2012), Nuclear Regulatory Commission Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800, 2007) and ANSI/ ANS-2.3-2011, Estimating Tornado, Hurricane, and Extreme Straight-Line Wind Characteristics at Nuclear Facility Sites. LANL precipitation and snow level data have been collected since 1910, although not all years are complete. In this report the results from the more recent data (1990–2014) are compared to those of past analyses and a 2004 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration report. Given the many differences in the data sets used in these different analyses, the lack of statistically significant differences in return level estimates increases confidence in the data and in the modeling and analysis approach.

  11. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  12. Computer-assessed performance of psychomotor skills in endoscopic otolaryngology surgery: construct validity of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Peter D; Steven, Richard; Zhang, Dong; Li, Heng; Abel, Eric W

    2015-11-01

    This study was undertaken to introduce and establish the value of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST) as a customisable, objective real-time scoring system for trainee assessment. The construct validity of the system was assessed by comparing the performance of experienced otolaryngologists with that of otolaryngology trainees, junior doctors and medical students. Forty two subjects (13 Consultants, 8 senior trainees, 13 junior trainees and 8 junior doctors/medical students) completed a single test on DEPOST. The test involved using a 30° rigid endoscope and a probe with position sensor, to identify a series of lights in a complex 3-dimensional model. The system scored subjects for time, success rate, and economy of movement (distance travelled). An analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used for the data analysis, with statistical significance set at 0.05. Increasing experience led to significantly improved performance with the DEPOST (p < 0.01). Senior trainees' results were significantly better than those of consultant otolaryngologists in success rate and time (p < 0.05 & p < 0.05). Consultants were the most efficient in their movement (p = 0.051) CONCLUSIONS: The system provides an accurate and customisable assessment of endoscopic skill in otolaryngologists. The DEPOST system has construct validity, with master surgeons and senior trainees completing the tasks more accurately without sacrificing execution time, success rate or efficiency of movement.

  13. Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Literature. [and] Evaluating a Skills Centre: The Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Nursing--A Review of the Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn M.

    1998-01-01

    Article 1 reviews literature on psychomotor skill acquisition, finding inconclusive research based on a positivist approach. Article 2 reviews theories of skill acquisition. Both reviews will be used to evaluate a skills center for nurses that is based on a constructivist approach. (SK)

  14. Processing Determinants of Reading Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mark D.; McClelland, James L.

    1979-01-01

    Two groups of undergraduates differing in reading ability were tested on a number of reaction-time tasks designed to determine the speed of encoding visual information at several different levels, tests of sensory functions, verbal and quantitative reasoning ability, short-term auditory memory span, and ability to comprehend spoken text.…

  15. Validity and sensitivity of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) to total and partial sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Mollicone, Daniel; Dinges, David F.

    2011-12-01

    The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) objectively assesses fatigue-related changes in alertness associated with sleep loss, extended wakefulness, circadian misalignment, and time on task. The standard 10-min PVT is often considered impractical in applied contexts. To address this limitation, we developed a modified brief 3-min version of the PVT (PVT-B). The PVT-B was validated in controlled laboratory studies with 74 healthy subjects (34 female, aged 22-45 years) that participated either in a total sleep deprivation (TSD) study involving 33 h awake ( N=31 subjects) or in a partial sleep deprivation (PSD) protocol involving 5 consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed ( N=43 subjects). PVT and PVT-B were performed regularly during wakefulness. Effect sizes of 5 key PVT outcomes were larger for TSD than PSD and larger for PVT than for PVT-B for all outcomes. Effect size was largest for response speed (reciprocal response time) for both the PVT-B and the PVT in both TSD and PSD. According to Cohen's criteria, effect sizes for the PVT-B were still large (TSD) or medium to large (PSD, except for fastest 10% RT). Compared to the 70% decrease in test duration the 22.7% (range 6.9-67.8%) average decrease in effect size was deemed an acceptable trade-off between duration and sensitivity. Overall, PVT-B performance had faster response times, more false starts and fewer lapses than PVT performance (all psleep loss between PVT-B and PVT for all outcome variables (all P>0.15) but the fastest 10% response times during PSD ( P<0.001), and effect sizes increased from 1.38 to 1.49 (TSD) and 0.65 to 0.76 (PSD), respectively. In conclusion, PVT-B tracked standard 10-min PVT performance throughout both TSD and PSD, and yielded medium to large effect sizes. PVT-B may be a useful tool for assessing behavioral alertness in settings where the duration of the 10-min PVT is considered impractical, although further validation in applied settings is needed.

  16. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  17. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  18. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  19. Psychomotor approach in children affected by nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS): a new rehabilitative purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Ruberto, Maria; Marotta, Rosa; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Roccella, Michele; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Background According to the Rome III criteria, encopresis without constipation was defined as nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS) with not yet well understood etiology. Treatment approaches reported in the literature with varying results include biofeedback, hypnosis, reflexology, and Internet-based educational programs. In developmental age, another behavioral treatment could be identified in the psychomotor approach, which is called psychomotricity in the European countries, or is also known as play therapy. The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficacy of play therapy plus toilet training in a small sample of prepubertal children affected by FNRFS. Materials and methods Twenty-six patients (group 1; 16 males, mean age of 5.92 ± 0.84 years) underwent a psychomotor approach therapy program in association with toilet training for 6 months, and the other 26 subjects (group 2; 17 males, mean age of 5.76 ± 0.69) underwent the sole toilet training program for 6 months. During the observational time period (T0) and after 6 months (T1) of both treatments, the patients were evaluated for FNRFS frequency and for the behavioral assessment. Results At T0, the FNRFS mean frequency per month for group 1 was 20.115 episodes/month (standard deviation [SD] ± 3.024) and for group 2 was 20.423 (SD ± 1.879) (P = 0.661). At T1 the mean frequency per month was 6.461 (SD ± 1.333) episodes/month and 12.038 (SD ± 1.341), respectively (P < 0.001). Moreover, the delta percent average of the frequency between T0 and T1 was 67.121 ± 8.527 for group 1 and 40.518 ± 9.259 for group 2 (P < 0.001). At T1, a significant improvement in scores on the behavioral scale was identified. Conclusion Our preliminary results show the importance of a multidisciplinary approach, and suggest the positive effect of an additional psychomotor approach, as this holds a new and interesting rehabilitative purpose for children in a toilet training program, even if further research is

  20. Psychomotor performance during a 28 day head-down tilt with and without lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traon, A. Pavy-le; de Feneyrols, A. Rous; Cornac, A.; Abdeseelam, R.; N'uygen, D.; Lazerges, M.; Güell, A.; Bes, A.

    Several factors may affect psychomotor performance in space: sensory-motor changes, sleep disturbances, psychological modifications induced by the social isolation and confinement. However, psychomotor performance is difficult to assess. A battery of standardized and computerized tests, so-called "Automated Portable Test System" (APTS) was devised to ascertain the cognitive, perceptive and motor abilities and their possible fluctuations according to environmental effects. Antiorthostatic bedrest, often used to simulate weightlessness, (particularly cardiovascular modifications) also constitutes a situation of social confinement and isolation. During two bedrest experiments (with head-down tilt of -6°) of 28 days each, we intended to assess psychomotor performance of 6 males so as to determine whether: —on the one hand, it could be altered by remaining in decubitus; —on the other, the Lower Body Negative Pressure sessions, designed to prevent orthostatic intolerance back on Earth, could improve the performance. To accomplish this, part of the APTS tests as well as an automated perceptive attention test were performed. No downgrading of psychomotor performance was observed. On the contrary, the tasks were more accurately performed over time. In order to assess the experimental conditions on the acquisition phase, the learning curves were modelled. A beneficial effect of the LBNP sessions on simple tests involving the visual-motor coordination and attention faculties can only be regarded as a mere trend. Methods used in this experiment are also discussed.

  1. Effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development in primary school children in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Primary school children (n = 424) from the Ntcheu District, Malawi, aged 6 - 8 years, were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development. After the baseline measurements were

  2. Providing Opportunities for Student Self-Assessment: The Impact on the Acquisition of Psychomotor Skills in Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Julie; Owen, Antonette

    2016-01-01

    The Occupational Therapy department at the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa is responsible for ensuring students achieve psychomotor skill proficiency, as it is an essential component of health care practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of opportunities to afford self-evaluation better prepared…

  3. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Koen W.; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P.; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was

  4. Socioeconomic status, anthropometric status, and psychomotor development of Kenyan children from resource-limited settings: a path-analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Van de Vijver, Fons; Van Baar, Anneloes; Mbonani, Leonard; Kalu, Raphael; Newton, Charles; Holding, Penny

    2008-09-01

    Sub-optimal physical growth has been suggested as a key pathway between the effect of environmental risk and developmental outcome. To determine if anthropometric status mediates the relation between socioeconomic status and psychomotor development of young children in resource-limited settings. A cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 204 (105 girls) children from two resource-limited communities in the Coast Province, Kenya. The mean age of these children was 29 months (SD = 3.43; range: 24-35 months). Psychomotor functioning was assessed using a locally developed and validated measure, the Kilifi Developmental Inventory. A significant association was found between anthropometric status (as measured by weight-for-age, height-for-age, mid-upper arm circumference, and head circumference) and psychomotor functioning and also between socioeconomic status and anthropometric status; no direct effects were found between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome. The models showed that weight, height and to a lesser extent mid-upper arm circumference mediate the relation between socioeconomic status and developmental outcome, while head circumference did not show the same effect. Among children under 3 years living in poverty, anthropometric status shows a clear association with psychomotor development while socioeconomic status may only have an indirect association.

  5. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2017-10-01

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; r s  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  7. Cognitive and psychomotor effects of three months of escitalopram treatment in elderly patients with major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beheydt, L.L.; Schrijvers, D.L.; Docx, L.; Bouckaert, F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although psychomotor retardation (PR) and cognitive disfunctioning are essential symptoms of elderly depressed patients, the differential effect of treatment with an SSRI in the elderly on these symptoms has hardly got any attention in studies with objective experimental measures. Since

  8. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five

  9. Effects of Nutrient-Fortified Milk-Based Formula on the Nutritional Status and Psychomotor Skills of Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavil May C. Cervo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m2, mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk (p<0.0001. Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.

  10. A Simple, Low-Cost Stereographic Video Capture and Viewing Solution for Teaching Psychomotor Skills Using Online Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ian

    2010-01-01

    It is recognised that the teaching of complex psychomotor skills using online delivery is difficult without the support of either face-to-face coaching and tuition or a stereoscopic viewing system that provides users with a feel for the spatial nature of the skills being taught. To date, the limitations of bandwidth, and the high cost and…

  11. Effects of Nutrient-Fortified Milk-Based Formula on the Nutritional Status and Psychomotor Skills of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervo, Mavil May C; Mendoza, Diane S; Barrios, Erniel B; Panlasigui, Leonora N

    2017-01-01

    This randomized, single-masked, controlled trial examined the effects of nutrient-fortified milk-based formula supplementation on nutritional status, nutrient intake, and psychomotor skills of selected preschool children with mean age of 4.10 ± 0.14 years. The study participants were divided equally into three major groups, normal, underweight, and severely underweight based on WHO-Child Growth Standards, and were further divided into two groups: fortified milk group who was given two glasses of fortified milk (50 g of powdered milk/serving) a day for twelve weeks in addition to their usual diet and the nonintervention group who was not given fortified milk and thus maintained their usual intake. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, and psychomotor developmental score were analyzed. Results showed that consumption of two servings of fortified milk a day for twelve weeks significantly increased the height of preschool children by 1.40 cm, weight by 1.35 kg, body mass index by 0.96 kg/m 2 , mid-upper arm circumference by 0.66 cm, and psychomotor scores by 13.74% more than those children who did not consume fortified milk ( p < 0.0001). Hence, fortified milk-based supplement in the diet of preschool children improved overall nutritional status, nutrient intake, and performance in psychomotor scale. This study is registered in Philippine Health Research Registry: PHRR140923-000234.

  12. Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Taur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.

