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Sample records for psychomotor development index

  1. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  2. [Psychomotor development and its disorders: between normal and pathological development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericat, Agustina; Bibiana Orden, Alicia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses some aspects of psychomotor development and its disorders, with special emphasis on psychomotor retardation. Diagnostic classifications of psychomotor problems, such as DSM-IV and CIE-10, are referred to and their advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. The concept of normality as a synonym for the statistical mean in the context of psychomotor disorders is also analyzed in order to consider its dynamic and variability, thereby avoiding the normality/pathology opposition, while some issues, such as the social and cultural aspects, are highlighted, making it possible to rethink the universality and relativity of psychomotor development.

  3. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

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    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  4. Growth and psychomotor development of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Sarrazin, Elisabeth; von der Hagen, Maja; Schara, Ulrike; von Au, Katja; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common hereditary degenerative neuromuscular diseases and caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The objective of the retrospective study was to describe growth and psychomotor development of patients with DMD and to detect a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. Data from 263 patients with DMD (mean age 7.1 years) treated at the Departments of Pediatric Neurology in three German University Hospitals was assessed with respect to body measurements (length, weight, body mass index BMI, head circumference OFC), motor and cognitive development as well as genotype (site of mutation). Anthropometric measures and developmental data were compared to those of a reference population and deviations were analyzed for their frequency in the cohort as well as in relation to the genotypes. Corticosteroid therapy was implemented in 29 from 263 patients. Overall 30% of the patients exhibit a short statue (length development at 2-5 years of age, and this is even more prevalent when steroid therapy is applied (45% of patients with steroid therapy). The BMI shows a rightwards shift (68% > 50th centile) and the OFC a leftwards shift (65% development is delayed in a third of the patients (mean age at walking 18.3 months, 30% > 18 months, 8% > 24 months). Almost half of the patients show cognitive impairment (26% learning disability, 17% intellectual disability). Although there is no strict genotype-phenotype correlation, particularly mutations in the distal part of the dystrophin gene are frequently associated with short stature and a high rate of microcephaly as well as cognitive impairment.

  5. Psychomotor, Cognitive, and Social Development Spectrum Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, Alex; Byra, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the Spectrum Teaching Styles can help physical educators develop an instructional environment that allows learners to meet the national content standards for physical education while providing learners with a quality educational experience. The paper discusses the development and use of the Spectrum and the development of…

  6. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Otten, Barto J; Wit, Jan Maarten; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2007-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were performed in 22 PWS infants, with a median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 1.8 (1.1-3.4) y, and a body mass index SD score (BMISDS) of -0.5 (-1.3 to 1.6). We evaluated psychomotor development in relation to results of polysomnography. Median (IQR) mental and motor development was 73.1% (64.3-79.6%) and 55.2% (46.5-63.1%) of normal children, respectively. All infants had sleep-related breathing disorders, mostly of central origin. The apnea hypopnea index was not associated with psychomotor development. Only four infants had obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). They had a significantly delayed mental development of 65.5% (60.0-70.3%) of normal. They had a median BMISDS of 1.4 (0.1-1.6), which tended to be higher than in those without OSAS. Our data indicate that psychomotor development in PWS infants is not related to central sleep-related breathing disorders, but infants with OSAS have more severely delayed mental development, suggesting that PWS infants should be screened for OSAS.

  7. [Specific disturbances of psychomotor development in children with thymomegaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat'eva, O N; Kuz'menko, L G; Kozlovskaia, G V; Kliushnik, T P

    2008-01-01

    Ninety children, aged from 2 month to 3 years, with thymomegaly and 25 aged-matched controls were studied. Most children with thymomegaly had disturbances of psychomotor development. Depending on their types, the cohort of children was stratified into 4 subgroups: 1st - 36 patients (40%) with schizotypal signs; 2nd - 30 hyperactive children (33%); 3rd - 19 children with hyperthymia signs (21%); 4th - 5 normal children (6%). The deviations of locomotion and psychiatric development were correlated with the extent of thymus enlargement and activation of innate and adaptive immunity.

  8. Influence of a physical education plan on psychomotor development profiles of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira Costa, Hélder José; Abelairas-Gomez, Cristian; Arufe-Giráldez, Vìctor; Pazos-Couto, José María; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of structured physical education on the psychomotor development of 3 to 5 year-old preschool children. The sample consisted of 324 students of both sexes (3 to 5 year-old) from 9 public kindergarten classes in Porto, Portugal. A battery of psychomotor tests (pre-test) was used to assess the students’ psychomotor development profiles. The sample was divided in 2 groups: an experimental group (162 students) and a control group (162 students). Physic...

  9. Relationships among Physical Activity Levels, Psychomotor, Psychosocial, and Cognitive Development of Primary Education Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isler, Ayse Kin; Asci, F. Hulya; Kosar, S. Nazan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationships of physical activity levels and psychomotor, psychosocial, and cognitive development among Turkish elementary school students. Student evaluations indicated that physical activity level was an important factor in determining student psychomotor development, but it was not important in determining psychosocial and…

  10. SSRI antidepressants: altered psychomotor development following exposure in utero?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs) are sometimes prescribed to pregnant women. The potential consequences for the unborn child are gradually becoming clearer. In a case-control study of 298 children with autism and 1507 controls, 6.7% of mothers of autistic children had been prescribed an antidepressant during the year before delivery, compared to 3.3% of control mothers. The antidepressant was usually an SSRI. A dozen other small epidemiological studies of neurological development in children exposed to antidepressants in utero have provided mixed results. Two of these studies suggested a risk of psychomotor retardation. In practice, SSRI antidepressants should only be considered for pregnant women when non-drug measures fail and when symptoms are sufficiently serious to warrant drug therapy.

  11. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

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    Trento, I [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Santucci, M [Facultad de PsicologIa, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Tula, S [Escuela de Educacion Especial y Formacion Laboral Beatriz MartInez Allio. Av. M. Lopez N0 2620 Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina); Gonzalez, E [Grupo Ingenieria ClInica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Facultad Regional Cordoba. Av. M. Lopez esquina Cruz Roja, Ciudad Universitaria, 5012 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingenieria ClInica of the Universidad Tecnologica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Cordoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  12. Technology for communicational development and learning in psychomotor disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trento, I.; Santucci, M.; Tula, S.; González, E.

    2007-11-01

    The applied investigation and experimental development project described in this paper has been carried out by Grupo Ingeniería Clínica of the Universidad Tecnológica Nacional together with two Special Education Schools dependent on the Ministry of Education of Córdoba Province. Its aim is the development of computer access assistive tools for students with mobility limitations, and with or without intellectual problems that need adaptations to access to a computer in order to learn, communicate, work, etc. On the other hand, it demonstrates the benefits that the use of a computer gives to these students. The evaluation of their performance was made trough Dr. Marianne Frostig's Developmental Test of Visual Perception and reading and writing graphic tests, comparing the results of the tests made on paper with those made on computer. Thus, an interdisciplinary team was formed by Engineering, Psychology and Special Education professionals, and 40 students were evaluated. The design of the mouse and keyboard had some adaptations. At present, the rating test stage is being achieved, and the preliminary results allow us to anticipate that pupils with psychomotor disabilities may manifest their perceptual ripeness and reach education in a more efficient way through the use of informatics tools according to their needs and possibilities.

  13. Postnatal Growth and Psychomotor Development in Small for Gestational Age Brazilian Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Patricia Ann; Pasquali, Luiz

    1984-01-01

    The early psychomotor development (DQ) of 29 term small-for-gestational-age Brazilian infants was shown to be more dependent on postnatal growth than the DQ of 51 term appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. (Author/RH)

  14. BOBATH THERAPY IN CORRECTION OF PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ORGANIC INJURIES CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhovets, B. O.; Romanchuk, A. P.

    2014-01-01

    The article represents therapy of Bobath such as one of the most effective author method which use in correction psychomotor development of children with disorders of musculoskeletal system. Bobath method is not new in the correction of movement disorders since last century and still supplementing and improving. In this work highlight topic of the effective use Bobath therapy in correction of psychomotor development in children age 3 – 6 years with organic involvement CNS. the experi...

  15. Using Standardized Patients in Nursing Education: Effects on Students' Psychomotor Skill Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmasoglu, Senay; Dinç, Leyla; Elçin, Melih

    2016-01-01

    The present study used a quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of using standardized patients for the psychomotor skills development of nursing students. The performance of the experimental group in blood pressure measurement was significantly higher than that of the control group; however, there was no significant difference between the groups with regard to their administration of subcutaneous injections. The results indicated that standardized patients can be integrated into nursing education for developing psychomotor skills of students.

  16. Correction and development of psychomotor function of deaf children of midchildhood by facilities of mobile games.

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    Іvahnenko A.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of correction and development of psychomotor sphere of deaf children of midchildhood is considered by facilities of physical education, in particular by mobile games. The analysis of publications of research workers is resulted in relation to the problem of development of psychomotor function of deaf children in a theory and practice of correction work. In theory is grounded value of mobile games as effective mean of development of psychomotor sphere of deaf lower boys. The necessity of application of the specially adapted mobile games is set in the process of correction-pedagogical work with the deaf children of midchildhood. The pedagogical looking is presented after the features of playing activity of deaf children of 1-4 classes.

  17. Against the odds: psychomotor development of children under 2 years in a Sudanese orphanage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espié, Emmanuelle; Ouss, Lisa; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Candilis, Drina; Ahmed, Khalid; Cohuet, Sandra; Baubet, Thierry; Grais, Rebecca F; Moro, Marie-Rose

    2011-12-01

    Providing abandoned children the necessary medical and psychological care as possible after their institutionalization may minimize developmental delays. We describe psychomotor development in infants admitted to an orphanage in Khartoum, Sudan, assessed at admission and over an 18-month follow-up. Psychological state and psychomotor quotients were determined using a simplified Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale (NBAS), the Brunet-Lezine and Alarm distress baby (ADBB) scale. From May-September 2005, 151 children were evaluated 2, 4, 9, 12 and 18 months after inclusion. At admission, ~15% of children ≤1 month had a regulation impairment according to the NBAS, and 33.8% presented a distress state (ADBB score >5). More than 85% (129/151) recovered normal psychomotor development. The results of the program reinforce the importance of early detection of psychological disorders followed by rapid implementation of psychological case management to improve the development of young children in similar institutions and circumstances.

  18. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  19. Physical, mental and psychomotor development of children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction: a retrospective case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiao-Qin; Wang Wen-Jun; Li Yu; Li Hong; Ma Yun; Chen Xiang-Hong; Yang Dong-Zi; Zhang Qing-Xue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perinatal and developmental outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) children born after multifetal pregnancy reduction (MPR).Methods: Twenty-four ART children born after MPR were compared to 9 triplets without MPR, and 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 naturally conceived. Mental and psychological development was assessed by Bayley Scales.of Infant. The outcomes compared included perinatal characteristics, body mass index (BMI), mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI).Results: MPR singletons/twins had better neonatal outcomes than non-MPR triplets. Moreover, PDI of the MPR singletons/twins was significantly higher than that of the non-MPR triplets. There were no significantly difference in perinatal characteristics, BMI, MDI and PDI among 24 MPR children, 24 matched IVF children without MPR and 24 matched naturally conceived children.Conclusion: Multifetal pregnancy reduction could improve perinatal outcomes and would not affect physical, mental and psychomotor development for children born after it.

  20. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  1. Case study Early psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy – case study

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    Łucja Bieleninik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the specificity and dynamics of psychomotor development in children from triplet pregnancy. The studied group was composed of siblings from triple pregnancy (T1, T2, T3, including two girls and one boy. This longitudinal study comprised three stages: stage I – children aged 25 months, stage II – children aged 29 months, and stage III – children aged 38 months. At each stage, the psychomotor development of children was examined with the Third Edition of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III and subjectively by their mother. Additionally, medical and nursing documentation was analyzed. Individual psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancy is different with regards to various spheres, and has different rates and dynamics throughout consecutive years. Psychomotor development of children from triple pregnancies is determined by gender and postnatal clinical parameters, i.e. birth weight, head circumference, postnatal morbidity, and prematurity-related conditions.

  2. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (pdevelopment appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Childhood Cognitive and Psychomotor Development : Six European Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Forns, Joan; Badaloni, Chiara; Ballester, Ferran; Beelen, Rob; Cesaroni, Giulia; Chatzi, Leda; de Agostini, Maria; de Nazelle, Audrey; Eeftens, Marloes; Fernandez, Mariana F.; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Heude, Barbara; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Kluemper, Claudia; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kraemer, Ursula; Larroque, Beatrice; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lertxuni, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Navel, Vladislav; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Porta, Daniela; Ramos, Rosa; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Slama, Remy; Sorensen, Mette; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Sugiri, Dorothea; Tardon, Adonina; Tiemeier, Henning; Tiesler, Carla M. T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Wilhelm, Michael; Brunekreef, Bert; Pershagen, Goeran; Sunyer, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence from laboratory animal and human studies suggests that air pollution exposure during pregnancy affects cognitive and psychomotor development in childhood. Methods: We analyzed data from 6 European population-based birth cohorts-GENERATI ON R (The Netherlands), DUISB

  4. Psychomotor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, D.A.; Wevers, M.; Weerd, A.W. de; Bossche, R.A. van den; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurogenetic disorder with hypotonia, psychomotor delay, obesity, short stature, and sleep-related breathing disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between psychomotor development and sleep-related breathing disorders in PWS infants. Bayley

  5. Teaching physical education by the perspective of psychomotor development and health promotion

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    Hana Dvořáková

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Teaching physical education should refl ect changes in education and changes in the concept of physical education as a part of health education in the broad sense, it means physical, mental and social health. In addition to provable positive benefi ts of physical activity on health, it is generally considered diffi cult to demonstrate the infl uence of physical education on diff erent ways of life. Results of studies indicate failure of education in physical education in practical and information process. Perceived physical competence, fun, the activity and monitoring individual progress are considered as positive correlates of the infl uence of physical education on lifestyle (Dobrý, 2007.OBJECTIVE: The aims of this paper is to point out that psychomotor activities could bring positive changes in teaching physical education.METHODS: This paper examined various studies, personal experiencies from abroad and practice.RESULTS: Physical activities and games in pedagogical concept of ps. development are intentionally aimed at the physical and motoric development in connection with mental processes and social relations, promote personal knowledge and personal development, self-activity and creativity, are fun and lead to the acquisition of key competencies. Using psychomotor teaching methods could support this impact of psychomotor activities and help to make positive changes in physical education.CONCLUSIONS: Psychomotor activities can help the modern concept of physical education if in addition to practical activities there is also included theoretical and didactic knowledge that increase the possibility of rational and intentional use of these activities.

  6. Psychomotor development of preterm babies in the context of biomedical predictors in a Polish sample

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    Mariola Bidzan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Preterm birth represents the most frequent complication of pregnancy all over the world. Much research is addressed to psychomotor development of preterm infants during the initial years of their life. Many authors emphasize the role of birth weight, gestational age, and gender in determining the child’s psychomotor development. This study adds to this knowledge as we analyzed the synergistic effect of biomedical predictors such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, time in incubator, type of pregnancy defined based on its outcome, neonatal status immediately after delivery, infant’s gender, and possessing twin sibling. Combined effects of these factors represent an important niche in the studies of the developmental psychology of preterm infants. Participants and procedure The study included 49 preterm infants born in 2008-2009 at the Department of Obstetrics of the Medical University of Gdańsk. The psychomotor development of preterm infants was evaluated according to the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development®, Third Edition (BSID-III at a mean, non-corrected age of 33.80 months (SD = 5.16. For the purpose of the study we developed a basic model in the form of a pathway diagram, describing the cumulative influence of eight biomedical predictors on the development of the infants during early childhood. Results Our study revealed a synergistic influence of biomedical predictors on the development of preterm infants with regards to cognitive functioning (28% of variance, language skills (10% of variance, motor skills (18% of variance, fine motor skills (16% of variance, and gross motor skills (20% of variance. Moreover, we observed an independent effect of birth weight, child’s gender, and final Apgar score on the psychomotor development of preterm infants. Higher birth weight was associated with higher level of cognitive function and fine motor skills. Male gender of a child was reflected by a higher level of

  7. Psychomotor development in children with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emin; Erguven, Muferet; Guven, Sirin; Erdogan, Makbule; Balta, Tulin

    2010-09-01

    Iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia are the most common nutritional deficiencies in children, especially in developing countries. Iron-deficiency anemia in infancy is associated with impaired neurodevelopment. Studies have shown an association between iron deficiency without anemia and adverse effects on psychomotor development. To determine the effects of iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia on psychomotor development in childhood. . We evaluated psychomotor development in healthy children with iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anemia with the use of the Denver II Developmental Screening Test (DDST-II). If the child score was more than 90th percentile compared to children in the same age group, the test was scored as "delay" it was scored as a "caution" if the child score was between the 75th and 90th percentiles. The test result was interpreted as "normal," if there was no delay and only one "caution" for any item. If the child had one or more "delays" or more than two "cautions," the result was classified as "abnormal." DDST-II scores were abnormal in 67.3% of subjects with iron-deficiency anemia, 21.6% of those with iron deficiency, and 15.0% of control subjects. The difference from the control group in the percentage of abnormal scores was significant for subjects with iron-deficiency anemia (p iron deficiency (p = 0.203); p > .05. (p-value, post-hoc comparison of 2 groups.) Iron-deficiency anemia impaired psychomotor development during childhood. However, the evidence on the adverse effects of iron deficiency remains controversial. The Denver II Developmental Screening Test is a valuable test to detect early developmental delays, especially in infants with risk factors.

  8. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDREN WITH DOWN SYNDROME - ADAPTED SWIMMING -

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    Chera-Ferrario B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport activities have a beneficial effect on the mind and body of any type of person. The benefits of sport are even more evident in children with Down Syndrome, who exhibit a general delay in neuro-motor structures. Our aim was to develop the psycho-motor skills in children with Down Syndrome through adapted swimming exercises. We believe that our involvement in adapted swimming for children with Down Syndrome may help develop certain aspects of psycho-motor abilities. The swimming took place with 6 Down Syndrome children from the Special Needs School in Targoviste, for a period of six months and the children being assisted by volunteer students from the Valahia University Department of Sport in Targoviste.The most important result was the children's delight in coming to the pool and taking part in the swimming lessons. Through the methods and exercises used and the devoted involvement of the volunteers, the children developed great levels of trust and courage and learned to swim using only aids. After performing motor skill tests on the children, we observed a general growth in the motor skills monitored.Continuation of the adapted swimming is very important in order to mobilize the skills obtained and continue development of psycho-motor abilities.

  9. Effect of Giardia infection on growth and psychomotor development of children aged 0-5 years.

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    Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A

    2004-04-01

    Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.

  10. Folic acid supplements during pregnancy and child psychomotor development after the first year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera-Gran, Desirée; García de la Hera, Manuela; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva María; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Tardón, Adonina; Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Joan; Lertxundi, Nerea; Ibarluzea, Jesús María; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Vioque, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Folate intake during pregnancy has been associated with improved neuropsychological development in children, although the effects of high dosages of folic acid (FA) supplements are unclear. To examine the association between the use of high dosages of FA supplements during pregnancy and child neuropsychological development after the first year of life. The multicenter prospective mother-child cohort Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project recruited pregnant women from 4 areas of Spain (Asturias, Sabadell, Gipuzkoa, and Valencia) between November 2003 and January 2008. Pregnant women completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire on the usual dietary folate intake and FA supplements at 10 to 13 weeks and 28 to 32 weeks of gestation. The main analyses were based on a sample of 2213 children with complete information on neuropsychological development and FA supplement intake during pregnancy. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were used to explore the effects of FA supplements on child neuropsychological development. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We calculated mental scale and psychomotor scale scores. One SD below the mean established a delay in neurodevelopment (score 5000 μg/d). In multivariate analysis, we observed that children whose mothers used FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d during pregnancy had a statistically significantly lower mean psychomotor scale score (difference, -4.35 points; 95% CI, -8.34 to -0.36) than children whose mothers used a recommended dosage of FA supplements (400-1000 μg/d). An increased risk of delayed psychomotor development (psychomotor scale score <85) was also evident among children whose mothers took FA supplement dosages higher than 5000 μg/d, although the association was not statistically significant (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.08). To our knowledge, this is the first time a detrimental effect of high dosages of FA supplements

  11. Influence of hippotherapy on psychomotor development of people with special needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardenia de Oliveira Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hippotherapy is a therapeutic and educational process that uses a horse with the purpose of providing physical and psychological improvement for people with special needs. In this study, the goal was to analyze the influence of hippotherapy on psychomotor development of people with special needs. In order to do this, an extensive bibliographical research was performed and from the items found an analysis was carried out through reading the abstracts and selecting the works which involved psychomotor aspects related to hippotherapeutic intervention. As a result, 15 articles were found relevant to the object of this study, which showed evidence for gains in motor skills due to the intervention with the use of horses. It was possible to analyze the frequency of publication of articles on the area, identify the population who benefited from the practice of hippotherapy and the main theories that offer support to research. Through careful literature review, it was possible to conclude that hippotherapy can be an effective tool as intervention in the psychomotor aspects of people with special needs.

  12. Comparison of psychomotor development in urban and rural preschool children

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    M. Amouzadeh Khalili

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Baekgrouund & purpose: The purpose of this study was comparing the motor and cognitive development of urban and rural preschool children in Semnan, Iran.Materials and Methods: 97 healthy preschool children participated in the study, including 57 urban (n1=57 and 40 rural (n2=40 children.6 assessment methods including equilibrium on one leg, drawing a man, Juorchin, fekr-e-bekr, equilibrium board and the test of easy fine motor, were employed to evaluate the motor and cognitive development in the participants.For analysis of the obtained results t tests was used to determine significant differences between the two groups.Results:equilibrium on one leg and the test of easy fine motor, considering there was significant differences between, urban and rural groups.In the other four tests there was no significant differences between the two groups.Conclusion: the findings indicated that the rural children have more success in motor skills when compared to urban children, while in cognitive tests the two groups showed the same results, indicating. That revision is required for the preschool programme

  13. Early life exposure to polyunsaturated fatty acids and psychomotor development in children from the EDEN mother-child cohort

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    Bernard Jonathan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported that breastfed children have improved psychomotor development compared to never breastfed children. Human studies suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially long chain PUFA (LC-PUFA which are highly contained in breast milk, could explain this link, since they are needed for pre- and postnatal brain development. Our aim was to study the relationships between several measures of pre- and postnatal exposures to PUFA and child’s psychomotor development at 2 and 3 years in the EDEN cohort. We evaluated breastfeeding duration, colostrum PUFA levels and maternal dietary PUFA intake during pregnancy, that we related with three scores of psychomotor development, after taking into account potential confounders. Breastfeeding duration was positively associated with psychomotor development. No relationship was found with both pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA. However, the maternal dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratio was negatively associated with psychomotor development, mainly driven by intake in linoleic acid (LA. Among breastfed children, linoleic acid levels were negatively associated with psychomotor development. Furthermore, children exposed to the highest colostrum LA levels tended to score closer to never breastfed children than to children exposed to the lowest colostrums LA levels. Taken together, these results do not provide evidence in favour of a positive role of pre- and postnatal exposure to LC-PUFA on later psychomotor development, but highlight a potential negative role of being exposed in early life to high LA levels. From a public health perspective, this work reiterates the need to promote breastfeeding duration, and to monitor the balance of PUFA intake during pregnancy and lactation periods.

  14. Association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's mental, psychomotor and language development in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N

    2012-06-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.

  15. [Relationship between nutritional status, level of physical activity and psychomotor development in preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Cappelacci, Marcelo; Oyarzún Alfaro, Tania; Leyton Artigas, Fernanda; Sepúlveda Muñoz, Cristóbal

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and overweight have been included as a pandemic by the WHO; children are the group where intervention is recommended, given that they can enter physical activity (PA) and psychomotor development (PD) programs at education centres. Chile accounts for high rates of overweight, obesity and sedentary life, together with an absence of preschool PA programs. To relate the nutritional status, the psychomotor development and the quantity and intensity of PA in school routine for 5 year-old preschoolers. Pilot, non-experimental, transversal correlational study, including 23 preschoolers aged 5. We assessed three values: nutritional status with score z-IMC, PA with Actigraphy and PD with Da Fonseca Battery. 26% of the children presented with overweight and 52% with obesity. All of them had at least 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during their school-day. 82.6% of the children were in the Normal category for PD and the rest were in the Dispraxia category. A significant inverse relationship was found (p=0,032) between z-IMC and PD. The percentage of obese children is notably above international average values and national surveys. 17.4% of children show dispraxia at the psychomotor assessment. Children with higher z-IMC have a lower score in Da Fonseca battery, which could be due to a higher weight in relation to size, and generating a lower PD in the long term. No relationships were detected within the other variables. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery and its effect on psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; López-Montiel, Dolores; González-Mesa, Ernesto Santiago

    2015-12-01

    The main objective is to examine the influence of oxytocin administration during delivery on psychomotor development at age five years. This was a retrospective cohort study involving two groups: children of mothers exposed vs. not exposed to oxytocin during labor. Of the 7,465 newborns registered in our maternity service during 2006 we randomly selected an initial sample of 400 children. Of these, 146 children were assessed using the motor scale of the Battelle Developmental Inventory. Other predictor variables that could potentially act as confounders and/or interact with the main relationship were also examined. The data were subjected to bivariate analysis, estimates of measures of strength of association, stratified analysis and multivariate binary logistic regression. The results indicate that exposure to synthetic oxytocin during delivery is an independent risk factor for a delay in gross and fine motor development. This was the case after controlling for the variables duration of labor and sex of the newborn, none of which modified the effect of oxytocin on gross and fine motor development. However, sex of the newborn were shown to be confounding gross motor development. In light of these results, and with the aim of preventing possible psychomotor alterations, further studies are now needed to analyze the effect that the oxytocin dose and the duration of perfusion may have on children's subsequent development.

  17. MENTAL AND PSYCHOMOTOR RETARDATION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: Overview and development of a protocol for neuropsychological assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Sánchez-Joya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The last decades have brought great advances in the understanding of child neurodevelopment and knowledge of cognitive processes that occur in the brain from an early age. As a result and thanks to the large number of standardized and scientifically guaranteed neuropsychological tests that are available today, we can assess and diagnose with high specificity, deficits or delays in the acquisition of cognitive functions. Besides, it allows knowing the strengths or normality points of children with various pathologies. Objective: To present the concepts and a neuropsychological assessment protocol for mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation. Development: First, the authors present a general model of neuropsychological assessment in childhood. Second, he concept, classification and aetiology of mental retardation is revised and it is proposed a neuropsychological profile. Finally, the paradigms of pervasive developmental disorder and psychomotor retardation are shown. Conclusion: Based on standardized and validated test for child neuropsychological assessment, children cognitive disorders can be accurately identified to plan each child's cognitive stimulation, and thus optimize the results of the therapy.

  18. Micronutrients during pregnancy and child psychomotor development: Opposite effects of Zinc and Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Krol, Anna; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Kuras, Renata; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Mirabella, Fiorino; Chiarotti, Flavia; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2017-10-01

    Studies on the impact of micronutrient levels during different pregnancy periods on child psychomotor functions are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal plasma concentrations of selected micronutrients, such as: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), and child neuropsychological development. The study population consisted of 539 mother-child pairs from Polish Mother and Child Cohort (REPRO_PL). The micronutrient levels were measured in each trimester of pregnancy, at delivery and in the cord blood. Psychomotor development was assessed in children at the age of 1 and 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. The mean plasma Zn, Cu and Se concentrations in the 1st trimester of pregnancy were 0.91±0.27mg/l, 1.98±0.57mg/l and 48.35±10.54μg/l, respectively. There were no statistically significant associations between Cu levels and any of the analyzed domains of child development. A positive association was observed between Se level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and child language and motor skills (β=0.18, p=0.03 and β=0.25, p=0.005, respectively) at one year of age. Motor score among one-year-old children decreased along with increasing Zn levels in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and in the cord blood (β=-12.07, p=0.003 and β=-6.51, p=0.03, respectively). A similar pattern was observed for the association between Zn level in the 1st trimester of pregnancy and language abilities at one year of age (β=-7.37, p=0.05). Prenatal Zn and Se status was associated with lower and higher child psychomotor abilities, respectively, within the first year of life. Further epidemiological and preclinical studies are necessary to confirm the associations between micronutrient levels and child development as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of their effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of an Instrument to Measure Perceived Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Learning in Traditional and Virtual Classroom Higher Education Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Alfred P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.; Baker, Jason D.; Grooms, Linda D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a self-report instrument that can be used to measure learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. The study underwent three phases, each with its own data collection and analysis. Phase I featured the development, testing, and factor analysis of an 80-item instrument that…

  20. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.K.; Muslimatun, S.; West, C.E.; Schultink, J.W.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2004-01-01

    Maternal nutrition is important for fetal development, but its impact on the functional outcome of infants is still unclear. The present study investigated the effects of vitamin A and Fe supplementation during gestation on infant mental and psychomotor development. Mothers of infants from five vill

  1. Psychomotor and intellectual development of children born with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, B; Ferrández Longás, A; García Romero, R; Mayayo, E; Labarta, J I

    2004-03-01

    The possible impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of children born with IUGR gives special relevance to this condition. In order to determine the psychomotor and intellectual development of such children, we analyzed the evolution of 60 children through appropriate tests, along the years, and the possible influence of two factors, the socio-economic status of the family, and whether or not there was catch-up growth. Our results show a negative impact of IUGR on the intellectual outcome of these children, independent of catch-up growth, although those with catch-up growth showed better evolution. The socio-economic status plays a limited role only at older age. Those children followed longitudinally for 1 year did not show any amelioration of their IQ.

  2. Effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development in primary school children in Malawi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Primary school children (n = 424) from the Ntcheu District, Malawi, aged 6 - 8 years, were selected for a double-blind placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effect of iodine and iron supplementation on physical, psychomotor and mental development. After the baseline measurements were carried out,

  3. Iodine status and associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development in six-month-old South African infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Jennifer; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Rothman, Marinel; Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Covic, Namukolo; Faber, Mieke; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-12-28

    Iodine is important for normal growth and psychomotor development. While infants below 6 months of age receive iodine from breast milk or fortified infant formula, the introduction of complementary foods poses a serious risk for deteriorating iodine status. This cross-sectional analysis assessed the iodine status of six-month-old South African infants and explored its associations with feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development. Iodine concentrations were measured in infant (n = 386) and maternal (n = 371) urine (urinary iodine concentration [UIC]), and in breast milk (n = 257 [breast milk iodine concentrations]). Feeding practices and psychomotor milestone development were assessed in all infants. The median (25th-75th percentile) UIC in infants was 345 (213-596) μg/L and was significantly lower in stunted (302 [195-504] μg/L) than non-stunted (366 [225-641] μg/L) infants. Only 6.7% of infants were deficient. Maternal UIC (128 [81-216] μg/L; rs  = 0.218, p psychomotor developmental scores were observed. Our results suggest that iodine intake in the studied six-month-old infants was adequate. Iodine in breast milk and commercial infant cereals potentially contributed to this adequate intake.

  4. PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN PREMATURE INFANTS UNTIL THE END OF THEIR THIRD YEAR OF LIFE

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    Valentina DUKOVSKA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor development in premature infants has specific characteristics with increased tendency towards neuro-developmental difficulties, such as the fact that certain percent of the developmentally challenged people belongs in this category of children.Many factors contribute to the neuro-developmental difficulties in premature infants. A large number of studies have shown that the birth weight (BW and gestational age (GA have strong correlation with the neuro-developmental outcome.In order to establish the general developmental outcome and the developmental outcome in specific areas of early development, that is the first three years of life in preemies, we have conducted a research on our own population. We conducted a longitudinal study on 20 premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW, with a follow-up period from 4 weeks CGA until 36 weeks GA.The research results showed that the largest difference in developmental areas between the group of premature infants with VLBW and the control group is present at the end of the 36th month of life and the general development quotient (GDQ in the premature group was significantly lower during the whole follow-up period, except at the end of month 4 - in different developmental areas. We also concluded that 20% of the premature infants with VLBW have developmental difficulties and severe difficulties in their motor development.

  5. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  6. Glutamate input to noradrenergic neurons plays an essential role in the development of morphine dependence and psychomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Solecki, Wojciech; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Kubik, Jakub; Gołda, Sławomir; Novak, Martin; Parlato, Rosanna; Hess, Grzegorz; Sprengel, Rolf; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2012-11-01

    The brain's noradrenergic system is involved in the development of behaviours induced by drugs of abuse, e.g. dependence and withdrawal, and also reward or psychomotor effects. To investigate how noradrenergic system activity is controlled in the context associated with drug-induced behaviours, we generated a Cre/loxP mouse model in which the essential glutamate NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is ablated in cells expressing dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh). As a result, the noradrenergic cells in NR1DbhCre mice lack the NMDA receptor-dependent component of excitatory post-synaptic currents. The mutant mice displayed no obvious behavioural alterations, had unchanged noradrenaline content and mild increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, NR1DbhCre animals did not develop morphine-induced psychomotor sensitization. However, when the morphine injections were preceded by treatment with RX821002, an antagonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, the development of sensitization was restored. Conversely, pretreatment with clonidine, an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, blocked development of sensitization in wild-type mice. We also found that while the development of tolerance to morphine was normal in mutant mice, withdrawal symptoms were attenuated. These data reveal that NMDA receptors on noradrenergic neurons regulate development of opiate dependence and psychomotor sensitization, by controlling drug-induced noradrenaline signalling.

  7. Utilizing Smart Textiles-Enabled Sensorized Toy and Playful Interactions for Assessment of Psychomotor Development on Children

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    Mario Vega-Barbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging pervasive technologies like smart textiles make it possible to develop new and more accessible healthcare services for patients independently of their location or time. However, none of these new e-health solutions guarantee a complete user acceptance, especially in cases requiring extensive interaction between the user and the solution. So far, researchers have focused their efforts on new interactions techniques to improve the perception of privacy and confidence of the people using e-health services. In this way, the use of smart everyday objects arises as an interesting approach to facilitate the required interaction and increase user acceptance. Such Smart Daily Objects together with smart textiles provide researchers with a novel way to introduce sophisticated sensor technology in the daily life of people. This work presents a sensorized smart toy for assessment of psychomotor development in early childhood. The aim of this work is to design, develop, and evaluate the usability and playfulness of a smart textile-enabled sensorized toy that facilitates the user engagement in a personalized monitoring healthcare activity. To achieve this objective the monitoring is based on a smart textile sensorized toy as catalyzer of acceptance and multimodal sensing sources to monitor psychomotor development activities during playtime.

  8. Psychomotor activities with seniors

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    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  9. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie;

    2016-01-01

    MEASURES: Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. DESIGN: This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. SETTING: Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals...... was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). CONCLUSIONS: A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108....

  10. Psychomotor Behavior: A Practical Approach in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadi, Konstantin G.; Gluscencova, Oxana B.; Boulianne, Gabrielle L

    2016-01-01

    Psychomotor behaviors are governed by fine relationships between physical activity and cognitive functions. Disturbances in psychomotor development and performance are a hallmark of many mental illnesses and often appear as observable and measurable behaviors. Here, we describe a new method called an “equilibrist test,” which can be used to quantify psychomotor learning and performance in Drosophila. We also show how this test can be used to quantify motor disturbances at relatively early sta...

  11. 19p13.3 aberrations are associated with dysmorphic features and deviant psychomotor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siggberg, L; Olsén, P; Näntö-Salonen, K; Knuutila, S

    2011-01-01

    Here, we describe 2 patients with de novo genomic imbalances of 19p13.3. Using high-resolution microarray analysis, we detected a 1.25-Mb deletion in one patient and a 0.81- Mb duplication in another. The resulting phenotypes are quite different; one is a 2-year-old boy with macrocephaly and normal growth, while the other is a 9-year-old boy with microcephaly and growth retardation since birth. Both have dysmorphic features and psychomotor developmental delay. This report gives evidence of the effect of small aberrations of chromosome 19 and describes the phenotypes arising from a duplication and deletion of the same location at 19p13.3.

  12. Dietary patterns in early childhood and child cognitive and psychomotor development: the Rhea mother-child cohort study in Crete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Sarri, Katerina; Koutra, Katerina; Kampouri, Mariza; Kyriklaki, Andriani; Vassilaki, Maria; Kogevinas, Manolis; Chatzi, Leda

    2016-04-01

    Early-life nutrition is critical for optimal brain development; however, few studies have evaluated the impact of diet as a whole in early childhood on neurological development with inconsistent results. The present analysis is a cross-sectional study nested within an ongoing prospective birth cohort, the Rhea study, and aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with cognitive and psychomotor development in 804 preschool (mean age 4·2 years) children. Parents completed a validated FFQ, and dietary patterns were identified using principal component analysis. Child cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed by the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA). Multivariable linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of dietary patterns with the MSCA scales. After adjustment for a large number of confounding factors, the 'Snacky' pattern (potatoes and other starchy roots, salty snacks, sugar products and eggs) was negatively associated with the scales of verbal ability (β=-1·31; 95 % CI -2·47, -0·16), general cognitive ability (β=-1·13; 95 % CI -2·25, -0·02) and cognitive functions of the posterior cortex (β=-1·20; 95 % CI -2·34, -0·07). Further adjustment for maternal intelligence, folic acid supplementation and alcohol use during pregnancy attenuated the observed associations, but effect estimates remained at the same direction. The 'Western' and the 'Mediterranean' patterns were not associated with child neurodevelopmental scales. The present findings suggest that poorer food choices at preschool age characterised by foods high in fat, salt and sugar are associated with reduced scores in verbal and cognitive ability.

  13. WAIS-III processing speed index scores after TBI: the influence of working memory, psychomotor speed and perceptual processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jan E; Clement, Pamelia F; Curtiss, Glenn

    2003-08-01

    This study investigates the extent to which working memory, motor speed and perceptual processing speed influence Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores. Sixty-eight adult outpatients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of varying severity and complete data on all outcome measures were identified. Two cases with outlying values on one outcome measure were omitted from the final sample. Working memory was measured by the Working Memory Index score from the WAIS-III. Motor speed was measured as score on the Halstead-Reitan Finger Oscillation Test (finger tapping) and perceptual processing as score on the Trail Making Test--Part B. In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, working memory accounted for 10% of the variance in PSI scores, whereas motor speed only accounted for 3%. An independent measure of perceptual processing, Trail Making Test--B, accounted for 26% of the variance in WAIS-III PSI scores. The total variance accounted for by the three factors was 56%. Findings confirm that the WAIS-III PSI scores of individuals who have received a TBI reflect perceptual processing speed, with an additional component attributable to working memory. Motor speed made only a small contribution to WAIS-III PSI scores in the present sample.

