Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M.; Al-Gareeb, Ali I.; Ashor, Ammar Waham
Background: Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. Materials and Methods: This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the o...
Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Turner, Lauren; Scofield, Holly M; Roth, Thomas
Caffeine has been shown to reverse some of the performance-impairing effects of ethanol. However, it is not known whether this antagonistic effect of caffeine is mediated by a reduction in sleepiness. The present study assessed physiological alertness/sleepiness, memory, and psychomotor performance following the administration of placebo, ethanol, and caffeine+ethanol combinations. A total of 13 healthy individuals (21-35 years old) underwent four conditions presented in a Latin Square Design: placebo-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-placebo, ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 150 mg, and ethanol (0.5 g/kg)-caffeine 300-mg. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), psychomotor performance battery, memory test, and mood/sleepiness questionnaires were administered following each condition. The peak breadth ethanol concentration (BrEC) was 0.043+/-0.0197% and did not differ among the three caffeine treatments. As expected, ethanol reduced mean latency on the MSLT. The lowest caffeine dose reversed this effect and the highest dose increased mean latency (greater alertness) significantly beyond placebo levels. Ethanol also impaired psychomotor performance and memory. The 300-mg caffeine dose restored performance and memory measures to placebo levels. Although visual analog ratings of dizziness were increased by ethanol, they were not diminished by either caffeine dose. In conclusion, Low-dose caffeine prevented the sleepiness and performance impairment associated with a moderate dose of ethanol. Thus, caffeine, similar to other stimulants, can reverse the physiologically sedating effects of ethanol, although other negative effects remain.
Al-Kuraishy, Hayder M; Al-Gareeb, Ali I; Ashor, Ammar Waham
Previous studies show that the prolonged use of dextromethorphan produces cognitive deterioration in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of dextroemthrophan on psychomotor performance and working memory capacity. This is a randomized, double-blind, controlled, and prospective study. Thirty-six (17 women, 19 men) medical students enrolled in the study; half of them (7 women, 11 men) were given placebo, while the other half (10 women, 8 men) received dextromethorphan. The choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task were measured before and after 2 h of taking the drugs. Dextromethorphan showed a significant deterioration in the 3-back working memory task (P0.05). On the other hand, placebo showed no significant changes as regards the choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold, and N-back working memory task (P>0.05). A single dose of dextromethorphan has no effect on attention and arousal but may significantly impair the working memory capacity.
Warot, D; Lacomblez, L; Danjou, P; Weiller, E; Payan, C; Puech, A J
The effect on psychomotor and mnesic performances of acute oral dose (600 mg) of 2 Ginkgo biloba extracts were evaluated in twelve healthy female in a dummy placebo-controlled double blind study. Tests were performed comprising: objective measures of vigilance [critical flicker frequency (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT)], memory tasks (pictures and Sternberg scanning tests) and self-rating evaluation (visual analogue scales). Tests session took place before and 1 hour post-dosing. No statistically significant changes from placebo were observed on CFF, CRT or subjective rating of drug effects. No differences between treatment were evidenced on Sternberg scanning test and pictures recognition. Comparing to baseline, free recall score, while decreasing under placebo and Ginkgo, remained the same under Tanakan. As the differences between treatment are localized on one test, it appears important to examine the reproductility in healthy subjects. In order to verify the clinical relevance of these results, they need to be replicated in older healthy volunteers with age-associated memory impairment.
Zahid Sadek Chowdhury
Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.
Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.
Patat, A; Perault, M C; Vandel, B; Ulliac, N; Zieleniuk, I; Rosenzweig, P
1. The possible interaction between a new H1 antihistamine, mizolastine, and lorazepam was assessed in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study involving 16 healthy young male volunteers who received mizolastine 10 mg or placebo once daily for 8 days with a 1 week wash-out interval. The interaction of mizolastine, at steady-state, with a single oral dose of lorazepam or placebo was assessed on days 6 or 8 of each treatment period. 2. Psychomotor performance and cognitive function were evaluated using objective tests (critical flicker fusion threshold, choice reaction time, tapping, arithmetic calculation, body sway) and self-ratings (visual analogue scale, ARCI) before and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after dosing. Short-term memory (Sternberg memory scanning immediate free recall of a word list) and long-term memory (delayed free recall and recognition of words and pictures) were assessed before and at 3 h after dosing. Pharmacodynamic interactions were evaluated by repeated measures ANOVA in a 2 x 2 factorial interaction model. 3. Mizolastine, 10 mg once daily, at steady-state, was devoid of sedation and detrimental effect on skilled performance and memory. 4. In contrast, a single 2 mg dose of lorazepam produced marked impairment of psychomotor performance, cognitive functions (significant reduction in flicker fusion threshold, tapping and arithmetic calculation and increase in reaction times and body sway) and subjective sedation from 2 to 8 h after dosing. In addition, lorazepam induced an anterograde amnesia, characterised by a decrease in delayed free recall and recognition, and a deficit in short term memory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo
A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Schreuder, Antonia H C M L; Eijken, Erik J E; van Heuckelum, Janet H G; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Verbaten, Marinus N; Paty, Isabelle; Darwish, Mona; Danjou, Philippe; Patat, Alain
Thirty healthy volunteers participated in this two-part study. Part 1 was a single-blind, two-period crossover design to determine the effects of a single dose of ethanol (0.03% driving ability, memory, and psychomotor performance. Part 2 was a double-blind, five-period crossover design to measure the effects of a middle-of-the-night administration of zaleplon 10 or 20 mg, zolpidem 10 or 20 mg, or placebo on driving ability 4 hours after administration and memory and psychomotor performance 6 hours after administration. The on-the-road driving test consisted of operating an instrumented automobile over a 100-km highway circuit at a constant speed (95 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position between the right lane boundaries. The standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) was the primary performance parameter of the driving test. The psychomotor and memory test battery consisted of the Word Learning Test, the Critical Tracking Test, the Divided Attention Test, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Data for each part were analyzed separately using ANOVA for crossover designs. Zaleplon 10 and 20 mg did not significantly impair driving ability 4 hours after middle-of-the-night administration. Relative to placebo, after zolpidem 10 mg, SDLP was significantly elevated, but the magnitude of the difference was small and not likely to be of clinical importance. Memory and psychomotor test performance was unaffected after both doses of zaleplon and zolpidem 10 mg. In contrast, zolpidem 20 mg significantly increased SDLP and speed variability. Further, zolpidem 20 mg significantly impaired performance on all psychomotor and memory tests. Finally, driving performance, Digit Symbol Substitution Test, Divided Attention Test, and immediate and delayed free recall of the Word Learning Test were significantly impaired after ethanol. The results show that zaleplon (10 and 20 mg) is a safe hypnotic devoid of next-morning residual impairment when used in the middle of
Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Verbaten, Marinus N
Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of alprazolam (1 mg) on driving ability, memory and psychomotor performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. One hour after oral administration, subjects performed a standardized driving test on a primary highway during normal traffic. They were instructed to drive with a constant speed (90 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Primary performance measures were the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) and the Standard Deviation of Speed (SDS). After the driving test, subjective driving quality, mental effort, and mental activation during driving were assessed. A laboratory test battery was performed 2.5 h after treatment administration, comprising the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, a Continuous Tracking Test, and a Divided Attention Test. Relative to placebo, alprazolam caused serious driving impairment, as expressed by a significantly increased SDLP (F(1,19) = 97.3, p driving quality (F(1,19) = 16.4, p driving (F(1,19) = 26.4, p drive an automobile or operate potentially dangerous machinery.
Patat, A; Perault, M C; Vandel, B; Ulliac, N; Zieleniuk, I; Rosenzweig, P
1. The possible interaction between a new H1 antihistamine, mizolastine, and lorazepam was assessed in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study involving 16 healthy young male volunteers who received mizolastine 10 mg or placebo once daily for 8 days with a 1 week wash-out interval. The interaction of mizolastine, at steady-state, with a single oral dose of lorazepam or placebo was assessed on days 6 or 8 of each treatment period. 2. Psychomotor performance and cogniti...
Mets, Monique A J; de Vries, Juna M; de Senerpont Domis, Lieke M; Volkerts, Edmund R; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C
To evaluate the next-morning residual effects of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo on driving performance, memory functioning, psychomotor performance, and mood in healthy adult subjects following bedtime dosing and a middle of the night awakening. Single-center, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Utrecht University, The Netherlands. 30 healthy volunteers (15 males and 15 females). a single dose of ramelteon (8 mg), zopiclone (7.5 mg), and placebo, administered at bedtime. A balance test was performed at night. Other tests were performed the following morning, 8.5 h after administration. Subjects performed a 100-km highway driving test in normal traffic. Primary outcome measure was the standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car. After driving, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor tests were performed and mood was assessed. SDLP was significantly increased after the intake of ramelteon (+2.2 cm) and zopiclone (+2.9 cm). Ramelteon and zopiclone produced significant impairment on reaction time (PDivided Attention Test, and delayed recall (Pdriving performance, cognitive, memory, and psychomotor performance the morning following bedtime administration. In contrast to zopiclone, ramelteon produced no balance impairments. CLINICAL TRIAL IDENTIFIER: NCT00319215 (www.clinicaltrials.gov).
Hameleers, P. A. H. M; Van Boxtel, M. P. J; Hogervorst, E; Riedel, W. J; Houx, P. J; Buntinx, F; Jolles, J
The present study evaluated the association between habitual caffeine intake via coffee and tea and cognitive performance. This was done as part of a larger research programme into the determinants of cognitive ageing (the Maastricht Aging Study: MAAS). Possible withdrawal effects that may have explained in part the positive association between performance and intake in an earlier study were controlled for. In addition, all cognitive tests in this study were administered under strict laboratory conditions. A group of 1875 healthy adults, stratified for age (range 24 - 81 years), sex, and general ability, were screened for habitual intake of coffee and tea and took part in extensive cognitive testing. Multiple regression analysis with control for age, sex, socio-demographic variables, and substance use showed that habitual caffeine consumption was significantly related to better long-term memory performance and faster locomotor speed. No relationships were found between habitual caffeine consumption and short-term memory, information processing, planning, and attention as measured with the Stroop Test. Moreover, no difference in sensitivity to caffeine intake between different age groups was found, suggesting that caffeine intake did not counteract age-related cognitive decline. Several recommendations are made to improve the design of future studies in this field. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Theunissen, E L; Vermeeren, A; van Oers, A C M; van Maris, I; Ramaekers, J G
Mequitazine is a so-called 'non-sedative' second-generation antihistamine even though it has never been firmly established that this drug's sedative potential actually differs from that of the 'sedative' first-generation antihistamines. The present study compares the sedative effects of three doses of mequitazine on actual driving, psychomotor performance and memory with those of a first- and a second-generation antihistamine. Eighteen healthy volunteers received on separate days a single dose of 5, 10 and 15 mg mequitazine, 10 mg cetirizine, 6 mg dexchlorpheniramine and placebo. Drug effects were assessed using two actual driving tests (highway-driving test and car-following test), cognitive and psychometric tests (tracking, divided attention, memory, reasoning and critical flicker fusion), pupil size and questionnaires. Highway-driving data revealed an overall effect of Treatment on the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). Dexchlorpheniramine impaired driving performance as indicated by a significant rise in SDLP. Mequitazine significantly increased SDLP in a dose-related manner, but the separate dose effects failed to reach statistical significance. Divided attention performance was also affected by Treatment. Reaction time (RT) during mequitazine treatments increased in a dose-related manner and significantly differed from placebo at the highest dose. Subjects reported to be less alert after treatment with dexchlorpheniramine. Cetirizine did not affect performance in any of the tasks. It was concluded that mequitazine is mildly sedating. The effects of mequitazine are comparable to those of other second-generation antihistamines, in that it causes mild driving impairment, particularly at higher doses.
The purpose of this placebo-controlled, randomized-crossover study was to evaluate a computer-based divided-attention task as a method for measure impaired human psychomotor performance. The ability of the divided-attention task to detect and differentiate was evaluated using single oral doses of placebo, caffeine and diphenhydramine. Ten healthy men were the subjects of the study. Subject performance on divided-attention was compared with tests of short-term memory and a set of visual analog...
O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W
... examined. This study evaluated the effect of tyrosine supplementation on cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance following a cold water immersion protocol that lowered body core temperature...
Adverse effects of BD on cognitive functions such as psychomotor skills negatively impact on women's daily living. Methodology: Using a matched-pairs design and snowball sampling method, the present study investigated the relationship between binge drinking and psychomotor performance in a population of female ...
O'Brien, Michael J; O'Toole, Robert V; Newell, Mary Zadnik; Lydecker, Alison D; Nascone, Jason; Sciadini, Marcus; Pollak, Andrew; Turen, Clifford; Eglseder, W Andrew
Sleep deprivation may slow reaction time, cloud judgment, and impair the ability to think. Our purpose was to study the cognitive and psychomotor performances of orthopaedic trauma surgeons on the basis of the amount of sleep that they obtained. We prospectively studied the performances of thirty-two orthopaedic trauma surgeons (residents, fellows, and attending surgeons) over two four-week periods at an urban academic trauma center. Testing sessions used handheld computers to administer validated cognitive and psychomotor function tests. We conducted a multivariate analysis to examine the independent association between test performance and multiple covariates, including the amount of sleep the night before testing. Our analysis demonstrated that orthopaedic surgeons who had slept four hours or less the night before the test had 1.43 times the odds (95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.95; p = 0.03) of committing at least one error on an individual test compared with orthopaedic surgeons who had slept more than four hours the previous night. The Running Memory test, which assesses sustained attention, concentration, and working memory, was most sensitive to deterioration in performance in participants who had had four hours of sleep or less; when controlling for other covariates, the test demonstrated a 72% increase in the odds of making at least one error (odds ratio, 1.72 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 2.90]; p = 0.04). No significant decrease in performance with sleep deprivation was shown with the other three tests. Orthopaedic trauma surgeons showed deterioration in performance on a validated cognitive task when they had slept four hours or less the previous night. It is unknown how performance on this test relates to surgical performance.
Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not
Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen
The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five
The study investigated the effects of caffeine and anxiety level on psychomotor performance. Sixty-eight (68) volunteer male and female students who were randomly selected from different academic faculties at the University of Lagos participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 32 years, with body weights ...
Mattila, M J; Koski, J; Strömberg, C
Three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg) of Org 2305 (O 15, O 30 and O 60 respectively), a novel anxiolytic drug chemically related to mianserin, were compared with placebo and 15 mg diazepam (DZ) on human psychomotor performance in a double-blind, cross-over study with 15 healthy volunteers. Objective measurements (choice reaction, tracking, flicker fusion, Maddox wing, digit symbol substitution, memory recall) and subjective assessments (visual analogue scales) were done at baseline and 2 and 13 h af...
Lamers, C T J; Ramaekers, J G; Muntjewerff, N D; Sikkema, K L; Samyn, N; Read, N L; Brookhuis, K A; Riedel, W J
Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA) is a psychoactive recreational drug widely used by young people visiting dance parties, and has been associated with poor cognitive function. The current study assessed the influence of a single dose of MDMA 75 mg and alcohol 0.5 g/kg on cognition, psychomotor performance and driving-related task performance. Twelve healthy recreational ecstasy users participated in an experimental study conducted according to a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled three-way cross-over design. MDMA improved psychomotor performance, such as movement speed and tracking performance in a single task, as well as in a divided attention task. MDMA impaired the ability to predict object movement under divided attention. However, the inability to accurately predict object movement after MDMA may indicate impairment of particular performance skills relevant to driving. There was no effect of MDMA on visual search, planning or retrieval from semantic memory.
Warot, D; Berlin, I; Patat, A; Durrieu, G; Zieleniuk, I; Puech, A J
Befloxatone is a new reversible and selective monoamine oxidase (MAO-A) inhibitor that has been shown to have antidepressant activity in various animal models. To assess the effects of single oral doses of befloxatone (5, 10, and 20 mg) on psychomotor performance and memory, a randomized, double-blind, five-way, crossover study with both placebo and amitriptyline (50 mg) was carried out in 15 healthy male volunteers. Psychomotor and cognitive functions were evaluated using both objective measures, including Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF), Choice Reaction Time (CRT), Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a picture memory test and subjective measures, including Visual Analog Scales (VAS) and Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI), before and 2, 4, and 8 hours after administration. Pupil diameter was recorded by videopupillography. Single doses of befloxatone from 5 to 20 mg did not result in any detrimental effects on skilled performance and memory. In contrast, amitriptyline significantly impaired arousal (CFF), speed of reaction (CRT), information processing (DSST) and long-term memory (delayed free recall of pictures) and produced subjective sedation from 2 to 8 hours after administration. At the doses studied amitriptyline induced miosis but befloxatone did not modify pupil diameter. There was no evidence in this study to suggest that befloxatone, at the doses studied, has any sedative or amnesic effects in healthy subjects.
Murrihy, Cherée; Bailey, Maria; Roodenburg, John
The aim of our study was to examine whether the findings from previous research, indicating the role of short-term memory as a mediator of the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement in adolescents, is also evident in a younger child population. The study utilized a quantative cross-sectional design involving 133 children aged 8-12. The McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) provided four indicators of psychomotor ability (Finger Nose, Walking, Balancing, and Jumping). The Woodcock-Johnson Cognitive battery and the Automated Working Memory Assessment (AWMA) provided two measures of short-term memory (Numbers Reversed and Digit Recall) and the WJIII Achievement battery provided two measures of reading achievement (Letter-word Identification and Passage Comprehension) and two measures of mathematics achievement (Applied Problems and Calculation). Structural equation modeling was used, controlling for age, processing speed, crystallized, and fluid intelligence where appropriate. The results found support for the hypothesis that short-term memory fully mediates the relationship between psychomotor ability and reading and mathematics achievement. These findings indicate the significant affect of psychomotor ability on learning outcomes and consequently the need to assess these in considering learning difficulties, and as such these findings also advance understanding of developmental neural mechanisms underpinning the relationships. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N; Hindmarch, I
Ten female subjects (five smokers and five non-smokers) performed a choice reaction time task (CRT), a compensatory tracking task (CTT), a short-term memory task (STM) and were tested for their critical flicker fusion threshold (CFF) at set points over 4 h after the administration of each possible combination of nicotine (2 mg gum or placebo), caffeine (250 mg capsule or placebo) and alcohol (30 g or placebo). Memory and motor function were shown to be facilitated by nicotine or caffeine, and the debilitating effects of alcohol were frequently antagonised by either drug. In spite of the differences in their neuropharmacological actions, combinations of nicotine, caffeine and alcohol may be compared through their effects on common information processing mechanisms involved in psychomotor performance.
Mattila, M J; Koski, J; Strömberg, C
Three doses (15, 30 and 60 mg) of Org 2305 (O 15, O 30 and O 60 respectively), a novel anxiolytic drug chemically related to mianserin, were compared with placebo and 15 mg diazepam (DZ) on human psychomotor performance in a double-blind, cross-over study with 15 healthy volunteers. Objective measurements (choice reaction, tracking, flicker fusion, Maddox wing, digit symbol substitution, memory recall) and subjective assessments (visual analogue scales) were done at baseline and 2 and 13 h after the first dose. This testing procedure was repeated on day 7 when administering the seventh consecutive daily night-time dose. After the first dose O 15 did not differ from placebo and O 30 rarely differed from placebo. O 60 impaired various objective functions similarly to, or less than DZ. Subjectively, DZ and O 60 were felt as sedative. During subchronic treatment, DZ caused some impairment of baseline due to accumulation of bioassayable benzodiazepines, but significant responses to the last DZ dose were less than those to the first dose. DZ but not O 60 was reported to have caused lethargy and clumsiness during subchronic treatment. In the doses used Org 2305 impaired psychomotor performance less than diazepam did. A dose of 60 mg Org 2305 may offer some advantage over 15 mg diazepam, provided that their anxiolytic effects are about similar.
Narciso, Fernanda Veruska; Barela, José A; Aguiar, Stefane A; Carvalho, Adriana N S; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio
The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds) and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes) were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (pwork system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.
Liljequist, Raija; Mattila, M. J.
1 Twelve pretrained healthy students ingested temazepam 10 mg, nitrazepam 20 mg and placebo 10 mg, each double blind at 1-week intervals in randomized order. Reactive and coordinative skills and critical flicker fusion were measured before each drug intake and 1, 2, 3, 6 and 8 h after it. Short-term memory and paired association learning were measured at 1, 3 and 8 hours. 2 Nitrazepam 10 mg increased reaction and coordination errors and also impaired learning and memory. Temazepam 10 mg impaired coordinative skills; otherwise it differed from nitrazepam but hardly from placebo. Temazepam 20 mg impaired coordination, and learning and memory. Both temazepam 20 mg and nitrazepam 10 mg were experienced as being sedative. All drug effects were clearest during the first 3 h, whereas nitrazepam also impaired learning at 8 hours. 3 The psychomotor responses to drugs were modified by a sequence effect (not at zero tests) which varied depending on the drug and parameter. In multivariance analysis it was included to reveal drug effects. 4 Temazepam 20 mg seems suitable as a hypnotic.
Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F
Current selection methods for neurosurgical residents fail to include objective measurements of bimanual psychomotor performance. Advancements in computer-based simulation provide opportunities to assess cognitive and psychomotor skills in surgically naive populations during complex simulated neurosurgical tasks in risk-free environments. This pilot study was designed to answer 3 questions: (1) What are the differences in bimanual psychomotor performance among neurosurgical residency applicants using NeuroTouch? (2) Are there exceptionally skilled medical students in the applicant cohort? and (3) Is there an influence of previous surgical exposure on surgical performance? Participants were instructed to remove 3 simulated brain tumors with identical visual appearance, stiffness, and random bleeding points. Validated tier 1, tier 2, and advanced tier 2 metrics were used to assess bimanual psychomotor performance. Demographic data included weeks of neurosurgical elective and prior operative exposure. This pilot study was carried out at the McGill Neurosurgical Simulation Research and Training Center immediately following neurosurgical residency interviews at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. All 17 medical students interviewed were asked to participate, of which 16 agreed. Performances were clustered in definable top, middle, and bottom groups with significant differences for all metrics. Increased time spent playing music, increased applicant self-evaluated technical skills, high self-ratings of confidence, and increased skin closures statistically influenced performance on univariate analysis. A trend for both self-rated increased operating room confidence and increased weeks of neurosurgical exposure to increased blood loss was seen in multivariate analysis. Simulation technology identifies neurosurgical residency applicants with differing levels of technical ability. These results provide information for studies being developed for longitudinal studies on the
O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W
Supplemental tyrosine is effective at limiting cold-induced decreases in working memory, presumably by augmenting brain catecholamine levels, since tyrosine is a precursor for catecholamine synthesis...
Gallagher, Anthony G; Smith, C Daniel; Bowers, Steven P; Seymour, Neal E; Pearson, Adam; McNatt, Steven; Hananel, David; Satava, Richard M
Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) has introduced a new and unique set of psychomotor skills for a surgeon to acquire and master. Although assessment technologies have been proposed, precise and objective psychomotor skills assessment of surgeons performing laparoscopic procedures has not been detailed. Two hundred ten surgeons attending the 2001 annual meeting of the American College of Surgeons in New Orleans who reported having completed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures participated. Subjects were required to complete one box-trainer laparoscopic cutting task and a similar virtual reality task. These tasks were specifically designed to test only psychomotor and not cognitive skills. Both tasks were completed twice. Performance of tasks was assessed and analyzed. Demographic and laparoscopic experience data were also collected. Complete data were available on 195 surgeons. In this group, surgeons performed the box-trainer task better with their dominant hand (p psychomotor skills is now possible. Surgeons who had performed more than 50 laparoscopic procedures showed considerable variability in their performance on a simple laparoscopic and virtual reality task. Approximately 10% of surgeons tested performed the task significantly worse than the group's average performance. Studies such as this may form the methodology for establishing criteria levels and performance objectives in objective assessment of the technical skills component of determining surgical competence.
Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori
When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…
Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael
Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.
Katherine S Young
Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.
Deijen, J.B.; Orlebeke, J.F.; Rijsdijk, F.V.
In this study 12 depressed outpatients were compared to 12 healthy controls with respect to their performance on a number of cognitive tasks, including a recognition-memory task, and their eye movements and pupil size were recorded while watching a traffic film. The recognition-memory task consisted
Afify, Ahmed R; Zawawi, Khalid H; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A
The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students. Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics) were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately. There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects. In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.
Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance
among female social drinkers; to compare motor skills performance between ... Harmful alcohol use is high in males but women ... mean different things in different contexts . Binge ... occasionally thereby putting their brains at risk of damage.
Fernanda Veruska Narciso
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001, postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048, and 14% (p = 0.006. Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006 and 425% (p = 0.015, respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748 and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715 and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03. Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.
Brunnauer, Alexander; Laux, Gerd; Geiger, Elisabeth; Möller, Hans-Jürgen
Cognitive and psychomotor impairments are a core feature of most patients with schizophrenia and may have an important influence on driving ability. The present study investigated the effects of neuroleptic monotherapy on psychomotor functions related to car driving skills in schizophrenic patients. Consecutively admitted schizophrenic inpatients (n = 120) were tested under steady state plasma level conditions before discharge to outpatient treatment. Patients met the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for schizophrenia. The study followed a naturalistic nonrandomized design. Data were collected with the computerized Act & React Testsystem and were analyzed according to medication, severity of illness, and age. Only 32.5% of the schizophrenic inpatients passed the tests without major impairments. Patients treated with atypical neuroleptics or clozapine showed a better test performance on skills related to driving ability when compared with patients on typical neuroleptics. Differences were most pronounced in measures of divided attention, stress tolerance, and attention. Data also suggest that treatment with clozapine had an overall positive impact on measures of reactivity and stress tolerance. These results show that even under steady state pharmacologic conditions psychomotor functions of most schizophrenic patients partly remitted must be considered as impaired. To evaluate these effects, a systematic neuropsychologic examination is recommended.
Within the scope of testing statistical hypotheses theory a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of widely used in neuropsychology human memory performance (free recall, cued recall, and recognition probabilities), a model definition and a computer method for model calculation of intensities of cues used in experiments for testing human memory quality are proposed. Models for active and passive traces of memory and their relations are found. It was shown that autoassociative memory unit in the form of short two-layer artificial neural network with (or without) damages can be used for model description of memory performance in subjects with (or without) local brain lesions
McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G
Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill. Fatigue is a serious threat to operational safety, particularly for sustained helicopter operations involving high levels of cognitive information processing and sustained time on task. As part of ongoing research into this issue, the object of this study was to develop a field-deployable helicopter-specific psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) for the purpose of daily performance monitoring of pilots. The PVT consists of a laptop computer, a hand-operated joystick, and a set of rudder pedals. Screen-based compensatory tracking task software includes a tracking ball (operated by the joystick) which moves randomly in all directions, and a second tracking ball which moves horizontally (operated by the rudder pedals). The 5-min test requires the pilot to keep both tracking balls centered. This helicopter-specific PVT's portability and integrated data acquisition and storage system enables daily field monitoring of the performance of individual helicopter pilots. The inclusion of a simultaneous foot-operated tracking task ensures divided attention for helicopter pilots as the movement of both tracking balls requires simultaneous inputs. This PVT is quick, economical, easy to use, and specific to the operational flying task. It can be used for performance monitoring purposes, and as a general research tool for investigating the psychomotor demands of helicopter operations. While reliability and validity testing is warranted, data acquired from this test could help further our understanding of the effect of various factors (such as fatigue) on helicopter pilot performance, with the potential of contributing to helicopter operational safety.
Rubin, Leah H; Pyra, Maria; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M
The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) women compared with HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women, and deficits in episodic memory are a common feature of both PTSD and HIV infection. We investigated the association between a probable PTSD diagnosis using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C) version and verbal learning and memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test in 1004 HIV+ and 496 at-risk HIV- women. HIV infection was not associated with a probable PTSD diagnosis (17% HIV+, 16% HIV-; p = 0.49) but was associated with lower verbal learning (p memory scores (p memory (p < 0.01) and psychomotor speed (p < 0.001). The particular pattern of cognitive correlates of probable PTSD varied depending on exposure to sexual abuse and/or violence, with exposure to either being associated with a greater number of cognitive domains and a worse cognitive profile. A statistical interaction between HIV serostatus and PTSD was observed on the fine motor skills domain (p = 0.03). Among women with probable PTSD, HIV- women performed worse than HIV+ women on fine motor skills (p = 0.01), but among women without probable PTSD, there was no significant difference in performance between the groups (p = 0.59). These findings underscore the importance of considering mental health factors as correlates to cognitive deficits in women with HIV.
Van Herzeele, Isabelle; O'Donoghue, Kevin G L; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Vermassen, Frank; Darzi, Ara; Cheshire, Nicholas J W
This study evaluated virtual reality (VR) simulation for endovascular training of medical students to determine whether innate perceptual, visuospatial, and psychomotor aptitude (VSA) can predict initial and plateau phase of technical endovascular skills acquisition. Twenty medical students received didactic and endovascular training on a commercially available VR simulator. Each student treated a series of 10 identical noncomplex renal artery stenoses endovascularly. The simulator recorded performance data instantly and objectively. An experienced interventionalist rated the performance at the initial and final sessions using generic (out of 40) and procedure-specific (out of 30) rating scales. VSA were tested with fine motor dexterity (FMD, Perdue Pegboard), psychomotor ability (minimally invasive virtual reality surgical trainer [MIST-VR]), image recall (Rey-Osterrieth), and organizational aptitude (map-planning). VSA performance scores were correlated with the assessment parameters of endovascular skills at commencement and completion of training. Medical students exhibited statistically significant learning curves from the initial to the plateau performance for contrast usage (medians, 28 vs 17 mL, P dexterity as well as with image recall at end of the training period. In addition to current recruitment strategies, VSA may be a useful tool for predictive validity studies.
Smith, A Russell; Cavanaugh, Catherine; Jones, Joyce; Venn, John; Wilson, William
Learning outcomes may improve in graduate healthcare students when attention is given to individual learning styles. Interactive multimedia is one tool shown to increase success in meeting the needs of diverse learners. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of learning style and type of instruction on physical therapy students' cognitive and psychomotor performance. Participants were obtained by a sample of convenience with students recruited from two physical therapy programs. Twenty-seven students volunteered to participate from Program 1. Twenty-three students volunteered to participate from Program 2. Gregorc learning styles were identified through completion of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Students were randomly assigned to one of two instructional strategies: 1) instructional CD or 2) live demonstration. Differences in cognitive or psychomotor performance following instructional multimedia based on learning style were not demonstrated in this study. Written examination scores improved with both instructional strategies demonstrating no differences between the strategies. Practical examination ankle scores were significantly higher in participants receiving CD instruction than in participants receiving live presentation. Learning style did not significantly affect this improvement. Program 2 performed significantly better on written knee and practical knee and ankle examinations. Learning style had no significant effect on student performance following instruction in clinical skills via interactive multimedia. Future research may include additional measurement instruments assessing other models of learning styles and possible interaction of learning style and instructional strategy on students over longer periods of time, such as a semester or an entire curriculum.
Do, Tanya C; Kerr, Stephen J; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Suksawek, Saowaluk; Klungkang, Supalak; Channgam, Taweesak; Odermatt, Christoph C; Maek-A-Nantawat, Wirach; Ruxtungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W
To assess cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment in an HIV-positive cohort, well-suppressed on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), in an Asian resource-limited setting. Cross-sectional sociodemographic and cognitive data were collected in 329 HIV-positive and 510 HIV-negative participants. Cognitive performance was assessed using the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), WAIS-III Digit Symbol, Trail Making A, and Grooved Pegboard (both hands). Psychomotor test scores in the HIV-positive participants were converted to Z-scores using scores of the HIV-negative participants as normative data. Psychomotor impairment was defined as performance on two tests more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from controls or more than 2 SD on one test. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between HIV and non-HIV-related covariates and poorer cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment. HIV-positive participants, mean age 45 (SD 7.69) years received cART for a median of 12.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9.1-14.4). Median CD4 cell count was 563 cells/mm 3 (IQR 435-725), and 92.77% had plasma HIV RNA performance (tests all P 90% on long-term cART, we found that inferior cognitive performance and psychomotor impairment were primarily associated with non-HIV-related factors.
Windsor, J A; Zoha, F
It has been suggested that virtual reality (VR) might be useful for the selection of surgical trainees and the measurement of technical performance during preoperative training and retraining. This study was designed to determine whether it is possible to define and measure the acquisition, loss, and reacquisition of psychomotor skills in novice surgical trainees. Novice surgical trainees (NSTs n = 10, junior surgical registrars with little or no prior experience with laparoscopic surgery) were tested and retested after 1 month using the Minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality. Two tasks were used: the simple task [stretch diathermy (SD)] and the more complex task [manipulation diathermy (MD)]. The score was derived from the time taken to complete the task and the number of errors that occurred. Acquisition is the difference between the first and last score of the first training session, loss is the difference in score that occurs between the last score of the first training session and the first score of the second training session, and reacquisition is the difference in the first and last scores of the second training session. A performance criterion level was defined for each task by testing a group of experienced laparoscopic surgeons (n = 10). Groups were compared using the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test, with p psychomotor skills in individual NSTs and to compare them with a predefined performance criterion level. This study defines parameters that will be useful in repeated training sessions of NSTs in the preoperative phase of training and during retraining.
Amarra, Ma Sofia V; Bongga, Demetria C; Peñano-Ho, Leticia; Cruz, Federico B; Solis, José S; Barrios, Erniel B
Until 1998, iodine deficiency was a public health problem in the Philippines. A law entitled "An Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide" (ASIN) has been passed and implemented by the government to eliminate iodine deficiency. The contribution of salt iodization, as well as dietary, health, and environmental factors, to improving the intellectual performance of Filipino schoolchildren remains to be determined. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationship between iodine status and levels of psychomotor and cognitive performance in first-grade children aged 6 to 10 years, and to examine the extent to which dietary, biochemical, health, and environmental factors contribute to children's mental performance. Two hundred ninety children in six classroom sections from a public school in Manila were examined by measurement of urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and thyroid palpation. The median UIE level for each section was determined. Sixty-five children classified as iodine deficient (UIE 100 microg/L without goiter, n = 31) were given psychomotor and cognitive function tests (Bender-Gestalt and Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices). Scores from the two tests were used to determine each child's general ability percentile rank. Other variables examined were dietary intake (% RDA of nutrients ingested based on two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls); deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, and selenium; parasitic infection; coliform contamination of drinking water; household use of iodized salt; illness in the past 2 weeks; and wasting and stunting. Children whose general ability scores were at or above the 50th percentile had higher UIE levels, but the relationship was not significant. Children from sections with higher median UIE levels had higher percentile ranks for general ability (p = .002). Backward logistic regression showed that the variance in deficient and adequate mental performance was explained by dietary intakes that met > or = 80% of the RDA for energy
Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A
The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Hofstad, Erlend Fagertun; Våpenstad, Cecilie; Chmarra, Magdalena Karolina; Langø, Thomas; Kuhry, Esther; Mårvik, Ronald
A high level of psychomotor skills is required to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) safely. To assure high quality of skills, it is important to be able to measure and assess these skills. For that, it is necessary to determine aspects that indicate the difference between performances at various levels of proficiency. Measurement and assessment of skills in MIS are best done in an automatic and objective way. The goal of this study was to investigate a set of nine motion-related metrics for their relevance to assess psychomotor skills in MIS during the performance of a labyrinth task. Thirty-two surgeons and medical students were divided into three groups according to their level of experience in MIS; experts (>500 MIS procedures), intermediates (31-500 MIS), and novices (no experience in MIS). The participants performed the labyrinth task in the D-box Basic simulator (D-Box Medical, Lier, Norway). The task required bimanual maneuvering and threading a needle through a labyrinth of 10 holes. Nine motion-related metrics were used to assess the MIS skills of each participant. Experts (n = 7) and intermediates (n = 14) performed significantly better than the novices (n = 11) in terms of time and parameters measuring the amount of instrument movement. The experts had significantly better bimanual dexterity, which indicated that they made more simultaneous movements of the two instruments compared to the intermediates and novices. The experts also performed the task with a shorter instrument path length with the nondominant hand than the intermediates. The surgeon's performance in MIS can be distinguished from a novice by metrics such as time and path length. An experienced surgeon in MIS can be differentiated from a less experienced one by the higher ability to control the instrument in the nondominant hand and the higher degree of simultaneous (coordinated) movements of the two instruments.
Theunissen, Eef L; Vermeeren, Annemiek; Ramaekers, Johannes G
Previous studies have demonstrated that the antihistamines mequitazine, cetirizine and dexchlorpheniramine produce mild sedation after single doses. It is unknown, however, whether acute sedation persists after repeated dosing. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of repeated dosing of these antihistamines on driving and psychomotor performance. Sixteen healthy volunteers were treated with mequitazine 10 mg q.a.m., cetirizine 10 mg q.a.m., dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg b.i.d. and placebo for four separate 8-day periods. Drug effects were assessed on days 1 and 8 using on-the-road driving tests (highway driving and car following), psychomotor tests (tracking and divided attention) and subjective questionnaires. Dexchlorpheniramine and mequitazine significantly impaired driving performance on the highway driving test on the first day; dexchlorpheniramine increased Standard Deviation of Lateral Position by 2 cm [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5, 3.8] and mequitazine by 2.5 cm (CI 1.0, 4.3). These effects on driving performance disappeared after 8 days of treatment. No effect of treatment was found on car following, tracking and divided attention. Although subjective ratings confirmed that subjects knew their driving had been impaired in the mequitazine and dexchlorpheniramine condition after completion of the highway driving test on day 1, they did not expect their driving to be affected before the start of the test. Cetirizine did not impair performance on any of the tests. Single doses of mequitazine 10 mg and dexchlorpheniramine Repetab 6 mg cause mild driving impairment. However, when taken over several days, the impairing effect wears off, possibly as a result of tolerance.
Traon, A. Pavy-le; de Feneyrols, A. Rous; Cornac, A.; Abdeseelam, R.; N'uygen, D.; Lazerges, M.; Güell, A.; Bes, A.
Several factors may affect psychomotor performance in space: sensory-motor changes, sleep disturbances, psychological modifications induced by the social isolation and confinement. However, psychomotor performance is difficult to assess. A battery of standardized and computerized tests, so-called "Automated Portable Test System" (APTS) was devised to ascertain the cognitive, perceptive and motor abilities and their possible fluctuations according to environmental effects. Antiorthostatic bedrest, often used to simulate weightlessness, (particularly cardiovascular modifications) also constitutes a situation of social confinement and isolation. During two bedrest experiments (with head-down tilt of -6°) of 28 days each, we intended to assess psychomotor performance of 6 males so as to determine whether: —on the one hand, it could be altered by remaining in decubitus; —on the other, the Lower Body Negative Pressure sessions, designed to prevent orthostatic intolerance back on Earth, could improve the performance. To accomplish this, part of the APTS tests as well as an automated perceptive attention test were performed. No downgrading of psychomotor performance was observed. On the contrary, the tasks were more accurately performed over time. In order to assess the experimental conditions on the acquisition phase, the learning curves were modelled. A beneficial effect of the LBNP sessions on simple tests involving the visual-motor coordination and attention faculties can only be regarded as a mere trend. Methods used in this experiment are also discussed.
Saadat, Soheil; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Saremi, Mahnaz; Alimohammadi, Iraj; Ashayeri, Hassan; Fayaz, Mahsa; Rostami, Reza
Background and aim Driving after a night shift imposes a risk on health care professionals and other road users. The aim of this study was to measure psychomotor performance of driving of night shift nurses compared to day-shift nurses. Methods Forty-seven volunteer female nurses working at Sina hospital in Tehran, Iran, with a call in all departments of hospital, participated in this study (23 night shift and 24 day shift nurses) in 2016. The tests included RT for simple reaction time, ATAVT for perceptual speed, LVT for visual orientation and ZBA for time anticipation. Data collection tools were individual characteristics, 11-item circadian type inventory (CTI), Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and Swedish occupational fatigue inventory (SOFI-20) questionnaires. Psychomotor driving performance was assessed using validated computerized traffic psychological battery of Vienna Test System (VTS), before and after the shifts. Data analysis was performed using paired-samples t-test and Linear Regression. Results The mean age of day and night-shift nurses were 31.4±5.6 and 28.7±3.9 years respectively, no significant difference between two groups. Thirty percent of night shift and 16.7% of day shift nurses reported traffic accidents in the past year. The results revealed that, scores based on viewing times in visual orientation test (p=0.005), and median reaction time score in choice reaction time and reactive stress tolerance test (p=0.045), had a significant association with a 12-hour night shift with a 3-hour nap. Conclusions Twelve-hour night shift work impairs choice reaction time and visual orientation in nurses, even though they take a 3- hour nap during the shift. These skills are required for safe driving. PMID:29629067
Full Text Available With the demand of culinary arts graduates in hospitality industry, more higher learning institutions especially private colleges offer the programs. The course syllabus of culinary arts is specifically designed to provide a strong foundation for students who aspire to be chefs in the local and international fields. Students are equipped with a basic education in the culinary skills and knowledge associated with the cognitive and psychomotor domain. This study investigates the influence of the cognitive and psychomotor domain effect to private college student’s performance after internship. The internship program is gradually enhancing the students’ knowledge; confidence level and psychomotor performance which enable them to at least gain confidence when performing their practical assessment after coming back from internship. This is a positive indication in the beginning of the students’ life before expose into a real life work situation. Thus, this research can be a guidance for the private institutional lecturers to look into the effectiveness of cognitive and psychomotor domain of culinary art students’ performance in their internship programs.