  13. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Koen W.; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P.; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was

  14. Pointing to Parallels in Ability-Related Differences in the Use of Metacognition in Academic and Psychomotor Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…

  15. Time-on-task impairment of psychomotor vigilance is affected by mild skin warming and changes with aging and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Someren, E.J. van

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effect of mild manipulations of core and skin temperature on psychomotor vigilance (PVT) in young adults, elderly, and elderly insomniacs. Design: 432 PVTs were obtained during a 2-day semi-constant routine protocol, while differentially manipulating core and

  16. Face, content, and construct validity of the EndoViS training system for objective assessment of psychomotor skills of laparoscopic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamirosa, Fernando Pérez; Flores, Ricardo Manuel Ordorica; García, Ignacio Oropesa; Vidal, Cristian Rubén Zalles; Martínez, Arturo Minor

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to present face, content, and constructs validity of the endoscopic orthogonal video system (EndoViS) training system and determines its efficiency as a training and objective assessment tool of the surgeons' psychomotor skills. Thirty-five surgeons and medical students participated in this study: 11 medical students, 19 residents, and 5 experts. All participants performed four basic skill tasks using conventional laparoscopic instruments and EndoViS training system. Subsequently, participants filled out a questionnaire regarding the design, realism, overall functionality, and its capabilities to train hand-eye coordination and depth perception, rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Motion data of the instruments were obtained by means of two webcams built into a laparoscopic physical trainer. To identify the surgical instruments in the images, colored markers were placed in each instrument. Thirteen motion-related metrics were used to assess laparoscopic performance of the participants. Statistical analysis of performance was made between novice, intermediate, and expert groups. Internal consistency of all metrics was analyzed with Cronbach's α test. Overall scores about features of the EndoViS system were positives. Participants agreed with the usefulness of tasks and the training capacities of EndoViS system (score >4). Results presented significant differences in the execution of three skill tasks performed by participants. Seven metrics showed construct validity for assessment of performance with high consistency levels. EndoViS training system has been successfully validated. Results showed that EndoViS was able to differentiate between participants of varying laparoscopic experience. This simulator is a useful and effective tool to objectively assess laparoscopic psychomotor skills of the surgeons.

  17. 19p13.3 aberrations are associated with dysmorphic features and deviant psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggberg, L; Olsén, P; Näntö-Salonen, K; Knuutila, S

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe 2 patients with de novo genomic imbalances of 19p13.3. Using high-resolution microarray analysis, we detected a 1.25-Mb deletion in one patient and a 0.81- Mb duplication in another. The resulting phenotypes are quite different; one is a 2-year-old boy with macrocephaly and normal growth, while the other is a 9-year-old boy with microcephaly and growth retardation since birth. Both have dysmorphic features and psychomotor developmental delay. This report gives evidence of the effect of small aberrations of chromosome 19 and describes the phenotypes arising from a duplication and deletion of the same location at 19p13.3. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  19. Teaching nursing psychomotor skills in a fundamentals laboratory: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to determine the most effective methods of teaching psychomotor skills. Research has pointed to a gap between nursing practice and nursing education. Due to a number of conditions, nursing students are learning basic skills in laboratories, rather than clinical settings. A literature review was conducted to evaluate studies published since 1995 that compared alternative and traditional methods of teaching skills to novice nursing students. Of the 13 studies found, most assessed computer-related methods. A few examined alternatives, such as the use of standardized patients, high-fidelity manikins, and a mental-imaging technique. Based on this limited evidence, it appears that teaching methods providing access to online interactive materials were significantly more effective than others.Three studies found that a combination of traditional lecture and demonstration methods plus computer use was more effective than either method alone.

  20. The reliability of a VISION COACH task as a measure of psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yubin; Rosopa, Patrick J; Mossey, Mary; Crisler, Matthew C; Drouin, Nathalie; Kopera, Kevin; Brooks, Johnell O

    2014-10-01

    The VISION COACH™ interactive light board is designed to test and enhance participants' psychomotor skills. The primary goal of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Full Field 120 VISION COACH task. One hundred eleven male and 131 female adult participants completed six trials where they responded to 120 randomly distributed lights displayed on the VISION COACH interactive light board. The mean time required for a participant to complete a trial was 101 seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.962 to 0.987 suggest the VISION COACH Full Field 120 task was a reliable task. Cohen's d's of adjacent pairs of trials suggest learning effects did not negatively affect reliability after the third trial.

  1. Development and retention of fine psychomotor skills: implications for the aging dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Janice K T; Gardner, Karen; Rucker, Lance M

    2010-01-01

    Dentistry is a profession that involves the acquisition and maintenance of fine psychomotor skills. The many components of the motor system in the brain work together during all movements, but each area is activated to a varying degree depending on whether an individual is learning, training or maintaining expertise. The transition from nonexpert to expert involves practice and experience to allow imprinting of neuronal connections within the brain, which in turn causes those practised movements to become automated. With age, many people slowly lose memory, but are the fine motor movements that a dentist has mastered over a lifetime also lost? The aging expert experiences the same deterioration as an aging nonexpert in tasks that are unrelated to the expertise, but tasks that an expert has selectively maintained through decades of practice are retained through aging.

  2. Separate and combined effects of the social drugs on psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N; Hindmarch, I

    1991-01-01

    Ten female subjects (five smokers and five non-smokers) performed a choice reaction time task (CRT), a compensatory tracking task (CTT), a short-term memory task (STM) and were tested for their critical flicker fusion threshold (CFF) at set points over 4 h after the administration of each possible combination of nicotine (2 mg gum or placebo), caffeine (250 mg capsule or placebo) and alcohol (30 g or placebo). Memory and motor function were shown to be facilitated by nicotine or caffeine, and the debilitating effects of alcohol were frequently antagonised by either drug. In spite of the differences in their neuropharmacological actions, combinations of nicotine, caffeine and alcohol may be compared through their effects on common information processing mechanisms involved in psychomotor performance.

  3. The treatment of differences in developmental, psychomotor and critical curricula for physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Xavier Russo Bonetto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Difference, as cultural identity, appears as an urgent demand in the curricula for all school subjects. Therefore, this paper aims at identifying the treatment given to differences by some of the most relevant proposals in the physical education area. Three Brazilian works were analyzed for having influenced the dissemination of psychomotor (FREIRE, 1989, developmental (TANI et al., 1988 and critical-overcoming (SOARES et al., 1992 curricula. The results revealed a conservative perspective based (a on the assimilation of differences or (b on the humanistic appropriation supported by the belief of the equality principle disregarding issues such as ethnicity, genre or sexuality. The conclusion is that, in both cases, integrating the different cultural groups to the dominant culture is sought so that everybody can compete as equals in the modern capitalist society.

  4. Regulation of feeding behavior and psychomotor activity by corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH in fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei eMatsuda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH is a hypothalamic neuropeptide belonging to a family of neuropeptides that includes urocortins, urotensin I and sauvagine in vertebrates. CRH and urocortin act as anorexigenic factors for satiety regulation in fish. In a goldfish model, intracerebroventricular (ICV administration of CRH has been shown to affect not only food intake, but also locomotor and psychomotor activities. In particular, CRH elicits anxiety-like behavior as an anxiogenic neuropeptide in goldfish, as is the case in rodents. This paper reviews current knowledge of CRH and its related peptides derived from studies of teleost fish, as representative non-mammals, focusing particularly on the role of the CRH system, and examines its significance from a comparative viewpoint.

  5. Differential response of nNOS knockout mice to MDMA ("ecstasy")- and methamphetamine-induced psychomotor sensitization and neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Yossef; Anderson, Karen L; Ali, Syed F

    2004-10-01

    It has been shown that mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene are resistant to cocaine-induced psychomotor sensitization and methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate the hypothesis that nNOS has a major role in dopamine (DA)- but not serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)-mediated effects of psychostimulants. The response of nNOS knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice to the psychomotor-stimulating and neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; "Ecstasy") and METH were investigated. Repeated administration of MDMA for 5 days resulted in psychomotor sensitization in both WT and nNOS KO mice, while repeated administration of METH caused psychomotor sensitization in WT but not in KO mice. Sensitization to both MDMA and METH was persistent for 40 days in WT mice, but not in nNOS KO mice. These findings suggest that the induction of psychomotor sensitization to MDMA and METH is NO independent and NO dependent, respectively, while the persistence of sensitization to both drugs is NO dependent. For the neurochemical studies, a high dose of MDMA caused marked depletion of 5-HT in several brain regions of both WT and KO mice, suggesting that the absence of the nNOS gene did not afford protection against MDMA-induced depletion of 5-HT. Striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity caused by high doses of MDMA and METH in WT mice was partially prevented in KO mice administered with MDMA, but it was fully precluded in KO mice administered with METH. The differential response of nNOS KO mice to the behavioral and neurotoxic effects of MDMA and METH suggests that the nNOS gene is required for the expression and persistence of DA-mediated effects of METH and MDMA, while 5-HT-mediated effects of MDMA (induction of sensitization and 5-HT depletion) are not dependent on nNOS.

  6. Repeated-dose effects of mequitazine, cetirizine and dexchlorpheniramine on driving and psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Eef L; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the antihistamines mequitazine, cetirizine and dexchlorpheniramine produce mild sedation after single doses. It is unknown, however, whether acute sedation persists after repeated dosing. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of repeated dosing of these antihistamines on driving and psychomotor performance. Sixteen healthy volunteers were treated with mequitazine 10 mg q.a.m., cetirizine 10 mg q.a.m., dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg b.i.d. and placebo for four separate 8-day periods. Drug effects were assessed on days 1 and 8 using on-the-road driving tests (highway driving and car following), psychomotor tests (tracking and divided attention) and subjective questionnaires. Dexchlorpheniramine and mequitazine significantly impaired driving performance on the highway driving test on the first day; dexchlorpheniramine increased Standard Deviation of Lateral Position by 2 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 3.8] and mequitazine by 2.5 cm (CI 1.0, 4.3). These effects on driving performance disappeared after 8 days of treatment. No effect of treatment was found on car following, tracking and divided attention. Although subjective ratings confirmed that subjects knew their driving had been impaired in the mequitazine and dexchlorpheniramine condition after completion of the highway driving test on day 1, they did not expect their driving to be affected before the start of the test. Cetirizine did not impair performance on any of the tests. Single doses of mequitazine 10 mg and dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg cause mild driving impairment. However, when taken over several days, the impairing effect wears off, possibly as a result of tolerance.

  7. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Classifying vulnerability to sleep deprivation using baseline measures of psychomotor vigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanaik, Amiya; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Chua, Eric C P; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-05-01

    To identify measures derived from baseline psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance that can reliably predict vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Subjects underwent total sleep deprivation and completed a 10-min PVT every 1-2 h in a controlled laboratory setting. Participants were categorized as vulnerable or resistant to sleep deprivation, based on a median split of lapses that occurred following sleep deprivation. Standard reaction time, drift diffusion model (DDM), and wavelet metrics were derived from PVT response times collected at baseline. A support vector machine model that incorporated maximum relevance and minimum redundancy feature selection and wrapper-based heuristics was used to classify subjects as vulnerable or resistant using rested data. Two academic sleep laboratories. Independent samples of 135 (69 women, age 18 to 25 y), and 45 (3 women, age 22 to 32 y) healthy adults. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. In both datasets, DDM measures, number of consecutive reaction times that differ by more than 250 ms, and two wavelet features were selected by the model as features predictive of vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Using the best set of features selected in each dataset, classification accuracy was 77% and 82% using fivefold stratified cross-validation, respectively. Despite differences in experimental conditions across studies, drift diffusion model parameters associated reliably with individual differences in performance during total sleep deprivation. These results demonstrate the utility of drift diffusion modeling of baseline performance in estimating vulnerability to psychomotor vigilance decline

  9. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  10. Effects of CPAP therapy on cognitive and psychomotor performances in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective 1-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecotic, Renata; Dodig, Ivana Pavlinac; Valic, Maja; Galic, Tea; Kalcina, Linda Lusic; Ivkovic, Natalija; Dogas, Zoran

    2018-02-16

    We prospectively investigated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on long-term cognitive and psychomotor performances, and excessive daytime sleepiness in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. A total of 40 patients were recruited and 23 patients with severe OSA fully completed the study protocol to investigate the effects of CPAP therapy on psychomotor performance at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 year following initiation of the therapy. Psychomotor CRD-series tests measuring reaction times of light stimulus perception, solving simple arithmetic operations, and complex psychomotor limb coordination, were used in this study. The data collected following CPAP therapy were compared to baseline values prior to the CPAP treatment for each patient. All of the measured variables improved following CPAP treatment. However, the most pronounced effect was observed in improvement of reaction times to complex psychomotor limb coordination test (p CPAP therapy. The CPAP therapy improved cognitive and psychomotor performance on CRD-series tests with the most significant improvement observed in complex psychomotor limb coordination of severe OSA patients.