  14. Natural history of trisomy 18 and trisomy 13: II. Psychomotor development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baty, B.J.; Jorde, L.B.; Blackburn, B.L.; Carey, J.C. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1994-01-15

    Developmental data were abstracted from medical records on 50 trisomy 18 individuals ranging in age from 1 to 232 months and 12 trisomy 13 individuals ranging in age from 1 to 130 months. Data on the age when trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 children achieved developmental skills were collected from a larger group of 62 trisomy 18 individuals and 14 trisomy 13 individuals whose families filled out parent questionnaires. Developmental quotient (DQ), defined as developmental age divided by chronological age, averaged 0.18 for trisomy 18 and 0.25 for trisomy 13. There was a dramatic drop in DQ from infancy to later childhood. The highest DQs and the greatest variation in DQs were in the first 2-3 years of life. Developmental ages in 7 skill areas were significantly different, with daily living and receptive language having the highest values and motor and communication skills having the lowest. When chronological age was taken into account, there was no significant difference in DQs in the same 7 skill areas, although there was a trend that was similar to the pattern of differences with developmental age. Older children could use a walker, understand words and phrases, use a few words and/or signs, crawl, follow simple commands, recognize and interact with others, and play independently. Walking and some toileting skills were also reported for trisomy 13. Although individual with trisomy 18 and trisomy 13 were clearly functioning in the severe to profound developmentally handicapped range, they did achieve some psychomotor maturation and always continued to learn. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. THE PSYCHOMOTOR CAPACITY OF STUDENTS WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES AGED 11

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea VOINEA

    2014-01-01

    The proposed experiment is based on the hypothesis that the development level of psychomotor capacity of students with mental disability is, in the absence of a psychomotor educational program, below that of their biological age. We evaluated the psychomotor ability by using Guillmain Ozeretsky and Piaget-Head tests,in order to validate the hypothesis and to obtain the psychomotor diagnosis of the students with mental deficiencies. I found by descriptive statistical methods that the research ...

  16. 325例辅助受孕儿24月龄时精神运动发育水平研究%Psychomotor development at 24 months old in 325 children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 潘琼; 邹小英; 周细中; 张清学; 李宏

    2012-01-01

    [目的] 通过研究辅助受孕儿24月龄时的精神运动发育水平,以评价辅助生殖技术的安全性. [方法] 采用前瞻性对照研究方法,实验组为人工辅助受孕妊娠儿,对照组为自然受孕妊娠儿,将两组人群在母亲年龄、产次、家庭社会阶层、双亲受教育程度等几个方面进行配对,均自母亲孕28周起入组登记定期随访收集相关资料并由经过培训的指定专业人员采用CDCC婴幼儿发育量表定期对其行精神运动发育评估至24月龄,获得智力发育指数及运动发育指数.[结果] 辅助受孕儿童至24月龄时其精神运动发育水平与自然受孕儿童相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05). [结论]辅助受孕儿童24月龄时的精神运动发育水平正常,初步证明我国目前的辅助生殖技术是安全的.%[Objective] To compare the psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception with a control group of children conceived naturally. [Methods] A mached control study was performed on the psychomotor development of 24 months old in children conceived with use of assisted reproductive technology. The control group was matched according to maternal age,parity,social class and level of maternal education. The suitable mothers were invited to participate at 28 weeks of gestation and were followed up to delivery. The children of two groups were followed up to 24 months old and a formal developmental assessment was done with the CDCC Scales of Children Development. [Result] No statistically significant differences were found in the mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) between study and control groups, as asssessed by the CDCC Scales. (Conclusion] The level of psychomotor development at 24 months old in children born after assisted conception was normal. So the assisted reproductive technology is safety in china.

  17. Effect of iron supplementation on psychomotor development of non-anaemic, exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants: a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Anna; Chmielewski, Grzegorz; Domellöf, Magnus; Lewandowski, Zbigniew; Szajewska, Hania

    2015-11-24

    Uncertainty exists regarding the effects of iron supplementation during infancy on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the absence of anaemia. The aim of the study is to establish whether psychomotor and mental development is influenced by early iron supplementation in healthy, non-anaemic, exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants. Healthy term infants will be recruited. If exclusively or predominantly breast fed (>50% of daily feedings) and not anaemic at 4 months, they will be randomised to receive either iron pyrophosphate (approximately 1 mg/kg) or placebo daily until 9 months of age. The primary outcome measure is neurodevelopment assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 12 months, and repeated at 24 and 36 months of age. Haematological parameters of iron metabolism also will be measured. The Bioethics Committee of the Medical University of Warsaw approved the study protocol before recruitment started. Study results will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals in the fields of paediatrics and nutrition, and presented at relevant conferences. NCT02242188. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. STUDY REGARDING THE CORRELATION BETWEEN NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS AND WEIGHT IN NORMAL PSYCHOMOTOR DEVELOPING OF THE PREMATURE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodorca Raluca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Premature is a newborn alive whose birth weight is equal to or less than 2500 grams, regardless of the duration of gestation. Prematurity have sometimes negative effects on child development by slowing the psychomotor development (child goes to talk later, you can recover delay until the age of 3-5 years. Some of these older children, will be clumsy. PURPOSE: To verify the importance of the adapted recovery program making a correlation between neuro-psychological assessment tests and weight of children born prematurely. HYPOTHESIS: Early systematic and continuous intervention, using adapted physical therapy methods lead to a improved neuromotor development of the premature by reaching the normal range. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 10 children, 6 boys and 4 girls, born prematurely. They were subjected to the test "assessment of neuro-psychological development in children 0-36 months" (it is a battery of tests that help to evaluate their development monthly and test weight. Applied therapeutic program included: exercise (performed by the game, massage, neuromotor rehabilitation methods (Bobath, Vojta, Kabat, hydrotherapy and music therapy. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: If neuro-psychological tests, we proceeded to calculate averages scores for the 3 test, which is further correlated with children's weight. Average scores range between 7 and 10. 333, with an overall average of 9.371. In all 3 tests averages ranging from 8,575 in the initial stage, in 9386, and 10,152 in the midway point in the final stage. CONCLUSIONS: Weight, explain in smaller proportions, and other parameters and results of neuro-psychological tests children (65.6%. ANOVA models indicate statistically significant relationships between parameters and neuro-psychological testing stages, showing progressive improvement of children's performance. Following statistical interpretation can confirm the effectiveness of the recovery program implemented so we suggest to the parents

  19. The Effect of Institutionalization on Psychomotor Development of Preschool Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Kouliousi, Chrysoula; Sidiropoulou, Maria; Fahantidou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Development can be altered by several factors which can either facilitate or obstruct development. The aim of the current study was the examination and the detection of differences in the developmental profiles of preschool aged children living in conventional institution facilities (N = 28), in SOS villages (N = 20) and in natural family…

  20. Effects of Micronutrients during Pregnancy and Early Infancy on Mental and Psychomotor Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, H.; West, C.E.; Bleichrodt, N.; Dekker, P.H.; Born, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The questions that are addressed in this chapter concern the extent to which a shortage of iodine and iron during fetal and infant development impairs mental development and the extent to which this impairment can be redressed by increasing the intake of these micronutrients

  1. Survival and psychomotor development with early betaine treatment in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, E.F.; Koning, T.J. de; Verhoeven-Duif, N.M.; Rovers, M.M.; Hasselt, P.M. van

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  2. Survival and Psychomotor Development With Early Betaine Treatment in Patients With Severe Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, Eugene F.; de Koning, Tom J.; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M.; Rovers, Maroeska M.; van Hasselt, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The impact of betaine treatment on outcome in patients with severe methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) deficiency is presently unclear. OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of betaine treatment on development and survival in patients with severe MTHFR deficiency. DATA SOURCES MEDLI

  3. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  4. Iron Deficiency and the Cognitive and Psychomotor Development of Children: A Pilot Study with Institutionalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driva, A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a pilot study, involving 48 institutionalized infants and toddlers, which aimed to treat iron deficiency anemia and to discover other factors contributing to the problem. Results indicate improvement in cognitive development after the administration of iron among three groups, while no significant differences were observed in psychomotor…

  5. Psychomotor Development in Cri du Chat Syndrome: Comparison in Two Italian Cohorts with Different Rehabilitation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Guala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdC is a rare genetic disorder caused by variable size deletions of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p−. It is well known that home-reared patients show better performances as compared to institutionalised cases, and it was reported that continuous educational intervention can ameliorate their performances. To assess the efficacy of educational intervention and to develop new CdC oriented programs of rehabilitation, we compare the results obtained for many developmental skills in two groups of CdC patients undergoing two different rehabilitation programs. Using data on the development of a group of CdC patients obtained by validated Italian translation for the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, we compared a group of 13 patients undergoing an educational program developed for CdC patients, the Mayer Project (MP, with a second group of 15 cases in whom caring was not specifically oriented. A positive impact of the MP was reported by parents, observing an improvement in social skills obtained, even if no significant differences were observed when the items of the Denver Test are studied. The need for personalized care in CdC patients and the choice of different methods to compare the results are also discussed.

  6. Psychomotor Development in Cri du Chat Syndrome: Comparison in Two Italian Cohorts with Different Rehabilitation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spunton, Marianna; Tognon, Fabio; Pedrinazzi, Marilena; Medolago, Luisa; Cerutti Mainardi, Paola; Spairani, Silvia; Malacarne, Michela; Finale, Enrico; Comelli, Mario; Danesino, Cesare

    2016-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdC) is a rare genetic disorder caused by variable size deletions of the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p−). It is well known that home-reared patients show better performances as compared to institutionalised cases, and it was reported that continuous educational intervention can ameliorate their performances. To assess the efficacy of educational intervention and to develop new CdC oriented programs of rehabilitation, we compare the results obtained for many developmental skills in two groups of CdC patients undergoing two different rehabilitation programs. Using data on the development of a group of CdC patients obtained by validated Italian translation for the Denver Developmental Screening Test II, we compared a group of 13 patients undergoing an educational program developed for CdC patients, the Mayer Project (MP), with a second group of 15 cases in whom caring was not specifically oriented. A positive impact of the MP was reported by parents, observing an improvement in social skills obtained, even if no significant differences were observed when the items of the Denver Test are studied. The need for personalized care in CdC patients and the choice of different methods to compare the results are also discussed. PMID:28004033

  7. Correlations between intestinal parasitosis, physical growth, and psychomotor development among infants and children from rural Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhelman, R A; Guerrero, E S; Fernandez, M L; Silio, M; Mercado, D; Comiskey, N; Ihenacho, G; Mera, R

    1998-04-01

    The correlations between malnutrition, parasitosis (especially helminth infections), and child development are complex, and studies of these interrelationships will allow health agencies to maximize screening and intervention strategies for developing countries. We examined these correlations in a cross-sectional program in Carazo State, Nicaragua. Nine hundred sixty-one children in two age strata (ages 0-24 months and ages 2-10 years) from one urban and three rural communities were screened for intestinal parasites (direct smear and ZnSO4 flotation), malnutrition, and developmental delays. Nutritional status was determined as weight-for-age (WFA), weight-for-height (WFH), and height-for-age (HFA). Developmental status (normal, suspect) was determined for the four subtests of the Denver II Screening Test. The prevalence of malnutrition was 14.6% (WFA), 8.4% (WFH), and 36.3% (HFA). Parasitosis was more prevalent in children less than 24 months of age with low HFA, whereas in older children low WFA was more closely associated with parasitic infections. Ascaris and Trichuris were more prevalent in malnourished children. On the Denver II, suspect test results in all four categories (language, social, gross motor, and fine motor) were associated with low WFA, and suspect language tests were associated with both intestinal parasites (P = 0.0003) and Ascaris infection in particular (P = 0.044). Developmental disabilities are a significant and frequently undetected health problem in developing countries, and malnutrition associated with intestinal helminth infections may be an important contributory factor for these disabilities.

  8. Effects of prenatal phthalate exposure on thyroid hormone levels, mental and psychomotor development of infants: The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minatoya, Machiko; Naka Jima, Sonomi; Sasaki, Seiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Ikeno, Tamiko; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Yuko; Kishi, Reiko

    2016-09-15

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is commonly used phthalates and concerns of adverse effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on neonatal thyroid hormone (TH) and neurodevelopment are increasing. However, there is no report regarding association between prenatal DEHP exposure and infant neurodevelopment including TH levels in Japanese population. Thus the aim of present study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and mental and psychomotor development of infants 6 and 18months along with investigating influence on neonatal free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the prospective birth cohort study. Maternal blood samples collected between 23 and 41weeks of gestation was analyzed for mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), metabolite of DEHP levels. Neonatal FT4 and TSH were obtained from mass screening data. Infant neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley Scale of Infant Development second edition at 6 and 18month of age. For the final analysis, 328 participants were included. The median levels of maternal MEHP was 10.6ng/ml, neonatal TSH and FT4 was 2.20 μU/ml and 2.03ng/ml, respectively. We did not find any associations between prenatal DEHP exposure and neonatal TH levels or infant mental and psychomotor development at 6 and 18month. In this study, prenatal DEHP exposure did not show adverse effects on infant TH levels or mental and psychomotor development in early life stage. However, our previous study revealed negative effects of prenatal DEHP exposure on sex hormone levels, continuous investigation on neurodevelopment in later life in association with prenatal DEHP exposure is necessary.

  9. 北京农村地区婴幼儿智力运动发育水平及影响因素%Infants’ mental and psychomotor development in country areas of Beijing and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨进; 刘小红

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level and influencing factors of infants ’ mental and psychomotor development in Beijing rural areas.Methods According to economic situation , 356 healthy infants were selected from 10 remote suburban districts and counties of Beijing by stratified random cluster sampling method .Every infant was tested by Bailey scales of infant development , and they filled the questionnaires of social demographic data .Mean and standard deviation were used to represent mental and psychomotor development level , and T test was conducted to compare infant mental and psychomotor development levels between rural areas in Beijing and Chinese cities . Correlation analysis was done to explore the influencing factors of Mental Development Index ( MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI).Results T test was made for mean and standard deviation between Beijing rural areas and Chinese cities in 29 age groups.There was no significant difference in mental point in 22 age groups except for 7 age groups (3, 4, 8, 16, 17, 19 and 21month) (t value ranged 0.011-4.710, all P>0.05).In mental point 22 of age groups (2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29 and 30 month) were not statistically different except for 8 age groups (2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 12, 15 and 17 month) (r value ranged 0.011-1.750, all P >0.05).The range of decision coefficients in 29 age groups between mental scale and psychomotor scale was between 0.4 and 0.7, and showed a weakening trend with the increase of age , which indicated a good regression and the contribution of psychomotor scale to mental scale reduced by the increase of month age .R value representing the correlation of mother ’ s culture degree , family’s income, and family’ s knowledge with MDI was 0.285, 0.261 and 0.134, respectively ( P <0.05).The correlation had statistical significance and was weak .Conclusion The mental and psychomotor development level of infants in Beijing rural areas is

  10. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  11. The psychomotor theory of human mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Uner

    2007-08-01

    This study presents a new theory to explain the neural origins of human mind. This is the psychomotor theory. The author briefly analyzed the historical development of the mind-brain theories. The close relations between psychological and motor systems were subjected to a rather detailed analysis, using psychiatric and neurological examples. The feedback circuits between mind, brain, and body were shown to occur within the mind-brain-body triad, in normal states, and psycho-neural diseases. It was stated that psychiatric signs and symptoms are coupled with motor disturbances; neurological diseases are coupled with psychological disturbances; changes in cortico-spinal motor-system activity may influence mind-brain-body triad, and vice versa. Accordingly, a psychomotor theory was created to explain the psychomotor coupling in health and disease, stating that, not the mind-brain duality or unity, but the mind-brain-body triad as a functional unit may be essential in health and disease, because mind does not end in the brain, but further controls movements, in a reciprocal manner; mental and motor events share the same neural substrate, cortical, and spinal motoneurons; mental events emerging from the motoneuronal system expressed by the human language may be closely coupled with the unity of the mind-brain-body triad. So, the psychomotor theory rejects the mind-brain duality and instead advances the unity of the psychomotor system, which will have important consequences in understanding and improving the human mind, brain, and body in health and disease.

  12. Risk Factors and Relationship Between Intestinal Parasites and the Growth Retardation and Psychomotor Development Delays of Children in Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yentur Doni, Nebiye; Yildiz Zeyrek, Fadile; Simsek, Zeynep; Gurses, Gulcan; Sahin, İbrahim

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors for and relationship among parasitic infections, growth retardation, and psychomotor developmental delays in children aged 6 years and below. This case-control study was performed in Şanlıurfa in southeastern Turkey between October and December 2007. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Development Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of stool specimens. The most common parasite was Giardia intestinalis (42.53%) followed by Enterobius vermicularis (27.58%), Ascaris lumbricoides (18.39%), Hymenolepis nana (5.75%), Trichuris trichiura (3.45%), Escherichia coli (1.15%), and Blastocystis spp. (1.15%). Fifty-eight percent of all children were infected with intestinal parasites; 55.2% had only one parasite, whereas 44.8% had multiple parasites. The children infected with G. intestinalis and other intestinal parasites had significantly higher levels of growth retardation and psychomotor development delay than non-infected children. Children with parasitic infections had growth delay up to 2.9 times, general development delay up to 1.9 times, language-cognitive development delay up to 2.2 times, and fine motor development delay up to 2.9 times higher than children without any parasitic infections. However, no significant relationship among intestinal parasites, gross motor development, social-self skills, and development delay was identified. The education level of parents, poor economic situation, number of households, not washing hands, playing with soil, family history of parasitic infection were the significant risk factors for intestinal parasites. Our study indicates that the presence of either malnutrition or intestinal parasites may put a child in a high-risk group for developmental delays and growth retardation. Therefore, public health interventions can embrace nationwide deworming in children.

  13. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  14. A Calibrated Index of Human Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The weightings of the four component indicators of the UNDP's Human Development Index HDI appear to be arbitrary and have not been given justification. This paper develops a variant of the HDI, calculated to reflect peoples' revealed evaluations of education and the productivity of work. The resulting Calibrated human Development Index CDI has a…

  15. Development and Application for Test Software of Psychomotor Ability%心理运动能力测试软件的开发与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠铎铎; 胡文东; 李晓京; 马进

    2014-01-01

    为了在民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔中,淘汰出不合格的候选人,减少因飞行学员停飞而引起的不必要的培训经费损失,以及在飞行过程中因人为失误而造成的事故,开发出一种方法简单先进的、能够应用于民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔的测试软件。利用3D游戏引擎3D GameStudio以及C++联合编制出一套测试心理运动能力的软件。将该软件用于民航飞行员招聘中,并对结果进行统计分析。通过对现役飞行员和应聘者之间内容效度的比较,发现其成绩之间有着较大差异,证明该软件对民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔具有实际应用价值。该测试软件操作简单方便,界面友好,结果准确可靠。%Develop an advanced and convenient software,which could be used in pilots psychomotor ability test in order to eliminate un-qualified candidates which would reduce unnecessary loss of training funds and unnecessary accident. The software for the test of psycho-motor ability is developed by the 3D game engine 3D GameStudio and C++. The system is used in civil aviation pilots recruitment,analy-zing the result. Compared the content validity between the active pilots and applicants,found large differences between their results proved that the software was significant for the pilot selection and could give a comprehensive and objective evaluation for the psychomotor abili-ty. The test software is simple operation,friendly interface and accurate and reliable results.

  16. Fatores associados ao desenvolvimento mental e motor de crianças de quatro creches públicas de Recife, Brasil Factors associated with mental and psychomotor development of infants in four public day care centers in the municipality of Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Helena Eickmann

    2009-09-01

    psychomotor development was assessed by the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. Family socioeconomic and demographic conditions and infant biological characteristics at birth (weight, sex and gestational age were obtained by maternal interview. Nutritional status was assessed by the indexes "weight-for-age", "length-for-age" and "weight-for-length" and by hemoglobin level. RESULTS: Mean mental and psychomotor development indexes were 88±11 and 95±12, respectively. Gestational age showed significant association with mental and psychomotor development. Birthweight and current nutritional status assessed by "weight-for-length" were associated with psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Mental and psychomotor development were in the the normal range, but, below the expected for infants of the same age group of reference populations in developed countries. The factors associated with poor developmental indexes in this population are related to biological factors, with emphasis on nutritional deficits. Their reduction should be a priority for health and educational policy managers.

  17. Influence of Yoga-Based Personality Development Program on Psychomotor Performance and Self-efficacy in School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhusudan; Deepeshwar, Singh; Subramanya, Pailoor; Manjunath, Nandi Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Selective attention and efficacy are important components of scholastic performance in school children. While attempts are being made to introduce new methods to improve academic performance either as part of curricular or extracurricular activities in schools, the success rates are minimal. Hence, this study assessed the effect of yoga-based intervention on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Two hundred ten school children with ages ranging from 11 to 16 years (mean age ± SD; 13.7 ± 0.8 years) satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the 10-day yogä program. An equal number of age-matched participants (n = 210; mean ± SD; 13.1 ± 0.8 years) were selected for the control group. Participants were assessed for attention and performance at the beginning and end of 10 days using trail making task (TMT) A and B, and self-efficacy questionnaire. The yoga group showed higher self-efficacy and improved performance after 10 days of yoga intervention. The performance in TMT-A and -B of the yoga group showed a significantly higher number of attempts with a reduction in time taken to complete the task and a number of wrong attempts compared with control group. Results suggest that yoga practice enhances self-efficacy and processing speed with fine motor coordination, visual-motor integration, visual perception, planning ability, and cognitive performance.

  18. Instruction of Competent Psychomotor Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Valerie Dong

    2008-01-01

    Instruction of competent psychomotor skill necessitates an eclectic approach. The principles of learning, complemented with learning styles and sensory modalities preferences, provide a background for teaching physical skills. The use of the psychomotor domain of Bloom's Taxonomy as a map and corresponding behavioral objectives foster the mastery…

  19. National Cultures and Human Development Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvard Konrad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between basic cultural characteristics of countries and some economic indexes. As cultural characteristics, the data from The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE about the 9 cultural dimensions for 60 countries were used. Two facets of cultural dimensions were measured: the perceptions of actual practices and the perceptions of preferred values. On the other hand, the data about different economic indexes were taken from archival sources such as Human Development Report. Results show that some cultural practices and preferences are related to the development of countries as measured by Human Development Index (HDI. The implications of these results are discussed.

  20. [Clinical features of strabismus in psychomotor retardation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Cabello, Belina; Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando; Fonte-Vázquez, Anselmo

    2016-01-01

    In psychomotor retardation there is an abnormal development of mental, sensory and motor skills associated with ocular manifestations. There are biological and psychosocial risk factors that predispose an individual to neurological damage. From 50% to 80% of patients with strabismus retardation have special features that differentiate it from the rest of strabismus in healthy patients. To determine the most common type of strabismus in patients with psychomotor retardation and their clinical features. Patients with psychomotor retardation and strabismus were included. An ophthalmological examination was performed, as well as an evaluation of the characteristics of strabismus, including perinatal and post-natal history. Esotropia was the most frequent squint with 65.3%, followed by exotropia with 32.7%. The variability in the squint magnitude was 60% in both types, and 6 patients had dissociated vertical deviation. Most of the patients started to present strabismus since they were born. The most frequent perinatal risk factors were threatened miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, foetal distress, and hypoxia. Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in psychomotor retardation. The variability of squint magnitude is a characteristic in these patients. The moderate variability is the most frequent in both esotropia and exotropia. The most common refractive error is hyperopic astigmatism in esotropia and the myopic kind in exotropia. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychomotor activities in the context of kinanthropology: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Běla Hátlová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Any scholar developing a therapeutic method shall be concerned with its historical and theoretical groundings, scientifically verifiedfacts, and information from professional publications. As a result of that, one is qualifi ed to discuss relevancy of the method.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to highlight the ideas that the current psychomotoricity draws.METHODS: We assume that psychomotor activity is based on natural cognitive and social movement behavior. In its essence, the inherited principles that develop throughout life. Development is strengthened primarily by personal experiences with positive and negative feedback of social relations. The foundations of psychomotr activity developed upon scientific knowledge stem from the needs of psychosomatic rehabilitation. The term gradually came to be used for movement therapies and movement education. This study mentions the scientific orientations and the authors who most influenced the development of psychomotor skills used for personal development.CONCLUSION: Psychomotor activities are developed from two basic areas of operation. Psychomotor development as a pedagogical direction linking the physical and mental is used in the teaching process with an eff ort by moving positively with an influence from the human psyche. By monitoring the simple actions there is stimulated the physical and psychical development. Psychomotor development and sports therapy inherently encourages the patient to actively participate in therapy. Physical activity is one of supporting policies which affect the psychical „negative“ symptoms and may enhance the patient’s resistance to daily stress.

  2. Psychomotor retardation in a girl with complete growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, Devi; Malhi, Prabhjot; Kumar Bhalla, Anil; Sachdeva, Naresh; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Infants with complete growth hormone deficiency may suffer from psychomotor retardation in addition to severe growth failure. Without replacement therapy, they may have a compromised intellectual potential manifesting as learning disabilities and attention-deficit disorders in later life. In this communication, we discuss an infant who showed improvement in physical growth after growth hormone therapy but her psychomotor skills did not improve probably due to late start of treatment. There is a need to start growth hormone therapy as early as possible in infants with complete growth hormone deficiency to avoid adverse effects on psychomotor and brain development.

  3. Values Reflected in the Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) implicitly defines "human development" and ranks countries accordingly. To elucidate the HDI's meaning of "human development," the paper examines the sensitivity of the HDI to changes in its components, namely social indicators of education, longevity and standard of living. The HDI is next compared with two…

  4. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Psychomotor epilepsy. 4... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b) A...

  5. A happiness index of human development

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, Carina da Conceição

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Economics from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Nowadays many social scientists defend the advantages to define a measure of well being able to complement the GDP per capita. This work project proposes a new index of human development: the happiness index. Many studies have been undertaken in order to determine the best measurement of happiness. Happiness is much more than just...

  6. Psychomotor development and learning difficulties in preschool children with probable attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An epidemiological study in Navarre and La Rioja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Méndez, J J; Borra-Ruiz, M C; Álvarez-Gómez, M J; Soutullo Esperón, C

    2017-10-01

    ADHD symptoms begin to appear at preschool age. ADHD may have a significant negative impact on academic performance. In Spain, there are no standardized tools for detecting ADHD at preschool age, nor is there data about the incidence of this disorder. To evaluate developmental factors and learning difficulties associated with probable ADHD and to assess the impact of ADHD in school performance. We conducted a population-based study with a stratified multistage proportional cluster sample design. We found significant differences between probable ADHD and parents' perception of difficulties in expressive language, comprehension, and fine motor skills, as well as in emotions, concentration, behaviour, and relationships. Around 34% of preschool children with probable ADHD showed global learning difficulties, mainly in patients with the inattentive type. According to the multivariate analysis, learning difficulties were significantly associated with both delayed psychomotor development during the first 3 years of life (OR: 5.57) as assessed by parents, and probable ADHD (OR: 2.34) CONCLUSIONS: There is a connection between probable ADHD in preschool children and parents' perception of difficulties in several dimensions of development and learning. Early detection of ADHD at preschool ages is necessary to start prompt and effective clinical and educational interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Household human development index in Lakshadweep

    OpenAIRE

    I, Sahadudheen

    2014-01-01

    Since the evolution of the human development index in 1990 there has been a vivacious debate on measurement related issues of quality of human life among the nations. It is a long-established verity that the existing HDI presents averages and thus conceals wide discrepancy and disproportion in distribution of human development in overall population and does not take into account the distribution of human development within a population subgroup. This study is intended to look in to human ...

  8. Development of indoor environmental index: Air quality index and thermal comfort index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S. M.; Shakaff, A. Y. M.; Saad, A. R. M.; Yusof, A. M.; Andrew, A. M.; Zakaria, A.; Adom, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, index for indoor air quality (also known as IAQI) and thermal comfort index (TCI) have been developed. The IAQI was actually modified from previous outdoor air quality index (AQI) designed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In order to measure the index, a real-time monitoring system to monitor indoor air quality level was developed. The proposed system consists of three parts: sensor module cloud, base station and service-oriented client. The sensor module cloud (SMC) contains collections of sensor modules that measures the air quality data and transmit the captured data to base station through wireless. Each sensor modules includes an integrated sensor array that can measure indoor air parameters like Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Oxygen, Volatile Organic Compound and Particulate Matter. Temperature and humidity were also being measured in order to determine comfort condition in indoor environment. The result from several experiments show that the system is able to measure the air quality presented in IAQI and TCI in many indoor environment settings like air-conditioner, chemical present and cigarette smoke that may impact the air quality. It also shows that the air quality are changing dramatically, thus real-time monitoring system is essential.

  9. Cognitive, Visual-spatial and Psychomotor Development in Students of Primary Education through the Body Percussion – BAPNE Method

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero Martínez, Andrea; Romero Naranjo, Francisco Javier; Pons Terrés, Jessica María; Crespo Colomino, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the music and movement in the music learning is vital in the formation and development of people. The BAPNE method enables the development of each of the multiple intelligences, founded by Howard Gardner, through the teaching of body percussion, relying on five disciplines such as Biomechanics, Anatomy, Psychology, Neuroscience, and Ethnomusicology. This article arises from the need for empirical data evidence that this methodology has great benefits in primary education. Fo...

  10. Development of wafers with lowered glycemic index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The negative impact on an organism is made by lack of culture of food of the population and low physical activity. It leads to violations of carbohydrate and lipidic exchange, development of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular and other diseases. Relevance of development of foodstuff, in particular – the confectionery promoting decrease in risk of developing of such pathologies is proved. A research objective – development of a compounding of wafers with the lowered glycemic index. As an object of a research the wafers baked in house conditions are chosen. In work various characteristics are analysed (hygroscopicity, a cariogenicity sweet degree, power value, a glicemic index and a glycemic response the sweetening substances, the choice of fructose as sugar substitute for production of wafers with the lowered glycemic index is reasonable. By optimization of a compounding of wafers the amount of sugar was replaced with amount of sweetener, equivalent on sweet. As a result of predesigns the interval of a variation of amount of the fructose entered into a compounding of wafers is established. Further assessment of the indicators of quality forming consumer demand of products – appearance, taste, a smell, existence of a crunch is carried out. Humidity of the received wafers after their production and in the course of storage is also investigated. Decrease in a glycemic index was fixed by amount of glucose in blood. Its measurements saw by means of the glucose meter "on an empty stomach" and after the use of wafers to a complete recovery of level of sugar in blood. The confectionery made on the optimized compounding practically doesn't differ on caloric content from a control sample, and glucose level in blood after their use on about 20% below.

  11. 心理运动能力测评系统的开发应用%Development and Application of Psychomotor Ability Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    惠铎铎; 李晓京; 治洪; 马进; 贾敏; 张利利; 胡文东

    2014-01-01

    飞行事故的发生,有一部分原因是因为飞行员自身不适合飞行活动。为了减少这种原因导致的飞行事故发生的几率,同时为了避免民航公司因为飞行学员高强度训练而被淘汰造成的培训费用浪费,需要对飞行员候选者开展相关的心理选拔,考察他们是否具备合格飞行员所需的各种心理品质。目前,我国民航飞行员心理选拔大多沿用传统的纸笔测验,对应聘者进行人格和基本能力测验,对飞行特殊能力的考察和检测不够重视。文中研究的主要目的是为了实现民航飞行员心理选拔的仪器检测化,以达到选拔过程的客观化和标准化。本单位自行开发了一套计算机化的心理运动能力检测系统,并将该软件用于民航飞行员招聘中,并对结果进行统计分析,通过对现役飞行员和应聘者之间内容效度的比较,发现其成绩之间有较大差异,表明该软件对民航飞行员心理运动能力选拔具有实际应用价值。该测试软件操作简单方便,界面友好,结果准确可靠。%The happening of the accident is caused partially by that the pilot itself is not suitable for flying. In order to reduce the rate of flight accident in the future and avoid the training cost waste produced by high strength training for elimination at the same time,it is nec-essary for the pilot candidates to carry out the psychological tests,which can examine whether they have all kinds of psychological charac-teristics which is necessary for a pilot. At present,the pilot selection in the domestic mainly are tests for pilot candidates’ personality and basic ability,in the form of paper and pencil test,which ignores the special ability for a pilot. The purpose of this research is to develop a set of computerized psychomotor ability test system in the form of apparatus test,in order to realize the standardization and objectification during the process of pilot

  12. Psychomotor and intellectual development (Neurocognitive Function) of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Transversal and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga, Beatriz; Puga, Paloma Gil; de Arriba, Antonio; Armendariz, Yolanda; Labarta, Jose I; Longas, Angel Ferrandez

    2009-02-01

    Although much is now known about the effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on children born SGA with regard to anthropometric and biochemical parameters and their treatment, there are still many gaps associated with its impact on neurocognitive functions. In our experience published several years ago, IUGR has a negative effect on neurocognitive development, regardless of whether these children showed evidence of catch-up growth or not or of the socio-economic conditions that might contribute to the situation. We have now accumulated a large number of cases, many of whom have been followed longitudinally, some for up to 7 years, many having been treated with GH from the time when this therapy was first approved by the EMA. Apart from the cases mentioned, other confounding factors such as gestational age, Apgar score, neonatal comorbidity and the possible effects of GH treatment have also been included. In addition and using our own reference standards, we now present our experience, which confirms what we had already noted in the past, that IUGR is in itself a condition that often causes psychomotorintellectual impairment, may be extremely severe and tends to worsen. This negative impact of IUGR on neurocognitive development does not depend on how the child grows,spontaneous growth is better and when growth is not altered by GH therapy. Later studies will be able to confirm whether early treatment with GH throughout the 2nd year of life, or an early specific stimulation programme, or the sum of both, can improve the neurocognitive development of these children. IUGR prevention, acting on causal factors that are partly avoidable such as smoking, working conditions and stress during pregnancy (see the corresponding article in this supplement) proves once again to be the best way to stop this negative impact on the IQ of many children born SGA.

  13. [Assessment of risk to neuro-psychomotor development: screening using the Test Denver II and identification of maternal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Hilton Luiz; de Melo, Aurea Nogueira

    2005-01-01

    To identify a positive screening test for developmental delay in children by the Denver Test II and their risk factors. A sample of 398 children was studied at 0 the 12 months of age regarding their neurodevelopment. The Denver II Test was used. The children who failed in two or more items of the test were suspected of having neurodevelopment delay. A set of independent variables was: socioeconomic, reproductive and environmental, birth conditions children's care. Analyses were performed using chi-square test and multivariate techinique logistic regression. At of 0 - 12 months of age, 45,73% (182) of the total of 398 children failed in the screening test. After adjusting for possible confounding variables, failure was associated with family lower income children, gestacional age less than 38 weeks, socioeconomic status family, schooling of the mother, mother's age, use of drug. This study demonstrates: 1--The Denver Test permited screening the delays development; 2--Maternal risk factors may interfere in the child's neurodevelopmental.

  14. Unraveling Psychomotor Slowing in Bipolar Disorde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsel, A.M.; Temmerman, A.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Morrens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In addition to affective and cognitive symptomatology, psychomotor deficits are known to be present in bipolar disorder (BD). Psychomotor functioning includes all of the processes necessary for completing a movement, from planning to initiation and execution. While these psychomotor

  15. The issue of scientific thesaurus differentiation of table tennis sportsmen's psychomotor abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Essence of psychomotor capabilities opens up for tennis sportsmen-players. Clear differentiation of the most essential psychomotor capabilities is conducted. They will present the constituent of competent training process and successful competition period. It is necessary to take to the group of general psychomotor qualities of tennis players: spatial orientation, kinesthetic sensitiveness, exactness of motions. The special attention is deserved by the group of psychomotor capabilities: difficult visile-motor reaction, functional mobility and force of nervous processes. Determination of level of their development on the initial stage of long-term preparation is the prerogative of forming of skilled sportsman high level trades.

  16. The effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development%早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟青; 许欢

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of early intervention on premature infants with psychomotor development, and find a more rational treatment. Methods Selected 183 cases eligible premature infants that borned in march 2008-July 2009 from our hospital or other hospitals. During which 111 cases were intervention group. The intervention group received normal parental guidance and early intervention. 72 cases were non-intervention group. This group only received normal parental guidance. The intervention group used early intervention according to 0-2-years-age outline of early intervention, such as massage, neurodevelopmental therapy, and multiple sensory stimuli. Results There were 4 cases with cerebral palsy, 2 cases with mental retardation, and 5 cases with motion retardation in intervention group; while there were 9 cases with cerebral palsy, 6 cases with mental retardation, and 9 cases with motion retardation in non-intervention group. The differences were significant(P < 0.05). Conclusion Early intervention can reduce the incidence of cerebral palsy, mental retardation of premature infants. Therefore, early intervention on the brain development of premature infants can improve the quality of long-term survival of this group.%目的 探讨早期干预对早产儿发育落后的影响,以寻找更合理的治疗方法.方法 将2008年3月-2009年7月在我院出生和外院转入NICU的符合条件的183例早产儿列入本研究中;111例早产儿新生儿期病情稳定后,除接受一般育儿指导外,均进行早产儿早期干预,为干预组;72例早产儿在新生儿期病情稳定后,因各种原因仅接受了一般的育儿指导,未进行早产儿早期干预,为未干预组.干预组按0~2岁早期干预大纲进行早期干预,采用按摩、神经发育疗法、多种感觉刺激等方法.结果 干预组出现脑性瘫痪、智力低下、运动低下的患儿分别有4、2、5例,未干预组分别有9、6、9例,干预组的发生率均较未

  17. Cognitive and psychomotor development of 5- to 6-year-old singletons born after PGD: a prospective case-controlled matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, C; Van Acker, F; Bonduelle, M; Desmyttere, S; De Schrijver, F; Nekkebroeck, J

    2014-09-01

    Do preschool preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) children differ in their cognitive and psychomotor development from children born after ICSI and spontaneous conception (SC)? The cognitive development of PGD pre-schoolers was comparable to children born after ICSI and SC but motor development differed between ICSI and SC groups. The cognitive abilities and motor skills of 5- to 6-year-old singletons born after PGD (n = 47) were assessed in comparison with 49 ICSI and 48 SC children in a prospective, case-controlled, matched follow-up study between April 2011 and May 2013. PGD singletons, ICSI and SC children of preschool age were examined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPSSI-III-NL) and the Movement ABC (M ABC). The WPSSI-III-NL revealed scores for Full IQ, Verbal IQ and Performance IQ. The M ABC yields a total score and comprising scores for measurements of balance, dexterity and ball skills. Since embryo biopsy is the only technical difference between the PGD and ICSI procedures, ICSI children were included as controls. These children were part of a Dutch-speaking cohort of children conceived after assisted reproduction technology (ART) at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (UZ Brussel) who received longitudinal follow-up. The SC children acted as a second control group similar to the fertile PGD sample and in contrast to the ICSI group. The SC group was recruited through announcements in a variety of media. The children were matched for age, gender, birth order and educational level of the mother. The assessments carried out for the ART groups were blinded whenever possible. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and partial eta squared (η(2)), which was used as a measurement of effect size. The overall cognitive development of PGD singletons did not differ from controls [P = 0.647, η(2) = 0.006; 95% confidence interval (CI) (0, 0.043)]. The partial IQ scores for Verbal and Performance intelligence

  18. Parsing the components of the psychomotor syndrome in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docx, L.; Morrens, M.; Bervoets, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Hert, M. De; Baeken, C.; Audenaert, K.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Catatonia, extrapyramidal signs, psychomotor slowing, and (motoric) neurological soft signs are well-known psychomotor symptoms in schizophrenia. This study aims at investigating the interrelations between these symptoms. In addition, associations between psychomotor symptoms, clinical sy

  19. A price index for biomedical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, T M; Reeb, J S

    1989-01-01

    Price changes of goods and services used in biomedical research and development have important effects on the costs of conducting research. We summarize the trends suggested by a recently constructed biomedical research and development price index, which measures the effects of price changes on the inputs to biomedical research from 1979 to 1986. The fixed-weighted index uses fiscal year 1984 National Institutes of Health expenditure patterns in developing the weights. The rate of increase shown in the price index peaked in 1981 and slowed in following years. However, in most years, the rate of increase in the price index has exceeded the rate of increase in other major price indexes, such as the consumer price index, the producer price index, and the Gross National Product fixed-weighted price index.