Padelford, Harold E.
The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD have an unexplained difficulty in acquiring basic academic skills resulting in a significant discrepancy between their academic potential and achievements. This study was undertaken to compare the performance on a battery of six psychomotor tests of children with SpLD and those without any learning disabilities (controls using computerized tests. Methods: In this study, 25 children with SpLD and 25 controls (matched for age, socio-economic status and medium of instruction were given three training sessions over one week. Then children were asked to perform on the six computerized psychomotor tests. Results were compared between the two groups. Results: Children with SpLD fared significantly worse on finger tapping test, choice reaction test, digit picture substitution test and card sorting test compared to the controls ( p <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Children with SpLD have impairment of psychomotor skills like attention, sensory-motor coordination and executive functioning. Further research is needed to evaluate if the remedial education plan results in improvement in psychomotor performance of children with SpLD on these selected tests.
Dilbone, Deborah A; Feng, Xiaoying; Su, Yu; Xirau-Probert, Patricia; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Nascimento, Marcelle M
Predoctoral dental psychomotor examinations are known to generate high levels of stress among dental students, which may compromise their academic performance. At one U.S. dental school, all 93 first-year dental students were invited to attend a series of three workshop sessions prior to enrollment in their initial operative dentistry course. The workshops were developed to facilitate academic transition from the dental anatomy course to the operative dentistry course; provide early exposure to materials, instruments, and laboratory techniques; support the early development of psychomotor and self-assessment skills; and lessen students' stress and anxiety levels regarding psychomotor examinations. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the workshops on the students' academic performance and self-reported stress and preparedness. All students who attended the workshop sessions and all who did not were asked to complete a pre-exam survey (immediately preceding the exam) and a post-exam survey (immediately after the exam) on the day of their first operative dentistry psychomotor exam. Of the 93 students, 21 attended one, 34 attended two, and 25 attended three workshop sessions, while 13 students did not attend any. Response rates for the pre- and post-exam surveys were 100% and 98.9%, respectively. Students who attended all three workshop sessions reported being significantly less stressed about taking the exam than the other groups. The mean exam grade of students who attended the workshop sessions was significantly higher than that of students who did not attend the sessions. These findings support the development and implementation of preparatory workshops to improve academic performance and decrease the stress levels of dental students prior to the first operative dentistry psychomotor exam.
Mitchell, E S; Slettenaar, M; vd Meer, N; Transler, C; Jans, L; Quadt, F; Berry, M
The combination of theobromine and caffeine, methylxanthines found in chocolate, has previously been shown to improve mood and cognition. However, it is unknown whether these molecules act synergistically. This study tested the hypothesis that a combination of caffeine and theobromine has synergistic effects on cognition, mood and blood pressure in 24 healthy female subjects. The effects of theobromine (700 mg), caffeine (120 mg) or the combination of both, or placebo were tested on mood (the Bond-Lader visual analog scale), psychomotor performance (the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)) and blood pressure before and at 1, 2 and 3 h after administration. Theobromine alone decreased self-reported calmness 3h after ingestion and lowered blood pressure relative to placebo 1 h after ingestion. Caffeine increased self-reported alertness 1, 2 and 3h after ingestion and contentedness 1 and 2 h after ingestion, and increased blood pressure relative to placebo (at 1 h). The combination of caffeine+theobromine had similar effects as caffeine alone on mood, but with no effect on blood pressure. There was no treatment effect on DSST performance. Together these results suggest that theobromine and caffeine could have differential effects on mood and blood pressure. It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A combination of tests consisting of a compensation task with differential value indication, a tachystoscopic arrangement with verbal identification of characteristic features and an arrangement for a visually induced motor reaction was carried out on 12 healthy volunteers aged from 20-30 to determine psychomotor efficiency under the influence of the new antiparkinson drug selegiline (Eldepryl). The results were compared with the effects of the psychostimulant fenetylline and the depressant-antihistamine chlorphenoxamine, and with a placebo. While fenetylline and chlorphenoxamine produced the anticipated effects with regard to an improvement or deterioration in performance in all parameters, selegiline resulted in a slightly longer motor reaction time and an increase in control errors, and in a significantly longer mental processing time. In comparison with the placebo, selegiline increased the motor reaction time by 0.8 +/- 1.95% and mental processing time by 4.1 +/- 1.7%. This depressant effect of selegiline, however, only attained 1/8 and 2/3, resp., of the sedative effect of the normal dose of the antihistamine chlorophenoxamine. Under the influence of chlorphenoxamine, performance becomes less regular and under fenetylline more regular. Selegiline does not differ significantly from the placebo. In spite of selegiline metabolites 1-metamphetamine and 1-amphetamine, which act as mild stimulants, the slightly depressant effect of selegiline detected can be explained by the increased effect of dopamine inhibitory neurons, particularly in the inhibitory system of the formatio reticularis and the cortex frontalis as a result of a concentration of dopamine.
Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
Rationale: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding
Morrens, M.; Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Hulstijn, W.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
RATIONALE: Impaired psychomotor function has been shown to be associated with clinical and functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, few studies have investigated the short-term effects of antipsychotics on the cognitive and psychomotor functions of this patient group. Because many confounding
Ross, Peter D; Steven, Richard; Zhang, Dong; Li, Heng; Abel, Eric W
This study was undertaken to introduce and establish the value of the Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Otolaryngology Surgery Trainer (DEPOST) as a customisable, objective real-time scoring system for trainee assessment. The construct validity of the system was assessed by comparing the performance of experienced otolaryngologists with that of otolaryngology trainees, junior doctors and medical students. Forty two subjects (13 Consultants, 8 senior trainees, 13 junior trainees and 8 junior doctors/medical students) completed a single test on DEPOST. The test involved using a 30° rigid endoscope and a probe with position sensor, to identify a series of lights in a complex 3-dimensional model. The system scored subjects for time, success rate, and economy of movement (distance travelled). An analysis of variance and correlation analysis were used for the data analysis, with statistical significance set at 0.05. Increasing experience led to significantly improved performance with the DEPOST (p < 0.01). Senior trainees' results were significantly better than those of consultant otolaryngologists in success rate and time (p < 0.05 & p < 0.05). Consultants were the most efficient in their movement (p = 0.051) CONCLUSIONS: The system provides an accurate and customisable assessment of endoscopic skill in otolaryngologists. The DEPOST system has construct validity, with master surgeons and senior trainees completing the tasks more accurately without sacrificing execution time, success rate or efficiency of movement.
Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis
The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.
Bizarro, L; Patel, S; Murtagh, C; Stolerman, I P
Nicotine can improve attentional performance in the rat as assessed by a modified five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), but it is not known if the effect is shared with other psychomotor stimulants. This study compared the effects of nicotine, amphetamine, caffeine and methylphenidate on performance in the 5-CSRTT and determined whether presenting stimuli at unpredictable times by using variable inter-trial intervals (ITI) influenced the sensitivity of the task to the drugs. One group of male hooded rats was trained to obtain food reinforcers by nose-poking in response to 1 s light stimuli presented randomly in one of five apertures, with fixed ITI; for a second group of rats, ITI varied randomly (n=12 per group). As observed previously, nicotine (tested in doses of 0.05-0.2 mg/kg) produced dose-related improvements in accuracy, reduced omission errors and response latencies, but increased anticipatory responding. Amphetamine (0.1-0.8 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (2.5-10 mg/kg) increased accuracy and reduced response latency, and decreased anticipatory responding. Caffeine (2.5-20 mg/kg) did not improve performance except at a small dose that decreased omission errors only. Training at different levels of stimulus predictability influenced performance in the undrugged state but had little impact on profiles of responses to the drugs. The findings with methylphenidate support the potential value of the 5-CSRTT for testing drugs that may be useful in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Pecotic, Renata; Dodig, Ivana Pavlinac; Valic, Maja; Galic, Tea; Kalcina, Linda Lusic; Ivkovic, Natalija; Dogas, Zoran
We prospectively investigated the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on long-term cognitive and psychomotor performances, and excessive daytime sleepiness in severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. A total of 40 patients were recruited and 23 patients with severe OSA fully completed the study protocol to investigate the effects of CPAP therapy on psychomotor performance at 1, 3, and 6 months and 1 year following initiation of the therapy. Psychomotor CRD-series tests measuring reaction times of light stimulus perception, solving simple arithmetic operations, and complex psychomotor limb coordination, were used in this study. The data collected following CPAP therapy were compared to baseline values prior to the CPAP treatment for each patient. All of the measured variables improved following CPAP treatment. However, the most pronounced effect was observed in improvement of reaction times to complex psychomotor limb coordination test (p CPAP therapy. The CPAP therapy improved cognitive and psychomotor performance on CRD-series tests with the most significant improvement observed in complex psychomotor limb coordination of severe OSA patients.
Lieve Lia Beheydt
Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.
Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias
Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moore, W. Allen; Smith, A. Russell
Purpose: Multimedia is an effective tool to teach psychomotor skills to health care students. Video podcasting is a next step as educators seek methods to present psychomotor skills efficiently. The purposes of this pilot study were (1) compare the effectiveness of video podcasting to live demonstration for teaching psychomotor skills to Doctor of…
Strömberg, C; Mattila, M J
Objective and subjective effects on human performance of clovoxamine and mianserin were measured in 12 student volunteers who participated in 12 test sessions and received single doses of clovoxamine 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg, mianserin 20 mg, and placebo in a double-blind and cross-over manner. Each test drug was given twice, both in combination with alcohol 0.8 g/kg and with a non-alcoholic drink. The tests included tracking, body balance, flicker fusion, horizontal nystagmus, digit symbol substitution, recall memory, and subjective assessments on visual analogue scales. Mianserin and alcohol impaired objective performance in most tests, and their combination showed at least an additive effect. Alcohol counteracted rather than increased mianserin-induced subjective sedation. Clovoxamine neither differed significantly from placebo nor increased alcohol effects. On the contrary, clovoxamine 150 mg reduced significantly alcohol-induced body sway. No evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions were found between the study drugs and alcohol.
Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments.
Karanovic, Nenad; Carev, Mladen; Kardum, Goran; Pecotic, Renata; Valic, Maja; Karanovic, Sandra; Ujevic, Ante; Dogas, Zoran
The profession of anaesthesiologist is demanding and potentially hazardous. Extended work shifts combined with intensive work load may adversely affect physicians' performance. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of a single in-hospital 24 h shift on the cognitive and psychomotor performance of anaesthesiologists in a surgical emergency department. Following ethical and institutional approval, 11 staff anaesthesiologists [six men, five women, age 48 (35-50), years of experience 17 (7-20), median (range)] successfully completed the study protocol. Four computer-generated psychological tests (CRD, Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac, Croatia) consisting of light signal position discrimination (CRD 311), simple visual orientation (CRD 21), simple arithmetic operations (CRD 11), and complex psychomotor coordination (CRD 411) were used to measure objective parameters of cognitive and psychomotor performance at four time points (D1 = 8:00 a.m., D2 = 3:00 p.m., D3 = 11:00 p.m.; and D4 = 7:00-8:00 a.m. next day) during the 24 h working day. The control testing on an ordinary working day was performed at two time points (C1 = 8:00 a.m., C2 = 3:00 p.m.). Three parameters were recorded: total test solving time (TTST), total variability, and total number of errors for all four tests. TTST was significantly impaired during the 24 h shift in all tests, and TTST was prolonged in CRD 21 test at different time points from 1.6 +/- 1.4 to 5.5 +/- 1.6 s compared with the control (F = 6.39, P = 0.001). The reaction times were prolonged from 1.3 +/- 1.8 to 5.4 +/- 1.2 s (F = 3.49, P = 0.009) in CRD 311, from 3.8 +/- 9.0 to 34.3 +/- 5.8 s (F = 5.05, P = 0.002) in CRD 11 TTST, and from 0.8 +/- 3.0 to 16.3 +/- 8.6 s (F = 2.67, P = 0.034) in CRD 411. Total variability was significantly altered during the 24 h shift only in CRD 411 (F = 2.63, P = 0.036). There was no difference in the total number of errors between the 24 h shift and the ordinary working day. Anaesthesiologists' 24 h
Hindmarch, I; Kerr, J S; Sherwood, N
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of nicotine on human performance. In the first study six smokers, who had been allowed to smoke normally prior to testing, completed a battery of psychometric tests (choice reaction time, memory scanning, tracking and flicker fusion threshold) at set points over 4 h after chewing 0, 2, or 4 mg nicotine polacrilex gum. A second study followed a similar design, but used five non-smoker volunteers who were required to chew only the 0 or 2 mg nicotine gum. Blood nicotine levels following the gum were measured in all subjects. The results indicate that additional nicotine improved both the speed and accuracy of motor activity among the smokers, but did not enhance central cognitive processes. No drug effects were found in the non-smoker study.
Bromundt, Vivien; Frey, Sylvia; Odermatt, Jonas; Cajochen, Christian
We aimed at testing potential effects of extraocular bright light via the ear canals on human evening melatonin levels, sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance performance. Twenty healthy young men and women (10/10) kept a regular sleep-wake cycle during the 2-week study. The volunteers reported to the laboratory on three evenings, 2 h 15 min before usual bedtime, on average at 21:45 h. They were exposed to three different light conditions, each lasting for 12 min: extraocular bright light via the ear canal, ocular bright light as an active control condition and a control condition (extraocular light therapy device with completely blacked out LEDs). The timing of exposure was on average from 22:48 to 23:00 h. During the 2-h protocol, saliva samples were collected in 15-min intervals for melatonin assays along with subjective sleepiness ratings, and the volunteers performed a 10-min visual psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) prior to and after each light condition. The evening melatonin rise was significantly attenuated after the 12-min ocular bright light exposure while no significant changes were observed after the extraocular bright light and sham light condition. Subjective sleepiness decreased immediately over a short period only after ocular light exposure. No significant differences were observed for mean reaction times and the number of lapses for the PVT between the three light conditions. We conclude that extraocular transcranial light exposure in the late evening does not suppress melatonin, reduce subjective sleepiness or improve performance, and therefore, does not acutely influence the human circadian timing system.
Hindmarch, I; Quinlan, P T; Moore, K L; Parkin, C
Nineteen healthy volunteers ingested 400 ml black tea, coffee, caffeinated water, decaffeinated tea or plain water on three occasions through the day (0900, 1400 and 1900 hours). A 2 x 2 factorial design with caffeine (0, 100 mg) and beverage type (water, tea) was employed, with coffee (100 mg caffeine) as a positive internal control, based on a five-way crossover. A psychometric test battery comprising critical flicker fusion (CFF), choice reaction time (CRT), short-term memory (STM) and subjective sedation (LARS) was performed at regular intervals throughout the day, and intensively so immediately following each beverage. Consumption of tea compared to water was associated with transient improvements in performance (CFF) within 10 min of ingestion and was not affected by the time of day. Caffeine ingestion was associated with a rapid (10 min) and persistent reduction in subjective sedation values (LARS), again independent of time of day, but did not acutely alter CFF threshold. Over the whole day, consumption of tea rather than water, and of caffeinated compared to decaffeinated beverages, largely prevented the steady decline in alertness (LARS) and cognitive capacity observed with water ingestion. The effects of tea and coffee were similar on all measures, except that tea consumption was associated with less variation in CFF over the whole day. No significant treatment effects were apparent in the data for the STM. Tea ingestion is associated with rapid increases in alertness and information processing capacity and tea drinking throughout the day largely prevents the diurnal pattern of performance decrements found with the placebo (no caffeine) condition. It appears that the effects of tea and coffee were not entirely due to caffeine per se; other factors either intrinsic to the beverage (e.g. sensory attributes or the presence of other biologically active substances) or of a psychological nature (e.g. expectancy) are likely to play a significant role in
Satterfield, Brieann C; Wisor, Jonathan P; Field, Stephanie A; Schmidt, Michelle A; Van Dongen, Hans P A
Cytokines such as TNFα play an integral role in sleep/wake regulation and have recently been hypothesized to be involved in cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation. We examined the effect of a guanine to adenine substitution at position 308 in the TNFα gene (TNFα G308A) on psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation. A total of 88 healthy women and men (ages 22-40) participated in one of five laboratory total sleep deprivation experiments. Performance on a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was measured every 2-3h. The TNFα 308A allele, which is less common than the 308G allele, was associated with greater resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment during total sleep deprivation (regardless of time of day), and also provided a small performance benefit at baseline. The effect of genotype on resilience persisted when controlling for between-subjects differences in age, gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline sleep duration. The TNFα G308A polymorphism predicted less than 10% of the overall between-subjects variance in performance impairment during sleep deprivation. Nonetheless, the differential effect of the polymorphism at the peak of performance impairment was more than 50% of median performance impairment at that time, which is sizeable compared to the effects of other genotypes reported in the literature. Our findings provided evidence for a role of TNFα in the effects of sleep deprivation on psychomotor vigilance performance. Furthermore, the TNFα G308A polymorphism may have predictive potential in a biomarker panel for the assessment of resilience to psychomotor vigilance performance impairment due to sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J; de Fiebre, Christopher M
Two tests often used in aging research, the elevated path test and the Morris water maze test, were examined for their application to the study of brain aging in a large sample of C57BL/6JNia mice. Specifically, these studies assessed: (1) sensitivity to age and the degree of interrelatedness among different behavioral measures derived from these tests, (2) the effect of age on variation in the measurements, and (3) the reliability of individual differences in performance on the tests. Both tests detected age-related deficits in group performance that occurred independently of each other. However, analysis of data obtained on the Morris water maze test revealed three relatively independent components of cognitive performance. Performance in initial acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris maze was not highly correlated with performance during reversal learning (when mice were required to learn a new spatial location), whereas performance in both of those phases was independent of spatial performance assessed during a single probe trial administered at the end of acquisition training. Moreover, impaired performance during initial acquisition could be detected at an earlier age than impairments in reversal learning. There were modest but significant age-related increases in the variance of both elevated path test scores and in several measures of learning in the Morris maze test. Analysis of test scores of mice across repeated testing sessions confirmed reliability of the measurements obtained for cognitive and psychomotor function. Power calculations confirmed that there are sufficiently large age-related differences in elevated path test performance, relative to within age variability, to render this test useful for studies into the ability of an intervention to prevent or reverse age-related deficits in psychomotor performance. Power calculations indicated a need for larger sample sizes for detection of intervention effects on cognitive components of the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the
Bouquet, C A; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Abraini, J H
Psychomotor deficits are a prominent feature in subjects exposed to hypoxia. Eight subjects exposed to chronic hypoxia during a simulated climb to 8848 m (Everest-Comex 97) were investigated using both a simple psychomotor task (Purdue pegboard) and two complex psychomotor tasks including a recognition task of either a color stimulus (high semantic level) or an abstract sign (low semantic level). Exposure to hypoxic stress mainly produced psychomotor skills learning deficits compared to control study, with greater deficits in the complex psychomotor task. The pattern of results suggests disruptions of motor strategic process. Our data further suggest that the relative strength of implicit or automatic memory processes associated with semantic information processing may increase when disturbances occur in brain functions.
Plate, L.; Smelik, A.M.
This volume pursues a new line of research in cultural memory studies by understanding memory as a performative act in art and popular culture. The authors take their cue from the observation that art and popular culture enact memory and generate processes of memory. They do memory, and in this
Chmura, Jan; Nazar, Krystyna
During aerobic exercise with increasing intensities choice reaction time (CRT) progressively shortens up to 60-80% of maximal workload, and then it rapidly increases. The aim of this study was to determine whether workload associated with the shortest CRT operationally called "the psychomotor fatigue threshold" is related to the metabolic response to exercise. Thirteen male soccer players (aged 23.3 + or - 1.0 yrs) participated in this study. Before and after 6 weeks of training in the pre-competition period they underwent treadmill test at 0 grade with running speed increasing every 3 min by 2 km/h starting from 6 km/h until exhaustion. At each stage of exercise CRT, heart rate, respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate [LA] were measured and the workload corresponding to [LA] of 4 mmol/l (OBLA) was recorded. After training, CRT was significantly shortened at rest (from m + or - SEM = 345 + or - 12 to 317 + or - 12 ms) and during exercise (from 304 + or - 10 to 285 + or - 11 ms at the psychomotor fatigue threshold and from 359 + or - 13 to 331 + or - 13 ms, pchanges in OBLA occurring during training and those in psychomotor fatigue threshold (r = 0.88). It is concluded that endurance training not only increases exercise tolerance due to its influence on metabolism but also facilitates psychomotor performance during heavy exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McBride, Helena; And Others
The development of a simulation technique to evaluate performance of psychomotor skills in an undergraduate nursing program is described. This method is used as one admission requirement to an alternate route nursing program. With modifications, any health profession could use this technique where psychomotor skills performance is important.…
Levén, Anna; Lyxell, Björn; Andersson, Jan; Danielsson, Henrik; Rönnberg, Jerker
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between prospective memory, working memory, retrospective memory and self-rated memory capacity in adults with and without intellectual disability. Prospective memory was investigated by means of a picture-based task. Working memory was measured as performance on span tasks. Retrospective memory was scored as recall of subject performed tasks. Self-ratings of memory performance were based on the prospective and retrospective mem...
Wingen, Marleen; Bothmer, John; Langer, Stefan; Ramaekers, Johannes G
The effects of escitalopram 10 to 20 mg/day and mirtazapine 30 to 45 mg/day on actual driving and psychomotor performance of 18 healthy subjects were determined in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, 3-way crossover trial. Each treatment period lasted for 15 days and was separated from the next period by a washout period of at least 13 days. Subjects received an evening dose of escitalopram 10 mg, mirtazapine 30 mg, or placebo from days 1 to 7 and an evening dose of escitalopram 20 mg, mirtazapine 45 mg, or placebo from days 8 to 15. On days 2, 9, and 16, reflecting acute period, dose increase, and steady state, respectively, the Road Tracking Test was performed. The main parameter was standard deviation of lateral position. Psychomotor performance was also assessed on days 2, 9, and 16 by laboratory computer tasks. Subjective sleep quality was measured with the Groninger Sleep Quality Scale, and mood was measured by visual analogue scales. Treatment differences were apparent during the acute treatment period, in which subjects treated with mirtazapine 30 mg performed less well on the driving test as compared to placebo. The Divided Attention Task results also revealed a significant increase in tracking error after a single dose of mirtazapine 30 mg as compared to placebo. Mirtazapine decreased feelings of alertness and contentedness. Mirtazapine did not affect performance on days 9 and 16 of treatment. Escitalopram did not affect driving, psychomotor performance, or subjective mood throughout treatment. Driving performance, as well as psychomotor functioning, was not affected by escitalopram treatment in healthy subjects. Driving performance was significantly impaired after ingestion of mirtazapine 30 mg during the acute treatment period.
Heatherley, Susan V; Hayward, Robert C; Seers, Helen E; Rogers, Peter J
Many studies have found that caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence improves cognitive performance and mood. Much less is known, however, about the effects of caffeine after shorter periods of caffeine abstinence. The aim of this study was to measure the effects on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, hand steadiness, blood pressure and heart rate of caffeine administration after periods of 4, 6, and 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Participants (n = 49, 27 female) were moderate to moderate-high caffeine consumers (mean daily intake 370 mg/day). Following overnight caffeine abstinence, a 'pre-dose' of caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered at 9 A.M, 11 A.M or 1 P.M. The participants started a baseline battery of measurements at 4 P.M.: before receiving caffeine (1.2 mg/kg) or placebo at 5 P.M.: They then performed the battery of tests again, starting at 5:30 P.M. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study. Performance and mood measurements confirmed a psychostimulant action of caffeine (versus placebo), but only after 8 h of caffeine abstinence. Caffeine also increased blood pressure after 8-h abstinence, whereas hand steadiness was decreased and perception of task demand was increased by caffeine after 4 h, but not after 6- and 8-h abstinence. A second cup-of-coffee equivalent dose of caffeine only reliably affected cognitive performance and mood after an 8-h interval between doses, but not after shorter intervals (when caffeine had some adverse effects). These results show that, apart from caffeine consumption soon after waking, the daily pattern of caffeine intake of many typical caffeine consumers is not well explained by the short-term psychostimulant effects of caffeine.
DeBourgh, Gregory A; Prion, Susan K
Background Essential nursing skills for safe practice are not limited to technical skills, but include abilities for determining salience among clinical data within dynamic practice environments, demonstrating clinical judgment and reasoning, problem-solving abilities, and teamwork competence. Effective instructional methods are needed to prepare new nurses for entry-to-practice in contemporary healthcare settings. Method This mixed-methods descriptive study explored self-reported perceptions of a process to self-record videos for psychomotor skill performance evaluation in a convenience sample of 102 pre-licensure students. Results Students reported gains in confidence and skill acquisition using team skills to record individual videos of skill performance, and described the importance of teamwork, peer support, and deliberate practice. Conclusion Although time consuming, the production of student-directed video validations of psychomotor skill performance is an authentic task with meaningful accountabilities that is well-received by students as an effective, satisfying learner experience to increase confidence and competence in performing psychomotor skills.
Survival training combined with sleep deprivation mostly affected peripheral factors depending on strong action from both muscles and nervous system, whereas complex tasks involving short-term central alertness and moderate exertion were maintained. In order to improve performance, more endurance strength training, if possible combined with sleep deprivation, should be introduced in military training.
Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras
The physiological, cognitive state, and motor behavior changes that occur during acute fasting are not completely understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the effect of 2-day total fasting on evoked stress, mood, brain activity, and cognitive, psychomotor, and motor function in overweight women. Eleven overweight women (body mass index above 25kg/m 2 ) aged 20-30 years were tested under two conditions allocated randomly: 2-day zero-calorie diet with water provided ad libitum and 2-day usual diet. One week before the experiment, aerobic fitness was evaluated. Subjective stress ratings in relation to the diet, autonomic function, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive performance, psychomotor coordination, and grip strength were evaluated before and after each diet. The study demonstrated that fasting decreased log-transformed high-frequency (HF) power, without affecting heart rate. The relative maximum oxygen uptake was negatively correlated with subjective stress rating and changes in log-transformed HF. Fasting did not affect mood, brain activity, and cognitive, motor, and psychomotor performance. Thus, 2-day total fasting evoked moderate stress with a shift of the autonomic nervous system balance toward sympathetic activity in overweight women. Better aerobic endurance is likely to facilitate the capacity for dealing with acute fasting. Regardless of the evoked stress, cognitive state and motor behavior remained intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rhesus monkeys were trained to complete three multiple schedules. The schedules consisted of three components: a fixed interval (component 1), a variable interval (component 2), and a fixed ratio (component 3). During components 1 and 2, pressing lever 1 was always reinforced by food delivery. During component 3, pressing lever 2 resulted in either food delivery or intravenous infusions of saline solution, solutions of cocaine, of d-amphetamine, of phenmetrazine, or fenetylline. In schedule I, animals were presented with all three components independent of key-pressing behavior during components 1 and 2. In schedule II the availability of component 2 was dependent on completion of component 1. Component 3 was made available only on completion of component 2. Noncompletion of components 1 or 2 resulted in time-out of 15 and 10 min, respectively. Schedule III was identical with schedule II, except that in schedule III the completion of components was indicated only by a change in the lever lights. The influence of self-administered drugs on behavior in all three components was evaluated. Self-administration of psychomotor stimulants impaired the performance of animals and delayed completion of components 1 and 2 of schedules I, II, and III. The effects on behavior were similar with low drug intake in schedule III, moderate intake in schedule II, and high drug intake in schedule I. These effects were strong with self-administration of phenmetrazine, moderate with self-administration of cocaine and d-amphetamine, and weak with self-administration of fenetylline.
Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B
Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.
Full Text Available Purpose: to identify indicators of development of psychomotor function deaf children aged 7-10 years and find out the characteristic features of their manifestation. Material : the study involved 242 children aged 7-10 years, 128 of them deaf. Results : psychomotor development indicators defined functions deaf children aged 7-10 years. A comparative analysis with indicators of their peers with hearing preservation. Lagging indicators revealed psychomotor function deaf children ( ability to regulate spatio-temporal parameters and dynamic movements, orientation in space, coordination movements, the ability to preserve static and dynamic balance, motor memory, a sense of rhythm, the ability to arbitrarily relax muscles, hands and coordination micromovements fingers capable of simultaneously performing movements coordination ballistic movements averaging 14.6 % to 60.6 %. Conclusions : It was found that deaf children of primary school age the development of psychomotor function occurs more slowly compared with hearing children their age.
Van Bergen, Saskia; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald
The relationship between subjective memory beliefs and suggestibility, compliance, false memories, and objective memory performance was studied in a community sample of young and middle-aged people (N = 142). We hypothesized that people with subjective memory problems would exhibit higher suggestibility and compliance levels and would be more susceptible to false recollections than those who are optimistic about their memory. In addition, we expected a discrepancy between subjective memory judgments and objective memory performance. We found that subjective memory judgments correlated significantly with compliance, with more negative memory judgments accompanying higher levels of compliance. Contrary to our expectation, subjective memory problems did not correlate with suggestibility or false recollections. Furthermore, participants were accurate in estimating their objective memory performance.
Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich
Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Esther Yuet Ying Lau
Full Text Available The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40 or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40 between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that "sleep gain" during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression, which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits, this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy.
Lau, Kristy Nga Ting; Hui, Florence Wai Ying; Tseng, Chia-huei
The main objective was to study the impact of a daytime sleep opportunity on working memory and the mechanism behind such impact. This study adopted an experimental design in a sleep research laboratory. Eighty healthy college students (Age:17-23, 36 males) were randomized to either have a polysomnography-monitored daytime sleep opportunity (Nap-group, n=40) or stay awake (Wake-group, n=40) between the two assessment sessions. All participants completed a sleep diary and wore an actigraph-watch for 5 days before and one day after the assessment sessions. They completed the state-measurement of sleepiness and affect, in addition to a psychomotor vigilance test and a working memory task before and after the nap/wake sessions. The two groups did not differ in their sleep characteristics prior to and after the lab visit. The Nap-group had higher accuracy on the working memory task, fewer lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test and lower state-sleepiness than the Wake-group. Within the Nap-group, working memory accuracy was positively correlated with duration of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and total sleep time during the nap. Our findings suggested that “sleep gain” during a daytime sleep opportunity had significant positive impact on working memory performance, without affecting subsequent nighttime sleep in young adult, and such impact was associated with the duration of REM. While REM abnormality has long been noted in pathological conditions (e.g. depression), which are also presented with cognitive dysfunctions (e.g. working memory deficits), this was the first evidence showing working memory enhancement associated with REM in daytime napping in college students, who likely had habitual short sleep duration but were otherwise generally healthy. PMID:25970511
Houthoofd, Sofie A M K; Morrens, Manuel; Sabbe, Bernard G C
functioning), although the results for verbal fluency, verbal learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving were not unanimous, and no comparative data on social cognition were available. Similar cognitive effects were found with risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine on the domains of verbal working memory and reasoning and problem solving, as well as verbal fluency. More research is needed on the domains in which study results were contradictory. For olanzapine versus risperidone, these were verbal and visual learning and memory and psychomotor functioning. No comparative data for olanzapine and risperidone were available for the social cognition domain. For quetiapine versus risperidone, the domains in which no unanimity was found were processing speed, attention/vigilance, nonverbal working memory, and verbal learning and memory. The limited available reports on risperidone versus clozapine suggest that: risperidone was associated with improved, and clozapine with worsened, performance on the nonverbal working memory domain; risperidone improved and clozapine did not improve reasoning and problem-solving performance; clozapine improved, and risperidone did not improve, social cognition performance. Use of long-acting injectable risperidone seemed to be associated with improved performance in the domains of attention/vigilance, verbal learning and memory, and reasoning and problem solving, as well as psychomotor functioning. The results for the nonverbal working memory domain were indeterminate, and no clear improvement was seen in the social cognition domain. The domains of processing speed, verbal working memory, and visual learning and memory, as well as verbal fluency, were not assessed. The results of this review of within-group comparisons of oral risperidone suggest that the agent appeared to be associated with improved functioning in the cognitive domains of processing speed, attention/vigilance, verbal and visual learning and memory, and reasoning and
Mailis-Gagnon, Angela; Lakha, Shehnaz Fatima; Furlan, Andrea; Nicholson, Keith; Yegneswaran, Balaji; Sabatowski, Rainer
The effect of opioids on driving performance has been much debated. Driving is a complex task requiring integration of psychomotor, cognitive, motor and decision-making skills, visual-spatial abilities, divided attention, and behavioral and emotional control. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the quality of studies and to revisit the concept that patients on stable opioids are safe to drive as it applies to everyday practice. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PSYCinfo, CENTRAL, TRANSPORT, CINAHL, reference lists of retrieved articles and narrative reviews, for studies on chronic cancer and noncancer pain patients on opioids, tested by driving, driving simulator, or cognitive/psychomotor tests. Methodological quality was assessed with Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies, cognitive/psychomotor tests were appraised regarding their sensitivity and validation, and whether confounding variables potentially affecting the study conclusions were recorded. The results were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. We included 35 studies (2044 patients, 1994 controls), 9% of the studies were of poor, 54% of fair, and 37% of high quality; 3 quarters of the studies used high sensitivity cognitive tests. Amount and dose of opioids varied largely in many studies. Mean number of possible but unreported confounders was 2.2 (range, 0 to 4), relating to failure of the studies to mention co-prescriptions with psychotropic effects, pain severity, sleep disorder or daytime somnolence, and/or significant depressive or anxiety-related problems. The commonly held concept that "chronic pain patients on stable opioids are safe to drive" cannot be generalized to all such patients in everyday practice, but may be applicable only to a subset who meet certain criteria.
Schwope, David M; Bosker, Wendy M; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A
Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the illicit drug most frequently observed in accident and driving under the influence of drugs investigations. Whole blood is often the only available specimen collected during such investigations, yet few studies have examined relationships between cannabis effects and whole blood concentrations following cannabis smoking. Nine male and one female heavy, chronic cannabis smokers resided on a closed research unit and smoked ad libitum one 6.8% THC cannabis cigarette. THC, 11-hydroxy-THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in whole blood and plasma. Assessments were performed before and up to 6 h after smoking, including subjective [visual analog scales (VAS) and Likert scales], physiological (heart rate, blood pressure and respirations) and psychomotor (critical-tracking and divided-attention tasks) measures. THC significantly increased VAS responses and heart rate, with concentration-effect curves demonstrating counter-clockwise hysteresis. No significant differences were observed for critical-tracking or divided-attention task performance in this cohort of heavy, chronic cannabis smokers. The cannabis influence factor was not suitable for quantifying psychomotor impairment following cannabis consumption and was not precise enough to determine recent cannabis use with accuracy. These data inform our understanding of impairment and subjective effects following acute smoked cannabis and interpretation of whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in forensic investigations.
The nature of psychomotor skills and their relationship to academic achievement and positive self concept are discussed. Illustrations of program implementation and instructor preparation in several schools are presented. (RW)
Jokinen, Hanna; Frederiksen, Kristian S; Garde, Ellen
in a compound measure of cognitive speed and motor control, but not in those of executive functions, memory, or global cognitive function. Total CC area and midbody remained significant predictors of speed also after adjusting for baseline WML volume, WML progression, and global brain atrophy. However......, the relationship between anterior CC and speed performance was mediated by WML volume. In conclusion, the overall and regional rate of CC tissue loss parallels longitudinal slowing of psychomotor performance. The adverse effect of CC tissue loss on psychomotor function may be driven by altered interhemispheric...
Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Dozsa, Gabor [Ardsley, NY; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN
Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation using shared memory that include: receiving, by at least one of a plurality of processing cores on a compute node, an instruction to perform an allreduce operation; establishing, by the core that received the instruction, a job status object for specifying a plurality of shared memory allreduce work units, the plurality of shared memory allreduce work units together performing the allreduce operation on the compute node; determining, by an available core on the compute node, a next shared memory allreduce work unit in the job status object; and performing, by that available core on the compute node, that next shared memory allreduce work unit.
Mühleisen, H.; Gonçalves, R.; Kersten, M.; Johnson, R.; Kemper, A.
Many database systems share a need for large amounts of fast storage. However, economies of scale limit the utility of extending a single machine with an arbitrary amount of memory. The recent broad availability of the zero-copy data transfer protocol RDMA over low-latency and high-throughput
Simmons, Ellen Stephanie
Investigates effects of method of presentation and structure on secondary student's acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills in teaching use of the compound microscope. Psychomotor skills and knowledge acquisitions were both found to be directly related to high structure and separated presentations. (SL)
Full Text Available Introduction: The present post-eventual research study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the memory performance between two distinct groups of 50 healthy children and 50 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children (25 girls and 25 boys in Tehran with an age range of 10-12.Methods.The whole students were selected through simple random sampling method and were assessed in children's medical center, the Clinic of Roozbeh Hospital, and Tehran's Andishe primary school (both girls' and boys' branches. The applied tools for data gathering were the Benton test and Wechsler memory sub-test (form A.Results:The results showed a significant difference between Benton test scores and Wechsler memory sub-test scores (i.e. personal and general information, orientation, mind control, logical memory, repeating numbers straightly or reversely, learning and memory among healthy children and those with ADHD.Discussion:memory performance in children with ADHD was weaker than healthy children. In general, with regard to the memory deficit and attention disorder, these patients require both memory and attention rehabilitation for a better quality of l
Full Text Available Introduction: The present post-eventual research study was conducted with the purpose of comparing the memory performance between two distinct groups of 50 healthy children and 50 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children (25 girls and 25 boys in Tehran with an age range of 10-12. Methods: The whole students were selected through simple random sampling method and were assessed in children's medical center, the Clinic of Roozbeh Hospital, and Tehran's Andishe primary school (both girls' and boys' branches. The applied tools for data gathering were the Benton test and Wechsler memory sub-test (form A. Results: The results showed a significant difference between Benton test scores and Wechsler memory sub-test scores (i.e. personal and general information, orientation, mind control, logical memory, repeating numbers straightly or reversely, learning and memory among healthy children and those with ADHD. Discussion: memory performance in children with ADHD was weaker than healthy children. In general, with regard to the memory deficit and attention disorder, these patients require both memory and attention rehabilitation for a better quality of life.
Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain
This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.
Irene Joy I. dela Peña
Conclusion: VG, like other ginseng products, has significant and potentially useful psychopharmacological effects. This includes, but is not limited to, psychomotor stimulation, anxiolytic, antistress, and memory enhancing effects.
Colom, Roberto; Martinez-Molina, Agustin; Shih, Pei Chun; Santacreu, Jose
Multitasking performance is relevant in everyday life and job analyses highlight the influence of multitasking over several diverse occupations. Intelligence is the best single predictor of overall job performance and it is also related to individual differences in multitasking. However, it has been shown that working memory capacity (WMC) is…
Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Chauchard, Emeline; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive constituent in cannabis, impairs psychomotor performance, cognition and driving ability; thus, driving under the influence of cannabis is a public safety concern. We documented cannabis' psychomotor, neurocognitive, subjective and physiological effects in occasional and frequent smokers to investigate potential differences between these smokers. Fourteen frequent (≥4x/week) and 11 occasional (cannabis smokers entered a secure research unit ∼19 h prior to smoking one 6.8% THC cigarette. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated with the critical tracking (CTT), divided attention (DAT), n-back (working memory) and Balloon Analog Risk (BART) (risk-taking) tasks at -1.75, 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 and 22.5 h after starting smoking. GLM (General Linear Model) repeated measures ANOVA was utilized to compare scores. Occasional smokers had significantly more difficulty compensating for CTT tracking error compared with frequent smokers 1.5 h after smoking. Divided attention performance declined significantly especially in occasional smokers, with session × group effects for tracking error, hits, false alarms and reaction time. Cannabis smoking did not elicit session × group effects on the n-back or BART. Controlled cannabis smoking impaired psychomotor function, more so in occasional smokers, suggesting some tolerance to psychomotor impairment in frequent users. These data have implications for cannabis-associated impairment in driving under the influence of cannabis cases. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Marín Ezpeleta, Rakel; Daniel, Henry
Project Barca’s central research question – how can embodied personal and collective memories be shaped into new architectures of identityand belonging in the form of innovative performance works that speak to wider sections of society? – has so far generated a number of mixed-media performance outcomes in its two research locations; Barcelona, Catalonia, and Vancouver, Canada. Some major works are the video essay Encounters 3; Barca-El otro lado – a performance work that utilizes dancers, ac...
McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I
The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Larsen, Per; Ladelsky, Razya
their code to allow for aggressive optimization. In this paper, we extend it to support high level memory optimizations such as matrix reorganization. We evaluate the tool using two benchmarks and four dierent compilers. We show that it can guide the programmer to 22.9% higher performance....
Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers. Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol. Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.
Joyce Carvalho Silvério
Full Text Available The psychomotor is a multidisciplinary science that incorporates motor, affective and cognitive aspects. This study aimed to measure the psychomotor skills to see if the results are within the expected for the age group studied and investigate whether there are differences between the performance of boys and girls. 91 children participated in this research. 59.3% were boys (M = 7.16 years, SD = 0.37 of the 2nd year of elementary school in a public school in the state of Minas Gerais-Brasil. The results of psychomotor tests of Oliveira (2014 indicated that the profile of children was within the expected range, according to the stages of development of psychomotor skills. The only statistically significant difference between the sexes appeared in the psychomotor skills "body schema", with higher average of children. It is suggested that more studies will be developed with children of different types of institutions to confront these findings.
Perez, Lori A.; Peynircioglu, Zehra F.; Blaxton, Teresa A.
Compared perceptual and conceptual implicit and explicit memory performance of preschool, elementary, and college students. Found that conceptual explicit memory improved with age. Perceptual explicit memory and implicit memory showed no developmental change. Perceptual processing during study led to better performance than conceptual processing…
Skodzik, Timo; Holling, Heinz; Pedersen, Anya
Memory problems are a frequently reported symptom in adult ADHD, and it is well-documented that adults with ADHD perform poorly on long-term memory tests. However, the cause of this effect is still controversial. The present meta-analysis examined underlying mechanisms that may lead to long-term memory impairments in adult ADHD. We performed separate meta-analyses of measures of memory acquisition and long-term memory using both verbal and visual memory tests. In addition, the influence of potential moderator variables was examined. Adults with ADHD performed significantly worse than controls on verbal but not on visual long-term memory and memory acquisition subtests. The long-term memory deficit was strongly statistically related to the memory acquisition deficit. In contrast, no retrieval problems were observable. Our results suggest that memory deficits in adult ADHD reflect a learning deficit induced at the stage of encoding. Implications for clinical and research settings are presented.
Lindström, Björn R; Bohlin, Gunilla
The effect of emotional stimulus content on working memory performance has been investigated with conflicting results, as both emotion-dependent facilitation and impairments are reported in the literature. To clarify this issue, 52 adult participants performed a modified visual 2-back task with highly arousing positive stimuli (sexual scenes), highly arousing negative stimuli (violent death) and low-arousal neutral stimuli. Emotional stimulus processing was found to facilitate task performance relative to that of neutral stimuli, both in regards to response accuracy and reaction times. No emotion-dependent differences in false-alarm rates were found. These results indicate that emotional information can have a facilitating effect on working memory maintenance and processing of information.
Ashcraft, Mark H; Krause, Jeremy A
The cognitive literature now shows how critically math performance depends on working memory, for any form of arithmetic and math that involves processes beyond simple memory retrieval. The psychometric literature is also very clear on the global consequences of mathematics anxiety. People who are highly math anxious avoid math: They avoid elective coursework in math, both in high school and college, they avoid college majors that emphasize math, and they avoid career paths that involve math. We go beyond these psychometric relationships to examine the cognitive consequences of math anxiety. We show how performance on a standardized math achievement test varies as a function of math anxiety, and that math anxiety compromises the functioning of working memory. High math anxiety works much like a dual task setting: Preoccupation with one's math fears and anxieties functions like a resource-demanding secondary task. We comment on developmental and educational factors related to math and working memory, and on factors that may contribute to the development of math anxiety.
Makam, Ramesh; Rajan, C S; Brendon, Tulip; Shreedhar, V; Saleem, K; Shrivastava, Sangeeta; Sudarshan, R; Naidu, Prakash
In this article, we present the results of a pilot study that examined the performance of people training on a Virtual Reality based BEST-IRIS Laparoscopic Surgery Training Simulator. The performance of experienced surgeons was examined and compared to the performance of residents. The purpose of this study is to validate the BEST-IRIS training simulator. It appeared to be a useful training and assessment tool.
W77-Mar78 and Vibratory Environments: Annotated Biblia - 4.-EFRIGOO EOT*_1 graphies and Integrative Review. I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMSER(a) David J...Papers In the third phase of the effort, the final version of the three speciai-environrneni performance battery bibliographies was corriiled and the...performance at much lower pressu. (e.g. 3 to 4 ATA when nitrogen is involved). The following sections will integrate the available liter - ature on the effects
Olson, Valerie Dong
Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…
Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo
In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Cocchini, Gianna; Logie, Robert H; Della Sala, Sergio; MacPherson, Sarah E; Baddeley, Alan D
Previous studies of dual-task coordination in working memory have shown a lack of dual-task interference when a verbal memory task is combined with concurrent perceptuomotor tracking. Two experiments are reported in which participants were required to perform pairwise combinations of (1) a verbal memory task, a visual memory task, and perceptuomotor tracking (Experiment 1), and (2) pairwise combinations of the two memory tasks and articulatory suppression (Experiment 2). Tracking resulted in no disruption of the verbal memory preload over and above the impact of a delay in recall and showed only minimal disruption of the retention of the visual memory load. Performing an ongoing verbal memory task had virtually no impact on retention of a visual memory preload or vice versa, indicating that performing two demanding memory tasks results in little mutual interference. Experiment 2 also showed minimal disruption when the two memory tasks were combined, although verbal memory (but not visual memory) was clearly disrupted by articulatory suppression interpolated between presentation and recall. These data suggest that a multiple-component working memory model provides a better account for performance in concurrent immediate memory tasks than do theories that assume a single processing and storage system or a limited-capacity attentional system coupled with activated memory traces.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rhesus-positive and rhesus-negative persons differ in the presence-absence of highly immunogenic RhD protein on the erythrocyte membrane. This protein is a component of NH(3 or CO(2 pump whose physiological role is unknown. Several recent studies have shown that RhD positivity protects against effects of latent toxoplasmosis on motor performance and personality. It is not known, however, whether the RhD phenotype modifies exclusively the response of the body to toxoplasmosis or whether it also influences effects of other factors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present cohort study, we searched for the effects of age and smoking on performance, intelligence, personality and self-estimated health and wellness in about 3800 draftees. We found that the positive effect of age on performance and intelligence was stronger in RhD-positive soldiers, while the negative effect of smoking on performance and intelligence was of similar size regardless of the RhD phenotype. The effect of age on four Cattell's personality factors, i.e., dominance (E, radicalism (Q(1, self-sentiment integration (Q(3, and ergic tension (Q(4, and on Cloninger's factor reward dependency (RD was stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects, while the effect of smoking on the number of viral and bacterial diseases was about three times stronger for RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. CONCLUSIONS: RhD phenotype modulates the influence not only of latent toxoplasmosis, but also of at least two other potentially detrimental factors, age and smoking, on human behavior and physiology. The negative effect of smoking on health (estimated on the basis of the self-rated number of common viral and bacterial diseases in the past year was much stronger in RhD-negative than RhD-positive subjects. It is critically needed to confirm the differences in health response to smoking between RhD-positive and RhD-negative subjects by objective medical examination in
Corbal San Adrián, Jesús; Espasa Sans, Roger; Valero Cortés, Mateo
The focus of this paper is on designing both a low cost and high performance, high bandwidth vector memory system that takes advantage of modern commodity SDRAM memory chips. To successfully extract the full bandwidth from SDRAM parts, we propose a new memory system organization based on sending commands to the memory system as opposed to sending individual addresses. A command specifies, in a few bytes, a request for multiple independent memory words. A command is similar to a burst found in...
Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah; Mustafar, Muhammad Faiz
Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can colour result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between co...
Connell, Charlotte J. W.; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention—a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function. PMID:27768747
Charlotte J W Connell
Full Text Available Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.
Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Kuhn, Gustav; Gant, Nicholas
Fatigue resulting from strenuous exercise can impair cognition and oculomotor control. These impairments can be prevented by administering psychostimulants such as caffeine. This study used two experiments to explore the influence of caffeine administered at rest and during fatiguing physical exercise on spatial attention-a cognitive function that is crucial for task-based visually guided behavior. In independent placebo-controlled studies, cohorts of 12 healthy participants consumed caffeine and rested or completed 180 min of stationary cycling. Covert attentional orienting was measured in both experiments using a spatial cueing paradigm. We observed no alterations in attentional facilitation toward spatial cues suggesting that covert attentional orienting is not influenced by exercise fatigue or caffeine supplementation. Response times were increased (impaired) after exercise and this deterioration was prevented by caffeine supplementation. In the resting experiment, response times across all conditions and cues were decreased (improved) with caffeine. Covert spatial attention was not influenced by caffeine. Together, the results of these experiments suggest that covert attentional orienting is robust to the effects of fatiguing exercise and not influenced by caffeine. However, exercise fatigue impairs response times, which can be prevented by caffeine, suggesting that pre-motor planning and execution of the motor responses required for performance of the cueing task are sensitive to central nervous system fatigue. Caffeine improves response time in both fatigued and fresh conditions, most likely through action on networks controlling motor function.
Dzulkifli, Mariam Adawiah; Mustafar, Muhammad Faiz
Human cognition involves many mental processes that are highly interrelated, such as perception, attention, memory, and thinking. An important and core cognitive process is memory, which is commonly associated with the storing and remembering of environmental information. An interesting issue in memory research is on ways to enhance memory performance, and thus, remembering of information. Can colour result in improved memory abilities? The present paper highlights the relationship between colours, attention, and memory performance. The significance of colour in different settings is presented first, followed by a description on the nature of human memory. The role of attention and emotional arousal on memory performance is discussed next. The review of several studies on colours and memory are meant to explain some empirical works done in the area and related issues that arise from such studies.
Full Text Available Owing to a similar cerebral neuro-anatomy, non-human primates are viewed as the most valid models for understanding cognitive deficits. This study evaluated psychomotor and mnesic functions of 41 young to old mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus. Psychomotor capacities and anxiety-related behaviors decreased abruptly from middle to late adulthood. However, Mnesic functions were not affected in the same way with increasing age. While results of the spontaneous alternation task point to a progressive and widespread age-related decline of spatial working memory, both spatial reference and novel object recognition memory tasks did not reveal any tendency due to large inter-individual variability in the middle-aged and old animals. Indeed, some of the aged animals performed as well as younger ones, whereas some others had bad performances in the Barnes maze and in the object recognition test. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that declarative-like memory was strongly impaired only in 7 out of 25 middle-aged/old animals. These results suggest that this analysis allows to distinguish elder populations of good and bad performers in this non-human primate model and to closely compare this to human aging.
Hultsch, D. F.; And Others
This article reviews two questionnaires designed to measure people's perceptions of their own memories and identifies several research questions requiring further study. Results show that, in general, memory perceptions appear to be multidimensional and involve belief and affective components as well as knowledge components. (CT)
Siedlecki, Karen L
Visual perspective in autobiographical memories was examined in terms of reliability, consistency, and relationship to objective memory performance in a sample of 99 individuals. Autobiographical memories may be recalled from two visual perspectives--a field perspective in which individuals experience the memory through their own eyes, or an observer perspective in which individuals experience the memory from the viewpoint of an observer in which they can see themselves. Participants recalled nine word-cued memories that differed in emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) and rated their memories on 18 scales. Results indicate that visual perspective was the most reliable memory characteristic overall and is consistently related to emotional intensity at the time of recall and amount of emotion experienced during the memory. Visual perspective is unrelated to memory for words, stories, abstract line drawings or faces.
... of a chronic mental disorder associated with psychomotor epilepsy, like those of the seizures, are... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...
Richter, Kim Merle; Mödden, Claudia; Eling, Paul; Hildebrandt, Helmut
To show the effectiveness of a combined recognition and working memory training on everyday memory performance in patients suffering from organic memory disorders. In this double-blind, randomized controlled Study 36 patients with organic memory impairments, mainly attributable to stroke, were assigned to either the experimental or the active control group. In the experimental group a working memory training was combined with a recollection training based on the repetition-lag procedure. Patients in the active control group received the memory therapy usually provided in the rehabilitation center. Both groups received nine hours of therapy. Prior (T0) and subsequent (T1) to the therapy, patients were evaluated on an everyday memory test (EMT) as well as on a neuropsychological test battery. Based on factor analysis of the neuropsychological test scores at T0 we calculated composite scores for working memory, verbal learning and word fluency. After treatment, the intervention group showed a significantly greater improvement for WM performance compared with the active control group. More importantly, performance on the EMT also improved significantly in patients receiving the recollection and working memory training compared with patients with standard memory training. Our results show that combining working memory and recollection training significantly improves performance on everyday memory tasks, demonstrating far transfer effects. The present study argues in favor of a process-based approach for treating memory impairments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse. Chronic use is associated with adverse effects including psychosis, seizures, and cerebrovascular accidents, though these complications usually occur in individuals with preexisting risk factors. This chapter reviews the adverse neurologic consequences of chronic psychomotor stimulant use and abuse, with a focus on two prototypical stimulants methamphetamine and cocaine. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The subject of this book is to introduce a model-based quantitative performance indicator methodology applicable for performance, cost and reliability optimization of non-volatile memories. The complex example of flash memories is used to introduce and apply the methodology. It has been developed by the author based on an industrial 2-bit to 4-bit per cell flash development project. For the first time, design and cost aspects of 3D integration of flash memory are treated in this book. Cell, array, performance and reliability effects of flash memories are introduced and analyzed. Key performance parameters are derived to handle the flash complexity. A performance and array memory model is developed and a set of performance indicators characterizing architecture, cost and durability is defined. Flash memories are selected to apply the Performance Indicator Methodology to quantify design and technology innovation. A graphical representation based on trend lines is introduced to support a requirement based pr...
Simon, Elliott W.; And Others
The memory abilities of adults (N=20) with Down Syndrome (DS) were compared to subjects matched on age and IQ and on age alone. Three memory tasks were employed: facial recognition, free recall of pictures and words, and cued recall of separate or interacting pictures. In DS individuals, memory was improved primarily by practice and interactive…
Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Quan, Jeffry; Richmond, Jenny; Goh, Shaun Kok Yew; Sim, Lit Wee; Chong, Yap Seng; Francois-Bureau, Jean; Chen, Helen; Qiu, Anqi
Poor early life care often relates to cognitive difficulties. However, newer work suggests that in early-life, adversity may associate with enhanced or accelerated neurodevelopment. We examine associations between postnatal caregiving risks (i.e., higher self-reported postnatal-anxiety and lower observed maternal sensitivity) and infant relational memory (i.e. via deferred imitation and relational binding). Using subsamples of 67-181 infants (aged 433-477 post-conceptual days, or roughly five to seven months since birth) taking part in the GUSTO study, we found such postnatal caregiving risk significantly predictive of "better" performance on a relational binding task following a brief delay, after Bonferroni adjustments. Subsequent analyses suggest that the association between memory and these risks may specifically be apparent amongst infants spending at least 50% of their waking hours in the presence of their mothers. Our findings echo neuroimaging research concerning similar risk exposure and larger infant hippocampal volume, and likewise underscore the importance of considering developmental context in understanding early life experience. With this in mind, these findings caution against the use of cognitive outcomes as indices of experienced risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gallagher, A G; Richie, K; McClure, N; McGuigan, J
Objective assessment of psychomotor skills in surgery is now a priority; however, this assessment is difficult to achieve because of measurement difficulties associated with the reliability and validity of assessing surgical skills in vivo and in the laboratory. In this study virtual reality (VR) was used to overcome these problems in the objective psychomotor assessment of senior, junior, and novice laparoscopists. Twelve experienced laparoscopic surgeons (performed >50 Minimal Access Surgery (MAS) procedures), 12 inexperienced laparoscopic surgeons (psychomotor skills for laparoscopic surgery.
Hess, Thomas M; Emery, Lisa; Queen, Tara L
Previous research has demonstrated that older adults' memory performance is adversely affected by the explicit activation of negative stereotypes about aging. In this study, we examined the impact of stereotype threat on recognition memory, with specific interest in (a) the generalizability of previously observed effects, (b) the subjective experience of memory, and (c) the moderating effects of task demands. Older participants subjected to threat performed worse than did those in a nonthreat condition but only when performance constraints were high (i.e., memory decisions had to be made within a limited time frame). This effect was reflected in the subjective experience of memory, with participants in this condition having a lower ratio of "remember" to "know" responses. The absence of threat effects when constraints were minimal provides important boundary information regarding stereotype influences on memory performance.
Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with succe...
Kramer, Joel H.; Rosen, Howard J.; Du, An-Tao; Schuff, Norbert; Hollnagel, Caroline; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Delis, Dean C.
The hippocampus and frontal lobes both contribute to episodic memory performance. In the present study, the authors evaluated the relative contributions of hippocampus, frontal lobes, anterior temporal cortex, and posterior cortex to memory performance in neurodegenerative patients and normal older controls. Subjects (n = 42) were studied with structural MRI and a memory paradigm that measured delayed recall, semantic clustering during recall, recognition discriminability, and recognition res...
Determining the worst case memory consumption is an important issue for real-time Java applications. This work describes a methodology for formally verifying worst case memory performance constraints and proposes extensions to Java Modeling Language (JML) facilitating better verifiability of JML performance specifications.
Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W
A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.
Satterfield, David L.; Sexton, James C.
A plurality of processing cores, are central storage unit having at least memory connected in a daisy chain manner, forming a daisy chain ring layout on an integrated chip. At least one of the plurality of processing cores places trace data on the daisy chain connection for transmitting the trace data to the central storage unit, and the central storage unit detects the trace data and stores the trace data in the memory co-located in with the central storage unit.
Full Text Available In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.
Jia, Gangyong; Han, Guangjie; Wang, Hao; Yang, Xuan
In a cloud computing environment, the number of virtual machines (VMs) on a single physical server and the number of applications running on each VM are continuously growing. This has led to an enormous increase in the demand of memory capacity and subsequent increase in the energy consumption in the cloud. Lack of enough memory has become a major bottleneck for scalability and performance of virtualization interfaces in cloud computing. To address this problem, memory deduplication techniques which reduce memory demand through page sharing are being adopted. However, such techniques suffer from overheads in terms of number of online comparisons required for the memory deduplication. In this paper, we propose a static memory deduplication (SMD) technique which can reduce memory capacity requirement and provide performance optimization in cloud computing. The main innovation of SMD is that the process of page detection is performed offline, thus potentially reducing the performance cost, especially in terms of response time. In SMD, page comparisons are restricted to the code segment, which has the highest shared content. Our experimental results show that SMD efficiently reduces memory capacity requirement and improves performance. We demonstrate that, compared to other approaches, the cost in terms of the response time is negligible.
Wolters, G; Prinsen, A
Effects of full and divided attention during study on explicit and implicit memory performance were investigated in two experiments. Study time was manipulated in a third experiment. Experiment 1 showed that both similar and dissociative effects can be found in the two kinds of memory test, depending on the difficulty of the concurrent tasks used in the divided-attention condition. In this experiment, however, standard implicit memory tests were used and contamination by explicit memory influences cannot be ruled out. Therefore, in Experiments 2 and 3 the process dissociation procedure was applied. Manipulations of attention during study and of study time clearly affected the controlled (explicit) memory component, but had no effect on the automatic (implicit) memory component. Theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.
Kirk Warren Brown
Full Text Available Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143, a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93, very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57 extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.
Brown, Kirk Warren; Goodman, Robert J; Ryan, Richard M; Anālayo, Bhikkhu
Training in mindfulness, classically described as a receptive attentiveness to present events and experiences, has been shown to improve attention and working memory. Both are key to long-term memory formation, and the present three-study series used multiple methods to examine whether mindfulness would enhance episodic memory, a key form of long-term memory. In Study 1 (N = 143), a self-reported state of mindful attention predicted better recognition performance in the Remember-Know (R-K) paradigm. In Study 2 (N = 93), very brief training in a focused attention form of mindfulness also produced better recognition memory performance on the R-K task relative to a randomized, well-matched active control condition. Study 3 (N = 57) extended these findings by showing that relative to randomized active and inactive control conditions the effect of very brief mindfulness training generalized to free-recall memory performance. This study also found evidence for mediation of the mindfulness training-episodic memory relation by intrinsic motivation. These findings indicate that mindful attention can beneficially impact motivation and episodic memory, with potential implications for educational and occupational performance.
Wierzba, M; Riegel, M; Wypych, M; Jednoróg, K; Grabowska, A; Marchewka, A
It is widely accepted that people differ in memory performance. The ability to control one's memory depends on multiple factors, including the emotional properties of the memorized material. While it was widely demonstrated that emotion can facilitate memory, it is unclear how emotion modifies our ability to suppress memory. One of the reasons for the lack of consensus among researchers is that individual differences in memory performance were largely neglected in previous studies. We used the directed forgetting paradigm in an fMRI study, in which subjects viewed neutral and emotional words, which they were instructed to remember or to forget. Subsequently, subjects' memory of these words was tested. Finally, they assessed the words on scales of valence, arousal, sadness and fear. We found that memory performance depended on instruction as reflected in the engagement of the lateral prefrontal cortex (lateral PFC), irrespective of emotional properties of words. While the lateral PFC engagement did not differ between neutral and emotional conditions, it correlated with behavioural performance when emotional - as opposed to neutral - words were presented. A deeper understanding of the underlying brain mechanisms is likely to require a study of individual differences in cognitive abilities to suppress memory.
Wu, Nan; Chen, Yulu; Yang, Jinhua; Li, Fei
The present study examined the role of working memory in the association between childhood obesity and academic performance, and further determined whether memory deficits in obese children are domain-specific to certain tasks or domain-general. A total of 227 primary school students aged 10-13 years were analyzed for weight and height, of which 159 children (44 "obese," 23 "overweight," and 92 "normal weight") filled out questionnaires on school performance and socioeconomic status. And then, all subjects finished three kinds of working memory tasks based on the digit memory task in 30 trials, which were image-generated with a series of numbers recall trial sets. After each trial set, subjects were given 5 s to recall and write down the numbers which hand appeared in the trial, in the inverse order in which they had appeared. The results showed there were significant academic performance differences among the three groups, with normal-weight children scoring higher than overweight and obese children after Bonferroni correction. A mediation model revealed a partial indirect effect of working memory in the relationship between obesity and academic performance. Although the performance of obese children in basic working memory tests was poorer than that of normal-weight children, they recalled more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks involving with food/drink. Working memory deficits partially explain the poor academic performance of obese children. Those results indicated the obese children show domain-specific working memory deficits, whereas they recall more items than normal-weight children in working memory tasks associated with food/drink.
Van Swol, Lyn M
To assess performance and processes in collective and individual memory, participants watched two job candidates on video. Beforehand, half the participants were told they would be tested on their memory of the interviews, and the other half were asked to make a decision to hire one of the candidates. Afterwards, participants completed a recognition memory task in either a group or individual condition. Groups had better recognition memory than individuals. Individuals made more false positives than false negatives and groups exaggerated this. Post-hoc analysis found that groups only exaggerated the tendency towards false positives on items that reflected negatively on the job candidate. There was no significant difference between instruction conditions. When reaching consensus on the recognition task, groups tended to choose the correct answer if at least two members had the correct answer. This method of consensus is discussed as a factor in groups' superior memory performance.
Abdullah Talha Kabakus
Full Text Available The popularity of NoSQL databases has increased due to the need of (1 processing vast amount of data faster than the relational database management systems by taking the advantage of highly scalable architecture, (2 flexible (schema-free data structure, and, (3 low latency and high performance. Despite that memory usage is not major criteria to evaluate performance of algorithms, since these databases serve the data from memory, their memory usages are also experimented alongside the time taken to complete each operation in the paper to reveal which one uses the memory most efficiently. Currently there exists over 225 NoSQL databases that provide different features and characteristics. So it is necessary to reveal which one provides better performance for different data operations. In this paper, we experiment the widely used in-memory databases to measure their performance in terms of (1 the time taken to complete operations, and (2 how efficiently they use memory during operations. As per the results reported in this paper, there is no database that provides the best performance for all data operations. It is also proved that even though a RDMS stores its data in memory, its overall performance is worse than NoSQL databases.
Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.
Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.
Adam, Kirsten C S; Robison, Matthew K; Vogel, Edward K
Neural measures of working memory storage, such as the contralateral delay activity (CDA), are powerful tools in working memory research. CDA amplitude is sensitive to working memory load, reaches an asymptote at known behavioral limits, and predicts individual differences in capacity. An open question, however, is whether neural measures of load also track trial-by-trial fluctuations in performance. Here, we used a whole-report working memory task to test the relationship between CDA amplitude and working memory performance. If working memory failures are due to decision-based errors and retrieval failures, CDA amplitude would not differentiate good and poor performance trials when load is held constant. If failures arise during storage, then CDA amplitude should track both working memory load and trial-by-trial performance. As expected, CDA amplitude tracked load (Experiment 1), reaching an asymptote at three items. In Experiment 2, we tracked fluctuations in trial-by-trial performance. CDA amplitude was larger (more negative) for high-performance trials compared with low-performance trials, suggesting that fluctuations in performance were related to the successful storage of items. During working memory failures, participants oriented their attention to the correct side of the screen (lateralized P1) and maintained covert attention to the correct side during the delay period (lateralized alpha power suppression). Despite the preservation of attentional orienting, we found impairments consistent with an executive attention theory of individual differences in working memory capacity; fluctuations in executive control (indexed by pretrial frontal theta power) may be to blame for storage failures.
Chi-Ming A. Chen
Full Text Available A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24 compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7 had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9. However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16 significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.
Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S
A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.
Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Hyett, Jon
Sonographers use psychomotor skills to perform medical ultrasound examinations. Psychomotor skills describe voluntary movements of the limb, joints, and muscles in response to sensory stimuli and are regulated by the motor neural cortex in the brain. We define a psychomotor skill in relation to medical ultrasound imaging as "the unique mental and motor activities required to execute a manual task safely and efficiently for each clinical situation." Skills in clinical ultrasound practice may be open or closed; most skills used in medical ultrasound imaging are open. Open skills are both complex and multidimensional. Visuomotor and visuospatial psychomotor skills are central components of medical ultrasound imaging. Both types of skills rely on learners having a visual exemplar or standard of performance with which to reference their skill performance and evaluate anatomic structures. These are imperative instructional design principles when teaching psychomotor skills. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Riby, Leigh M; Law, Anna S; McLaughlin, Jennifer; Murray, Jennifer
Previous research has found that the ingestion of glucose boosts task performance in the memory domain (including tasks tapping episodic, semantic, and working memory). The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that glucose ingestion would enhance performance on a test of prospective memory. In a between-subjects design, 56 adults ranging from 17 to 80 years of age performed a computerized prospective memory task and an attention (filler) task after 25 g of glucose or a sweetness-matched placebo. Blood glucose measurements were also taken to assess the impact of individual differences on glucose regulation. After the drink containing glucose, cognitive facilitation was observed on the prospective memory task after excluding subjects with impaired fasting glucose level. Specifically, subjects receiving glucose were 19% more accurate than subjects receiving a placebo, a trend that was marginally nonsignificant, F₁,₄₁ = 3.4, P = .07, but that had a medium effect size, d = 0.58. Subjects receiving glucose were also significantly faster on the prospective memory task, F₁,₃₅ = 4.8, P glucose (indicative of poor glucose regulation) was associated with slower prospective memory responding, F₁,₃₅ = 4.4, P memory and executive functioning can benefit from the increased provision of glucose to the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ferreri, Laura; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni
Music represents a special type of reward involving the recruitment of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. According to recent theories on episodic memory formation, as dopamine strengthens the synaptic potentiation produced by learning, stimuli triggering dopamine release could result in long-term memory improvements. Here, we behaviourally test whether music-related reward responses could modulate episodic memory performance. Thirty participants rated (in terms of arousal, familiarity, emotional valence, and reward) and encoded unfamiliar classical music excerpts. Twenty-four hours later, their episodic memory was tested (old/new recognition and remember/know paradigm). Results revealed an influence of music-related reward responses on memory: excerpts rated as more rewarding were significantly better recognized and remembered. Furthermore, inter-individual differences in the ability to experience musical reward, measured through the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire, positively predicted memory performance. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the relationship between music, reward and memory, showing for the first time that music-driven reward responses are directly implicated in higher cognitive functions and can account for individual differences in memory performance.
Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R
The objectives of this study were to determine (a) whether school-age children with typical hearing demonstrate poorer auditory working memory performance in multitalker babble at degraded signal-to-noise ratios than in quiet; and (b) whether the amount of cognitive demand of the task contributed to differences in performance in noise. It was hypothesized that stressing the working memory system with the presence of noise would impede working memory processes in real time and result in poorer working memory performance in degraded conditions. Twenty children with typical hearing between 8 and 10 years old were tested using 4 auditory working memory tasks (Forward Digit Recall, Backward Digit Recall, Listening Recall Primary, and Listening Recall Secondary). Stimuli were from the standardized Working Memory Test Battery for Children. Each task was administered in quiet and in 4-talker babble noise at 0 dB and -5 dB signal-to-noise ratios. Children's auditory working memory performance was systematically decreased in the presence of multitalker babble noise compared with quiet. Differences between low-complexity and high-complexity tasks were observed, with children performing more poorly on tasks with greater storage and processing demands. There was no interaction between noise and complexity of task. All tasks were negatively impacted similarly by the addition of noise. Auditory working memory performance was negatively impacted by the presence of multitalker babble noise. Regardless of complexity of task, noise had a similar effect on performance. These findings suggest that the addition of noise inhibits auditory working memory processes in real time for school-age children.
Singh, Ranjit K; Göritz, Anja S
Ego depletion happens if exerting self-control reduces a person's capacity to subsequently control themselves. Previous research has suggested that ego depletion not only interferes with subsequent self-control but also with working memory. However, recent meta-analytical evidence casts doubt onto this. The present study tackles the question if ego depletion does interfere with working memory performance. We induced ego depletion in two ways: using an e-crossing task and using a Stroop task. We then measured working memory performance using the letter-number sequencing task. There was no evidence of ego depletion interfering with working memory performance. Several aspects of our study render this null finding highly robust. We had a large and heterogeneous sample of N = 1,385, which provided sufficient power. We deployed established depletion tasks from two task families (e-crossing task and Stroop), thus making it less likely that the null finding is due to a specific depletion paradigm. We derived several performance scores from the working memory task and ran different analyses to maximize the chances of finding an effect. Lastly, we controlled for two potential moderators, the implicit theories about willpower and dispositional self-control capacity, to ensure that a possible effect on working memory is not obscured by an interaction effect. In sum, this experiment strengthens the position that ego depletion works but does not affect working memory performance.
Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann
Research to understand variability at the highest end of the cognitive performance distribution has been scarce. Our aim was to define a cognitive endophenotype based on exceptional episodic memory (EM) performance and to investigate familial aggregation of EM in families from the Long Life Family...... Study (LLFS). Using a sample of 1911 nondemented offspring of long-lived probands, we created a quantitative phenotype, EM (memory z ≥ 1.5), and classified LLFS families as EM and non-EM families based on the number of EM offspring. We then assessed differences in memory performance between LLFS...... = 1.4 × 10(-4)). We demonstrated that there is a familial correlation of the EM endophenotype, suggesting that genetic variants might influence memory performance in long-lived families....
Huda S. Muhammad
Full Text Available The gap between CPU and memory speed has always been a critical concern that motivated researchers to study and analyze the performance of memory hierarchical architectures. In the early stages of the design cycle, performance evaluation methodologies can be used to leverage exploration at the architectural level and assist in making early design tradeoffs. In this paper, we use simulation platforms developed using the VisualSim tool to compare the performance of two memory architectures, namely, the Direct Connect architecture of the Opteron, and the Shared Bus of the Xeon multicore processors. Key variations exist between the two memory architectures and both design approaches provide rich platforms that call for the early use of virtual system prototyping and simulation techniques to assess performance at an early stage in the design cycle.
Tomasello, R; Puliafito, V; Martinez, E; Manchon, Aurelien; Ricci, M; Carpentieri, M; Finocchio, G
A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study
Shrestha, Sunil; Su, Chun-Yi; White, Amanda M.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.
In the age of massive parallelism, the focus of performance analysis has switched from the processor and related structures to the memory and I/O resources. Adapting to this new reality, a performance analysis tool has to provide a way to analyze resource usage to pinpoint existing and potential problems in a given application. This paper provides an overview of the Memory Observant Data Analysis (MODA) tool, a memory-centric tool first implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer. Throughout the paper, MODA's capabilities have been showcased with experiments done on matrix multiply and Graph-500 application codes.
Sinitsky, Daniel M; Fernando, Bimbi; Berlingieri, Pasquale
The unique psychomotor skills required in laparoscopy result in reduced patient safety during the early part of the learning curve. Evidence suggests that these may be safely acquired in the virtual reality (VR) environment. Several VR simulators are available, each preloaded with several psychomotor skills tasks that provide users with computer-generated performance metrics. This review aimed to evaluate the usefulness of specific psychomotor skills tasks and metrics, and how trainers might build an effective training curriculum. We performed a comprehensive literature search. The vast majority of VR psychomotor skills tasks show construct validity for one or more metrics. These are commonly for time and motion parameters. Regarding training schedules, distributed practice is preferred over massed practice. However, a degree of supervision may be needed to counter the limitations of VR training. In the future, standardized proficiency scores should facilitate local institutions in establishing VR laparoscopic psychomotor skills curricula. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedrero, Manuel; Gutiérrez, Eladio; Romero, Sergio; Plata, Óscar
Transactional memory (TM) offers optimistic concurrency support in modern multicore archi- tectures, helping the programmers to extract parallelism in irregular applications when data dependence information is not available before runtime. In fact, recent research focus on ex- ploiting thread-level parallelism using TM approaches. However, the proposed techniques are of general use, valid for any type of application. This work presents ReduxSTM, a software TM system specially d...
Landaverde, Raphael; Zhang, Tiansheng; Coskun, Ayse K.; Herbordt, Martin
Managing memory between the CPU and GPU is a major challenge in GPU computing. A programming model, Unified Memory Access (UMA), has been recently introduced by Nvidia to simplify the complexities of memory management while claiming good overall performance. In this paper, we investigate this programming model and evaluate its performance and programming model simplifications based on our experimental results. We find that beyond on-demand data transfers to the CPU, the GPU is also able to request subsets of data it requires on demand. This feature allows UMA to outperform full data transfer methods for certain parallel applications and small data sizes. We also find, however, that for the majority of applications and memory access patterns, the performance overheads associated with UMA are significant, while the simplifications to the programming model restrict flexibility for adding future optimizations. PMID:26594668
Plaks, Jason E; Chasteen, Alison L
The authors examined whether older adults' implicit theories regarding the modifiability of memory in particular (Studies 1 and 3) and abilities in general (Study 2) would predict memory performance. In Study 1, individual differences in older adults' endorsement of the "entity theory" (a belief that one's ability is fixed) or "incremental theory" (a belief that one's ability is malleable) of memory were measured using a version of the Implicit Theories Measure (Dweck, 1999). Memory performance was assessed with a free-recall task. Results indicated that the higher the endorsement of the incremental theory, the better the free recall. In Study 2, older and younger adults' theories were measured using a more general version of the Implicit Theories Measure that focused on the modifiability of abilities in general. Again, for older adults, the higher the incremental endorsement, the better the free recall. Moreover, as predicted, implicit theories did not predict younger adults' memory performance. In Study 3, participants read mock news articles reporting evidence in favor of either the entity or incremental theory. Those in the incremental condition outperformed those in the entity condition on reading span and free-recall tasks. These effects were mediated by pretask worry such that, for those in the entity condition, higher worry was associated with lower performance. Taken together, these studies suggest that variation in entity versus incremental endorsement represents a key predictor of older adults' memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Iuliano, Enzo; Fiorilli, Giovanni; Aquino, Giovanna; Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different types of exercise on memory performance and memory complaint after a 12-week intervention. Eighty community-dwelling volunteers, aged 66.96 ± 11.73 years, were randomly divided into four groups: resistance, cardiovascular, postural, and control groups (20 participants for each group). All participants were tested for their cognitive functions before and after their respective 12-week intervention using Rey memory words test, Prose memory test, and Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q). Statistical analysis showed that the three experimental groups significantly improved MAC-Q scores in comparison with the control group (p memory tests scores were not correlated. These results indicate that the 12-week interventions exclusively influenced memory complaint but not memory performance. Further investigations are needed to understand the relation between memory complaint and memory performance, and the factors that can influence this relationship.
Olivers, Christian N L; Schreij, Daniel
Performance on visual short-term memory for features has been known to depend on stimulus complexity, spatial layout, and feature context. However, with few exceptions, memory capacity has been measured for abruptly appearing, single-instance displays. In everyday life, objects often have a spatiotemporal history as they or the observer move around. In three experiments, we investigated the effect of spatiotemporal history on explicit memory for color. Observers saw a memory display emerge from behind a wall, after which it disappeared again. The test display then emerged from either the same side as the memory display or the opposite side. In the first two experiments, memory improved for intermediate set sizes when the test display emerged in the same way as the memory display. A third experiment then showed that the benefit was tied to the original motion trajectory and not to the display object per se. The results indicate that memory for color is embedded in a richer episodic context that includes the spatiotemporal history of the display.
Armeni, Eleni; Apostolakis, Michail; Christidi, Foteini; Rizos, Demetrios; Kaparos, George; Panoulis, Konstantinos; Augoulea, Areti; Alexandrou, Andreas; Karopoulou, Evangelia; Zalonis, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Lambrinoudaki, Irene
The changing hormonal milieu during the menopausal transition may contribute to the development of memory disorders. We aimed to assess the association of sex hormones with memory function in a sample of Greek middle-aged women. This pilot study included 44 women with subjective memory complaints. Memory performance was evaluated using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT), the Brief Visuospatial Memory test (BVMT), and the verbal digits backwards test (VSPAN), to assess verbal, visuospatial, and working memory performance, respectively. Menopausal symptoms were assessed using the Green Climacteric Scale. VSPAN backwards scores were positively associated with log-transformed free androgen index (logFAI), in models adjusted for age, education, log-transformed free estrogen index (logFEI), hypertension, and the intensity of menopausal symptoms. BVMT total scores were predicted by logFAI (b-coefficient = 0.424, p value = 0.002), education, and combined climacteric symptomatology, in a model adjusted for age, logFEI, and hypertension. Women with circulating estradiol above the median value of 10 pg/mL had better total HTLV total scores compared to women with estradiol values below the median (HTLV total scores, estradiol ≤ 10 pg/mL vs. > 10 pg/mL: 24.2 ± 3.6 vs. 30.0 ± 7.9, p value = 0.007 unadjusted). This association was affected by education and remained independent of menopausal symptoms and testosterone levels, education, and hypertension (model R 2 = 22.3%; b-coefficient = 0.318, p value = 0.024). Endogenous total estradiol is associated with verbal episodic memory, while logFAI is associated with working memory performance and visuospatial episodic memory in this sample of postmenopausal women. These associations were not influenced by age, education, or menopausal symptoms. Larger studies are necessary to evaluate the significance of our findings.
Regan, J. E.
Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.
Ng, Chi-Wing; Plakke, Bethany; Poremba, Amy
Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g., social status, kinship, environment), have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition and/or memory. The present study employs a delayed matching-to-sample task with auditory stimuli to examine auditory memory performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), wherein two sounds are determined to be the same or different. Rhesus macaques seem to have relatively poor short-term memory with auditory stimuli, and we examine if particular sound types are more favorable for memory performance. Experiment 1 suggests memory performance with vocalization sound types (particularly monkey), are significantly better than when using non-vocalization sound types, and male monkeys outperform female monkeys overall. Experiment 2, controlling for number of sound exemplars and presentation pairings across types, replicates Experiment 1, demonstrating better performance or decreased response latencies, depending on trial type, to species-specific monkey vocalizations. The findings cannot be explained by acoustic differences between monkey vocalizations and the other sound types, suggesting the biological, and/or ethological meaning of these sounds are more effective for auditory memory. 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Matzen, Laura E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Trumbo, Michael C. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Haass, Michael J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hunter, Michael A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stevens-Adams, Susan M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bunting, Michael F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language; O?Rourke, Polly [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Advanced Study of Language
There is a great deal of debate concerning the benefits of working memory (WM) training and whether that training can transfer to other tasks. Although a consistent finding is that WM training programs elicit a short-term near-transfer effect (i.e., improvement in WM skills), results are inconsistent when considering persistence of such improvement and far transfer effects. In this study, we compared three groups of participants: a group that received WM training, a group that received training on how to use a mental imagery memory strategy, and a control group that received no training. Although the WM training group improved on the trained task, their posttraining performance on nontrained WM tasks did not differ from that of the other two groups. In addition, although the imagery training group’s performance on a recognition memory task increased after training, the WM training group’s performance on the task decreased after training. Participants’ descriptions of the strategies they used to remember the studied items indicated that WM training may lead people to adopt memory strategies that are less effective for other types of memory tasks. Our results indicate that WM training may have unintended consequences for other types of memory performance.
Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis
Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to 9 waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and -0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one's own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Hülür, Gizem; Hertzog, Christopher; Pearman, Ann; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis
Clinical diagnostic criteria for memory loss in adults typically assume that subjective memory ratings accurately reflect compromised memory functioning. Research has documented small positive between-person associations between subjective memory and memory performance in older adults. Less is known, however, about whether within-person fluctuations in subjective memory covary with within-person variance in memory performance and depressive symptoms. The present study applied multilevel models of change to nine waves of data from 27,395 participants of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; mean age at baseline = 63.78; SD = 10.30; 58% women) to examine whether subjective memory is associated with both between-person differences and within-person variability in memory performance and depressive symptoms and explored the moderating role of known correlates (age, gender, education, and functional limitations). Results revealed that across persons, level of subjective memory indeed covaried with level of memory performance and depressive symptoms, with small-to-moderate between-person standardized effect sizes (0.19 for memory performance and 0.21 for depressive symptoms). Within individuals, occasions when participants scored higher than usual on a test of episodic memory or reported fewer-than-average depressive symptoms generated above-average subjective memory. At the within-person level, subjective memory ratings became more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance over time and those suffering from functional limitations were more sensitive to within-person alterations in memory performance and depressive symptoms. We take our results to suggest that within-person changes in subjective memory in part reflect monitoring flux in one’s own memory functioning, but are also influenced by flux in depressive symptoms. PMID:25244464
Heikkilä, Jenni; Alho, Kimmo; Hyvönen, Heidi; Tiippana, Kaisa
Studies of memory and learning have usually focused on a single sensory modality, although human perception is multisensory in nature. In the present study, we investigated the effects of audiovisual encoding on later unisensory recognition memory performance. The participants were to memorize auditory or visual stimuli (sounds, pictures, spoken words, or written words), each of which co-occurred with either a semantically congruent stimulus, incongruent stimulus, or a neutral (non-semantic noise) stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent memory performance was overall better when the stimulus to be memorized was initially accompanied by a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than when it was accompanied by a neutral stimulus. These results suggest that semantically congruent multisensory experiences enhance encoding of both nonverbal and verbal materials, resulting in an improvement in their later recognition memory.
Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Reichert, Carolin; Melcher, Tobias; Leyhe, Thomas
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory disturbances primarily caused by pathogenic mechanisms affecting medial temporal lobe structures. As proposed by current theories of memory formation, this decrease is mediated by the age of the acquired knowledge. However, they cannot fully explain specific patterns of retrograde amnesia in AD. In the current study we examined an alternative approach and investigated whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia in AD is mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval or whether it depends on the mere age of knowledge. We compared recall of autobiographical incidents from three life periods in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), patients with early dementia of Alzheimer type (eDAT), and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Retrieval frequency was operationalized by a paired comparison analysis. In contrast to HC individuals, recall of autobiographical incidents was impaired in patients with aMCI and eDAT following Ribot's gradient, with a reduced memory loss for remote compared to more recent life events. However, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency on memory performance with frequently retrieved incidents memorized in more detail than less frequently retrieved episodes. Remote memories were recalled more often than recent ones. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved autobiographical memories generally become more independent of the hippocampal complex and might thus be better protected against early hippocampal damage related to AD. Hence, the extent of retrograde amnesia in AD appears mainly mediated by the frequency of memory retrieval, which could plausibly explain why cognitive activity can effectively delay the onset of memory decline in AD.
Rantung, V. P.; Kembuan, O.; Rompas, P. T. D.; Mewengkang, A.; Liando, O. E. S.; Sumayku, J.
This research aims to discuss in-memory Business Intelligent (BI) and to model the business analysis questions to know the performance of the in-memory BI. By using, the Qlickview application found BI dashboards that easily accessed and modified. The dashboards are developed together using an agile development approach such as pre-study, planning, iterative execution, implementation, and evaluation. At the end, this research helping analyzer in choosing a right implementation for BI solution.
Sona Matloubi; Ali Mohammadzadeh; Zahra Jafari; Alireza Akbarzade Baghban
Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female) with normal hearing, aged betw...
Lu Jianquan; He Juan; Cao Jinde; Gao Zhiqiang
To explore how topology affects performance within Hopfield-type associative memory neural networks (AMNNs), we studied the computational performance of the neural networks with regular lattice, random, small-world, and scale-free structures. In this Letter, we found that the memory performance of neural networks obtained through asynchronous updating from 'larger' nodes to 'smaller' nodes are better than asynchronous updating in random order, especially for the scale-free topology. The computational performance of associative memory neural networks linked by the above-mentioned network topologies with the same amounts of nodes (neurons) and edges (synapses) were studied respectively. Along with topologies becoming more random and less locally disordered, we will see that the performance of associative memory neural network is quite improved. By comparing, we show that the regular lattice and random network form two extremes in terms of patterns stability and retrievability. For a network, its patterns stability and retrievability can be largely enhanced by adding a random component or some shortcuts to its structured component. According to the conclusions of this Letter, we can design the associative memory neural networks with high performance and minimal interconnect requirements
Gil, N; Josman, N
The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of the Contextual Memory Test (CMT) to differentiate between elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) in comparison to healthy elderly people. Specifically, the objectives were to compare for differences between and within the groups on components of memory, including immediate and delayed recall as well as recognition. In addition, parameters of metamemory skills, such as general awareness, self-prediction of memory capacity, self-estimation, strategy use and use of contextual information, as well as the correlation between self-awareness and actual performance in both groups, were investigated. The sample consisted of 60 elderly participants, including 30 people diagnosed with AD who were assigned to the research group and 30 people matched for age, gender and educational level who were assigned to the control group. The results provide support for the hypothesis positing differences in memory performance between healthy elderly participants and those suffering from AD, particularly in immediate and delayed recall as well as in recognition. Moreover, findings indicate an improvement in memory performance under the cued condition (contextual), whereas improvement in the AD group proved to be significant only for immediate recall. The findings point to a distinct overestimation of memory ability predicted by both the AD and control groups. Following the memory task, however, the participants accurately estimated the number of items they remembered. In addition, significant correlations between the use of contextual and association strategies and the number of items remembered by both groups were obtained, in immediate as well as in delayed recall. Therefore, these findings support the CMT as a valuable memory and metamemory assessment tool for use with the AD population.
Full Text Available The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participants interacting with game elements showed higher scores in the working memory training task than participants from a control group who completed the working memory training task without the game elements. Moreover, game elements facilitated the individuals’ performance closer to their maximum working memory capacity. Finally, the perceived flow did not differ between the two groups, which indicates that game elements can induce better performance without changing the perception of being “in the zone”, that is without an increase in anxiety or boredom. This empirical study indicates that certain game elements can improve the performance and efficiency in a working memory task by increasing users’ ability and willingness to train at their optimal performance level.
Pisaturo, C; Frassoni, S; Borreani, A; Battaglia, F; Meruzzi, B
The aim of this research was to investigate whether the development of object permanence is an available sign of the cognitive development in infants with psychomotor handicaps. Subjects consisted of 5 males, ranging in age from 12 to 33 months, with handicaps as a result of perinatal brain injury. Four were preterm infants. All of the children received psychomotor treatment. Their stage of object permanence was assessed using traditional (B-L) and non traditional test (U-H). (The children's performances on the U-H scales have an "Intrinsic validity"). Four children achieved the first stages of the development of object permanence. The acquisition of object permanence was delayed in comparison with the age-appropriated time, but it may be considered adequate in comparison with the "developmental age" (B-L). One children with severe mental and motor disorders solved no task, the findings suggest that the children with psychomotor handicaps may gain the concept of object permanence and that psychomotor treatment may assist them in the development of the concept. This performance is not age-dependent. So the acquisition of the concept of object permanence may be considered an accurate and sensitive tool for the follow-up of the sensorimotor development in the handicapped children.
Walker, Stephen C.; Poteet, James A.
Thirty learning-disabled and 30 nonhandicapped intermediate grade children were assessed on memory performance for stimulus words, which were presented with congruent and noncongruent rhyming words and semantically congruent and noncongruent sentence frames. Both groups performed significantly better on words encoded using deep level congruent…
Sohmer, Benjamin; Hudson, Christopher; Hudson, Jordan; Posner, Glenn D; Naik, Viren
Performance of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) requires the psychomotor ability to obtain interpretable echocardiographic images. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a simulation-based curriculum in which a TEE simulator is used to teach the psychomotor skills to novice echocardiographers and to compare instructor-guided with self-directed online delivery of the curriculum. After institutional review board approval, subjects inexperienced in TEE completed an online review of TEE material prior to a baseline pre-test of TEE psychomotor skills using the simulator. Subjects were randomized to two groups. The first group received an instructor-guided lesson of TEE psychomotor skills with the simulator. The second group received a self-directed slide presentation of TEE psychomotor skills with the simulator. Both lessons delivered identical information. Following their respective training sessions, all subjects performed a post-test of their TEE psychomotor skills using the simulator. Two assessors rated the TEE performances using a validated scoring system for acquisition of images. Pre-test TEE simulator scores were similar between the two instruction groups (9.0 vs 5.0; P = 0.28). The scores in both groups improved significantly following training, regardless of the method of instruction (P psychomotor skills. There was no difference in improvement between the different modalities of instruction. Further research will examine the need for a faculty resource for a curriculum in which a simulator is used as an adjunct.
In neonatology units, the professional approach of the psychomotor therapist focuses on the observation of the baby to favour his or her psychomotor development. She acts in close cooperation with the medical and nursing teams and includes the parents in her work.
Del Rosario-Montejo, O; Molina-Rueda, F; Muñoz-Lasa, S; Alguacil-Diego, I M
Equine therapy, an intervention method that has been practiced for decades around the world, is used to treat patients susceptible to psychomotor delays. We examine development of gross motor function compared to other psychomotor skills in patients undergoing this therapy, and analyse how this improvement affects general health status and quality of life. The study includes 11 children with delayed psychomotor development (aged 8.82 ± 3.89; 6 boys, 5 girls). The main study variables were gross motor function (GMFM-88) and perceived quality of life (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, PedsQL). Three measurements were performed: before and after a period of inactivity, and once again 2 months after the second measurement, following completion of a sustained period of therapy. We observed significant differences in overall results on the GMFM-88 between the initial and final tests and between the intermediate and final tests. Regarding the PedsQL quality of life scale, no statistically significant results were recorded. Noticeable changes in motor control were recorded throughout the course of the intervention, which suggests that equine therapy may be appropriate treatment in cases of delayed psychomotor development. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet
To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (r s ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Bazanova, O M; Mernaya, E M; Shtark, M B
The influences of individual musical practice and the same practice supplemented with biofeedback using electrophysiological markers for optimum music-performing activity were studied in 39 music students. Traditional technical practice produced increases in integral EMG power and decreases in alpha activity in most of the students with initially low maximum alpha activity peak frequencies. Similar practice but combined with individual sessions of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback were accompanied by increases in the frequency, bandwidth, and activation responses of EEG alpha rhythms in all subjects, along with decreases in EEG integral power. The efficacy of training with biofeedback and the ability to experience psychomotor learning depended on the initial individual characteristics of EEG alpha activity.
Hambrick-Dixon, Priscilla Janet
Investigates whether an experimentally imposed 80dB (A) noise affected psychomotor, serial memory words and pictures, incidental memory, visual recall, paired associates, perceptual learning, and coding performance of five-year-old Black children attending day care centers near and far from elevated subways. (HOD)
Weidner, Thomas G; Popp, Jennifer K
Athletic training educators often anecdotally suggest that athletic training students enhance their learning by teaching their peers. However, peer-assisted learning (PAL) has not been examined within athletic training education to provide evidence for PAL's current use or for its use as a pedagogic tool. To assess the effectiveness of intentional, formal PAL on the performance of psychomotor skills and to identify students' perceptions of PAL. Randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design. Athletic Training Research and Education Laboratory. Fifty-one undergraduate students (27 athletic training majors, 24 nonmajors). Review sessions led by either an Approved Clinical Instructor or peer tutor. We assessed pretest and posttest performance scores (number of correct skills) and the amount of time to complete the psychomotor skills in 3 categories of orthopaedic evaluation of the hand and wrist for subjects assigned to either a peer tutor or an Approved Clinical Instructor review group. Using the Athletic Training Peer-Assisted Learning Assessment Survey, we evaluated the perceptions of students assigned to the peer-tutor group regarding the benefits of, and preferences for, PAL. Differences in the pretest-posttest skill scores were noted in both groups (P psychomotor skills with peer tutors than with the laboratory instructor, and many students (n = 12, 44.4%) felt more self-confident when practicing psychomotor skills with a peer tutor. Peer-assisted learning appears to be a valid method for improving athletic training psychomotor skills. Peers can be resources for practicing clinical skills and report benefiting from the collaboration. Peer-assisted learning should be deliberately integrated into athletic training education programs to enhance student learning and collaboration.
Vienne, Julie; Lecciso, Gianpaolo; Constantinescu, Irina; Schwartz, Sophie; Franken, Paul; Heinzer, Raphaël; Tafti, Mehdi
Sodium oxybate (SO) is a GABAβ agonist used to treat the sleep disorder narcolepsy. SO was shown to increase slow wave sleep (SWS) and EEG delta power (0.75-4.5 Hz), both indexes of NREM sleep (NREMS) intensity and depth, suggesting that SO enhances recuperative function of NREM. We investigated whether SO induces physiological deep sleep. SO was administered before an afternoon nap or before the subsequent experimental night in 13 healthy volunteers. The effects of SO were compared to baclofen (BAC), another GABAβ receptor agonist, to assess the role of GABAβ receptors in the SO response. As expected, a nap significantly decreased sleep need and intensity the subsequent night. Both drugs reversed this nap effect on the subsequent night by decreasing sleep latency and increasing total sleep time, SWS during the first NREMS episode, and EEG delta and theta (0.75-7.25 Hz) power during NREMS. The SO-induced increase in EEG delta and theta power was, however, not specific to NREMS and was also observed during REM sleep (REMS) and wakefulness. Moreover, the high levels of delta power during a nap following SO administration did not affect delta power the following night. SO and BAC taken before the nap did not improve subsequent psychomotor performance and subjective alertness, or memory consolidation. Finally, SO and BAC strongly promoted the appearance of sleep onset REM periods. The SO-induced EEG slow waves seem not to be functionally similar to physiological slow waves. Our findings also suggest a role for GABAβ receptors in REMS generation.
Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.
OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical
Buzink, S.N.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Schoon, E.J.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
Background - Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing
Yokosawa, Koichi; Kimura, Keisuke; Chitose, Ryota; Momiki, Takuya; Kuriki, Shinya
Alpha-band rhythm is thought to be involved in memory processes, similarly to other spontaneous brain rhythms. Ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in our proposed sequential short-term memory task that provides a serial position effect in accuracy rate. We recorded alpha-band rhythms by magnetoencephalography during performance of the task and observed that the amplitude of the rhythm was suppressed dramatically in the memory recall period. The suppressed region was estimated to be in the occipital lobe, suggesting that alpha-band rhythm is suppressed by activation of the occipital attentional network. Additionally, the alpha-band suppression reflected accuracy rate, that is, the amplitude was suppressed more when recalling items with higher accuracy rate. The sensors with a significant correlation between alpha-band amplitude and accuracy rate were located widely from the frontal to occipital regions mainly in the right hemisphere. The results suggests that alpha-band rhythm is involved in memory recall and can be index of memory performance.
Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano Iii, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L
A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β = -1.07, p memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum.
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D.; Gunn, Deborah M.; Leigh, Eleanor
This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related…
Dunford, Christine Mary; Yoshizaki-Gibbons, Hailee M.; Morhardt, Darby
There is a recognised need for research that illuminates mutually beneficial connections among performance, ageing, disability theory, and praxis. One such project is the Memory Ensemble™, an improvisational theatre intervention for persons with early stage Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). This case study explores how the…
Jackson, Margaret C.; Linden, David E. J.; Roberts, Mark V.; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Haenschel, Corinna
A number of studies have shown that visual working memory (WM) is poorer for complex versus simple items, traditionally accounted for by higher information load placing greater demands on encoding and storage capacity limits. Other research suggests that it may not be complexity that determines WM performance per se, but rather increased…
Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike
Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…
Kormos, Judit; Safar, Anna
In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity and performance in an end-of-year reading, writing, listening, speaking and use of English test. The participants of our study were 121 secondary school students aged 15-16 in the first intensive language training year of…
Bellander, Martin; Eschen, Anne; Lövdén, Martin; Martin, Mike; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne
Studies attempting to improve episodic memory performance with strategy instructions and training have had limited success in older adults: their training gains are limited in comparison to those of younger adults and do not generalize to untrained tasks and contexts. This limited success has been partly attributed to age-related impairments in associative binding of information into coherent episodes. We therefore investigated potential training and transfer effects of process-based associative memory training (i.e., repeated practice). Thirty-nine older adults ( M age = 68.8) underwent 6 weeks of either adaptive associative memory training or item recognition training. Both groups improved performance in item memory, spatial memory (object-context binding) and reasoning. A disproportionate effect of associative memory training was only observed for item memory, whereas no training-related performance changes were observed for associative memory. Self-reported strategies showed no signs of spontaneous development of memory-enhancing associative memory strategies. Hence, the results do not support the hypothesis that process-based associative memory training leads to higher associative memory performance in older adults.
Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela
Relatively little attention has been paid thus far in memory research to the effects of measurement instruments intended to assess memory processes on the constructs being measured. The current article investigates the influence of employing the popular remember/know (R/K) measurement procedure on memory performance itself. This measurement…
Smith, Andrew P
Research has shown that extraverts performing a working memory task benefit more from caffeine than do introverts. The present study aimed to replicate this and extend our knowledge by using a lower dose of caffeine (65 mg) and a range of tasks related to different components of working memory. In addition, tasks assessing psychomotor speed and the encoding of new information were included to determine whether caffeine-extraversion interactions were restricted to working memory tasks. A double-blind design was used, with 128 participants being randomly assigned to caffeinated or de-caffeinated coffee conditions. The results showed that caffeine interacted with extraversion in the predicted direction for serial recall and running memory tasks. Caffeine improved simple reaction time and the speed of encoding of new information, effects which were not modified by extraversion. These results suggest possible biological mechanisms underlying effects of caffeine on cognitive performance.
Etherton, Joseph L; Oberle, Crystal D; Rhoton, Jayson; Ney, Ashley
Research on the cognitive benefits of working memory training programs has produced inconsistent results. Such research has frequently used laboratory-specific training tasks, or dual-task n-back training. The current study used the commercial Cogmed Working Memory (WM) Training program, involving several different training tasks involving visual and auditory input. Healthy college undergraduates were assigned to either the full Cogmed training program of 25, 40-min training sessions; an abbreviated Cogmed program of 25, 20-min training sessions; or a no-contact control group. Pretest and posttest measures included multiple measures of attention, working memory, fluid intelligence, and executive functions. Although improvement was observed for the full training group for a digit span task, no training-related improvement was observed for any of the other measures. Results of the study suggest that WM training does not improve performance on unrelated tasks or enhance other cognitive abilities.
Austin, John R
Previous research on transactive memory has found a positive relationship between transactive memory system development and group performance in single project laboratory and ad hoc groups. Closely related research on shared mental models and expertise recognition supports these findings. In this study, the author examined the relationship between transactive memory systems and performance in mature, continuing groups. A group's transactive memory system, measured as a combination of knowledge stock, knowledge specialization, transactive memory consensus, and transactive memory accuracy, is positively related to group goal performance, external group evaluations, and internal group evaluations. The positive relationship with group performance was found to hold for both task and external relationship transactive memory systems.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Music exists in all cultures; many scientists are seeking to understand how music effects cognitive development such as comprehension, memory, and reading skills. More recently, a considerable number of neuroscience studies on music have been developed. This study aimed to investigate the effects of null and positive background music in comparison with silence on auditory-verbal memory performance.Methods: Forty young adults (male and female with normal hearing, aged between 18 and 26, participated in this comparative-analysis study. An auditory and speech evaluation was conducted in order to investigate the effects of background music on working memory. Subsequently, the Rey auditory-verbal learning test was performed for three conditions: silence, positive, and null music.Results: The mean score of the Rey auditory-verbal learning test in silence condition was higher than the positive music condition (p=0.003 and the null music condition (p=0.01. The tests results did not reveal any gender differences.Conclusion: It seems that the presence of competitive music (positive and null music and the orientation of auditory attention have negative effects on the performance of verbal working memory. It is possibly owing to the intervention of music with verbal information processing in the brain.
Yuri G. Pavlov
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the relationship betweenfrontal midline theta rhythm changes and individual differences in working memory performance.Methods. The methods involve behavioural testing on the basis of the program for a presentation of stimulus and registration of answers «PsyTask»; method of EEG (electroencephalography; a technique of measurement of efficiency of working memory; the comparative analysis. Software packages EEGLab for Matlab and Fieldtrip are applied while data processing.Results. After the behavioral test all subjects were separated into 2 groups according to their performance: with «highly productive» and «low productive» memory. Specially prepared author’s complete set of the tasks which complexity varied from average to ultrahigh level was offered to participants of experiment –students and employees of the Ural Federal University and Ural Legal Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Working memory tasks included sets of verbal stimuli for memorizing in strict order without any mental manipulation and sets of similar stimuli for memorizing in alphabetical order (with manipulations. Measured characteristics of theta-rhythm of EEG during information deduction in memory were compared of two groups’ representatives. The obtained data has shown rather uniform and similar dynamics of decrease in quantity of right answers in process of increasing tasks’ complexity. However, changes of a thetarhythm in different groups had sharply expressed distinctions. «Highly productive» examinees have systematic expansion of a theta-rhythm in the central assignments with stabilisation on the most difficult tasks; «low productive» – while tasks performance of average complexity, a sharp falling of theta-rhythm activity is observed after achievement of its maximum activation.Scientific novelty. The working memory «overload» effect and its EEG correlates are demonstrated on a big sample of
textabstractDuring the last two decades, computer hardware has experienced remarkable developments. Especially CPU (clock-)speed has been following Moore's Law, i.e., doubling every 18 months; and there is no indication that this trend will change in the foreseeable future. Recent research has revealed that database performance, even with main-memory based systems, can hardly benefit from the ever increasing CPU power. The reason for this is that the performance of other hardware components h...
Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter
Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright
Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of an actual music stand on the evaluation of a videotaped audio-visual solo instrumental performance. Previous research has provided evidence that the presence of a score or music stand (obstructing the audience's view of the performer might negatively influence the evaluation of the performance. However, due to methodological ambiguities, results in previous studies cannot be regarded as definitive. Thus, we conducted a replication study of Williamon (1999 with better control over confounding variables (e.g., varying levels of technical proficiency in different conditions. A violoncello player performed two pieces for solo instrument: once with a music stand on stage (pretending to play from score and once without. The level of technical proficiency was kept constant in both performance presentations by the use of a pre-recorded, well-rehearsed performance from memory. Audio tracks were synchronized with the performance movements in a playback paradigm. Based on the performance evaluations from a web-based experiment (N = 471 participants, we found a significant but small effect size for the main effect of performance presentation (with vs. without music stand (d = 0.23. We conclude that the audience's appreciation of a particular performance from memory might be based on factors other than the objective performance quality.
Gifford, Katherine A.; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M.; Chapman, William G.; Romano, Raymond R.; Samuels, Lauren R.; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L.
Background A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n=191, 77±7 years; complaint n=206, 73±8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E-4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (β=−1.07, pmemory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (β=−1.06, p=0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, subjective memory complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer’s disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602
Full Text Available Executive functioning (e.g., working memory is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n-back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.
Executive functioning (e.g., working memory) is tightly intertwined with self-regulation. For example, food cue-elicited craving has been found to impair working memory performance. Furthermore, current dieters have been found to show lower working memory performance than non-dieters. Recent research, however, suggests that it is crucial to consider dieting success in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating in order to reveal cognitive mechanisms that are associated with successful eating-related self-regulation. The current study investigated food cue-related working memory performance as a function of dieting status and dieting success in female students. Participants performed an n -back task with pictures of food and neutral objects. Reaction time in response to food pictures was slower than in response to neutral pictures, whereas omission errors did not differ between picture types. Current food craving was increased after performing the food block, but not after the neutral block. There was an indirect effect of current dieting status on higher food craving after the food block, which was mediated by slower reaction time to food vs. neutral pictures. Furthermore, higher dieting success was associated with fewer omission errors in the food vs. neutral block in current dieters. There were no relationships of restrained eating with current food craving and task performance. Results further highlight the need to differentiate between successful and unsuccessful dieting in addition to current dieting status or restrained eating when examining possible mechanisms of overeating or successful restraint. Although palatable food cues induce food craving regardless of dieting success, they may boost executive functioning in successful dieters, which helps them to overcome these temptations.
Jabbour, Noel; Reihsen, Troy; Sweet, Robert M; Sidman, James D
To develop a robust psychomotor skills curriculum to teach pediatric airway foreign body retrieval and to assess the effect of this curriculum on residents' confidence in and ability to perform the complete task in an infant airway mannequin. Instructional course. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS). Surgical simulation laboratory. A half-day simulation-based course was developed to train otolaryngology residents in bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval. This complex psychomotor skill was deconstructed into subtasks. The following curricular learning objectives were presented and assessed: understanding of tracheobronchial anatomy, ability to adequately visualize the larynx with laryngoscopy, proficiency in rigid bronchoscopy, and familiarity with foreign body instrumentation. Residents were objectively evaluated on their ability to perform the complete task on a simulator before and after the course using an OSATS grading system. Confidence in successfully assembling the instruments and completing the task was assessed at these time periods. Seventeen otolaryngology residents completed the study. Confidence in assembling the instruments and in performing the complete task increased on average by 81% and 43%, respectively (P < .001). Using a 15-point OSATS grading system, the average score for the precourse was 7 and for the postcourse was 11.3 (P < .001). Simulation-based subtask training shows promise as an effective and reproducible method to teach the complex psychomotor task of airway foreign body retrieval. Completion of the curriculum led to a significant improvement in residents' confidence in and ability to perform bronchoscopic foreign body retrieval in an infant airway mannequin.
Altgassen, Mareike; Kretschmer, Anett; Schnitzspahn, Katharina Marlene
Studies on prospective memory (PM) development in adolescents point to age-related increases through to adulthood. The goal of the present study was to examine whether instructing adolescents to engage in an episodic prospection of themselves executing future actions (i.e., future thinking) when forming an intention would improve their PM performance and reduce age-related differences. Further, we set out to explore whether future thinking instructions result in stronger memory traces and/or stronger cue-context associations by evaluating retrospective memory for the PM cues after task completion and monitoring costs during PM task processing. Adolescents and young adults were allocated to either the future thinking, repeated-encoding or standard condition. As expected, adolescents had fewer correct PM responses than young adults. Across age groups, PM performance in the standard condition was lower than in the other encoding conditions. Importantly, the results indicate a significant interaction of age by encoding condition. While adolescents benefited most from future thinking instructions, young adults performed best in the repeated-encoding condition. The results also indicate that the beneficial effects of future thinking may result from deeper intention-encoding through the simulation of future task performance.
Manzo, Ciro; Gareri, Pietro; Castagna, Alberto
We describe the case of an elderly woman with elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis, where the use of 4 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was followed by the onset of psychomotor agitation with marked physical and verbal violence towards her partner, including throwing objects at her partner. No disturbance in sleep and no anxiety, nervousness, or irritability had emerged before the onset of her psychomotor agitation. The disappearance of agitation following targeted pharmacologic interventi...
Bayliss, Donna M; Jarrold, Christopher; Baddeley, Alan D; Gunn, Deborah M; Leigh, Eleanor
This study investigated the constraints underlying developmental improvements in complex working memory span performance among 120 children of between 6 and 10 years of age. Independent measures of processing efficiency, storage capacity, rehearsal speed, and basic speed of processing were assessed to determine their contribution to age-related variance in complex span. Results showed that developmental improvements in complex span were driven by 2 age-related but separable factors: 1 associated with general speed of processing and 1 associated with storage ability. In addition, there was an age-related contribution shared between working memory, processing speed, and storage ability that was important for higher level cognition. These results pose a challenge for models of complex span performance that emphasize the importance of processing speed alone.
Tomasello, R; Puliafito, V; Martinez, E; Manchon, A; Ricci, M; Carpentieri, M; Finocchio, G
A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s −1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions. (paper)
A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s−1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions.
Masterson, James; And Others
Forty-eight sixth-grade students were studied to determine their response to selected compressions of the narration of an instructional sound motion picture. A 4:10 color film with a 158 wpm recorded narration was shown at 25, 33-1/3 and 50 percent compression rates; performance time and quality were measured immediately and after 12-day…
Manuel Ninaus; Gonçalo Pereira; René Stefitz; Rui Prada; Ana Paiva; Christa Neuper; Guilherme Wood
The utilization of game elements in a non-game context is currently used in a vast range of different domains. However, research on game elements’ effects in cognitive tasks is still sparse. Thus, in this study we implemented three game elements, namely, progress bar, level indicator, and a thematic setting, in a working memory training task. We evaluated the impact of game elements on user performance and perceived state of flow when compared to a conventional version of the task. Participan...
Riding, R. J.; Pugh, J. C.
The reading process incorporates three factors: images registered in visual sensory memory, semantic analysis in short-term memory, and long-term memory storage. The focus here is on the contribution of sensory memory to reading performance. (Author/RK)
Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Kessels, Roy P C
Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain, mediate the decline in memory. Finally, previous studies have focused on middle-aged adults, and a possible detrimental effect of aging on memory performance in chronic pain patients has been commonly disregarded. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the pattern of semantic, working, and visual and verbal episodic memory performance in participants with chronic pain, while testing for possible contributions of attention and age to task performance. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain and 32 pain-free participants completed tests of episodic, semantic, and working memory to assess memory performance and a test of attention. Participants with chronic pain performed worse on tests of working memory and verbal episodic memory. A decline in attention explained some, but not all, group differences in memory performance. Finally, no additional effect of age on the diminished task performance in participants with chronic pain was observed. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic pain significantly affects memory performance. Part of this effect may be caused by underlying attentional dysfunction, although this could not fully explain the observed memory decline. An increase in age in combination with the presence of chronic pain did not additionally affect memory performance.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show how the habitual practices of psychomotricity from 12 months old can raise the cognitive development of children. Over the last years there has been an increase of studies related to the effect of the practice of physical-motor exercise on the cognitive function. The psychomotor development in childhood is the basis of the mental development in the scholastic age. The knowledge that the studies can bring from Cognitive Neuroscience allows optimising the process of training-apprenticeship. We selected 26 children between 12 and 22 months old divided in three groups: G0, G1, and G2. During the training period (5 months G0 took part in psychomotricity sessions, G1 performed a psychomotor session per week, and G2 performed two sessions per week. All groups held one session every week during the practice period (23 months. The comparison of results obtained from the measures gathered in pre-post training phases and the post-final practice phase concludes that the systematization of the psychomotor activity has influenced cognitive capacities.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show how the habitual practices of psychomotricity from 12 months old can raise the cognitive development of children. Over the last years there has been an increase of studies related to the effect of the practice of physical-motor exercise on the cognitive function. The psychomotor development in childhood is the basis of the mental development in the scholastic age. The knowledge that the studies can bring from Cognitive Neuroscience allows optimising the process of training-apprenticeship. We selected 26 children between 12 and 22 months old divided in three groups: G0, G1, and G2. During the training period (5 months G0 took part in psychomotricity sessions, G1 performed a psychomotor session per week, and G2 performed two sessions per week. All groups held one session every week during the practice period (23 months. The comparison of results obtained from the measures gathered in pre-post training phases and the post-final practice phase concludes that the systematization of the psychomotor activity has influenced cognitive capacities.
Full Text Available Objective: It could be demonstrated that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC enhances accuracy in working memory tasks and reaction time in healthy adults and thus may also have an influence on complex everyday tasks like driving a car. However, no studies have applied tDCS to psychomotor skills related to a standard driving test so far.Methods: 10 female and 5 male healthy adults without any medication and history of psychiatric or neurological illness were randomly assigned to two groups receiving active and sham stimulation in a double blind, cross-over study design. Standardized computerized psychomotor tests according to the German guidelines for road and traffic safety were administered at baseline. Then they performed the same tests during an anodal or sham tDCS of the left DLPFC in two separated sessions.Results: No significant improvements in skills related to driving performance like visual perception, stress tolerance, concentration, and vigilance could be shown after left anodal prefrontal tDCS. Side effects were low and did not differ between active and sham stimulation.Conclusions: The findings of our study indicate that left prefrontal tDCS may not alter driving skills affording more automated action patterns but as shown in previous studies may have an influence on driving behavior requiring executive control processes. This however has to be proved in future studies and within greater samples.
Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko
Subjects' episodic memory performance is not simply reflected by eye movements. We use a ‘theta phase coding’ model of the hippocampus to predict subjects' memory performance from their eye movements. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to predict subjects' memory performance. These studies provide a novel approach to computational modeling in the human-machine interface.
Werner, Clément M L; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Müller, Roland; Zanetti, Marco; Gerber, Christian
This investigation was performed to analyze the influence of innervation and psychomotor skills on the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer. Patients with the 10 best and 10 worst results after latissimus dorsi transfer for irreparable rotator cuff tears were selected. All patients meeting the inclusion criteria (n = 12) were subject to a psychomotor test battery (Motorische Leistungsserie) and electromyographic innervation assessment. There was no statistical difference between the 2 groups preoperatively in terms of the commonly tested factors known to influence the results of this procedure adversely. There was a significant difference in both the pattern and selectivity of innervation in the group that had better clinical results. The psychomotor findings were negatively correlated with the range of motion and the strength of the operative shoulder. Function of the operative shoulder could also be predicted by psychomotor function of the uninjured contralateral side. Psychomotor skills testing appears to be a new, potential method by which to predict the outcome of latissimus dorsi transfer.
Developed for use in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) teacher education, this module is intended to widen teachers' knowledge and understanding of the psychology of psychomotor skills to improve teaching of psychomotor skills in the TAFE classroom or workshop. The module is divided into two parts: basic and advanced. The first part,…
Wang, Jinn-Rong; Hsieh, Shulan
The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the frontal-midline theta (fmθ) activity uptraining protocol on attention and working memory performance of older and younger participants. Thirty-two participants were recruited. Participants within each age group were randomly assigned to either the neurofeedback training (fmθ uptraining) group or the sham-neurofeedback training group. There was a significant improvement in orienting scores in the older neurofeedback training group. In addition, there was a significant improvement in conflict scores in both the older and young neurofeedback training groups. However, alerting scores failed to increase. In addition, the fmθ training was found to improve working memory function in the older participants. The results further showed that fmθ training can modulate resting EEG for both neurofeedback groups. Our study demonstrated that fmθ uptraining improved attention and working memory performance and theta activity in the resting state for normal aging adults. In addition, younger participants also benefited from the present protocol in terms of improving their executive function. The current findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback training in cognitive function, and suggest that the fmθ uptraining protocol is an effective intervention program for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Virtual memory improves programmer productivity, enhances process security, and increases memory utilization. However, virtual memory requires an address translation from the virtual to the physical address space on every memory operation. Page-based implementations of virtual memory divide physical memory into fixed size pages, and use a per-process page table to map virtual pages to physical pages. The hardware key component for accelerating address translation is the Translation Lookasi...
Cevik, V.; Altun, A.
This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…
Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J
Working memory and attention are closely related constructs. Models of working memory often incorporate an attention component, and some even equate working memory and attentional control. Although some attention-related processes, including inhibitory control of response conflict and interference resolution, are strongly associated with working memory, for other aspects of attention the link is less clear. We examined the association between working-memory performance and attentional breadth, the ability to spread attention spatially. If the link between attention and working memory is broader than inhibitory and interference resolution processes, then working-memory performance might also be associated with other attentional abilities, including attentional breadth. We tested 123 participants on a variety of working-memory and attentional-breadth measures, finding a strong correlation between performances on these two types of tasks. This finding demonstrates that the link between working memory and attention extends beyond inhibitory processes.
Ngaosuvan, Leonard; Mäntylä, Timo
People often claim that they perform better in memory performance tasks when they are more motivated. However, past research has shown minimal effects of motivation on memory performance when factors contributing to item-specific biases during encoding and retrieval are taken into account. The purpose of the present study was to examine the generality of this apparent dissociation by using more sensitive measures of experienced motivation and memory performance. Extrinsic motivation was manipulated through competition instructions, and subjective ratings of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were obtained before and after study instructions. Participants studied a series of words, and memory performance was assessed by content recall (Experiment 1) and source recall (Experiment 2). Both experiments showed dissociation between subjective ratings of extrinsic motivation and actual memory performance, so that competition increased self-rated extrinsic motivation but had no effects on memory performance, including source recall. Inconsistent with most people's expectations, the findings suggest that extrinsic motivation has minimal effects on memory performance.
Sukkari, Dalal E.
The polar decomposition of a dense matrix is an important operation in linear algebra. It can be directly calculated through the singular value decomposition (SVD) or iteratively using the QR dynamically-weighted Halley algorithm (QDWH). The former is difficult to parallelize due to the preponderant number of memory-bound operations during the bidiagonal reduction. We investigate the latter scenario, which performs more floating-point operations but exposes at the same time more parallelism, and therefore, runs closer to the theoretical peak performance of the system, thanks to more compute-bound matrix operations. Profiling results show the performance scalability of QDWH for calculating the polar decomposition using around 9200 MPI processes on well and ill-conditioned matrices of 100K×100K problem size. We study then the performance impact of the QDWH-based polar decomposition as a pre-processing step toward calculating the SVD itself. The new distributed-memory implementation of the QDWH-SVD solver achieves up to five-fold speedup against current state-of-the-art vendor SVD implementations. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.
Jarrett, Steven M; Glaze, Ryan M; Schurig, Ira; Arthur, Winfred
The relationship between team sex composition and team performance on a complex psychomotor task was examined because these types of tasks are commonly used in the lab-based teams literature. Despite well-documented sex-based differences on complex psychomotor tasks, the preponderance of studies-mainly lab based-that use these tasks makes no mention of the sex composition of teams across or within experimental conditions. A sample of 123 four-person teams with varying team sex composition learned and performed a complex psychomotor task, Steal Beasts Pro PE. Each team completed a 5-hr protocol whereby they conducted several performance missions. The results indicated significant large mean differences such that teams with larger proportions of males had higher performance scores. These findings demonstrate the potential effect of team sex composition on the validity of studies that use complex psychomotor tasks to explore and investigate team performance-related phenomena when (a) team sex composition is not a focal variable of interest and (b) it is not accounted for or controlled. Given the proclivity of complex psychomotor action-based tasks used in lab-based team studies, it is important to understand and control for the impact of team sex composition on team performance. When team sex composition is not controlled for, either methodologically or statistically, it may affect the validity of the results in teams studies using these types of tasks.
Chou, Cheng-Chen; Pressler, Susan J; Giordani, Bruno
There are no studies describing the nature of memory deficits among women with heart failure (HF). The aims of this study were to examine memory performance among Taiwanese women with HF compared with age- and education-matched healthy women, and to evaluate factors that explain memory performance in women with HF. Seventy-six women with HF and 64 healthy women were recruited in Taiwan. Women completed working, verbal, and visual memory tests; HF severity was collected from the medical records. Women with HF performed significantly worse than healthy women on tests of working memory and verbal memory. Among women with HF, older age explained poorer working memory, and older age, higher HF severity, more comorbidities, and systolic HF explained poorer verbal memory. Menopausal symptoms were not associated with memory performance. Results of the study validate findings of memory loss in HF patients from the United States and Europe in a culturally different sample of women. Working memory and verbal memory were worse in Taiwanese women with HF compared with healthy participants. Studies are needed to determine mechanisms of memory deficits in these women and develop interventions to improve memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oosterman, J.M.; Boeschoten, M.S.; Eling, P.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Maes, J.H.
This study tested the hypothesis that part of the age-related decline in performance on executive function tasks is due to a decline in episodic memory. For this, we developed a rule induction task in which we manipulated the involvement of episodic memory and executive control processes; age
Hildebrandt, H.; Gehrmann, A.; Mödden, C.; Eling, P.A.T.M.
Neuropsychological rehabilitation of memory performance is still a controversial topic, and rehabilitation studies have not analyzed to which stage of memory processing (encoding, consolidation, or retrieval) enhancement may be attributed. We first examined the efficacy of a computer training
Seeck-Hirschner, Mareen; Baier, Paul Christian; Weinhold, Sara Lena; Dittmar, Manuela; Heiermann, Steffanie; Aldenhoff, Josef B; Göder, Robert
Recent evidence suggests that the sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memory relies on the nonrapid eye movement rather than the rapid eye movement phase of sleep. In addition, it is known that aging is accompanied by changes in sleep and memory processes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the overnight consolidation of declarative memory in healthy elderly women. Sleep laboratory of University. Nineteen healthy elderly women (age range: 61-74 years). We used laboratory-based measures of sleep. To test declarative memory, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test was performed. Declarative memory performance in elderly women was associated with Stage 2 sleep spindle density. Women characterized by high memory performance exhibited significantly higher numbers of sleep spindles and higher spindle density compared with women with generally low memory performance. The data strongly support theories suggesting a link between sleep spindle activity and declarative memory consolidation.
Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong; Scholey, Andrew B; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I
Previous research has suggested that long-term verbal declarative memory is particularly sensitive to enhancement by glucose loading; however, investigation of glucose effects on certain memory domains has hitherto been neglected. Therefore, domain specificity of glucose effects merits further elucidation. The aim of the present research was to provide a more comprehensive investigation of the possible effects of glucose administration on different aspects of memory by 1) contrasting the effect of glucose administration on different memory domains (implicit/explicit memory; verbal/non-verbal memory, and recognition/familiarity processes), 2) investigating whether potential effects on memory domains differ depending on the dose of glucose administered (25 g versus 60 g), 3) exploring the duration of the glucose facilitation effect (assessment of memory performance 35 min and 1 week after encoding). A double-blind between-subjects design was used to test the effects of administration of 25 and 60 g glucose on memory performance. Implicit memory was improved following administration of 60 g of glucose. Glucose supplementation failed to improve face recognition performance but significantly improved performance of word recall and recognition following administration of 60 g of glucose. However, effects were not maintained 1 week following encoding. Improved implicit memory performance following glucose administration has not been reported before. Furthermore, the current data tentatively suggest that level of processing may determine the required glucose dosage to demonstrate memory improvement and that higher dosages may be able to exert effects on memory pertaining to both hippocampal and non-hippocampal brain regions.
van Setten, Eelco; Wismans, Onno; Grim, Kees; Finders, Jo; Dusa, Mircea; Birkner, Robert; Richter, Rigo; Scherübl, Thomas
Flash memory is an important driver of the lithography roadmap, with its dramatic acceleration in dimensional shrink, pushing for ever smaller feature sizes. The introduction of hyper-NA immersion lithography has brought the 45nm node and below within reach for memory makers using single exposure. At these feature sizes mask topology and the material properties of the film stack on the mask play an important role on imaging performance. Furthermore, the break up of the array pitch regularity in the NAND-type flash memory cell by two thick wordlines and a central space, leads to feature-center placement (overlay) errors, that are inherent to the design. An integral optimization approach is needed to mitigate these effects and to control both the CD and placement errors tightly. In this paper we will show that aerial image measurements at mask-level are useful for characterizing the gate layer of a NAND-Flash design before exposure. The aerial image measurements are performed with the AIMSTM 45-193i. and compared to CD measurements on the wafer obtained with an XT:1900Gi hyper-NA immersion system. An excellent correlation is demonstrated for feature-center placement errors and CD variations across the mask (see Figure 1) for several features in the gate layer down to 40nm half pitch. This shows the potential to use aerial image measurements at mask-level in combination with correction techniques on the photomask, like the CDC200 tool in combination with exposure tool correction techniques, such as DoseMapperTM, to improve both across field and across wafer CD uniformity of critical layers.
Podestá L, Loreto; Alarcón, Ana María; Muñoz, Sergio; Legüe C, Marcela; Bustos, Luis; Barría P, Mauricio
Postpartum depression (PPD) has adverse effects on psychomotor development of the offspring. To evaluate the relationship between PPD and psychomotor development in children aged 18 months, consulting in primary care. Cross-sectional study with 360 infants and their mothers. Children had their psychomotor evaluation at l8 months and mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 4 and 12 weeks postpartum. The prevalence of both PPD and psychomotor alteration was estimated. The association between PPD and psychomotor alteration, including confounding variables, was estimated through logistic multiple regression analysis. The prevalence of PPD and psychomotor alteration was 29 and 16%, respectively Mothers with PPD had twice the probability of having an offspring with psychomotor alteration (Odds ratio = 2.0, confidence intervals = 1.07-3.68). This probability was significantly higher among single mothers or those with an unstable partner. PPD has a detrimental impact on psychomotor development of children.
Almela, Mercedes; van der Meij, Leander; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
The activity and regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis has been related to cognitive decline during aging. This study investigated whether the cortisol awakening response (CAR) is related to memory performance among older adults. The sample was composed of 88 participants (44 men and 44 women) from 55 to 77 years old. The memory assessment consisted of two tests measuring declarative memory (a paragraph recall test and a word list learning test) and two tests measuring working memory (a spatial span test and a spatial working memory test). Among those participants who showed the CAR on two consecutive days, we found that a greater CAR was related to poorer declarative memory performance in both men and women, and to better working memory performance only in men. The results of our study suggest that the relationship between CAR and memory performance is negative in men and women when memory performance is largely dependent on hippocampal functioning (i.e. declarative memory), and positive, but only in men, when memory performance is largely dependent on prefrontal cortex functioning (i.e. working memory). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Altmeyer, Michael; Schweizer, Karl; Reiss, Siegbert; Ren, Xuezhu; Schreiner, Michael
Performance in working memory and short-term memory tasks was employed for predicting performance in a long-term memory task in order to find out about the underlying processes. The types of memory were represented by versions of the Posner Task, the Backward Counting Task and the Sternberg Task serving as measures of long-term memory, working…
Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina
Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. Copyright © 2016
Murray, J B
Marijuana is complex chemically and not yet fully understood, but it is not a narcotic. Like alcohol, marijuana acts as both stimulant and depressant, but it lingers in body organs longer than alcohol. Smoking marijuana can injure mucosal tissue and may have more carcinogenic potential than tobacco. Research has indicated that marijuana intoxication definitely hinders attention, long-term memory storage, and psychomotor skills involved in driving a car or flying a plane. Expectations and past experience with marijuana have often influenced results more than pharmacological aspects have. Marijuana has triggered psychotic episodes in those more vulnerable. Psychological and some instances of physiological dependence on marijuana have been demonstrated. As a psychoactive drug, marijuana surely alters mental functioning. Although it is possible that chronic use of marijuana produces irreversible damage to mind or brain areas, this has not been determined by research.
Thomassin, Noémylle; Gonthier, Corentin; Guerraz, Michel; Roulin, Jean-Luc
Participants with a high working memory span tend to perform better than low spans in a variety of tasks. However, their performance is paradoxically more impaired when they have to perform two tasks at once, a phenomenon that could be labeled the "hard fall effect." The present study tested whether this effect exists in a short-term memory task, and investigated the proposal that the effect is due to high spans using efficient facilitative strategies under simple task conditions. Ninety-eight participants performed a spatial short-term memory task under simple and dual task conditions; stimuli presentation times either allowed for the use of complex facilitative strategies or not. High spans outperformed low spans only under simple task conditions when presentation times allowed for the use of facilitative strategies. These results indicate that the hard fall effect exists on a short-term memory task and may be caused by individual differences in strategy use.
Vineyard, Craig Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
As high performance computing architectures pursue more computational power there is a need for increased memory capacity and bandwidth as well. A multi-level memory (MLM) architecture addresses this need by combining multiple memory types with different characteristics as varying levels of the same architecture. How to efficiently utilize this memory infrastructure is an unknown challenge, and in this research we sought to investigate whether neural inspired approaches can meaningfully help with memory management. In particular we explored neurogenesis inspired re- source allocation, and were able to show a neural inspired mixed controller policy can beneficially impact how MLM architectures utilize memory.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta
Working memory is the limited capacity storage system involved in the maintenance and manipulation of information over short periods of time. Previous imaging studies have suggested that the frontoparietal regions are activated during working memory tasks; a putative association between the structure of the frontoparietal regions and working memory performance has been suggested based on the analysis of individuals with varying pathologies. This study aimed to identify correlations between white matter and individual differences in verbal working memory performance in normal young subjects. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses using T1-weighted structural images as well as voxel-based analyses of fractional anisotropy (FA) using diffusion tensor imaging. Using the letter span task, we measured verbal working memory performance in normal young adult men and women (mean age, 21.7 years, SD=1.44; 42 men and 13 women). We observed positive correlations between working memory performance and regional white matter volume (rWMV) in the frontoparietal regions. In addition, FA was found to be positively correlated with verbal working memory performance in a white matter region adjacent to the right precuneus. These regions are consistently recruited by working memory. Our findings suggest that, among normal young subjects, verbal working memory performance is associated with various regions that are recruited during working memory tasks, and this association is not limited to specific parts of the working memory network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent
In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Audusseau, Jean; Juhel, Jacques
The authors investigated whether working memory (WM) plays a significant role in the development of decision making in children, operationalized by the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). A total of 105 children aged 6-7, 8-9, and 10-11 years old carried out the CGT. Children aged 6-7 years old were found to have a lower performance than older children, which shows that the CGT is sensitive to participant's age. The hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making was then tested following two approaches: (a) an experimental approach, comparing between groups the performance on the CGT in a control condition (the CGT only was administered) to that in a double task condition (participants had to carry out a recall task in addition to the CGT); (b) an interindividual approach, probing the relationship between CGT performance and performance on tasks measuring WM efficiency. The between-groups approach evidenced a better performance in the control group. Moreover, the interindividual approach showed that the higher the participants' WM efficiency was, the higher their performance in the CGT was. Taken together, these two approaches yield converging results that support the hypothesis that WM plays a significant role in decision making in children.
Full Text Available The motivation of this research was to evaluate the main memory performance of a hybrid super computer such as the Convey HC-x, and ascertain how the controller performs in several access scenarios, vis-à-vis hand-coded memory prefetches. Such memory patterns are very useful in stencil computations. The theoretical bandwidth of the memory of the Convey is compared with the results of our measurements. The accurate study of the memory subsystem is particularly useful for users when they are developing their application-specific personality. Experiments were performed to measure the bandwidth between the coprocessor and the memory subsystem. The experiments aimed mainly at measuring the reading access speed of the memory from Application Engines (FPGAs. Different ways of accessing data were used in order to find the most efficient way to access memory. This way was proposed for future work in the Convey HC-x. When performing a series of accesses to memory, non-uniform latencies occur. The Memory Controller of the Convey HC-x in the coprocessor attempts to cover this latency. We measure memory efficiency as a ratio of the number of memory accesses and the number of execution cycles. The result of this measurement converges to one in most cases. In addition, we performed experiments with hand-coded memory accesses. The analysis of the experimental results shows how the memory subsystem and Memory Controllers work. From this work we conclude that the memory controllers do an excellent job, largely because (transparently to the user they seem to cache large amounts of data, and hence hand-coding is not needed in most situations.
Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.
Pettigrew, Frank E.; Heikkinen, Michael
This study measured the effect of an eclectic instructional approach on psychomotor skills achievement of 156 junior high school students when implemented in lieu of the teacher's preferred instructional style. The eclectic approach produced higher scores in nine of twelve tests and showed insignificant gains in the other three tests. (MT)
Psychomotor skills need to be taught in technical education courses. Some students can be taught more easily than others, depending on their physical attributes. These attributes are speed, steadiness, perception, dexterity, agility/flexibility, endurance, equilibrium/balance, strength, and coordination. Before students attempt to learn vocational…
Sherman, Stephanie M; Buckley, Timothy P; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee
Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students' non-optimal time of day - early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams.
Stephanie M Sherman
Full Text Available Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated, college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1. During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students’ non-optimal time of day – early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams.
Full Text Available Due to the increasing complexity of multi/many-core architectures (with their mix of caches and scratch-pad memories and applications (with different memory access patterns, the performance of many workloads becomes increasingly variable. In this work, we address one of the main causes for this performance variability: the efficiency of the memory system. Specifically, based on an empirical evaluation driven by memory access patterns, we qualify and partially quantify the performance impact of using local memory in multi/many-core processors. To do so, we systematically describe memory access patterns (MAPs in an application-agnostic manner. Next, for each identified MAP, we use OpenCL (for portability reasons to generate two microbenchmarks: a “naive” version (without local memory and “an optimized” version (using local memory. We then evaluate both of them on typically used multi-core and many-core platforms, and we log their performance. What we eventually obtain is a local memory performance database, indexed by various MAPs and platforms. Further, we propose a set of composing rules for multiple MAPs. Thus, we can get an indicator of whether using local memory is beneficial in the presence of multiple memory access patterns. This indication can be used to either avoid the hassle of implementing optimizations with too little gain or, alternatively, give a rough prediction of the performance gain.
Sozda, Christopher N; Muir, James J; Springer, Utaka S; Partovi, Diana; Cole, Michael A
Memory complaints are particularly salient among veterans who experience combat-related mild traumatic brain injuries and/or trauma exposure, and represent a primary barrier to successful societal reintegration and everyday functioning. Anecdotally within clinical practice, verbal learning and memory performance frequently appears differentially reduced versus visual learning and memory scores. We sought to empirically investigate the robustness of a verbal versus visual learning and memory discrepancy and to explore potential mechanisms for a verbal/visual performance split. Participants consisted of 103 veterans with reported history of mild traumatic brain injuries returning home from U.S. military Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom referred for outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Findings indicate that visual learning and memory abilities were largely intact while verbal learning and memory performance was significantly reduced in comparison, residing at approximately 1.1 SD below the mean for verbal learning and approximately 1.4 SD below the mean for verbal memory. This difference was not observed in verbal versus visual fluency performance, nor was it associated with estimated premorbid verbal abilities or traumatic brain injury history. In our sample, symptoms of depression, but not posttraumatic stress disorder, were significantly associated with reduced composite verbal learning and memory performance. Verbal learning and memory performance may benefit from targeted treatment of depressive symptomatology. Also, because visual learning and memory functions may remain intact, these might be emphasized when applying neurocognitive rehabilitation interventions to compensate for observed verbal learning and memory difficulties.
After decades of relentless progress, the silicon CMOS industry is approaching a stall in device performance for both logic and memory devices due to fundamental scaling limitations. In order to reinforce the accelerating pace, novel materials with unique properties are being proposed on an urgent basis. This list includes one dimensional nanotubes, quasi one dimensional nanowires, two dimensional atomistically thin layered materials like graphene, hexagonal boron nitride and the more recently the rich family of transition metal di-chalcogenides comprising of MoS2, WSe2, WS2 and many more for logic applications and organic and inorganic ferroelectrics, phase change materials and magnetic materials for memory applications. Only time will tell who will win, but exploring these novel materials allow us to revisit the fundamentals and strengthen our understanding which will ultimately be beneficial for high performance device design. While there has been growing interest in two-dimensional (2D) crystals other than graphene, evaluating their potential usefulness for electronic applications is still in its infancies due to the lack of a complete picture of their performance potential. The fact that the 2-D layered semiconducting di-chalcogenides need to be connected to the "outside" world in order to capitalize on their ultimate potential immediately emphasizes the importance of a thorough understanding of the contacts. This thesis demonstrate that through a proper understanding and design of source/drain contacts and the right choice of number of MoS2 layers the excellent intrinsic properties of this 2D material can be harvested. A comprehensive experimental study on the dependence of carrier mobility on the layer thickness of back gated multilayer MoS 2 field effect transistors is also provided. A resistor network model that comprises of Thomas-Fermi charge screening and interlayer coupling is used to explain the non-monotonic trend in the extracted field effect
Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of project-based learning (PBL to improve student’ psychomotor skills and concept understanding, as well as knowing what PBL contribution to the improvement of student’ psychomotor skills in chemistry learning. The study was conducted in three cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, implementation, observation, and reflection steps. One set of data consists of student’ psychomotor skills assesment, student’ conceptual understanding and questionnaire responses were obtained from the action research. Learning process was performed in the eleventh grade students included 37 students (10 males and 27 females and 3 collaborators. The successful research was indicated by 85% of students achieve the mastery learning on concept understanding and well on psychomotor aspects. Data collection was performed using documentation method by questionnaire, observations, and tests. Data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that all aspects of the psychomotor assessed include sets, mechanical response, complex response, adaptation, and origination were in high category. At the end of the lesson, the project assigned to students were evaluated jointly between teachers and students. The project results in the form of a series of distillation apparatus is applied to separate the natural compounds.
Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS). To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits. PMID:22330655
Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.
... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...
Radmilović, Goranka; Matijević, Valentina; Zavoreo, Iris
Numerous adverse factors are acting in the prenatal, perinatal and postnatal period of life and may be the cause of later mild or severe deviations from normal psychomotor development. Therefore, it is crucial to identify infants with neurological risk factors and infants that already have a delay from orderly development, in order to immediately initiate the rehabilitation process. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is difference in the assessment of psychomotor development in neurological risk children based on the psychomotor development test (Croatian, Razvoj psihomotorike, RPM test) and clinical evaluation of neuromotor development. RPM test is designed for rough estimate of psychomotor development in children in the first two years of life. The study included 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) with clinical diagnosis of mild paraparesis and mild deviation from normal psychological and social development, and 15 full term children (8 male and 7 female) without neurological risk factors and deviations from normal psychomotor development, all at the age of 12-24 months. Of the 15 children diagnosed with mild paraparesis, none had delayed psychomotor development, 6.7% had suspect development and 93.3% had normal development on RPM test. All children in the control group had normal development on RPM test. According to the results, the RPM test is not sensitive enough to detect mild neurodevelopmental disorders.
Full Text Available The binge drinking (BD pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC on memory during late adolescence (18–19 years old in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers, BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers, BAC1 (0.3 – 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers or BAC2 (0.54 – 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers. The subjects’ immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III. The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L. No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than
Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Duque, Aránzazu; Montañés, Adriana; Monleón, Santiago
The binge drinking (BD) pattern of alcohol consumption is prevalent during adolescence, a period characterized by critical changes to the structural and functional development of brain areas related with memory and cognition. There is considerable evidence of the cognitive dysfunctions caused by the neurotoxic effects of BD in the not-yet-adult brain. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) on memory during late adolescence (18-19 years old) in males and females with a history of BD. The sample consisted of 154 adolescents (67 males and 87 females) that were classified as refrainers if they had never previously drunk alcoholic drinks and as binge drinkers if they had drunk six or more standard drink units in a row for men or five or more for women at a minimum frequency of three occasions in a month, throughout the previous 12 months. After intake of a high acute dose of alcohol by binge drinkers or a control refreshment by refrainers and binge drinkers, subjects were distributed into four groups for each gender according to their BAC: BAC0-R (0 g/L, in refrainers), BAC0-BD (0 g/L, in binge drinkers), BAC1 (0.3 - 0.5 g/L, in binge drinkers) or BAC2 (0.54 - 1.1 g/L, in binge drinkers). The subjects' immediate visual memory and working memory were then measured according to the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The BAC1 group showed lower scores of immediate visual memory but not of working memory, while lower performance in both memories were found in the BAC2 group. Therefore, the brain of binge drinkers with moderate BAC could be employing compensatory mechanisms from additional brain areas to perform a working memory task adequately, but these resources would be undermined when BAC is higher (>0.5 g/L). No gender differences were found in BAC-related lower performance in immediate visual memory and working memory. In conclusion, immediate visual memory is more sensitive than working memory to
Sumner, Jennifer A.; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P.
Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the overreliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N = 55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed. PMID:23240988
Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia
This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.
Franciscis, S. de; Johnson, S.; Torres, J. J.
The behaviour of many complex dynamical systems has been found to depend crucially on the structure of the underlying networks of interactions. An intriguing feature of empirical networks is their assortativity--i.e., the extent to which the degrees of neighbouring nodes are correlated. However, until very recently it was difficult to take this property into account analytically, most work being exclusively numerical. We get round this problem by considering ensembles of equally correlated graphs and apply this novel technique to the case of attractor neural networks. Assortativity turns out to be a key feature for memory performance in these systems - so much so that for sufficiently correlated topologies the critical temperature diverges. We predict that artificial and biological neural systems could significantly enhance their robustness to noise by developing positive correlations.
Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry
Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sepeta, Leigh N.; Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Terwilliger, Virginia; Facella-Ervolini, Joy; Sady, Maegan; Mayo, Jessica; Gaillard, William D.; Berl, Madison M.
Objective Learning and memory are essential for academic success and everyday functioning, but the pattern of memory skills and its relationship to executive functioning in children with focal epilepsy is not fully delineated. We address a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between memory and executive functioning in a pediatric focal epilepsy population. Methods Seventy children with focal epilepsy and 70 typically developing children matched on age, intellectual functioning, and gender underwent neuropsychological assessment, including measures of intelligence (WASI/DAS), as well as visual (CMS Dot Locations) and verbal episodic memory (WRAML Story Memory and CVLT-C). Executive functioning was measured directly (WISC-IV Digit Span Backward; CELF-IV Recalling Sentences) and by parent report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)). Results Children with focal epilepsy had lower delayed free recall scores than controls across visual and verbal memory tasks (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .12). In contrast, recognition memory performance was similar for patients and controls (p = 0.36; partial η2 = .03). Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated difficulties in working memory (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .08) and planning/organization (p = 0.02) compared to controls. Working memory predicted 9–19% of the variance in delayed free recall for verbal and visual memory; organization predicted 9–10% of the variance in verbal memory. Patients with both left and right focal epilepsy demonstrated more difficulty on verbal versus visual tasks (p = 0.002). Memory performance did not differ by location of seizure foci (temporal vs. extra-temporal, frontal vs. extra-frontal). Significance Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated memory ability within age-level expectations, but delayed free recall was inefficient compared to typically developing controls. Memory difficulties were not related to general cognitive impairment or seizure localization
Iserbyt, Peter; Mols, Liesbet; Elen, Jan; Behets, Daniel
This study adds to the literature by introducing multimedia research in the psychomotor area. In this study, 87 freshman students in pedagogy used task cards to learn Basic Life Support (BLS), a psychomotor skill consisting of nine lifesaving actions to be performed in a specific order. Task cards are printed materials and are often implemented…
Duan, Yang; Sun, Fu-qiang; Li, Yue-qin; Que, Sheng-shun; Yang, Su-yan; Xu, Wen-jing; Yu, Wen-hong; Chen, Jun-hua; Lu, Ya-jie; Li, Xin
It is of high incidence of brain injuries in premature infants, so it is necessary to diagnose and treat the brain injury early for neonatal clinical practice. We are aimed to investigate the relationship between early postnatal cranial ultrasonography and psychomotor and mental development in prematrue infants at the age of 12 months. Two-hundred and eight premature infants were selected and underwent follow-up from January, 2007 to November, 2012. Cranial ultrasonography was performed on them. The developmental outcomes of these premature infants at the age of 12 months were assessed by the psychomotor developmental index (PDI) scale and mental development index (MDI). The relationship between ultrasonic gray-scale value and PDI and MDI was analyzed. The worse prognosis for psychomotor and mental development was associated with the gestational age, Apgar score(1 min), gender, chorioamnionitis, duration of mechanical ventilation and duration of mechanic ventilation. The differences between the prognosis of psychomotor and mental development, and peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) and periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), were statistically significant (Ppsychomotor development and mental development (Ppsychomotor and mental development for premature infants. The higher grade of PIVH and PWMD was associated with the worse prognosis of psychomotor and mental development.
Koenig, Katherine A; Rao, Stephen M; Lowe, Mark J; Lin, Jian; Sakaie, Ken E; Stone, Lael; Bermel, Robert A; Trapp, Bruce D; Phillips, Micheal D
Episodic memory loss is one of the most common cognitive symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the pathophysiology of this symptom remains unclear. Both the hippocampus and thalamus have been implicated in episodic memory and show regional atrophy in patients with MS. In this work, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a verbal episodic memory task, lesion load, and volumetric measures of the hippocampus and thalamus to assess the relative contributions to verbal and visual-spatial episodic memory. Functional activation, lesion load, and volumetric measures from 32 patients with MS and 16 healthy controls were used in a predictive analysis of episodic memory function. After adjusting for disease duration, immediate recall performance on a visual-spatial episodic memory task was significantly predicted by hippocampal volume ( p memory measures, functional activation of the thalamus during encoding was more predictive than that of volume measures ( p episodic memory loss in patients with MS.
Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J
Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.
Laier, Christian; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias
Some individuals report problems during and after Internet sex engagement, such as missing sleep and forgetting appointments, which are associated with negative life consequences. One mechanism potentially leading to these kinds of problems is that sexual arousal during Internet sex might interfere with working memory (WM) capacity, resulting in a neglect of relevant environmental information and therefore disadvantageous decision making. In this study, 28 healthy individuals performed 4 experimental manipulations of a pictorial 4-back WM task with neutral, negative, positive, or pornographic stimuli. Participants also rated 100 pornographic pictures with respect to sexual arousal and indicated masturbation urges previous to and following pornographic picture presentation. Results revealed worse WM performance in the pornographic picture condition of the 4-back task compared with the three remaining picture conditions. Furthermore, hierarchical regression analysis indicated an explanation of variance of the sensitivity in the pornographic picture condition by the subjective rating of the pornographic pictures as well as by a moderation effect of masturbation urges. Results contribute to the view that indicators of sexual arousal due to pornographic picture processing interfere with WM performance. Findings are discussed with respect to Internet sex addiction because WM interference by addiction-related cues is well known from substance dependencies.
Zanto, Theodore P; Chadick, James Z; Gazzaley, Adam
Alpha band (8-12 Hz) phase dynamics in the visual cortex are thought to reflect fluctuations in cortical excitability that influences perceptual processing. As such, visual stimuli are better detected when their onset is concurrent with specific phases of the alpha cycle. However, it is unclear whether alpha phase differentially influences cognitive performance at specific times relative to stimulus onset (i.e., is the influence of phase maximal before, at, or after stimulus onset?). To address this, participants performed a delayed-recognition, working memory (WM) task for visual motion direction during two separate visits. The first visit utilized functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging to identify neural regions associated with task performance. Replicating previous studies, fMRI data showed engagement of visual cortical area V5, as well as a prefrontal cortical region, the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). During the second visit, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied separately to both the right IFJ and right V5 (with the vertex as a control region) while electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded. During each trial, a single pulse of TMS (spTMS) was applied at one of six time points (-200, -100, -50, 0, 80, 160 ms) relative to the encoded stimulus onset. Results demonstrated a relationship between the phase of the posterior alpha signal prior to stimulus encoding and subsequent response times to the memory probe two seconds later. Specifically, spTMS to V5, and not the IFJ or vertex, yielded faster response times, indicating improved WM performance, when delivered during the peak, compared to the trough, of the alpha cycle, but only when spTMS was applied 100 ms prior to stimulus onset. These faster responses to the probe correlated with decreased early event related potential (ERP) amplitudes (i.e., P1) to the probe stimuli. Moreover, participants that were least affected by spTMS exhibited greater functional connectivity
Full Text Available In-memory database systems are among the most recent and most promising Big Data technologies, being developed and released either as brand new distributed systems or as extensions of old monolith (centralized database systems. As name suggests, in-memory systems cache all the data into special memory structures. Many are part of the NewSQL strand and target to bridge the gap between OLTP and OLAP into so-called Hybrid Transactional Analytical Systems (HTAP. This paper aims to test the performance of using such type of systems for TPCH analytical workloads. Performance is analyzed in terms of data loading, memory footprint and execution time of the TPCH query set for three in-memory data systems: Oracle, SQL Server and MemSQL. Tests are subsequently deployed on classical on-disk architectures and results compared to in-memory solutions. As in-memory is an enterprise edition feature, associated costs are also considered.
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older
Ahmed, Rashida; Naqvi, Zoon; Wolfhagen, Ineke
To identify essential psychomotor skills for all the medical graduates of an undergraduate programme in Pakistan. Twenty-five physicians practising in a tertiary care centre and ninety primary care physicians used a Likert's scale, ranging from "very essential" to"not required at all", to mark 99 psychomotor skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum in Pakistan. Overall the opinions of both the groups about the essential skills matched except for a few areas. This study provides baseline data about psychomotor skills that a medical graduate in developing countries should be able to perform. Further studies will be undertaken by involving other stakeholders to identify and incorporate these skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum, thereby enabling graduates to practice in all the settings in Pakistan.
Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R
Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7–12 years using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.
Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall G; Chu, Yi-Fang; Lyle, Barbara J; Joseph, James A
The complex mixture of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provides protective health benefits, mainly through additive and/or synergistic effects. The presence of several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and caffeine, implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic in aging. Moderate (three to five cups a day) coffee consumption in humans is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing certain chronic diseases. However, the ability of coffee supplementation to improve cognitive function in aged individuals and the effect of the individual components in coffee, such as caffeine, have not been fully evaluated. We fed aged rats (19 months) one of five coffee-supplemented diets (0, 0.165, 0.275, 0.55, and 0.825% of the diet) for 8 weeks prior to motor and cognitive behavior assessment. Aged rats supplemented with a 0.55% coffee diet, equivalent to ten cups of coffee, performed better in psychomotor testing (rotarod) and in a working memory task (Morris water maze) compared to aged rats fed a control diet. A diet with 0.55% coffee appeared to be optimal. The 0.165% coffee-supplemented group (three cups) showed some improvement in reference memory performance in the Morris water maze. In a subsequent study, the effects of caffeine alone did not account for the performance improvements, showing that the neuroprotective benefits of coffee are not due to caffeine alone, but rather to other bioactive compounds in coffee. Therefore, coffee, in achievable amounts, may reduce both motor and cognitive deficits in aging.
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher
This study examined the contribution of individual differences in rate of forgetting to variation in working memory performance in children. One hundred and twelve children (mean age 9 years 4 months) completed 2 tasks designed to measure forgetting, as well as measures of working memory, processing efficiency, and short-term storage ability. Individual differences in forgetting rate accounted for unique variance in working memory performance over and above variance explained by measures of p...
Tiziana Zalla; Elena Daprati; Anca-Maria Sav; Pauline Chaste; Daniele Nico; Marion Leboyer
Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from...
Stamp, Anne Schinkel; Pedersen, Lise Lang; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon
Abstract In this study we aimed to develop a theoretical account of the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy in addition to treatment as usual in patients with chronic shoulder pain. The qualitative study design was based on a grounded theory approach. Open-ended face-to-face interviews were...... conducted after treatment was completed. We generated data and performed analyses by constant comparative analysis and theoretical sampling that focused on the patients' behavioural characteristics related to the experienced benefit of psychomotor therapy. We conducted 12 interviews, eight of which were...
Pillai, Roshni; Yathiraj, Asha
The study evaluated whether there exists a difference/relation in the way four different memory skills (memory score, sequencing score, memory span, & sequencing span) are processed through the auditory modality, visual modality and combined modalities. Four memory skills were evaluated on 30 typically developing children aged 7 years and 8 years across three modality conditions (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual). Analogous auditory and visual stimuli were presented to evaluate the three modality conditions across the two age groups. The children obtained significantly higher memory scores through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Likewise, their memory scores were significantly higher through the auditory-visual modality condition than through the visual modality. However, no effect of modality was observed on the sequencing scores as well as for the memory and the sequencing span. A good agreement was seen between the different modality conditions that were studied (auditory, visual, & auditory-visual) for the different memory skills measures (memory scores, sequencing scores, memory span, & sequencing span). A relatively lower agreement was noted only between the auditory and visual modalities as well as between the visual and auditory-visual modality conditions for the memory scores, measured using Bland-Altman plots. The study highlights the efficacy of using analogous stimuli to assess the auditory, visual as well as combined modalities. The study supports the view that the performance of children on different memory skills was better through the auditory modality compared to the visual modality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon
A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.
Beaunieux, Hélène; Hubert, Valérie; Pitel, Anne Lise; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis
Cognitive procedural learning is characterized by three phases, each involving distinct processes. Considering the implication of the episodic memory in the first cognitive stage, the impairment of this memory system might be responsible for a slowing down of the cognitive procedural learning dynamics in the course of aging. Performances of massed cognitive procedural learning were evaluated in older and younger participants using the Tower of Toronto task. Nonverbal intelligence and psychomotor abilities were used to analyze procedural dynamics, while episodic memory and working memory were assessed to measure their respective contributions to learning strategies. This experiment showed that older participants did not spontaneously invoke episodic memory and presented a slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning associated with a late involvement of working memory. These findings suggest that the slowdown in the cognitive procedural learning may be linked with the implementation of different learning strategies less involving episodic memory in older subjects. PMID:18654928
Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten
Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing
Dekhtyar, Maria; Papp, Kathryn V; Buckley, Rachel; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Schultz, Aaron P; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M
Age-related memory decline has been well-documented; however, some individuals reach their 8th-10th decade while maintaining strong memory performance. To determine which demographic and biomarker factors differentiated top memory performers (aged 75+, top 20% for memory) from their peers and whether top memory performance was maintained over 3 years. Clinically normal adults (n=125, CDR=0; age: 79.5±3.57 years) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study underwent cognitive testing and neuroimaging (amyloid PET, MRI) at baseline and 3-year follow-up. Participants were grouped into Optimal (n=25) vs. Typical (n=100) performers using performance on 3 challenging memory measures. Non-parametric tests were used to compare groups. There were no differences in age, sex, or education between Optimal vs. Typical performers. The Optimal group performed better in Processing Speed (p=0.016) and Executive Functioning (pmemory performance while 7 declined. Non-Maintainers additionally declined in Executive Functioning but not Processing Speed. Longitudinally, there were no hippocampal volume differences between Maintainers and Non-Maintainers, however Non-Maintainers exhibited higher amyloid burden at baseline in contrast with Maintainers (p=0.008). Excellent memory performance in late life does not guarantee protection against cognitive decline. Those who maintain an optimal memory into the 8th and 9th decades may have lower levels of AD pathology. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Discussion: Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.
Baldock, Deanna; Miller, Justin B; Leger, Gabriel C; Banks, Sarah Jane
Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) typically have initial deficits in language or changes in personality, while the defining characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is memory impairment. Neuropsychological findings in the two diseases tend to differ, but can be confounded by verbal impairment in FTD impacting performance on memory tests in these patients. Twenty-seven patients with FTD and 102 patients with AD underwent a neuropsychological assessment before diagnosis. By utilizing analogous versions of a verbal and nonverbal memory test, we demonstrated differences in these two modalities between AD and FTD. Better differentiation between AD and FTD is found in a nonverbal memory test, possibly because it eliminates the confounding variable of language deficits found in patients with FTD. These results highlight the importance of nonverbal learning tests with multiple learning trials in diagnostic testing.
Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.
Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and
Geldorp, B. van; Bergmann, H.C.; Robertson, J.; Wester, A.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.
Both neuroimaging work and studies investigating amnesic patients have shown involvement of the medial temporal lobe during working memory tasks, especially when multiple items or features have to be associated. However, so far no study has examined the relationship between working memory and
Zimmerman, Carissa A.; Kelley, Colleen M.
Emotionality is a key component of subjective experience that influences memory. We tested how the emotionality of words affects memory monitoring, specifically, judgments of learning, in both cued recall and free recall paradigms. In both tasks, people predicted that positive and negative emotional words would be recalled better than neutral…
Blagrove, Mark; Seddon, Jennifer; George, Sophie; Parrott, Andrew C.; Stickgold, Robert; Walker, Matthew; Jones, Katy; Morgan, Michael J.
This study assessed the effects of ecstasy/MDMA on declarative memory (Rivermead Behavioral Memory task - RBMT), on procedural learning (Finger Tapping Task - FTT), and on the memory consolidation function of sleep for these two tasks. Testing occurred in 2 afternoon testing sessions, 24 hours apart so that a full period of sleep was allowed between them. Groups were: Non-drug taking Controls (n=24); Recent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had taken ecstasy and/or MDMA 2–3 days before the first testing session (n=25), and Abstinent Ecstasy/MDMA users, who had not taken ecstasy/MDMA for at least 8 days before the first session (n=17). The recent ecstasy/MDMA users performed significantly worse than controls on the RBMT (mean recall 76.1% of control group recall), but did not differ from controls on FTT performance. Correspondingly there was a significant regression between the continuous variable of recency of ecstasy/MDMA use and RBMT performance. However, there was an interaction between ecstasy/MDMA use and subsequent other drug use. Controls had similar RBMT scores to recent ecstasy/MDMA users who did not take other drugs 48 – 24 hours before testing, but scored significantly better than recent ecstasy/MDMA users who took various other drugs (mainly cannabis) 48 – 24 hours before testing. For both tasks the control, recent ecstasy/MDMA and abstinent ecstasy/MDMA users did not differ in their change of performance across 24 hours; there was thus no evidence that ecstasy/MDMA impairs the memory consolidation function of sleep for either declarative or procedural memory. For participants in the two ecstasy/MDMA groups greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets was associated with significantly more deficits in procedural memory. Furthermore, greater lifetime consumption of ecstasy tablets and of cocaine, were also associated with significantly more deficits in declarative memory. PMID:20615932
Liebowitz, Matt; Spies, Rynardt
Covering the latest VMware vSphere software, an essential book aimed at solving vSphere performance problems before they happen VMware vSphere is the industry's most widely deployed virtualization solution. However, if you improperly deploy vSphere, performance problems occur. Aimed at VMware administrators and engineers and written by a team of VMware experts, this resource provides guidance on common CPU, memory, storage, and network-related problems. Plus, step-by-step instructions walk you through techniques for solving problems and shed light on possible causes behind the problems. Divu
This Oracle Press guide shows, step-by-step, how to optimize database performance and cut transaction processing time using Oracle Database 12c Release 2 In-Memory. Oracle Database 12c Release 2 In-Memory: Tips and Techniques for Maximum Performance features hands-on instructions, best practices, and expert tips from an Oracle enterprise architect. You will learn how to deploy the software, use In-Memory Advisor, build queries, and interoperate with Oracle RAC and Multitenant. A complete chapter of case studies illustrates real-world applications. • Configure Oracle Database 12c and construct In-Memory enabled databases • Edit and control In-Memory options from the graphical interface • Implement In-Memory with Oracle Real Application Clusters • Use the In-Memory Advisor to determine what objects to keep In-Memory • Optimize In-Memory queries using groups, expressions, and aggregations • Maximize performance using Oracle Exadata Database Machine and In-Memory option • Use Swingbench to create d...
Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie
The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of cognitive control in response to conflict. Participants performed a Simon task in which congruent and incongruent trials were equiprobable, but in which the proportion of congruency repetitions (congruent trials followed by congruent trials or incongruent trials followed by incongruent trials) and thus the need for trial-by-trial adjustments in cognitive control varied by block. The overall Simon effect did not depend on WMC capacity. However, for the low-WMC participants the Simon effect decreased as the proportion of congruency repetitions decreased, whereas for the high- and average-WMC participants it was relatively constant across conditions. Distribution analysis of the Simon effect showed more evidence for the inhibition of stimulus location in the low- than in the high-WMC participants, especially when the proportion of congruency repetitions was low. We hypothesize that low-WMC individuals exhibit more interference from task-irrelevant information due to weaker preparatory control prior to stimulus presentation and, thus, stronger reliance on reactive recruitment of cognitive control.
Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon
Many health professionals use psychomotor or task-based skills in clinical practice that require concomitant communication with a conscious patient. Verbally engaging with the patient requires highly developed verbal communication skills, enabling the delivery of patient-centred care. Historically, priority has been given to learning the psychomotor skills essential to clinical practice. However, there has been a shift towards also ensuring competent communication with the patient during skill performance. While there is literature outlining the steps to teach and learn verbal communication skills, little is known about the most appropriate instructional approach to teach how to verbally engage with the patient when also learning to perform a task. A literature review was performed and it identified that there was no model or proven approach which could be used to integrate the learning of both psychomotor and communication skills. This paper reviews the steps to teach a communication skill and provides a suggested model to guide the acquisition and development of the concomitant -communication skills required with a patient at the time a psychomotor skill is performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H; Miedema, Helene A.T.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes
Objective Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon’s cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon’s learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical
Knight, G. William; And Others
The first step in engineering the instruction of dental psychomotor skills, task analysis, is explained. A chart details the procedural, cognitive, desired-criteria, and desired-performance analysis of a single task, occlusal preparation for amalgam restoration with carious lesion. (MSE)
Chmarra, Magdalena K.; Grimbergen, Cornelis A.; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Dankelman, Jenny
In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a surgeon needs to acquire a certain level of basic psychomotor MIS skills to perform surgery safely. Evaluation of those skills is a major impediment. Although various assessment methods have been introduced, none of them came as a superior. Three aspects of
Guenzel, Pamela J.; And Others
The fourth article in a four-part series on instructional design discusses evaluation of a psychomotor skills unit taught in preclinical dental education. Issues examined include piloting of instructional materials, analysis and revision of materials based on student performance, syllabus design and content, influence of faculty characteristics,…
Saghafi, Shahram; Ferguson, Lisa; Hogue, Olivia; Gales, Jordan M; Prayson, Richard; Busch, Robyn M
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a classification system for hippocampal sclerosis (HS) based on location and extent of hippocampal neuron loss. The literature debates the usefulness of this classification system when studying memory in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and determining memory outcome after temporal lobe resection (TLR). This study further explores the relationship between HS ILAE subtypes and episodic memory performance in patients with TLE and examines memory outcomes after TLR. This retrospective study identified 213 patients with TLE who underwent TLR and had histopathological evidence of HS (HS ILAE type 1a = 92; type 1b = 103; type 2 = 18). Patients completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd Edition prior to surgery, and 78% of patients had postoperative scores available. Linear regressions examined differences in preoperative memory scores as a function of pathology classification, controlling for potential confounders. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare pathology subtypes on the magnitude of preoperative memory impairment and the proportion of patients who experienced clinically meaningful postoperative memory decline. Individuals with HS ILAE type 2 demonstrated better preoperative verbal memory performance than patients with HS ILAE type 1; however, individual data revealed verbal and visual episodic memory impairments in many patients with HS ILAE type 2. The base rate of postoperative memory decline was similar among all 3 pathology groups. This is the largest reported overall sample and the largest subset of patients with HS ILAE type 2. Group data suggest that patients with HS ILAE type 2 perform better on preoperative memory measures, but individually there were no differences in the magnitude of memory impairment. Following surgery, there were no statistically significant differences between groups in the proportion of patients who declined. Future research should focus on quantitative measurements
王琪; 李佳芮; 王东辉
Phase change memory (PCM) is a promising technology for future memory thanks to its better scalability and lower leakage power than DRAM (dynamic random-access memory). However, adopting PCM as main memory needs to overcome its write issues, such as long write latency and high write power. In this paper, we propose two techniques to improve the performance and energy-eﬃciency of PCM memory systems. First, we propose a victim cache technique utilizing the existing buffer in the memory controller to reduce PCM memory accesses. The key idea is reorganizing the buffer into a victim cache structure (RBC) to provide additional hits for the LLC (last level cache). Second, we propose a chip parallelism-aware replacement policy (CPAR) for the victim cache to further improve performance. Instead of evicting one cache line once, CPAR evicts multiple cache lines that access different PCM chips. CPAR can reduce the frequent victim cache eviction and improve the write parallelism of PCM chips. The evaluation results show that, compared with the baseline, RBC can improve PCM memory system performance by up to 9.4% and 5.4% on average. Combing CPAR with RBC (RBC+CPAR) can improve performance by up to 19.0% and 12.1% on average. Moreover, RBC and RBC+CPAR can reduce memory energy consumption by 8.3%and 6.6%on average, respectively.