  11. Comparison of performances of full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Zhang Weihong; Zhang Qiang; Li Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    The steam turbines of nuclear power plants can be divided into the full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine. Different speed leads to differences in many aspects. Therefore, the rational speed is the key point in the selection of steam turbines. This paper contrasts the economy between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, by calculating the relative internal efficiency of half-speed and full-speed steam turbines with the typical level of 1000 megawatt. At the same time, this paper also calculate the relative speed of high speed water drops in the last stage blade of half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, to contrast the water erosion between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine. The results show that the relative internal efficiency of half-speed turbine is higher than that of the full-speed turbine, and that the security especially the ability of preventing water erosion of half-speed turbine is better than that of the full-speed turbine. (authors)

  12. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  13. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  14. Effects of nicotine gum on psychomotor performance in smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N

    1990-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.

  15. Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Nonuniform Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Molinaro, Marco; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    is the distance traveled divided by its speed.Our algorithm relies on a new approximate minimum spanning tree construction called Level-Prim, which is related to but different from Light Approximate Shortest-path Trees. We also extend the widely used tour-splitting technique to nonuniform speeds, using ideas from...

  16. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for bothmen and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation betweenskating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limitvalue. We pay special attention to technical

  17. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  18. The Relationship between road characteristics and speed collected from floating car data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Speed is of great importance to the safety level of a road. Speed choice is strongly influenced by the road environment and the drivers’ assessment of safe speed level at a specific location. This paper presents an analysis of the relationships between speed and road characteristics and speed and...

  19. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  20. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left

  1. Implementation of a level 1 trigger system using high speed serial (VXS) techniques for the 12GeV high luminosity experimental programs at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuevas, C.; Raydo, B.; Dong, H.; Gupta, A.; Barbosa, F.J.; Wilson, J.; Taylor, W.M.; Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.

    2009-01-01

    We will demonstrate a hardware and firmware solution for a complete fully pipelined multi-crate trigger system that takes advantage of the elegant high speed VXS serial extensions for VME. This trigger system includes three sections starting with the front end crate trigger processor (CTP), a global Sub-System Processor (SSP) and a Trigger Supervisor that manages the timing, synchronization and front end event readout. Within a front end crate, trigger information is gathered from each 16 Channel, 12 bit Flash ADC module at 4 nS intervals via the VXS backplane, to a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP). Each Crate Trigger Processor receives these 500 MB/S VXS links from the 16 FADC-250 modules, aligns skewed data inherent of Aurora protocol, and performs real time crate level trigger algorithms. The algorithm results are encoded using a Reed-Solomon technique and transmission of this Level 1 trigger data is sent to the SSP using a multi-fiber link. The multi-fiber link achieves an aggregate trigger data transfer rate to the global trigger at 8 Gb/s. The SSP receives and decodes Reed-Solomon error correcting transmission from each crate, aligns the data, and performs the global level trigger algorithms. The entire trigger system is synchronous and operates at 250 MHz with the Trigger Supervisor managing not only the front end event readout, but also the distribution of the critical timing clocks, synchronization signals, and the global trigger signals to each front end readout crate. These signals are distributed to the front end crates on a separate fiber link and each crate is synchronized using a unique encoding scheme to guarantee that each front end crate is synchronous with a fixed latency, independent of the distance between each crate. The overall trigger signal latency is <3 uS, and the proposed 12GeV experiments at Jefferson Lab require up to 200KHz Level 1 trigger rate.

  2. Psychomotor approach in children affected by nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS: a new rehabilitative purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Francesca Gimigliano,1,2 Maria Ruberto,2 Rosa Marotta,3 Beatrice Gallai,4 Lucia Parisi,5 Serena Marianna Lavano,3 Giovanni Mazzotta,6 Michele Roccella,5 Marco Carotenuto1 1Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Odontostomathologic Disciplines, Head Pathology, Orthopedic Sciences, Second University of Naples, Italy; 3Department of Psychiatry, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 4Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; 5Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 6Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria, Terni, Italy Background: According to the Rome III criteria, encopresis without constipation was defined as nonretentive fecal soiling (FNRFS with not yet well understood etiology. Treatment approaches reported in the literature with varying results include biofeedback, hypnosis, reflexology, and Internet-based educational programs. In developmental age, another behavioral treatment could be identified in the psychomotor approach, which is called psychomotricity in the European countries, or is also known as play therapy. The aim of the present study was to verify the safety and efficacy of play therapy plus toilet training in a small sample of prepubertal children affected by FNRFS. Materials and methods: Twenty-six patients (group 1; 16 males, mean age of 5.92 ± 0.84 years underwent a psychomotor approach therapy program in association with toilet training for 6 months, and the other 26 subjects (group 2; 17 males, mean age of 5.76 ± 0.69 underwent the sole toilet training program for 6 months. During the observational time period (T0 and after 6 months (T1 of both treatments, the patients were evaluated for FNRFS frequency and for the

  3. Do macromorphological features of the human placenta influence somatic and psychomotor development of the newborn and early infant? A historic question revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhof, Gregor; Deerberg, Jost C; Schad, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Ralf C; Hatzmann, Hendrike

    2010-01-01

    We examined the meaning of placental weight, form (massive and thick or extended and flat) and circumference for early somatic and psychomotor childhood development. In this prospective study, fresh placentas (n = 265) were measured for weight and circumference and correlated with neonatal data. A subset of placentas statistically defined as 'massive' (circumference 90th percentile) was correlated with somatic and basic psychomotor variables during the first 4 years of life. A 'medium' category (circumference 45-55th percentile) served as control. Placental weight correlated with birth weight (r = 0.53, p psychomotor development (first sitting, crawling, running, one- and two-word sentences) were not related with placental weight or circumference nor with extremes of placental morphology. Placental weight and circumference seem to influence very early somatic but not psychomotor development. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Unrecognized hypoxia and respiratory depression in emergency department patients sedated for psychomotor agitation: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Kenneth; Rowden, Adam; Damiron, Kathia; Lares, Claudia; Oqroshidze, Nino; Aguilera, Elizabeth

    2014-07-01

    The incidence of respiratory depression in patients who are chemically sedated in the emergency department (ED) is not well understood. As the drugs used for chemical restraint are respiratory depressants, improving respiratory monitoring practice in the ED may be warranted. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of respiratory depression in patients chemically sedated for violent behavior and psychomotor agitation in the ED. Adult patients who met eligibility criteria with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior who were chemically sedated were eligible. SpO2 and ETCO2 (end-tidal CO2) was recorded and saved every 5 seconds. Demographic data, history of drug or alcohol abuse, medical and psychiatric history, HR and BP every 5 minutes, any physician intervention for hypoxia or respiratory depression, or adverse events were also recorded. We defined respiratory depression as an ETCO2 of ≥50 mmHg, a change of 10% above or below baseline, or a loss of waveform for ≥15 seconds. Hypoxia was defined as a SpO2 of ≤93% for ≥15 seconds. We enrolled 59 patients, and excluded 9 because of ≥35% data loss. Twenty-eight (28/50) patients developed respiratory depression at least once during their chemical restraint (56%, 95% CI 42-69%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1-6). Twenty-one (21/50) patients had at least one hypoxic event during their chemical restraint (42%, 95% CI 29-55%); the median number of events was 2 (range 1-5). Nineteen (19/21) (90%, 95% CI 71-97%) of the patients that developed hypoxia had a corresponding ETCO2 change. Fifteen (15/19) (79%, 95% CI 56-91%) patients who became hypoxic met criteria for respiratory depression before the onset of hypoxia. The sensitivity of ETCO2 to predict the onset of a hypoxic event was 90.48% (95% CI: 68-98%) and specificity 69% (95% CI: 49-84%). Five patients received respiratory interventions from the healthcare team to improve respiration [Airway repositioning: (2), Verbal stimulation

  5. Psychomotor testing predicts rate of skill acquisition for proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners

  6. Growth, psychomotor development and morbidity up to 3 years of age in children born after IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivurova, S; Hartikainen, A-L; Sovio, U; Gissler, M; Hemminki, E; Järvelin, M-R

    2003-11-01

    To examine the long-term child outcome after IVF until the age of 3 years in Northern Finland, we conducted a population-based cohort study. First, a cohort of 299 IVF children born in 1990-1995 was compared with a cohort of 558 controls representing the general population in terms of a multiple birth rate of 1.2%, randomly chosen from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (FMBR) and matched for sex, year of birth, area of residence, parity, maternal age and social class (full sample analyses). Second, IVF singletons (n = 150) were compared with singleton controls (n = 280). Third, a plurality matched control cohort (n = 100) for IVF twins (n = 100) was randomly chosen, matched as above, from the FMBR and analysed separately. Infant mortality rate was compared with the national rate from the FMBR. Infant mortality in the IVF group was >2-fold higher compared to the national rate in the general population. The risk (OR, 95% CI) of low weight and height, below the lowest quartile, at 1 year of age (1.6, 1.1-2.2; 1.6, 1.1-2.4) and 2 years of age (1.5, 1.1-2.4; 1.7, 1.2-2.5) was significantly higher in the IVF group when compared with the general population control group. No statistically significant differences were found in the psychomotor development between the cohorts. Cumulative incidence of different diseases up to 3 years of age was significantly higher among IVF children in the full sample and singleton analyses (OR, 95% CI: 2.3, 1.7-3.2; 2.1, 1.3-3.3 respectively) especially regarding respiratory diseases (3.5, 1.9-6.5; 3.1, 1.0-9.4) and diarrhoea (3.7, 2.2-6.2; 5.7, 2.6-12.7), but not in twin comparisons. The growth of IVF children was behind that of control children during the first 3 years of life, but their psychomotor development was similar. Their postnatal health was worse, probably reflecting the problems in the neonatal period.

  7. Does psychomotor agitation in major depressive episodes indicate bipolarity? Evidence from the Zurich Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Jules; Gamma, Alex; Benazzi, Franco; Ajdacic, Vladeta; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-02-01

    Kraepelin's partial interpretation of agitated depression as a mixed state of "manic-depressive insanity" (including the current concept of bipolar disorder) has recently been the focus of much research. This paper tested whether, how, and to what extent both psychomotor symptoms, agitation and retardation in depression are related to bipolarity and anxiety. The prospective Zurich Study assessed psychiatric and somatic syndromes in a community sample of young adults (N = 591) (aged 20 at first interview) by six interviews over 20 years (1979-1999). Psychomotor symptoms of agitation and retardation were assessed by professional interviewers from age 22 to 40 (five interviews) on the basis of the observed and reported behaviour within the interview section on depression. Psychiatric diagnoses were strictly operationalised and, in the case of bipolar-II disorder, were broader than proposed by DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. As indicators of bipolarity, the association with bipolar disorder, a family history of mania/hypomania/cyclothymia, together with hypomanic and cyclothymic temperament as assessed by the general behavior inventory (GBI) [15], and mood lability (an element of cyclothymic temperament) were used. Agitated and retarded depressive states were equally associated with the indicators of bipolarity and with anxiety. Longitudinally, agitation and retardation were significantly associated with each other (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.0-3.2), and this combined group of major depressives showed stronger associations with bipolarity, with both hypomanic/cyclothymic and depressive temperamental traits, and with anxiety. Among agitated, non-retarded depressives, unipolar mood disorder was even twice as common as bipolar mood disorder. Combined agitated and retarded major depressive states are more often bipolar than unipolar, but, in general, agitated depression (with or without retardation) is not more frequently bipolar than retarded depression (with or without agitation), and

  8. Virtual reality as a metric for the assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Learning curves and reliability measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, A G; Satava, R M

    2002-12-01

    The objective assessment of the psychomotor skills of surgeons is now a priority; however, this is a difficult task because of measurement difficulties associated with the assessment of surgery in vivo. In this study, virtual reality (VR) was used to overcome these problems. Twelve experienced (>50 minimal-access procedures), 12 inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons (Virtual Reality (MIST VR). Experienced laparoscopic surgeons performed the tasks significantly (p < 0.01) faster, with less error, more economy in the movement of instruments and the use of diathermy, and with greater consistency in performance. The standardized coefficient alpha for performance measures ranged from a = 0.89 to 0.98, showing high internal measurement consistency. Test-retest reliability ranged from r = 0.96 to r = 0.5. VR is a useful tool for evaluating the psychomotor skills needed to perform laparoscopic surgery.