  20. Development of binaural speech transmission index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, S.J. van; Drullman, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although the speech transmission index (STI) is a well-accepted and standardized method for objective prediction of speech intelligibility in a wide range of-environments and applications, it is essentially a monaural model. Advantages of binaural hearing to the intelligibility of speech are disrega

  1. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beheydt, L.L.; Schrijvers, D.L.; Docx, L.; Bouckaert, F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and

  2. [Biofeedback in psychomotor training. Electrophysiological bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Mernaia, E M; Shtark, M B

    2008-05-01

    Comparison of influence of usual musical practice and the same trainings but using biofeedback on electrophysiological and psychological markers of optimal psychomotor functioning in 39 students-musicians revealed that the obvious musical practice caused psychomotor pressure in most students (with initially low individual alpha peak frequency), whereas similar practice combined with an individualized session of alpha-EEG/EMG biofeedback was accompanied by increase of alpha-activity in all examinees and a decrease (reduction) of integrated EMG that indicated reaching of optimal psychomotor functioning. It appears that the psychomotor learning ability depends on the baseline individual alpha-activity. Individual alpha peak frequency was associated with fluency and efficiency of psychomotor performance, individual alpha band width--with plasticity and creativity, individual amount of alpha suppression in response to opening eyes--with the level of selfactualization. These alpha activity EEG indices correlated with efficiency of the biofeedback training.

  3. Correlation Between Human Development Index and Infant Mortality Rate Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alijanzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births is a vital index to monitor the standard of health and social inequality which is related to human development dimensions worldwide. Human development index (HDI includes basic social indicators such as life expectancy, education and income. Objectives The current study aimed to find the correlation between human development index and infant mortality rate. Patients and Methods This descriptive study that represents the relationship of infant mortality rate with human development index and human development index dimensions was performed on the profiles of 135 countries worldwide [Africa (35 countries, America (26 countries, Asia (30 countries, the Pacific (2 countries and Europe (42 countries]. Two databases were used in the study: the world health organization (WHO database (2010 and human development database (2010. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test by SPSS software. Results The study found that socio-economic factors or human development dimensions are significantly correlated with risk of chance mortality in the world. The per capita income (r = -0.625, life expectancy (r = -0.925 and education (r = -0.843 were negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate; human development index (r = -0.844 was also negatively correlated with the infant mortality rate (P < 0.01. Conclusions Human development index is one of the best indicators and predictors to perceive healthcare inequities. Worldwide improvement of these indicators, especially the education level, might promote infant life expectancy and decrease infant mortality.

  4. [A new method for evaluating psychomotor development based on information from parents. The Spanish version of the Kent Infant Development Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tornel Florensa, S; García García, J J; Reuter, J; Clow, C; Reuter, L

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research was to design, standardize and validate the Spanish version of the Kent Infant Development Scale (KIDS). This questionnaire is based on information obtained from the parents. It was translated into Spanish and named "Escala de Desarrollo Infantil de Kent" (EDIK). The EDIK normative data were collected from the parents of 662 healthy infants (ages 1 to 15 months) in pediatric clinics in Catalonia (Spain). Test-retest reliability (r = 0.99; p < 0.001), interjudge reliability (r = 0.98; p < 0.001) and internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.9947) were determined. An "r' of 0.96 was obtained when EDIK scores were compared to their estimated developmental ages obtained from the Denver Developmental Scale. The correlation of the infants' chronological age and their EDIK was 0.96 (p < 0.001). The high reliability and validity correlation coefficients demonstrate the sound psychometric properties of the EDIK. It appears to be a useful and acceptable instrument in measuring the developmental status of infants by using the reports of their parents.

  5. Psychophysiological Mechanisms of Coordination Component of Psychomotor Abilities of the Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korlyakova S.G.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor abilities of the musician are implemented in performing technique and include muscle strength, endurance, speed of movements, coordination, motor memory. The article presents the materials of a theoretical study aimed to identify the level character of the coordination component of psychomotor abilities of musicians formation, to define the psychophysiological mechanisms that contribute to the effective development of musical-performing technique. The process of coordination component of psychomotor abilities of musicians formation reviewed in the light of N.. Bernstein theory on construction of movements, which most fully represents the interrelation of physiological and psychological mechanisms of a man motor activity. On the example of musical- performing activity of trained pianists the processes of intermuscular, spatial, sensory-motor (visual-motor, auditory-motor, tactile-motor coordination formation are reviewed and in general – psychomotor coordination processes involved in musicians performing technique development.

  6. Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Landers, Mark N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Tools to process and evaluate the data are critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research and on surrogate monitoring sites currently (2015) in operation.

  7. [Mortality as an index of social development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illanes, J P

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the use of measures of mortality as indicators of social development. Separate consideration is given to general mortality, infant mortality, and life expectancy. He concludes that the Chilean and Latin American mortality data cannot be analyzed separately from the available social data as a whole, and that the traditional health indicators for the measurement of social development continue to be valid. Comments by Ernesto Medina, Dagmar Raczynski, Juan P. Illanes, and Tarsicio Castaneda are included (pp. 107-14), as well as a reply to these comments by the author (pp. 114-6).

  8. Index for Inclusion: Developing Learning and Participation in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel

    The Index for Inclusion is a compilation of materials to support British schools in the process of inclusive school development. Part 1 introduces the Index, then identifies the following key concepts: inclusion, barriers to learning and participation, resources to support learning and participation, and support for diversity. Part 1 then…

  9. Development and evaluation of a physically based multiscalar drought index: The Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoqing; Zhao, Xining; Jin, Jiming; Wu, Pute

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a new physically based multiscalar drought index, the Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index (SZI), was developed and evaluated, which combines the advantages of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The SZI is based on the water budget simulations produced with a sophisticated hydrological model, and it also includes a multiscalar feature to quantify drought events at different temporal scales taken from SPEI. The Chinese Loess Plateau was selected to evaluate the performance of the SZI. Our evaluation indicates that the SZI accurately captures the onset, duration, and ending of a multiyear drought event through its multiscalar feature, while the PDSI, which lacks this feature, is often unable to describe the evolution of a multiyear drought event. In addition, the variability of the SZI is more consistent with observed streamflow and the satellite normalized difference vegetation index than that of the Standardized Precipitation Index and the SPEI. Although the SPEI includes potential evapotranspiration (PE) as water demand, water demand is often unrealistically estimated based solely on PE, especially over arid and semiarid regions. The improved drought quantification with the SZI is the result of a more reasonable estimation of water demand by including evapotranspiration, runoff, and any change in soil moisture storage. In general, our newly developed SZI is physically based and includes a multiscalar feature, which enables it to provide better information for drought monitoring and identification at different temporal scales.

  10. Psycho-Motor and Error Enabled Simulations: Modeling Vulnerable Skills in the Pre-Mastery Phase Medical Practice Initiative Procedural Skill Decay and Maintenance (MPI-PSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    observed placing the subclavian central line (Figure 5). The VR stations were developed with consideration of testing participant psychomotor abilities... develop a simulation-based system to evaluate psychomotor planning while suturing on different tissue types. The variable tissue simulator presents... development of a haptics-enabled, virtual reality system for assessment of innate psychomotor skills. Three 24 The team is in the process of purchasing of a

  11. [Psychomotor re-education--movement as therapeutic method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubović, Spela; Tubić, Tatjana; Marković, Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. BODY AND MOVEMENT AS THE Bases OF THE TREATMENT: A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomotor re-education, are used with a purpose of helping children to discover their own body, their feelings, needs, behaviour. When moving, children discover the space of their own bodily nature, and, subsequently, gestural space and objective space. The body represents a source of pleasure and the freedom of movement, as well as one's own existence, are soon to be discovered. An adequate assessment is a precondition to design a work plan, select the best exercises for each child individually and direct the course of therapy. This is the most suitable method for treating children with slow or disharmonious development, mentally challenged children, children with speech and behaviour disorders. It is also used in the treatment of children with dyspraxic difficulties, difficulties in practognostic and gnostic development, pervasive developmental disorder and children with lateral dominance problems. Therefore, a systematic observation seems to be necessary as well as an increased number of research projects aimed at assessing results obtained by exercises in order to get a more precise insight into the process of re-education, selection of exercises, duration period and possible outcomes.

  12. Development and implementation of a business continuity management risk index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Michael

    This paper will present the building blocks for developing and implementing the BCM risk index; whether it is used as a comprehensive metric for risk or preparedness. This paper introduces the concept of a business continuity management (BCM) risk index--a comprehensive metric that measures and reports the status of the primary 'intended outcome' of the BCM programme to top management. In addition to measuring the primary programme output,;the BCM risk index can be used to demonstrate the overall value of the BCM programme to executive management. This is accomplished because the BCM risk index allows quantitative measurement of current risk levels and their comparison with established risk tolerances. The BCM Risk Index can provide executive management with reports on the risk level of individual business units, departments, subsidiaries or the enterprise in a way that drives both risk management and BCM initiatives. The name 'risk index' can be misleading, however. The BCM risk index concept can also be used to measure preparedness levels. In fact, implementation at DTE Energy has resulted in calling it the 'preparedness index', which is used to measure and report preparedness levels rather than risk levels.

  13. IMPROVING THE ACTION MEANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MAIN PSYCHO-MOTOR SKILLS THAT ARE SPECIFIC TO THE LUGE EVENT IN THE JUNIOR ATHLETES OF THE VATRA DORNEI SCHOOL SPORTS CLUB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Being in direct contact with the national luge elite, we thought that an analysis regarding the actual conditions during the training process for developing the main psycho-motor skills that are specific to the luge event, could be beneficial, and it could lead to a revival of the sleigh training that the federation, and us, are long waiting for.The research was conducted in three stages:Stage I: October 13-20, 2011;Stage II: January 7-12, 2012;Stage III: February 21-28, 2012.Before starting the experiment, we elaborated certain training plans (annual, stage, cycle that we consider to be actually a "Training model".These plans were destined for the experimental group, the witness group conducting their activity according to their normal schedule.From the analysis of the results recorded during the experimental activity, we observed in the final phase of the research that the results obtained by the experimental group are superior to the ones recorded by the witness group, a fact that can be seen also in the tables and figures presented in the paper.

  14. Psychomotor Retardation in untreated depressed elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieve Lia Beheydt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR is one of the core features in depression according to 17 DSM V1, but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study 18 investigating psychomotor retardation in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant 19 effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic 20 medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched 21 control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical 22 depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, 23 clinical ratings of psychomotor retardation and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. 24 Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method (GLM multivariate analysis of variance to 25 compare the clinical, cognitive and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients 26 performed worse on all clinical, cognitive and psychomotor retardation measures. Both groups 27 showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger 28 for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: due to the restrictive 29 inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a 30 medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric 31 patients was found,. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive 32 load, it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression.

  15. Psychomotor symptoms in depression: A diagnostic, pathophysiological and therapeutic tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijvers, D.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Psychomotor disturbances have been described repeatedly over many centuries. More recently, Sobin and Sackeim [Sobin, C., Sackeim, H.A., 1997. Psychomotor symptoms of depression. Am. J. Psychiatry. 154, 4–17.] discussed the relevance of psychomotor symptoms in depression in an extensive review. Sinc

  16. HIV-Risk Index: Development and Validation of a Brief Risk Index for Hispanic Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Castro-Calvo, Jesús; Giménez-García, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of HIV risk behaviors among young people facilitates the spread of HIV, in particular regarding unsafe sex behavior, although this trend is different within this population. For this reason, identifying the riskier young population is required to prevent HIV infection. The main purpose of this study was to develop and validate a risk index to assess the different sexual HIV risk exposure among Hispanic Young people. For this purpose, 9861 Spanish young people were randomly distributed into two groups (derivation and validation group). According to the results, the factor analyses grouped the nine items of the HIV- risk index into two factors (factor 1, direct sexual risk indicators and factor 2, indirect sexual risk indicators) with an equal structure for men and women by a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. The variance explained was 54.26 %. Moreover, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient revealed high internal reliability (α = .79) and the convergent validity supported its evidence based on different HIV risk indexes. Therefore, the HIV-risk index seem to be a rigorous and valid measure to estimate HIV risk exposure among young people.

  17. Growth and psychomotor development of children conceived by IVF or ICSI%试管婴儿在婴幼儿期体格和精神运动发育状况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓虹; 张清学; 李予; 王文军; 陈向红; 林海燕; 杨冬梓

    2009-01-01

    目的 初步评价试管婴儿的体格和精神运动发育情况.方法 选取通过试管婴儿出生的婴幼儿101例(单胎儿65例.双胎儿36例),随机抽取同期自然受孕出生的单胎婴幼儿79例,双胎婴幼儿22例作为对照,对比其出生情况、体格和精神运动发育情况.结果 试管婴儿单胎,其出生身长、母亲生产年龄、BMI大于自然出生单胎(P0.05);试管婴儿与自然受孕出生双胎情况的各项指标差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).试管婴儿双胎的出生体重和随访时的BMI比单胎低(P0.05).多因素分析发现,母亲的职业对MDI的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05),父亲的文化程度对PDI的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05),胎数对低出生体重和早产的影响有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 婴幼儿的身体发育和营养情况与低出生体重有关,并受母亲文化程度的影响.自然妊娠与试管婴儿出生儿童的精神运动发育指标没有明显差别.%Objective To investigate the physical and mental development of IVF/ICSI children. Methods The neonatal outcome,the physical and mental development of the children conceived by IVF/ICSI or nature was evaluated. Results Compared to NC singletons, IVF/ICSI singletons have longer birth body length, higher BMI and elder mother's age. There was no significant difference in the psychomotor development and family background between the two groups. No significant difference was found between the IVF/ICSI twins and NC twins. Among IVF/ICSI children, the twins had significant lower birth weight and BMI than singletons. A multivariate regression analysis for all the children indicated that mother' s occupation had a significant influence on MDI of children. According to PDI of children, father' s education level had a significant influence on it. On the other hand, low birth weight remained as a factor that influences BMI. However, the procedure of IVF or ICSI did not influence the result of MDI, PDI or BMI of children

  18. Methods for Evaluation of Some Psychomotor Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For estimation of psychomotor and sensor abilities different kinds of tests are used in the form of devices representing different technical devices which help examining sensomotor and psychomotor functions in certain conditions, as well as more complex motor abilities and skills that depend on CNS characteristics, vegetative nervous system and other functional systems and body states. These devices can be used for examining some parameters of psychomotor functions-such as speed of reaction through reactiometer or devices for examining sensor abilities-such as audiometer, ortoriter, color tests etc. In the scope of examining psychomotor skills and abilities, frequently used are different kinds of tests in the forms of devices serving for measuring ocultomotor coordination-such as Omega and Sinusoida, then Tumer`s device for measuring coordination and dissociation of hands` movements with visible control, O-Conor`s dexterimeter and Medeo`s dexterimeter-used for examining dexterity of fingers, Tremometer for examining hand stability and preciseness of movements, Minesota test for examining dexterity of hands and taping tests like “paper-pen” for examining speed and accuracy of simple movements. For examining more complex sensomotor abilities or different motor skills, special tests are used in the form of simulator, simulator and different technical devices, adjusted to specific sports situation. This category of tests includes different kinds of simulators and simulators used for examining certain aspects of sports activity.

  19. Proximal 21q deletion as a result of a de novo unbalanced t(12;21) translocation in a patient with dysmorphic features, hepatomegaly, thick myocardium and delayed psychomotor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersgaard, Cathrine; Damgaard, Ida N; Cornelius, Nanna;

    2016-01-01

    of the region from 32.3 Mb to 37.1 Mb was more crucial than the deletion of other regions. CASE PRESENTATION: In this study we describe a female patient with dysmorphic features, hepatomegaly, thick myocardium and psychomotor delay. Conventional karyotyping was initially interpreted as full monosomy 21...

  20. The Dutch Healthy Diet Index : development, evaluation, and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Healthy Diet index Development, Evaluation, and Application Linde van Lee Abstract Background: Dietary indices evaluate the conformity of an individual’s diet with pre-defined standards. Generally, dietary guidelines are used

  1. The Dutch Healthy Diet Index : development, evaluation, and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, van L.

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Healthy Diet index Development, Evaluation, and Application Linde van Lee Abstract Background: Dietary indices evaluate the conformity of an individual’s diet with pre-defined standards. Generally, dietary guidelines are used

  2. Development of car theft crime index in peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Malina; Ismail, Noriszura; Razali, Ahmad Mahir; Kasim, Maznah Mat

    2014-06-01

    Vehicle theft is classified as property crime and is considered as the most frequently reported crime in Malaysia. The rising number of vehicle thefts requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Nevertheless, the effort to control this crime would be much easier if there is an indication or index which is more specific to vehicle theft. This study aims to build an index crime which is specific to vehicle theft. The development of vehicle theft index proposed in this study requires three main steps; the first involves identification of criteria related to vehicle theft, the second requires calculation of degrees of importance, or weighting criteria, which involves application of correlation and entropy methods, and the final involves building of vehicle theft index using method of linear combination, or weighted arithmetic average. The results show that the two methods used for determining weights of vehicle theft index are similar. Information generated from the results can be used as a primary source for local authorities to plan strategies for reduction of vehicle theft and for insurance companies to determine premium rates of automobile insurance.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF SOIL EROSION INDEX MODEL IN TAIWAN WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Chin CHEN; Seasir CHIEN; Cheng-Daw HSIEH

    2001-01-01

    With steep terrain and excessive rainfall, Taiwan is affected by severe soil erosion caused by summer typhoons and storms that bring intensive rainfall and rapid fl . However, the actual erosion is much less than the value predicted by the USLE because the soil erosion types in Taiwan are different from those in America which has mild slope and dry weather. Developing a soil erosion index model applicable to Taiwan is the important goal of this research. Five factors, namely, soil texture, rainfall type,slope steepness, ground cover and land use, are included in this model. Soil index factor is measured by Km from the USLE model, and other index factors are calculated from local field data. The soil erosion index model (SEIM) is as follows:SE = 6 × 10-7 AI for AI≤ 50 SE = 0.233AI1.8 for AI > 50 where Al is the total index value, and SE is the soil erosion quantity (ton/ha/yr). After being properly calibrated and verified, SEIM proves to be useful in planning soil and water conservation, and assessing soil erosion impacts in Taiwan.

  4. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  5. Development of a coastal drought index using salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Darby, Lisa S.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of the uniqueness of coastal drought is the effects on the salinity dynamics of creeks, rivers, and estuaries. The location of the freshwater–saltwater interface along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socioeconomic dynamics of coastal communities. Salinity is a critical response variable that integrates hydrologic and coastal dynamics including sea level, tides, winds, precipitation, streamflow, and tropical storms. The position of the interface determines the composition of freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities as well as the freshwater availability for water intakes. Many definitions of drought have been proposed, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on the water supply. Indices have been developed incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. These water-availability drought indices were developed for upland areas and may not be ideal for characterizing coastal drought. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity for the development of a salinity-based coastal drought index. An approach similar to the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was modified and applied to salinity data obtained from sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Using the SPI approach, the index becomes a coastal salinity index (CSI) that characterizes coastal salinity conditions with respect to drought periods of higher-saline conditions and wet periods of higher-freshwater conditions. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that it provides additional coastal response information as compared to the SPI and the Palmer hydrologic drought index, and the CSI can be used for different estuary types and for comparison of conditions along coastlines.

  6. Design, validation and administration of an observation tool for assessing water psychomotor skills in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Gómez-Mármol

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to create a new observation tool that lets the assessment of water psychomotor skills as well as the knowledge of its current state of development through its administration. In order to that, 8 experts (Physical Education teachers and swimming monitors all of them, have analyzed the Observation Tool for Assessing Water Psychomotor skills, composed by 5 factors (familiarization with the context, balance, displacement, handling and social relationships reporting satisfactory results. Furthermore, the water psychomotor development of 58 children aged between 3 and 6 years old was studied. Displacement and handling factors got the highest values meanwhile social relationships got the lowest value. Likewise, 5-6 years old group showed significant higher levels of water psychomotor development than 3-4 years old group.

  7. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  8. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  9. Developing and Validating a Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.; DAgostino, B.; Vanderburg, S.; Fovell, R. G.; Cao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Ana winds, common to southern California during the fall through spring, are a type of katabatic wind that originates from a direction generally ranging from 360°/0° to 100° and is usually accompanied by very low humidity. Since fuel conditions tend to be driest from late September through the middle of November, Santa Ana winds occurring during this period have the greatest potential to produce large, devastating fires when an ignition occurs. Such catastrophic fires occurred in 1993, 2003, 2007, and 2008. Because of the destructive nature of these fires, there has been a growing desire to categorize Santa Ana wind events in much the same way that tropical cyclones have been categorized. The Santa Ana Wildfire Threat index (SAWT) is an attempt to categorize such events with respect to fire activity, based on surface wind velocity, dew point depression, and forecasted fuel conditions. The index, a USDA Forest Service product, was developed by the Forest Service in collaboration with San Diego Gas and Electric Utility (SDG&E), the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UCLA, The Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Vertum Partners. The methodology behind the SAWT index, along with the index itself will be presented in detail. Also, there will be a discussion on the construction of a 30-year climatology of the index, which includes various meteorological and fuel parameters. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the index as another decision support tool for fire agencies and first responders, and how it could assist the general public and private industry in the preparation of critical Santa Ana wind events.

  10. Psychomotor re-education: Movement as therapeutic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Špela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. Body and movement as the bases of the treatment. A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomotor re-education, are used with a purpose of helping children to discover their own body, their feelings, needs, behaviour. When moving, children discover the space of their own bodily nature, and, subsequently, gestural space and objective space. The body represents a source of pleasure and the freedom of movement, as well as one’s own existence, are soon to be discovered. Practical application. An adequate assessment is a precondition to design a work plan, select the best exercises for each child individually and direct the course of therapy. This is the most suitable method for treating children with slow or disharmonious development, mentally challenged children, children with speech and behaviour disorders. It is also used in the treatment of children with dyspraxic difficulties, difficulties in practognostic and gnostic development, pervasive developmental disorder and children with lateral dominance problems. Conclusion. Therefore, a systematic observation seems to be necessary as well as an increased number of research projects aimed at assessing results obtained by exercises in order to get a more precise insight into the process of re-education, selection of exercises, duration period and possible outcomes.

  11. Social Development in Hong Kong: Development Issues Identified by Social Development Index (SDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoi-wai; Wong, Anthony K. W.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Surviving the aftermaths of the Asian Financial Crisis and SARS in 2003, Hong Kong's economy has re-gained its momentum and its economic growth has been quite remarkable too in recent few years. Nevertheless, as reflected by the Social Development Index (SDI), economic growth in Hong Kong does not seem to have benefited the people of the city at…

  12. 四川农村地区婴幼儿智力运动发展特点及影响因素的研究%Infants’ mental and psychomotor development features and their influential factors in countryside of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐曼; 赵玲; 刘亚红; 刘小红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨四川农村地区婴幼儿智力、运动发展水平的特点及影响因素。方法依据四川经济水平按随机抽样方法分层抽出558个长期居住在四川省6个县18个镇(乡)农村地区的2~30月龄的健康汉族婴幼儿作为研究对象。用贝利婴幼儿发展量表( BSID)测评智力发展指数( MDI)和运动发展指数( PDI)。结果父母亲文化程度与婴幼儿MDI、PDI具有相关性。父母亲文化程度与MDI的相关分析:r值分别为0.085、0.127,父母亲文化程度与PDI的相关分析:r值分别为0.099、0.084,均P<0.05;家庭经济收入与婴幼儿22月龄前MDI无相关性,与23~30月龄呈低到中度相关,且相关性逐渐增强( r=0.398~0.502,均P<0.001)。家庭经济收入与PDI无相关性(r=0.251~0.028,均P>0.05);家庭刺激因素中家庭亲密性、矛盾性、知识性均与婴幼儿的MDI相关(r值分别为0.256、0.085、0.101,均P<0.05)。 PDI与家庭亲密性、矛盾性、知识性及组织性等家庭刺激因素均无相关(均P>0.05);上臂围、头围和体重三者均与MDI有相关性( r值分别为0.296、-0.324、0.175,均P<0.05)。结论父母亲的文化程度、家庭经济水平、家庭环境刺激因素、婴幼儿的营养状态均对婴幼儿智力运动的发育有影响。%Objective To investigate the infants ’ mental and psychomotor development features and their influential factors in the countryside of Sichuan Province.Methods According to economic level of Sichuan Province, stratified sampling method was used to select 558 healthy Han nationality baby infants aged 2-30 months who long lived in the countryside of 18 towns of 6 counties in Sichuan Province. Bayley Scales of Infant Development ( BSID) was applied to measure mental development index ( MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI).Results Parental education was

  13. [Psychomotor and intellectual development in 52 children with congenital hypothyroidism screened at birth. Factors likely to have an effect on prognosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toublanc, J E; Rives, S; Acosta, A; Chicaud, J

    1990-03-01

    Follow-up was obtained for at least 4 years in 52 children (40 F, 12 M) who presented with congenital hypothyroidism, detected by TSH screening at 5 days of age and persisting at the 3th-5th postnatal week. Eight had athyreosis, 33 an ectopic thyroid gland and 11 an anatomically normal thyroid. Treatment began at day 29 +/- 12 (1 SD) with I-T4 solution, 5-7 micrograms/kg/day and was followed in order to obtain immediately T4 and FT4 blood levels in the high normal range, with normal TSH at least from age 6 months. Mental development was evaluated at age 0.5, 1 and 2 years with the Brunet-Lézine scale, and at 4 years with the Termann-Merill test. Thirty of them were reevaluated at age 7 years with the WISC-R test. The results of these tests were all in the normal range, with individual differences, the range being 85 to 145 at 4 years and 95 to 133 at 7 years, not different from those obtained in age-matched controls and in the normal siblings of the patients at 4. The WISC-R test at 7 years did not show differences between verbal and performance levels. Its results were correlated with those of the TM test performed at age 4 years in the same 30 patients: r = 0.75, p less than 0.01. School level at 7 years was normal for age in these 30 hypothyroid children.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Developing an operational rangeland water requirement satisfaction index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, G.B.; Verdin, J.P.; Rowland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an operational water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) for range-land monitoring is an important goal of the famine early warning systems network. An operational WRSI has been developed for crop monitoring, but until recently a comparable WRSI for rangeland was not successful because of the extremely poor performance of the index when based on published crop coefficients (Kc) for rangelands. To improve the rangeland WRSI, we developed a simple calibration technique that adjusts the Kc values for rangeland monitoring using long-term rainfall distribution and reference evapotranspiration data. The premise for adjusting the Kc values is based on the assumption that a viable rangeland should exhibit above-average WRSI (values >80%) during a normal year. The normal year was represented by a median dekadal rainfall distribution (satellite rainfall estimate from 1996 to 2006). Similarly, a long-term average for potential evapotranspiration was used as input to the famine early warning systems network WRSI model in combination with soil-water-holding capacity data. A dekadal rangeland WRSI has been operational for east and west Africa since 2005. User feedback has been encouraging, especially with regard to the end-of-season WRSI anomaly products that compare the index's performance to 'normal' years. Currently, rangeland WRSI products are generated on a dekadal basis and posted for free distribution on the US Geological Survey early warning website at http://earlywarning.usgs.gov/adds/.

  15. Author development of training device for micro-basketball the «Clever ring» as mean of integral psychomotor development of children of 2-5 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakhno E.G.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A technical device is developed for micro-basketball for integral development of children 1-5 years. In research took part 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children, 4-5 years. It is suggested to execute throws in a basket from different distance and under a different corner. Also to give up the balls of different color and size in accordance with a color and size of basket from the set initial position. It is marked that exercises with a ball develop an orientation in space, regulate force and exactness of throw, develop measurement with naked an eye, adroitness, speed of reaction; normalize a volitional sphere emotionally. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical device is instrumental in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.

  16. Determinants of Human Development Index: A Cross-Country Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Smit

    2016-01-01

    The Human Development Index is a statistical tool used to measure countries overall achievements in its social and economic dimensions. This paper tried to find out major factors affecting Human Development Index like health index, education index and income index. The objective of this study is found out the empirical findings and trend of human development across countries, regression analysis of determinants factors and region wise analysis of human development index.

  17. The development of a flash flood severity index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Amanda J.; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hardy, Jill; Henderson, Jen J.; Parhi, Pradipta; Rahmani, Vahid; Reed, Kimberly A.; Schumacher, Russ S.; Smith, Brianne K.; Taraldsen, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Flash flooding is a high impact weather event that requires clear communication regarding severity and potential hazards among forecasters, researchers, emergency managers, and the general public. Current standards used to communicate these characteristics include return periods and the United States (U.S.) National Weather Service (NWS) 4-tiered river flooding severity scale. Return periods are largely misunderstood, and the NWS scale is limited to flooding on gauged streams and rivers, often leaving out heavily populated urban corridors. To address these shortcomings, a student-led group of interdisciplinary researchers came together in a collaborative effort to develop an impact-based Flash Flood Severity Index (FFSI). The index was proposed as a damage-based, post-event assessment tool, and preliminary work toward the creation of this index has been completed and presented here. Numerous case studies were analyzed to develop the preliminary outline for the FFSI, and three examples of such cases are included in this paper. The scale includes five impact-based categories ranging from Category 1 very minor flooding to Category 5 catastrophic flooding. Along with the numerous case studies used to develop the initial outline of the scale, empirical data in the form of semi-structured interviews were conducted with multiple NWS forecasters across the country and their responses were analyzed to gain more perspective on the complicated nature of flash flood definitions and which tools were found to be most useful. The feedback from these interviews suggests the potential for acceptance of such an index if it can account for specific challenges.

  18. Healthcare hashtag index development: Identifying global impact in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho-Costa, Luís; Yakubu, Kenneth; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Laranjo, Liliana; Reichel, Christofer Patrick; Colon-Gonzalez, Maria Del C; Neves, Ana Luísa; Errami, Hassna

    2016-10-01

    Create an index of global reach for healthcare hashtags and tweeters therein, filterable by topic of interest. For this proof-of-concept study we focused on the field of Primary Care and Family Medicine. Six hashtags were selected based on their importance, from the ones included in the 'Healthcare Hashtag Project'. Hashtag Global Reach (HGR) was calculated using the additive aggregation of five weighted, normalized indicator variables: number of impressions, tweets, tweeters, user locations, and user languages. Data were obtained for the last quarter of 2014 and first quarter of 2015 using Symplur Signals. Topic-specific HGR were calculated for the top 10 terms and for sets of quotes mapped after a thematic analysis. Individual Global Reach, IGR, was calculated across hashtags as additive indexes of three indicators: replies, retweets and mentions. Using the HGR score we were able to rank six selected hashtags and observe their performance throughout the study period. We found that #PrimaryCare and #FMRevolution had the highest HGR score in both quarters; interestingly, #FMChangeMakers experienced a marked increase in its global visibility during the study period. "Health Policy" was the commonest theme, while "Care", "Family" and "Health" were the most common terms. This is the first study describing an altmetric hashtag index. Assuming analytical soundness, the Index might prove generalizable to other healthcare hashtags. If released as a real-time business intelligence tool with customizable settings, it could aid publishing and strategic decisions by netizens, organizations, and analysts. IGR could also serve to augment academic evaluation and professional development. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of using an index on the global reach of healthcare hashtags and tweeters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rationale and Development of a Security Assurance Index with Application toward the Development of a World Risk Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Plum; G. A. Beitel, PhD

    2006-06-01

    Assurance categories were previously developed to support the Department of Homeland Security’s efforts in the mitigation of Cyber Control System events. Defined according to the risk of life and economic loss, the minimum range is designated by policy, whereas the maximum limit seems to be constrained only by limits and interdependencies of the event. Use of this life / assets scale has proven to be helpful in managing risk due to the scale's ease of use, communication, and understanding. Suggestions have been made that this scale could be applied to all events of terror, disaster, and calamity of an international scale, with equally good results. This paper presents the history of some existing scales of disaster and assurance, the rationale behind the development of the original Security Assurance Index, and our proposed scale of disaster and calamity as a World Risk Index.

  20. Development and evaluation of a comprehensive drought index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahanian, Elaheh; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Adhikari, Umesh; Zhang, Zhen; Daneshvar, Fariborz; Herman, Matthew R

    2016-10-28

    Droughts are known as the world's costliest natural disasters impacting a variety of sectors. Despite their wide range of impacts, no universal drought definition has been defined. The goal of this study is to define a universal drought index that considers drought impacts on meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and stream health categories. Additionally, predictive drought models are developed to capture both categorical (meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural) and overall impacts of drought. In order to achieve these goals, thirteen commonly used drought indices were aggregated to develop a universal drought index named MASH. The thirteen drought indices consist of four drought indices from each meteorological, hydrological, and agricultural categories, and one from the stream health category. Cluster analysis was performed to find the three closest indices in each category. Then the closest drought indices were averaged in each category to create the categorical drought score. Finally, the categorical drought scores were simply averaged to develop the MASH drought index. In order to develop predictive drought models for each category and MASH, the ReliefF algorithm was used to rank 90 variables and select the best variable set. Using the best variable set, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to develop drought predictive models and their accuracy was examined using the 10-fold cross validation technique. The models' predictabilities ranged from R(2) = 0.75 for MASH to R(2) = 0.98 for the hydrological drought model. The results of this study can help managers to better position resources to cope with drought by reducing drought impacts on different sectors.

  1. Construction of Tests in the Cognitive and Psychomotor Domains for Skin and Scuba Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jean

    The fundamental purposes of this study were to develop mastery tests in the cognitive and psychomotor domains for skin and scuba diving and to establish validity and reliability for the tests. A table of specifications was developed for each domain, and a pilot study refined the initial test batteries into their final form. In the main study,…

  2. Bimanual Psychomotor Performance in Neurosurgical Resident Applicants Assessed Using NeuroTouch, a Virtual Reality Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler-Schwartz, Alexander; Bajunaid, Khalid; Mullah, Muhammad A S; Marwa, Ibrahim; Alotaibi, Fahad E; Fares, Jawad; Baggiani, Marta; Azarnoush, Hamed; Zharni, Gmaan Al; Christie, Sommer; Sabbagh, Abdulrahman J; Werthner, Penny; Del Maestro, Rolando F

    Current selection methods for neurosurgical residents fail to include objective measurements of bimanual psychomotor performance. Advancements in computer-based simulation provide opportunities to assess cognitive and psychomotor skills in surgically naive populations during complex simulated neurosurgical tasks in risk-free environments. This pilot study was designed to answer 3 questions: (1) What are the differences in bimanual psychomotor performance among neurosurgical residency applicants using NeuroTouch? (2) Are there exceptionally skilled medical students in the applicant cohort? and (3) Is there an influence of previous surgical exposure on surgical performance? Participants were instructed to remove 3 simulated brain tumors with identical visual appearance, stiffness, and random bleeding points. Validated tier 1, tier 2, and advanced tier 2 metrics were used to assess bimanual psychomotor performance. Demographic data included weeks of neurosurgical elective and prior operative exposure. This pilot study was carried out at the McGill Neurosurgical Simulation Research and Training Center immediately following neurosurgical residency interviews at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. All 17 medical students interviewed were asked to participate, of which 16 agreed. Performances were clustered in definable top, middle, and bottom groups with significant differences for all metrics. Increased time spent playing music, increased applicant self-evaluated technical skills, high self-ratings of confidence, and increased skin closures statistically influenced performance on univariate analysis. A trend for both self-rated increased operating room confidence and increased weeks of neurosurgical exposure to increased blood loss was seen in multivariate analysis. Simulation technology identifies neurosurgical residency applicants with differing levels of technical ability. These results provide information for studies being developed for longitudinal studies on the

  3. Classifying regional development in Iran (Application of Composite Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sharifzadeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended abstract1- IntroductionThe spatial economy of Iran, like that of so many other developing countries, is characterized by an uneven spatial pattern of economic activities. The problem of spatial inequality emerged when efficiency-oriented sectoral policies came into conflict with the spatial dimension of development (Atash, 1988. Due to this conflict, extreme imbalanced development in Iran was created. Moreover spatial uneven distribution of economic activities in Iran is unknown and incomplete. So, there is an urgent need for more efficient and effective design, targeting and implementing interventions to manage spatial imbalances in development. Hence, the identification of development patterns at spatial scale and the factors generating them can help improve planning if development programs are focused on removing the constraints adversely affecting development in potentially good areas. There is a need for research that would describe and explain the problem of spatial development patterns as well as proposal of possible strategies, which can be used to develop the country and reduce the spatial imbalances. The main objective of this research was to determine spatial economic development level in order to identify spatial pattern of development and explain determinants of such imbalance in Iran based on methodology of composite index of development. Then, Iran provinces were ranked and classified according to the calculated composite index. To collect the required data, census of 2006 and yearbook in various times were used. 2- Theoretical basesTheories of regional inequality as well as empirical evidence regarding actual trends at the national or international level have been discussed and debated in the economic literature for over three decades. Early debates concerning the impact of market mechanisms on regional inequality in the West (Myrdal, 1957 have become popular again in the 1990s. There is a conflict on probable outcomes

  4. An Indexing Scheme for Case-Based Manufacturing Vision Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chengbo; Johansen, John; Luxhøj, James T.

    2004-01-01

    . In this paper, after the background introduction of the MV, the CBRM and the indexing challenges of the MV cases, we present the structure and content of the index vocabulary and the two indexing representation structures, then illustrate briefly the indexing of cases with two examples. We also summarize...

  5. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Existing Kanji Indexes and Development of a Coding-based Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina N. VOROBEVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problems faced by learners of Japanese from non-kanji background, the present paper discusses the characteristics of 15 existing kanji dictionary indexes. In order to compare the relative efficiency of these indexes, the concept of selectivity is defined, and the selectivity coefficient of the kanji indexes is computed and compared. Furthermore, new indexes developed by the present authors and based on an alphabetical code, a symbol code, a semantic code, and a radical and stroke number code are presented and their use and efficiency are explained.

  6. Human Development Index and Efficiency level of Social Security Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sepehrdost

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Hospitals as one of the main institutions providing health care services play an important role in the health system and allocate a high percentage of health sector's budget to them. This study aimed to answer whether social security hospitals efficiency levels are the same for all provinces in Iran? And whether any relationship exists between the human development indexes (HDI of the provinces and technical efficiency levels of the hospitals?Materials & Methods: Data envelopment analysis model has been used to measure technical efficiency of 65 social security hospitals, including small hospitals (working with lower than one hundred active beds and large hospitals (working with over one hundred active beds during the years 2007 to 2009. Further, the relationship between human development index and technical efficiency of hospitals in the provinces has been analyzed.Results: Results show that the average technical efficiency of small and large hospitals working in low and medium HDI provinces (0.912 and 0.937 are more than the average technical efficiency of hospitals in higher HDI provinces (0.870 and 0.887.Conclusion: It is recommended that social security organization concentrated distribute its hospital services in provinces with lower HDI and higher density of population living under the coverage of organization’s insurance. This will eventually puts its positive effects on per capita income of people, as well as more equitable distribution of income. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:32-38

  7. The Orthopaedic Training Study, Phase II 1968-1972. Final Report Supplement, Psychomotor Skills, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Carl J.; And Others

    This document, as a supplement to the final report of the Orthopaedic Training Study, presents a discussion of the rationale behind the implementation of a laboratory course in psychomotor skills development for medical students. Medical educators examined resident training in terms of 3 components of cognitive elements of learning: cognitive,…

  8. The Integration of Psychomotor Skills in a Hybrid-PBL Dental Curriculum: The Clinical Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Joanne N.; MacNeil, M. A. J.; Harrison, Rosamund L.; Clark, D. Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes the restructuring of clinical clerkships at the University of British Columbia (Canada) dental school as part of a new, hybrid, problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum, focusing on strategies for integrating development of psychomotor skills. Methods of achieving both horizontal and vertical integration of competencies through grouping…

  9. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  10. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  11. The contribution of a psychomotor stimulation to the process of independence for a visually impaired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaynara Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at developing and implementing a program of psychomotor stimulation process-based orientation and mobility of the visually impaired, since this type of commitment has a direct influence on psychomotor development of the individual, affecting their autonomy and independence. The program was implemented in the Laboratory of Psychomotor Stimulation of the Federal University of Viçosa, with the theoretical basis of Psychomotricity. We chose the intrinsic case study, to observe and evaluate better the difficulties encountered by the technique of systematic observation and informal interviews with parents. One can perceive evolutions in visually handicapped studied in terms equilibrium, concept space and body schema, and also willing to perform activities of daily living, which interfere in their locomotion. We concluded that the process of orientation and mobility is paramount in the work of independence of the visually impaired, and that it is needed a psychomotor development stimulus since the beginning of his life, because the delays that may arise during their growth and maturation. It becomes important to apply qualitative approaches for further studies but with larger samples.