Nissim, Nicole R; O'Shea, Andrew M; Bryant, Vaughn; Porges, Eric C; Cohen, Ronald; Woods, Adam J
Working memory is an executive memory process that allows transitional information to be held and manipulated temporarily in memory stores before being forgotten or encoded into long-term memory. Working memory is necessary for everyday decision-making and problem solving, making it a fundamental process in the daily lives of older adults. Working memory relies heavily on frontal lobe structures and is known to decline with age. The current study aimed to determine the neural correlates of decreased working memory performance in the frontal lobes by comparing cortical thickness and cortical surface area from two demographically matched groups of healthy older adults, free from cognitive impairment, with high versus low N-Back working memory performance ( N = 56; average age = 70.29 ± 10.64). High-resolution structural T1-weighted images (1 mm isotropic voxels) were obtained on a 3T Philips MRI scanner. When compared to high performers, low performers exhibited significantly decreased cortical surface area in three frontal lobe regions lateralized to the right hemisphere: medial orbital frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and superior frontal gyrus (FDR p frontal regions may underlie age-related decline of working memory function.
Khan, Yasser; Bhansali, Unnat Sampatraj; Alshareef, Husam N.
High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage
Chen, Chi-Ming A.; Stanford, Arielle D.; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Schroeder, Charles E.; Kegeles, Lawrence S.
A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance ...
Brandt, Karen; Sünram-Lea, Sandra; Jenkinson, Paul; Jones, Emma
Whilst previous research has shown that glucose administration can boost memory performance, research investigating the effects of glucose on memory for emotional material has produced mixed findings. Whereas some research has shown that glucose impairs memory for emotional material, other research has shown that glucose has no effect on emotional items. The aim of the present research was therefore to provide further investigation of the role of glucose on the recognition of words with emoti...
Selivanova, Karina G.; Ignashchuk, Olena V.; Koval, Leonid G.; Kilivnik, Volodymyr S.; Zlepko, Alexandra S.; Sawicki, Daniel; Kalizhanova, Aliya; Zhanpeisova, Aizhan; Smailova, Saule
Nowadays research of psychomotor actions has taken a special place in education, sports, medicine, psychology etc. Development of computer system for psychomotor testing could help solve many operational problems in psychoneurology and psychophysiology and also determine the individual characteristics of fine motor skills. This is particularly relevant issue when it comes to children, students, athletes for definition of personal and professional features. The article presents the dynamics of a developing psychomotor skills and application in the training process of means. The results of testing indicated their significant impact on psychomotor skills development.
Hagen, Suzanne; Gallagher, Helen
Background Competent sonography is thought to include a unique combination of skills not yet fully defined. This presents challenges when recruiting the correct people for training. Skills are thought to include visuospatial perception and psychomotor skills, but little is known about the relationship between these aptitudes and scanning ability. This feasibility study explored such relationships, to identify evaluation techniques which may improve selection and recruitment. Methods A sample of 30 experienced ultrasound practitioners and 30 trainees at commencement and on completion of training were administered eight tests. Results No significant relationships between experienced practitioners’ or trainees’ visuospatial abilities or psychomotor abilities and scanning abilities were found. Results demonstrated that two of the visuospatial perception tests were not influenced by training and therefore, may be measuring the innate skills of ultrasound practitioners. As ultrasound practitioners had not performed any of the tests previously, ranges of scores for each of the eight tests were established for this group. This included measures for psychomotor skills which added to the current body of knowledge for sonography. Conclusions Although no significant correlations were found between participants’ visuospatial perception or psychomotor abilities and scanning ability, performance on the Obstetric Structured Assessment Test (combining all the skills required) pre-training gave the best indication of post-training scanning performance. The Obstetric Structured Assessment Test may prove a useful tool for initial assessment of potential trainees but abilities will require further investigation. PMID:27847536
McMahon, Terry W; Newman, David G
Flying a helicopter is a complex psychomotor skill requiring constant control inputs from pilots. A deterioration in psychomotor performance of a helicopter pilot may be detrimental to operational safety. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychomotor performance deteriorates over time during sustained operations and that the effect is more pronounced in the feet than the hands. The subjects were helicopter pilots conducting sustained multicrew offshore flight operations in a demanding environment. The remote flight operations involved constant workload in hot environmental conditions with complex operational tasking. Over a period of 6 d 10 helicopter pilots were tested. At the completion of daily flying duties, a helicopter-specific screen-based compensatory tracking task measuring tracking accuracy (over a 5-min period) tested both hands and feet. Data were compared over time and tested for statistical significance for both deterioration and differential effect. A statistically significant deterioration of psychomotor performance was evident in the pilots over time for both hands and feet. There was also a statistically significant differential effect between the hands and the feet in terms of tracking accuracy. The hands recorded a 22.6% decrease in tracking accuracy, while the feet recorded a 39.9% decrease in tracking accuracy. The differential effect may be due to prioritization of limb movement by the motor cortex due to factors such as workload-induced cognitive fatigue. This may result in a greater reduction in performance in the feet than the hands, posing a significant risk to operational safety.McMahon TW, Newman DG. The differential effect of sustained operations on psychomotor skills of helicopter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):496-502.
Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265 and long-term visual memory (p-value = 0.003 in a small cohort (n = 181 comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale—Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II. VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism (p-value = 0.006 that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF, and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS, in long-term visual memory performance.
Avgan, Nesli; Sutherland, Heidi G; Spriggens, Lauren K; Yu, Chieh; Ibrahim, Omar; Bellis, Claire; Haupt, Larisa M; Shum, David H K; Griffiths, Lyn R
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in numerous cognitive functions including learning and memory. BDNF plays an important role in synaptic plasticity in humans and rats with BDNF shown to be essential for the formation of long-term memories. We previously identified a significant association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) and long-term visual memory ( p -value = 0.003) in a small cohort ( n = 181) comprised of healthy individuals who had been phenotyped for various aspects of memory function. In this study, we have extended the cohort to 597 individuals and examined multiple genetic variants across both the BDNF and BDNF-AS genes for association with visual memory performance as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition subtests Visual Reproduction I and II (VR I and II). VR I assesses immediate visual memory, whereas VR II assesses long-term visual memory. Genetic association analyses were performed for 34 single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped on Illumina OmniExpress BeadChip arrays with the immediate and long-term visual memory phenotypes. While none of the BDNF and BDNF-AS variants were shown to be significant for immediate visual memory, we found 10 variants (including the Val66Met polymorphism ( p -value = 0.006)) that were nominally associated, and three variants (two variants in BDNF and one variant in the BDNF-AS locus) that were significantly associated with long-term visual memory. Our data therefore suggests a potential role for BDNF , and its anti-sense transcript BDNF-AS , in long-term visual memory performance.
Grubaugh, Jordan; Rhea, Christopher K
Gait performance exhibits patterns within the stride-to-stride variability that can be indexed using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Previous work employing DFA has shown that gait patterns can be influenced by constraints, such as natural aging or disease, and they are informative regarding a person's functional ability. Many activities of daily living require concurrent performance in the cognitive and gait domains; specifically working memory is commonly engaged while walking, which is considered dual-tasking. It is unknown if taxing working memory while walking influences gait performance as assessed by DFA. This study used a dual-tasking paradigm to determine if performance decrements are observed in gait or working memory when performed concurrently. Healthy young participants (N = 16) performed a working memory task (automated operation span task) and a gait task (walking at a self-selected speed on a treadmill) in single- and dual-task conditions. A second dual-task condition (reading while walking) was included to control for visual attention, but also introduced a task that taxed working memory over the long term. All trials involving gait lasted at least 10 min. Performance in the working memory task was indexed using five dependent variables (absolute score, partial score, speed error, accuracy error, and math error), while gait performance was indexed by quantifying the mean, standard deviation, and DFA α of the stride interval time series. Two multivariate analyses of variance (one for gait and one for working memory) were used to examine performance in the single- and dual-task conditions. No differences were observed in any of the gait or working memory dependent variables as a function of task condition. The results suggest the locomotor system is adaptive enough to complete a working memory task without compromising gait performance when walking at a self-selected pace.
Grassi, Davide; Socci, Valentina; Tempesta, Daniela; Ferri, Claudio; De Gennaro, Luigi; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferrara, Michele
Sleep deprivation is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Cocoa flavonoids exert cardiovascular benefits and neuroprotection. Whether chocolate consumption may mitigate detrimental effects of sleep loss on cognitive performance and cardiovascular parameters has never been studied. We investigated the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate consumption on cognitive skills and cardiovascular parameters after sleep deprivation. Thirty-two healthy participants underwent two baseline sessions after one night of undisturbed sleep and two experimental sessions after one night of total sleep deprivation. Two hours before each testing session, participants were randomly assigned to consume high or poor flavanol chocolate bars. During the tests were evaluated, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task and a working memory task, office SBP and DBP, flow-mediated dilation and pulse-wave velocity. Sleep deprivation increased SBP/DBP. SBP/DBP and pulse pressure were lower after flavanol-rich treatment respect to flavanol-poor treatment (SBP: 116.9 ± 1.6 vs. 120.8 ± 1.9 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.00005; DBP: 70.5 ± 1.2 vs. 72.3 ± 1.2 mmHg, respectively, P = 0.01; pulse pressure: 46.4 ± 1.3 vs. 48.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, P = 0.004). Sleep deprivation impaired flow-mediated dilation (5.5 ± 0.5 vs. 6.5 ± 0.6%, P = 0.02), flavanol-rich, but not flavanol-poor chocolate counteracted this alteration (flavanol-rich/flavanol-poor chocolate: 7.0 ± 0.6 vs. 5.0 ± 0.4%, P = 0.000001). Flavanol-rich chocolate mitigated the pulse-wave velocity increase (P = 0.001). Flavanol-rich chocolate preserved working memory accuracy in women after sleep deprivation. Flow-mediated dilation correlated with working memory performance accuracy in the sleep condition (P = 0.04). Flavanol-rich chocolate counteracted vascular impairment after sleep deprivation and restored working memory performance. Improvement in cognitive performance could be because
Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Norgate, Roger; Hadwin, Julie A
Working memory skills are positively associated with academic performance. In contrast, high levels of trait anxiety are linked with educational underachievement. Based on Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory (PET), the present study investigated whether associations between anxiety and educational achievement were mediated via poor working memory performance. Fifty children aged 11-12 years completed verbal (backwards digit span; tapping the phonological store/central executive) and spatial (Corsi blocks; tapping the visuospatial sketchpad/central executive) working memory tasks. Trait anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Academic performance was assessed using school administered tests of reasoning (Cognitive Abilities Test) and attainment (Standard Assessment Tests). The results showed that the association between trait anxiety and academic performance was significantly mediated by verbal working memory for three of the six academic performance measures (math, quantitative and non-verbal reasoning). Spatial working memory did not significantly mediate the relationship between trait anxiety and academic performance. On average verbal working memory accounted for 51% of the association between trait anxiety and academic performance, while spatial working memory only accounted for 9%. The findings indicate that PET is a useful framework to assess the impact of children's anxiety on educational achievement.
K. M. Volkers
Full Text Available Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years. Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.
Altgassen, Mareike; Vetter, Nora C; Phillips, Louise H; Akgün, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias
Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether theory of mind and executive control processes (specifically updating, switching, and inhibition) predict prospective memory development across adolescence. In total, 42 adolescents and 41 young adults participated in this study. Young adults outperformed adolescents on tasks of prospective memory, theory of mind, and executive functions. Switching and theory of mind predicted prospective memory performance in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.
Psychomotor therapy is a movement-oriented and body-oriented therapy which resembles dance movement psychotherapy, although some differences remain. Despite historical differences, theoretical backgrounds as well as practical methods of both therapies converge at large. Both fields are in need of
Hance, Julian; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Moorthy, Krishna; Munz, Yaron; Undre, Shabnam; Darzi, Ara
Standardized short courses in laparoscopic cholecystectomy aim to teach laparoscopic skills to surgical trainees, although end-of-course assessments of performance remain subjective. The current study aims to objectively assess psychomotor skills acquisition of trainees attending laparoscopic cholecystectomy courses. Thirty-seven junior surgical trainees had their laparoscopic skills assessed before and after attending 1 of 3 separate 2-day courses (A, B, and C), all with identical format. Assessments were comprised of a standardized simulated laparoscopic task, with performance measured using a valid electromagnetic hand-motion tracking device. Overall, trainees made significant improvements in path length (P=.006), number of movements (Ppsychomotor skills on courses. In addition to providing participants with an insight into their skills, these data can be used to demonstrate course efficacy.
Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Christensen, Kaare
IMPORTANCE: There are genetic influences on memory ability as we age, but no specific genes have been identified. OBJECTIVE: To use a cognitive endophenotype, exceptional episodic memory (EEM) performance, derived from nondemented offspring from the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) to identify genetic...... individuals. Results of the individual replication cohorts were combined by meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Episodic memory scores computed as the mean of the 2 standardized measures of Logical Memory IA and IIA. RESULTS: Heritability estimates indicated a significant genetic component for EEM (h2 = 0...... peak. Replication in one cohort identified a set of 26 SNPs associated with episodic memory (P ≤ .05). Meta-analysis of the 26 SNPs using the 4 independent replication cohorts found SNPs rs9321334 and rs6902875 to be nominally significantly associated with episodic memory (P = .009 and P = .013...
Aloisi, Bruno A.; McKone, Elinor; Heubeck, Bernd G.
The present investigation examined implicit and explicit memory in 20 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) and 20 matched controls. Consistent with previous research, children with AD/HD performed more poorly than controls on an explicit test of long-term memory for pictures. New results were that (a) there was…
Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,
Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the
Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P. H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.
Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of
Bouman, Z.; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Schmand, B.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Aldenkamp, A.P.
INTRODUCTION: Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the
Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P.H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P.C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.
Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the
Gilabert, Roger; Munoz, Carmen
The goal of this study is to investigate the role of working memory capacity in L2 attainment and performance. The study uses an L1 reading span task to measure working memory of a group of 59 high-intermediate/advanced learners of English, and a film retelling task to measure their oral production. The analysis first showed a moderate to high…
Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.
The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…
Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.
Objectives: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,
Groth-Marnat, Gary; Howchar, Hennedy; Marsh, Ali
Research with animals and humans has suggested that acute and subacute use of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA "ecstasy") may lead to memory impairment. However, research is limited by (1) low power due to small sample sizes, (2) the possible confound of polydrug use, and (3) the failure to consider intelligence as a covariate. The present study compared the memory performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-III of 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational MDMA users with 26 abstinent (2-wk. minimum) recreational polydrug users. Despite significantly greater polydrug use amongst these MDMA users, no significant group differences in memory were observed. Regression of total lifetime amount of MDMA use also did not predict memory performance after accounting for intelligence. In addition, the length of time since abstinence (at least 2 wk.) was not associated with an increase in memory performance. Greater total lifetime cocaine use, rather than total lifetime MDMA use, was significantly associated with greater decrements in General Memory and Delayed Verbal Memory performance.
Bayliss, Donna M.; Jarrold, Christopher
This study examined the contribution of individual differences in rate of forgetting to variation in working memory performance in children. One hundred and twelve children (mean age 9 years 4 months) completed 2 tasks designed to measure forgetting, as well as measures of working memory, processing efficiency, and short-term storage ability.…
Lineweaver, Tara T; Bondi, Mark W; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P
The knowledge that one carries the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele risk factor for Alzheimer's disease was recently found to have little short-term psychological risk. The authors investigated the impact of knowledge of carrying the risk allele on subjective ratings of memory and objective memory test performance of older adults. Using a nested case-control design, the authors administered objective verbal and visual memory tests and self-rating scales of memory function to 144 cognitively normal older adults (ages 52-89) with known APOE genotype who knew (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=49) or did not know (ε4+, N=25; ε4-, N=45) their genotype and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease prior to neuropsychological evaluation. Significant genotype-by-disclosure interaction effects were observed on several memory rating scales and tests of immediate and delayed verbal recall. Older adults who knew their ε4+ genotype judged their memory more harshly and performed worse on an objective verbal memory test than did ε4+ adults who did not know. In contrast, older adults who knew their ε4- genotype judged their memory more positively than did ε4- adults who did not know, but these groups did not differ in objective memory test performance. Informing older adults that they have an APOE genotype associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease can have adverse consequences on their perception of their memory abilities and their performance on objective memory tests. The patient's knowledge of his or her genotype and risk of Alzheimer's disease should be considered when evaluating cognition in the elderly.
Jonkman, Lisa M; Hurks, Petra P; Schleepen, Tamara M J
Evidence for memory problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accumulating. Attempting to counter such problems, in the present study children with ADHD aged 8-12 years underwent a six-week metacognitive memory strategy training (MST) or one of two other active trainings, either a metacognitive attention-perceptual-motor training (APM) or placebo training consisting of playing board games (PLA). Effects of the training on episodic memory and underlying brain processes were investigated by comparing performance and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) on pre- and post-training sessions in an old/new recognition task between the three training groups. Potential far transfer effects of the memory strategy training were investigated by measuring performance on neuropsychological attention and memory-span tasks and parent-rated ADHD symptoms. The metacognitive memory strategy training led to significantly improved memory performance and enhanced amplitude of left parietal P600 activity associated with the process of memory recollection when compared to PLA, but APM training evoked similar improvements. Memory performance gains were significantly correlated with the memory-related ERP effects. Preliminary far transfer effects of MST training were found on attention and working memory performance and on parent-rated ADHD symptoms, although these results need replication with larger and better IQ-matched groups.
Rajji, Tarek K; Mulsant, Benoit H; Davies, Simon; Kalache, Sawsan M; Tsoutsoulas, Christopher; Pollock, Bruce G; Remington, Gary
Clozapine's potent antagonism of muscarinic M1 receptors is thought to worsen working memory deficits associated with schizophrenia. In contrast, its major metabolite, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC), is thought to enhance working memory via its M1 receptor agonist activity. The authors hypothesized that the ratio of serum clozapine and NDMC concentrations would be inversely associated with working memory performance in schizophrenia. Thirty patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who were receiving clozapine monotherapy at bedtime completed the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) on the day their blood was collected to assess concentrations of clozapine and NDMC as well as serum anticholinergic activity. The clozapine/NDMC ratio was significantly and negatively associated with working memory performance after controlling for age, gender, education, and symptom severity. No significant associations were found between individual clozapine and NDMC concentrations and working memory performance. Serum anticholinergic activity was significantly associated with clozapine concentration, but not with working memory performance or NDMC concentration. No significant associations were found between any pharmacological measure and performance on other MCCB cognitive domains. This hypothesis-driven study confirms that clozapine/NDMC ratio is a strong predictor of working memory performance in patients with schizophrenia. This finding suggests that manipulating the clozapine/NDMC ratio could enhance cognition in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine. It also supports the study of procholinergic agents, such as M1 receptor-positive allosteric modulators, to enhance cognition in schizophrenia.
Nakahachi, Takayuki; Iwase, Masao; Takahashi, Hidetoshi; Honaga, Eiko; Sekiyama, Ryuji; Ukai, Satoshi; Ishii, Ryouhei; Ishigami, Wataru; Kajimoto, Osami; Yamashita, Ko; Hashimoto, Ryota; Tanii, Hisashi; Shimizu, Akira; Takeda, Masatoshi
Working memory performance has been inconsistently reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Several studies in ASD have found normal performance in digit span and poor performance in digit symbol task although these are closely related with working memory. It is assumed that poor performance in digit symbol could be explained by confirmatory behavior, which is induced due to the vague memory representation of number-symbol association. Therefore it was hypothesized that the performance of working memory task, in which vagueness did not cause confirmatory behavior, would be normal in ASD. For this purpose, the Advanced Trail Making Test (ATMT) was used. The performance of digit span, digit symbol and ATMT was compared between ASD and normal control. The digit span, digit symbol and ATMT was given to 16 ASD subjects and 28 IQ-, age- and sex-matched control subjects. The scores of these tasks were compared. A significantly lower score for ASD was found only in digit symbol compared with control subjects. There were no significant difference in digit span and working memory estimated by ATMT. Discrepancy of scores among working memory-related tasks was demonstrated in ASD. Poor digit symbol performance, normal digit span and normal working memory in ATMT implied that ASD subjects would be intact in working memory itself, and that superficial working memory dysfunction might be observed due to confirmatory behavior in digit symbol. Therefore, to evaluate working memory in ASD, tasks that could stimulate psychopathology specific to ASD should be avoided.
Hirni, Daniela I; Kivisaari, Sasa L; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I
Alzheimer's disease (AD) neurofibrillary pathology begins in the medial perirhinal cortex (mPRC) before spreading to the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampus (HP) in anterior medial temporal lobe (aMTL). While the role of the ERC/HP complex in episodic memory formation is well-established, recent research suggests that the PRC is required to form semantic memories of individual objects. We aimed to test whether commonly used clinical measures of episodic and semantic memory are distinctly associated with ERC/HP and mPRC integrity, respectively, in healthy mature individuals and very early AD patients. One hundred thirty normal controls, 32 amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients, some of whom are in the earliest (i.e., preclinical) stages of AD, and ten early-stage AD patients received neuropsychological testing and high-resolution anatomic and diffusion MRI. Voxel-based regression analyses tested for regions where episodic memory (delayed recall scores on the California Verbal Learning and Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Tests) and semantic memory (Boston Naming Test, category fluency) performance correlated with gray matter (GM) regions of interest and whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA) voxel values. When controlling for the opposing memory performance, poorer episodic memory performance was associated with reduced bilateral ERC/HP GM volume and related white matter integrity, but not with mPRC GM volume. Poor semantic memory performance was associated with both reduced left mPRC and ERC/HP GM volume, as well as reduced FA values in white matter tracts leading to the PRC. These results indicate a partial division of labor within the aMTL and suggest that mPRC damage in very early AD may be detectable with common clinical tests of semantic memory if episodic memory performance is controlled. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McKelvie, Stuart J.; Demers, Elizabeth G.
High- and low-visualizing males, identified by the self-report VVIQ, participated in a memory experiment involving abstract words, concrete words, and pictures. High-visualizers were superior on all items in short-term recall but superior only on pictures in long-term recall, supporting the VVIQ's validity. (Author/SJL)
Gulbinaite, Rasa; Johnson, Addie
The relationship between the ability to maintain task goals and working memory capacity (WMC) is firmly established, but evidence for WMC-related differences in conflict processing is mixed. We investigated whether WMC (measured using two complex-span tasks) mediates differences in adjustments of
Brandt, Karen R; Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Jenkinson, Paul M; Jones, Emma
Whilst previous research has shown that glucose administration can boost memory performance, research investigating the effects of glucose on memory for emotional material has produced mixed findings. Whereas some research has shown that glucose impairs memory for emotional material, other research has shown that glucose has no effect on emotional items. The aim of the present research was therefore to provide further investigation of the role of glucose on the recognition of words with emotional valence by exploring effects of dose and dual-task performance, both of which affect glucose facilitation effects. The results replicated past research in showing that glucose administration, regardless of dose or dual-task conditions, did not affect the memorial advantage enjoyed by emotional material. This therefore suggests an independent relationship between blood glucose levels and memory for emotional material. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liebe, Stefanie; Hoerzer, Gregor M; Logothetis, Nikos K; Rainer, Gregor
Short-term memory requires communication between multiple brain regions that collectively mediate the encoding and maintenance of sensory information. It has been suggested that oscillatory synchronization underlies intercortical communication. Yet, whether and how distant cortical areas cooperate during visual memory remains elusive. We examined neural interactions between visual area V4 and the lateral prefrontal cortex using simultaneous local field potential (LFP) recordings and single-unit activity (SUA) in monkeys performing a visual short-term memory task. During the memory period, we observed enhanced between-area phase synchronization in theta frequencies (3-9 Hz) of LFPs together with elevated phase locking of SUA to theta oscillations across regions. In addition, we found that the strength of intercortical locking was predictive of the animals' behavioral performance. This suggests that theta-band synchronization coordinates action potential communication between V4 and prefrontal cortex that may contribute to the maintenance of visual short-term memories.
Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.
Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.
Thaynara Rodrigues da Silva
Full Text Available This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.
Full Text Available Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1 and visual contrast (Experiment 2 had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.
Schomaker, Judith; Wittmann, Bianca C.
Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1) and visual contrast (Experiment 2) had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions. PMID:28694774
Schomaker, Judith; Wittmann, Bianca C
Episodic memory is typically better for items coupled with monetary reward or punishment during encoding. It is yet unclear whether memory is also enhanced for everyday objects with appetitive or aversive values learned through a lifetime of experience, and to what extent episodic memory enhancement for motivational and neutral items is attributable to attention. In a first experiment, we investigated attention to everyday motivational objects using eye-tracking during free-viewing and subsequently tested episodic memory using a remember/know procedure. Attention was directed more to aversive stimuli, as evidenced by longer viewing durations, whereas recollection was higher for both appetitive and aversive objects. In the second experiment, we manipulated the visual contrast of neutral objects through changes of contrast to further dissociate attention and memory encoding. While objects presented with high visual contrast were looked at longer, recollection was best for objects presented in unmodified, medium contrast. Generalized logistic mixed models on recollection performance showed that attention as measured by eye movements did not enhance subsequent memory, while motivational value (Experiment 1) and visual contrast (Experiment 2) had quadratic effects in opposite directions. Our findings suggest that an enhancement of incidental memory encoding for appetitive items can occur without an increase in attention and, vice versa, that enhanced attention towards salient neutral objects is not necessarily associated with memory improvement. Together, our results provide evidence for a double dissociation of attention and memory effects under certain conditions.
Paquet, Lise; Verma, Shailendra; Collins, Barbara; Chinneck, Anne; Bedard, Marc; Song, Xinni
A puzzling observation pertaining to the impact of breast cancer on memory is the frequently reported dissociation between breast cancer survivors' self-reported memory problems and memory performance. We evaluated the hypothesis that the dissociation is related to the fact that the objective memory measures previously used assessed retrospective memory (RM) and did not tap prospective memory (PM), a domain about which survivors are complaining. In a case-healthy-control (N = 80) cross-sectional study, the Memory for Intention Screening Test was used to assess PM and the Wechsler Logical Memory Test was used to evaluate RM. Self-reported problems were assessed with the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire. Measures of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: Fatigue) were also administered. Both groups reported more PM than RM problems (P memory problems than controls (all P memory problems. Although unrelated to performance, memory complaints should not be dismissed, as they are closely associated with depression and fatigue and reveal an important facet of the cancer experience. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of chewing gum and possible improved test performance in these
T. den Heijer (Tom); M.I. Geerlings (Miriam); F.H. de Jong (Frank); L.J. Launer (Lenore); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); A. Hofman (Albert)
textabstractBACKGROUND: Estrogens may prevent cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease. Animal study findings have shown beneficial effects of estrogen on the brain, particularly on the hippocampus, a structure related to memory performance and early Alzheimer disease. OBJECTIVE:
Explores the effect of stimulus familiarity on the spatial primacy performance of normal and retarded children. Assumes that serial recall tasks reflect spatial memory rather than verbal rehearsal. (BD)
...' patterns of performance. We propose a computational model that accounts for differences in working memory capacity in terms of a quantity called source activation, which is used to maintain goal relevant information in an available state...
Fink, Jakob; Hendrikx, Friederike; Stierle, Christian; Stengler, Katarina; Jahn, Ina; Exner, Cornelia
Lower performance on memory tests in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been repeatedly observed. However, the origins of these performance deficits are not sufficiently explained. In this study we tested if OCD-related extensive focus of attention on thoughts (heightened self-consciousness) could be an explanatory mechanism for lower memory performance. Heightened situational self-consciousness was manipulated by instructing participants to either monitor neutral thoughts or to monitor OCD-related thoughts. We included a Behavioral Avoidance Task based on individual obsessions and compulsions to induce OCD-related thoughts. Participants were asked to perform these monitoring tasks in parallel to a taxing verbal memory task, resulting in learning under divided attention. The two conditions of learning under divided attention were compared to a single-task condition. Twenty-four participants with OCD and 24 healthy controls took part in these three learning conditions. The results indicate that in both groups memory performance deteriorated in the two conditions with divided attention compared to the single task condition. In the OCD-related thought monitoring condition (OTM) self-consciousness and Behavioral Avoidance Task-induced stress and fear were particularly increased and memory performance further deteriorated in the OCD group. This finding highlights an important and underestimated mechanism (personal involvement) which might serve to better understand lower memory performance in OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pillet, Benoit; Morvan, Yannick; Todd, Aurelia; Franck, Nicolas; Duboc, Chloé; Grosz, Aimé; Launay, Corinne; Demily, Caroline; Gaillard, Raphaël; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Amado, Isabelle
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia mainly affect memory, attention and executive functions. Cognitive remediation is a technique derived from neuropsychology, which aims to improve or compensate for these deficits. Working memory, verbal learning, and executive functions are crucial factors for functional outcome. Our purpose was to assess the impact of the cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) program on cognitive difficulties in patients with schizophrenia, especially on working memory, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility. We collected data from clinical and neuropsychological assessments in 24 patients suffering from schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV) who followed a 3-month (CRT) program. Verbal and visuo-spatial working memory, verbal memory, and cognitive flexibility were assessed before and after CRT. The Wilcoxon test showed significant improvements on the backward digit span, on the visual working memory span, on verbal memory and on flexibility. Cognitive improvement was substantial when baseline performance was low, independently from clinical benefit. CRT is effective on crucial cognitive domains and provides a huge benefit for patients having low baseline performance. Such cognitive amelioration appears highly promising for improving the outcome in cognitively impaired patients.
Labudda, Kirsten; Todorovski, Saso; Markowitsch, Hans J; Brand, Matthias
In this study we investigated whether alcoholic Korsakoff patients are impaired in categorizing neutral and emotional stimuli according to their valence and whether memory performance for this material is reduced. In a group of Korsakoff patients and a comparison group two experimental tasks--one containing emotional and neutral pictures and the other containing words-were administered. Results showed that patients had difficulties in affective judgments due to problems in classifying neutral stimuli. Memory for emotional and neutral material was impaired to a similar degree. Thus, the facilitating effect of emotional valence on memory performance is absent in Korsakoff patients.
Sherman, Stephanie M.; Buckley, Timothy P.; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee
Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not impl...
Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc PH; Schmand, Ben A; Kessels, Roy PC; Aldenkamp, Albert
Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals...
Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P.H.; Schmand, Ben A.; Kessels, Roy P.C.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.
Introduction. Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design.Method. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who ...
The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has repeatedly been used to show that damage to the prefrontal cortex causes deficits in decision making ability (Bechara, Damasio, Damasio & Anderson, 1994). There is currently a lack of research exploring the effects of implicit and explicit memory ability on performance on the IGT. Based on the somatic marker hypothesis (Damasio, 1996) it was hypothesised that performance on the earlier stages of the IGT would be influenced by implicit memory ability affecting ...
levels of processing generally lead to higher levels of performance than shallow levels of processing ( Craik & Lockhart ...making. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Craik , F.I.M., & Lockhart , R.S. (1972). Levels of processing : A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal...representation. The type of processing occurring at encoding has been demonstrated to result in differential levels of memory performance ( Craik
Freytag, D.R.; Walker, J.T.
Tests of a newly developed Analog Memory Unit (AMU) are described. The device contains 256 analog storage cells consisting of pass transistors, a storage capacitor and a differential read out buffer. By addressing the storage cells sequentially, the shape of the signal present at the input can be recorded in time. Fast response and good amplitude resolution were the design goals for the development. Measurements on individual devices will be presented and the status of hybridized subsystems containing eight AMUs discussed
Chi-Wing, Ng; Bethany, Plakke; Amy, Poremba
Neural correlates of auditory processing, including for species-specific vocalizations that convey biological and ethological significance (e.g. social status, kinship, environment),have been identified in a wide variety of areas including the temporal and frontal cortices. However, few studies elucidate how non-human primates interact with these vocalization signals when they are challenged by tasks requiring auditory discrimination, recognition, and/or memory. The present study employs a de...
Cammisuli, Davide Maria; Sportiello, Marco Timpano
Memory system turns out to be one of the cognitive domains most severely impaired in schizophrenia. Within the theoretical framework of cognitive psychopathology, we compared the performance of schizophrenia patients on the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV with that in matched patients with Obsessive-compulsive disorder and that in healthy control subjects to establish the specific nature of memory deficits in schizophrenia. 30 schizophrenia patients, 30 obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and 40 healthy controls completed the Wechsler Memory Scale-IV. Schizophrenia symptom severity was assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Performances on memory battery including Indexes and subtests scores were compared by a One-Way ANOVA (Scheffé post-hoc test). Spearman Rank correlations were performed between scores on PANSS subscales and symptoms and WMS-IV Indexes and subtests, respectively. Schizophrenia patients showed a memory profile characterized by mild difficulties in auditory memory and visual working memory and poor functioning of visual, immediate and delayed memory. As expected, schizophrenia patients scored lower than healthy controls on all WMS-IV measures. With regard to the WMS-IV Indexes, schizophrenia patients performed worse on Auditory Memory, Visual Memory, Immediate and Delayed Memory than Obsessive-compulsive disorder patients but not on Visual Working Memory. Such a pattern was made even clearer for specific tasks such as immediate and delayed recall and spatial recall and memory for visual details, as revealed by the lowest scores on Logical Memory (immediate and delayed conditions) and Designs (immediate condition) subtests, respectively. Significant negative correlations between Logical Memory I and II were found with PANSS Excitement symptom as well as between DE I and PANSS Tension symptom. Significant positive correlations between LM II and PANSS Blunted affect and Poor rapport symptoms as well as DE I and PANSS Blunted affect
Sheldon, Signy; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A
Memory deficits for survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common, however, the nature of these deficits is not well understood. In this study, 24 patients with SAH and matched control participants were asked to study six lists containing words from four different categories. For half the lists, the categories were presented together (organized lists). For the remaining lists, the related words were presented randomly to maximize the use of executive processes such as strategy and organization (unorganized lists). Across adjoining lists, there was overlap in the types of categories given, done to promote intrusions. Compared to control participants, SAH patients recalled a similar number of words for the organized lists, but significantly fewer words for the unorganized lists. SAH patients also reported more intrusions than their matched counterparts. Separating patients into anterior communicating artery ruptures (ACoA) and ruptures in other regions, there was a recall deficit only for the unorganized list for those with ACoA ruptures and deficits across both list types for other rupture locations. These results suggest that memory impairment following SAH is likely driven by impairment in the executive components of memory, particularly for those with ACoA ruptures. Such findings may help direct future cognitive-therapeutic programs.
Chen, Pang-Shiu; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Heng-Yuan
Impacts of post-metallization annealing (PMA) on bipolar resistance switching of Ti/HfO x stacked films were investigated. A Ti capping film as a scavenging layer with assistance of PMA is used to tune the dielectric strength of the 10-nm-thick HfO x layer. The polycrystalline microstructure of 10-nm-thick HfO x seems immune to the temperature of PMA in this work. The initial resistance and forming voltage in the Ti/HfO x devices mitigate as the increment of the annealing temperature. With enough annealing temperature (>450 °C), the device shows a good on/off ratio, high temperature operation ability and robust endurance (>10 6 cycles). Through the reaction between Ti and HfO x at 500 °C, the abundant oxygen ions are depleted from the insulator and the left charge-defects building conductive percolative paths in the dielectric layer. The operation-polarity independence of the form-free HfO x device in initial state is demonstrated. The forming-free memory with initial low resistance of 800 Ω at 0.1 V can be operated with stable bipolar resistance switching via initially positive or negative voltage sweep. The formless device with 10 nm thick HfO x also exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory performances, including enough on/off ratio, improved HRS uniformity and good high temperature retention (3 × 10 4 s at 200 °C). The results of this work suggest that the PMA temperature will affect the memory window and cycling reliability of the Ti/HfO x -based resistive memory. Optimum temperature (450 °C) will improve the memory performance of the Ti/HfO x stacked layer. (paper)
Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert
Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.
Bo, Jin; Jennett, S; Seidler, R D
Our recent work has revealed that visuospatial working memory (VSWM) relates to the rate of explicit motor sequence learning (Bo and Seidler in J Neurophysiol 101:3116-3125, 2009) and implicit sequence performance (Bo et al. in Exp Brain Res 214:73-81, 2011a) in young adults (YA). Although aging has a detrimental impact on many cognitive functions, including working memory, older adults (OA) still rely on their declining working memory resources in an effort to optimize explicit motor sequence learning. Here, we evaluated whether age-related differences in VSWM and/or verbal working memory (VWM) performance relates to implicit performance change in the serial reaction time (SRT) sequence task in OA. Participants performed two computerized working memory tasks adapted from change detection working memory assessments (Luck and Vogel in Nature 390:279-281, 1997), an implicit SRT task and several neuropsychological tests. We found that, although OA exhibited an overall reduction in both VSWM and VWM, both OA and YA showed similar performance in the implicit SRT task. Interestingly, while VSWM and VWM were significantly correlated with each other in YA, there was no correlation between these two working memory scores in OA. In YA, the rate of SRT performance change (exponential fit to the performance curve) was significantly correlated with both VSWM and VWM, while in contrast, OA's performance was only correlated with VWM, and not VSWM. These results demonstrate differential reliance on VSWM and VWM for SRT performance between YA and OA. OA may utilize VWM to maintain optimized performance of second-order conditional sequences.
Kimura, Takehide; Kaneko, Fuminari; Nagahata, Keita; Shibata, Eriko; Aoki, Nobuhiro
The authors investigated whether working memory training improves motor-motor dual-task performance consisted of upper and lower limb tasks. The upper limb task was a simple reaction task and the lower limb task was an isometric knee extension task. 45 participants (age = 21.8 ± 1.6 years) were classified into a working memory training group (WM-TRG), dual-task training group, or control group. The training duration was 2 weeks (15 min, 4 times/week). Our results indicated that working memory capacity increased significantly only in the WM-TRG. Dual-task performance improved in the WM-TRG and dual-task training group. Our study provides the novel insight that working memory training improves dual-task performance without specific training on the target motor task.
Kennedy, A M; Boyle, E M; Traynor, O; Walsh, T; Hill, A D K
There is considerable interest in the identification and assessment of underlying aptitudes or innate abilities that could potentially predict excellence in the technical aspects of operating. However, before the assessment of innate abilities is introduced for high-stakes assessment (such as competitive selection into surgical training programs), it is essential to determine that these abilities are stable and unchanging and are not influenced by other factors, such as the use of video games. The aim of this study was to investigate whether experience playing video games will predict psychomotor performance on a laparoscopic simulator or scores on tests of visuospatial and perceptual abilities, and to examine the correlation, if any, between these innate abilities. Institutional ethical approval was obtained. Thirty-eight undergraduate medical students with no previous surgical experience were recruited. All participants completed a self-reported questionnaire that asked them to detail their video game experience. They then underwent assessment of their psychomotor, visuospatial, and perceptual abilities using previously validated tests. The results were analyzed using independent samples t tests to compare means and linear regression curves for subsequent analysis. Students who played video games for at least 7 hours per week demonstrated significantly better psychomotor skills than students who did not play video games regularly. However, there was no difference on measures of visuospatial and perceptual abilities. There was no correlation between psychomotor tests and visuospatial or perceptual tests. Regular video gaming correlates positively with psychomotor ability, but it does not seem to influence visuospatial or perceptual ability. This study suggests that video game experience might be beneficial to a future career in surgery. It also suggests that relevant surgical skills may be gained usefully outside the operating room in activities that are not
Lee, Kerry; Ning, Flora; Goh, Hui Chin
Although the effects of achievement goals and working memory on academic performance are well established, it is not clear whether they jointly affect academic performance. Children from Primary 4 and 6 (N = 608) were administered (a) measures of working memory and updating from the automated working memory battery and a running span task, (b)…
Schult, Janette C; Steffens, Melanie C
The intention-superiority effect denotes faster response latencies to stimuli linked with a prospective memory task compared to stimuli linked with no prospective task or with a cancelled task. It is generally assumed that the increased accessibility of intention-related materials contributes to successful execution of prospective memory tasks at an appropriate opportunity. In two experiments we investigated the relationship between the intention-superiority effect and actual prospective memory performance under relatively realistic conditions. We also manipulated enactment versus observation encoding to further investigate the similarity in representations of enacted and to-be-enacted tasks. Additionally, Experiment 1 included a control condition to investigate the development of the intention-superiority effect over time. Participants were asked to perform prospective tasks at the end of the experiment to prepare the room for the next participant. They studied these preparatory tasks at the beginning of the experiment either by enacting them themselves or by observing the experimenter perform them. In Experiment 2, participants in a control condition did not intend to perform prospective tasks. We observed a smaller intention-superiority effect after enactment encoding than after observation encoding, but only if response latencies were assessed immediately before the prospective memory task. In addition, Experiment 2 suggested that the size of the intention-superiority effect is related to successful prospective memory performance, thus providing evidence for a functional relationship between accessibility and memory.