  9. Neuroimaging results, short-term assessment of psychomotor development and the risk of autism spectrum disorder in extremely premature infants (≤28 GA) - a prospective cohort study (preliminary report).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Magdalena; Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Monika; Kmita, Grażyna; Terczyńska, Iwona; Polak, Katarzyna; Kalisiak, Marcin; Prażmowska, Dorota; Kiepura, Eliza; Szkudlińska-Pawlak, Sylwia; Seroczyńska, Małgorzata; Helwich, Ewa

    2018-01-01

    Infants ≤28 GA are at particular risk of psychomotor and neurological developmental disorder. They also remain at a higher risk of developing autism spectrum disorder (ASD), characterized by persistent deficits in communication/social interactions and restricted, repetitive behaviors, activities and interests. Monitoring their development by a team of specialists (a neurologist, psychologist, psychiatrist) allows us to make an early diagnosis and to implement appropriate therapy. Neuroimaging studies during the neonatal period may be helpful in clarifying diagnosis and prognosis. Objective: The aim of the study was to search for the interrelation between the results of neuroimaging and the neurological, psychological and psychiatric evaluation at the age of 2. Material and methods: Neonates born at ≤28 weeks between 01.06.2013 and 31.12.2015 and hospitalized at NICU were enrolled. We present the results of the first 12 children who have attained 2 years of corrected age and have undergone both neuroimaging, and neurological, psychological and psychiatric assessments. Transfontanel ultrasound was performed according to general standards, MRI between 38 and 42 weeks of corrected age. Neurological examination based on the Denver scale, ASD screening with use of the STAT test and psychological DSR assessment were performed at 2 years of corrected age. Results: Median GA was 26 weeks and median weight 795 g. The ultrasound examination was normal in 9 cases (75%) and MRI in 4 (33%). Abnormalities in the cerebellum were the main additional information found in MRI as compared to US. Neurological examination was normal in 8 infants (67#37;), in 4 of whom neuroimaging was normal. In 4 (33%) infants the neurological examination was abnormal. Psychomotor development at an average level or above was found in seven (58#37;) children. In 4 of them neuroimaging was normal, whereas 3 had ventricular dilatation and haemorrhagic infarct. There were no abnormalities within the

  10. Awareness of breathing as a way to enhance the sense of coherence : patients' experiences in psychomotor physiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ekerholt, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The intention of this study was to clarify former patients’ experience while undergoing therapeutic treatment in Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy (NPMP). Subjects and methods: A qualitative approach based on 10 in-depth interviews was adopted. The data were analysed with the aid of grounded theory. Results: Three categories were identified from the patients’ experiences: (1) the realisation that their health was at stake, (2) the therapeutic process, and (3) increased self-awareness....

  11. Psychomotor effect differences between l-methamphetamine and d-methamphetamine are independent of murine plasma and brain pharmacokinetics profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Tetsuya; Takahata, Kazue; Kosugi, Yuri; Tanabe, Takaaki; Muraoka, Shizuko

    2017-01-01

    l-Methamphetamine has been occasionally referred to as a stimulant similar to d-methamphetamine, probably owing to insufficient comparative studies. Here, we directly compared psychomotor efficacies and pharmacokinetics of methamphetamine enantiomers in mice. Only d-methamphetamine, but not l-methamphetamine, induced stereotypy and sensitization at 1?10?mg/kg. However, plasma pharmacokinetic parameters of 10?mg/kg l-methamphetamine were ?tenfold those of 1?mg/kg d-methamphetamine. These resul...

  12. Assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills in interns using the MIST Virtual Reality Simulator: a prerequisite for those considering surgical training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Daron H; Fenton-Lee, Douglas

    2008-04-01

    Selection for surgical training in Australia is currently based on assessment of a structured curriculum vitae, referral reports from selected clinicians and an interview. The formal assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skill and ability to attain skills is not currently a prerequisite for selection. The aim of this study was to assess the innate psychomotor skills of interns and also to compare interns with an interest in pursuing a surgical career to interns with those with no interest in pursuing a surgical career. Twenty-two interns were given the opportunity to carry out tasks on the Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice, Gothenburg, Sweden) Simulator. The candidates were required to complete six tasks, repeated six times each. Scores for each task were calculated objectively by the simulator software. Demographic data were similar between the two groups. Although some candidates who were interested in pursuing a surgical career performed poorly on the simulator, there was no significant difference when comparing the two groups. The Minimal Invasive Surgical Trainer, Virtual Reality (Mentice) Simulator provides an objective and comparable assessment of laparoscopic psychomotor skills. We can conclude that interns have varying inherent ability as judged by the simulator and this does not seem to have an influence on their career selection. There was no significant difference in the scores between the two groups. Interns with and without inherent abilities have aspirations to pursue surgical careers and their aptitude does not seem to influence this decision. Surgical colleges could use psychomotor ability assessments to recruit candidates to pursue a career in surgery. Trainees needing closer monitoring and additional training could be identified early and guided to achieve competency.

  13. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  14. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  15. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  16. Acute effect of antipyretic analgesics, alone or in combination with alcohol, on human psychomotor skills related to driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnoila, M.; Seppälä, T.; Mattila, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    1 The effect of acetylsalicylic acid (1 g), indomethacin (50 mg), and phenylbutazone (200 mg) on psychomotor skills was examined double blind on 180 volunteer students. Ninety students received ethyl alcohol (0.5 g/kg) and 90 subjects an equal volume of placebo drink in combination with the drugs. 2 Psychomotor skills were measured with a choice reaction test, two co-ordination tests, and a divided attention test, having correlation with traffic behaviour. The subjects assessed their feelings of performance by means of a rating scale. The tests were done 30, 90 and 150 min after the administration of the agents. 3 Acetylsalicylic acid proved inactive whereas both indomethacin and phenylbutazone impaired eye-hand co-ordination and divided attention. Acetylsalicylic acid did not interact with alcohol to a measurable extent whereas indomethacin in combination with alcohol proved less harmful than without it. The deleterious effects of phenylbutazone and alcohol were additive. 4 An impairment of psychomotor skills related to driving by indomethacin and phenylbutazone should be considered when prescribing these drugs to active out-patients. PMID:22454933

  17. Proposal for psychomotor development in newborns with low weight according to A.R. Luria’s conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González H. J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight has a negative impact on psychomotor development, specifically on motor and perceptual functions. In order to prevent this effect, neurodevelopmental diagnosis should be supplemented by an effective therapeutic system. The aim of this work was to test a program for psychomotor development based on A.R. Luria’s concept of three functional brain units or blocks and the necessity of stimulation of the first functional unit in early childhood. Stimulation of subcortical systems associated with psychomotor and cognitive regulation may help to set the basis for positive functioning of the cerebral cortex in the coming years. Vestibular exercises and proprioceptive stimulation were used. All exercises included significant communicative activity as described by Vygotsky and Lisina, which provided positive direct emotional contact between adult and child. Twenty-five babies with low birth weight were included in the study, along with their parents. After 250 days in the program, all the underweight children presented positive functional development. We conclude that positive effects of these programs for correction and psychological development may be achieved during the first year of life. The methods for sensitive diagnosis and correction should be considered by all specialists involved in topics of early development.

  18. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  19. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  20. Rapid Tranquilization for Psychiatric Patients with Psychomotor Agitation: What is Known About it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Clayton Gonçalves; Del Grossi Moura, Mariana; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Motta, Rogério Heládio Lopes; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane

    2017-12-01

    Rapid tranquilization is an intervention used in control of agitation or aggression in patients with mental disorders. This study synthesized the available evidence regarding efficacy and safety of drugs used for rapid tranquilization in psychiatric patients with psychomotor agitation. It is an overview study of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) identified in the database MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and LILACS until April 2015. A team of reviewers, in pairs and independently, identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality using AMSTAR. Data were extracted from four studies (61 RCT, 8021 participants). The association of haloperidol with promethazine (H + P) promoted tranquilization and presented better safety profile, with moderate quality evidence. Olanzapine demonstrated benefit towards tranquilization and good safety profile, but needed additional administration to keep tranquilization. There was no benefit in the use of haloperidol alone or associated to another psychotropic to most outcomes evaluated. The evidence was of low quality to most of the interventions. H + P was considered a good option for rapid tranquilization, however, more RCT are necessary to confirm the efficacy and safety of the available interventions.

  1. [Comparative effects of ginkgo biloba extracts on psychomotor performances and memory in healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.

  2. The first encounter with Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy: patients' experiences, a basis for knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerholt, Kirsten; Bergland, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    The intention of this study was to elucidate patients' experiences of the examination of the body given in Norwegian Psychomotor Physiotherapy. A qualitative approach was used, based on interviews with nine women and one man aged between 41 and 65 years. The data were analysed with the aid of grounded theory, using the first two steps: open and axial coding. Three categories were identified from the patients' experiences. The first category "The Situation before Treatment", emerged from the subcategories "Prejudice concerning the prefix 'psycho"', "Difficulties in recognizing the body's information", and "The body is ambiguous". The second category, "Establishing the Relationship", emerged from the subcategories "Getting to know the therapist as an empathic person" and "Discovering professional skills". The third category, "Examination is Interaction", emerged from the subcategories "Dialogues--room for reflection", "Undress, the feeling of disclosure", and "Personal boundaries--good to be seen". These three categories emphasize the importance of cooperation between the physiotherapist and the patient in exploring the social and emotional context in order to understand the meaning of the body's symptoms. There must be no doubt about the skill and competence of the therapists, including their insight, personal responsibility, engagement, attentiveness, and awareness. Our material reflects the great impact the body examination had on the informants. Examination requires mutual interpretation. The patients' knowledge represents a significant potential for understanding of their own situation.

  3. Effect of a single dose of dextromethorphan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I; Ashor, Ammar Waham

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the other half (10 women, 8 men) received dextromethorphan. The choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task were measured before and after 2 h of taking the drugs. Dextromethorphan showed a significant deterioration in the 3-back working memory task (P0.05). On the other hand, placebo showed no significant changes as regards the choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task (P>0.05). A single dose of dextromethorphan has no effect on attention and arousal but may significantly impair the working memory capacity.

  4. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  5. Learning curves of basic laparoscopic psychomotor skills in SINERGIA VR simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Peralta, L F; Sánchez-Margallo, F M; Moyano-Cuevas, J L; Pagador, J B; Enciso, S; Gómez-Aguilera, E J; Usón-Gargallo, J

    2012-11-01

    Surgical simulators are currently essential within any laparoscopic training program because they provide a low-stakes, reproducible and reliable environment to acquire basic skills. The purpose of this study is to determine the training learning curve based on different metrics corresponding to five tasks included in SINERGIA laparoscopic virtual reality simulator. Thirty medical students without surgical experience participated in the study. Five tasks of SINERGIA were included: Coordination, Navigation, Navigation and touch, Accurate grasping and Coordinated pulling. Each participant was trained in SINERGIA. This training consisted of eight sessions (R1-R8) of the five mentioned tasks and was carried out in two consecutive days with four sessions per day. A statistical analysis was made, and the results of R1, R4 and R8 were pair-wise compared with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Significance is considered at P value psychomotor skills that can be trained in SINERGIA. Therefore, and based on these results together with previous works, SINERGIA could be used as training tool with a properly designed training program.

  6. Acute effects of temazepam and nitrazepam on psychomotor skills and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljequist, Raija; Mattila, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    1 Twelve pretrained healthy students ingested temazepam 10 mg, nitrazepam 20 mg and placebo 10 mg, each double blind at 1-week intervals in randomized order. Reactive and coordinative skills and critical flicker fusion were measured before each drug intake and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 h after it. Short-term memory and paired association learning were measured at 1, 3 and 8 hours. 2 Nitrazepam 10 mg increased reaction and coordination errors and also impaired learning and memory. Temazepam 10 mg impaired coordinative skills; otherwise it differed from nitrazepam but hardly from placebo. Temazepam 20 mg impaired coordination, and learning and memory. Both temazepam 20 mg and nitrazepam 10 mg were experienced as being sedative. All drug effects were clearest during the first 3 h, whereas nitrazepam also impaired learning at 8 hours. 3 The psychomotor responses to drugs were modified by a sequence effect (not at zero tests) which varied depending on the drug and parameter. In multivariance analysis it was included to reveal drug effects. 4 Temazepam 20 mg seems suitable as a hypnotic.