  12. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  13. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  14. EFFECT OF MOTIVATON AND CREATIVITY ON STUDENTS’ PSYCHOMOTOR ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Arpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine: (1 the effect of motivation on students’ psychomotor ability; (2 the effect of creativity on students’ psychomotor ability; (3 the effect of motivation and creativity as in aggregate on students’ psychomotor ability; and (4 the contribution of motivation and creativity on students’ psychomotor ability in the subject of Web Programming. This research is an ex-post facto type. The population was sixth semester students of TIK Education Research Program of PGRI Pontianak totaling 217 students. The sample was 135 students with proportional random sampling techniques that determined by the Issac and Michael table. Data collection using a questionnaire. The data was analyzed using regression analysis to test the hypotheses. The results showed that: (1 motivation has a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability; (2 creativity has a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability; (3 motivation and creativity as in aggregate had a positive and significant effect on students’ psychomotor Ability with 68.88%; and (4 the contribution of motivation is 12.5% and creativity is 32.5% on students’ psychomotor Ability in the subject of Web Programming.

  15. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes. Re

  16. Longitudinal Evaluation of the Psychomotor Syndrome in Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Docx, L.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Fransen, E.; Bervoets, C.; Hulstijn, W.; Bossche, M.J.A. Van Den; Vermeylen, S.; Temmerman, A.; Morsel, A.M.; Morrens, M.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal course of psychomotor signs and symptoms after illness onset in schizophrenia. Therefore, a 1-year follow-up study was conducted in which patients with schizophrenia were assessed three times with an extensive battery of psychomotor rating scales and tests. The

  17. Delineating psychomotor slowing from reduced processing speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Matton, C.; Madani, Y.; Bouwel, L. van; Peuskens, J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor slowing is an intrinsic feature of schizophrenia that is poorly delineated from generally reduced processing speed. Although the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed, the task also taps several higher-order cognitive processes.

  18. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie N. Carruthers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener’s granulomatosis (BVAS/WG. The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician’s global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure.

  19. Developing an operational capabilities index of the emergency services sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.J.; Eaton, L.K.; Shoemaker, Z.M.; Fisher, R.E.; Veselka, S.N.; Wallace, K.E.; Petit, F.D. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-20

    In order to enhance the resilience of the Nation and its ability to protect itself in the face of natural and human-caused hazards, the ability of the critical infrastructure (CI) system to withstand specific threats and return to normal operations after degradation must be determined. To fully analyze the resilience of a region and the CI that resides within it, both the actual resilience of the individual CI and the capability of the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) to protect against and respond to potential hazards need to be considered. Thus, a regional resilience approach requires the comprehensive consideration of all parts of the CI system as well as the characterization of emergency services. This characterization must generate reproducible results that can support decision making with regard to risk management, disaster response, business continuity, and community planning and management. To address these issues, Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Sector Specific Agency - Executive Management Office, developed a comprehensive methodology to create an Emergency Services Sector Capabilities Index (ESSCI). The ESSCI is a performance metric that ranges from 0 (low level of capabilities) to 100 (high). Because an emergency services program has a high ESSCI, however, does not mean that a specific event would not be able to affect a region or cause severe consequences. And because a program has a low ESSCI does not mean that a disruptive event would automatically lead to serious consequences in a region. Moreover, a score of 100 on the ESSCI is not the level of capability expected of emergency services programs; rather, it represents an optimal program that would rarely be observed. The ESSCI characterizes the state of preparedness of a jurisdiction in terms of emergency and risk management. Perhaps the index's primary benefit is that it can systematically capture, at a given point in time, the

  20. Toward Development of a Naval Oral Health Status Index,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    data." Social Indicators Research 3 (1976), pp. 257-271. 18. Elinson, Jack. "Toward sociomedical health indicators." Social Indicators Research 1...34Comprehensive population health index based on mortality and disability data." Social Indicators Research 3 (1976), pp. 257-271. Chen, Martin K. "The G index

  1. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  2. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  3. Development of the Arabic Version of Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Mohamed; Malki, Khalid H; Mesallam, Tamer A; Bukhari, Manal; Alharethy, Sami

    2014-08-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is a 25-item self-administered questionnaire. It is a noninvasive tool for measuring the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of people's lives. The purposes of the present study were to develop an Arabic version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the normal Arabic population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. This was a prospective study that was carried out at the Communication and Swallowing Disorders Unit, King Saud University. The generated Arabic DHI was administered to 94 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 98 control subjects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Arabic DHI showed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.95). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Arabic DHI (r = 0.9, p = 0.001). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (p DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effect of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patients and can be used by Arabic language speakers.

  4. EULAR Sjogren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) : development of a consensus patient index for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seror, Raphaele; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bootsma, Hendrika; Theander, Elke; Hansen, Arne; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Doerner, Thomas; Bombardieri, Stefano; Hachulla, Eric; Brun, Johan G.; Kruize, Aike A.; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matija; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Devauchelle, Valerie; Devita, Salvatore; Vollenweider, Cristina; Mandl, Thomas; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Carsons, Steven; Saraux, Alain; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Vitali, Claudio; Bowman, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop a score for assessment of patients' symptoms in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS): the EULAR SS Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI). Methods Dryness, pain, somatic and mental fatigue were identified as the main symptoms of patients with primary SS, in studies developing the Profile o

  5. Development of an Objective High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Case, J.; White, K.; Bell, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drought detection, analysis, and mitigation has become a key challenge for a diverse set of decision makers, including but not limited to operational weather forecasters, climatologists, agricultural interests, and water resource management. One tool that is heavily used is the United States Drought Monitor (USDM), which is derived from a complex blend of objective data and subjective analysis on a state-by-state basis using a variety of modeled and observed precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic, and vegetation and crop health data. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center currently runs a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework. The LIS-Noah is run at 3-km resolution for local numerical weather prediction (NWP) and situational awareness applications at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices over the Continental U.S. (CONUS). To enhance the practicality of the LIS-Noah output for drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, a 30+-year soil moisture climatology has been developed in an attempt to place near real-time soil moisture values in historical context at county- and/or watershed-scale resolutions. This LIS-Noah soil moisture climatology and accompanying anomalies is intended to complement the current suite of operational products, such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System phase 2 (NLDAS-2), which are generated on a coarser-resolution grid that may not capture localized, yet important soil moisture features. Daily soil moisture histograms are used to identify the real-time soil moisture percentiles at each grid point according to the county or watershed in which the grid point resides. Spatial plots are then produced that map the percentiles as proxies to the different USDM categories. This presentation will highlight recent developments of this gridded, objective soil moisture index, comparison to subjective

  6. The Development of a Green Practice Index for the Malaysian Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Siti–Nabiha

    2014-03-01

    Malaysian hotels. Doing so, however, resulted in a search for green index development methods. This lead to the discovery that existing tools such as the Delphi method were not appropriate tools that could be used to develop a Malaysian green index. To address the above, the authors propose a green index development method that can be used for a  Malaysian and developing country context. Hence, in this paper, the method of developing a green practice index for the Malaysian hospitality industry, the differences and advantages of this method compared to the commonly used Delphi method and finally the Malaysian Green Practice Index for the hotel industry are presented.

  7. Development of an operational specific CAT risk (SCATR) index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. L.; Haines, P. A.; Luers, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    The original formulations of Roach (1970) and Oard (1974) for the calculation of clear air turbulence (CAT) potential from synoptic scale data were extended. An index which gives a measure of the specific risk of encountering CAT - the specific clear air turbulence risk (SCATR) index - was defined. This index takes into account both the locally and advected contributions to the energy necessary for CAT. The advected contribution is associated with the role of atmospheric gravity waves. The SCATR index was calculated for a number of cases where documented encounters with CAT occurred. Of particular interest were those made for cases involving severe CAT. The results for the two severe CAT cases run were quite impressive and elicited considerable interest from operational aviation meteorologists.

  8. PC-PVT: A Platform for Psychomotor Vigilance Task Testing, Analysis, and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    PC-PVT: A platform for psychomotor vigilance task testing, analysis, and prediction Maxim Y. Khitrov & Srinivas Laxminarayan & David Thorsley...the rela- tively low hardware cost, user familiarity, and the relative ease of software development for specific neurobehavioral testing protocols... developed and characterized a freely available system for PC-based simple visual reaction time testing that is analogous to the widely used psychomo

  9. Psychomotor re-education: Movement as therapeutic method

    OpenAIRE

    Golubović Špela; Tubić Tatjana; Marković Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Psychomotor re-education represents a multidimensional therapeutic approach in dealing with children and adults with psychomotor disorders. Therapeutic programs should be based on individual differences, abilities and capabilities, relationships, feelings and individual developmental needs as well as emotional condition of a child. Body and movement as the bases of the treatment. A movement, glance, touch, voice and word, all being an integral part of a process of psychomo...

  10. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarlan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...

  11. Contribution Of Human Development Index On Per Capita Income Growth And Poverty Alleviation In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarlan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The development of a country usually determined by the human development index HDI. Per capita income education and health are the three most important components of human development index. The purpose of this research is to understand the relationship among human development index to income per capita growth and poverty alleviation in Indonesia with cross-section data from 30 provinces period 2002 2011 year. The result of this research were a income per capita growth was not sign...

  12. 心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿体格及精神运动发育状况的影响%Influence of psychological intervention on physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向红; 蒙顺好; 骆绮云; 陈玉珍; 于雯昶; 阙文清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of psychological intervention on the physical and psychomotor development of children born of assisted reproductive technology. Methods 329 cases of ART born children in our hospital were set as the experimental group,the parturients were given pertinent psychological intervention.254 cases of children of spontaneous pregnancy were selected as the control group.The two groups were given follow-up for 24 months.Their physical condition at birth and psychomotor development during follow - up period were compared. Results Compared with the control group,length of infants at birth,body mass of the experimental group were significantly lower,and the incidence rate of premature birth,low birth weight,NICU stay during neonatal stage were higher.But there were no differences in psychomotor development between two groups. Conclusions ART born children of 24-month old show normal psychomotor development,but there are still more unfavorable physical factors,therefore,pertinent nursing intervention should be given based upon psychological intervention in clinic.%目的 探讨心理干预结合辅助生殖技术对出生婴儿的体格和精神运动发育状况的影响.方法 将利用现代辅助生殖技术(assisted reproductive technology,ART)出生的329例婴儿列为实验组,并对其家长进行相应的心理干预;另选取同期出生的254例自然妊娠婴儿列为对照组.随访至24月龄,对2组婴儿出生时的体格状况及随访期的精神运动发育状况进行比较.结果 2组相比,实验组婴儿出生时的身长、体质量均显著低于对照组,而其早产、低出生体质量、新生儿期入住NICU等的发生率均显著高于对照组;但2组的精神运动发育指标比较无显著差异.结论 24个月内的ART婴儿精神运动发育正常,但其还存在着较多的体格不利因素,因此临床上应在结合心理干预的基础上予以针对性的措施.

  13. REDI: The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index –Measuring regional entrepreneurship Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Autio, Erkko; Komlosi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The main outcome of the project is a new index (REDI - Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index) that describes the entrepreneurial process. The index takes into account both individual attitudes and characteristics and the regional context and, accordingly, not only whether people are willin

  14. Historical Development of the "Insurance Periodicals Index" by the Insurance Division of the Special Libraries Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Jean E.

    The Insurance Division of the Special Libraries Association began an index to insurance magazines, the "Insurance Periodicals Index" (IPI), in 1962. This study examines its historical development. The index was published monthly in an insurance trade journal and then cumulated into an annual edition. Part of the background for its…

  15. The regional application of the global entrepreneurship and development index (GEDI) : The case of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Ortega-Argilés, Raquel; Aidis, Ruta; Coduras, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index methodology, this paper constructs a Regional Entrepreneurship Index for Spain that captures the contextual feature of entrepreneurship across regions. The entrepreneurial disparities among the Spanish regions are analyzed in the sub-index a

  16. REDI: The Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index –Measuring regional entrepreneurship Final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortega Argiles, Raquel; Acs, Zoltan J.; Szerb, Laszlo; Autio, Erkko; Komlosi, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The main outcome of the project is a new index (REDI - Regional Entrepreneurship and Development Index) that describes the entrepreneurial process. The index takes into account both individual attitudes and characteristics and the regional context and, accordingly, not only whether people are

  17. The SWPER index for women's empowerment in Africa: development and validation of an index based on survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerling, Fernanda; Lynch, John W; Victora, Cesar G; van Eerdewijk, Anouka; Tyszler, Marcelo; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-09-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals strongly focus on equity. Goal 5 explicitly aims to empower all women and girls, reinforcing the need to have a reliable indicator to track progress. Our objective was to develop a novel women's empowerment indicator from widely available data sources, broadening opportunities for monitoring and research on women's empowerment. We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 34 African countries, targeting currently partnered women. We identified items related to women's empowerment present in most surveys, and used principal component analysis to extract the components. We carried out a convergent validation process using coverage of three health interventions as outcomes; and an external validation process by analysing correlations with the Gender Development Index. 15 items related to women's empowerment were selected. We retained three components (50% of total variation) which, after rotation, were identified as three dimensions of empowerment: attitude to violence, social independence, and decision making. All dimensions had moderate to high correlation with the Gender Development Index. Social independence was associated with higher coverage of maternal and child interventions; attitude to violence and decision making were more consistently associated with the use of modern contraception. The index, named Survey-based Women's emPowERment index (SWPER), has potential to widen the research on women's empowerment and to give a better estimate of its effect on health interventions and outcomes. It allows within-country and between-country comparison, as well as time trend analysis, which no other survey-based index provides. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.

    OpenAIRE

    Leschinska K.O.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls). The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of chi...

  19. Application of the Rural Development Index to Analysis of Rural Regions in Poland and Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalek, Jerzy; Zarnekow, Nana

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to construct a multi-dimensional (composite) index measuring the overall level of rural development and quality of life in individual rural regions of a given EU country. In the Rural Development Index (RDI) the rural development domains are represented by hundreds of partial socio-economic, environmental,…

  20. An Analysis of the Efficiency of Existing Kanji Indexes and Development of a Coding-based Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOROBEVA, Galina N.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the problems faced by learners of Japanese from non-kanji background, the present paper discusses the characteristics of 15 existing kanji dictionary indexes. In order to compare the relative efficiency of these indexes, the concept of selectivity is defined, and the selectivity coefficient of the kanji indexes is computed and compared. Furthermore, new indexes developed by the present authors and based on an alphabetical code, a symbol code, a semantic code, and a radical-and-stroke-number code are presented and their use and efficiency are explained.-----Pričujoči članek obravnava lastnosti 15 obstoječih kazal v slovarjih kitajskih pismenk z vidika težav učencev japonščine kot tujega jezika in kitajskih pismenk kot tujega sistema pisave. Da bi primerjali relativno učinkovitost teh kazal, definiramo koncept izbirnosti ter izračunamo in primerjamo koeficient izbirnosti teh kazal. Nadalje predlagamo in predstavljamo rabo in učinkovitost novih kazal, ki smo jih osnovali na kodiranju z latiničnimi črkami, simbolnem kodiranju, semantičnem kodiranju in kodiranju na osnovi pomenskega ključa in števila potez.

  1. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    OpenAIRE

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-01-01

    Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  2. Gaming Technique in Formation of Motor-Coordinational and Psychomotor Capabilities of 5-6 Year-old Children, Going in for Tennis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervand P. Gasparyan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of gaming technique during 5-6 year-old tennis-players training when motor coordination and psychomotor capabilities are formed allowed to increase the indexes of all the examined motor coordinations and both to preserve the natural age character of motor coordination changes and to improve this process fundamentally.

  3. Developing spatiotemporal solitons in step-index multimode fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yao; Xu, Jianqiu; Tang, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal solitons (STSs) are localized solitary waves in both space and time that involve complex linear and nonlinear processes. Optical STSs have been observed in various media, but they are difficult to be realized in multimode fibers due to their large modal dispersion. Here, we report STS mode-locking and spatiotemporal nonlinear dynamics in a step-index multimode fiber mediated by gain. Gain competition and energy redistribution among different spatial modes help nonlinearity effectively cancel both temporal splitting and spatial diffracting of the entire pulse (multicomponent soliton) and thereby maintain its shape during propagation. Optical STSs in multimode fibers therefore open a new way to clarify the fundamental science of spatiotemporal solitary waves and also imply important applications in multi-channel communications, optical switches and mode-area power scaling of fiber laser pulses.

  4. Examining Middle School Mathematics Teachers’ Use of Information and Communication Technologies and Psychomotor Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alattin Ural

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate what kind of materials are used in which grades in order to improve psychomotor skills and the use of information technologies by students in the courses taught by mathematics teachers and how these materials are used; and to elicit the perceptions of these teachers on the use of these materials. Twenty two mathematics teachers (out of 25 working in 7 secondary schools were given a questionnaire form containing open ended questions and they were asked to write down the answers to those questions on the same form. The research was designed in the scanning model as a qualitative study. The data obtained from teachers were analyzed descriptively and samples from the data were presented categorically. It was observed that, regarding the psychomotor skills, a pair compass-ruler-protractor, dotted-isometric-graph paper, cutting-folding paper in geometry; fraction slips and algebra squares in algebra were the materials used respectively. The grades where these materials are used were 5, 6, 7, and 8 respectively. Regarding the use of information and communication technologies, it was observed that Morpa and Vitamin, the software developed by Turkish Ministery of Education was used to teach the subjects which contain shapes or animation; PowerPoint presentations to teach solid objects, fractals; and animations and videos on the internet to teach solid materials, triangles, fractals, patterns and decoration, equations and symmetry. These activities are used in the grades 8, 7, 6, 5 respectively. The teachers stated that the fact that information technologies and psychomotor skills are not used to the extent they should be stems from the lack of time, lack of computers, the overpopulated classes and the washback effect of the national exams. Keywords: Information and communication technologies (ICT, psychomotor skills, teacher’s opinions

  5. Comparison of effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjali P Mendhe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The comparison of the effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions in patients with endogenous depression. Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 95 literate patients with newly diagnosed endogenous depression matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were prescribed either desvenlafaxine (50 mg or fluoxetine (40 mg or sertraline (50 mg. Psychomotor functions were assessed by digit letter substitution, six letter cancellation, choice reaction time, hand steadiness and flicker fusion test at the baseline 1st month and 3rd month. Efficacy of drugs was also measured by Hamilton rating scale for depression. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 95 patients were enrolled. Fluoxetine, desvenlafaxine, and sertraline were prescribed in 32, 32, and 31 patients, respectively. At the end of 3 months, a significant improvement in psychomotor functions was observed in patients treated with sertraline (P < 0.05, while desvenlafaxine-treated patients did not show any significant change in any of the tests. Surprisingly, fluoxetine-treated patients showed deterioration in all psychomotor tests (P < 0.05. Hamilton rating score improved at the end of 3 months treatment as compared to baseline. Most commonly observed adverse reactions in all three drug groups were nausea (n = 20, dizziness (n = 3, headache (n = 20, and diarrhea (n = 3. Conclusion: Sertraline significantly improves psychomotor function as compared to desvenlafaxine while fluoxetine impairs.

  6. Comparison of Effect of Antidepressants on Psychomotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Pranjali P.; Shah, Samidh P.; Desai, Mira K.; Parikh, Minakshi N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The comparison of the effect of antidepressants on psychomotor functions in patients with endogenous depression. Materials and Methods: This prospective interventional study was carried out at a tertiary care teaching hospital on 95 literate patients with newly diagnosed endogenous depression matching inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were prescribed either desvenlafaxine (50 mg) or fluoxetine (40 mg) or sertraline (50 mg). Psychomotor functions were assessed by digit letter substitution, six letter cancellation, choice reaction time, hand steadiness and flicker fusion test at the baseline 1st month and 3rd month. Efficacy of drugs was also measured by Hamilton rating scale for depression. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A total of 95 patients were enrolled. Fluoxetine, desvenlafaxine, and sertraline were prescribed in 32, 32, and 31 patients, respectively. At the end of 3 months, a significant improvement in psychomotor functions was observed in patients treated with sertraline (P < 0.05), while desvenlafaxine-treated patients did not show any significant change in any of the tests. Surprisingly, fluoxetine-treated patients showed deterioration in all psychomotor tests (P < 0.05). Hamilton rating score improved at the end of 3 months treatment as compared to baseline. Most commonly observed adverse reactions in all three drug groups were nausea (n = 20), dizziness (n = 3), headache (n = 20), and diarrhea (n = 3). Conclusion: Sertraline significantly improves psychomotor function as compared to desvenlafaxine while fluoxetine impairs.

  7. Development and evaluation of new behavioral indexes for a biological early warning system using Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Y. Jeong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available New behavioral indexes including combined index (CI, distribution index (DI, toxic index (TI, and altitude index (AI for a biological early warning system (BEWS were developed and evaluated using Daphnia magna in this study. The sensitivity and stability of each index were compared to evaluate the performance of the indexes through a real-time exposure test with a synthetic copper solution. The applicability of the CI to the field sample was evaluated through an effluent exposure test. The proportional relationship between toxicity level and magnitude of response was much lower in the effluent due to the complexity of water than in the copper solution. The results showed that the CI was most sensitive among the three indexes, while the DI was confirmed as the most useful index among the individual indexes. The combined index (CI shows not only sensitivity but also stability in normal conditions below the statistically significant threshold (p p > 0.01. The CI improved performance of the BEWS in terms of sensitivity and stability, and it was confirmed as the higher correlation coefficient between the magnitude of the index and the toxicity level of the water sample.

  8. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajić Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis, applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. Case Outline. With the exception of neurological psychiatric problems, a boy aged 9.5 years was in good general health before transplantation with allogeneic fetal stem cells. The main aim of allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation was treatment of psychomotor retardation and epilepsy. After 13 months of treatment, he was admitted to hospital in a very serious, life-threatening condition due to sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The humoral immunity in the boy was adequate, unlike cellular immunity. The immune imbalance in terms of predominance of T-suppressor lymphocytes contributes to delayed and late development of sepsis and severe pleuropneumonia. The boy still shows the same severity of psychomotor retardation, dyslalia, epilepsy, strabismus and amblyopia. Conclusion. Implementation of fetal stem cell therapy for unconfirmed indications abuses the therapeutic approach, harms patients, misleads parents, and brings financial harm to the healthcare system of any country, including Serbia.

  9. DYSPRAXIA AS A PSYCHOMOTOR DISORDER OF SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Agata

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was to define the epidemiology of dyspraxia among children from 6 to10 years’ age, attending grades I-III of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. Material: the study was conducted among pupils of primary schools in Wrocław, Poland. The studied groups included 48 girls and 52 boys. The study employed Polish version of Questionnaire for the screening assessment of dyspraxia’s occurrence among children from 5 to 15 years’ age (DCDQ-PL, as well as the Coordination Test for Children (KTK. Results. After assessing the occurrence of dyspraxia among studied children, it was found out that this disorder is present in the studied group. The prevalence of dyspraxia depends on studied children’s gender; however, it is not related to their age. The results of tests, conducted with the DCDQ-PL and the KTK are consistent and confirm the observed inter-dependencies. Conclusions. Dyspraxia is a widespread psychomotor disorder, which can be diagnosed among children in the early school years. A diagnosis of a child’s development with respect to this disorder should constitute a constant element of work for teachers and educationists dealing with children at this stage of education.

  10. Tennis playing is related to psychomotor speed in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmeleira, José; Melo, Filipe; Tlemcani, Mouhaydine; Fernandes, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated the association of tennis playing and running with the psychomotor speed of older drivers. Thirty-six active male drivers (M age = 63.2 yr.) participated. A battery of four on-the road driving tests was performed by tennis players, runners, and a control group. Measures of simple and choice reaction time, movement time, and response time were collected under single- and dual-task conditions. A composite driving score was calculated from reaction time measures of all driving tasks to reflect a general drivers' psychomotor speed. Statistically significant differences between groups were found in a braking task; tennis players performed significantly better than controls in simple reaction time and response time. The composite driving score also differed between groups, and tennis players had better results than controls. Regular participation in tennis was related to psychomotor speed of older drivers.

  11. Sustainable Development Index in Hong Kong: Approach, Method and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Geoffrey K. F.; Yau, Kelvin K. W.; Yang, C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development is a priority area of research in many countries and regions nowadays. This paper illustrates how a multi-stakeholders engagement process can be applied to identify and prioritize the local community's concerns and issues regarding sustainable development in Hong Kong. Ten priority areas covering a wide range of community's…

  12. Sustainable Development Index in Hong Kong: Approach, Method and Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Geoffrey K. F.; Yau, Kelvin K. W.; Yang, C. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable development is a priority area of research in many countries and regions nowadays. This paper illustrates how a multi-stakeholders engagement process can be applied to identify and prioritize the local community's concerns and issues regarding sustainable development in Hong Kong. Ten priority areas covering a wide range of community's…

  13. [Developing a predictive model for the caregiver strain index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Tello, Margarita; Casado-Mejía, Rosa; Praena-Fernández, Juan Manuel; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel

    Patient homecare with multiple morbidities is an increasingly common occurrence. The caregiver strain index is tool in the form of questionnaire that is designed to measure the perceived burden of those who care for their families. The aim of this study is to construct a diagnostic nomogram of informal caregiver burden using data from a predictive model. The model was drawn up using binary logistic regression and the questionnaire items as dichotomous factors. The dependent variable was the final score obtained with the questionnaire but categorised in accordance with that in the literature. Scores between 0 and 6 were labelled as "no" (no caregiver stress) and at or greater than 7 as "yes". The version 3.1.1R statistical software was used. To construct confidence intervals for the ROC curve 2000 boot strap replicates were used. A sample of 67 caregivers was obtained. A diagnosing nomogram was made up with its calibration graph (Brier scaled = 0.686, Nagelkerke R(2)=0.791), and the corresponding ROC curve (area under the curve=0.962). The predictive model generated using binary logistic regression and the nomogram contain four items (1, 4, 5 and 9) of the questionnaire. R plotting functions allow a very good solution for validating a model like this. The area under the ROC curve (0.96; 95% CI: 0.994-0.941) achieves a high discriminative value. Calibration also shows high goodness of fit values, suggesting that it may be clinically useful in community nursing and geriatric establishments. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. THE INTENSITY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX, RESPECTIVELY THE HAPPY PLANET INDEX AND THE LIFE EXPECTANCY, IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Opait

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.

  15. THE INTENSITY OF THE CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX, RESPECTIVELY THE HAPPY PLANET INDEX AND THE LIFE EXPECTANCY, IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Opait

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects the research concerning the intensity of the correlation between the Human Development Index, respectively the Happy Planet Index and the Life Expectancy in Romania, through by means of the Pearson correlation coefficient and the correlation report. The Happy Planet Index (HPI) is a new indicator which expresses the progress in any country, and also, we can say that the Happy Planet Index is a measure of sustainable well-being.

  16. Differentiation between deviant trajectory planning, action planning, and reduced psychomotor speed in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houthoofd, S.; Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Abnormal psychomotor behaviour in schizophrenia might be based on separate deficits. Here we studied the relationship between trajectory planning, action planning, psychomotor speed, and indices of cognitive functioning in a large group of stabilised patients with

  17. Identification of Domains for Malaysian University Staff Happiness Index Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Sulaiman Md.

    2014-01-01

    Without any doubt happiness among staff in any organization is pertinent to ensure continued growth and development. However, not many studies were carried out to determine the domains that will be able to measure the level of happiness among staff in universities. Thus, the aim of this study is to elicit the domains that explain the overall…

  18. Developing a Statewide Childhood Body Mass Index Surveillance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, David R.; Scruggs, Philip W.; Goc Karp, Grace; Ransdell, Lynda B.; Robinson, Clay; Lester, Michael J.; Gao, Yong; Petranek, Laura J.; Brown, Helen; Shimon, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several states have implemented childhood obesity surveillance programs supported by legislation. Representatives from Idaho wished to develop a model for childhood obesity surveillance without the support of state legislation, and subsequently report predictors of overweight and obesity in the state. Methods: A coalition comprised of…

  19. The issue of scientific thesaurus differentiation of table tennis sportsmen's psychomotor abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kushnir V.V.; Fotuyma A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Essence of psychomotor capabilities opens up for tennis sportsmen-players. Clear differentiation of the most essential psychomotor capabilities is conducted. They will present the constituent of competent training process and successful competition period. It is necessary to take to the group of general psychomotor qualities of tennis players: spatial orientation, kinesthetic sensitiveness, exactness of motions. The special attention is deserved by the group of psychomotor capabilities: diffi...

  20. Index of Human Development: Measurement Problems at the National and World Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarychev Volodymyr I.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses main modern approaches to measurement of the index of human development at the world level by the UN Development Programme and at the national level in Ukraine. It identifies main components and stages of formation of national methods of measurement of the index of regional human development and also advantages of its renovated modern variant against the background of fighting poverty, analyses key directions of human development, which reflect main possibilities in ensuring the process of life, generalises the “living standard” category definition by works of domestic and foreign scientists, analyses dynamics of indicators of the index of human development of Ukraine for the period 2007 – 2012 and explains main reasons of drop of ratings of Ukraine in the world and conducts comparative analysis of tendencies of changes of the index of human development of Ukrainian regions in recent years.

  1. Development index: analysis of the basic instrument of Croatian regional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Perišić

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development level assessment and categorization of Croatian local and regional units is based on the value of the development index which is the main instrument of Croatian regional policy. The development index is a composite indicator calculated as a weighted average of five socio-economic indicators. The goal of this paper is to analyze the uncertainty and sensitivity of the development index that arise from the procedures and indicators used in its construction. This analysis is then used to propose useful guidelines for future impovements. The methodology of the Croatian regional development index has been critically reviewed, revealing problems of multicollinearity and the existence of outliers. An empirical and relatively more objective multivariate approach for weight selection has been proposed. The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were conducted using Monte Carlo simulations and variance-based techniques. Instead of a unique point estimate for the development level of territorial units an alternative confidence interval approach was considered.

  2. Development of demographic norms for four new WAIS-III/WMS-III indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Taylor, Michael J; Woodward, Todd S; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-06-01

    Following the publication of the third edition Wechsler scales (i.e., WAIS-III and WMS-III), demographically corrected norms were made available in the form of a computerized scoring program (i.e., WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant). These norms correct for age, gender, ethnicity, and education. Since then, four new indexes have been developed: the WAIS-III General Ability Index, the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index, and the two alternate Immediate and Delayed Memory Indexes. The purpose of this study was to develop demographically corrected norms for the four new indexes using the standardization sample and education oversample from the WAIS-III and WMS-III. These norms were developed using the same methodology as the demographically corrected norms made available in the WAIS-III/WMS-III/WIAT-II Scoring Assistant.

  3. An Index of Child Health in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jose Antonio Rodriguez

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a new composite index of child health, applied to the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) of Africa, one of the areas of the planet most castigated by poverty. Our index has been constructed attending to the variables defined in the Goals of the Millennium Declaration. For this purpose we will use the P2 distance method for…

  4. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Klaas; Gerritsen, Debby L.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Nelissen-Vrancken, Marjorie H. J. M. G.; Wetzels, Roland B.; Smeets, Claudia H. W.; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAT) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  5. Index of Circular Agriculture Development in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trendov Nikola M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, the circular economy would boost country’s agri-food sector competitiveness and help create new business and market opportunities for the farmers and processing industry. Public benefits that could accrue from the bio-economy perspective has become compelling. Nevertheless, the question arises: “At what level are we? Does the country go toward the development of the circular agriculture or not?” By using conceptual model of BPEIR (Behaviour - Pressure - Effect - Impact - Response and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method, the author introduces a comprehensive analysis and quantitative evaluation of the level of Macedonian circular agriculture development. This paper discusses the fact that the Republic of Macedonia shows positive trends regarding circular economy disciplines in agriculture, given by natural geographic conditions and traditional agricultural production.

  6. Concept and Evaluation of Job Satisfaction: Developed Job Satisfaction Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Cakmur

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: In this study; the reasons and effects determining job satisfaction were analyzed in a theoretical basis by universally defining the content of job satisfaction concept and scales utilized in the assessment of job satisfaction were described. The aim of the study is to introduce the „Developed Job Descriptive Index‟ which has been reestablished according to the needs of our country. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 759-764

  7. Development of a brief parent-report risk index for children following parental divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N; Braver, Sanford L; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2013-12-01

    This article reports on the development of a brief 15-item parent-report risk index (Child Risk Index for Divorced or Separated Families; CRI-DS) to predict problem outcomes of children who have experienced parental divorce. A series of analyses using 3 data sets were conducted that identified and cross-validated a parsimonious set of items representing parent report of child behavior problems and family level risk and protective factors, each of which contributed to the predictive accuracy of the index. The index predicted child behavior outcomes and substance abuse problems up to 6 years later. The index has acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity as a screening measure to predict problem outcomes up to 1 year later. The use of the index to identify the need for preventive services is discussed, along with limitations of the study.

  8. Beyond the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): Developing a Natural Space Index for population-level health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugel, Emily J; Henderson, Sarah B; Carpiano, Richard M; Brauer, Michael

    2017-08-29

    Natural spaces can provide psychological benefits to individuals, but population-level epidemiologic studies have produced conflicting results. Refining current exposure-assessment methods is necessary to advance our understanding of population health and to guide the design of health-promoting urban forms. The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive Natural Space Index that robustly models potential exposure based on the presence, form, accessibility, and quality of multiple forms of greenspace (e.g., parks and street trees) and bluespace (e.g., oceans and lakes). The index was developed for greater Vancouver, Canada. Greenness presence was derived from remote sensing (NDVI/EVI); forms were extracted from municipal and private databases; and accessibility was based on restrictions such as private ownership. Quality appraisals were conducted for 200 randomly sampled parks using the Public Open Space Desktop Appraisal Tool (POSDAT). Integrating these measures in GIS, exposure was assessed for 60,242 postal codes using 100- to 1,600-m buffers based on hypothesized pathways to mental health. A single index was then derived using principal component analysis (PCA). Comparing NDVI with alternate approaches for assessing natural space resulted in widely divergent results, with quintile rankings shifting for 22-88% of postal codes, depending on the measure. Overall park quality was fairly low (mean of 15 on a scale of 0-45), with no significant difference seen by neighborhood-level household income. The final PCA identified three main sets of variables, with the first two components explaining 68% of the total variance. The first component was dominated by the percentages of public and private greenspace and bluespace and public greenspace within 250m, while the second component was driven by lack of access to bluespace within 1 km. Many current approaches to modeling natural space may misclassify exposures and have limited specificity. The Natural Space Index

  9. Discussion on the Index System of Intensive Land Use Evaluation in Development Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of evaluation index system is the key to the evaluation of intensive land use.On the basis of expounding connotation,characteristics and the principle of establishing evaluation index system,and as for the problems existing in Evaluation Regulation(Trial)of Intensive Land Use in Development Area,regarding the evaluation index system of intensive land use in the development area,in the light of the connotation of intensive land use in development area,coupled with the practical situation of the land use in China’s development area,after referring to the research achievements of domestic and abroad scholars,some suggestions are put forward in order to improve and perfect the evaluation index system of intensive land us in development area.

  10. Methods Used for Teaching Psychomotor Skills in Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of psychomotor skill instruction in crop production provided by agricultural production teachers in Illinois and the methods used for this teaching. Responses from 79 of 100 teachers indicated that most do not have students observe or practice a procedure for skill improvement. More experienced…

  11. Objective classification of residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chmarra (Magdalena); S.K. Klein (Stefan); J.C.F. van Winter (Joost); F-W. Jansen (Frank-Willem); J. Dankelman (Jenny)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground From the clinical point of view, it is important to recognize residents' level of expertise with regard to basic psychomotor skills. For that reason, surgeons and surgical organizations (e.g., Acreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, ACGME) are calling for assessme

  12. Objective classification of residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chmarra, M.K.; Klein, S.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Jansen, F.W.; Dankelman, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - From the clinical point of view, it is important to recognize residents’ level of expertise with regard to basic psychomotor skills. For that reason, surgeons and surgical organizations (e.g., Acreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, ACGME) are calling for assessment tools t

  13. Psychomotor planning is deficient in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootens, K.P.; Vermeeren, L.C.A.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Veelen, N. van; Kahn, R.S.; Hulstijn, W.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychomotor slowing is regarded as an important clinical phenomenon in schizophrenia and simple graphic tasks consistently revealed deficits in the (implicit) planning and execution of motor actions in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The aim of the present study is to test the

  14. Effectiveness of Mobile Learning on Athletic Training Psychomotor Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davie, Emily; Martin, Malissa; Cuppett, Micki; Lebsack, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Context: Instruction of psychomotor skills is an important component of athletic training education. Accommodating the varied learning abilities and preferences of athletic training students can be challenging for an instructor initiating skill acquisition in a traditional face-to-face (F2F) environment. Video instruction available on mobile…

  15. Psychomotor therapy and aggression regulation in eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Wiersma, Durk; Hoek, Hans W.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviours can be seen as self-destructive behaviours to a great extent related to inhibited anger expression. However, a treatment protocol targeted at anger and aggression in these disorders is lacking. This paper describes a psychomotor therapy (PMT) model as a body-oriented metho

  16. Psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance in rowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, Esther; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine if psychomotor speed is related to perceived performance. It was hypothesized that lower perceived performance was related to longer reaction times. A total of 85 measurements were taken in 26 varsity rowers (mean age 21.3 years, s=1.6) on five occasion

  17. The effect of high load training on psychomotor speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E.; Lemmink, K.; Zwerver, J.; Mulder, T.

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether overreached athletes show psychomotor slowness after a period of high load training. Fourteen well-trained cyclists (10 male, 4 female, mean age 25.3 [SD = 4.1] years, mean maximal oxygen consumption 65.5 [SD=8.1] ml/ kg-min) performed a

  18. Developing a vulnerability mapping methodology: applying the water-associated disease index to dengue in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickin, Sarah K; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Elliott, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    The Water-associated Disease Index (WADI) was developed to identify and visualize vulnerability to different water-associated diseases by integrating a range of social and biophysical determinants in map format...