Vercammen, Charlotte; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid
The main objective of this study is to investigate memory task performance in different age groups, irrespective of hearing status. Data are collected on a short-term memory task (WAIS-III Digit Span forward) and two working memory tasks (WAIS-III Digit Span backward and the Reading Span Test). The tasks are administered to young (20-30 years, n = 56), middle-aged (50-60 years, n = 47), and older participants (70-80 years, n = 16) with normal hearing thresholds. All participants have passed a cognitive screening task (Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)). Young participants perform significantly better than middle-aged participants, while middle-aged and older participants perform similarly on the three memory tasks. Our data show that older clinically normal hearing persons perform equally well on the memory tasks as middle-aged persons. However, even under optimal conditions of preserved sensory processing, changes in memory performance occur. Based on our data, these changes set in before middle age.
Sprague, Samantha A; McBee, Matthew T; Sellers, Eric W
The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the relationship between working memory and BCI performance. Participants took part in two separate sessions. The first session consisted of three computerized tasks. The List Sorting Working Memory Task was used to measure working memory, the Picture Vocabulary Test was used to measure general intelligence, and the Dimensional Change Card Sort Test was used to measure executive function, specifically cognitive flexibility. The second session consisted of a P300-based BCI copy-spelling task. The results indicate that both working memory and general intelligence are significant predictors of BCI performance. This suggests that working memory training could be used to improve performance on a BCI task. Working memory training may help to reduce a portion of the individual differences that exist in BCI performance allowing for a wider range of users to successfully operate the BCI system as well as increase the BCI performance of current users. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ribordy Lambert, Farfalla; Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela
Allocentric spatial memory, "where" with respect to the surrounding environment, is one of the three fundamental components of episodic memory: what, where, when. Whereas basic allocentric spatial memory abilities are reliably observed in children after 2 years of age, coinciding with the offset of infantile amnesia, the resolution of allocentric spatial memory acquired over repeated trials improves from 2 to 4 years of age. Here, we first show that single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance improves in children from 3.5 to 7 years of age, during the typical period of childhood amnesia. Second, we show that large individual variation exists in children's performance at this age. Third, and most importantly, we show that improvements in single-trial allocentric spatial memory performance are due to an increasing ability to spatially and temporally separate locations and events. Such improvements in spatial and temporal processing abilities may contribute to the gradual offset of childhood amnesia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sokolov, O Iu; Kost, N V; Kurasova, O B; Dmitriev, A D; Gabaeva, M V; Zolotarev, Iu A; Mikheeva, I G; Zozulia, A A
Regulatory peptides (RP) are an important homeostatic factor. The maternal organism and placenta are substantial sources of RP for fetus during the prenatal period. Not only endogenous, but also exogenous RP play an important role during early postnatal period. In this study, the concentration of exogenous RP (casomorphins-7) and the activity of peptidases (enkephalinases) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants were estimated. Possible interrelation between these two parameters and the psychomotor development (PMD) of infants were evaluated. Using specially developed RIA, the investigators estimated the presence of human and bovine casomorphins immunoreactivity (CMir) in the serum of breastfed and bottle-fed infants. A distinct correlation of CMir with PMD was demonstrated. The activity of RP-degrading serum enzymes also correlated with PMD level. The role of endo- and exogenous peptides in normal PMD process and in the pathogenesis of early child autism is discussed in the article.
This chapter will explore a response to traumatic victimisation which has divided the opinions of psychologists at an exponential rate. We will be examining amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse and the potential to recover these memories in adulthood. Whilst this phenomenon is generally accepted in clinical circles, it is seen as highly contentious amongst research psychologists, particularly experimental cognitive psychologists. The chapter will begin with a real case study of a wo...
Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Hughes, Steven; Hankins, Mark W.; Foster, Russell G.; Bannerman, David M.
Acute light exposure exerts various effects on physiology and behaviour. Although the effects of light on brain network activity in humans are well demonstrated, the effects of light on cognitive performance are inconclusive, with the size, as well as direction, of the effect depending on the nature of the task. Similarly, in nocturnal rodents, bright light can either facilitate or disrupt performance depending on the type of task employed. Crucially, it is unclear whether the effects of light on behavioural performance are mediated via the classical image-forming rods and cones or the melanopsin-expressing photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Here, we investigate the modulatory effects of light on memory performance in mice using the spontaneous object recognition task. Importantly, we examine which photoreceptors are required to mediate the effects of light on memory performance. By using a cross-over design, we show that object recognition memory is disrupted when the test phase is conducted under a bright light (350 lux), regardless of the light level in the sample phase (10 or 350 lux), demonstrating that exposure to a bright light at the time of test, rather than at the time of encoding, impairs performance. Strikingly, the modulatory effect of light on memory performance is completely abolished in both melanopsin-deficient and rodless–coneless mice. Our findings provide direct evidence that melanopsin-driven and rod/cone-driven photoresponses are integrated in order to mediate the effect of light on memory performance. PMID:28003454
Suksudaj, N; Townsend, G C; Kaidonis, J; Lekkas, D; Winning, T A
The acquisition of psychomotor skills is a key competence in the practice of dentistry, and innate abilities and motivation have been shown to influence motor performance. However, the explicit integration of these factors into the design of research projects about skill acquisition in dentistry has been limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of how dental students' abilities and motivation affected their performance in an operative task. A longitudinal study with two cohorts of dental students was conducted in laboratory classes forming part of an operative technique course. A range of standardised psychometric tests was used to assess different abilities before completing a cavity preparation on Frasaco teeth. This was followed immediately by completion of an Intrinsic Motivation Inventory. Low but statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) were found between dental performance and psychomotor ability (r=0.22), and also dental performance and motivation (r=0.19). A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in the grades obtained for the cavity preparation exercise in one cohort between students with higher levels of psychomotor ability compared with those with lower levels (Tracing scores) (P<0.05). No significant differences in grades obtained for the cavity preparation exercise were found between students with higher and lower levels of motivation. Both innate psychomotor ability and motivation showed only weak positive associations with dental performance on cavity preparation exercises. Our study suggests that student-related factors only provide limited information to explain differences in performance or to be useful as specific predictors of future performance by individuals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Salyers, Vincent L
To begin to address the problem of psychomotor skills deficiencies observed in many new graduate nurses, a skills laboratory course was developed using a web-enhanced approach. In this quasi-experimental study, the control group attended weekly lectures, observed skill demonstrations by faculty, practiced skills, and were evaluated on skill performance. The experimental group learned course content using a web-enhanced approach. This allowed students to learn course material outside of class at times convenient for them, thus they had more time during class to perfect psychomotor skills. The experimental group performed better on the final cognitive examination. Students in the traditional sections were more satisfied with the course, however. It was concluded that a web-enhanced approach for teaching psychomotor skills can provide a valid alternative to traditional skills laboratory formats.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Auditory and visual processing along with phonological and visual spatial working memory are the problems that patients with dyslexia struggle with. So, the aim of this project was to investigate the effectiveness of computerized cognitive training on the working memory performance of children with dyslexia.Methods: The study conducted under the quasi-experimental method with pre- and post-test along with the control group. 25 children with dyslexia aged 7 to 12 years in grades 1-5 assigned to the experimental (15 and control (10 groups; the experimental group received 30 sessions of the Brain Ware Safari intervention program. NAMA scale and Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C were conducted to assess reading and working memory performance of the subjects. MANCOVA, ANCOVA and effect sizes were utilized to analyze the data.Results: There were significant differences between pre- and post-tests of the experimental and control groups on the forward and backward block recall subtests of WMTB-C and not the mazes memory. Regarding the subscales of NAMA scale, we found no significant differences in the reading performance; but analysis of effect sizes showed positive effects at least on the 6 subscales.Conclusion: The Brain Ware Safari computerized cognitive training can improve visual spatial working memory of children with dyslexia and probably may affect the reading performance.
Hirst, Rayna B; Young, Kaitlyn R; Sodos, Louise M; Wickham, Robert E; Earleywine, Mitch
While many studies suggest that regular cannabis use leads to deficits in cognitive functioning, particularly in memory, few have measured effort put forth during testing, and none have examined this as a potential mediator. Both age of onset of regular cannabis use and frequency of use have been linked to increased risk of memory deficits. The present study sought to determine whether effort mediated the relationship between frequency or age of onset of cannabis use and learning and memory performance. Sixty-two participants (74% male, mean age = 19.25 years) who met criteria for chronic cannabis use (four or more days per week for at least 12 months) completed a neuropsychological battery including the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) and the Rey Complex Figure (RCF) as measures of learning and memory, and the Word Memory Test (WMT) as a measure of effort put forth during neuropsychological assessment. Participants who more frequently used cannabis exhibited poorer effort (as measured by WMT performance; p cannabis use and CVLT-II Learning (Sum of Trials 1-5), CVLT-II Delayed Recall, and RCF Delayed Recall, but not RCF Immediate Recall. Age of onset of cannabis use was not significantly related to effort. Findings indicate that effort mediates the relationship between frequency of cannabis use and performance on learning and memory measures, suggesting that effort performance should be measured and controlled for in future studies assessing cognition in frequent cannabis users.
This study explored the nature of the relationship between attention available at learning and subsequent implicit and explicit memory performance. One hundred neurologically normal subjects rated their liking of target words on a five-point scale. Half of the subjects completed the word-rating task in a full attention condition and the other half performed the task in a divided attention condition. Following administration of the word-rating task, all subjects completed five memory tests, three implicit (category association, tachistoscopic identification, and perceptual clarification) and two explicit (semantic-cued recall and graphemic-cued recall), each bearing on a different subset of the list of previously presented target words. The results revealed that subjects in the divided attention condition performed significantly more poorly than subjects in the full attention condition on the explicit memory measures. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in performance on the implicit memory measures. These findings suggest that the attention to an episode that is necessary to produce later explicit memory may differ from that necessary to produce unconscious influences. The relationship between implicit memory, neurologic injury and automatic processes is discussed.
Seadatee-Shamir, Abootaleb; Soleimanian, AliAkbar; Zahmatkesh, Zeinab; Mahdian, Hossein
The relationship among WMC (working memory capacity), reading performance and academic achievement is both logically and theoretically undisputable. However, what may not be as obvious is that such capacity and performance, and as a result, achievement, could be higher among ECBL (early childhood bilingual) students. To reaffirm the obvious and…
Payne, Brennan R; Gross, Alden L; Hill, Patrick L; Parisi, Jeanine M; Rebok, George W; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L
With advancing age, episodic memory performance shows marked declines along with concurrent reports of lower subjective memory beliefs. Given that normative age-related declines in episodic memory co-occur with declines in other cognitive domains, we examined the relationship between memory beliefs and multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Confirmatory bi-factor structural equation models were used to parse the shared and independent variance among factors representing episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and executive reasoning in one large cohort study (Senior Odyssey, N = 462), and replicated using another large cohort of healthy older adults (ACTIVE, N = 2802). Accounting for a general fluid cognitive functioning factor (comprised of the shared variance among measures of episodic memory, speed, and reasoning) attenuated the relationship between objective memory performance and subjective memory beliefs in both samples. Moreover, the general cognitive functioning factor was the strongest predictor of memory beliefs in both samples. These findings are consistent with the notion that dispositional memory beliefs may reflect perceptions of cognition more broadly. This may be one reason why memory beliefs have broad predictive validity for interventions that target fluid cognitive ability.
Payne, Brennan R.; Gross, Alden L.; Hill, Patrick L.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Rebok, George W.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.
With advancing age, episodic memory performance shows marked declines along with concurrent reports of lower subjective memory beliefs. Given that normative age-related declines in episodic memory co-occur with declines in other cognitive domains, we examined the relationship between memory beliefs and multiple domains of cognitive functioning. Confirmatory bi-factor structural equation models were used to parse the shared and independent variance among factors representing episodic memory, psychomotor speed, and executive reasoning in one large cohort study (Senior Odyssey, N = 462), and replicated using another large cohort of healthy older adults (ACTIVE, N = 2,802). Accounting for a general fluid cognitive functioning factor (comprised of the shared variance among measures of episodic memory, speed, and reasoning) attenuated the relationship between objective memory performance and subjective memory beliefs in both samples. Moreover, the general cognitive functioning factor was the strongest predictor of memory beliefs in both samples. These findings are consistent with the notion that dispositional memory beliefs may reflect perceptions of cognition more broadly. This may be one reason why memory beliefs have broad predictive validity for interventions that target fluid cognitive ability. PMID:27685541
O'Shea, Deirdre M; Dotson, Vonetta M; Fieo, Robert A; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Zahodne, Laura; Stern, Yaakov
To investigate whether self-efficacy moderates the association between self-rated memory and depressive symptoms in a large sample of older adults. The influence of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms on memory performance was also examined in a subsample of individuals who reported poor memory. Non-demented participants (n = 3766) were selected from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A modified version of the Midlife Developmental Inventory Questionnaire was used as the measure of self-efficacy. Participants were asked to rate their memory presently on a five-point scale from Excellent (1) to Poor (5). Immediate memory and delayed memory (after a 5-min interval) were measured by the number of correct words recalled from a 10-item word list. Multiple regression analyses revealed that negative ratings of memory were significantly associated with greater levels of depressive symptoms, with this effect being greatest in those with low levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, greater self-efficacy was associated with optimal objective memory performances but only when depressive symptoms were low in individuals who reported poor memory function (n = 1196). Self-efficacy moderates the relationship between self-rated memory function and depressive symptoms. Higher self-efficacy may buffer against the impact of subjective memory difficulty on one's mood and thereby mitigating the effect of depressive symptoms on memory. Interventions should focus on increasing perceived self-efficacy in older adults reporting poor memory function to potentially minimize memory impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Pohlack, Sebastian T; Meyer, Patric; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Liebscher, Claudia; Ridder, Stephanie; Flor, Herta
The importance of the hippocampus for declarative memory processes is firmly established. Nevertheless, the issue of a correlation between declarative memory performance and hippocampal volume in healthy subjects still remains controversial. The aim of the present study was to investigate this relationship in more detail. For this purpose, 50 healthy young male participants performed the California Verbal Learning Test. Hippocampal volume was assessed by manual segmentation of high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. We found a significant positive correlation between putatively hippocampus-dependent memory measures like short-delay retention, long-delay retention and discriminability and percent hippocampal volume. No significant correlation with measures related to executive processes was found. In addition, percent amygdala volume was not related to any of these measures. Our data advance previous findings reported in studies of brain-damaged individuals in a large and homogeneous young healthy sample and are important for theories on the neural basis of episodic memory.
Kliment, D.C.; Ronen, R.S.; Nielsen, R.L.; Seymour, R.N.; Splinter, M.R.
This paper discusses the circuit architecture and performance of a nonvolatile 64-bit MNOS memory fabricated on silicon on sapphire (SOS). The circuit is a test vehicle designed to demonstrate the feasibility of a high-performance, high-density, radiation-hardened MNOS/SOS memory. The array is organized as 16 words by 4 bits and is fully decoded. It utilizes a two-(MNOS) transistor-per-bit cell and differential sensing scheme and is realized in PMOS static resistor load logic. The circuit was fabricated and tested as both a fast write random access memory (RAM) and an electrically alterable read only memory (EAROM) to demonstrate design and process flexibility. Discrete device parameters such as retention, circuit electrical characteristics, and tolerance to total dose and transient radiation are presented
Lydia T.S. Yee
Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been proposed that the hippocampus and adjacent medial temporal lobe cortical structures are selectively critical for long-term declarative memory, which entails memory for inter-item and item-context relationships. Whether the hippocampus might also contribute to short-term retention of relational memory representations has remained controversial. In two experiments, we revisit this question by testing memory for relationships among items embedded in scenes using a standard working memory trial structure in which a sample stimulus is followed by a brief delay and the corresponding test stimulus. In each experimental block, eight trials using different exemplars of the same scene were presented. The exemplars contained the same items but with different spatial relationships among them. By repeating the pictures across trials, any potential contributions of item or scene memory to performance were minimized, and relational memory could be assessed more directly than has been done previously. When test displays were presented, participants indicated whether any of the item-location relationships had changed. Then, regardless of their responses (and whether any item did change its location, participants indicated on a forced-choice test, which item might have moved, guessing if necessary. Amnesic patients were impaired on the change detection test, and were frequently unable to specify the change after having reported correctly that a change had taken place. Comparison participants, by contrast, frequently identified the change even when they failed to report the mismatch, an outcome that speaks to the sensitivity of the change specification measure. These results confirm past reports of hippocampal contributions to short-term retention of relational memory representations, and suggest that the role of the hippocampus in memory has more to do with relational memory requirements than the length of a retention interval.
Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh
Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.
Son, Dong Oh; Choi, Hong Jun; Kim, Jong Myon; Kim, Cheol Hong
Recent graphics processing units (GPUs) can process general-purpose applications as well as graphics applications with the help of various user-friendly application programming interfaces (APIs) supported by GPU vendors. Unfortunately, utilizing the hardware resource in the GPU efficiently is a challenging problem, since the GPU architecture is totally different to the traditional CPU architecture. To solve this problem, many studies have focused on the techniques for improving the system performance using GPUs. In this work, we analyze the GPU performance varying GPU parameters such as the number of cores and clock frequency. According to our simulations, the GPU performance can be improved by 125.8% and 16.2% on average as the number of cores and clock frequency increase, respectively. However, the performance is saturated when memory bottleneck problems incur due to huge data requests to the memory. The performance of GPUs can be improved as the memory bottleneck is reduced by changing GPU parameters dynamically.
Karlsen, Hanne Fagerjord
Almost 20% of Norwegian children and youth struggle with behavioural and cognitive disability. Working memory deficiency is especially common among children with ADHD. Recent advances in developmental psychology suggest that people with ADHD might benefit from games designed to train working memory abilities. The motivating factor from computer games can be especially strong to those with ADHD, as they respond strongly to motivational reinforcement. This thesis investigates performance, ...
Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill
Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term...
Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey
Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul
Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were either presented with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an u...
Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K.; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P.
Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to crea...
Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.
Theodore A Evans
Full Text Available Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.
Full Text Available Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect. Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS. We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory. The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system.
Zalla, Tiziana; Daprati, Elena; Sav, Anca-Maria; Chaste, Pauline; Nico, Daniele; Leboyer, Marion
Memory for action is enhanced if individuals are allowed to perform the corresponding movements, compared to when they simply listen to them (enactment effect). Previous studies have shown that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have difficulties with processes involving the self, such as autobiographical memories and self performed actions. The present study aimed at assessing memory for action in Asperger Syndrome (AS). We investigated whether adults with AS would benefit from the enactment effect when recalling a list of previously performed items vs. items that were only visually and verbally experienced through three experimental tasks (Free Recall, Old/New Recognition and Source Memory). The results showed that while performance on Recognition and Source Memory tasks was preserved in individuals with AS, the enactment effect for self-performed actions was not consistently present, as revealed by the lower number of performed actions being recalled on the Free Recall test, as compared to adults with typical development. Subtle difficulties in encoding specific motor and proprioceptive signals during action execution in individuals with AS might affect retrieval of relevant personal episodic information. These disturbances might be associated to an impaired action monitoring system.
Full Text Available The effect of emotional arousal on memory presents a complex pattern with previous studies reporting conflicting results of both improved and reduced memory performance following arousal manipulations. In this study we further tested the effect of negative emotional arousal (NEA on individual-item recognition and associative recognition of neutral stimuli in healthy participants, and hypothesized that NEA will particularly impair associative memory performance. The current study consists of two experiments; in both, participants studied a list of word-pairs and were then tested for items (items recognition test, and for associations (associative recognition test. In the first experiment, the arousal manipulation was induced by flashing emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between study-pairs while in the second experiment arousal was induced by presenting emotionally-negative or neutral pictures between lists. The results of the two experiments converged and supported an associative memory deficit observed under NEA conditions. We suggest that NEA is associated with an altered ability to bind one stimulus to another as a result of impaired recollection, resulting in poorer associative memory performance. The current study findings may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism underlying memory impairments reported in disorders associated with traumatic stress.
Gonthier, Corentin; Thomassin, Noémylle
Working memory capacity consistently correlates with fluid intelligence. It has been suggested that this relationship is partly attributable to strategy use: Participants with high working memory capacity would use more effective strategies, in turn leading to higher performance on fluid intelligence tasks. However, this idea has never been directly investigated. In 2 experiments, we tested this hypothesis by directly manipulating strategy use in a combined experimental-correlational approach (Experiment 1; N = 250) and by measuring strategy use with a self-report questionnaire (Experiment 2; N = 93). Inducing all participants to use an effective strategy in Raven's matrices decreased the correlation between working memory capacity and performance; the strategy use measure fully mediated the relationship between working memory capacity and performance on the matrices task. These findings indicate that individual differences in strategic behavior drive the predictive utility of working memory. We interpret the results within a theoretical framework integrating the multiple mediators of the relationship between working memory capacity and high-level cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Stern, Jair; Candia, Victor; Porchet, Roseline I; Krummenacher, Peter; Folkers, Gerd; Schedlowski, Manfred; Ettlin, Dominik A; Schönbächler, Georg
Physiological studies of placebo-mediated suggestion have been recently performed beyond their traditional clinical context of pain and analgesia. Various neurotransmitter systems and immunological modulators have been used in successful placebo suggestions, including Dopamine, Cholecystokinin and, most extensively, opioids. We adhered to an established conceptual framework of placebo research and used the μ-opioid-antagonist Naloxone to test the applicability of this framework within a cognitive domain (e.g. memory) in healthy volunteers. Healthy men (n=62, age 29, SD=9) were required to perform a task-battery, including standardized and custom-designed memory tasks, to test short-term recall and delayed recognition. Tasks were performed twice, before and after intravenous injection of either NaCl (0.9%) or Naloxone (both 0.15 mg/kg), in a double-blind setting. While one group was given neutral information (S-), the other was told that it might receive a drug with suspected memory-boosting properties (S+). Objective and subjective indexes of memory performance and salivary cortisol (as a stress marker) were recorded during both runs and differences between groups were assessed. Short-term memory recall, but not delayed recognition, was objectively increased after placebo-mediated suggestion in the NaCl-group. Naloxone specifically blocked the suggestion effect without interfering with memory performance. These results were not affected when changes in salivary cortisol levels were considered. No reaction time changes, recorded to uncover unspecific attentional impairment, were seen. Placebo-mediated suggestion produced a training-independent, objective and Naloxone-sensitive increase in memory performance. These results indicate an opioid-mediated placebo effect within a circumscribed cognitive domain in healthy volunteers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smeets, T; Giesbrecht, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H
Studies on how acute stress affects learning and memory have yielded inconsistent findings, with some studies reporting enhancing effects while others report impairing effects. Recently, Joëls et al. [Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M.S., Krugers, H.J., 2006. Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 152-158] argued that stress will enhance memory only when the memory acquisition phase and stressor share the same spatiotemporal context (i.e., context-congruency). The current study tested this hypothesis by looking at whether context-congruent stress enhances declarative memory performance. Undergraduates were assigned to a personality stress group (n=16), a memory stress group (n=18), or a no-stress control group (n=18). While being exposed to the acute stressor or a control task, participants encoded personality- and memory-related words and were tested for free recall 24h later. Relative to controls, stress significantly enhanced recall of context-congruent words, but only for personality words. This suggests that acute stress may strengthen the consolidation of memory material when the stressor matches the to-be-remembered information in place and time.
Murray, Alexandra M; Nobre, Anna C; Stokes, Mark G
Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is limited in capacity. Therefore, it is important to encode only visual information that is most likely to be relevant to behaviour. Here we asked which aspects of selective biasing of VSTM encoding predict subsequent memory-based performance. We measured EEG during a selective VSTM encoding task, in which we varied parametrically the memory load and the precision of recall required to compare a remembered item to a subsequent probe item. On half the trials, a spatial cue indicated that participants only needed to encode items from one hemifield. We observed a typical sequence of markers of anticipatory spatial attention: early attention directing negativity (EDAN), anterior attention directing negativity (ADAN), late directing attention positivity (LDAP); as well as of VSTM maintenance: contralateral delay activity (CDA). We found that individual differences in preparatory brain activity (EDAN/ADAN) predicted cue-related changes in recall accuracy, indexed by memory-probe discrimination sensitivity (d'). Importantly, our parametric manipulation of memory-probe similarity also allowed us to model the behavioural data for each participant, providing estimates for the quality of the memory representation and the probability that an item could be retrieved. We found that selective encoding primarily increased the probability of accurate memory recall; that ERP markers of preparatory attention predicted the cue-related changes in recall probability. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Filbey, Francesca M; McQueeny, Tim; Kadamangudi, Shrinath; Bice, Collette; Ketcherside, Ariel
Combined use of marijuana (MJ) and tobacco is highly prevalent in today's population. Individual use of either substance is linked to structural brain changes and altered cognitive function, especially with consistent reports of hippocampal volume deficits and poorer memory performance. However, the combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal structure and on learning and memory processes remain unknown. In this study, we examined both the individual and combined effects of MJ and tobacco on hippocampal volumes and memory performance in four groups of adults taken from two larger studies: MJ-only users (n=36), nicotine-only (Nic-only, n=19), combined marijuana and nicotine users (MJ+Nic, n=19) and non-using healthy controls (n=16). Total bilateral hippocampal volumes and memory performance (WMS-III logical memory) were compared across groups controlling for total brain size and recent alcohol use. Results found MJ and MJ+Nic groups had smaller total hippocampal volumes compared to Nic-only and controls. No significant difference between groups was found between immediate and delayed story recall. However, the controls showed a trend for larger hippocampal volumes being associated with better memory scores, while MJ+Nic users showed a unique inversion, whereby smaller hippocampal volume was associated with better memory. Overall, results suggest abnormalities in the brain-behavior relationships underlying memory processes with combined use of marijuana and nicotine use. Further research will need to address these complex interactions between MJ and nicotine. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hampson, Elizabeth; Morley, Erin E
Estrogen has been proposed to exert a regulatory influence on the working memory system via actions in the female prefrontal cortex. Tests of this hypothesis have been limited almost exclusively to postmenopausal women and pharmacological interventions. We explored whether estradiol discernibly influences working memory within the natural range of variation in concentrations characteristic of the menstrual cycle. The performance of healthy women (n=39) not using hormonal contraceptives, and a control group of age- and education-matched men (n=31), was compared on a spatial working memory task. Cognitive testing was done blind to ovarian status. Women were retrospectively classified into low- or high-estradiol groups based on the results of radioimmunoassays of saliva collected immediately before and after the cognitive testing. Women with higher levels of circulating estradiol made significantly fewer errors on the working memory task than women tested under low estradiol. Pearson's correlations showed that the level of salivary estradiol but not progesterone was correlated inversely with the number of working memory errors produced. Women tested at high levels of circulating estradiol tended to be more accurate than men. Superior performance by the high estradiol group was seen on the working memory task but not on two control tasks, indicating selectivity of the effects. Consistent with previous studies of postmenopausal women, higher levels of circulating estradiol were associated with better working memory performance. These results add further support to the hypothesis that the working memory system is modulated by estradiol in women, and show that the effects can be observed under non-pharmacological conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allen, Mark S; Laborde, Sylvain; Walter, Emma E
This prospective study explored the potential mediating role of health-related behavior (alcohol involvement, diet, television viewing, and physical activity) in the association between personality and change in memory performance over 2 years. A nationally representative sample of 8,376 U.K. participants aged 55 years and older (4,572 women, 3,804 men) completed self-report measures of personality and health-related behavior in 2010, and completed a memory performance task in 2010 and 2012. After removing variance associated with potential confounding variables, neuroticism and agreeableness had negative associations, and openness and conscientiousness positive associations with change in memory performance. There were no moderation effects by age, sex, education level, or ethnicity. Multiple mediator models demonstrated that physical activity, television viewing, and alcohol intake mediated associations between personality and change in memory performance. These findings provide evidence that the association between personality and memory performance in older adults can be explained, in part, through health-related behavior.
Jiang, Cunmei; Lim, Vanessa K; Wang, Hang; Hamm, Jeff P
Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones) differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.
Full Text Available Music processing is influenced by pitch perception and memory. Additionally these features interact, with pitch memory performance decreasing as the perceived distance between two pitches decreases. This study examined whether or not the difficulty of pitch discrimination influences pitch retention by testing individuals with congenital amusia. Pitch discrimination difficulty was equated by determining an individual's threshold with a two down one up staircase procedure and using this to create conditions where two pitches (the standard and the comparison tones differed by 1x, 2x, and 3x the threshold setting. For comparison with the literature a condition that employed a constant pitch difference of four semitones was also included. The results showed that pitch memory performance improved as the discrimination between the standard and the comparison tones was made easier for both amusic and control groups, and more importantly, that amusics did not show any pitch retention deficits when the discrimination difficulty was equated. In contrast, consistent with previous literature, amusics performed worse than controls when the physical pitch distance was held constant at four semitones. This impaired performance has been interpreted as evidence for pitch memory impairment in the past. However, employing a constant pitch distance always makes the difference closer to the discrimination threshold for the amusic group than for the control group. Therefore, reduced performance in this condition may simply reflect differences in the perceptual difficulty of the discrimination. The findings indicate the importance of equating the discrimination difficulty when investigating memory.
Javitt, Daniel C; Rabinowicz, Esther; Silipo, Gail; Dias, Elisa C
Deficits in working memory performance are among the most widely replicated findings in schizophrenia. Roles of encoding vs. memory retention in working memory remain unresolved. The present study evaluated working memory performance in schizophrenia using an AX-type continuous performance test (AX-CPT) paradigm. Participants included 48 subjects with schizophrenia and 27 comparison subjects. Behavior was obtained in 3 versions of the task, which differed based upon ease of cue interoperability. In a simple cue version of the task, cue letters were replaced with red or green circles. In the complex cue version, letter/color conjunctions served as cues. In the base version of the task, patients showed increased rates of false alarms to invalidly cued targets, similar to prior reports. However, when the cue stimuli were replaced with green or red circles to ease interpretation, patients showed similar false alarm rates to controls. When feature conjunction cues were used, patients were also disproportionately affected relative to controls. No significant group by interstimulus interval interaction effects were observed in either the simple or complex cue conditions, suggesting normal retention of information even in the presence of overall performance decrements. These findings suggest first, that cue manipulation disproportionately affects AX-CPT performance in schizophrenia and, second, that substantial behavioral deficits may be observed on working memory tasks even in the absence of disturbances in mnemonic retention.
Lye, T.C.; Creasey, H.; Kril, J.J.; Grayson, D.A.; Piguet, O.; Bennett, H.P.; Ridley, L.J.; Broe, G.A.
A number of different methods have been employed to correct hippocampal volumes for individual variation in head size. Researchers have previously used qualitative visual inspection to gauge hippocampal atrophy. The purpose of this study was to determine the best measure(s) of hippocampal size for predicting memory functioning in 102 community-dwelling individuals over 80 years of age. Hippocampal size was estimated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetry and qualitative visual assessment. Right and left hippocampal volumes were adjusted by three different estimates of head size: total intracranial volume (TICV), whole-brain volume including ventricles (WB+V) and a more refined measure of whole-brain volume with ventricles extracted (WB). We compared the relative efficacy of these three volumetric adjustment methods and visual ratings of hippocampal size in predicting memory performance using linear regression. All four measures of hippocampal size were significant predictors of memory performance. TICV-adjusted volumes performed most poorly in accounting for variance in memory scores. Hippocampal volumes adjusted by either measure of whole-brain volume performed equally well, although qualitative visual ratings of the hippocampus were at least as effective as the volumetric measures in predicting memory performance in community-dwelling individuals in the ninth or tenth decade of life. (orig.)
Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto
Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082
DeBourgh, Gregory A
Deficiencies in procedural competency compromise patient safety and the quality of care provided. Educators in prelicensure nursing programs are challenged to design effective instruction to develop psychomotor skills abilities among novice learners. Highly contextualized learning and frequent opportunities for performance rehearsal promote knowledge retention and procedural competence. The author discusses data from an evaluation study that explored students' perceptions of the effectiveness of skills instruction and suggests strategies for curricular integration and effective instruction.
Gerdes, Jodi; Kahol, Kanav; Smith, Marshall; Leyba, Mario J; Ferrara, John J
Fatigue and sleep deprivation and their effects on surgical proficiency have been actively researched areas. Past studies that have focused solely on residents have provided an important insight into how fatigue affects residents' ability to perform. This study aims to quantify the effect of fatigue on attending surgeons. To quantify the effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills of surgical residents and attending surgeons, visiohaptic simulations were created to mimic realistic interactions. Both groups showed a significant decrement in proficiency measures postcall. When tasks were separated based on psychomotor versus cognitive-dominated skills, attending surgeons made 25% fewer (P Psychomotor skills were equally affected in both groups. Call-associated fatigue is associated with increased error rates in the cognitive skill domain, although less so in attending surgeons compared with their resident counterparts.
Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.
Almela, M.; Hidalgo, V.; van der Meij, L.; Villada, C.; Pulopulos, M. M.; Salvador, A.
Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in
Greneche, Jerome; Krieger, Jean; Bertrand, Frederic; Erhardt, Christine; Maumy, Myriam; Tassi, Patricia
Both working and immediate memories were assessed every 4 h by specific short-term memory tasks over sustained wakefulness in 12 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and 10 healthy controls. Results indicated that OSAHS patients exhibited lower working memory performances than controls on both backward digit span and…
Greenwood, Pamela M.; Sundararajan, Ramya; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kumar, Reshma; Fryxell, Karl J.; Parasuraman, Raja
We investigated the relation between the two systems of visuospatial attention and working memory by examining the effect of normal variation in cholinergic and noradrenergic genes on working memory performance under attentional manipulation. We previously reported that working memory for location was impaired following large location precues,…
Pei, Ke; Ren, Xiaochen; Zhou, Zhiwen; Zhang, Zhichao; Ji, Xudong; Chan, Paddy Kwok Leung
Organic optical memory devices keep attracting intensive interests for diverse optoelectronic applications including optical sensors and memories. Here, flexible nonvolatile optical memory devices are developed based on the bisbenzothieno[2,3-d;2',3'-d']naphtho[2,3-b;6,7-b']dithiophene (BBTNDT) organic field-effect transistors with charge trapping centers induced by the inhomogeneity (nanosprouts) of the organic thin film. The devices exhibit average mobility as high as 7.7 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , photoresponsivity of 433 A W -1 , and long retention time for more than 6 h with a current ratio larger than 10 6 . Compared with the standard floating gate memory transistors, the BBTNDT devices can reduce the fabrication complexity, cost, and time. Based on the reasonable performance of the single device on a rigid substrate, the optical memory transistor is further scaled up to a 16 × 16 active matrix array on a flexible substrate with operating voltage less than 3 V, and it is used to map out 2D optical images. The findings reveal the potentials of utilizing benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives as organic semiconductors for high-performance optical memory transistors with a facile structure. A detailed study on the charge trapping mechanism in the derivatives of BTBT materials is also provided, which is closely related to the nanosprouts formed inside the organic active layer. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Brom, Sarah Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias
Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60-86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Pottage, Claire L; Schaefer, Alexandre
The emotional enhancement of memory is often thought to be determined by attention. However, recent evidence using divided attention paradigms suggests that attention does not play a significant role in the formation of memories for aversive pictures. We report a study that investigated this question using a paradigm in which participants had to encode lists of randomly intermixed negative and neutral pictures under conditions of full attention and divided attention followed by a free recall test. Attention was divided by a highly demanding concurrent task tapping visual processing resources. Results showed that the advantage in recall for aversive pictures was still present in the DA condition. However, mediation analyses also revealed that concurrent task performance significantly mediated the emotional enhancement of memory under divided attention. This finding suggests that visual attentional processes play a significant role in the formation of emotional memories. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved
Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul
Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues.
Frankenmolen, Nikita L; Altgassen, Mareike; Kessels, Renée; de Waal, Marleen M; Hindriksen, Julie-Anne; Verhoeven, Barbara; Fasotti, Luciano; Scheres, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Oosterman, Joukje M
Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants (aged 18-85 years) received either intentional learning or strategy ("sentence generation") instructions during encoding of word pairs. Whereas young adults with a lower IQ benefited from strategy instructions, those with a higher IQ did not, presumably because they already use strategies spontaneously. Older adults showed the opposite effect: following strategy instructions, older adults with a higher IQ showed a strong increase in memory performance (approximately achieving the level of younger adults), whereas older adults with a lower IQ did not, suggesting that they have difficulties implementing the provided strategies. These results highlight the importance of the role of IQ in compensating for the aging-related memory decline.
Brand, Judith, Ed.
This theme issue of the journal "Exploring" covers the topic of "memories" and describes an exhibition at San Francisco's Exploratorium that ran from May 22, 1998 through January 1999 and that contained over 40 hands-on exhibits, demonstrations, artworks, images, sounds, smells, and tastes that demonstrated and depicted the biological,…
Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias
Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…
Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.
"Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…
High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage, high mobility, and long retention times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Khan, M A; Bhansali, Unnat S; Alshareef, H N
High-performance non-volatile polymer ferroelectric memory are fabricated on banknotes using poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene). The devices show excellent performance with high remnant polarization, low operating voltages, low leakage, high mobility, and long retention times. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Dirk, Judith; Schmiedek, Florian
Children experience good and bad days in their performance. Although this phenomenon is well-known to teachers, parents, and students it has not been investigated empirically. We examined whether children's working memory performance varies systematically from day to day and to which extent fluctuations at faster timescales (i.e., occasions,…
Osman, Homira; Sullivan, Jessica R.
Purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine (a) whether school-age children with typical hearing demonstrate poorer auditory working memory performance in multitalker babble at degraded signal-to-noise ratios than in quiet; and (b) whether the amount of cognitive demand of the task contributed to differences in performance in noise. It…
Costeira, Maria José; Oliveira, Pedro; Santos, Nadine Correia; Ares, Susana; Saenz-Rico, Belen; Escobar, Gabriella Morreale de; Palha, Joana Almeida
Psychomotor development of children from an iodine-deficient region. OBJECTIVES: To assess the psychomotor development of the progeny of women from a moderately iodine-deficient area for whom thyroid function during pregnancy was measured. STUDY DESIGN: The development of 86 children was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development at 12, 18, and 24 months. RESULTS: Maternal serum free thyroxine (FT(4)) levels in the first trimester of pregnancy were the major determin...
Renshaw, Sharon M.; Beadenkopf, F. Scott; Murray, Rodney
An interactive videodisc program on the process of administering medications to clients will be demonstrated. Discussion will center on the strengths and limitations of interactive video for teaching psychomotor skills to healthcare professionals as well as design modifications that will facilitate this process. Interactive videodisc technology provides an exciting new medium for teaching psychomotor clinical skills to health care professionals. It is a particularly valuable approach for complex skills which involve visualization of motor activities and extensive client assessments.
Results showed all psychomotor skills were rated only at a 'good' and 'moderate' level. The skill item showed the highest percentage of 65.7% cadets at 'good' level and 34.3% cadets are at 'moderate' level with mean value of 3.66. The overall mean of psychomotor skills (physical skills) is at a 'good' level of 3.56. Results ...
Full Text Available The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus-response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage and retrieval of information in working memory.
Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael; Gajewski, Patrick D.