  7. Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M

    2011-10-24

    The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Current robotic curricula for surgery residents: A need for additional cognitive and psychomotor focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Courtney A; Chern, Hueylan; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2018-02-01

    Current robot surgery curricula developed by industry were designed for expert surgeons. We sought to identify the robotic curricula that currently exist in general surgery residencies and describe their components. We identified 12 residency programs with robotic curricula. Using a structured coding form to identify themes including sequence, duration, emphasis and assessment, we generated a descriptive summary. Curricula followed a similar sequence: learners started with online modules and simulation exercises, followed by bedside experience during R2-R3 training years, and then operative opportunities on the console in the final years of training. Consistent portions of the curricula reflect a device-dependent training paradigm; they defined the sequence of instruction. Most curricula lacked specifics on duration and content of training activities. None clearly described cognitive or psychomotor skills needed by residents and none required a proficiency assessment before graduation. Resident-specific robotic curricula remain grounded in initial industrial efforts to train experienced surgeons, are non-specific regarding the type and nature of hands on experience, and do not include discussion of operative technique and surgical concepts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of a Multimodal Cognitive Rehabilitation Including Psychomotor and Endurance Training in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reuter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mild cognitive impairment, especially executive dysfunction might occur early in the course of Parkinson's disease. Cognitive training is thought to improve cognitive performance. However, transfer of improvements achieved in paper and pencil tests into daily life has been difficult. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether a multimodal cognitive rehabilitation programme including physical exercises might be more successful than cognitive training programmes without motor training. 240 PD-patients were included in the study and randomly allocated to three treatment arms, group A cognitive training, group B cognitive training and transfer training and group C cognitive training, transfer training and psychomotor and endurance training. The primary outcome measure was the ADAS-Cog. The secondary outcome measure was the SCOPA-Cog. Training was conducted for 4 weeks on a rehabilitation unit, followed by 6 months training at home. Caregivers received an education programme. The combination of cognitive training using paper and pencil and the computer, transfer training and physical training seems to have the greatest effect on cognitive function. Thus, patients of group C showed the greatest improvement on the ADAS-Cog and SCOPA-COG and were more likely to continue with the training programme after the study.

  10. [The effect of a new antiparkinson agent, Selegilin, on psychomotor performance in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Limmroth, W

    1985-01-01

    A combination of tests consisting of a compensation task with differential value indication, a tachystoscopic arrangement with verbal identification of characteristic features and an arrangement for a visually induced motor reaction was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers aged from 20-30 to determine psychomotor efficiency under the influence of the new antiparkinson drug selegiline (Eldepryl). The results were compared with the effects of the psychostimulant fenetylline and the depressant-antihistamine chlorphenoxamine, and with a placebo. While fenetylline and chlorphenoxamine produced the anticipated effects with regard to an improvement or deterioration in performance in all parameters, selegiline resulted in a slightly longer motor reaction time and an increase in control errors, and in a significantly longer mental processing time. In comparison with the placebo, selegiline increased the motor reaction time by 0.8 +/- 1.95% and mental processing time by 4.1 +/- 1.7%. This depressant effect of selegiline, however, only attained 1/8 and 2/3, resp., of the sedative effect of the normal dose of the antihistamine chlorophenoxamine. Under the influence of chlorphenoxamine, performance becomes less regular and under fenetylline more regular. Selegiline does not differ significantly from the placebo. In spite of selegiline metabolites 1-metamphetamine and 1-amphetamine, which act as mild stimulants, the slightly depressant effect of selegiline detected can be explained by the increased effect of dopamine inhibitory neurons, particularly in the inhibitory system of the formatio reticularis and the cortex frontalis as a result of a concentration of dopamine.

  11. Alcohol, psychomotor-stimulants and behaviour: methodological considerations in preclinical models of early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell-Dowling, Kate; Miczek, Klaus A

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the risk associated with early-life stress, there has been an increase in the amount of preclinical studies investigating early-life stress. There are many challenges associated with investigating early-life stress in animal models and ensuring that such models are appropriate and clinically relevant. The purpose of this review is to highlight the methodological considerations in the design of preclinical studies investigating the effects of early-life stress on alcohol and psychomotor-stimulant intake and behaviour. The protocols employed for exploring early-life stress were investigated and summarised. Experimental variables include animals, stress models, and endpoints employed. The findings in this paper suggest that there is little consistency among these studies and so the interpretation of these results may not be as clinically relevant as previously thought. The standardisation of these simple stress procedures means that results will be more comparable between studies and that results generated will give us a more robust understanding of what can and may be happening in the human and veterinary clinic.

  12. The Effect of 12 Weeks Individualized Combined Exercise Rehabilitation Training on Physiological Cost Index (PCI and Walking Speed in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis at all Levels of Physical Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Narimani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Most research on the effects of exercise on people with MS rehabilitation exercises sclerosis (MS  have been carried out on patients with low to moderate disability, but research on patients with different severity of disability (physical disability scale of zero to 10 still has to be carefully considered. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of twelve weeks of rehabilitation exercises personalized compound exercise on physiological cost index (PCI and average speed walking in patients with MS at various levels of disability. Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental practical study. Thus among female patients admitted to the MS Association of Shahrekord city, 96 people were chosen on the basis of physical disability scores and divided into three groups. The first group consisted of less than 5/4 a total of 44 people, the second group between 5/65 and 5/6 up third of each 26 patients were then randomly assigned to an experimental group and a control group. Afterwards each group was divided randomly into an experimental group and a control group. The first group (the scale of disability less than 4.5, N= 44. The second group (the scale of disability 5 - 6.5, N=26. Also 26 patients were in the third group (the scale of disability 6.5 and above. In addition, they were divided into 6 experimental and control groups. Training programs for experimental groups were 12 weeks, three sessions per week and one hour for each session. Factors such as physiological cost index and walking speed were measured with the appropriate tools before and after training. The experimental groups of 1, 2 and 3 each did their own intervention, while the control groups received only stretching exercises. Analysis of data obtained from 96 patients studied was done using descriptive statistics and the analysis of covariance and paired comparing of the adjusted means (P<0.05. ‌‌‌ Results: A significant difference in walking

  13. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  14. Blind haste: As light decreases, speeding increases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel de Bellis

    Full Text Available Worldwide, more than one million people die on the roads each year. A third of these fatal accidents are attributed to speeding, with properties of the individual driver and the environment regarded as key contributing factors. We examine real-world speeding behavior and its interaction with illuminance, an environmental property defined as the luminous flux incident on a surface. Drawing on an analysis of 1.2 million vehicle movements, we show that reduced illuminance levels are associated with increased speeding. This relationship persists when we control for factors known to influence speeding (e.g., fluctuations in traffic volume and consider proxies of illuminance (e.g., sight distance. Our findings add to a long-standing debate about how the quality of visual conditions affects drivers' speed perception and driving speed. Policy makers can intervene by educating drivers about the inverse illuminance‒speeding relationship and by testing how improved vehicle headlights and smart road lighting can attenuate speeding.

  15. Wind speed change regionalization in China (1961–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jun Shi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research quantitatively recognized the wind speed change using wind speed trend and trend of wind speed variability from 1961 to 2012 and regionalized the wind speed change on a county-level basis. The mean wind speed observation data and linear fitting method were used. The findings suggested that level-I regionalization includes six zones according to wind speed trend value in different regions, viz. Northeast China–North China substantial declining zone, East–Central China declining zone, Southeast China slightly declining zone, Southwest China very slightly declining zone, Northwest China declining zone, and Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau slightly declining zone. Level-II regionalization divides China into twelve regions based on trend of wind speed variability and the level-I regionalization results.

  16. Iron therapy for improving psychomotor development and cognitive function in children under the age of three with iron deficiency anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhan, Siyan; Gong, Ting; Lee, Liming

    2013-06-06

    Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are common in young children. It has been suggested that the lack of iron may have deleterious effects on children's psychomotor development and cognitive function. To evaluate the benefits of iron therapy on psychomotor development and cognitive function in children with IDA, a Cochrane review was carried out in 2001. This is an update of that review. To determine the effects of iron therapy on psychomotor development and cognitive function in iron deficient anaemic children less than three years of age. We searched the following databases in April 2013: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS, ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We also searched the reference lists of review articles and reports, and ran citation searches in the Science Citation Index for relevant studies identified by the primary search. We also contacted key authors. Studies were included if children less than three years of age with evidence of IDA were randomly allocated to iron or iron plus vitamin C versus a placebo or vitamin C alone, and assessment of developmental status or cognitive function was carried out using standardised tests by observers blind to treatment allocation. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts retrieved from the searches and assessed full-text copies of all potentially relevant studies against the inclusion criteria. The same review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the eligible studies. Data were analysed separately depending on whether assessments were performed within one month of beginning iron therapy or after one month. We identified one eligible study in the update search that had not been included in the original review. In total, we included eight trials.Six trials, including 225 children with IDA, examined the effects of

  17. Public acceptance of enforced speed adaptation in the urban area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katteler, H.A.; Heijden, R.E.C.M. van der; Brebbia, C.; Wadhwa, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a way to drastically cope with speeding in the urban area. Pilots with Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) in Europe applied in passenger cars support the perspective of creating an urban environment with a guaranteed maximum speed level for car drivers. Therefore, the

  18. Changes in speed distribution: Applying aggregated safety effect models to individual vehicle speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadeby, Anna; Forsman, Åsa

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of applying two aggregated models (the Power model and the Exponential model) to individual vehicle speeds instead of mean speeds. This is of particular interest when the measure introduced affects different parts of the speed distribution differently. The aim was to examine how the estimated overall risk was affected when assuming the models are valid on an individual vehicle level. Speed data from two applications of speed measurements were used in the study: an evaluation of movable speed cameras and a national evaluation of new speed limits in Sweden. The results showed that when applied on individual vehicle speed level compared with aggregated level, there was essentially no difference between these for the Power model in the case of injury accidents. However, for fatalities the difference was greater, especially for roads with new cameras where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. For the case with new speed limits, the individual approach estimated a somewhat smaller effect, reflecting that changes in the 15th percentile (P15) were somewhat larger than changes in P85 in this case. For the Exponential model there was also a clear, although small, difference between applying the model to mean speed changes and individual vehicle speed changes when speed cameras were used. This applied both for injury accidents and fatalities. There were also larger effects for the Exponential model than for the Power model, especially for injury accidents. In conclusion, applying the Power or Exponential model to individual vehicle speeds is an alternative that provides reasonable results in relation to the original Power and Exponential models, but more research is needed to clarify the shape of the individual risk curve. It is not surprising that the impact on severe traffic crashes was larger in situations where those driving fastest reduced their speed the most. Further investigations on use of the Power and/or the

  19. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  20. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Speed humps and chicanes are widespread speed-calming measures. •Humps and chicanes have virtually the same reducing effect on mean speed. •Chicanes reduce speed variation less than humps and might therefore be a less safe measure....