  19. A water sustainability index for West Java. Part 1: developing the conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juwana, I; Perera, B J C; Muttil, N

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable water resources management is essential since it ensures the integration of social, economical and environmental issues into all stages of water resources management. The development and application of water sustainability indices to achieve sustainable water management has been successfully done in the last few years. Although existing water sustainability indices have successfully provided information on current conditions of water resources and prioritised water related issues, they have been developed for specific case study areas. This study therefore aims at developing a water sustainability index for West Java, Indonesia. The overall steps for developing the index include developing a conceptual framework, application of Delphi technique to finalise the components/indicators of the index, applying the index to case studies and robustness analysis of the index. This paper, which is the first in a two-part series, discusses the first step, namely developing the conceptual framework of the West Java Water Sustainability Index (WJWSI). It outlines the criteria for identifying the initial set of components/indicators and based on those criteria, a detailed justification for selecting each component and indicator is also presented. The second paper of the series presents the application of Delphi technique to finalise the framework of WJWSI based on feedback from selected stakeholders. The remaining steps of developing WJWSI will be undertaken in the future.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF HETEROGENEITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE PATTERN AND TRAFFIC CONGESTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Bhushan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the effects of the heterogeneity in land use distribution pattern on the traffic congestion in rapidly urbanizing Ranchi city, capital of Jharkhand state, India. Traditionally, researchers have used the landscape metrics to determine the heterogeneity in the land use and land cover distribution pattern in both urban and non-urban areas. In the present study, we have introduced a new index: Heterogeneity Index to quantify the distribution pattern of the land use categories present along the various road segments whereas traffic congestion was determined through the Congestion Index Value. Based on the dominant land use categories existing in the study area, four heterogeneity indices were developed such as Residential Heterogeneity Index, Commercial Heterogeneity Index, Industrial Heterogeneity Index and Urban Services Heterogeneity Index, respectively. Finally, a Cumulative Heterogeneity Index was developed to determine the aggregate effect of the heterogeneity of the various land use categories present in the individual roads. Analytical Hierarchical Processing and knowledge-based weighting were used to rank the importance of different heterogeneity indices. The results of the investigation showed positive relationship between the degree of heterogeneity of the land use pattern and traffic congestion.

  1. Development of Livelihood Index for Different Agro-Climatic Zones of India

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anil; Sharma, S D; Sahoo, Prachi Misra; Malhotra, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    A livelihood index has been developed for different agro-climatic zones of India, based on the secondary data for TE 2003. Six different sub-indices obtained are indicators of Infrastructure Status, Agricultural Status, Nutritional Status, Economic Status, Health and Sanitation Status and Food Availability Status in respective zones. A total of 57 variables have been considered for this study. Finally, a composite integrated livelihood index has been developed which indicates the livelihood s...

  2. Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert; Davis, Catherine; Weed, Michael; Guida, Peter; Gooden, Virginia; Brady, Joseph; Roma, Peter

    Neurobehavioral Effects of Space Radiation on Psychomotor Vigilance Tests INTRODUCTION Risk assessment of the biological consequences of living in the space radiation environment represents one of the highest priority areas of NASA radiation research. Of critical importance is the need for a risk assessment of damage to the central nervous system (CNS) leading to functional cognitive/behavioral changes during long-term space missions, and the development of effective shielding or biological countermeasures to such risks. The present research focuses on the use of an animal model that employs neurobehavioral tests identical or homologous to those currently in use in human models of risk assessment by U.S. agencies such as the Depart-ment of Defense and Federal Aviation and Federal Railroad Administrations for monitoring performance and estimating accident risks associated with such variables as fatigue and/or alcohol or drug abuse. As a first approximation for establishing human risk assessments due to exposure to space radiation, the present work provides animal performance data obtained with the rPVT (rat Psychomotor Vigilance Test), an animal analog of the human PVT that is currently employed for human risk assessments via quantification of sustained attention (e.g., 'vigilance' or 'readiness to perform' tasks). Ground-based studies indicate that radiation can induce neurobehavioral changes in rodents, including impaired performance on motor tasks and deficits in spatial learning and memory. The present study is testing the hypothesis that radiation exposure impairs motor function, performance accuracy, vigilance, motivation, and memory in adult male rats. METHODS The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) was originally developed as a human cognitive neurobe-havioral assay for tracking the temporally dynamic changes in sustained attention, and has also been used to track changes in circadian rhythm. In humans the test requires responding to a small, bright

  3. Development of a Novel Quality Improvement Indicator Based on the Hemolysis Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Min Jeong; Lee, Young Kyung; Kang, Hee Jung

    2016-11-01

    Hemolysis frequently causes preanalytical errors in laboratory measurements. We aimed to develop a quality improvement indicator for evaluating the extent of inappropriate procedures causing hemolysis in clinical samples collected in medical care units. We defined the threshold value of the hemolysis index (H index) causing significant interference with analyte measurement and analyzed the H index values of clinical samples in relation to the threshold. The H index threshold value causing a 10% bias in the measurement of lactate dehydrogenase was found to be 25. The monthly mean H index and monthly frequency of samples with an H index >25 were significantly different among the types of ward (P=0.001, respectively), and significantly decreased after replacement of a laboratory centrifuge lacking temperature control (20.6±0.58 vs 23.30±1.08, P=0.01; 23.4±1.69% vs 32.6±1.78%, P=0.01). The monthly mean H index and the monthly frequency of samples with an H index above a threshold value may be useful quality improvement indicators for detection of inappropriate procedures in the acquisition and handling of blood samples in medical care units.

  4. Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2009-08-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum.

  5. Psychomotor availability for school education of 5-6 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leschinska K.O.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The relation of physical and mental development of senior preschool children is examined. The received results indicate the necessity of formation management program psychomotor level of availability for schooling with physical education means. The research involved 61 children (33 boys and 28 girls. The school availability by Kern-Irasek test is attained 37,7% of children, 42,6% have a middle school availability and 19,7% are immature. The "Cut the circle" method was performed by 52% of children. The general assessment shows only 48% of children have sufficient availability for school education.

  6. The consumer quality index (CQ-index in an accident and emergency department: development and first evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bos Nanne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Assessment of patients’ views are essential to provide a patient-centred health service and to evaluating quality of care. As no standardized and validated system for measuring patients’ experiences in accident and emergency departments existed, we have developed the Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department (CQI A&E. Methods Qualitative research has been undertaken to determine the content validity of the CQI A&E. In order to assess psychometric characteristics an 84-item questionnaire was sent to 653 patients who had attended a large A&E in the Netherlands. Also, fifty importance questions were added to determine relevance of the questions and for future calculations of improvement scores. Exploratory factor analysis was applied to detect the domains of the questionnaire. Results Survey data of 304 (47% patients were used for the analysis. The first exploratory factor analysis resulted in three domains based on 13 items: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Environment and impression of the A&E’ and ‘Respect for and explanation to the patient’. The first two had an acceptable internal consistency. The second analysis, included 24 items grouped into 5 domains: ‘Attitude of the healthcare professionals’, ‘Information and explanation’, ‘Environment of the A&E’,’Leaving the A&E’ and ‘General information and rapidity of care’. All factors were internal consistent. According to the patients, the three most important aspects in healthcare performance in the A&E were: trust in the competence of the healthcare professionals, hygiene in the A&E and patients’ health care expectations. In general, the highest improvement scores concerned patient information. Conclusions The Consumer Quality index for the accident and emergency department measures patients’ experiences of A&E healthcare performance. Preliminary psychometric characteristics are sufficient to justify

  7. Development of a symptom assessment instrument for chronic hemodialysis patients: the Dialysis Symptom Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Fried, Linda F; Arnold, Robert M; Rotondi, Armando J; Fine, Michael J; Levenson, David J; Switzer, Galen E

    2004-03-01

    Little is known about the prevalence, severity, or impact of symptoms in hemodialysis patients because of the lack of a validated symptom assessment instrument. We systematically developed an index to assess physical and emotional symptom burden in this patient population. We employed four steps in the generation of this index: a review of dialysis quality-of-life instruments, three focus groups, experts' content validity assessment, and test-retest reliability measurement. Seventy-five symptoms were identified. Of these, 46 appeared in > or = 4 of the instruments/focus groups and were considered for inclusion. Twelve were grouped into other symptom constructs and experts judged four of the remaining items not to be pertinent, leaving 30 items in the new index. Overall kappa statistic was 0.48+/-0.22. These steps allowed the systematic development of a 30-item symptom assessment index for hemodialysis patients. Additional reliability and validity testing is needed prior to its widespread use.

  8. [Development and validation of the Family Vulnerability Index to Disability and Dependence (FVI-DD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Fernanda; Alvarenga, Márcia Regina Martins; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Oliveira, Maria Amélia de Campos

    2014-02-01

    This exploratory, descriptive, cross-sectional, and quantitative study aimed to develop and validate an index of family vulnerability to disability and dependence (FVI-DD). This study was adapted from the Family Development Index, with the addition of social and health indicators of disability and dependence. The instrument was applied to 248 families in the city of Sao Paulo, followed by exploratory factor analysis. Factor validation was performed using the concurrent and discriminant validity of the Lawton scale and Katz Index. The descriptive level adopted for the study was p DD was validated using both the Lawton scale and Katz Index. We conclude that FVI-DD can accurately and reliably assess family vulnerability to disability and dependence.

  9. Is the Development of WIG Index Determined by Certain Macroeconomic and Financial Factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof DRACHAL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an analysis whether certain financial ratios can have a significant impact on the development of a stock exchange index. In particular the benchmark stock exchange index is considered, as well as, the selected ratios are considered as the average ones for the whole economy. Quarterly data between 2005 and 2015 were analyzed for the Warsaw Stock Exchange (Poland.

  10. Development of Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS; a Severity Index for Widow Spider Bite: Initial Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Monzavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to describe the patients and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments for widow spider envenomation, investigators require a reliable assessment tool. In this paper, the development of a clinical index for measuring the widow spider bite severity, Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS, is described. Methods: According to the valid methods for index development, a Delphi group process was applied. A panel of 13 experienced medical toxicologists and physician experts in treatment of black widow spider bites was assembled in December 2013. The participants were asked to score clinical manifestations of Latrodectus envenomation based on their importance on the severity and patients’ prognosis. Hence, an initial draft of the severity index was developed and in the second phase of study, the draft was discussed in a focus group of experts to finally comment on each variable and vote about the final scores. Results: The proposed version of LESS comprises of 34 clinical items categorized in 8 organ systems. The index includes definition of each clinical variable to help users of the index how to ascertain or rule out the clinical finding. The maximum theoretical score according to LESS is 87. Acute renal failure, myocarditis, pulmonary edema and ileus received the highest scores in this index. Conclusion: The LESS is a new assessment tool that is designed to more objectively evaluate the severity and progression of envenomation in victims of widow spider bite. The prognostic-ability, reliability and sensitivity to change of the index should be investigated in future studies.   How to cite this article: Monzavi SM, Afshari R. Development of Latrodectus Envenomation Severity Score (LESS; a Severity Index for Widow Spider Bite: Initial Step. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2014;3:18-22.

  11. Index-based Crop Insurance for Climate Adaptation in the Developing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. E.; Osgood, D. E.; Carriquiry, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Weather has always presented a challenge to small-scale farmers, particularly in regions where poverty and lack of infrastructure has restricted the development of financial instruments to limit risk. New 'index' insurance innovations in agriculture are beginning to enable even the poorest farmers to unlock major productivity gains (e.g. insuring loans for improved seeds). Although index insurance has the potential to greatly improve productivity in developing country agriculture, the principal technical challenge to up-scaling this product is "data poverty," the absence of weather data in low-income areas needed to design robust and affordable insurance products. Earth science, particularly remote sensing, has the potential to ameliorate data poverty. However, raw use of earth science model output leads to non-optimal indexes and many obstacles remain to transform earth science products into insurance solutions. Estimation uncertainty, limited availability of consistent time series, and difficulties of predicting loses based on remote observations are reviewed in this article. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches addressing the needs of stakeholders in simple to understand indexes is highlighted. The successful use of Earth science data to support the index insurance industry in currently poor and isolated communities in the developing world would transform the ability of small farmers to increase yields, household incomes and regional economies, if the growing gap between earth science and index insurance can be closed.

  12. A comparison of four fibrosis indexes in chronic HCV: Development of new fibrosis-cirrhosis index (FCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Saba

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C can lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. We compared readily available non-invasive fibrosis indexes for the fibrosis progression discrimination to find a better combination of existing non-invasive markers. Methods We studied 157 HCV infected patients who underwent liver biopsy. In order to differentiate HCV fibrosis progression, readily available AAR, APRI, FI and FIB-4 serum indexes were tested in the patients. We derived a new fibrosis-cirrhosis index (FCI comprised of ALP, bilirubin, serum albumin and platelet count. FCI = [(ALP × Bilirubin / (Albumin × Platelet count]. Results Already established serum indexes AAR, APRI, FI and FIB-4 were able to stage liver fibrosis with correlation coefficient indexes 0.130, 0.444, 0.578 and 0.494, respectively. Our new fibrosis cirrhosis index FCI significantly correlated with the histological fibrosis stages F0-F1, F2-F3 and F4 (r = 0.818, p Conclusions The fibrosis-cirrhosis index (FCI accurately predicted fibrosis stages in HCV infected patients and seems more efficient than frequently used serum indexes.

  13. Psychomotor developmental effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs: a study in EFEMERIS database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Damase-Michel, Christine; Finotto, Laurent; Guitard, Claudine; Vayssière, Christophe; Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Montastruc, François; Lacroix, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about neurodevelopment of children exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal exposure to psychotropic drugs on psychomotor development in children. This observational study used the EFEMERIS database. The database records the drugs prescribed and delivered during pregnancy and the resulting outcomes. Neurodevelopment at nine and 24 months of children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics) during the second and/or third trimesters of pregnancy was compared to children who were not exposed to these drugs. Psychomotor development of 493 children (1.5%) exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was compared to 32 303 unexposed children. Exposure to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of abnormal motor development at 9 months (OR = 1.3 [1.1-2.2]) and abnormal motor and mental development at 24 months (OR = 4.8 [2.1-11.0] and OR = 2.3 [1.05-4.9]). Increased risk was observed in children born to women exposed to anti-epileptic drugs, neuroleptics or antidepressants during pregnancy. This study found a higher rate of deviation from the normal developmental milestones in children born to women exposed to psychotropic drugs during pregnancy and more particularly antidepressants, neuroleptics and anti-epileptics.

  14. THE METHODICAL BASIS OF INTEGRAL INDEX CALCULATION OF AIR COMPANY STABLE FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana S. Rotar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the earlier published materials of authors about company’s stable development and pointing out the methods of integral index calculation of stable development, the following article is devoted to analysis of different approaches of financial stability definition.The review of the chosen methods of financial stability evaluation shows that all authors suggest the same set of indicators for evaluation, but at the same time each scientist offers his own methods for their calculation.The work also includes calculation of stable financial development indexes on the example of three Russian leading air companies.

  15. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  16. Role of Biofeedback in Optimizing Psychomotor Performance in Sports

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Maman; Garg, Kanupriya; Singh Sandhu, Jaspal

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Biofeedback is an emerging tool to acquire and facilitate physiological and psychological domains of the human body like response time and concentration. Thus, the present study aims at determining the reconstitution of psychomotor and performance skills in basketball players through biofeedback training. Methods Basketball players (N=30) with different levels of expertise (university, state and national) aged 18-28 years (both male and female) were randomly divided into 3 equal group...

  17. Influence of gender on psychomotor vigilance task performance by adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beijamini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, the sleep phase delay associated with early school times increases daytime sleepiness and reduces psychomotor performance. Some studies have shown an effect of gender on psychomotor performance in adults and children. Males present faster reaction times (RT compared with females. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of gender on Palm psychomotor vigilance task (PVT performance in adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents (19 girls, 13 to 16 years old attending morning school classes of a public school in Curitiba, PR, Brazil, participated in the study. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy and sleepiness data were accessed with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. KSS and PVT measurements were collected at two times in the morning (8:00 and 11:00 h. The data were compared using one-way ANOVA, considering gender as a factor. ANOVA indicated that gender did not affect sleep patterns and subjective somnolence; however, a statistically significant effect of gender was detected for PVT performance. Boys presented faster RT (RT-PVT1: 345.51 ms, F = 6.08, P < 0.05; RT-PVT2: 343.30 ms, F = 6.35, P < 0.05 and fewer lapses (lapses-PVT1: 8.71, F = 4.45, P < 0.05; lapses-PVT2: 7.82, F = 7.06, P < 0.05 compared with girls (RT-PVT1: 402.96; RT-PVT2: 415.70; lapses-PVT1: 16.33; lapses-PVT2: 17.80. These results showed that this effect of gender, already reported in adults and children, is also observed in adolescents. The influence of gender should be taken into account in studies that use Palm PVT to evaluate psychomotor performance in this age range.

  18. Effects of Bright Light Treatment on Psychomotor Speed in Athletes

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    Mikko Paavo Tulppo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: A recent study suggests that transcranial brain targeted light treatment via ear canals may have physiological effects on brain function studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI techniques in humans. We tested the hypothesis that bright light treatment could improve psychomotor speed in professional ice hockey players. Methods: Psychomotor speed tests with audio and visual warning signals were administered to a Finnish National Ice Hockey League team before and after 24 days of transcranial bright light or sham treatment. The treatments were given during seasonal darkness in the Oulu region (latitude 65 degrees north when the strain on the players was also very high (10 matches during 24 days. A daily 12-min dose of bright light or sham (n = 11 for both treatment was given every morning between 8–12 am at home with a transcranial bright light device. Mean reaction time and motor time were analyzed separately for both psychomotor tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adjusted for age was performed. Results: Time x group interaction for motor time with a visual warning signal was p = 0.024 after adjustment for age. In Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, motor time with a visual warning signal decreased in the bright light treatment group from 127 ± 43 to 94 ± 26 ms (p = 0.024 but did not change significantly in the sham group 121 ± 23 vs. 110 ± 32 ms (p = 0.308. Reaction time with a visual signal did not change in either group. Reaction or motor time with an audio warning signal did not change in either the treatment or sham group. Conclusion: Psychomotor speed, particularly motor time with a visual warning signal, improves after transcranial bright light treatment in professional ice-hockey players during the competition season in the dark time of the year.

  19. Investigating laparoscopic psychomotor skills in veterinarians and veterinary technicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Jessica; Santarossa, Amanda; Mrotz, Victoria; Walker, Meagan; Monaghan, Dominique; Singh, Ameet

    2017-04-01

    To determine the influence of age, year of graduation, and video game experience on baseline laparoscopic psychomotor skills. Cross-sectional. Licensed veterinarians (n = 38) and registered veterinary technicians (VTs) (n = 49). A laparoscopic box trainer was set up at the 2016 Ontario Veterinary Medical Association (OVMA) and the 2016 Ontario Association of Veterinary Technicians (OAVT) conferences held in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants volunteered to perform a single repetition of a peg transfer (PT) exercise. Participants were given a short demonstration of the PT task prior to testing. A Spearman's rank correlation (rs ) was used to identify associations between baseline psychomotor skills and self-reported surgical and non-surgical experiences collected via survey. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare PT scores in veterinarians and VTs. A P-value of veterinarians, PT scores were highest in the most recent graduates (P = .01, rs  = 0.42), and PT scores increased with self-reported VG experience (P = .02, rs  = 0.38). PT scores correlated inversely with age (P = .02, rs  = -0.37). No associations were observed in VTs (P > .05). Veterinary technicians that frequently used chopsticks scored higher than those without chopstick experience (P = .04). Age and year of graduation correlated inversely, while self-reported VG experience correlated positively with laparoscopic psychomotor skills of veterinarians, when assessed on a simulator. The use of chopsticks may contribute to the acquisition of psychomotor skills in VTs. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. Human Development Inequality Index and Cancer Pattern: a Global Distributive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Salman; Khazaei, Somayeh; Mansori, Kamyar; Sanjari Moghaddam, Ali; Ayubi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify associations of the human development inequality (HDI) index with incidence, mortality, and mortality to incidence ratios for eight common cancers among different countries. In this ecological study, data about incidence and mortality rates of cancers was obtained from the Global Cancer Project for 169 countries. HDI indices for the same countries was obtained from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) database. The concentration index was defined as the covariance between cumulative percentage of cancer indicators (incidence, mortality and mortality to incidence ratio) and the cumulative percentage of economic indicators (country economic rank). Results indicated that incidences of cancers of liver, cervix and esophagus were mainly concentrated in countries with a low HDI index while cancers of lung, breast, colorectum, prostate and stomach were concentrated mainly in countries with a high HDI index. The same pattern was observed for mortality from cancer except for prostate cancer that was more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. Higher MIRs for all cancers were more concentrated in countries with a low HDI index. It was concluded that patterns of cancer occurrence correlate with care disparities at the country level.

  1. Development of a New Index for Integrating Landscape Patterns with Ecological Processes at Watershed Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Liding; TIAN Huiying; FU Bojie; ZHAO Xinfeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape patterns and ecological processes has been a central yet challenging research theme in landscape ecology. Over the past decades, many landscape metrics have been proposed but few directly incorporated ecological processes. In this paper, we developed a landscape index, namely, location-weighted landscape index (LWLI) to highlight the role of landscape type in ecological processes, such as nutrient losses and soil erosion. Within the framework of the Lorenz curve theory, we develop this index by integrating landscape pattern and point-based measurements at a watershed scale. The index can be used to characterize the contribution of landscape pattern to ecological processes (e.g. nutrient losses) with respect to a specific monitoring point in a watershed. Through a case study on nutrient losses in an agricultural area in northeastern China, we found that nutrient losses tended to be higher for a watershed with a higher LWLI value, and vice versa. It implied that LWLI can be used to evaluate the potential risk of nutrient losses or soil erosion by comparing their values across watersheds. In addition, this index can be extended to characterize ecological processes, such as the effect of landscape pattern on wildlife inhabitation and urban heat island effect. Finally, we discuss several problems that should be paid attention to when applying this index to a heterogeneous landscape site.

  2. Design of therapeutic clothing for sensory stimulation of children with psychomotor delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ângela; Miguel, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This research work was based on an experimental concept of functional clothing for children with psychomotor development limitations. No matter the analyzed pathology, all these children need sensorial stimulation because of their psychomotor difficulties, especially at fine motor skills level. The main objective was to develop functional and comfortable clothing with sensorial stimulation elements (colours, textures, fragrances, sounds, etc.). It is intended, on the one hand, to increase the autonomy of the children in what concerns the act of dressing/undressing and, on the other hand, to stimulate their learning, coordination and self-esteem. A study about the specific needs of these children concerning clothing was worked out, which consisted in inquiring their parents and therapists. Based on the inquiries results, bibliographic revision in the area of therapeutic/ interactive clothing and analysis of didactic and therapeutic material catalogues we developed a clothing prototype (sweat-shirt). The prototype was then tested by the children of the study sample and the test results were, once again, explained by the parents through the fulfilling of a prototype evaluation inquiry. This study supplied some important conclusions, more directed to the confirmation of the theme significance and to the definition of a methodology to be used in future research.

  3. Planning and Monitoring of Urban Development: The Role of the Housing Price Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Deutsch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the real estate market in Slovenia and selected Slovenian city municipalities is analyzed with the goal of establishing whether or not it is possible to use the Housing Price Index as an indicator of urban development. The analysis shows that the real estate market in the Slovenian city municipalities has in recent decades been subject to a number of changes with a long-term effect. The analysis further proves that under certain conditions the Housing Price Index can serve as one of the indicators policy makers could use in planning and monitoring of urban development.

  4. Development of Watershed Evaluation Index for Water Resources Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. S.; Oh, J.; Lee, S.; Chung, E.

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development is the center of issue between economic development and environmental protection. Water resources development and management is a main part of the issue. With this, integrated watershed management (IWM) which considers flood, drought and water quality control together is needed for watershed management. The Green house effect has been increased by the carbon based and thoughtless development, and climate change caused by global warming will affect all human activities. Accordingly, this study developed watershed evaluation index for water resources to assess water resources of watershed considering flood, drought, water quality control, and climate change and then applied results to actual watershed. This study consists of mainly 2 parts. The first is development of watershed evaluation index to analyze water resources vulnerability considering flood, drought, water quality, and climate change. Watershed evaluation index for water resources consists of flood indicator with climate change, drought indicator with climate change, and water quality indicator with climate change. There are two frameworks to make indices. One is a cause-effect chain framework and the other is a theme framework. Watershed evaluation index for water resources has been developed using DPSIR (Driving force-Pressure-Impact-Response) framework by EEA (European Environment Agency) that can explain interactions between socio-economic and water resources. The second is applying the index to study watershed. Three kinds of date sets are needed to apply the index. These are socio-economic data, meteorological and hydrologic data, and GCM (General Circulation Model) as a future climate change scenario. In this study, the North Han River watershed was selected as a study area. The socio-economic data set was collected using municipal statistics. The meteorological and hydrologic data, especially flow and water quality (BOD, DO et al.) data has been simulated

  5. Psychomotor retardation and externally oriented thinking in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Luca,1 Antonina Luca,2 Carmela Calandra11Department of Medical and Surgery Specialties, Psychiatry Unit of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, Italy; 2Department of Neuroscience of the University Hospital “Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele” of Catania (Sicily, ItalyObjective: To investigate possible correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and the depressive state, globally and with regard to the Toronto Alexithymia scale (TAS-20 subscales and the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D subscales.Methods: 75 patients, suffering from Unipolar Depression, were assessed through the HAM-D and the TAS-20 and compared to the control group (n = 63. Both groups were divided into two subgroups (30–60 years old; 61–80 years old. Correlations between the tendency towards alexithymia and depressive symptoms, globally and with regard to the TAS-20 subscales and the HAM-D subscales, were investigated.Results: With regard to patients, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D total score and the TAS-20 total score; the HAM-D factor V (psychomotor retardation and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale III (externally oriented thinking and the HAM-D total score. In addition a positive correlation between the HAM-D factor V and the TAS-20 subscales I and III was found and confirmed among females. In patients aged 30–60 years, the HAM-D factor V was correlated with all the TAS-20 subscales. As to the control group, a positive correlation was found between: the HAM-D factor I (anxiety/somatization and the TAS-20 total score; the TAS-20 subscale I and the HAM-D total score; the HAM-D factor I and the TAS-20 subscale. The latter was confirmed in the control group aged 30–60 years.Conclusion: The link between alexithymia and affective symptoms has been confirmed in the patients and in the control group. An interesting data is the correlation between psychomotor retardation and

  6. Development of a new composite drought index for multivariate drought assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensibly considering all physical forms of agricultural, hydrological, and meteorological drought is essential to develop reliable monitoring and prediction indices for the proper assessment of drought. This consideration encouraged to develop and evaluate a multivariate composite drought index (CDI) that considers all possible variables related to individual types of drought. The proposed CDI was primarily based on the weighted similarity measure (entropy weighted Euclidian distance) and the anomaly from the possible wettest and driest conditions of the selected study region (sub basin of Han River, South Korea). The CDI time series identified 2008-2009 as the driest year, while May 2008 was the driest month within the selected period (2003-2011). The comparative analysis revealed that the CDI monthly time series had a significant correlation with the aggregate drought index (ADI). In addition, in comparison with the single variable-based indices i.e., the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the streamflow drought index (SDI), the CDI comprehensively responded to variability embedded in the individual drought attributes. Moreover, it was concluded that the developed CDI provided a physically sound, temporally flexible and unbiased index that can be directly associated with all possible variants and linked to the climate conditions of the study region without considering any feature extraction technique.

  7. PSYCHOMOTOR PROFILE OF CHILDREN WITH ADHD-A SCHOOL IN THE CITY OF PRESIDENTE PRUDENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rodrigues Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness Disorder (ADHD is a neurobehavioral disorder which is common in the population of children at school age and the psychomotor activity in these children can be substantially lower than that expected in 30% to 50% of the cases. Thus, this study aims at describing the psychomotor profile of children diagnosed with ADHD. Initially, the research was assessed and authorized by the Education Department of Presidente Prudente-SP. Five children with the diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity/ Impulsiveness isorder took part in the study, none of them carrying comorbidities, aging between six and nine years, of both sexes, regularly enrolled in a public school in President Prudente-SP and participating in an extension project developed by the school. For the collection of data, the Motor Development Scale was used, as described by Rosa Neto (2002,in which all the tests proposed were used: fine motor skills, global motor skills, balance, body schema/ speed, spatial and temporal organization. The test was individually applied, in a single session, lasting 35 minutes on average. The data were analyzed according to the criteria established by the author. By analyzing the data, the motor performance of the children was between lower normal and medium.

  8. Climate change and marine fisheries: Least developed countries top global index of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Robert; Spijkers, Jessica; Tokunaga, Kanae; Pittman, Jeremy; Yagi, Nobuyuki; Österblom, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

  9. Provincial human development index, a guide for efficiency level analysis: the case of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabermahani, Asma; Barouni, Mohsen; Seyedin, Hesam; Aryankhesal, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite indicator that can show the impact of economic strategies on human life standards. The index is calculated by three main factors of income, education and health. This research studies the status of HDI across the Iranian provinces, its changes over time and the efficiency of provinces in using resources. The data for 2001 and 2009 was obtained from the Iranian Center of Statistics. Data envelopment analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To calculate the efficiency, Banker, Charnes and Cooper's model was used. The national mean for the HDI in 2001 was 0.717 while it grew to 0.747 in 2009. Except for one province, all others had an improved human development index. Low ranked provinces such as Sistan & Baluchistan and Kurdistan stayed at the bottom in 2009 as well. Some provinces such as Bushehr with developing oil industries, or those purposively benefited from national oil income showed good growth. In some provinces, such as Hormozgan, out-migration of manpower to its neighboring province, Bushehr, was associated with decrease of the provincial income level. The number of efficient provinces increased from 5 to 13 in 2009. Iran falls among countries with high human development index based on the 2009 data. However, the distribution of HDI status across provinces was highly varied and the difference between high- and low-developed provinces increased in 2009. The government needs to revise policies concerning distribution of resources among the provinces.

  10. Establishment of Evaluation Index for the Sustainable Development Capability of Regional Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Combining the basic theory of regional economics and economics of development,the sustainable development capability of regional economy is expounded;the meaning of sustainable development,the connotation of the sustainable development of regional economy and the specific qualitative of the developmental capability of regional economy are introduced.Various factors that affect the sustainable development of regional economy,such as the sustainable capability of resources,innovation ability and institutional capability,are analyzed at length.On the basis,the evaluation index system of sustainable development capability of regional economy,so as to provide directions for regional economy from the long-term perspective.

  11. Development and characterization of high refractive index and high scattering acrylate polymer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Thomas; Gomard, Guillaume; Preinfalk, Jan; Gleissner, Uwe; Lemmer, Uli; Hanemann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The aim is to develop a polymer layer which has the ability to diffuse light homogeneously and exhibit a high refractive index. The mixtures are containing an acrylate casting resin, benzylmethacrylate, phenanthrene and other additives. Phenanthrene is employed to increase the refractive index. The mixtures are first rheologically characterized and then polymerized with heat and UV radiation. For the refractive index measurements the polymerized samples require a planar surface without air bubbles. To produce flat samples a special construction consisting of a glass plate, a teflon sheet, a silicone ring (PDMS mold), another teflon sheet and another glass plate is developed. Glue clamps are used to fix this construction together. Selected samples have a refractive index of 1.585 at 20°C at a wavelength of 589nm. A master mixture with a high refractive index is taken for further experiments. Nano scaled titanium dioxide is added and dispersed into the master mixture and then spin coated on a glass substrate. These layers are optically characterized. The specular transmission and the overall transmission are measured to investigate the degree of scattering, which is defined as the haze. Most of the presented layers express the expected haze of over 50%.

  12. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge S. M. van der Wurff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST, D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60. Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039, and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007. This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  13. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S. M.; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P.; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13–15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = −0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index. PMID:26729157

  14. Association between Blood Omega-3 Index and Cognition in Typically Developing Dutch Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wurff, Inge S M; von Schacky, Clemens; Berge, Kjetil; Zeegers, Maurice P; Kirschner, Paul A; de Groot, Renate H M

    2016-01-02

    The impact of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) on cognition is heavily debated. In the current study, the possible association between omega-3 LCPUFAs in blood and cognitive performance of 266 typically developing adolescents aged 13-15 years is investigated. Baseline data from Food2Learn, a double-blind and randomized placebo controlled krill oil supplementation trial in typically developing adolescents, were used for the current study. The Omega-3 Index was determined with blood from a finger prick. At baseline, participants finished a neuropsychological test battery consisting of the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), D2 test of attention, Digit Span Forward and Backward, Concept Shifting Test and Stroop test. Data were analyzed with multiple regression analyses with correction for covariates. The average Omega-3 Index was 3.83% (SD 0.60). Regression analyses between the Omega-3 Index and the outcome parameters revealed significant associations with scores on two of the nine parameters. The association between the Omega-3 Index and both scores on the LDST (β = 0.136 and p = 0.039), and the number of errors of omission on the D2 (β = -0.053 and p = 0.007). This is a possible indication for a higher information processing speed and less impulsivity in those with a higher Omega-3 Index.

  15. A Psychomotor Skills Course for Orthopaedic Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Frederick G.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The course described and evaluated here was developed at the University of Washington School of Medicine to teach 20 orthopaedic residents operative techniques, instrument usage, and safety precautions outside of the operating room without hazard to the patient or regard to time constraints. (JT)

  16. Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R

    1996-06-01

    Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.

  17. The Development of a Human Well-Being Index for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a human well-being index (HWBI) that assesses the over-all well-being of its population at the county level. The HWBI contains eight domains and represents social, economic and environmental well-being. These domains inc...

  18. The Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index: rational and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Amorim, R.G. de; Faber, J.; Leal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Serious difficulties in reporting results were encountered when using ICDAS II and PUFA separately in an epidemiological survey in a child population in Brazil. That necessitated the development of a comprehensive but pragmatic caries assessment index. This publication describes the rationale,

  19. Employing the Components of the Human Development Index to Drive Resources to Educational Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho; de Araujo Ribeiro, Rodrigo Otavio; Dutt-Ross, Steven

    2011-01-01

    A new form of composition of the indicators employed to generate the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) is presented here. This form of composition is based on the assumption that random errors affect the measurement of each indicator. This assumption allows for replacing the vector of evaluations according to each indicator by vectors…

  20. Keeping Things Simple: Why the Human Development Index Should Not Diverge from Its Equal Weights Assumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Lee M.; Garrod, Guy D.

    2007-01-01

    Using a range of statistical criteria rooted in Information Theory we show that there is little justification for relaxing the equal weights assumption underlying the United Nation's Human Development Index (HDI) even if the true HDI diverges significantly from this assumption. Put differently, the additional model complexity that unequal weights…

  1. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  2. Developing a vulnerability index for assessing riverbank erosion in large catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Siôn; Smith, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Riverbank erosion is a natural process involved in floodplain development, but can have negative impacts such as excessive sediment supply to the river channel, undermining infrastructure and eroding valuable agricultural land. Catchment managers often work with limited budgets and for remediation efforts to be the most effective they should be targeted in areas that are at the highest risk of suffering excessive riverbank erosion. Recent developments in high resolution spatial data capture, such as aerial LiDAR have allowed for much more detailed representation of the riparian area, including the channel location and riparian vegetation. This presentation will propose a new dimensionless index that has been developed to identify and rank sections of river channel according to erosion vulnerability. The index combines information on channel position, slope and curvature extracted from LiDAR-derived DEMs with riparian vegetation cover. It also accounts for the extent of lateral confinement limiting erosion and bank silt-clay composition influencing erodibility. The index is designed to be applied to alluvial channels across large catchments (>500 km2) to support the identification riverbank erosion 'hotspots' at the reach scale (approximating 50-200 m intervals). The performance of the vulnerability index in discriminating actively eroding and non-eroding channel reaches was assessed in the River Lugg catchment, UK. Historic mapping and aerial photographs were used to determine the channel position, slope and riparian vegetation coverage in the 1960s. The index was then calculated for the historic river channel position and compared with ranked metrics of lateral channel change that occurred between the 1960s and present. This approach provides a basis for evaluating the utility of a simple vulnerability index that could be used for prioritising the location of future investments to reduce excessive riverbank erosion in large catchments.

  3. National baselines for the Sustainable Development Goals assessed in the SDG Index and Dashboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Traub, Guido; Kroll, Christian; Teksoz, Katerina; Durand-Delacre, David; Sachs, Jeffrey D.

    2017-08-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) -- agreed in 2015 by all 193 member states of the United Nations and complemented by commitments made in the Paris Agreement -- map out a broad spectrum of economic, social and environmental objectives to be achieved by 2030. Reaching these goals will require deep transformations in every country, as well as major efforts in monitoring and measuring progress. Here we introduce the SDG Index and Dashboards as analytical tools for assessing countries' baselines for the SDGs that can be applied by researchers in the cross-disciplinary analyses required for implementation. The Index and Dashboards synthesize available country-level data for all 17 goals, and for each country estimate the size of the gap towards achieving the SDGs. They will be updated annually. All 149 countries for which sufficient data is available face significant challenges in achieving the goals, and many countries' development strategies are imbalanced across the economic, social and environmental priorities. We illustrate the analytical value of the index by examining its relationship with other widely used development indices and by showing how it accounts for cross-national differences in subjective well-being. Given significant data gaps, scope and coverage of the Index and Dashboards are limited, but we suggest that these analyses represent a starting point for a comprehensive assessment of national SDG baselines and can help policymakers determine priorities for early action and monitor progress. The tools also identify data gaps that must be closed for SDG monitoring.

  4. Development of a benthic multimetric index for the Serra da Bocaina bioregion in Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DF. Baptista

    Full Text Available Brazil faces a challenge to develop biomonitoring tools to be used in water quality assessment programs, but few multimetric indices were developed so far. This study is part of an effort to test and implement programs using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators in Rio de Janeiro State. Our aim was first to test the Multimetric Index for Serra dos Órgãos (SOMI for a different area - Serra da Bocaina (SB - in the same ecoregion. We sampled 27 streams of different sizes and altitudes in the SB region. Despite the environmental similarities, results indicated biological differences between reference sites of the two regions. Considering these differences, we decided to develop an index specific for the SB region, the Serra da Bocaina Multimetric Index (MISB. We tested twenty-two metrics for sensitivity to impairment and redundancy, and six metrics were considered valid to integrate the MISB: Family Richness, Trichoptera Richness, % Coleoptera, % Diptera, IBE-IOC index, EPT / Chironomidae ratio. A test of the MISB in eleven sites indicated it was more related to land-use and water physico-chemical parameters than with altitude or stream width, being a useful tool for the monitoring and assessment of streams in the bioregion.

  5. The Evaluation Index System Establishment of the Food Security in Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Hui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the evaluation index system establishment of the food security in developing country. The developing country should consider the food production, consumption and storage, food trade and self-support rate, average food amount and the food of the poor, the quantity security of food and the quality security of food, the cost and benefit of food security, the relation between stationary security and dynamic stationary of the food, and establish the food securi...

  6. Research on the statistics index system and evaluation method of high and new technology industry development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓东; 张霞

    2004-01-01

    During the evolution of the global economic, high and new technology industry has become the maindriver to impel the global economy growth via technological advancement, and the main means to guarantee the sustainable development of the global economy. In the view of China's situation, this article analyzes the experiences of OECD in high and new technology industry and gives a statistics index system along with the evaluation method to estimate the development of high and new technology industry.

  7. Design and Development of Authentic Assessment with an Affective, Intellectual, Psychomotor Approach (Diseño y desarrollo de evaluación auténtica mediante un enfoque afectivo, intelectual y psicomotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandayure Valenzuela Arce

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea que los alcances de la denominada evaluación auténtica se aplican en Costa Rica de forma deficiente. Expone y explica los resultados de un taller dirigido al profesorado de Inglés, y con esa experiencia se ejemplifican vías que potencian la adquisición de conocimiento y desarrollo de habilidades, mediante esa modalidad de evaluación. This article addresses authentic assessment (AA, which is still not applied satisfactorily in Costa Rica. It describes and analyzes the results of a workshop held with English instructors, and based on that experience, examples are given of ways to strengthen knowledge acquisition and skills development, using that type of assessment.