The present study aimed to elucidate the neuro-cognitive processes underlying age-related differences in working memory. Young and middle-aged participants performed a two-choice task with low and a 2-back task with high working memory load. The P300, an event-related potential reflecting controlled stimulus–response processing in working memory, and the underlying neuronal sources of expected age-related differences were analyzed using sLORETA. Response speed was generally slower for the middle-aged than the young group. Under low working memory load the middle-aged participants traded speed for accuracy. The middle-aged were less efficient in the 2-back task as they responded slower while the error rates did not differ for groups. An age-related decline of the P300 amplitude and characteristic topographical differences were especially evident in the 2-back task. A more detailed analysis of the P300 in non-target trials revealed that amplitudes in the young but not middle-aged group differentiate between correctly detected vs. missed targets in the following trial. For these trials, source analysis revealed higher activation for the young vs. middle-aged group in brain areas which support working memory processes. The relationship between P300 and overt performance was validated by significant correlations. To sum up, under high working memory load the young group showed an increased neuronal activity before a successful detected target, while the middle-aged group showed the same neuronal pattern regardless of whether a subsequent target will be detected or missed. This stable memory trace before detected targets was reflected by a specific activation enhancement in brain areas which orchestrate maintenance, update, storage, and retrieval of information in working memory. PMID:21909328
Kantak, Shailesh S; Winstein, Carolee J
Behavioral research in cognitive psychology provides evidence for an important distinction between immediate performance that accompanies practice and long-term performance that reflects the relative permanence in the capability for the practiced skill (i.e. learning). This learning-performance distinction is strikingly evident when challenging practice conditions may impair practice performance, but enhance long-term retention of motor skills. A review of motor learning studies with a specific focus on comparing differences in performance between that at the end of practice and at delayed retention suggests that the delayed retention or transfer performance is a better indicator of motor learning than the performance at (or end of) practice. This provides objective evidence for the learning-performance distinction. This behavioral evidence coupled with an understanding of the motor memory processes of encoding, consolidation and retrieval may provide insight into the putative mechanism that implements the learning-performance distinction. Here, we propose a simplistic empirically-based framework--motor behavior-memory framework--that integrates the temporal evolution of motor memory processes with the time course of practice and delayed retention frequently used in behavioral motor learning paradigms. In the context of the proposed framework, recent research has used noninvasive brain stimulation to decipher the role of each motor memory process, and specific cortical brain regions engaged in motor performance and learning. Such findings provide beginning insights into the relationship between the time course of practice-induced performance changes and motor memory processes. This in turn has promising implications for future research and practical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background Some studies have shown working memory impairment following stressful situations. Also, researchers have found that working memory performance depends on many different factors such as emotional load of stimuli and gender. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the effects of stress induction on visual working memory (VWM performance among female and male university students. Methods This quasi-experimental research employed a posttest with only control group design (within-group study. A total of 62 university students (32 males and 30 females were randomly selected and allocated to experimental and control groups (mean age of 23.73. Using cold presser test (CPT, stress was induced and then, an n-back task was implemented to evaluate visual working memory function (such as the number of true items, time reactions, and the number of wrong items through emotional and non-emotional pictures. 100 pictures were selected from the international affective picture system (IASP with different valences. Results Results showed that stress impaired different visual working memory functions (P < 0.002 for true scores, P < 0.001 for reaction time, and P < 0.002 for wrong items. Conclusions In general, stress significantly decreases the VWM performances. On the one hand, females were strongly impressed by stress more than males and on the other hand, the VWM performance was better for emotional stimuli than non-emotional stimuli.
Bailey, David J; Ma, Chunqi; Soma, Kiran K; Saldanha, Colin J
Recent studies have revealed the presence and regulation of aromatase at the vertebrate synapse, and identified a critical role played by presynaptic estradiol synthesis in the electrophysiological response to auditory and other social cues. However, if and how synaptic aromatization affects behavior remains to be directly tested. We have exploited 3 characteristics of the zebra finch hippocampus (HP) to test the role of synaptocrine estradiol provision on spatial memory function. Although the zebra finch HP contains abundant aromatase transcripts and enzyme activity, immunocytochemical studies reveal widespread pre- and postsynaptic, but sparse to undetectable somal, localization of this enzyme. Further, the superficial location of the avian HP makes possible the more exclusive manipulation of its neurochemical characteristics without perturbation of the neuropil and the resultant induction of astroglial aromatase. Last, as in other vertebrates, the HP is critical for spatial memory performance in this species. Here we report that local inhibition of hippocampal aromatization impairs spatial memory performance in an ecologically valid food-finding task. Local aromatase inhibition also resulted in lower levels of estradiol in the HP, but not in adjacent brain areas, and was achieved without the induction of astroglial aromatase. The observed decrement in acquisition and subsequent memory performance as a consequence of lowered aromatization was similar to that achieved by lesioning this locus. Thus, hippocampal aromatization, much of which is achieved at the synapse in this species, is critical for spatial memory performance.
Vernon, David; Lloyd-Jones, Toby J
We present two experiments that examine the effects of colour transformation between study and test (from black and white to colour and vice versa, of from incorrectly coloured to correctly coloured and vice versa) on implicit and explicit measures of memory for diagnostically coloured natural objects (e.g., yellow banana). For naming and coloured-object decision (i.e., deciding whether an object is correctly coloured), there were shorter response times to correctly coloured-objects than to black-and-white and incorrectly coloured-objects. Repetition priming was equivalent for the different stimulus types. Colour transformation did not influence priming of picture naming, but for coloured-object decision priming was evident only for objects remaining the same from study to test. This was the case for both naming and coloured-object decision as study tasks. When participants were asked to consciously recognize objects that they had named or made coloured-object decisions to previously, whilst ignoring their colour, colour transformation reduced recognition efficiency. We discuss these results in terms of the flexibility of object representations that mediate priming and recognition.
Schouten, Eveline A.; Schiemanck, Sven K.; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W. M.
We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any scholar developing a therapeutic method shall be concerned with its historical and theoretical groundings, scientifically verifiedfacts, and information from professional publications. As a result of that, one is qualifi ed to discuss relevancy of the method.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to highlight the ideas that the current psychomotoricity draws.METHODS: We assume that psychomotor activity is based on natural cognitive and social movement behavior. In its essence, the inherited principles that develop throughout life. Development is strengthened primarily by personal experiences with positive and negative feedback of social relations. The foundations of psychomotr activity developed upon scientific knowledge stem from the needs of psychosomatic rehabilitation. The term gradually came to be used for movement therapies and movement education. This study mentions the scientific orientations and the authors who most influenced the development of psychomotor skills used for personal development.CONCLUSION: Psychomotor activities are developed from two basic areas of operation. Psychomotor development as a pedagogical direction linking the physical and mental is used in the teaching process with an eff ort by moving positively with an influence from the human psyche. By monitoring the simple actions there is stimulated the physical and psychical development. Psychomotor development and sports therapy inherently encourages the patient to actively participate in therapy. Physical activity is one of supporting policies which affect the psychical „negative“ symptoms and may enhance the patient’s resistance to daily stress.
Ding, Kan; Gong, Yunhua; Modur, Pradeep N; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Agostini, Mark; Gupta, Puneet; McColl, Roderick; Hays, Ryan; Van Ness, Paul
The Wada test is widely used in the presurgical evaluation of potential temporal lobectomy patients to predict postoperative memory function. Expected asymmetry (EA), defined as Wada memory lateralized to the nonsurgical hemisphere, or a higher score after injection of the surgical hemisphere would be considered favorable in terms of postoperative memory outcome. However, in some cases, nonlateralized memory (NM) results, with no appreciable asymmetry, may occur because of impaired scores after both injections, often leading to denial of surgery. The reason for such nonlateralized Wada memory in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remains unclear. Given that quantitative morphometric magnetic resonance imaging studies in TLE patients have shown bilateral regional atrophy in temporal and extratemporal structures, we hypothesized that the volume loss in contralateral temporal structures could contribute to nonlateralized Wada memory performance. To investigate this, we examined the relationship between the volume changes of temporal structures and Wada memory scores in patients with intractable TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) using an age- and gender-matched control group. Memory was considered nonlateralized if the absolute difference in the total correct recall scores between ipsilateral and contralateral injections was memory was lateralized in 15 and nonlateralized in 6 patients, with all the nonlateralized scores being observed in left TLE. The recall scores after ipsilateral injection were significantly lower in patients with an NM profile than an EA profile (23 ± 14% vs. 59 ± 18% correct recall, p ≤ 0.001). However, the recall scores after contralateral injection were low but similar between the two groups (25 ± 17% vs. 25 ± 15% correct recall, p=0.97). Compared to controls, all the patients showed greater volume loss in the temporal regions. However, patients with a NM profile showed significantly more volume loss than those
Moisala, M; Salmela, V; Hietajärvi, L; Carlson, S; Vuontela, V; Lonka, K; Hakkarainen, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Alho, K
Gaming experience has been suggested to lead to performance enhancements in a wide variety of working memory tasks. Previous studies have, however, mostly focused on adult expert gamers and have not included measurements of both behavioral performance and brain activity. In the current study, 167 adolescents and young adults (aged 13-24 years) with different amounts of gaming experience performed an n-back working memory task with vowels, with the sensory modality of the vowel stream switching between audition and vision at random intervals. We studied the relationship between self-reported daily gaming activity, working memory (n-back) task performance and related brain activity measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that the extent of daily gaming activity was related to enhancements in both performance accuracy and speed during the most demanding (2-back) level of the working memory task. This improved working memory performance was accompanied by enhanced recruitment of a fronto-parietal cortical network, especially the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, during the less demanding (1-back) level of the task, gaming was associated with decreased activity in the same cortical regions. Our results suggest that a greater degree of daily gaming experience is associated with better working memory functioning and task difficulty-dependent modulation in fronto-parietal brain activity already in adolescence and even when non-expert gamers are studied. The direction of causality within this association cannot be inferred with certainty due to the correlational nature of the current study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nurafiati, P.; Ana, A.; Ratnasusanti, H.; Maulana, I.
This research aims to develop and find out the response of observers for the assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice. This research belongs to development research with 4P model that confined till the definition, design, and development stages. The data that gained during the research is analyzed descriptively. Research’s product is assessment instrument rubric form that consists of performance’s aspect which should be assessed and performance’s quality which stated in gradation score with 0-4 level and performance description that completed with picture illustration in every single score. Product was validate and responded based on material, construction, language, objectively, systematic, and practicability aspects. The result show that assessment instrument of student’s psychomotor aspect on continental food processing practice which developed gain very good response with percentage of 84,47%.
Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S
Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males
Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S
Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males
Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Margulies, Daniel S; Flöel, Agnes
Dietary habits such as caloric restriction or nutrients that mimic these effects may exert beneficial effects on brain aging. The plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to increase memory performance in primates; however, interventional studies in older humans are lacking. Here, we tested whether supplementation of resveratrol would enhance memory performance in older adults and addressed potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Twenty-three healthy overweight older individuals that successfully completed 26 weeks of resveratrol intake (200 mg/d) were pairwise matched to 23 participants that received placebo (total n = 46, 18 females, 50-75 years). Before and after the intervention/control period, subjects underwent memory tasks and neuroimaging to assess volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus, a key region implicated in memory functions. In addition, anthropometry, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, neurotrophic factors, and vascular parameters were assayed. We observed a significant effect of resveratrol on retention of words over 30 min compared with placebo (p = 0.038). In addition, resveratrol led to significant increases in hippocampal FC, decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body fat, and increases in leptin compared with placebo (all p memory performance in association with improved glucose metabolism and increased hippocampal FC in older adults. Our findings offer the basis for novel strategies to maintain brain health during aging. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347862-09$15.00/0.
Jones, Gary; Macken, Bill
Studies using tests such as digit span and nonword repetition have implicated short-term memory across a range of developmental domains. Such tests ostensibly assess specialized processes for the short-term manipulation and maintenance of information that are often argued to enable long-term learning. However, there is considerable evidence for an influence of long-term linguistic learning on performance in short-term memory tasks that brings into question the role of a specialized short-term memory system separate from long-term knowledge. Using natural language corpora, we show experimentally and computationally that performance on three widely used measures of short-term memory (digit span, nonword repetition, and sentence recall) can be predicted from simple associative learning operating on the linguistic environment to which a typical child may have been exposed. The findings support the broad view that short-term verbal memory performance reflects the application of long-term language knowledge to the experimental setting.
Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; van Wijk, R P J; Dankelman, J
Psychomotor skills for endoscopic surgery can be trained with virtual reality simulators. Distributed training is more effective than massed training, but it is unclear whether distributed training over several days is more effective than distributed training within 1 day. This study aimed to determine which of these two options is the most effective for training endoscopic psychomotor skills. Students with no endoscopic experience were randomly assigned either to distributed training on 3 consecutive days (group A, n = 10) or distributed training within 1 day (group B, n = 10). For this study the SIMENDO virtual reality simulator for endoscopic skills was used. The training involved 12 repetitions of three different exercises (drop balls, needle manipulation, 30 degree endoscope) in differently distributed training schedules. All the participants performed a posttraining test (posttest) for the trained tasks 7 days after the training. The parameters measured were time, nontarget environment collisions, and instrument path length. There were no significant differences between the groups in the first training session for all the parameters. In the posttest, group A (training over several days) performed 18.7% faster than group B (training on 1 day) (p = 0.013). The collision and path length scores for group A did not differ significantly from the scores for group B. The distributed group trained over several days was faster, with the same number of errors and the same instrument path length used. Psychomotor skill training for endoscopic surgery distributed over several days is superior to training on 1 day.
Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen, Lauren; Finnegan, Yvonne; Hu, Henglong
It has been suggested that the memory enhancing effect of glucose follows an inverted U-shaped curve, with 25 g resulting in optimal facilitation in healthy young adults. The aim of this study was to further investigate the dose dependency of the glucose facilitation effect in this population across different memory domains and to assess moderation by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight. Following a double-blind, repeated measures design, 30 participants were administered drinks containing five different doses of glucose (0 g, 15 g, 25 g, 50 g, and 60 g) and were tested across a range of memory tasks. Glycaemic response and changes in mood state were assessed following drink administration. Analysis of the data showed that glucose administration did not affect mood, but significant glucose facilitation of several memory tasks was observed. However, dose-response curves differed depending on the memory task with only performance on the long-term memory tasks adhering largely to the previously observed inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Moderation of the response profiles by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight was observed. The current data suggest that dose-response function and optimal dose might depend on cognitive domain and are moderated by interindividual differences in glucose regulation and weight.
Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk
Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.
Amedi, Amir; Raz, Noa; Pianka, Pazit; Malach, Rafael; Zohary, Ehud
The visual cortex may be more modifiable than previously considered. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten congenitally blind human participants, we found robust occipital activation during a verbal-memory task (in the absence of any sensory input), as well as during verb generation and Braille reading. We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the occipital cortex, along the anterior-posterior axis. Whereas anterior regions showed preference for Braille, posterior regions (including V1) showed preference for verbal-memory and verb generation (which both require memory of verbal material). No such occipital activation was found in sighted subjects. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various verbal-memory tasks. Moreover, the magnitude of V1 activation during the verbal-memory condition was highly correlated with the blind individual's abilities in a variety of verbal-memory tests, suggesting that the additional occipital activation may have a functional role.
Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan
Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.
Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Schmand, Ben A; Kessels, Roy P C; Aldenkamp, Albert P
Recognition and visual working memory tasks from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) have previously been documented as useful indicators for suboptimal performance. The present study examined the clinical utility of the Dutch version of the WMS-IV (WMS-IV-NL) for the identification of suboptimal performance using an analogue study design. The patient group consisted of 59 mixed-etiology patients; the experimental malingerers were 50 healthy individuals who were asked to simulate cognitive impairment as a result of a traumatic brain injury; the last group consisted of 50 healthy controls who were instructed to put forth full effort. Experimental malingerers performed significantly lower on all WMS-IV-NL tasks than did the patients and healthy controls. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed on the experimental malingerers and the patients. The first model contained the visual working memory subtests (Spatial Addition and Symbol Span) and the recognition tasks of the following subtests: Logical Memory, Verbal Paired Associates, Designs, Visual Reproduction. The results showed an overall classification rate of 78.4%, and only Spatial Addition explained a significant amount of variation (p < .001). Subsequent logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis supported the discriminatory power of the subtest Spatial Addition. A scaled score cutoff of <4 produced 93% specificity and 52% sensitivity for detection of suboptimal performance. The WMS-IV-NL Spatial Addition subtest may provide clinically useful information for the detection of suboptimal performance.
Przybylski, Steven A
An authoritative book for hardware and software designers. Caches are by far the simplest and most effective mechanism for improving computer performance. This innovative book exposes the characteristics of performance-optimal single and multi-level cache hierarchies by approaching the cache design process through the novel perspective of minimizing execution times. It presents useful data on the relative performance of a wide spectrum of machines and offers empirical and analytical evaluations of the underlying phenomena. This book will help computer professionals appreciate the impact of ca
Diekman, Eugene F; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Rovers, Maroeska M; van Hasselt, Peter M
The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases between January 1960 and December 2012. Studies that described patients with severe MTHFR deficiency who received betaine treatment. We identified 15 case reports and case series, totaling 36 patients. Data included the following: (1) families with 2 or more patients with severe MTHFR deficiency, of whom at least 1 received betaine, or (2) single patients with severe MTHFR deficiency treated with betaine. To define severe MTHFR deficiency, methionine, homocysteine, MTHFR enzyme activity in fibroblasts, or mutations (in the MTHFR gene) had to be described as well as the effect of treatment (survival and/or psychomotor development). We compared the outcome in treated vs untreated patients and early- vs late-treated patients. Sensitivity analysis was performed to address definition of early treatment. To further assess the impact of treatment on mortality, we performed a subanalysis in families with at least 1 untreated deceased patient. Survival and psychomotor development. Eleven of 36 patients (31%) died. All deaths occurred in patients who did not receive treatment or in patients in whom treatment was delayed. In contrast, all 5 early-treated patients survived. Subgroup analysis of patients with deceased siblings-their genotypically identical controls-revealed that betaine treatment prevented mortality (P = .002). In addition, psychomotor development in surviving patients treated with betaine was normal in all 5 early-treated patients but in none of the 19 surviving patients with delayed treatment (P psychomotor development in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency, highlighting the importance of timely recognition through newborn screening.
Meyerhoff, Hauke S; Huff, Markus
Human long-term memory for visual objects and scenes is tremendous. Here, we test how auditory information contributes to long-term memory performance for realistic scenes. In a total of six experiments, we manipulated the presentation modality (auditory, visual, audio-visual) as well as semantic congruency and temporal synchrony between auditory and visual information of brief filmic clips. Our results show that audio-visual clips generally elicit more accurate memory performance than unimodal clips. This advantage even increases with congruent visual and auditory information. However, violations of audio-visual synchrony hardly have any influence on memory performance. Memory performance remained intact even with a sequential presentation of auditory and visual information, but finally declined when the matching tracks of one scene were presented separately with intervening tracks during learning. With respect to memory performance, our results therefore show that audio-visual integration is sensitive to semantic congruency but remarkably robust against asymmetries between different modalities.
Konecky, R O; Smith, M A; Olson, C R
To explore the brain mechanisms underlying multi-item working memory, we monitored the activity of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while macaque monkeys performed spatial and chromatic versions of a Sternberg working-memory task. Each trial required holding three sequentially presented samples in working memory so as to identify a subsequent probe matching one of them. The monkeys were able to recall all three samples at levels well above chance, exhibiting modest load and recency effects. Prefrontal neurons signaled the identity of each sample during the delay period immediately following its presentation. However, as each new sample was presented, the representation of antecedent samples became weak and shifted to an anomalous code. A linear classifier operating on the basis of population activity during the final delay period was able to perform at approximately the level of the monkeys on trials requiring recall of the third sample but showed a falloff in performance on trials requiring recall of the first or second sample much steeper than observed in the monkeys. We conclude that delay-period activity in the prefrontal cortex robustly represented only the most recent item. The monkeys apparently based performance of this classic working-memory task on some storage mechanism in addition to the prefrontal delay-period firing rate. Possibilities include delay-period activity in areas outside the prefrontal cortex and changes within the prefrontal cortex not manifest at the level of the firing rate. NEW & NOTEWORTHY It has long been thought that items held in working memory are encoded by delay-period activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Here we describe evidence contrary to that view. In monkeys performing a serial multi-item working memory task, dorsolateral prefrontal neurons encode almost exclusively the identity of the sample presented most recently. Information about earlier samples must be encoded outside the prefrontal cortex or
Pappas, Colleen; Andel, Ross; Infurna, Frank J; Seetharaman, Shyam
As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined. Average baseline age was 72.66 years and 58% were women. HbA1c was measured in 2006 and episodic memory was measured using immediate and delayed list recall over 4 biennial waves between 2006 and 2012. Growth curve models were used to assess trajectories of episodic memory change. In growth curve models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, depressive symptoms and waist circumference, higher HbA1c levels and having diabetes were associated with poorer baseline episodic memory (p=0.036 and HbA1c on episodic memory decline was smaller than the effect of age. The results were stronger for women than men and were not modified by age or race. When the main analyses were estimated for those with and without diabetes separately, HbA1c was significantly linked to change in episodic memory only among those with diabetes. Higher HbA1c and diabetes were both associated with declines in episodic memory, with this relationship further exacerbated by having diabetes and elevated HbA1c. HbA1c appeared more important for episodic memory performance among women than men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Bhatti, A Aziz
This study proposes an efficient and improved model of a direct storage bidirectional memory, improved bidirectional associative memory (IBAM), and emphasises the use of nanotechnology for efficient implementation of such large-scale neural network structures at a considerable lower cost reduced complexity, and less area required for implementation. This memory model directly stores the X and Y associated sets of M bipolar binary vectors in the form of (MxN(x)) and (MxN(y)) memory matrices, requires O(N) or about 30% of interconnections with weight strength ranging between +/-1, and is computationally very efficient as compared to sequential, intraconnected and other bidirectional associative memory (BAM) models of outer-product type that require O(N(2)) complex interconnections with weight strength ranging between +/-M. It is shown that it is functionally equivalent to and possesses all attributes of a BAM of outer-product type, and yet it is simple and robust in structure, very large scale integration (VLSI), optical and nanotechnology realisable, modular and expandable neural network bidirectional associative memory model in which the addition or deletion of a pair of vectors does not require changes in the strength of interconnections of the entire memory matrix. The analysis of retrieval process, signal-to-noise ratio, storage capacity and stability of the proposed model as well as of the traditional BAM has been carried out. Constraints on and characteristics of unipolar and bipolar binaries for improved storage and retrieval are discussed. The simulation results show that it has log(e) N times higher storage capacity, superior performance, faster convergence and retrieval time, when compared to traditional sequential and intraconnected bidirectional memories.
Simon, Horst D.; Saini, Subhash; Grassi, Charles
The Cray T3D system is the first-phase system in Cray Research, Inc.'s (CRI) three-phase massively parallel processing (MPP) program. This system features a heterogeneous architecture that closely couples DEC's Alpha microprocessors and CRI's parallel-vector technology, i.e., the Cray Y-MP and Cray C90. An overview of the Cray T3D hardware and available programming models is presented. Under Cray Research adaptive Fortran (CRAFT) model four programming methods (data parallel, work sharing, message-passing using PVM, and explicit shared memory model) are available to the users. However, at this time data parallel and work sharing programming models are not available to the user community. The differences between standard PVM and CRI's PVM are highlighted with performance measurements such as latencies and communication bandwidths. We have found that the performance of neither standard PVM nor CRI s PVM exploits the hardware capabilities of the T3D. The reasons for the bad performance of PVM as a native message-passing library are presented. This is illustrated by the performance of NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB) programmed in explicit shared memory model on Cray T3D. In general, the performance of standard PVM is about 4 to 5 times less than obtained by using explicit shared memory model. This degradation in performance is also seen on CM-5 where the performance of applications using native message-passing library CMMD on CM-5 is also about 4 to 5 times less than using data parallel methods. The issues involved (such as barriers, synchronization, invalidating data cache, aligning data cache etc.) while programming in explicit shared memory model are discussed. Comparative performance of NPB using explicit shared memory programming model on the Cray T3D and other highly parallel systems such as the TMC CM-5, Intel Paragon, Cray C90, IBM-SP1, etc. is presented.
Unmack Larsen, Ida; Vinther-Jensen, Tua; Gade, Anders
Executive functions (EF) and psychomotor speed (PMS) has been widely studied in Huntington's disease (HD). Most studies have focused on finding markers of disease progression by comparing group means at different disease stages. Our aim was to investigate performances on nine measures of EF and PMS...
Martini, Rose; Shore, Bruce M.
This paper offers a brief review of the use of metacognition by proficient and poor performers in academic and psychomotor tasks as well as highlights the parallels and provides directions for future research. Metacognition is knowledge about one's own cognitive processes [Flavell, J.H. (1979). "Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area…
Full Text Available High Performance Fortran (HPF is the first widely supported, efficient, and portable parallel programming language for shared and distributed memory systems. HPF is realized through a set of directive-based extensions to Fortran 90. It enables application developers and Fortran end-users to write compact, portable, and efficient software that will compile and execute on workstations, shared memory servers, clusters, traditional supercomputers, or massively parallel processors. This article describes a production-quality HPF compiler for a set of parallel machines. Compilation techniques such as data and computation distribution, communication generation, run-time support, and optimization issues are elaborated as the basis for an HPF compiler implementation on distributed memory machines. The performance of this compiler on benchmark programs demonstrates that high efficiency can be achieved executing HPF code on parallel architectures.
Finney, Steven A; Palmer, Caroline
Research on the effects of context and task on learning and memory has included approaches that emphasize processes during learning (e.g., Craik & Tulving, 1975) and approaches that emphasize a match of conditions during learning with conditions during a later test of memory (e.g., Morris, Bransford, & Franks, 1977; Proteau, 1992; Tulving & Thomson, 1973). We investigated the effects of auditory context on learning and retrieval in three experiments on memorized music performance (a form of serial recall). Auditory feedback (presence or absence) was manipulated while pianists learned musical pieces from notation and when they later played the pieces from memory. Auditory feedback during learning significantly improved later recall. However, auditory feedback at test did not significantly affect recall, nor was there an interaction between conditions at learning and test. Auditory feedback in music performance appears to be a contextual factor that affects learning but is relatively independent of retrieval conditions.
Gardener, Samantha L; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kai-Kai; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Weinborn, Michael; Bates, Kristyn A; Shah, Tejal; Foster, Jonathan K; Lenzo, Nat; Salvado, Olivier; Laske, Christoph; Laws, Simon M; Taddei, Kevin; Verdile, Giuseppe; Martins, Ralph N
Increasing evidence suggests that Alzheimer's disease (AD) sufferers show region-specific reductions in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured by [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET). We investigated preclinical disease stage by cross-sectionally examining the association between global cognition, verbal and visual memory, and 18F-FDG PET standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in 43 healthy control individuals, subsequently focusing on differences between subjective memory complainers and non-memory complainers. The 18F-FDG PET regions of interest investigated include the hippocampus, amygdala, posterior cingulate, superior parietal, entorhinal cortices, frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and inferior parietal region. In the cohort as a whole, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in both the left hippocampus and right amygdala. There were no associations observed between global cognition, delayed recall in logical memory, or visual reproduction and 18F-FDG PET SUVR. Following stratification of the cohort into subjective memory complainers and non-complainers, verbal logical memory immediate recall was positively associated with 18F-FDG PET SUVR in the right amygdala in those with subjective memory complaints. There were no significant associations observed in non-memory complainers between 18F-FDG PET SUVR in regions of interest and cognitive performance. We observed subjective memory complaint-specific associations between 18F-FDG PET SUVR and immediate verbal memory performance in our cohort, however found no associations between delayed recall of verbal memory performance or visual memory performance. It is here argued that the neural mechanisms underlying verbal and visual memory performance may in fact differ in their pathways, and the characteristic reduction of 18F-FDG PET SUVR observed in this and previous studies likely reflects the pathophysiological changes in specific
Starc, Martina; Anticevic, Alan; Repovš, Grega
Pupillometry provides an accessible option to track working memory processes with high temporal resolution. Several studies showed that pupil size increases with the number of items held in working memory; however, no study has explored whether pupil size also reflects the quality of working memory representations. To address this question, we used a spatial working memory task to investigate the relationship of pupil size with spatial precision of responses and indicators of reliance on generalized spatial categories. We asked 30 participants (15 female, aged 19-31) to remember the position of targets presented at various locations along a hidden radial grid. After a delay, participants indicated the remembered location with a high-precision joystick providing a parametric measure of trial-to-trial accuracy. We recorded participants' pupil dilations continuously during task performance. Results showed a significant relation between pupil dilation during preparation/early encoding and the precision of responses, possibly reflecting the attentional resources devoted to memory encoding. In contrast, pupil dilation at late maintenance and response predicted larger shifts of responses toward prototypical locations, possibly reflecting larger reliance on categorical representation. On an intraindividual level, smaller pupil dilations during encoding predicted larger dilations during late maintenance and response. On an interindividual level, participants relying more on categorical representation also produced larger precision errors. The results confirm the link between pupil size and the quality of spatial working memory representation. They suggest compensatory strategies of spatial working memory performance-loss of precise spatial representation likely increases reliance on generalized spatial categories. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Salvucci, Dario D; Beltowska, Joanna
We report an experiment and a theoretical analysis concerning the effects of an exclusively cognitive task, specifically a memory rehearsal task, on driver performance. Although recent work on driver distraction has elucidated the sometimes significant effects of cognitive processing on driver performance, these studies have typically mixed cognitive with perceptual and motor processing, making it difficult to isolate the effects of cognitive processing alone. We asked participants to drive in a driving simulator during only the rehearsal stage of a serial-recall memory task while we measured their ability to maintain a central lane position and respond to the illumination of a lead vehicle's brake lights. Memory rehearsal significantly affected drivers' steering performance as measured by lateral deviation from lane center, and it also significantly affected drivers' response time to the braking stimulus for the higher load memory task. These results lend support to a theoretical account of cognitive distraction provided by threaded cognition theory in terms of a cognitive bottleneck in procedural processing, and they also suggest that consideration of task urgency may be important in accounting for performance trade-offs among concurrent tasks. The experiment augments the current understanding of cognitive driver distraction and suggests that even exclusively cognitive secondary tasks may sometimes affect driver performance.
Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Sorice, Serena; Girardi, Nicoletta; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo
The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks. Our database comprised 290 patients with FEP, matched with 316 HCs. Between-group analyses showed that HCs, compared to FEP patients, exhibited hyperactivation of the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area, BA, 9), right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), and right insula (BA 13) during attentional task performances and hyperactivation of the left insula (BA 13) during memory task performances. Right frontal, parietal, and insular dysfunction during attentional task performance and left insular dysfunction during memory task performance are significant neural functional FEP correlates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
version for which both SAFECode and Soft- Bound were available. 401.bzip2 458.sjeng 464.h264ref 433.milc 470. lbm As distributed at the time of...milc 37.69 5.25 470. lbm 12.23 1.86 Average 41.72 5.36 4.2 Performance Enhancements The first two bars of each group in Figure 4 show the slowdown for...3.15 433.milc 1.01 1.88 470. lbm 1.00 0.97 Average 3.02 2.07 The most striking result in comparison with the initial performance measurements in
Barr, Mera S; Rajji, Tarek K; Zomorrodi, Reza; Radhu, Natasha; George, Tony P; Blumberger, Daniel M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J
Working memory deficits represent a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits have been associated with dysfunctional dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) cortical oscillations. Theta-gamma coupling describes the modulation of gamma oscillations by theta phasic activity that has been directly associated with the ordering of information during working memory performance. Evaluating theta-gamma coupling may provide greater insight into the neural mechanisms mediating working memory deficits in this disorder. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 38 healthy controls performed the verbal N-Back task administered at 4 levels, while EEG was recorded. Theta (4-7Hz)-gamma (30-50Hz) coupling was calculated for target and non-target correct trials for each working memory load. The relationship between theta-gamma coupling and accuracy was determined. Theta-gamma coupling was significantly and selectively impaired during correct responses to target letters among schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. A significant and positive relationship was found between theta-gamma coupling and 3-Back accuracy in controls, while this relationship was not observed in patients. These findings suggest that impaired theta-gamma coupling contribute to working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia. Future work is needed to evaluate the predictive utility of theta-gamma coupling as a neurophysiological marker for functional outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Root, James C; Ryan, Elizabeth; Barnett, Gregory; Andreotti, Charissa; Bolutayo, Kemi; Ahles, Tim
While forgetfulness is widely reported by breast cancer survivors, studies documenting objective memory performance yield mixed, largely inconsistent, results. Failure to find consistent, objective memory issues may be due to the possibility that cancer survivors misattribute their experience of forgetfulness to primary memory issues rather than to difficulties in attention at the time of learning. To clarify potential attention issues, factor scores for Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory were analyzed for the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II) in 64 clinically referred breast cancer survivors with self-reported cognitive complaints; item analysis was conducted to clarify specific contributors to observed effects, and contrasts between learning and recall trials were compared with normative data. Performance on broader cognitive domains is also reported. The Attention Span factor, but not Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, or Inaccurate Memory factors, was significantly affected in this clinical sample. Contrasts between trials were consistent with normative data and did not indicate greater loss of information over time than in the normative sample. Results of this analysis suggest that attentional dysfunction may contribute to subjective and objective memory complaints in breast cancer survivors. These results are discussed in the context of broader cognitive effects following treatment for clinicians who may see cancer survivors for assessment. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Duke, Robert A.; Davis, Carla M.
Using two sequential key press sequences, we tested the extent to which subjects' performance on a digital piano keyboard changed between the end of training and retest on subsequent days. We found consistent, significant improvements attributable to sleep-based consolidation effects, indicating that learning continued after the cessation of…
Huiberts, L.M.; Smolders, K.C.H.J.; de Kort, Y.A.W.
This study examined whether diurnal non-image forming (NIF) effects of illuminance level on cognitive task performance depend on task difficulty and time of day. We employed a balanced crossover design with two 60-min sessions of 200 vs. 1000 lux at eye level. Digit-span task difficulty was
Marty, Melissa C.; Henning, Jolene M.; Willse, John T.
Abstract Context: Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. Objective: To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Entry-level master's athletic training education program. Patients or Other Participants: First-year (n = 5) and second-year (n = 8) students. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Results: Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the ϕ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (ϕ = 0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (ϕ = 0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (ϕ = 0.72). Conclusions: Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was
Marty, Melissa C; Henning, Jolene M; Willse, John T
Peer assessment is defined as students judging the level or quality of a fellow student's understanding. No researchers have yet demonstrated the accuracy or reliability of peer assessment in athletic training education. To determine the accuracy and reliability of peer assessment of athletic training students' psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional study. Entry-level master's athletic training education program. First-year (n = 5) and second-year (n = 8) students. Participants evaluated 10 videos of a peer performing 3 psychomotor skills (middle deltoid manual muscle test, Faber test, and Slocum drawer test) on 2 separate occasions using a valid assessment tool. Accuracy of each peer-assessment score was examined through percentage correct scores. We used a generalizability study to determine how reliable athletic training students were in assessing a peer performing the aforementioned skills. Decision studies using generalizability theory demonstrated how the peer-assessment scores were affected by the number of participants and number of occasions. Participants had a high percentage of correct scores: 96.84% for the middle deltoid manual muscle test, 94.83% for the Faber test, and 97.13% for the Slocum drawer test. They were not able to reliably assess a peer performing any of the psychomotor skills on only 1 occasion. However, the φ increased (exceeding the 0.70 minimal standard) when 2 participants assessed the skill on 3 occasions (φ = 0.79) for the Faber test, with 1 participant on 2 occasions (φ = 0.76) for the Slocum drawer test, and with 3 participants on 2 occasions for the middle deltoid manual muscle test (φ = 0.72). Although students did not detect all errors, they assessed their peers with an average of 96% accuracy. Having only 1 student assess a peer performing certain psychomotor skills was less reliable than having more than 1 student assess those skills on more than 1 occasion. Peer assessment of psychomotor skills
Galloway, Claire R; Lebois, Evan P; Shagarabi, Shezza L; Hernandez, Norma A; Manns, Joseph R
Acetylcholine signaling through muscarinic receptors has been shown to benefit memory performance in some conditions, but pan-muscarinic activation also frequently leads to peripheral side effects. Drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 muscarinic receptors could potentially improve memory while minimizing side effects mediated by the other muscarinic receptor subtypes. The ability of three recently developed drugs that selectively activate M1 or M4 receptors to improve recognition memory was tested by giving Long-Evans rats subcutaneous injections of three different doses of the M1 agonist VU0364572, the M1 positive allosteric modulator BQCA or the M4 positive allosteric modulator VU0152100 before performing an object recognition memory task. VU0364572 at 0.1 mg/kg, BQCA at 1.0 mg/kg and VU0152100 at 3.0 and 30.0 mg/kg improved the memory performance of rats that performed poorly at baseline, yet the improvements in memory performance were the most statistically robust for VU0152100 at 3.0 mg/kg. The results suggested that selective M1 and M4 receptor activation each improved memory but that the likelihood of obtaining behavioral efficacy at a given dose might vary between subjects even in healthy groups depending on baseline performance. These results also highlighted the potential of drug therapies that selectively target M1 or M4 receptors to improve memory performance in individuals with impaired memory.
Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.
Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p < 0.001) regardless of the content and language of the text typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population.
recruited from a local Shakespeare festival held each sumner in Boulder, CO. Three plays were performed in rotation at each summer festival, and the major...words or more) or several reasonably large roles (1000 words or more). The single largest part memorized by a subject was Hamlet , which is about...or contained the probe. For example, an actor portraying Hamlet , when presented the probe "question," could respond with "that is the question", or
The present study sets out to explore the distinctive roles played by two working memory (WM) components in various aspects of L2 task-based speech planning and performance. A group of 40 post-intermediate proficiency level Chinese EFL learners took part in the empirical study. Following the tenets and basic principles of the…
Hager, Lisa D.
This study investigated the effects of organization at input and cued retrieval on the free- and cued-recall memory performance of children (all male and between the ages of 8 and 12) with and without attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD (N=20) recalled significantly fewer words/pictures than children without ADHD…
Kundey, Shannon M. A.; De Los Reyes, Andres; Rowan, James D.; Lee, Bern; Delise, Justin; Molina, Sabrina; Cogdill, Lindsay
When learning highly organized sequential patterns of information, humans and nonhuman animals learn rules regarding the hierarchical structures of these sequences. In three experiments, we explored the role of working memory in college students' sequential pattern learning and performance in a computerized task involving a sequential…
SMITH, RONALD G.
THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED DURING 1966 TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (A COMBINATION OF 2-IMINO-5-PHENYL-4-OXAZOLIDINONE AND MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE) ON A VARIETY OF HUMAN LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PERFORMANCE TASKS. MAGNESIUM PEMOLINE (25 OR 37.5 MG) OR A PLACEBO WAS ADMINISTERED ORALLY ON A DOUBLE-BLIND BASIS TO INTELLIGENCE-MATCHED GROUPS…
Osborn, Robert G.; Meador, Darlene M.
This study compared the performance of depressed and nondepressed males (ages 9-11) on tasks requiring overt rehearsal and free recall. The depressed children rehearsed less both in repetition of words and in the size of their rehearsal sets and recalled fewer words. It is concluded that depressed children have short-term memory processing…
Kyttala, Minna; Lehto, Juhani E.
Passive and active visuospatial working memory (VSWM) were investigated in relation to maths performance. The mental rotation task was employed as a measure of active VSWM whereas passive VSWM was investigated using a modified Corsi Blocks task and a matrix pattern task. The Raven Progressive Matrices Test measured fluid intelligence. A total of…
Cash, Carla D.; Allen, Sarah E.; Simmons, Amy L.; Duke, Robert A.
This study was designed to investigate the extent to which the presentation of an auditory model prior to learning a novel melody affects performance during active practice and the overnight consolidation of procedural memory. During evening training sessions, 32 nonpianist musicians practiced a 13-note keyboard melody with their left…
From the perspective of the Fuzzy Trace Theory, this study investigated the impacts of concept maps with two strategic orientations (comprehensive and thematic representations) on readers' performance of cognitive operations (such as perception, verbatim memory, gist reasoning and syntheses) while the readers were reading two history articles that…
Altgassen, A.M.; Rendell, P.G.; Bernhard, A.; Henry, J.D.; Bailey, P.E.; Phillips, L.H.; Kliegel, M.
Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action
Meule, Adrian; Skirde, Ann Kathrin; Freund, Rebecca; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea
The experience of food craving can lead to cognitive impairments. Experimentally induced chocolate craving exhausts cognitive resources and, therefore, impacts working memory, particularly in trait chocolate cravers. In the current study, we investigated the effects of exposure to food-cues on working memory task performance in a group with frequent and intense (high cravers, n=28) and less pronounced food cravings (low cravers, n=28). Participants performed an n-back task that contained either pictures of high-calorie sweets, high-calorie savory foods, or neutral objects. Current subjective food craving was assessed before and after the task. All participants showed slower reaction times and made more omission errors in response to food-cues, particularly savory foods. There were no differences in task performance between groups. State cravings did not differ between groups before the task, but increased more in high cravers compared to low cravers during the task. Results support findings about food cravings impairing visuo-spatial working memory performance independent of trait cravings. They further show that this influence is not restricted to chocolate, but also applies to high-calorie savory foods. Limiting working memory capacity may be especially crucial in persons who are more prone to high-calorie food-cues and experience such cravings habitually. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.