  1. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  3. Neurosurgical virtual reality simulation metrics to assess psychomotor skills during brain tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarnoush, Hamed; Alzhrani, Gmaan; Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Alotaibi, Fahad; Gelinas-Phaneuf, Nicholas; Pazos, Valérie; Choudhury, Nusrat; Fares, Jawad; DiRaddo, Robert; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    2015-05-01

    Virtual reality simulator technology together with novel metrics could advance our understanding of expert neurosurgical performance and modify and improve resident training and assessment. This pilot study introduces innovative metrics that can be measured by the state-of-the-art simulator to assess performance. Such metrics cannot be measured in an operating room and have not been used previously to assess performance. Three sets of performance metrics were assessed utilizing the NeuroTouch platform in six scenarios with simulated brain tumors having different visual and tactile characteristics. Tier 1 metrics included percentage of brain tumor resected and volume of simulated "normal" brain tissue removed. Tier 2 metrics included instrument tip path length, time taken to resect the brain tumor, pedal activation frequency, and sum of applied forces. Tier 3 metrics included sum of forces applied to different tumor regions and the force bandwidth derived from the force histogram. The results outlined are from a novice resident in the second year of training and an expert neurosurgeon. The three tiers of metrics obtained from the NeuroTouch simulator do encompass the wide variability of technical performance observed during novice/expert resections of simulated brain tumors and can be employed to quantify the safety, quality, and efficiency of technical performance during simulated brain tumor resection. Tier 3 metrics derived from force pyramids and force histograms may be particularly useful in assessing simulated brain tumor resections. Our pilot study demonstrates that the safety, quality, and efficiency of novice and expert operators can be measured using metrics derived from the NeuroTouch platform, helping to understand how specific operator performance is dependent on both psychomotor ability and cognitive input during multiple virtual reality brain tumor resections.

  4. Medical students can learn the basic application, analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills of critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jacob, H; Thomas, E A; Harwell, M; Willenkin, R L; Pinsky, M R

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether fourth-year medical students can learn the basic analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills needed to initially manage a critically ill patient. Student learning was evaluated using a performance examination, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students were randomly assigned to one of two clinical scenarios before the elective. After the elective, students completed the other scenario, using a crossover design. Five surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Forty fourth-year medical students enrolled in the critical care medicine (CCM) elective. All students evaluated a live "simulated critically ill" patient, requested physiologic data from a nurse, ordered laboratory tests, received data in real time, and intervened as they deemed appropriate. Student performance of specific behavioral objectives was evaluated at five stations. They were expected to a) assess airway, breathing, and circulation in appropriate sequence; b) prepare a manikin for intubation, obtain an acceptable airway on the manikin, demonstrate bag-mouth ventilation, and perform acceptable laryngoscopy and intubation; c) provide appropriate mechanical ventilator settings; d) manage hypotension; and e) request and interpret pulmonary artery data and initiate appropriate therapy. OSCEs were videotaped and reviewed by two faculty members masked to time of examination. A checklist of key behaviors was used to evaluate performance. The primary outcome measure was the difference in examination score before and after the rotation. Secondary outcomes included the difference in scores at each rotation. The mean preelective score was 57.0%+/-8.3% compared with 85.9%+/-7.4% (ppsychomotor skills necessary to initially manage critically ill patients. After an appropriate 1-month CCM elective, students' thinking and application skills required to initially manage critically ill patients improved markedly, as demonstrated by an OSCE

  5. The academic challenge of teaching psychomotor skills for hemostasis of solid organ injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Charles E; Ledgerwood, Anna M

    2009-03-01

    This study highlights the inherent challenges of achieving psychomotor skills in an era of nonoperative therapy for solid organ injuries. Technical procedures on the liver, the most frequent intra-abdominal solid organ injured, were assessed in five decades. Guided by prospective assessment and registry data, all patients with liver injury seen during 24 months in five consecutive decades were reviewed. Initially (1960s), all injuries were explored; currently (2000s), most injuries are observed. The number of patients was 235 (1960s), 228 (1970s), 79 (1980s), 116 (1990s), and 64 (2000s). The greater number in the 1990s reflects the diagnosis of minor, clinically insignificant, blunt injuries after abdominal CAT scan became available. Each injury was categorized by cause, severity (Abbreviated Injury Scale), associated shock, and primary therapy (observe [OBS], operation alone [OR], hepatorrhaphy [SUT], tractotomy [TRACT] with intraparenchymal hemostasis, hepatic dearterialization [HAL], and resection [RESECT]). Packing, used in each decade, was placed in one of the above primary treatment groups. The primary techniques for hemostasis are shown in the text table.Shock and Abbreviated Injury Scale correlated with mortality averaged 16%; 40 of 116 deaths (34%) exsanguinated from hepatic injury. During training, a resident performed an average of 12.0, 12.0, 2.4, 4.0, and 1.3 procedures for hemostasis. Reduced incidence and decreased therapeutic laparotomies for liver injury have created a training vacuum for future trauma surgeons. Surgical residents will need to supplement their clinical experience with solid organ hemostasis by practice on appropriate animal models of injury and cadaver dissections.

  6. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall G; Chu, Yi-Fang; Lyle, Barbara J; Joseph, James A

    2013-12-01

    The complex mixture of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provides protective health benefits, mainly through additive and/or synergistic effects. The presence of several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and caffeine, implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic in aging. Moderate (three to five cups a day) coffee consumption in humans is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing certain chronic diseases. However, the ability of coffee supplementation to improve cognitive function in aged individuals and the effect of the individual components in coffee, such as caffeine, have not been fully evaluated. We fed aged rats (19 months) one of five coffee-supplemented diets (0, 0.165, 0.275, 0.55, and 0.825% of the diet) for 8 weeks prior to motor and cognitive behavior assessment. Aged rats supplemented with a 0.55% coffee diet, equivalent to ten cups of coffee, performed better in psychomotor testing (rotarod) and in a working memory task (Morris water maze) compared to aged rats fed a control diet. A diet with 0.55% coffee appeared to be optimal. The 0.165% coffee-supplemented group (three cups) showed some improvement in reference memory performance in the Morris water maze. In a subsequent study, the effects of caffeine alone did not account for the performance improvements, showing that the neuroprotective benefits of coffee are not due to caffeine alone, but rather to other bioactive compounds in coffee. Therefore, coffee, in achievable amounts, may reduce both motor and cognitive deficits in aging.

  7. Pavlovian conditioning of psychomotor stimulant-induced behaviours: has convenience led us astray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Iverson, M.T.; Fawcett, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    In order to classically condition the behavioural effects of psychomotor stimulants within a test context, rats were treated for 10 days with (+)-amphetamine (1.5mg/kg), (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine (PHNO, 30µg/kg) or vehicle prior to a 1h placement into a test box. Conditioned behavioural effects were then measured in the previously drug-paired context after a vehicle injection (drug-free test day). Each rat was videotaped for the 1h test box exposure on days 1, 4, 7 and 10 of the drug conditioning trials, and on the drug-free test day. Eleven of 28 behaviours that were scored for frequency, duration and mean bout duration (bout length) were significantly influenced by at least one of the two drugs. Amphetamine predominantly increased bout lengths while PHNO predominantly increased bout frequency. Only two measures that were influenced by the drugs exhibited clear increases over controls in a manner consistent with a classical conditioning interpretation. Behavioural sensitization clearly occurred to some of the effects of amphetamine and PHNO, but these were not the same effects as those increased on the non-drug day testing for classical conditioning. Most behavioural effects of amphetamine and PHNO are not classically conditioned, and behavioural sensitization to these drugs, while perhaps context-specific, is not due to classical conditioning. Automated measures of behaviours have provided misleading evidence concerning the similarity among behavioural effects of stimulants, sensitization and effects of exposure to an environment previously paired with stimulants. Analysis of transitions between behaviours does not support the view that stimulants increase switching or response competition, or that behavioural reorganization is responsible for sensitization. Rather, it is suggested that stimulants selectively facilitate current stimulus-guided behaviours.

  8. Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has been a promising type of advanced driver support system for some decades. From a technical point of view, large scale ISA implementation is possible in the short term. The different types of ISA are expected to have different effects on behaviour and traffic

  9. Speed mathematics simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  10. High speed metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  11. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  12. Thyroid status in a large cohort of patients with mental retardation: the TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Willem Edward; de Rijke, Yolanda B; van Toor, Hans; Visser, Theo J

    2011-09-01

    Abnormalities in thyroid state may affect development and function of the brain and result in mental retardation (MR). Thyroid parameters have not been systematically investigated in institutionalized MR subjects. The objective is to measure thyroid parameters in a novel cohort of 946 institutionalized subjects. The TOP-R (Thyroid Origin of Psychomotor Retardation) study is a cross-sectional nation-wide multicentre study. Subjects with unexplained MR. The majority of the MR subjects had thyroid parameters within the reference range used in our laboratory. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) use affected thyroid hormones (T4: 102·1 ± 1·2 vs 83·9 ± 1·2 nmol/l, P hyperthyroidism was 5·2% and 2·8%, respectively. We report thyroid parameters in a cohort of institutionalized subjects with MR. Our findings substantiate the fact that AEDs affect thyroid hormone levels. Future studies will be employed to investigate genetic causes of MR related to abnormalities in thyroid hormone homeostasis. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Caffeine counteracts impairments in task-oriented psychomotor performance induced by chlorpheniramine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments.

  14. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  15. [New medical approach to out-of-hospital treatment of psychomotor agitation in psychiatric patients: a report of 14 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cester-Martínez, Armando; Cortés-Ramas, José Antonio; Borraz-Clares, Diego; Pellicer-Gayarre, Marta

    2017-06-01

    This case series explored the usefulness of an inhaled dose of 9.1 mg of loxapine administered outside the hospital to treat psychomotor agitation related to schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or schizoaffective disorder. The Clinical Global Impression Scale and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (excitement component) were used to assess the effects of treatment in 14 patients. The treatment was useful in 12 patients, who showed significant improvement (Pagitation related to a psychiatric disorder. Mechanical restraint and parenteral medication can be avoided after use of this drug. Loxapine treatment shortens the agitation episode and attenuates the impact on the patient, facilitating ambulance transfer.

  16. Lack of interaction between a new antihistamine, mizolastine, and lorazepam on psychomotor performance and memory in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Patat, A; Perault, M C; Vandel, B; Ulliac, N; Zieleniuk, I; Rosenzweig, P

    1995-01-01

    1. The possible interaction between a new H1 antihistamine, mizolastine, and lorazepam was assessed in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study involving 16 healthy young male volunteers who received mizolastine 10 mg or placebo once daily for 8 days with a 1 week wash-out interval. The interaction of mizolastine, at steady-state, with a single oral dose of lorazepam or placebo was assessed on days 6 or 8 of each treatment period. 2. Psychomotor performance and cogniti...

  17. The Semiology of Motor Disorders in Autism Spectrum Disorders as Highlighted from a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Aude; Olliac, Bertrand; Bouvard, Manuel-Pierre; Golse, Bernard; Vaivre-Douret, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Background: Altered motor performance has been described in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with disturbances in walking; posture, coordination, or arm movements, but some individuals with ASD show no impairment of motor skills. The neuro-developmental processes that underpin the performance of neuro-psychomotor functions have not been widely explored, nor is it clear whether there are neuro-psychomotor functions specifically affected in ASD. Our objective was to focus on the semiology of motor disorders among children with ASD using a neuro-developmental assessment tool. Method: Thirty-four children with ASD, with or without intellectual deficit (ID) were recruited in a child psychiatry department and Autism Resource Centers. Initial standard evaluations for diagnosis (psychiatric; psychological; psychomotor) were supplemented by a standardized assessment battery for neuro-developmental psychomotor functions (NP-MOT). Results: The results of some NP-MOT tests differed between children with ASD with ID and those without. However, on the NP-MOT battery, neither of the two groups did well in the bi-manual and finger praxia tests (36 and 52% respectively failed). Manual and digital gnosopraxia showed some deficit (63 and 62% respectively failed). Postural deficits were found in tests for both static equilibrium (64%) and dynamic (52%). There were also difficulties in coordination between the upper and lower limbs in 58% of children. We found 75% failure in motor skills on the M-ABC test. Concerning muscular tone, significant laxity was observed in distal parts of the body (feet and hands), but hypertonia was observed in the proximal muscles of the lower limbs (reduced heel-ear angle). Discussion: The results of manual and digital gnosopraxia tests point to a planning deficit in children with autism. A gesture programming deficit is also highlighted by the poor results in manual praxis, and by failures in the M-ABC tests despite prior training of the child. However

  18. Modification by diazepam or thioridazine of the psychomotor skills related to driving: a subacute trial in neurotic out-patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saario, I; Linnoila, M; Mattila, M J

    1976-01-01

    Forty-five out-patients with clinically manifested anxiety were tested in order to study the effects of 2 weeks' treatment with placebo, diazepam (5-10 mg three times daily) or thioridazine (25-50 mg three times daily) on their psychomotor skills related to driving. When compared with placebo, diazepam increased the number of mistakes in reaction and co-ordination tests and also decreased ability to discriminate the fusion of flickering light. When compared to other groups, reactive and co-ordinative skills were more impaired in patients treated with thioridazine which also impaired divided attention. Aubjectively thioridazine was not experienced as effective an anxiolytic as diazepam. PMID:973981