  8. Requirement for the POZ/BTB protein NAC1 in acute but not chronic psychomotor stimulant response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott; Pacchioni, Alejandra; Degnan, Ryan; Homan, Ying; Conti, Alana C; Kalivas, Peter; Blendy, Julie A

    2008-02-11

    NAC1 is a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex) but varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif, suggesting a novel role. We have employed constitutive gene deletion to elucidate the role of NAC1 in vivo. Nac1 mutant mice are viable with no obvious developmental or physiological impairments. Previous studies suggest a role for NAC1 in cocaine-mediated behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated a variety of behaviors associated with psychomotor stimulant effects in Nac1 mutant mice. Acute locomotor activating effects of cocaine or amphetamine are absent in Nac1 mutant mice, however longer exposure to these psychomotor stimulants result in the development of behavioral sensitization. Acute rewarding properties of cocaine and amphetamine are also blunted in mutant mice, yet repeated exposure resulted in conditioned place preference similar to that observed in wild-type mice. Lastly, increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, which accompany acute cocaine administration, are blunted in mutant mice, but following chronic cocaine extracellular dopamine levels are increased to the same extent as in wild-type mice. Together these data indicate involvement of NAC1 in the acute behavioral and neurochemical responses to psychomotor stimulants.

  9. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile...... and potatoes. The development was built on the principles embodied by the Plate Model, but providing more specificity in some areas. The simple HMI was validated against weighed and chemically analysed food and nutrient content of a representative sample of canteen meals. The sample was split into four......, carbohydrate and fruit and vegetables varied across categories with higher score values being closer to dietary guidelines (P simple HMI was successful in ranking canteen meals according to their nutritional quality. The index provides a valuable tool to both researchers and food...

  10. Development of WAIS-III General Ability Index Minus WMS-III memory discrepancy scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Chelune, Gordon J; Tulsky, David S

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of the discrepancy between intellectual functioning and memory ability has received some support as a useful means for evaluating memory impairment. In recent additions to Wechlser scale interpretation, the WAIS-III General Ability Index (GAI) and the WMS-III Delayed Memory Index (DMI) were developed. The purpose of this investigation is to develop base rate data for GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores using data from the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample (weighted N = 1250). Base rate tables were developed using the predicted-difference method and two simple-difference methods (i.e., stratified and non-stratified). These tables provide valuable data for clinical reference purposes to determine the frequency of GAI-IMI, GAI-GMI, and GAI-DMI discrepancy scores in the WAIS-III/WMS-III standardization sample.

  11. Toward Development of a Fibromyalgia Responder Index and Disease Activity Score: OMERACT Module Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Christensen, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Following development of the core domain set for fibromyalgia (FM) in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) meetings 7 to 9, the FM working group has progressed toward the development of an FM responder index and a disease activity score based on these domains, utilizing...... outcome indices of these domains from archived randomized clinical trials in FM. Possible clinical domains that could be included in a responder index and disease activity score include pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, tenderness, stiffness, and functional...... spondylitis represents heuristic models for our work, but FM is challenging in that there is no clear algorithm of treatment that defines disease activity based on treatment decisions, nor are there objective markers that define thresholds of severity or response to treatment. The process of developing...

  12. National incidence of autoimmune liver diseases and its relationship with the human development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Ying; Dai, Yi-Ning; Zheng, Ji-Na; Shi, Ke-Qing; Van Poucke, Sven; Zou, Hai; Zheng, Ming-Hua

    2016-07-19

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and immunoglobulin G4 related cholangitis represent the major autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). However, the relationship between AILD incidence and socioeconomic development levels is yet to be explored. A total of 43 studies were included. There was a positive but not significant correlation between the PBC incidence and HDI on a global level (r=0.348, P=0.082). However, in Europe, a significantly positive correlation existed between the PBC incidence and HDI (r=0.455, P=0.044). No statistical correlation between PSC incidence and HDI was observed (r=0.116, P=0.706). The incidence of AIH revealed a positive correlation with the national HDI both globally (r=0.638, P=0.014) and in Europe (r=0.644, P=0.045). Moreover, the PBC incidence demonstrated a positive correlation with the health index (r=0.422, P=0.036), but a negative correlation with the education index (r= -0.650, Phuman development index (HDI) was applied as an indicator for socioeconomic development. HDI data were obtained and calculated based on the 2014 Human Development Report. Pearson coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted to estimate the correlation between incidence and HDI. There is positive association between the national incidence of AILD and the socioeconomic status, as measured by HDI. In less-developed countries, the incidence of AILD, especially PBC and AIH, might be less common.

  13. Quality Index Method developed for gutted and ungutted red tilapia (Oreochromis ssp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To develop a Quality Index Method (QIM for gutted and ungutted red tilapia from aquaculture ponds. Materials and methods. 40 specimens of gutted red tilapia and 40 ungutted ones were located in foam polyethylene boxes within layers of ice and storage at 4°C. Three fish were randomly sampled on days 0, 3, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17 for gutted tilapia, and on days 0, 3, 6, 9, 11, 14 and 16 for ungutted tilapia. A sensorial panel of 8 experts was formed to evaluate the product. With three samples each day with average points of the sensorial attributes proposed in the method, the quality index for gutted and ungutted red tilapia was obtained based on the storage time on ice. Results. The Quality Index Method obtained for gutted and ungutted red tilapia showed maximum values of 21 and 29, respectively. It was adjusted in an increasing lineal model with high correlation between the Quality Index and the storage time on ice. Conclusions. The developed model is useful to determine deterioration levels and to define storage and consumption time. For gutted red tilapia the panel rejected the fish after 8 - 11 days of storage whereas the ungutted red tilapia was rejected after 6 - 9 days.

  14. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COORDINATES OF DEVELOPING A SPORT ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX – CURRENT CHALLENGES AND PREREQUISITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU SEBASTIAN MADALIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Focussing on the consideration of the multivariate relationship between sport and economics, the present study is based on the sport potential of supporting economic growth through the enhancement of the relatively new domain of “sport entrepreneurship”. The brief revision of the specialized literature regarding the development of sport entrepreneurship in general terms is followed by a series of fundamental factors for the innovative proposal of a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in the European Union member countries. The methodological issues concerning the structure of the index represent the main novelty aspect of this research, which aims to be a prerequisite of a future thorough analysis regarding the micro- and macro-economic implications of developing a sport entrepreneurship index (SEI in EU countries. The main identified challenge is a scientific one and it resides in the summative assessment of the elements representing entrepreneurship, sport and culture in the SEI, whereas the necessity of determining such an index appears because of economic and social reasons.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW HYPERSPECTRAL ANGLE INDEX FOR ESTIMATION OF SOIL MOISTURE USING IN SITU SPECTRAL MEASURMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Mobasheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Near-surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. On the other hand, information of distributed soil moisture at large scale with reasonable spatial and temporal resolution is required for improving climatic and hydrologic modeling and prediction. The advent of hyperspectral imagery has allowed examination of continuous spectra not possible with isolated bands in multispectral imagery. In addition to high spectral resolution for individual band analyses, the contiguous narrow bands show characteristics of related absorption features, such as effects of strong absorptions on the band depths of adjacent absorptions. Our objective in this study was to develop a new spectral angle index to estimate soil moisture based on spectral region (350 and 2500 nm. In this paper, using spectral observations made by ASD Spectroradiometer for predicting soil moisture content, two soil indices were also investigated involving the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI, NMDI (Normalized Multi-band Drought Index indices. Correlation and regression analysis showed a high relationship between PDI and the soil moisture percent (R2 = 0.9537 and NMDI (R2 = 0.9335. Furthermore, we also simulated these data according to the spectral range of some sensors such as MODIS, ASTER, ALI and ETM+. Indices relevant these sensors have high correlation with soil moisture data. Finally, we proposed a new angle index which shows significant relationship between new angle index and the soil moisture percentages (R2 = 0.9432.angle index relevant bands 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 MODIS also showing high accuracy in estimation of soil moisture (R2 = 0.719.

  16. Effects of early comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for high-risk children's intelligence and psychomotor development%早期综合康复治疗对高危儿智能及精神运动发育的影响观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王柏林; 蒋晓宏

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of early comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for high-risk children's intelligence and psychomotor development.Methods148 cases of high-risk children admitted to our hospital in January 2012 - December 2015 were selected,were randomly divided into control group(74 cases)and experimental group(74 cases),the treatment efficacy of two groups children patients was compared.ResultsThe total treatment effective rate of children in the experimental group was 95.95%,the control group was 83.78%,the difference comparison was statistically significant(P<0.05);2,6,12 months after treatment,PDI,MDI scores of the observation group were higher than the control group,the difference comparison was statistically significant(P<0.05).ConclusionEarly comprehensive rehabilitation treatment for children at high risk of perinatal brain damage can recover nervous system damage in children,enhance motor development of children with mental and intellectual development and quality of life.%目的:探讨早期综合康复治疗对围生期脑损伤高危儿智能及精神运动发育的影响。方法选取我院2012年1月—2015年12月收治的148例高危儿,随机分为对照组(74例)和试验组(74例),比较2组患儿的治疗效果。结果试验组患儿治疗总有效率为95.95%,对照组为83.78%,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗2,6,12个月后,观察组 PDI、MDI 评分高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论围生期脑损伤高危儿进行早期综合康复治疗,有助于患儿神经系统损伤恢复,提高患儿精神运动、智力发育及生存质量。

  17. Provincial Human Development Index, a Guide for Efficiency Level Analysis: The Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Sabermahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human Development Index (HDI is a composite indicator that can show the impact of economic strategies on human life standards. The index is calculated by three main factors of income, education and health. This research studies the status of HDI across the Iranian provinces, its changes over time and the efficiency of provinces in using resources.Methods: The data for 2001 and 2009 was obtained from the Iranian Center of Statistics. Data envelopment analysis technique was used to analyze the data. To calculate the efficiency, Banker, Charnes and Cooper's model was used.Results: The national mean for the HDI in 2001 was 0.717 while it grew to 0.747 in 2009. Except for one province, all others had an improved human development index. Low ranked provinces such as Sistan & Baluchistan and Kurdistan stayed at the bottom in 2009 as well. Some provinces such as Bushehr with developing oil industries, or those purposively benefited from national oil income showed good growth. In some provinces, such as Hormozgan, out-migration of manpower to its neighboring province, Bushehr, was associated with decrease of the provincial income level. The number of efficient provinces increased from 5 to 13 in 2009.Conclusion: Iran falls among countries with high human development index based on the 2009 data. However, the distribution of HDI status across provinces was highly varied and the difference between high- and low-developed provinces increased in 2009. The government needs to revise policies concerning distribution of resources among the provinces.

  18. A Comparative Study of Gender Development Indexes in the Province of Lorestan in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Naghdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Gender inequality is a part of socio-economic inequality in all societies. Overcoming discrimination is most important in the poverty reduction programmes every societies especialy in developing countries and a useful tools for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals that announced by UNDP. The Gander development index (GDI is often considered a “gender-sensitive extension of the HDI” (Klasen 245. It addresses gender-gaps in life expectancy, education, and incomes. It uses an “inequality aversion” penalty, which creates a development score penalty for gender gaps in any of the categories of the Human Development Index which include life expectancy, adult literacy, school enrollment, and logarithmic transformations of per-capita income. The GDI cannot be used independently from the Human Development Index (HDI score and so, it cannot be used on its own as an indicator of gender-gaps. Only the gap between the HDI and the GDI can actually be accurately considered; the GDI on its own is not an independent measure of gender-gaps. In the years since its creation in 1995, much debate has arisen surrounding the reliability, and usefulness of the Gender Development Index (GDI in making adequate comparisons between different countries and in promoting gender-sensitive development. The GDI is particularly criticized for being often mistakenly interpreted as an independent measure of gender-gaps when it is not, in fact, intended to be interpreted in that way, because it can only be used in combination with the scores from the Human Development Index, but not on its own. Additionally, the data that is needed in order to calculate the GDI is not always readily available in many countries, making the measure very hard to calculate uniformly and internationally (Ibid. So the participation and role of women in various cultural, social, economic and political fields determine levels of development indicators in each country around

  19. Development and validation of an index to assess hospital quality management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, C.; Groene, O.; Thompson, C. A.; Klazinga, N. S.; Dersarkissian, M.; Arah, O. A.; Suñol, R.; Klazinga, N; Kringos, DS; Lombarts, MJMH; Plochg, T; Lopez, MA; Secanell, M; Sunol, R; Vallejo, P; Bartels, P; Kristensen, S; Michel, P; Saillour-Glenisson, F; Vlcek, F; Car, M; Jones, S; Klaus, E; Bottaro, S; Garel, P; Saluvan, M; Bruneau, C; Depaigne-Loth, A; Shaw, C; Hammer, A; Ommen, O; Pfaff, H; Groene, O; Botje, D; Wagner, C; Kutaj-Wasikowska, H; Kutryba, B; Escoval, A; Lívio, A; Eiras, M; Franca, M; Leite, I; Almeman, F; Kus, H; Ozturk, K; Mannion, R; Arah, OA; Chow, A; DerSarkissian, M; Thompson, CA; Wang, A; Thompson, A

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate an index to assess the implementation of quality management systems (QMSs) in European countries. Design Questionnaire development was facilitated through expert opinion, literature review and earlier empirical research. A cross-sectional online survey utilizing the questionnaire was undertaken between May 2011 and February 2012. We used psychometric methods to explore the factor structure, reliability and validity of the instrument. Setting and participants As part of the Deepening our Understanding of Quality improvement in Europe (DUQuE) project, we invited a random sample of 188 hospitals in 7 countries. The quality managers of these hospitals were the main respondents. Main Outcome Measure The extent of implementation of QMSs. Results Factor analysis yielded nine scales, which were combined to build the Quality Management Systems Index. Cronbach's reliability coefficients were satisfactory (ranging from 0.72 to 0.82) for eight scales and low for one scale (0.48). Corrected item-total correlations provided adequate evidence of factor homogeneity. Inter-scale correlations showed that every factor was related, but also distinct, and added to the index. Construct validity testing showed that the index was related to recent measures of quality. Participating hospitals attained a mean value of 19.7 (standard deviation of 4.7) on the index that theoretically ranged from 0 to 27. Conclusion Assessing QMSs across Europe has the potential to help policy-makers and other stakeholders to compare hospitals and focus on the most important areas for improvement. PMID:24618212

  20. Psychomotor Effects of Mixed Organic Solvents on Rubber Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Aminian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to organic solvents is common among workers.Objective: To assess neurobehavioral effects of long-term exposure to organic solvents among rubber workers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Across-sectional study was conducted on 223 employees of a rubber industry. The participants completed a data collection sheet on their occupational and medical history, and demographic characteristics including age, work experience, education level; they performed 6 psychiatric tests on the neurobehavioral core test battery (NCTB that measure simple reaction time, short-term memory (digit span, Benton, eye-hand coordination (Purdue pegboard, pursuit aiming, and perceptual speed (digit symbol.Results: Workers exposed and not exposed to organic solvents had similar age and education distribution. The mean work experience of the exposed and non-exposed workers was 5.9 and 4.4 years, respectively. The exposed workers had a lower performance compared to non-exposed workers in all psychomotor tests. After controlling for the confounders by logistic regression analysis, it was found that exposure to organic solvents had a significant effect on the results of digit symbols, digit span, Benton, aiming, and simple reaction time tests. No significant effect was observed in pegboard test.Conclusion: Occupational exposure to organic solvent can induce subtle neurobehavioral changes among workers exposed to organic solvents; therefore, periodical evaluation of the central nervous system by objective psychomotor tests is recommended among those who are chronically exposed to organic solvents.

  1. Linguistic and Psychomotor Development in Children with Chromosome 14 Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura; Zanchi, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The present study focussed on a specific type of rare genetic condition: chromosome 14 deletions. Children with this genetic condition often show developmental delays and brain and neurological problems, although the type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the deleted genetic material. The specific aim of the…

  2. Linguistic and Psychomotor Development in Children with Chromosome 14 Deletions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Laura; D'Odorico, Laura; Zanchi, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Neri, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The present study focussed on a specific type of rare genetic condition: chromosome 14 deletions. Children with this genetic condition often show developmental delays and brain and neurological problems, although the type and severity of symptoms varies depending on the size and location of the deleted genetic material. The specific aim of the…

  3. Bleuler Revisited: psychomotor slowing in schizophrenia as part of a catatonic symptom cluster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrens, M.; Hulstijn, W.; Lewi, P.J.; Sabbe, B.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    In schizophrenia, psychomotor slowing and stereotypy are poorly delineated from cognitive deficits like diminished processing speed. Inpatients' performance outcomes on a line-copying task, a task assessing stereotypy and a processing-speed task are compared. Results suggested that psychomotor slowi

  4. Diagnostic Assessment of Movement Disorders and Psychomotor Deficiency in Residual Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ilanković

    2014-06-01

    We would like to stress that psychiatric patients in psychotic, (prepsychotic and postpsychotic states, besides being mentally ill, also suffer from serious movement disorders  (psychomotor disturbances and deficits which put them into the category of  disabled persons, who besides requiring psychiatric (neuropsychiatric treatment, also require systematic psychomotor and speech  rehabilitation.

  5. Development and evaluation of the Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A Lake Multi-biotic Integrity Index (LMII for the China’s second largest interior lake (Dongting Lake was developed to assess the water quality status using algal and macroinvertebrate metrics. Algae and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were sampled at 10 sections across 3 subregions of Dongting Lake. We used a stepwise process to evaluate properties of candidate metrics and selected ten for the LMII: Pampean diatom index, diatom quotient, trophic diatom index, relative abundance diatoms, Margalef index of algae, percent sensitive diatoms, % facultative individuals, % Chironomidae individuals, % predators individuals, and total number of macroinvertebrate taxa. We then tested the accuracy and feasibility of the LMII by comparing the correlation with physical-chemical parameters. Evaluation of the LMII showed that it discriminated well between reference and impaired sections and was strongly related to the major chemical and physical stressors (r = 0.766, P<0.001. The re-scored results from the 10 sections showed that the water quality of western Dongting Lake was good, while that of southern Dongting Lake was relatively good and whereas that of eastern Dongting Lake was poor. The discriminatory biocriteria of the LMII are suitable for the assessment of the water quality of Dongting Lake. Additionally, more metrics belonging to habitat, hydrology, physics and chemistry should be considered into the LMII, so as to establish comprehensive assessment system which can reflect the community structure of aquatic organisms, physical and chemical characteristics of water environment, human activities, and so on.

  6. Developing a composite index of spatial accessibility across different health care sectors: A German example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Martin; Koller, Daniela; Vogt, Verena; Sundmacher, Leonie

    2016-02-01

    The evolving lack of ambulatory care providers especially in rural areas increasingly challenges the strict separation between ambulatory and inpatient care in Germany. Some consider allowing hospitals to treat ambulatory patients to tackle potential shortages of ambulatory care in underserved areas. In this paper, we develop an integrated index of spatial accessibility covering multiple dimensions of health care. This index may contribute to the empirical evidence concerning potential risks and benefits of integrating the currently separated health care sectors. Accessibility is measured separately for each type of care based on official data at the district level. Applying an Improved Gravity Model allows us to factor in potential cross-border utilization. We combine the accessibilities for each type of care into a univariate index by adapting the concept of regional multiple deprivation measurement to allow for a limited substitutability between health care sectors. The results suggest that better health care accessibility in urban areas persists when taking a holistic view. We believe that this new index may provide an empirical basis for an inter-sectoral capacity planning.

  7. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin; Sohn, Cheongmin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire...

  8. The index gage method to develop a flow duration curve from short-term streamflow records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxing

    2017-10-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is one of the most commonly used graphical tools in hydrology and provides a comprehensive graphical view of streamflow variability at a particular site. For a gaged site, an FDC can be easily estimated with frequency analysis. When no streamflow records are available, regional FDCs are used to synthesize FDCs. However, studies on how to develop FDCs for sites with short-term records have been very limited. Deriving representative FDC when there are short-term hydrologic records is important. For instance, 43% of the 394 streamflow gages in Illinois have records of 20 years or fewer, and these short-term gages are often distributed in headwaters and contain valuable hydrologic information. In this study, the index gage method is proposed to develop FDCs using short-term hydrologic records via an information transfer technique from a nearby hydrologically similar index gage. There are three steps: (1) select an index gage; (2) determine changes of FDC; and (3) develop representative FDCs. The approach is tested using records from 92 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow gages in Illinois. A jackknife experiment is conducted to assess the performance. Bootstrap resampling is used to simulate various periods of records, i.e., 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years of records. The results demonstrated that the index gage method is capable of developing a representative FDC using short-term records. Generally, the approach performance is improved when more hydrologic records are available, but the improvement appears to level off when the short-term gage has 10 years or more records.

  9. Differentiating challenge reactivity from psychomotor activity in studies of children's psychophysiology: considerations for theory and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Nicole R; Alkon, Abbey; Obradović, Jelena; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Current methods of assessing children's physiological "stress reactivity" may be confounded by psychomotor activity, biasing estimates of the relation between reactivity and health. We examined the joint and independent contributions of psychomotor activity and challenge reactivity during a protocol for 5- and 6-year-old children (N = 338). Measures of parasympathetic reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) and sympathetic reactivity (preejection period [PEP]) were calculated for social, cognitive, sensory, and emotional challenge tasks. Reactivity was calculated relative to both resting and a paired comparison task that accounted for psychomotor activity effects during each challenge. Results indicated that comparison tasks themselves elicited RSA and PEP responses, and reactivity adjusted for psychomotor activity was incongruent with reactivity calculated using rest. Findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for confounding psychomotor activity effects on physiological reactivity.

  10. Diving experience and emotional factors related to the psychomotor effects of nitrogen narcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersner, R J; Hall, D A; Linaweaver, P G; Neuman, T S

    1978-08-01

    Simple and complex psychomotor performance were tested among 21 Navy divers under normal conditions and during nitrogen narcosis in simulated dives to 170 ft of sea water. Complex psychomotor performance was impaired significantly during narcosis, while simple psychomotor performance remained essentially normal. Differences between baseline scores for complex psychomotor performance (pre- and post-dive combined) and scores obtained from the two combined testing sessions administered during narcosis were correlated with official Navy records of diving experience and self-reported moods. None of the diving experience measures was associated significantly with these difference scores. The moods of Fatigue and Happiness were, however, correlated significantly with impairment. These results indicate that, although previous experience with nitrogen narcosis and diving tasks do not mediate the performance effects of nitrogen narcosis, the complex psychomotor effects nitrogen narcosis are related to emotional traits.

  11. Tools for the development of a benthic quality index for Italian lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo SOLIMINI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology to develop a benthic quality index useful for Italian lakes. The existing data about benthic macroinvertebrates of the Italian lakes were collected over a period of 50 years, but only a few lakes such as the Maggiore and the Mergozzo have been intensely studied. Some large lakes such as Lake Como are still almost uninvestigated. In total, 570 benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were identified; of which 373 belong to Chironomidae and 85 to Oligochaeta. With the aim of relating environmental variables with macrobenthos assemblages, we carried out a canonical correlation analysis (CANON using a database that included 1060 sampling points. Both environmental (13 variables describing morphometry and hydrochemistry and biological data (57 taxa were available, but only taxa present in at least 10 samples were selected for data analysis. Three canonical variates were ecologically significant. The first one was correlated with conductivity, pH and alkalinity and accounted for 20% of the total variation. The second one was positively correlated with total phosphorus and N-NH4, and inversely with dissolved oxygen, and accounted for 18% of the total variation. The third one showed a direct correlation with maximum lake depth and volume and an inverse correlation with water temperature, and accounted for 17% of the total variation. A Trophic Status Index (TSI, based on the table 11 of the Italian Law 152/99 (without including chlorophyll, was calculated by ranking percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus. TSI was used to test a Benthic Quality Index for Italian Lakes (BQIL which is proposed in the present paper. The algorithm considered three steps. First, the means of three variables were calculated: percent oxygen saturation, transparency and total phosphorus weighted by the taxa abundances. These values are interpreted as optimum for each taxon and used to assign an indicator weight (BQIW. Second

  12. The development of a value based pricing index for new drugs in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, George; Truter, Ilse; Lubbe, Martie S

    2011-06-01

    Worldwide, prices for cancer drugs have been under downward pressure where several governments have mandated price cuts of branded products. A better alternative to government mandated price cuts would be to estimate a final price based on drug performance, cost effectiveness and a country's ability to pay. We developed a global pricing index for new cancer drugs in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that encompasses all of these attributes. A pharmacoeconomic model was developed to simulate mCRC patients receiving chemotherapy plus a 'new drug' that improves survival by 1.4, 3 and 6months, respectively. Cost and utility data were obtained from cancer centres and oncology nurses (n=112) in Canada, Spain, India, South Africa and Malaysia. Multivariable analysis was then used to develop the pricing index, which considers survival benefit, per capita GDP and income dispersion (as measured by the Gini coefficient) as predictor variables. Higher survival benefits were associated with elevated drug prices, especially in higher income countries such as Canada. For Argentina with a per capita GDP of $15,000 and a Gini coefficient of 51, the index estimated that for a drug which provides a 4month survival benefit in mCRC, the value based price would be $US 630 per dose. In contrast, the same drug in a wealthier country like Norway (per capita GDP=$50,000) could command a price of $US 2,775 per dose. The application of this index to estimate a price based on cost effectiveness and the wealth of a nation would be important for opening dialogue between the key stakeholders and a better alternative to government mandated price cuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Video Podcasting on Psychomotor and Cognitive Performance, Attitudes and Study Behaviour of Student Physical Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. Allen; Smith, A. Russell

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Multimedia is an effective tool to teach psychomotor skills to health care students. Video podcasting is a next step as educators seek methods to present psychomotor skills efficiently. The purposes of this pilot study were (1) compare the effectiveness of video podcasting to live demonstration for teaching psychomotor skills to Doctor of…

  14. Development of JPSS VIIRS Global Gridded Vegetation Index products for NOAA NCEP Environmental Modeling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Marco; Miura, Tomoaki; Csiszar, Ivan; Zheng, Weizhong; Wu, Yihua; Ek, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The first Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission, the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, was successfully launched in October, 2011, and it will be followed by JPSS-1, slated for launch in 2017. JPSS provides operational continuity of satellite-based observations and products for NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). Vegetation products derived from satellite measurements are used for weather forecasting, land modeling, climate research, and monitoring the environment including drought, the health of ecosystems, crop monitoring and forest fires. The operationally produced S-NPP VIIRS Vegetation Index (VI) Environmental Data Record (EDR) includes two vegetation indices: the Top of the Atmosphere (TOA) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and the Top of the Canopy (TOC) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). For JPSS-1, the S-NPP Vegetation Index EDR algorithm has been updated to include the TOC NDV. The current JPSS operational VI products are generated in granule style at 375 meter resolution at nadir, but these products in granule format cannot be ingested into NOAA operational monitoring and decision making systems. For that reason, the NOAA JPSS Land Team is developing a new global gridded Vegetation Index (VI) product suite for operational use by the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The new global gridded VIs will be used in the Multi-Physics (MP) version of the Noah land surface model (Noah-MP) in NCEP NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS) for plant growth and data assimilation and to describe vegetation coverage and density in order to model the correct surface energy partition. The new VI 4km resolution global gridded products (TOA NDVI, TOC NDVI and TOC EVI) are being designed to meet the needs of directly ingesting vegetation index variables without the need to develop local gridding and compositing procedures. These VI products will be consistent with the already

  15. Factors Associated With Body Image Perception Among Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Thábyta Silva; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Gubert, Fabiane do Amaral; de Almeida, Paulo César; Martins, Mariana Cavalcante; Carvalho, Queliane Gomes da Silva; Costa, Ana Cristina Pereira de Jesus; Vieira, Neiva Francenely Cunha

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual factors associated with body image perception in a sample of adolescents from schools in low Human Development Index areas in Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 609 boys and 573 girls (aged 11-17 years). Body image perception (nine-silhouettes scale) and sociodemographic, behavioral, and individual variables were included. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used. Most boys (76.9%) and girls (77.5%) were dissatisfied with their body image. Body mass index status and healthy body image evaluation were significantly associated with body image dissatisfaction in both boys and girls ( p body image dissatisfaction only in boys ( p = .035). Education and health care focused on body image can pay special attention to young people from vulnerable areas with unhealthy nutritional status and focus on strategies that enable improving the perception of a healthy body and a healthy diet.

  16. Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme developed for farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdóttir, K.; Hyldig, Grethe; Martinsdóttir, E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop 'Quality Index Method (QIM) scheme for raw, farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and to evaluate the scheme. in a shelf life study. QIM is based on the evaluation of key parameters in the deterioration of seafood's. Demerit points are assigned to selected...... parameters according to their importance and a Quality Index (QI) is established by cumulating the resulting scores. The maximum storage time in ice was determined with Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) of the salmon after cooking and found to be 20-21 days. This was used as a reference to enable...... prediction of the remaining storage time of raw salmon in ice with QIM. The calculated QI evolved linearly with storage time in ice (QI=0.82x (days in ice)+0.18, R-2=0.97). Individual salmon varied in QI within each storage day. However, the multivariate analysis (PLS1) demonstrated that storage time could...

  17. Methodological considerations concerning the development of oral dental erosion indexes: literature survey, validity and reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Kutschmann, Marcus; Bardehle, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of preventing non-communicable diseases, the World Health Report (2002) and the WHO Global Oral Health Program (2003) put forward a new strategy of disease prevention and health promotion. Greater emphasis is placed on developing global policies in oral health promotion and oral...... disease prevention. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index does not meet new challenges in the field of oral health. Dental erosion seems to be a growing problem, and in some countries, an increase in erosion of teeth is associated with an increase in the consumption of beverages containing acids....... Therefore, within a revision of the WHO Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods, new oral disease patterns, e.g. dental erosion, have to be taken into account. Within the last 20 years, many studies on dental erosion have been carried out and published. There has been a rapid growth in the number of indexes...

  18. Different body mass index grade on the risk of developing glioma: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zifeng Dai; Qilin Huang; Haipeng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported conflicting results about the risk of developing glioma and different body mass index.So we decided to execute a meta-analysis to solve the dispute.Methods: Comprehensive literature retrieval was carried in PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE up to September 15, 2014.Hand literature information retrieval was not carried.Six studies were fit for this meta-analysis.Pooled hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) of different body mass index grade were performed by fixed/random-effects models, except for normal weight which was referent.Results: Data of 3726 cases were included.Compared with normal weight (20 kg.m-2 < body mass index (BMI) ≤ 24.9 kg.m-2), the underweight (BMI ≤ 20 kg.m-2) might have lower incidence on the risk of developing glioma (HR =1.08, 95 % CI ranged 0.74 to 1.58, P =0.678).While the overweight (25 kg.m-2 < BMI ≤ 29.9 kg.m-2)and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg.m-2) were performed as a risk factor of developing glioma.The pooled HR of overweight group was 1.12 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.22, P=0.013);the pooled HR of obesity was 1.14 (95 % CI ranged 1.02 to 1.27, P =0.017).Sensitivity analysis approved that our results were stable.There was no publication bias of these studies.Conclusions: Underweight could decrease the risk of developing glioma.Excess BMI was considered as a risk factor to develop glioma.

  19. Comparison of Leaf Plastochron Index and Allometric Analyses of Tooth Development in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot; Meicenheimer

    2000-03-01

    Two methods of analyses were used to investigate tooth development in serrate (se) mutant and wild-type Columbia-1 (Col-1) Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. There were almost twice as many teeth with deeper sinuses and two orders of toothing on the margins of serrate compared with Columbia-1 leaves. The main objective of this study was to test three hypotheses relative to the source of polymorphism in tooth development: (i) Teeth share similar growth rates and initial sizes, but the deeper teeth are initiated earlier in leaf development. (ii) Teeth share similar timing of initiation and growth rates, but the deeper teeth have a larger initial size. (iii) Teeth share similar timing of initiation and initial sizes, but the deeper teeth have a faster growth rate. Leaf plastochron index (LPI) was used as the time variable for leaf development. Results showed teeth in se were initiated at -27 LPI, 15 plastochrons earlier than those of Col-1. Serrate leaf expansion was biphasic, with the early phase expanding at half the relative plastochron rate of the later phase, which equaled the constant relative expansion rate of Col-1 leaves. Allometric analyses of tooth development obscured the interactions between time of tooth and leaf initiation and the early phase of leaf expansion characteristic of serrate leaves and teeth. Timing of developmental events that allometric analysis obscured can be readily detected with the LPI as a developmental index.

  20. Color photographic index of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development and accumulated thermal units.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the relationship between accumulated thermal units and developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos can be used to determine the approximate date of egg fertilization in natural redds, thus providing insight into oviposition timing of wild salmonids. However, few studies have documented time to different developmental stages of embryonic Chinook salmon and no reference color photographs are available. The objectives of this study were to construct an index relating developmental stages of hatchery-reared fall Chinook salmon embryos to time and temperature (e.g., degree days and provide high-quality color photographs of each identified developmental stage. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fall Chinook salmon eggs were fertilized in a hatchery environment and sampled approximately every 72 h post-fertilization until 50% hatch. Known embryonic developmental features described for sockeye salmon were used to describe development of Chinook salmon embryos. A thermal sums model was used to describe the relationship between embryonic development rate and water temperature. Mean water temperature was 8.0 degrees C (range; 3.9-11.7 degrees C during the study period. Nineteen stages of embryonic development were identified for fall Chinook salmon; two stages in the cleavage phase, one stage in the gastrulation phase, and sixteen stages in the organogenesis phase. The thermal sums model used in this study provided similar estimates of fall Chinook salmon embryonic development rate in water temperatures varying from 3.9-11.7 degrees C (mean=8 degrees C to those from several other studies rearing embryos in constant 8 degrees C water temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The developmental index provides a reasonable description of timing to known developmental stages of Chinook salmon embryos and was useful in determining developmental stages of wild fall Chinook salmon embryos excavated from redds in the Columbia River. This index

  1. Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and pubertal development among sons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, M L; Håkonsen, L B; Vested, A

    2013-01-01

    Maternal overweight and obesity in pregnancy has been associated with earlier age of menarche in daughters as well as reduced semen quality in sons. We aimed at investigating pubertal development in sons born by mothers with a high body mass index (BMI). The study included 2522 sons of mothers...... that during pregnancy in 1984-1987 were enrolled in a mother-child cohort and gave information on their pre-pregnancy height and weight from which we calculated their BMI. Information on sons' pubertal development, assessed by age when starting regular shaving, voice break, acne and first nocturnal emission...... indicators of pubertal development, results also indicated earlier pubertal development among sons of obese mothers. After excluding sons of underweight mothers in a subanalysis, we observed an inverse trend between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and age at regular shaving, acne and first nocturnal emission...

  2. Development and assessment of Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI) for agricultural drought monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio; Facchi, Arianna

    2017-04-01

    Drought is a major cause of crop yield loss, both in rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems. In past decades, many approaches have been developed to assess agricultural drought, usually based on the monitoring or modelling of the soil water content condition. All these indices show weaknesses when applied for a real time drought monitoring and management at the local scale, since they do not consider explicitly crops and soil properties at an adequate spatial resolution. This work describes a newly developed agricultural drought index, called Transpirative Deficit Index (D-TDI), and assesses the results of its application over a study area of about 210 km2 within the Po River Plain (northern Italy). The index is based on transforming the interannual distribution of the transpirative deficit (potential crop transpiration minus actual transpiration), calculated daily by means of a spatially distributed conceptual hydrological model and cumulated over user-selected time-steps, to a standard normal distribution (following the approach proposed by the meteorological index SPI - Standard Precipitation Index). For the application to the study area a uniform maize crop cover (maize is the most widespread crop in the area) and 22-year (1993-2014) meteorological data series were considered. Simulation results consist in maps of the index cumulated over 10-day time steps over a mesh with cells of 250 m. A correlation analysis was carried out (1) to study the characteristics and the memory of D-TDI and to assess its intra- and inter-annual variability, (2) to assess the response of the agricultural drought (i.e., the information provided by D-TDI) to the meteorological drought computed through the SPI over different temporal steps. The D-TDI is positively auto-correlated with a persistence of 30 days, and positively cross-correlated to the SPI with a persistence of 40 days, demonstrating that D-TDI responds to meteorological forcing. Correlation analyses demonstrate that soils

  3. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  4. The SWPER index for women's empowerment in Africa: Development and validation of an index based on survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewerling, F.; Lynch, J.W.; Victora, C.G.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Tyszler, M.; Barros, A.J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Sustainable Development Goals strongly focus on equity. Goal 5 explicitly aims to empower all women and girls, reinforcing the need to have a reliable indicator to track progress. Our objective was to develop a novel women's empowerment indicator from widely available data sources, b

  5. The SWPER index for women's empowerment in Africa: Development and validation of an index based on survey data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ewerling, F.; Lynch, J.W.; Victora, C.G.; Eerdewijk, A.H.J.M. van; Tyszler, M.; Barros, A.J.D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Sustainable Development Goals strongly focus on equity. Goal 5 explicitly aims to empower all women and girls, reinforcing the need to have a reliable indicator to track progress. Our objective was to develop a novel women's empowerment indicator from widely available data sources,

  6. Air quality trends and potential health effects - Development of an aggregate risk index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Pierre; Lesne, Olivia; Alexandre, Nicolas; Mangin, Antoine; Collomp, Rémy

    2011-02-01

    The "Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur" (PACA) region, in the South East of France, is one of Europe's regions most influenced by the atmospheric pollution. During the last 15 years, the industrial emissions decrease caused an evolution of the atmospheric pollution nature. Nowadays, atmospheric pollution is more and more influenced by the road traffic, the dominating pollution source in urban zones for the PACA region. Combined with this intense road traffic, the strong hot season of the Mediterranean climate contributes to the region bad air quality; it is known to be one of the worse in Europe. The recognized air pollution effects over public health include increased risk of hospital admissions and mortality by respiratory or cardiovascular diseases. The combination of these serious pollution related health hazards with senior and children vulnerabilities leads to serious sanitary concerns. Over the 1990-2005 period, we obtained, using the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test from annual mortality dataset (CépiDC), decreasing trends for Asthma (-5.00% year -1), Cardiovascular (-0.73% year -1), Ischemic (-0.69% year -1) and cerebrovascular diseases (-3.10% year -1). However, for "Other heart diseases" (+0.10% year -1) and "Respiratory" (+0.10% year -1) an increase was observed. The development of an adequate tool to understand impacts of pollution levels is of utmost importance. Different pollutants have different health endpoints, information may be lost through the use of a single index consequently, in this study we present the modified formula of air quality index, based on Cairncross's concept the Aggregate Risk Index (ARI). ARI is based on the relative risk of the well-established increased daily mortality, or morbidity, enabling an assessment of additive effects of short-term exposure to the main air pollutants: PM 2.5, PM 10, SO 2, O 3 and NO 2 in order to account for the reality of the multiple exposures impacts of chemical agents. The ARI, developed per pathology

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A CRASH RISK PROBABILITY MODEL FOR FREEWAYS BASED ON HAZARD PREDICTION INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mahmud Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for the identification of hazardous situations on the freeways. The hazard identification is done using a crash risk probability model. For this study, about 18 km long section of Eastern Freeway in Melbourne (Australia is selected as a test bed. Two categories of data i.e. traffic and accident record data are used for the analysis and modelling. In developing the crash risk probability model, Hazard Prediction Index is formulated in this study by the differences of traffic parameters with threshold values. Seven different prediction indices are examined and the best one is selected as crash risk probability model based on prediction error minimisation.