  19. Protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study: association between neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development at 4-5 year of age: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumpff, Caroline; Vanderfaeillie, Johan; Vercruysse, Nathalie; De Schepper, Jean; Tafforeau, Jean; Van Oyen, Herman; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Several European countries, including Belgium, still suffer from mild iodine deficiency. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in whole blood measured at birth has been proposed as an indicator of maternal iodine status during the last trimester of pregnancy. It has been shown that mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy may affect the neurodevelopment of the offspring. In several studies, elevated TSH levels at birth were associated with suboptimal cognitive and psychomotor outcomes among young children. This paper describes the protocol of the PSYCHOTSH study aiming to assess the association between neonatal TSH levels and intellectual, psychomotor and psychosocial development of 4-5 year old children. The results could lead to a reassessment of the recommended cut-off levels of 5 > mU/L used for monitoring iodine status of the population. In total, 380 Belgian 4-5 year old preschool children from Brussels and Wallonia with a neonatal blood spot TSH concentration between 0 and 15 mU/L are included in the study. For each sex and TSH-interval (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, 7-8, 8-9 and 9-15 mU/L), 19 newborns were randomly selected from all newborns screened by the neonatal screening centre in Brussels in 2008-2009. Infants with congenital hypothyroidism, low birth weight and prematurity were excluded from the study. Neonatal TSH concentration was measured by the Autodelphia method in dried blood spots, collected by heel stick on filter paper 3 to 5 days after birth. Cognitive abilities and psychomotor development are assessed using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - third edition - and the Charlop-Atwell Scale of Motor coordination. Psychosocial development is measured using the Child Behaviour Check List for age 1½ to 5 years old. In addition, several socioeconomic, parental and child confounding factors are assessed. This study aims to clarify the effect of mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy on the

  20. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to

  1. WIND SPEED AND ENERGY POTENTIAL ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. TOKGÖZLÜ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a case study on application of wavelet techniques to analyze wind speed and energy (renewable and environmental friendly energy. Solar and wind are main sources of energy that allows farmers to have the potential for transferring kinetic energy captured by the wind mill for pumping water, drying crops, heating systems of green houses, rural electrification's or cooking. Larger wind turbines (over 1 MW can pump enough water for small-scale irrigation. This study tried to initiate data gathering process for wavelet analyses, different scale effects and their role on wind speed and direction variations. The wind data gathering system is mounted at latitudes: 37° 50" N; longitude 30° 33" E and height: 1200 m above mean sea level at a hill near Süleyman Demirel University campus. 10 minutes average values of two levels wind speed and direction (10m and 30m above ground level have been recorded by a data logger between July 2001 and February 2002. Wind speed values changed between the range of 0 m/s and 54 m/s. Annual mean speed value is 4.5 m/s at 10 m ground level. Prevalent wind

  2. Psychomotor Performance Effects Upon Elementary School Children by Sex and Perceptual Speed Ability of Three Compressions of an Instructional Sound Motion Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, James; And Others

    Forty-eight sixth-grade students were studied to determine their response to selected compressions of the narration of an instructional sound motion picture. A 4:10 color film with a 158 wpm recorded narration was shown at 25, 33-1/3 and 50 percent compression rates; performance time and quality were measured immediately and after 12-day…

  3. High speed network sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  4. FRAS1-related extracellular matrix 3 (FREM3 single-nucleotide polymorphism effects on gene expression, amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya eNikolova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The A allele of the Fras1-related extracellular matrix protein 3 (FREM3 rs7676614 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP was linked to major depressive disorder (MDD in an early genome-wide association study (GWAS, and to symptoms of psychomotor retardation in a follow-up investigation. In line with significant overlap between age- and depression-related molecular pathways, parallel work has shown that FREM3 expression in postmortem human brain decreases with age. Here we probe the effect of rs7676614 on amygdala reactivity and perceptual processing speed, both of which are altered in depression and aging. Amygdala reactivity was assessed using a face-matching BOLD fMRI paradigm in 365 Caucasian participants in the Duke Neurogenetics Study (192 women, mean age 19.7±1.2. Perceptual processing speed was indexed by reaction times in the same task and the Trails Making Test (TMT. The effect of rs7676614 on FREM3 mRNA brain expression levels was probed in a postmortem cohort of 169 Caucasian individuals (44 women, mean age 50.8±14.9. The A allele of rs7676614 was associated with blunted amygdala reactivity to faces, slower reaction times in the face-matching condition (p<0.04, as well as marginally slower performance on TMT Part B (p=0.056. In the postmortem cohort, the T allele of rs6537170 (proxy for the rs7676614 A allele, was associated with trend-level reductions in gene expression in Brodmann areas 11 and 47 (p=0.066, reminiscent of patterns characteristic of older age. The low-expressing allele of another FREM3 SNP (rs1391187 was similarly associated with reduced amygdala reactivity and slower TMT Part B speed, in addition to reduced BA47 activity and Extraversion (p<0.05. Together, these results suggest common genetic variation associated with reduced FREM3 expression may confer risk for a subtype of depression characterized by reduced reactivity to environmental stimuli and slower perceptual processing speed, possibly suggestive of

  5. PERINATAL ASPHYXIA AS POTENTIAL SOURCE OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHO-MOTOR DIFFICULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta ZISOVSKA

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Besides the great improvement of aostetrics and neanatal intensive care, certain percentage of new born children suffer from perinatal asphyxia (PA and that is one of the first reasons for hypoxic and ischemic brain damage which leads to neuro-developing handicap. In order to show how strong is the correaltion between PA and permanent sequele, an early, precise and prompt diagnosis of asphyxia and its influence on neonatal brain is neccessary.This study presents answers to the following issues.1.Which parameters define precisely the perinatal asphyxia?2.How great is the PA incidence on our material?3.What is the percentage of postasphyxic encephalopathy (PAE in the group of asphyxic new born children?4.Which of these children bear high risk for developmental psycho-motor difficulties?MaterialThe new born children delivered on time in the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics.Methods1.Early diagnosis of PA according to the score consisted of high specific, sensitivity and positive and predictive value2.Consequent neurological check-ups and PAE cathegori-zation for seven days3.Ultrasound examination of CNS through big fontanelle4.Lab analysesResults5.639 successive new born children delivered on time were examined. The included scouring system covers APGAR score at the 5th minute, cardiotocographic record, base deficit in ABS, meconium around the amniotic water. According to this system, 81 child passed the PA , i.e., 14,3/ 1.000 new born children delivered on time. Out of them, 54 have signs of PAE (9,5/1000 new born children delivered on time, i.e., 66,6% of all asphyxia new born children. Classification has been made according to the PAE grade: 34 children survived the first grade (62,9%, 11 children survived the second grade (20,4% and 9 new born children survived the third grade (16,7%. According to data in literature and long year studies of this issue, the children from the group who passed the second and the third grade of PAE have the risk

  6. Physical growth and psychomotor development of infants exposed to antiepileptic drugs in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmozhi, T; Dhanaraj, M; Rangaraj, R; Vengatesan, A

    2006-03-01

    To evaluates the physical growth and psychomotor development of infants born to women with epilepsy on regular Anti Epileptic Drugs (AEDs). Govt. Stanley Medical College and Hospital, Tertiary care referral centre, Chennai. Open prospective cohort study with a control group. Consecutive women with epilepsy who were on regular anticonvulsants were followed up from their first trimester. Their babies were examined at birth and anthropometric measurements including anterior fontanelle size were noted. They were followed up till one year and periodically evaluated at 1st, 6th and 12th month of age. Development testing using Griffith scale was done at 2nd, 6th and 12th month. An equal number of control babies were also studied using the same scale for one year at the specified intervals. The results in both the groups were compared. 30 babies were enrolled in the case and control group. The AEDs received by the mothers with epilepsy were Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, and Sodium valproate. At birth and 1st month the weight, head circumference and length of case and control babies were equal. At 6th and 12th month reduction in the above 3 parameters were noted in the case babies ( P < 0.01). Area of anterior fontanelle (AF) was larger in the study group particularly in those exposed to phenytoin in utero (P < 0.001). In the case babies reduction in the sitting, prone and erect progression of the locomotor scores was observed at 2nd month (P < 0.001). Prone progression alone improved by 12th month and other two remained less than the control (P < 0.001). No difference was observed in reaching behaviour and personal/social scores in both groups. Infants exposed to Phenytoin monotherapy had a negative impact on sitting progression. Among infants exposed to AEDs in utero physical growth was equal to that of control at birth but reduced at 6th and 12th month probably due to extraneous factors. The Locomotor scores showed reduction in all areas in 2nd, 6th and 12th month except

  7. The effect of escalating feedback on the acquisition of psychomotor skills for laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sickle, K R; Gallagher, A G; Smith, C D

    2007-02-01

    In the acquisition of new skills that are difficult to master, such as those required for laparoscopy, feedback is a crucial component of the learning experience. Optimally, feedback should accurately reflect the task performance to be improved and be proximal to the training experience. In surgery, however, feedback typically is in vivo. The development of virtual reality training systems currently offers new training options. This study investigated the effect of feedback type and quality on laparoscopic skills acquisition. For this study, 32 laparoscopic novices were prospectively randomized into four training conditions, with 8 in each group. Group 1 (control) had no feedback. Group 2 (buzzer) had audio feedback when the edges were touched. Group 3 (voiced error) had an examiner voicing the word "error" each time the walls were touched. Group 4 (both) received both the audio buzzer and "error" voiced by the examiner All the subjects performed a maze-tracking task with a laparoscopic stylus inserted through a 5-mm port to simulate the fulcrum effect in minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A computer connected to the stylus scored an error each time the edge of the maze was touched, and the subjects were made aware of the error in the aforementioned manner. Ten 2-min trials were performed by the subjects while viewing a monitor. At the conclusion of training, all the subjects completed a 2-min trial of a simple laparoscopic cutting task, with the number of correct and incorrect incisions recorded. Group 4 (both) made significantly more correct incisions than the other three groups (F = 12.13; df = 3, 28; p < 0.001), and also made significantly fewer errors or incorrect incisions (F = 14.4; p < 0.0001). Group 4 also made three times more correct incisions and 7.4 times fewer incorrect incisions than group 1 (control). The type and quality of feedback during psychomotor skill acquisition for MIS have a large effect on the strength of skills generalization to a simple

  8. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age psychomotor development was excluded in term children. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108.

  9. Anthropological analysis of differences in psychomotor skills area high school students and their linkages with the formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bešović Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine differences in anthropological space psychomotor skills and their connection with the formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum of secondary school students, conducted the study in part on a simple random sample of 200 female high school population of entities, which are described with 7 sets of primary psychomotor indicators. According to the criterion of formal representation of kinesiological education classes in the curriculum, the sample was stratified on the subsample with two or four hours a week. To determine the difference discriminant analysis was applied. According to the actual parameters, confirmed the initial assumption that the system of psychomotor variables and criterion variables no statistically significant association, then it was concluded that the results do not contradict current scientific knowledge indicated the need and transition model curriculum in favor of the treated population biopsihosocijalnog integrity of its entities.

  10. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power...... oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.......Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG...

  11. Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.