  8. Development of a Fuzzy Water Quality Index (FWQI – Case study: Saveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hosseini-Moghari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Groundwater resources are the main source of fresh water in many parts of Iran. Groundwater resources are limited in quantity and recently due to increase of withdrawal, these resources are facing great stress. Considering groundwater resources scarcity, maintaining the quality of them are vital. Traditional methods to evaluate water quality insist on determining water quality parameter and comparison between them and available standards. The decisions in these methods rely on just specific parameters, in order to overcome this issue, water quality indices (WQIs are developed. Water quality indexes include a range of water quality parameters and using mathematical operation represent an index to classify water quality. Applying the classic WQI will cause deterministic and inflexible classifications associated with uncertainties and inaccuracies in knowledge and data. To overcome this shortcoming, using the fuzzy logic in water resources problems under uncertainty is highly recommended. In this paper, two approaches are adopted to assess the water quality status of the groundwater resources of a case study. The first approach determined the classification of water samples, whilst the second one focused on uncertainty of classification analysis with the aid of fuzzy logic. In this regard, the paper emphasizes on possibility of water quality assessment by developing a fuzzy-based quality index even if required parameters are inadequate. Materials and Methods: The case study is located in the northwest of Markazi province, Saveh Plain covers an area of 3245 km2 and lies between 34º45′-35º03′N latitude and 50º08′-50º50′E longitudes. The average height of the study area is 1108 meter above mean sea level. The average precipitation amount is 213 mm while the mean annual temperature is 18.2oC. To provide a composite influence from individual water quality parameters on total water quality, WQI is employed. In other words, WQI

  9. Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator Index (NERI): A benchmarking tool for assessing nuclear capacity in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saum-Manning,L.

    2008-07-13

    Declining natural resources, rising oil prices, looming climate change and the introduction of nuclear energy partnerships, such as GNEP, have reinvigorated global interest in nuclear energy. The convergence of such issues has prompted countries to move ahead quickly to deal with the challenges that lie ahead. However, developing countries, in particular, often lack the domestic infrastructure and public support needed to implement a nuclear energy program in a safe, secure, and nonproliferation-conscious environment. How might countries become ready for nuclear energy? What is needed is a framework for assessing a country's readiness for nuclear energy. This paper suggests that a Nuclear Energy Readiness Indicator (NERI) Index might serve as a meaningful basis for assessing a country's status in terms of progress toward nuclear energy utilization under appropriate conditions. The NERI Index is a benchmarking tool that measures a country's level of 'readiness' for nonproliferation-conscious nuclear energy development. NERI first identifies 8 key indicators that have been recognized by the International Atomic Energy Agency as key nonproliferation and security milestones to achieve prior to establishing a nuclear energy program. It then measures a country's progress in each of these areas on a 1-5 point scale. In doing so NERI illuminates gaps or underdeveloped areas in a country's nuclear infrastructure with a view to enable stakeholders to prioritize the allocation of resources toward programs and policies supporting international nonproliferation goals through responsible nuclear energy development. On a preliminary basis, the indicators selected include: (1) demonstrated need; (2) expressed political support; (3) participation in nonproliferation and nuclear security treaties, international terrorism conventions, and export and border control arrangements; (4) national nuclear-related legal and regulatory mechanisms; (5

  10. Development of a Habitat Suitability Index Model for the Sage Sparrow on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Simmons, Mary Ann; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Mitigation threshold guidelines for the Hanford Site are based on habitat requirements of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli) and only apply to areas with a mature sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) overstory and a native understory. The sage sparrow habitat requirements are based on literature values and are not specific to the Hanford Site. To refine these guidelines for the Site, a multi-year study was undertaken to quantify habitat characteristics of sage sparrow territories. These characteristics were then used to develop a habitat suitability index (HSI) model which can be used to estimate the habitat value of specific locations on the Site.

  11. Financial Time Series: Stylized Facts for the Mexican Stock Exchange Index Compared to Developed Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Rojas; Carlos Trejo-Pech

    2014-01-01

    We present some stylized facts exhibited by the time series of returns of the Mexican Stock Exchange Index (IPC) and compare them to a sample of both developed (USA, UK and Japan) and emerging markets (Brazil and India). The period of study is 1997-2011. The stylized facts are related mostly to the probability distribution func- tion and the autocorrelation function (e.g. fat tails, non-normality, volatility cluster- ing, among others). We find that positive skewness for returns in Mexico and...

  12. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Novel reading index for identifying disordered reading skill development: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Brianne; Ofen, Noa; Jones, Lara L; Casey, Joseph E; Stanley, Jeffrey A

    2017-06-01

    Children with ADHD are at high risk of developing a Reading Disability (RD), although the reasons remain unclear. ADHD-associated impairments, including processing speed, can complicate clinical evaluation for a co-occurring RD diagnosis. We propose a novel metric to (a) assess reading development and (b) provide an alternative method to classifying readers that may aid investigations for etiologies of RD in ADHD. Specifically, as both phonological decoding and word recognition skills are important precursors of reading fluency, we propose a new quantitative method comparing these skills after accounting for variations in perception, motor response, or processing speeds. Forty boys (14 control, 15 ADHD, 11 ADHD/ + RD) completed a lexical decision task testing decoding and another assessing word recognition. Response time data was modeled using a Drift Diffusion approach to estimate the underlying reading skills. Using these reading skill estimates, we calculated a novel Reading Tendency Index and classified participants into three reading groups (Decoders, Balanced Readers, and Sight Readers). The reading and cognitive performance of these groups were consistent with theoretical predictions and subsequently provided external validity for the novel Reading Tendency Index classification. Our findings demonstrate a potential classification tool for readers based on individual's developed, reading tendencies.

  14. An evaluation of the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Prajapati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of statins on memory and psychomotor function has been controversial and needs further evaluation. Aims : To evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on memory and psychomotor functions in hypertensive patients treated with enalapril or amlodipine. Settings and Design : Prospective, comparative, non-randomized, before-after, open-label clinical study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India. Materials and Methods : Memory was evaluated with PGI (Post Graduate Institute, Chandigarh Memory Scale, while psychomotor functions were evaluated with Digit Letter Substitution test, Six Letter Cancellation test, and Finger Tapping test at baseline, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of starting atorvastatin in 74 hypertensive patients who were prescribed either enalapril or amlodipine with or without atorvastatin 10 mg/day. Scores obtained in patients receiving enalapril or amlodipine were compared with those receiving these drugs along with atorvastatin. Memory and psychomotor functions of 12 healthy volunteers were also evaluated and compared with those of the patients at respective time periods. Statistical Analysis : Student′s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, and Mann Whitney U test were used to compare the pre- and post-treatment scores of memory and psychomotor functions in various groups. Statistical significance was considered at P<0.05. Results : A statistically significant improvement in scores of memory and psychomotor functions was observed in both healthy volunteers (P=0.009 and P=0.016 and hypertensive patients (P=0.008 and P=0.031 throughout the study period. Memory and psychomotor function in hypertensive patients remained significantly inferior to those of healthy volunteers (P=0.01 and P=0.018. There was no significant difference in the scores of memory and psychomotor functions between patients receiving atorvastatin and those not receiving this drug. Conclusion : Atorvastatin, at 10 mg/day dose, does not

  15. New dimensions for the Human Development Index - HDI according to the capability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Gomes Brasil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of human development has evolved over the years, from a simple measure of per capita income to more sophisticated definitions, such as the capability approach by Amartya Sen, which is related not only to what people have, but also to a range of capabilities that allow people to choose what they want to be or do. In this sense, the concept of development must be expanded, allowing the Human Development Index (HDI to cover dimensions related to individual freedoms. In this paper, we suggest a new HDI methodology, adding measures of tolerance, crime and democracy in its calculation. The results allow us to conclude that even societies with a high standard of living face problems such as racism and lack of political freedoms.

  16. [Association between types of need, human development index, and infant mortality in Mexico, 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Gómez, Oswaldo Sinoe; López-Arellano, Oliva

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between different types of economic and social deprivation and infant mortality rates reported in 2008 in Mexico. We conducted an ecological study analyzing the correlation and relative risk between the human development index and levels of social and economic differences in State and national infant mortality rates. There was a strong correlation between higher human development and lower infant mortality. Low schooling and poor housing and crowding were associated with higher infant mortality. Although infant mortality has declined dramatically in Mexico over the last 28 years, the decrease has not been homogeneous, and there are persistent inequalities that determine mortality rates in relation to different poverty levels. Programs with a multidisciplinary approach are needed to decrease infant mortality rates through comprehensive individual and family development.

  17. The Culture and Development Index (CDI: Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries, the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally related to development. Alternatively, the Culture and Development Index (CDI and the closely related Culture and Corruption Index (CCI are constructed for selected South and Southeast Asian, Latin American, and East Asian countries to account for cross-cultural variation in terms of a different set of orthogonal factors, some of which are strongly associated with leading measures of development and of corruption. Both CDI and CCI reveal patterns of value and attitudinal change relevant to promoting development and to mitigating corruption.

  18. Relation of PC index to magnetic disturbances developing under conditions of northward IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podorozhkina, N.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.

    2012-04-01

    Substorms and storms occurring under conditions of northward IMF (BZN) are commonly examined as "extraordinary events" since they are developed when the efficiency of the interplanetary electric field EY = vBZS (Reiff and Luhmann, 1986) falls to zero. Examination of these events demonstrates that all of them occur, like to ordinary substorms and storms, under conditions that are necessary and sufficient for development of substorms (PC ≥ 1.5 mV/m) and storms ( >2 mV/m). The specified values of the PC index testify that the magnetosphere is affected by the intense interplanetary electric field EKL=vBTsin2θ/2 (Kan and Lee, 1979), where BT is the IMF tangential component and θ is an angle between BT component and the geomagnetic Z-axis. The principal difference between coupling functions EY and EKL lies in the fact that EKL function includes the IMF azimuthal (BY) component. As BY increases relative to BZ, the difference between electric fields EY and EKL quickly grows, and the value of EKL field can be as large as 5-10 mV/m even under conditions of northward IMF orientation, when EY reaches to zero. The same situation is valid for substorms triggered by sharp northward turning of the IMF BZ component following the prolonged period of southward IMF influence. Examination of these substorms demonstrates that they are initiated by increase of coupling function EKL and that the substorm sudden onsets were preceded by the PC index growth. Consistency between the IMF northward turning and substorm sudden onset in these cases is coincidence that explains why substorm are only occasionally initiated by the IMF northward turning. Thus, the "extraordinary" storms and substorms occurring under conditions of ineffective northward IMF component turned out to be events nothing out of the ordinary, if examining them in relation to proper coupling function (EKL) and monitoring them by the PC index.

  19. Development Of Index To Assess Drought Conditions Using Geospatial Data A Case Study Of Jaisalmer District, Rajasthan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajer, Vaidehi; Prabhakar, Sumati; Rama Chandra Prasad, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan province of India was known to suffer with frequent drought due to poor and delayed monsoon, abnormally high summer-temperature and insufficient water resources. However flood-like situation prevails in the drought prone Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan as torrential rains are seen to affect the region in the recent years. In the present study, detailed analysis of meteorological, hydrological and satellite data of the Jaisalmer district has been carried out for the years 2006-2008. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Consecutive Dry Days (CDD) and Effective Drought Index (EDI) have been used to quantify the precipitation deficit. Standardized Water-Level Index (SWI) has been developed to assess ground-water recharge-deficit. Vegetative drought indices like Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), Vegetation Health Index (VHI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index 2 have been calculated. We also introduce two new indices Soil based Vegetation Condition Index (SVCI) and Composite Drought Index (CDI) specifically for regions like Jaisalmer where aridity in soil and affects vegetation and water-level.

  20. Surrogate analysis and index developer (SAID) tool and real-time data dissemination utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Marian M.; Straub, Timothy D.; Wood, Molly S.; Landers, Mark N.; Wall, Gary R.; Brady, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of acoustic and other parameters as surrogates for suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) in rivers has been successful in multiple applications across the Nation. Critical to advancing the operational use of surrogates are tools to process and evaluate the data along with the subsequent development of regression models from which real-time sediment concentrations can be made available to the public. Recent developments in both areas are having an immediate impact on surrogate research, and on surrogate monitoring sites currently in operation. The Surrogate Analysis and Index Developer (SAID) standalone tool, under development by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), assists in the creation of regression models that relate response and explanatory variables by providing visual and quantitative diagnostics to the user. SAID also processes acoustic parameters to be used as explanatory variables for suspended-sediment concentrations. The sediment acoustic method utilizes acoustic parameters from fixed-mount stationary equipment. The background theory and method used by the tool have been described in recent publications, and the tool also serves to support sediment-acoustic-index methods being drafted by the multi-agency Sediment Acoustic Leadership Team (SALT), and other surrogate guidelines like USGS Techniques and Methods 3-C4 for turbidity and SSC. The regression models in SAID can be used in utilities that have been developed to work with the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and for the USGS National Real-Time Water Quality (NRTWQ) Web site. The real-time dissemination of predicted SSC and prediction intervals for each time step has substantial potential to improve understanding of sediment-related water-quality and associated engineering and ecological management decisions.

  1. Developing an index model for flood risk assessment in the western coastal region of Mazandaran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi-Pouya Alireza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an index model developed for the assessment of risk caused by river floods. The main purpose of this model is to evaluate the flood risk in the western coastal region of Mazandaran Province/Iran. The model assesses the risk at triple components, i.e. the flood occurrence probability, vulnerability and consequences, through identification and evaluation of effective criteria categorized into seven indexes (environmental, technical, economic, social, depth, population and sensitivity ones that are involved in all stages of flooding (source, pathway and receptor. The flood risk in the developed model is defined by a dimensionless magnitude called as risk score between 0 and 100 for each zone of the area under assessment by calculating and combining of two newly defined factors: occurrence and vulnerability factor and impact factor. The model was applied in a case study, the Nowshahr flood in 2012. The results showed that: (i the flood risk zoning was compared with observed data for aspect of the damages, and general agreement between them was obtained; (ii for urban zones, which surrounded by two rivers, would easily be in critical condition and rescue operations face difficulties; and (iii it is necessary to review the location of the emergency services, according the flood risk zoning.

  2. Feasibility Study on the Development of Index that Shows Social and Cultural Acceptance of Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, SeongKyung [Bangmok College of General Education at Myongji Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seungho; Yoon, Hana; Song, Jiyeon [Domo Brodeur, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In this context, it is necessary to manage and develop an index that can measure the level of public acceptance by establishing the terms of social/cultural public acceptance of nuclear power in a practical manner and by identifying influential factors of public acceptance. Developing an index itself is not intended to increase the public acceptance of nuclear power. This study intends to contribute to determining energy policy acceptable to the public by estimating the level of potential social conflicts related to nuclear power policies with eligible evaluation criteria on social/cultural acceptance and by reducing relevant social costs. Key conclusions and proposal of this research are as follows. First, the influential factors of acceptance are reliability of nuclear safety, risk perception of nuclear power and beneficial perception of nuclear power. Among them, reliability of nuclear safety appears to have the most influence. In addition, benefit perception of nuclear power at the social level is significantly higher than that at the individual level. However, in relation to risk perception, a gap between experts and the public is found as nuclear industry premises that accident does not occur while the public premises that accident may occur.

  3. Development of prolonged standing strain index to quantify risk levels of standing jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Isa; Omar, Abdul Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Many occupations in industry such as metal stamping workers, electronics parts assembly operators, automotive industry welders, and lathe operators require working in a standing posture for a long time. Prolonged standing can contribute to discomfort and muscle fatigue particularly in the back and legs. This study developed the prolonged standing strain index (PSSI) to quantify the risk levels caused by standing jobs, and proposed recommendations to minimize the risk levels. Risk factors associated with standing jobs, such as working posture, muscles activity, standing duration, holding time, whole-body vibration, and indoor air quality, were the basis for developing the PSSI. All risk factors were assigned multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness. multipliers, and the PSSI was the product of those multipliers. Recommendations for improvement are based on the PSSI; however, extensive studies are required to validate their effectiveness.

  4. An Index of Productivity and Development for the Girardot City Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Peña

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Girardot is the most important tourist destination in the Upper Magdalena Valley, and there exists many industrial, commercial and service bussinesses, which contribute to the development of the city. However, the city lacks a good source of information about investment in the various economic sectors and for this reason investors are wary of committing to the region and the opportunity to create jobs and foster development is being lost. By consulting with local entities, an index is formulated to help investors identify the financial and economic sector which offer greatest opportunity for investment.

  5. A global view on cancer incidence and national levels of the human development index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Bray, Freddie

    2016-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are associated with cancer incidence through complex and variable pathways. We assessed cancer incidence for all cancers combined and 27 major types according to national human development levels. Using GLOBOCAN data for 184 countries, age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) were assessed by four levels (low, medium, high, very high) of the Human Development Index (HDI), a composite index of life expectancy, education, and gross national income. A strong positive relationship between overall cancer incidence and HDI level was observed. When comparing the ASR in very high HDI regions with that in low HDI regions, we observed a positive association ranging from 2 to 14 and 2 to 11 times higher in males and females, respectively, depending on the cancer type. Positive dose-response relationships between the ASR and HDI level were observed in both sexes for the following cancer types: lung, pancreas, leukemia, gallbladder, colorectum, brain/nervous system, kidney, multiple myeloma, and thyroid. Positive associations were also observed for testicular, bladder, lip/oral cavity, and other pharyngeal cancers, Hodgkin lymphoma, and melanoma of the skin in males, and corpus uteri, breast, and ovarian cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in females. A negative dose-response relationship was observed for cervical and other pharyngeal cancers and Kaposi sarcoma in females. Although the relationship between incidence and the HDI remained when assessed at the country-specific level, variations in risk within HDI levels were also observed. We highlight positive and negative associations between incidence and human development for most cancers, which will aid the planning of cancer control priorities among countries undergoing human development transitions. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Role of neighbourhoods in child growth and development: does 'place' matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Kirkwood, Betty

    2010-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 200 million children--mostly from developing countries--suffer from developmental delays. The study aims to contribute to an understanding of the contextual environment in which a child grows and develops in such setup; and in particular to evaluate the relative contributions of socio-economic status and rural-urban neighbourhoods on growth and psychomotor development. A cross-sectional study was conducted from May to November 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh, Pakistan. 1,244 children aged less than 3 years were assessed via home visits using Bayley's Infant Developmental Scale for psychomotor development, anthropometry and a socio-economic and demographic questionnaire. A socio-economic index was created using principal component analysis, and the study hypotheses explored through hierarchical linear modelling. We found that sub-optimal growth and development were prevalent among the study's children. Overall the mean psychomotor development (PD) index was 96.0 (SD 16.7), with 23% assessed as having delayed development, and undernourished with 39.8% stunted, 30.9% underweight and 18.1% wasted. Lower socio-economic status and living in a rural rather than urban neighbourhood were all found to have strong associations with lower psychomotor scores and with undernutrition. Rural-urban differences in undernutrition were explained by the lower socio-economic status of families in rural areas. By contrast, rural-urban differences in psychomotor scores remained strong even after controlling for differences in socio-economic status. It was estimated that rural residence accounted for 28% of cases of delayed psychomotor development among study children. Improvements in socio-economic status are vital to achieve optimal growth and development during early childhood. The study draws attention to the importance of taking heed of contextual needs, especially relating to differences between rural and urban neighbourhoods, in the

  7. Relationship between HIV stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score at a Kenyan sub-county hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinuthia, Rachael N; Gakinya, Benson N; Thigiti, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between HIV disease stage and psychomotor speed neurocognitive score which will add to the body of knowledge required to manage patients with HIV and AIDS...

  8. Development and validation of the endorsement of the hookup culture index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Smith, Siobhan E

    2013-01-01

    Although researchers have examined the predictors and outcomes of the behavioral aspect of "hooking up," typically defined as casual, commitment-free sexual encounters, research has not yet examined the extent to which young people endorse the culture associated with hooking up. Based on the argument that there is a set of understood rules and assumptions associated with hooking up, this article describes the development of an instrument to measure college students' endorsement of the hookup culture. Results from two studies found that five factors represent endorsement of the hookup culture: (a) a belief that hooking up is harmless and best without emotional commitment, (b) a belief that hooking up is fun, (c) a belief that hooking up will enhance one's status in one's peer group, (d) a belief that hooking up allows one to assert control over one's sexuality, and (e) a belief that hooking up is a reflection of one's sexual freedom. The index also had acceptable internal reliability, and performed well on the tests of construct validity. Taken together, the results suggest that the Endorsement of the Hookup Culture Index is suitable for use by researchers interested in the social phenomenon of hooking up.

  9. Development of an Indexing Media Filtration System for Long Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The effective maintenance of air quality aboard spacecraft cabins will be vital to future human exploration missions. A key component will be the air cleaning filtration system which will need to remove a broad size range of particles including skin flakes, hair and clothing fibers, other biological matter, and particulate matter derived from material and equipment wear. In addition, during surface missions any extraterrestrial planetary dust, including dust generated by near-by ISRU equipment, which is tracked into the habitat will also need to be managed by the filtration system inside the pressurized habitat compartments. An indexing media filter system is being developed to meet the demand for long-duration missions that will result in dramatic increases in filter service life and loading capacity, and will require minimal crew involvement. These features may also benefit other closed systems, such as submarines, and remote location terrestrial installations where servicing and replacement of filter units is not practical. The filtration system consists of three stages: an inertial impactor stage, an indexing media stage, and a high-efficiency filter stage, packaged in a stacked modular cartridge configuration. Each stage will target a specific range of particle sizes that optimize the filtration and regeneration performance of the system. An 1/8th scale and full-scale prototype of the filter system have been fabricated and have been tested in the laboratory and reduced gravity environments that simulate conditions on spacecrafts, landers and habitats. Results from recent laboratory and reducegravity flight tests data will be presented.

  10. Development and evaluation of a fish assemblage index of biotic integrity for northwestern Great Plains streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramblett, R.G.; Johnson, T.R.; Zale, A.V.; Heggem, D.G. [Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Ecology

    2005-05-01

    Quantitative indicators of biological integrity are needed for streams in the Great Plains of North America, but it was not known whether the index of biotic integrity (IBI) approach would be effective in this semiarid region. Great Plains streams have a depauperate and tolerant ichthyofauna and highly variable physicochemical conditions that may mask the effects of non-point-source pollution and stream habitat degradation. We developed an IBI based on fish assemblages by screening metrics for range, responsiveness to human influence, precision, and lack of redundancy; we then tested the IBI's ability to detect anthropogenic effects by validating the index with an independent data set. The IBI was composed of 10 metrics based on species richness and composition, trophic and reproductive guilds, and age structure. These 10 metrics had many significant correlations with substrate and water chemistry variables but had fewer significant correlations with riparian condition and watershed variables. Of the watershed variables, road density had the highest number of significant correlations with final IBI metrics. The IBI was validated by demonstrating its responsiveness to aggregate measures of human influence, site-level habitat, and water chemistry, and its lack of responsiveness to factors that varied naturally, such as stream size and site elevation. This IBI can be used as a measure of biological integrity for management of prairie streams faced with threats such as introduced species, intensive agriculture, grazing, and coalbed natural gas extraction.

  11. Mapping plastic greenhouse with medium spatial resolution satellite data: Development of a new spectral index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dedi; Chen, Jin; Zhou, Yuan; Chen, Xiang; Chen, Xuehong; Cao, Xin

    2017-06-01

    Plastic greenhouses (PGs) are an important agriculture development technique to protect and control the growing environment for food crops. The extensive use of PGs can change the agriculture landscape and affects the local environment. Accurately mapping and estimating the coverage of PGs is a necessity to the strategic planning of modern agriculture. Unfortunately, PG mapping over large areas is methodologically challenging, as the medium spatial resolution satellite imagery (such as Landsat data) used for analysis lacks spatial details and spectral variations. To fill the gap, the paper proposes a new plastic greenhouse index (PGI) based on the spectral, sensitivity, and separability analysis of PGs using medium spatial resolution images. In the context of the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, the paper examines the effectiveness and capability of the proposed PGI. The results indicate that PGs in Landsat ETM+ image can be successfully detected by the PGI if the PG fraction is greater than 12% in a mixed pixel. A kappa coefficient of 0.83 and overall accuracy of 91.2% were achieved when applying the proposed PGI in the case of Weifang District, Shandong, China. These results show that the proposed index can be applied to identifying transparent PGs in atmospheric corrected Landsat image and has the potential for the digital mapping of plastic greenhouse coverage over a large area.

  12. Development of a Summarized Health Index (SHI for use in predicting survival in sea turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hsien Li

    Full Text Available Veterinary care plays an influential role in sea turtle rehabilitation, especially in endangered species. Physiological characteristics, hematological and plasma biochemistry profiles, are useful references for clinical management in animals, especially when animals are during the convalescence period. In this study, these factors associated with sea turtle surviving were analyzed. The blood samples were collected when sea turtles remained alive, and then animals were followed up for surviving status. The results indicated that significantly negative correlation was found between buoyancy disorders (BD and sea turtle surviving (p < 0.05. Furthermore, non-surviving sea turtles had significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotranspherase (AST, creatinine kinase (CK, creatinine and uric acid (UA than surviving sea turtles (all p < 0.05. After further analysis by multiple logistic regression model, only factors of BD, creatinine and UA were included in the equation for calculating summarized health index (SHI for each individual. Through evaluation by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve, the result indicated that the area under curve was 0.920 ± 0.037, and a cut-off SHI value of 2.5244 showed 80.0% sensitivity and 86.7% specificity in predicting survival. Therefore, the developed SHI could be a useful index to evaluate health status of sea turtles and to improve veterinary care at rehabilitation facilities.

  13. Worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and its association with human development index in 76 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumith, Samuel C; Hallal, Pedro C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Kohl, Harold W

    2011-01-01

    To describe the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity and to analyze its association with development level of each country. Pooled analysis of three multicenter studies, conducted between 2002 and 2004, which investigated the prevalence of physical inactivity in 76 countries, and comprised almost 300,000 individuals aged 15 years or older. Each study used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess physical inactivity. The level of development of each country was analyzed by the Human Development Index (HDI). The crude worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity was 21.4% (95%CI 18.4-24.3), being higher among women (mean=23.7%, 95%CI 20.4-27.1) than men (mean=18.9%, 95%CI 16.2-21.7). It ranged from 2.6% (in Comoros) to 62.3% (in Mauritania), with a median equal to 18%. After weighting for the total population of each country, the worldwide prevalence of physical inactivity was 17.4% (95%CI 15.1-19.7). There was a positive association between HDI and prevalence of physical inactivity (rho=0.27). Less developed countries showed the lowest prevalence of physical inactivity (18.7%), while physical inactivity was more prevalent among the most developed countries (27.8%). One out of five adults around the world is physically inactive. Physical inactivity was more prevalent among wealthier and urban countries, and among women and elderly individuals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Groundwater Development area in Jianan Plain using Standardized Groundwater Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chang Hsiang; Haw, Lee Cheng

    2017-04-01

    Taiwan has been facing severe water crises in recent years owing to the effects of extreme weather conditions. Changes in precipitation patterns have also made the drought phenomenon increasingly prominent, which has indirectly affected groundwater recharge. Hence, in the present study, long-term monitoring data were collected from the study area of the Jianan plain. The standardized groundwater index (SGI) and was then used to analyse the region's drought characteristics. To analyse the groundwater level by using SGI, making SGI180 groundwater level be the medium water crises, and SGI360 groundwater level be the extreme water crises. Through the different water crises signal in SGI180 and SGI360, we divide groundwater in Jianan plain into two sections. Thereby the water crises indicators establishing groundwater level standard line in Jianan Plain, then using the groundwater level standard line to find the study area where could be groundwater development area in Jianan plain. Taking into account relatively more water scarcity in dry season, so the study screen out another emergency backup groundwater development area, but the long-term groundwater development area is still as a priority development area. After finding suitable locations, groundwater modeling systems(GMS) software is used to simulate our sites to evaluate development volume. Finally, the result of study will help the government to grasp the water shortage situation immediately and solve the problem of water resources deployment.

  15. The development and preliminary validation of a Preference-Based Stroke Index (PBSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poissant, Lise; Mayo, Nancy E; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Clarke, Ann E

    2003-09-10

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) is a key issue in disabling conditions like stroke. Unfortunately, HRQL is often difficult to quantify in a comprehensive measure that can be used in cost analyses. Preference-based HRQL measures meet this challenge. To date, there are no existing preference-based HRQL measure for stroke that could be used as an outcome in clinical and economic studies of stroke. The aim of this study was to develop the first stroke-specific health index, the Preference-based Stroke Index (PBSI). The PBSI includes 10 items; walking, climbing stairs, physical activities/sports, recreational activities, work, driving, speech, memory, coping and self-esteem. Each item has a 3-point response scale. Items known to be impacted by a stroke were selected. Scaling properties and preference-weights obtained from individuals with stroke and their caregivers were used to develop a cumulative score. Compared to the EQ-5D, the PBSI showed no ceiling effect in a high-functioning stroke population. Moderately high correlations were found between the physical function (r = 0.78), vitality (r = 0.67), social functioning (r = 0.64) scales of the SF-36 and the PBSI. The lowest correlation was with the role emotional scale of the SF-36 (r = 0.32). Our results indicated that the PBSI can differentiate patients by severity of stroke (p < 0.05) and level of functional independence (p < 0.0001). Content validity and preliminary evidence of construct validity has been demonstrated. Further work is needed to develop a multiattribute utility function to gather information on psychometric properties of the PBSI.

  16. The development and preliminary validation of a Preference-Based Stroke Index (PBSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Ann E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-related quality of life (HRQL is a key issue in disabling conditions like stroke. Unfortunately, HRQL is often difficult to quantify in a comprehensive measure that can be used in cost analyses. Preference-based HRQL measures meet this challenge. To date, there are no existing preference-based HRQL measure for stroke that could be used as an outcome in clinical and economic studies of stroke. The aim of this study was to develop the first stroke-specific health index, the Preference-based Stroke Index (PBSI. Methods The PBSI includes 10 items; walking, climbing stairs, physical activities/sports, recreational activities, work, driving, speech, memory, coping and self-esteem. Each item has a 3-point response scale. Items known to be impacted by a stroke were selected. Scaling properties and preference-weights obtained from individuals with stroke and their caregivers were used to develop a cumulative score. Results Compared to the EQ-5D, the PBSI showed no ceiling effect in a high-functioning stroke population. Moderately high correlations were found between the physical function (r = 0.78, vitality (r = 0.67, social functioning (r = 0.64 scales of the SF-36 and the PBSI. The lowest correlation was with the role emotional scale of the SF-36 (r = 0.32. Our results indicated that the PBSI can differentiate patients by severity of stroke (p Conclusions Content validity and preliminary evidence of construct validity has been demonstrated. Further work is needed to develop a multiattribute utility function to gather information on psychometric properties of the PBSI.

  17. Index for Inclusion: Developing Play, Learning and Participation in Early Years and Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tony; Ainscow, Mel; Kingston, Denise

    2006-01-01

    This 2006 revised and updated edition of the Index for early years and childcare now includes a CD Rom to make it more accessible. The Index is a detailed set of materials to help settings increase the participation of children and young people in play and learning. The Index involves a self-review of all aspects of a setting, drawing on…

  18. Development of invertebrate community indexes of stream quality for the islands of Maui and Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Reuben H.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009-10 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected physical habitat information and benthic macroinvertebrates at 40 wadeable sites on 25 perennial streams on the Island of Maui, Hawaiʻi, to evaluate the relations between the macroinvertebrate assemblages and environmental characteristics and to develop a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) that could be used as an indicator of stream quality. The macroinvertebrate community data were used to identify metrics that could best differentiate among sites according to disturbance gradients such as embeddedness, percent fines (silt and sand areal coverage), or percent agricultural land in the contributing basin area. Environmental assessments were conducted using land-use/land-cover data and reach-level physical habitat data. The Maui data were first evaluated using the previously developed Preliminary-Hawaiian Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-HBIBI) to determine if existing metrics would successfully differentiate stream quality among the sites. Secondly, a number of candidate invertebrate metrics were screened and tested and the individual metrics that proved the best at discerning among the sites along one or more disturbance gradients were combined into a multimetric invertebrate community index (ICI) of stream quality. These metrics were: total invertebrate abundance, Class Insecta relative abundance, the ratio of Trichoptera abundance to nonnative Diptera abundance, native snail (hihiwai) presence or absence, native mountain shrimp (′δpae) presence or absence, native torrent midge (Telmatogeton spp.) presence or absence, and native Megalagrion damselfly presence or absence. The Maui ICI classified 15 of the 40 sites (37.5 percent) as having "good" quality communities, 17 of the sites (42.5 percent) as having "fair" quality communities, and 8 sites (20 percent) as having "poor" quality communities, a classification that may be used to initiate further investigation into the causes of the poor

  19. [Psychomotor education and speech therapy when weaning a child off artificial feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malécot-Le Meur, Gaëlle; Soulez-Larivière, Laure; Abadie, Véronique; Thouvenin, Béatrice; Rastel, Christine; Chalouhi, Christel

    To support children and their families with weaning off artificial nutrition, a psychomotor therapist and speech therapist from the 'Pierre Robin syndrome and congenital sucking-swallowing disorders' specialist rare disease centre at Necker-Enfant Malades hospital in Paris, have set up a joint consultation, as a complement to medical consultations. This programme shows how speech therapy and psychomotor education can complement each other in order to help children and their parents during this difficult period.

  20. “BRAINSTORM” OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEXES AND INDICATORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VOLGA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kostina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – development of management strategies ensuring sustainable development of the territories of the Volga river basin and its administrative units.Methods. In the research we used various methods of mathematical statistics, systematic principles. We propose the conception of "brainstorming" for the assessment of the territory using indices and indicators of sustainable development.Results. We selected nine indicators and indices. We have conducted a correlation analysis of the selected indices and indicators of sustainable development, all of which reflect the state of social, ecological and economic systems. For an integrated assessment of the two objects one introduced the "critical" and the "reference" state and fixed values for each index and indicator under the review. Factor analysis in the space of two principal components is conducted as well as one carried out the calculation of generalized desirability function for each administrative unit of the Volga river basin. "Brainstorm", taking into consideration indices and indicators of sustainable development, showed similarities in the administrative units of the Volga river basin, which primarily reflects approximately the same socio-ecological-economic development, defined by a single policy and economic decisions.Conclusion. The analysis revealed different management strategies of sustainable development of regions. The first group (strategy A includes the Republic of Tatarstan, and Chuvashia, Moscow and Samara regions, which should pay special attention to investments in improving the "life quality" by stabilizing and reducing the degree of anthropogenic load on the territory. The second group (strategy B: Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Tver and Kostroma and Perm regions - it is advisable to do finance and investment of resources in public education, increase the average lifetime, increase the incomes of the population. For the remaining areas optimally

  1. Inequality in Human Development Index and suicide death in Iran: A National Register–Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Veisani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pay attention to the effects of inequality in health outcomes has steadily risen during recent years. It is necessary step to achieve the goal of health for all (HFA in the coming decades. At the moment, our knowledge about the inequality and suicide is limited. Human Development Index (HDI is summary measures that we can demonstrate current inequalities regarded to health outcomes. We have reanalyzed the national data by Statistical Centre of Iran for HDI and Iranian Forensic Medicine Organization for suicide to explicate of inequality in suicide death in Iran. Our results showed an inverse correlation between HDI and suicide death, so that deaths from suicide was more occurred in provinces with lower HDI. Therefore, results in current study showed a positive inequality in suicide in relation with HDI in Iran. According to this, we suggested that regional studies will be conducted to detect subgroups with a high suicide risk as well as components of HDI that cause inequality.

  2. Development of a Danish Language Version of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Garrow, Adam P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) is a 19-item questionnaire for the assessment of disability caused by foot pain. The aim was to develop a Danish language version of the MFPDI (MFPDI-DK) and evaluate its reproducibility and construct validity. Methods. A Danish...... Scale (VAS). Reproducibility was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95% limits of agreement (Bland-Altman plot). Construct validity was evaluated with Pearson's Rho, using a priori hypothesized correlations with SF-36 subscales and VASmean. Results. The MFPDI-DK showed very...... instrument in evaluating foot-pain-related disability in Danish adult patients in cross-sectional samples. Further research is needed to test the responsiveness of the MFPDI-DK....

  3. Guidelines for using the Delphi Technique to develop habitat suitability index curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat Suitability Index (SI) curves are one method of presenting species habitat suitability criteria. The curves are often used with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) and are necessary components of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) (Armour et al. 1984). Bovee (1986) described three categories of SI curves or habitat suitability criteria based on the procedures and data used to develop the criteria. Category I curves are based on professional judgment, with 1ittle or no empirical data. Both Category II (utilization criteria) and Category III (preference criteria) curves have as their source data collected at locations where target species are observed or collected. Having Category II and Category III curves for all species of concern would be ideal. In reality, no SI curves are available for many species, and SI curves that require intensive field sampling often cannot be developed under prevailing constraints on time and costs. One alternative under these circumstances is the development and interim use of SI curves based on expert opinion. The Delphi technique (Pill 1971; Delbecq et al. 1975; Linstone and Turoff 1975) is one method used for combining the knowledge and opinions of a group of experts. The purpose of this report is to describe how the Delphi technique may be used to develop expert-opinion-based SI curves.

  4. Sustainable Development Index of Pedras de Fogo /PB: Contributive Subsidies on Planning City Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesinaldo Ataíde Cândido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development is a complex and fundamental issue to face the environmental crisis and because of that it calls the different segments of the society attention. As a mechanism to understand this important issue, several system- level indicators have arisen in order to measure the level of sustainability of countries, states and more recently, the cities. The aim of this article is to show the sustainability development index of Pedras de Fogo /PB as a mean to purchase the city planning .The methodology applied is based on the research of Martins and Candido (2008,which objective is to measure the sustainability development of the cities. The analysis of the results was obtained through a comparison between the sustainable development level of the other cities in Paraiba with the one of Pedras de Fogo. The results obtained were based not only on Martins and Candido methodology but also semi-structured interviews with some local authorities. The results show that a city sustainable planning is necessary taking into consideration the following dimensions: social, demographic, political -institutional, economic, environmental and cultural.