  12. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (pchildren. The psychomotor index increased by 2.07 points with every unit increase in height-for-age z-score. The relationship between low birth weight and psychomotor development appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Rapid e-Learning Tools Selection Process for Cognitive and Psychomotor Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Huang, Yung-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a decision making process for the selection of rapid e-learning tools that could match different learning domains. With the development of the Internet, the speed of information updates has become faster than ever. E-learning has rapidly become the mainstream for corporate training and academic instruction. In order to reduce…

  14. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Retention of laparoscopic psychomotor skills after a structured training program depends on the quality of the training and on the complexity of the task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, Carlos Roger; Campo, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up RCT was conducted to evaluate laparoscopic psychomotor skills retention after finishing a structured training program. In a first study, 80 gynecologists were randomly allocated to four groups to follow different training programs for hand-eye coordination (task 1) with the dominant hand (task 1-a) and the non-dominant hand (task 1-b) and laparoscopic intra-corporeal knot tying (task 2) in the Laparoscopic Skills Testing and Training (LASTT) model. First, baseline skills were tested (T1). Then, participants trained task 1 (G1: 1-a and 1-b, G2: 1-a only, G3 and G4: none) and then task 2 (all groups but G4). After training all groups were tested again to evaluate skills acquisition (T2). For this study, 2 years after a resting period, 73 participants were recruited and tested again to evaluate skills retention (T3). All groups had comparable skills at T1 for all tasks. At T2, G1, G2, and G3 improved their skills, but the level of improvement was different (G1 = G2 > G3 > G4 for task 1; G1 = G2 = G3 > G4 for task 2). At T3, all groups retained their task 1 skills at the same level than at T2. For task 2, however, a skill decay was already noticed for G2 and G3, being G1 the only group that retained their skills at the post-training level. Training improves laparoscopic skills, which can be retained over time depending on the comprehensiveness of the training program and on the complexity of the task. For high complexity tasks, full training is advisable for both skills acquisition and retention.

  16. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  17. Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  18. The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS on Psychomotor and Visual Perception Functions Related to Driving Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Brunnauer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far.Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design. Standardized computerized psychomotor tests according to the German guidelines for road and traffic safety were administered at baseline. Then they performed the same tests during an anodal or sham tDCS of the left DLPFC in two separated sessions.Results: No significant improvements in skills related to driving performance like visual perception, stress tolerance, concentration, and vigilance could be shown after left anodal prefrontal tDCS. Side effects were low and did not differ between active and sham stimulation.Conclusions: The findings of our study indicate that left prefrontal tDCS may not alter driving skills affording more automated action patterns but as shown in previous studies may have an influence on driving behavior requiring executive control processes. This however has to be proved in future studies and within greater samples.

  19. Trainer-to-student ratios for teaching psychomotor skills in health care fields, as applied to osteopathic manipulative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Seffinger, Michael A; Ferrill, Heather P; Gish, Eric E

    2012-04-01

    The hallmark of osteopathic medical education is the inclusion of hands-on instruction in osteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM), which includes palpatory diagnosis and osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT). This OMM training typically involves a primary instructor presenting theory and techniques with step-by-step demonstrations to a large group of first- and second-year osteopathic medical students. Additional instructors, referred to as table trainers, assist the primary instructor by supervising the students as they practice the presented techniques. To the authors' knowledge, there is no currently accepted standard for a table trainer-to-student ratio in OMM skills laboratories within osteopathic medical schools in the United States. However, through a Google Web search and PubMed literature review, the authors identified published trainer-to-student ratios used in other health care skills training curricula. Psychomotor skills training courses in health care fields typically have a table trainer-to-student ratio of 1 trainer to 8 or fewer students. On the basis of these findings and psychomotor skills learning theory, the authors conclude that this ratio is likely sufficient for OMM skills training.

  20. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  1. An infant who had chorea-athetotic movement and psychomotor deterioration associated with the low density area in the bilateral cerebral basal ganglia on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tojo, Megumu; Matsui, Akira; Sakuragawa, Norio; Hirayama, Yoshito; Arima, Masataka

    1984-01-01

    A 6-year-old girl with convulsive tetraplegia and chorea-athetotic movement was reported. Since the age of one year, psychomotor retardation had begun to occur and CT showed a low density area in the putamen. At the age of 3 years and 6 months, psychomotor deterioration occurred subsequently to varicella. An abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism was suspected because of a slightly increased lactic acid and pyruvic acid. Because CT showed a low density area in the cerebral basal ganglia, juvenile Lee's encephalopathy and striatal necrosis remained to be ruled out. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  3. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Commandeur, J.J.F. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.

    2016-01-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small

  4. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  5. [Effects of deformational plagiocephaly during the first 12 months on the psychomotor development of prematurely born infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre-Grenet, M; Garcia-Méric, P; Bernard-Niel, V; Guagliardo, V; Cortaredona, S; Aymeric-Ponsonnet, M

    2017-09-01

    The link between deformational plagiocephaly and psychomotor development is a recurrent question in medical publications. Main publications concentrate on term infants, but there is a lack of data on the impact of deformational plagiocephaly on the long-term neurodevelopment of premature infants. We attempted to establish a possible relation between deformational plagiocephaly during the 1st year of life and the psychomotor score at 4 years in prematurely born infants. Other risk factors potentially impacting the psychomotor score were also studied. A retrospective study of the files of the children followed by the "Naître et Devenir Région PACA Ouest Corse Sud" healthcare network and included in the database allowed us to select a cohort of 594 infants born prematurely at under 33 weeks of gestational age. These children were developmentally evaluated during the 1st year of life and at 4 years or age using the "EVAL Mater" test. The "Naître et Devenir" network is following up infants born prematurely at under 33 weeks of gestation in the West Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur and South Corsica region, from discharge to 7 years. A group of 170 specially trained pediatricians follow these infants developmentally at term, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months of corrected age and 3, 4 5, 6, and 7 years. Data are collected in a specially designed database. There was no significant link between deformational plagiocephaly during the 1st year of life and a pathological psychomotor score at age 4, but some risk factors were demonstrated: male gender, birth at under 28 weeks of gestational age, weight at birth under 1000g, having a Latal and Ferriero neuromotor score equal to or greater than 2 at 3 months of corrected age, and to a lesser extent having a prescription for physiotherapy during the 1st year. The research on deformational plagiocephaly in the full-term infant suggests a relation between deformational plagiocephaly and developmental delay predominantly

  6. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  7. High Speed Photomicrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1983-03-01

    One of the most challenging areas in applying high-speed photography and videography in the plant and laboratory is in the recording of rapid events at macro and microscopic scales. Depth of field, exposure efficiency, working distance, and required exposure time are all reduced as optical magnification is increased, which severely taxes the skill and ingenuity of workers interested in recording any fast moving phenomena through the microscope or with magnifying lenses. This paper defines the problems inherent in photographing within macro and microscopic ranges and offers a systematic approach to optimizing the selection of equipment and choice of applicable techniques.

  8. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations....... Much innovation today takes place in open structures in which networks play an important role. However, little is known about how innovation networks can facilitate parallel innovation processes. This paper discusses how innovation network structures develop and support exploration and exploitation...... of the network facilitate the parallel innovation process but also how such processes place new requirements on such networks and their management....

  9. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  10. Ship speed optimization: Concepts, models and combined speed-routing scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify some important issues as regards ship speed optimization at the operational level and develop models that optimize ship speed for a spectrum of routing scenarios in a single ship setting. The paper's main contribution is the incorporation of those fundament...... parameters and other considerations that weigh heavily in a ship owner's or charterer's speed decision and in his routing decision, wherever relevant. Various examples are given so as to illustrate the properties of the optimal solution and the various trade-offs that are involved....

  11. Effect of welding current and speed on occurrence of humping bead in high-speed GMAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ji; Wu Chuansong

    2009-01-01

    The developed mathematical model of humping formation mechanism in high-speed gas metal arc welding (GMAW) is used to analyze the effects of welding current and welding speed on the occurrence of humping bead. It considers both the momentum and heat content of backward flowing molten jet inside weld pool. Three-dimensional geometry of weld pool, the spacing between two adjacent humps and hump height along humping weld bead are calculated under different levels of welding current and welding speed. It shows that wire feeding rate, power intensity and the moment of backward flowing molten jet are the major factors on humping bead formation.

  12. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  13. Safe Speeds and Credible Speed Limits (SaCredSpeed): New Vision for Decision Making on Speed Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L. Nes, N. van Wegman, F.C.M. Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Louwerse, R.

    2009-01-01

    Speed is an inherent characteristic of mobility and a hazard to safety. Several approaches exist of how to manage speed. In the Netherlands, the emphasis has mainly been on harm minimisation during the last decades, due to the implementation of the Sustainable Safety vision. Speed management remains

  14. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...... the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers...

  15. High-speed data search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, James N.

    1994-01-01

    The high-speed data search system developed for KSC incorporates existing and emerging information retrieval technology to help a user intelligently and rapidly locate information found in large textual databases. This technology includes: natural language input; statistical ranking of retrieved information; an artificial intelligence concept called semantics, where 'surface level' knowledge found in text is used to improve the ranking of retrieved information; and relevance feedback, where user judgements about viewed information are used to automatically modify the search for further information. Semantics and relevance feedback are features of the system which are not available commercially. The system further demonstrates focus on paragraphs of information to decide relevance; and it can be used (without modification) to intelligently search all kinds of document collections, such as collections of legal documents medical documents, news stories, patents, and so forth. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of statistical ranking, our semantic improvement, and relevance feedback.

  16. Objective Assessment of Laparoscopic Force and Psychomotor Skills in a Novel Virtual Reality-Based Haptic Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M S Raghu; Manivannan, Muniyandi; Manoharan, Govindan; Chandramohan, S M

    2016-01-01

    Most of the commercially available virtual reality-based laparoscopic simulators do not effectively evaluate combined psychomotor and force-based laparoscopic skills. Consequently, the lack of training on these critical skills leads to intraoperative errors. To assess the effectiveness of the novel virtual reality-based simulator, this study analyzed the combined psychomotor (i.e., motion or movement) and force skills of residents and expert surgeons. The study also examined the effectiveness of real-time visual force feedback and tool motion during training. Bimanual fundamental (i.e., probing, pulling, sweeping, grasping, and twisting) and complex tasks (i.e., tissue dissection) were evaluated. In both tasks, visual feedback on applied force and tool motion were provided. The skills of the participants while performing the early tasks were assessed with and without visual feedback. Participants performed 5 repetitions of fundamental and complex tasks. Reaction force and instrument acceleration were used as metrics. Surgical Gastroenterology, Government Stanley Medical College and Hospital; Institute of Surgical Gastroenterology, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital. Residents (N = 25; postgraduates and surgeons with 4 and ≤10 years of laparoscopic surgery). Residents applied large forces compared with expert surgeons and performed abrupt tool movements (p < 0.001). However, visual + haptic feedback improved the performance of residents (p < 0.001). In complex tasks, visual + haptic feedback did not influence the applied force of expert surgeons, but influenced their tool motion (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in complex tissue sweeping task, expert surgeons applied more force, but were within the tissue damage limits. In both groups, exertion of large forces and abrupt tool motion were observed during grasping, probing or pulling, and tissue sweeping maneuvers (p < 0.001). Modern day curriculum-based training should evaluate the skills

  17. Cognitive and psychomotor effects in males after smoking a combination of tobacco and cannabis containing up to 69 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; Böcker, K.B.E.; Schipper, C.M.; Kruidenier, M.; Leenders, M.E.C.; de Vries, I.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2009-01-01

    RATIONALE: Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active constituent of cannabis. In recent years, the average THC content of some cannabis cigarettes has increased up to approximately 60 mg per cigarette (20% THC cigarettes). Acute cognitive and psychomotor effects of THC among

  18. Educational Objectives and the Learning Domains: A New Formulation [And] Summary: Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Charles E.; Pierce, Walter D.

    This paper examines and summarizes the "Pierce-Gray Classification Model for the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains," a model developed for the classification of educational objectives. The classification system was developed to provide a framework that teachers could use as a guide when developing specific instructional objectives for…

  19. Continuing medical education effect on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skills: effectiveness of continuing medical education: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Educational Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Kevin M; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J

    2009-03-01

    Recommendations for optimizing continuing medical education (CME) effectiveness in improving physician application of knowledge and psychomotor skills are needed to guide the development of processes that effect physician change and improve patient care. The guideline panel reviewed evidence tables and a comprehensive review of the effectiveness of CME developed by The Johns Hopkins Evidence-based Practice Center for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ Evidence Report). The panel considered studies relevant to the effect of CME on physician knowledge application and psychomotor skill development. From the 136 studies identified in the systematic review, 15 articles, 12 addressing physician application of knowledge and 3 addressing psychomotor skills, were identified and reviewed. Recommendations for optimizing CME were developed using the American College of Chest Physicians guideline grading system. The preponderance of evidence demonstrated improvement in physician application of knowledge with CME. The quality of evidence did not allow specific recommendations regarding optimal media or educational techniques or the effectiveness of CME in improving psychomotor skills. CME is effective in improving physician application of knowledge. Multiple exposures and longer durations of CME are recommended to optimize educational outcomes.

  20. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.