  5. Un indice per lo sviluppo sostenibile (An Index for Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Casadio Tarabusi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As a possible improvement to the United Nations' Human Development Index (HDI, we propose including in the set of individual variables some of an environmental or social nature. Thus, by rescaling all the variables non-linearly it is possible to mitigate the effect of outliers and synthesize by principal components, or alternatively by a different averaging method that takes sustainability into account and penalizes unbalances among different aspects of development. Both methods are easy to implement and calibrate. The ensuing effect on the ranking of world countries is compared to the HDI ranking. Come possibile miglioramento dell'Indice di Sviluppo Umano (ISU elaborato dall'Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite proponiamo di includere nell'insieme di variabili individuali alcune di natura ambientale o sociale, di riscalare opportunamente tutte le variabili non linearmente in modo da mitigare l'effetto deglioutliers, e di sintetizzare mediante le componenti principali, oppure attraverso un diverso metodo di media che, tenendo conto della sostenibilità, penalizza gli squilibri tra diversi aspetti dello sviluppo. Entrambi i metodi sono facili da implementare e da calibrare. Il loro effetto sulla graduatoria dei paesi mondiali viene raffrontata con quella dell'ISU.  JEL Codes: I31, O47Keywords: Development, Human Development, Indice

  6. Materializing Exposure: Developing an Indexical Method to Visualize Health Hazards Related to Fossil Fuel Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wylie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How can STS researchers collaborate with communities to design environmental monitoring devices that more effectively express their experiences and address gaps in regulation? This paper describes and shows the results of a novel method of visualizing environmental emissions of corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S exposure using photographic paper. H2S is a neurotoxic and flammable gas that smells like rotten eggs and is frequently associated with oil and natural gas extraction. Communities living with oil and gas development in Wyoming report odors of rotten eggs and describe symptoms of H2S exposure. H2S is recognized as an acute and chronic threat to human and environmental health and oil and gas companies are required to have plans in place to prevent and respond to accidental, high concentration releases of H2S. They are not, however, required to monitor, report or prevent routine daily emissions. Yet 15-25% of the oil and gas wells in the US are predicted to contain H2S, and some communities surrounded by multiple wells report chronic, routine exposure. Chronic exposure is difficult to represent with current tools for monitoring H2S because they are designed to measure acute workplace exposure. Informed by STS theories of black boxes and regimes of imperceptibility that focus on the need to revise not only regulations but also material tools of science, this paper describes the development of an indexical approach to visualizing this hazard. In indexical design, the reactive sensing element of a scientific instrument is brought to the foreground. The silver in the photopaper is an index as it tarnishes with H2S exposure. Discolored tests strips can be arranged together to form data-rich maps of the exposure landscape where this discoloration both represents how the gas spreads through a space and is a physical trace of the gas. Preliminary results in the form of data-rich maps show that regulating H2S emissions as primarily

  7. [Development and application of a new index for assessment of prenatal care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Esther Pereira da; Lima, Roberto Teixeira; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho; Batista Filho, Malaquias

    2013-05-01

    To develop and apply a new instrument to evaluate prenatal care based on the guidelines of the Brazilian Humanization Program for Prenatal Care and Birth, including quantitative and qualitative elements distributed according to the evaluation triad of structure, process, and outcomes. An analytic, descriptive, quantitative cross-sectional study was carried out with 238 women receiving care in 44 primary care services in the city of João Pessoa, Northeast Brazil, between November 2010 and December 2011. Physicians and nurses involved in prenatal care were also interviewed. The instrument developed by the investigators contains 23 questions relating to structure, process and outcomes of pre-natal care. Based on the information collected, pre-natal care was classified according to an IPR/Pre-Natal index (Índice IPR/Pré-Natal, where I stands for infrastructure, P for work process and R for results). A value of 1 is attributed to each question if it complies with the criteria established for quality, or 2 if it does not comply. The percent of adequate answers in relation to the 23 total questions is used to classify prenatal care as: upper adequate (100% adequate answers); adequate (>75%); intermediate (51 to 74%); and inadequate (Prenatal Care Utilization (APNCU) indices. Questions relating to the work process contributed significantly to the classification of prenatal care as intermediate according to the IPR/Pre-Natal. IPR/Pre-Natal classification categories were consistent to detect prematurity, insufficient weight at birth and absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The IPR/Pre-Natal index effectively incorporated quantitative and qualitative elements for the assessment of pre-natal care.

  8. Development of a global Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoolst, R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the 2012 IPCC SREX report, extreme drought events are projected to become more frequent and intense in several regions of the world. Wide and timely monitoring systems are required to mitigate the impact of agricultural drought. Therefore, FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) have established the `Agricultural Stress Index System' (ASIS). The ASIS is a remote sensing application that provides early warnings of agricultural drought at a global scale. The ASIS has first been designed and described by Rojas et al. (2011). This study focused on the African continent and was based on the back processing of low resolution data of the NOAA-satellites. In the current setup, developed by VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), the system operates in Near Real Time using data from the METOP-AVHRR sensor. The Agricultural Stress Index (ASI) is the percentage of agricultural area affected by drought in the course of the growing season within a given administrative unit. The start and end of the growing season are derived per pixel from the long term NDVI average of SPOT-VEGETATION. The Global Administrative Unit Layer (GAUL) defines the administrative boundaries at level 0, 1 and 2. A global cropland and grassland map eliminates non-agricultural areas. Temperature and NDVI anomalies are used as drought indicators and calculated at a per pixel base. The ASIS aggregates this information and produces every dekad global maps to highlight hotspots of drought stress. New developments are ongoing to strengthen the ASIS to produce country specific outputs, improve existing drought indicators and estimate production deficits using a probabilistic approach.

  9. Incidence of public expenditure on the human development index in Bogota, 1995-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Consuelo Rodríguez Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to test the hypothesis that social public expenditure per capita invested in Bogota has had a significant influence on the improvement of the city’s human development. For this purpose, the Human Development Index (HDI for the capital between 1995-2010 is estimated, using the new methodology proposed by the UNDP in 2010. Thus, a retrospective estimation of the life expectancy, salaries, and educational achievement rates is carried out, the last as a combination between the average years of education and expected years of instruction. A qualitative analysis is then presented, between the HDI components and the social public expenditure invested through politics, programs, projects carried out in the city, according to the District Development Plan “Bogotá positiva, para vivir mejor (Positive Bogota, to Live Better”. Finally, a quantitative analysis of this relation is made and it is concluded that social public spending per capita is significant to explain the HDI, since there is a long-term and stable relation between the two variables.

  10. Psychomotorický vývoj a vývoj motorických kompetencí kongenitálně nevidomého dítěte do 36 měsíců věku [Psychomotor development and development of motor competences of congenital blind children from born to 36 month of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kudláček

    2008-02-01

    žení do CNS, je výsledný pohyb rovněž prezentován v různém stupni patologie a stává se výrazně limitujícím faktorem pro budování vyšších úrovní motorických kompetencí. Praktickým důsledkem je pak špatná rytmizace pohybu, nesprávná časová a prostorová posloupnost pohybů, omezené rovnováhové schopnosti, špatná koordinace složitějších pohybů a další komplikace. Východiskem z této situace je promyšlená skladba aktivační stimulačních aplikovaných pohybových programů pod společnou kontrolou pediatra, neurologa a fyzioterapeuta. Cílem je, jak uvádí Nielsenová (1998, pochopit jednotlivé kroky v učení nevidomého dítěte při vývoji tak, abychom v řetězci posloupností nevynechali žádný článek. [Human movement is natural part of existence of all human beings. Children with visual impairments have significant needs, which should be supported by the medical and special educational services. For children with visual impairment (VI is crucial to understand their development in complex view and to provide services in complex team approach, which has long tradition in the Czech Republic. Children with visual impairments are usually born with adequate predisposition to the movement comparable to children without visual impairments, however due to the lack of visual sensory perceptions in early childhood, when children acquire 70 - 90% of information by sight, can lead to the developmental delays and in turn children mobility can look similar to children with cerebral palsy. Clearly there is a need for special movement intervention, which would facilitate the psychomotor development of children with VI. This intervention should be provided by experts in early intervention in adapted physical activities. The intervention cannot be solely based on passive stimulation of extremities, but needs to be carefully designed program stimulating psychomotor development. Unique opportunities are with the use of adapted aquatics

  11. Development and validation of the Chinese version of the Reintegration to Normal Living Index for use with stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Ricky W K; Yeung, Paul K C; Liao, Lin-Rong; Chung, Raymond C K

    2011-02-01

    To develop and validate a Chinese version of the Reintegration to Normal Living Index. Descriptive case-series. Seventy-five individuals with chronic stroke and 55 age-matched healthy subjects. The English version of the Reintegration to Normal Living Index was translated into Chinese using standardized procedures, and then administered to both the stroke and control groups. The same instrument was administered again to the stroke subjects 1-2 weeks later. The Chinese version of the Reintegration to Normal Living Index had good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.92) and test-retest reliability (intraclass coefficient = 0.87). The minimal detectable difference of the Index score was 14.8 (out of 100). Convergent validity of the Index was demonstrated by its significant association with Frenchay Activities Index (r = 0.439, p Reintegration to Normal Living Index score was significantly lower in the stroke group than in controls (p Reintegration to Normal Living Index is a reliable and valid tool for assessing satisfaction with community reintegration among Chinese people with chronic stroke.

  12. Prepolymer-based waveguiding thin films for the holographic recording of dry-developing refractive-index gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driemeier, W.

    1990-04-01

    A new concept is presented for the easy preparation of polymer systems which are characterized by a persistent photoinduced refractive-index change. These organic materials are based upon highly viscous prepolymers, reactive multifunctional thinners and uv-photoinitiators used in very high concentrations of max. 25%. Waveguiding thin films are applied for the optical recording of refractive-index gratings. The index modulation is enhanced by a dry development at 20-50°C up to 1.0×10 -2. A holographically produced grating coupler reaches efficiencies of 33% for an incident HeNe laser beam.

  13. Study of an evaluation index system of nursing undergraduate employability developed using the Delphi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi-Rong Ye

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: High positivity representative of the consulted experts enabled the construction of a reliable index system that can be used as a reference for cultivating nursing undergraduate employability.

  14. Development of a composite soil degradation assessment index for cocoa agroecosystems in southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenrele Adeniyi, Sunday; de Clercq, Willem Petrus; van Niekerk, Adriaan

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa agroecosystems are a major land-use type in the tropical rainforest belt of West Africa, reportedly associated with several ecological changes, including soil degradation. This study aims to develop a composite soil degradation assessment index (CSDI) for determining the degradation level of cocoa soils under smallholder agroecosystems of southwestern Nigeria. Plots where natural forests have been converted to cocoa agroecosystems of ages 1-10, 11-40, and 41-80 years, respectively representing young cocoa plantations (YCPs), mature cocoa plantations (MCPs), and senescent cocoa plantations (SCPs), were identified to represent the biological cycle of the cocoa tree. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm in each plot and analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Factor analysis of soil data revealed four major interacting soil degradation processes: decline in soil nutrients, loss of soil organic matter, increase in soil acidity, and the breakdown of soil textural characteristics over time. These processes were represented by eight soil properties (extractable zinc, silt, soil organic matter (SOM), cation exchange capacity (CEC), available phosphorus, total porosity, pH, and clay content). These soil properties were subjected to forward stepwise discriminant analysis (STEPDA), and the result showed that four soil properties (extractable zinc, cation exchange capacity, SOM, and clay content) are the most useful in separating the studied soils into YCP, MCP, and SCP. In this way, we have sufficiently eliminated redundancy in the final selection of soil degradation indicators. Based on these four soil parameters, a CSDI was developed and used to classify selected cocoa soils into three different classes of degradation. The results revealed that 65 % of the selected cocoa farms are moderately degraded, while 18 % have a high degradation status. The numerical value of the CSDI as an objective index of soil degradation

  15. Development of a composite soil degradation assessment index for cocoa agroecosystems in southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Adeniyi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa agroecosystems are a major land-use type in the tropical rainforest belt of West Africa, reportedly associated with several ecological changes, including soil degradation. This study aims to develop a composite soil degradation assessment index (CSDI for determining the degradation level of cocoa soils under smallholder agroecosystems of southwestern Nigeria. Plots where natural forests have been converted to cocoa agroecosystems of ages 1–10, 11–40, and 41–80 years, respectively representing young cocoa plantations (YCPs, mature cocoa plantations (MCPs, and senescent cocoa plantations (SCPs, were identified to represent the biological cycle of the cocoa tree. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0 to 20 cm in each plot and analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Factor analysis of soil data revealed four major interacting soil degradation processes: decline in soil nutrients, loss of soil organic matter, increase in soil acidity, and the breakdown of soil textural characteristics over time. These processes were represented by eight soil properties (extractable zinc, silt, soil organic matter (SOM, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available phosphorus, total porosity, pH, and clay content. These soil properties were subjected to forward stepwise discriminant analysis (STEPDA, and the result showed that four soil properties (extractable zinc, cation exchange capacity, SOM, and clay content are the most useful in separating the studied soils into YCP, MCP, and SCP. In this way, we have sufficiently eliminated redundancy in the final selection of soil degradation indicators. Based on these four soil parameters, a CSDI was developed and used to classify selected cocoa soils into three different classes of degradation. The results revealed that 65 % of the selected cocoa farms are moderately degraded, while 18 % have a high degradation status. The numerical value of the CSDI as an objective

  16. A NEW CLASSIFICATION OF ROMANIAN COUNTIES BASED ON A COMPOSITE INDEX OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaman Gheorghe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the problems concerning the improvement of regional classifications by using a composite index of economic development which encompasses four individual indicators: GDP/capita, labour productivity, FDIs and life expectancy. Our aim is to offer a better methodology and a multi-sided image on the regional development, from the perspective of two major factors of influence: Romania’s accession to EU and the recent economic crisis. A special attention should be paid to the hierarchical position of each influence factor. Depending on the specific factor mix, we try to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between economic resilience and vulnerability of each regional economy. The new approach based on the composite index’s computation has the advantage of providing a unique answer on problems such as unclear hierarchies or even contradictory results emerging from different classifications that use separate indicators. The study is covering the 2001-2012 period, divided into two sub-periods: 2001-2006 (pre-accession and 2007-2012 (post-accession.

  17. So you think you're bulletproof: Development and validation of the Invincibility Belief Index (IBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgore, William D S; Kelley, Amanda; Balkin, Thomas J

    2010-07-01

    Risk-taking propensity can be influenced by sensation-seeking traits and self-perceived invincibility. We hypothesized that the latter factor may reflect a stable trait that endures across situations and may influence risk-taking behavior. We developed and validated a 20-item scale, the Invincibility Belief Index (IBI) to measure this construct. The IBI demonstrated good internal consistency and excellent test-retest reliability in the development sample (n = 100) and sustained similar levels of reliability in a cross-validation sample (n = 74). Principal components analysis yielded three orthogonal factors measuring self-perceived impunity (immunity from consequences), boldness/audacity (self-assuredness and competitiveness), and adroitness (mental agility and survival skill). In the prediction of risk taking, IBI scores contributed additional unique variance beyond sensation-seeking scores alone. IBI scores demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity with concurrently administered measures. These preliminary results support the reliability and validity of the IBI as a brief measure of self-perceived vulnerability-invincibility in the face of adversity.

  18. Modeling the human development index and the percentage of poor people using quantile smoothing splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyani, Sri; Andriyana, Yudhie; Sudartianto

    2017-03-01

    Mean regression is a statistical method to explain the relationship between the response variable and the predictor variable based on the central tendency of the data (mean) of the response variable. The parameter estimation in mean regression (with Ordinary Least Square or OLS) generates a problem if we apply it to the data with a symmetric, fat-tailed, or containing outlier. Hence, an alternative method is necessary to be used to that kind of data, for example quantile regression method. The quantile regression is a robust technique to the outlier. This model can explain the relationship between the response variable and the predictor variable, not only on the central tendency of the data (median) but also on various quantile, in order to obtain complete information about that relationship. In this study, a quantile regression is developed with a nonparametric approach such as smoothing spline. Nonparametric approach is used if the prespecification model is difficult to determine, the relation between two variables follow the unknown function. We will apply that proposed method to poverty data. Here, we want to estimate the Percentage of Poor People as the response variable involving the Human Development Index (HDI) as the predictor variable.

  19. Trends in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) associated with urban development in northern West Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Igor; Miles, Victoria V.; Davy, Richard; Miles, Martin W.; Kurchatova, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Exploration and exploitation of oil and gas reserves of northern West Siberia has promoted rapid industrialization and urban development in the region. This development leaves significant footprints on the sensitive northern environment, which is already stressed by the global warming. This study reports the region-wide changes in the vegetation cover as well as the corresponding changes in and around 28 selected urbanized areas. The study utilizes the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from high-resolution (250 m) MODIS data acquired for summer months (June through August) over 15 years (2000-2014). The results reveal the increase of NDVI (or "greening") over the northern (tundra and tundra-forest) part of the region. Simultaneously, the southern, forested part shows the widespread decrease of NDVI (or "browning"). These region-wide patterns are, however, highly fragmented. The statistically significant NDVI trends occupy only a small fraction of the region. Urbanization destroys the vegetation cover within the developed areas and at about 5-10 km distance around them. The studied urbanized areas have the NDVI values by 15 to 45 % lower than the corresponding areas at 20-40 km distance. The largest NDVI reduction is typical for the newly developed areas, whereas the older areas show recovery of the vegetation cover. The study reveals a robust indication of the accelerated greening near the older urban areas. Many Siberian cities become greener even against the wider browning trends at their background. Literature discussion suggests that the observed urban greening could be associated not only with special tending of the within-city green areas but also with the urban heat islands and succession of more productive shrub and tree species growing on warmer sandy soils.

  20. Unrecognized Hypoxia and Respiratory Depression in Emergency Department Patients Sedated For Psychomotor Agitation: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Deitch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of respiratory depression in patients who are chemically sedated in the emergency department (ED is not well understood. As the drugs used for chemical restraint are respiratory depressants, improving respiratory monitoring practice in the ED may be warranted. The objective of this study is to describe the incidence of respiratory depression in patients chemically sedated for violent behavior and psychomotor agitation in the ED. Methods: Adult patients who met eligibility criteria with psychomotor agitation and violent behavior who were chemically sedated were eligible. SpO2 and ETCO2 (end-tidal CO2 was recorded and saved every 5 seconds. Demographic data, history of drug or alcohol abuse, medical and psychiatric history, HR and BP every 5 minutes, any physician intervention for hypoxia or respiratory depression, or adverse events were also recorded. We defined respiratory depression as an ETCO2 of >50 mmHg, a change of 10% above or below baseline, or a loss of waveform for >15 seconds. Hypoxia was defined as a SpO2 of 15 seconds. Results: We enrolled 59 patients, and excluded 9 because of >35% data loss. Twenty-eight (28/50 patients developed respiratory depression at least once during their chemical restraint (56%, 95% CI 42-69%; the median number of events was 2 (range 1-6. Twenty-one (21/50 patients had at least one hypoxic event during their chemical restraint (42%, 95% CI 29-55%; the median number of events was 2 (range 1-5. Nineteen (19/21 (90%, 95% CI 71-97% of the patients that developed hypoxia had a corresponding ETCO2 change. Fifteen (15/19 (79%, 95% CI 56-91% patients who became hypoxic met criteria for respiratory depression before the onset of hypoxia. The sensitivity of ETCO2 to predict the onset of a hypoxic event was 90.48% (95% CI: 68-98% and specificity 69% (95% CI: 49-84%. Five patients received respiratory interventions from the healthcare team to improve respiration [Airway repositioning: (2

  1. Development and validation of a multilateral index to determine economic status in developing countries: the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Joseph; Audureau, Etienne; Bizé, Marion; Koloshuk, Barbara; Ladner, Joël

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to develop and validate a multilateral index to determine patient ability to pay for medication in low- and middle-income countries. Primary data were collected in 2009 from 117 cancer patients in China, India, Thailand, and Malaysia. The initial tool included income, expenditures, and assets-based items using ad hoc determined brackets. Principal components analysis was performed to determine final weights. Agreement (Kappa) was measured between results from the final tool and from an Impact Survey (IS) conducted after beginning drug therapy to quantify a patient's actual ability to pay in terms of number of drug cycles per year. The authors present the step-by-step methodology employed to develop the tool on a country-by-country basis. Overall Cronbach value was 0.84. Agreement between the Patient Financial Eligibility Tool (PFET) and IS was perfect (equal number of drug cycles) for 58.1% of patients, fair (1 cycle difference) for 29.1%, and poor (>1 cycle) for 12.8%. Overall Kappa was 0.76 (Ppriced products in developing countries.

  2. Determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Deniz; Çalışkan, Nurcan; Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Karadağ, Ayise; Karabulut, Hatice

    2015-02-01

    Basic psychomotor skill training starts in the first year in nursing education. The psychomotor skills taught in the first year of nursing training constitute a foundation for all professional practices. Conducting periodic training for skills with which students are deficient can support mastery learning. The study was conducted as an interventional study for determining the effect of periodic training on the basic psychomotor skills learned in the Fundamentals of Nursing course. The sample consisted of 70 students attending the Fundamentals of Nursing course at nursing students in a university in Ankara, over 4 years between 2010 and 2013. The study was conducted as an interventional study for a period of 4 years. The data were collected through a questionnaire that was applied 4 times at the end of each academic year. According to the results of the forms evaluated at the end of each year, 4 additional laboratory activities were conducted addressing the deficient psychomotor skills of students at the beginning of the new academic semester in the 2nd and 3rd years. In the 4th-year clinic practice, courses were arranged to practice still deficient psychomotor skills. It was determined that students practiced nearly all of the basic psychomotor skills during clinical practice and that the practices with which they felt themselves to be inadequate gradually decreased following periodic training; this decrease was significant (pnursing students was effective. We recommend that students' psychomotor skills be evaluated periodically and repetitive training based on the results of this evaluation be provided throughout the undergraduate nursing education process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of single therapeutic doses of promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine on psychomotor function and histamine-induced wheal- and flare-responses: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Hiroyuki; Isaji, Ami; Noda, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Kazuhiro; Senzaki, Koji; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Sugiura, Kazumitsu; Tomita, Yasushi; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-05-01

    Since most first-generation antihistamines have undesirable sedative effects on the central nervous systems (CNS), newer (second-generation) antihistamines have been developed to improve patients' quality of life. However, there are few reports that directly compare the antihistaminic efficacy and impairment of psychomotor functions. We designed a double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover study to concurrently compare the clinical effectiveness of promethazine, a first-generation antihistamine, and fexofenadine and olopatadine, second-generation antihistamines, by measuring their potency as peripheral inhibitors of histamine-induced wheal and flare. Further, we investigated their sedative effects on the CNS using a battery of psychomotor tests. When single therapeutic doses of fexofenadine (60 mg), olopatadine (5 mg) and promethazine (25 mg) were given in a double-blind manner to 24 healthy volunteers, all antihistamines produced a significant reduction in the wheal and flare responses induced by histamine. In the comparison among antihistamines, olopatadine showed a rapid inhibitory effect compared with fexofenadine and promethazine, and had a potent effect compared with promethazine. In a battery of psychomotor assessments using critical flicker fusion, choice reaction time, compensatory tracking, rapid visual information processing and a line analogue rating scale as a subjective assessment of sedation, promethazine significantly impaired psychomotor function. Fexofenadine and olopatadine had no significant effect in any of the psychomotor tests. Promethazine, fexofenadine and olopatadine did not affect behavioral activity, as measured by wrist actigraphy. These results suggest that olopatadine at a therapeutic dose has greater antihistaminergic activity than promethazine, and olopatadine and fexofenadine did not cause cognitive or psychomotor impairment.

  4. Adoption and impact of index-insurance and credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marr, Ana; Winkel, Anne; Asseldonk, van Marcel; Lensink, Robert; Bulte, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent scientific literature on the determinants explaining the demand for index-insurance, the impact of index-insurance and the existing links between insurance and credit. In this meta-analysis, the authors identify key discoveries on t

  5. Adoption and impact of index-insurance and credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marr, Ana; Winkel, Anne; Asseldonk, van Marcel; Lensink, Robert; Bulte, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent scientific literature on the determinants explaining the demand for index-insurance, the impact of index-insurance and the existing links between insurance and credit. In this meta-analysis, the authors identify key discoveries on t

  6. A Rare Case of Psychomotor Disturbances Linked to the Use of an Adulterated Dietary Supplement Containing Sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Barak; Goldstein, Lee; Reshef, Amikam; Poperno, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Sibutramine, an oral anorexiant, is often found as an adulterant in various counterfeit herbal slimming products and dietary supplements. The use of sibutramine has been associated with various cardiovascular and psychiatric symptoms. Here, we report a rare case of psychomotor disturbances, in a patient with no previously diagnosed movement disorders. A 26-year-old woman developed abnormal behavior, visual hallucinations, hyperkinesia, facial flushing, and dizziness after taking a counterfeit dietary supplement which contained undeclared sibutramine and phenolphtalein. Laboratory work-up revealed microcytic anemia; leucopenia; and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein levels, and antistreptolysin O titer, but rheumatic fever was ruled out. After a neurologic examination, involuntary movements were classified as chorea. The psychiatric examination result was unremarkable. The patient responded well to haloperidol therapy. Body temperature, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein levels eventually normalized. The patient was discharged. This is the first report we are aware of about a transient, chorea-like psychomotor movement disorder associated with sibutramine. Although the causal relationship between sibutramine and the patient's symptoms cannot be proven definitely, the temporal dimension does suggest sibutramine initiation and termination led to onset and resolution of symptoms, respectively. Furthermore, because of the widespread availability of adulterated food supplements containing sibutramine, physicians should be more aware of their implications for patients.

  7. Construction of the Classification and Grading Index System of Cultivated Land Based on the Viewpoint of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In order to objectively and reasonably evaluate the actual and potential value of cultivated land, both social and ecological values are introduced into the classification and grading index system of cultivated land based on the viewpoint of sustainable development, after considering the natural and economic values of cultivated land. Index system construction of the sustainable utilization of cultivated land should follow the principles of economic viability, social acceptability, and ecological protection. Classification of cultivated land should take into account the soil fertility of cultivated land. Then, grading of cultivated land is carried out from the practical productivity (or potential productivity) of cultivated land. According to the existing classification index system of cultivated land, the soil, natural and environmental factors in plains, mountains and hills are mainly modified in the classification index system of cultivated land. And index systems for the cultivated land classification in plains, mountains and hills are set up. The grading index system of cultivated land is established based on the economic viability (economic value), social acceptability (social value) and protection of cultivated land (ecological value). Quantitative expression of cultivated land grading index is also carried out.

  8. The Changing Well-Being of Older Adult Registered Indians: An Analysis Using the Registered Indian Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Martin; Guimond, Eric; McWhirter, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The demographic aging of the Registered Indian population suggests that the social, economic, and health conditions of older Registered Indians will be increasingly important for communities and policymakers. We have adapted the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Index using data from the Census of Canada and the Indian…

  9. PC-PVT: a platform for psychomotor vigilance task testing, analysis, and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitrov, Maxim Y; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Wesensten, Nancy J; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-03-01

    Using a personal computer (PC) for simple visual reaction time testing is advantageous because of the relatively low hardware cost, user familiarity, and the relative ease of software development for specific neurobehavioral testing protocols. However, general-purpose computers are not designed with the millisecond-level accuracy of operation required for such applications. Software that does not control for the various sources of delay may return reaction time values that are substantially different from the true reaction times. We have developed and characterized a freely available system for PC-based simple visual reaction time testing that is analogous to the widely used psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). In addition, we have integrated individualized prediction algorithms for near-real-time neurobehavioral performance prediction. We characterized the precision and accuracy with which the system as a whole measures reaction times on a wide range of computer hardware configurations, comparing its performance with that of the "gold standard" PVT-192 device. We showed that the system is capable of measuring reaction times with an average delay of less than 10 ms, a margin of error that is comparable to that of the gold standard. The most critical aspect of hardware selection is the type of mouse used for response detection, with gaming mice showing a significant advantage over standard ones. The software is free to download from http://bhsai.org/downloads/pc-pvt/ .

  10. Development and Validation of MMPI-2-RF Scales for Indexing Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellbom, Martin; Drislane, Laura E; Johnson, Alexandria K; Goodwin, Brandee E; Phillips, Tasha R; Patrick, Christopher J

    2016-10-01

    The triarchic model characterizes psychopathy in terms of three distinct dispositional constructs of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. The model can be operationalized through scales designed specifically to index these domains or by using items from other inventories that provide coverage of related constructs. The present study sought to develop and validate scales for assessing the triarchic model domains using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). A consensus rating approach was used to identify items relevant to each triarchic domain, and following psychometric refinement, the resulting MMPI-2-RF-based triarchic scales were evaluated for convergent and discriminant validity in relation to multiple psychopathy-relevant criterion variables in offender and nonoffender samples. Expected convergent and discriminant associations were evident very clearly for the Boldness and Disinhibition scales and somewhat less clearly for the Meanness scale. Moreover, hierarchical regression analyses indicated that all MMPI-2-RF triarchic scales incremented standard MMPI-2-RF scale scores in predicting extant triarchic model scale scores. The widespread use of MMPI-2-RF in clinical and forensic settings provides avenues for both clinical and research applications in contexts where traditional psychopathy measures are less likely to be administered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Development of a spontaneous heating liability index of coal from kinetic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panigrahi, D.C.; Mishra, N.M. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India); Sahu, H.B. [National Inst. of Technology, Rourkela (India)

    2008-06-15

    This paper presented a newly developed spontaneous heating liability index (SHLI) of coal using a kinetics of low temperature oxidation approach. The oxidation rate was seen as a function of the temperature-dependent rate constant and a reaction model. An Arrhenius equation was used to examine the effects of temperature on the constant rate. Energy transferred through the coal during the reaction process was predicted using a Frank-Kamenetski model for conductive heat flow. Parameters examined in the study included the enthalpy change; the specific heat of the coal; the rate constant; and the time required to reach a specific temperature. Thirty-one coal samples were used to test the validity of the model. Experiments were conducted to obtain kinetic parameters for the samples. The susceptibility of the samples to spontaneous combustion was ascertained using a standard crossing-point temperature measurement method. The moisture percentage of the samples was obtained using a proximate analysis. A comparison of the SHLI and the crossing point temperature method demonstrated that the SHLI predicted the susceptibility of the coal to spontaneous heating more accurately than the crossing point temperature method.

  12. Development of a wound healing index for patients with chronic wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Susan D; Fife, Caroline E; Smout, Randall J; Barrett, Ryan S; Thomson, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials in wound care generalize poorly because they exclude patients with significant comorbid conditions. Research using real-world wound care patients is hindered by lack of validated methods to stratify patients according to severity of underlying illnesses. We developed a comprehensive stratification system for patients with wounds that predicts healing likelihood. Complete medical record data on 50,967 wounds from the United States Wound Registry were assigned a clear outcome (healed, amputated, etc.). Factors known to be associated with healing were evaluated using logistic regression models. Significant variables (p healing for each wound type. Some variables predicted significantly in nearly all models: wound size, wound age, number of wounds, evidence of bioburden, tissue type exposed (Wagner grade or stage), being nonambulatory, and requiring hospitalization during the course of care. Variables significant in some models included renal failure, renal transplant, malnutrition, autoimmune disease, and cardiovascular disease. All models validated well when applied to the holdout sample. The "Wound Healing Index" can validly predict likelihood of wound healing among real-world patients and can facilitate comparative effectiveness research to identify patients needing advanced therapeutics. © 2013 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Glycemic index and microstructure analysis of a newly developed fiber enriched cookie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Wonik, Jasmin; Bindrich, Ute; Heinemann, Michaela; Kohrs, Heike; Schneider, Inga; Möller, Katharina; Hahn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) is associated with an elevated risk for obesity or type 2 diabetes. We investigated the GI of a newly-developed fiber enriched cookie and characterized the microstructure of ingredients used. In a study with 26 non-diabetic healthy volunteers it was shown that the fiber enriched cookie has a GI of 58.9 in relation to white bread as reference. Using a conversion factor of 1.4, the GI of the fiber enriched cookie in relation to a glucose-solution is 42.0 and can be classified as a low-GI food. Postprandial insulin concentration was significantly lower after consumption of fiber enriched cookies compared to white bread. Glucose release after in vitro digestion was significantly lower from fiber enriched cookies compared to other cookies tested. In addition to its high percentage of fiber, the cookies' low GI can be attributed to the limited gelatinization potential of the starch granules found in the ingredients used. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy it is shown that starch granule surface area of whole grain barley flour, spelt flour and oat flakes bears cluster-shaped protein-NSPS complexes that preferentially absorb water in conditions of water shortage and thereby prevent starch gelatinization.

  14. Analysis on the Intention to Purchase Weather Index Insurance and Development Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Jung, J.; Shin, J.; Kim, B.

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze how to revitalize weather insurance. Current state of weather insurance market is firstly described, and the necessity of insurance products and intention to purchase are analyzed based on the recognition survey regarding weather insurance focusing on the weather index insurance. The result of intention to purchase insurance products were examined with Ordered Logit Analysis (OLA), indicating that the amount of damages, the impacts of weather change, and experience of damage and loss have a positive relationship with the intention to purchase weather insurance. In addition, recognition of the amount of acceptable payment for insurance (i.e. willingness to pay) was analyzed for both the group who wants to purchase insurance (Group 1) and the group who does not want to (Group 2). The results demonstrate that Group 1 shows statistically higher significance than Group 2. Based on the results above with the increase in abnormal weather phenomena, we could predict that the amount of damages and losses will be rapidly increasing. The portion of weather insurance market is also expected to consistently develop and expand. This study could be a cornerstone for drawing a plan to revitalize weather insurance.

  15. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  16. Development of a preliminary composite disease activity index in psoriatic arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mumtaz, Aizad

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop a preliminary composite psoriatic disease activity index (CPDAI) for psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. METHODS: Five domains were assessed and specific instruments were employed for each domain to determine the extent of domain involvement and the effect of that involvement on quality of life\\/function. Disease activity for each domain was then graded from 0 to 3 giving a CPDAI range of 0-15. Patient and physician global disease activity measures were also recorded and an independent physician was asked to indicate if treatment change was required. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed. Factor, tree analysis and standardised response means were also calculated. RESULTS: Significant correlation was seen between CPDAI and both patient (r = 0.834) and physician (r = 0.825) global disease activity assessments (p = 0.01). Tree analysis revealed that 96.3% of patients had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were greater than 6; no patient had their treatment changed when CPDAI values were less than 5. CONCLUSION: CPDAI correlates well with patient and physician global disease activity assessments and is an effective tool that clearly distinguishes those who require a treatment change from those who do not.

  17. Development of growth and body mass index after pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester, Udo; Schaefer, Antonia; Kranz, Birgitta; Wingen, Anne-Margret; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Malagò, Massimo; Broelsch, Christoph E; Hoyer, Peter F

    2005-08-01

    Suboptimal final height and marked weight gain after renal transplantation (RTx) are common and may result in obesity. Steroid free immunosuppression has been advocated to improve growth and limit weight gain. We evaluated retrospectively the evolution of growth and body mass index (BMI) after renal transplantation to study risk factors for weight gain under steroid based treatment. Sixty-four pediatric patients (age 9.9 +/- 5.0 yr) were included in the study. To allow comparison between different age groups, standard deviation scores (SDS) for height and BMI for height age were calculated at time of transplantation and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months later. Induction immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporine and prednisone. Growth retardation at time of RTx was obvious with a SDS for height of -2.20 +/- 1.34. Height during the first year improved to an SDS of -2.0 +/- 1.27 (p return to baseline values under steroid-based immunosuppression. Obesity (>2 SDS above normal) does not occur more often than in the normal population. The most predictive parameter of inappropriate weight gain during 3 yr is the BMI of the mother. We would speculate that steroids may play a major role in weight gain in the early phase after RTx. However, genetic or environmental factors predict the long-term weight development.

  18. Development of spatial water resources vulnerability index considering climate change impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Kyung Soo; Chung, Eun-Sung; Sung, Jin-Young; Lee, Kil Seong

    2011-11-15

    This study developed a new framework to quantify spatial vulnerability for sustainable water resources management. Four hydrologic vulnerability indices--potential flood damage (PFDC), potential drought damage (PDDC), potential water quality deterioration (PWQDC), and watershed evaluation index (WEIC)--were modified to quantify flood damage, drought damage, water quality deterioration, and overall watershed risk considering the impact of climate change, respectively. The concept of sustainability in the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework was applied in selecting all appropriate indicators (criteria) of climate change impacts. In the examination of climate change, future meteorological data was obtained using CGCM3 (Canadian Global Coupled Model) and SDSM (Statistical Downscaling Model), and future stream run-off and water quality were simulated using HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program - Fortran). The four modified indices were then calculated using TOPSIS, a multi-attribute method of decision analysis. As a result, the ranking obtained can be changed in consideration of climate change impacts. This study represents a new attempt to quantify hydrologic vulnerability in a manner that takes into account both climate change impacts and the concept of sustainability.

  19. Development of a new Delayed Memory Index for the WMS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Chelune, Gordon J; Price, Larry R

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the Delayed Memory Index (DMI) as an alternative to the General Memory Index (GMI) of the Weschler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WMS-III). The WMS-III Immediate Memory Index (IMI) and the GMI are not parallel in structure, making a direct comparison between these index scores (i.e., immediate vs. delayed memory variables) difficult. The IMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of four subtests (Logical Memory I, Verbal Paired Associates I, Faces I, and Family Pictures I) while the GMI is composed of the sum of scaled scores of five subtests (Logical Memory II, Verbal Paired Associates II, Faces II, Family Pictures II and Auditory Recognition Delayed). Inclusion of Auditory Recognition Delayed in the GMI is also problematic as it is highly skewed and limited by extreme ceiling effects (see Tulsky, Chiaravalloti, Palmer, & Chelune, 2003). To remedy these problems, we present a new index score that does not include auditory recognition, the Delayed Memory Index. Normative tables for the new Delayed Memory Index based on the inclusion of the Faces subtest, or alternatively the Visual Reproduction subtest, are presented, and initial estimates of their psychometric properties are described.

  20. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  1. Development of a Global Wetland Sustainability Index for comprehensive land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.; Havlik, P.; Stacke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Allocation of nature reserves for conservation of ecosystem functions and services is a multi-dimensional task. Conservation programs act from local to regional or national scales, and some efforts involve entire continents. Globally, several international environmental agreements have been established which include conservation issues. Examples are the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. A common aim of most initiatives is the protection and restoration of valuable natural sites by providing a functional network of sites. The planning of protected habitat networks to safeguard global biodiversity requires substantial knowledge on exposure, services, and functions of ecosystems. Further, the complex spatial relationships between humans and the environment under consideration of costs and land use competition have to be determined. Often such analyses are hindered by lack of data. We developed a global index that ranks sites for wetland protection according to its wetland quantity, wetland quality and pressure upon the wetland sites. Each of the three parts is based on several spatial-ecological datasets that contain important information for the adequate assessment of spatial economic and ecologic interdependencies. Applying cluster analyses and ecological decision trees the data are combined and results are translated to the final index and expressed per simulation unit for integration into the Global Biomass Optimization Model GLOBIOM. This global recursive dynamic partial equilibrium model integrates the agricultural, bio energy and forestry sectors with the aim to provide policy analyses on global issues concerning land use competition between the major land-based production sectors. Results not only show the most vulnerable wetland areas to nature loss and the most valuable wetland areas for biodiversity protection under

  2. Human development index is associated with mortality-to-incidence ratios of gastrointestinal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Da; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Bai, Xue-Li; Liang, Ting-Bo

    2013-08-28

    To identify the role of human development in the incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers worldwide. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates for gastrointestinal cancers, including cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and colorectum, were obtained from the GLOBOCAN 2008 database and United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) report. The human development index (HDI) data were calculated according to the 2011 Human Development Report. We estimated the mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) at the regional and national levels, and explored the association of the MIR with development levels as measured by the HDI using a modified "drug dose to inhibition response" model. Furthermore, countries were divided into four groups according to the HDI distribution, and the MIRs of the four HDI groups were compared by one-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. State-specific MIRs in the United States were predicted from the estimated HDI using the fitted non-linear model, and were compared with the actual MIRs calculated from data in the USCS report. The worldwide incidence and mortality rates of gastrointestinal cancers were as high as 39.4 and 54.9 cases per 100000 individuals, respectively. Linear and non-linear regression analyses revealed an inverse correlation between the MIR of gastrointestinal cancers and the HDI at the regional and national levels (β < 0; P = 0.0028 for regional level and < 0.0001 for national level, ANOVA). The MIR differed significantly among the four HDI areas (very high HDI, 0.620 ± 0.033; high HDI, 0.807 ± 0.018; medium HDI, 0.857 ± 0.021; low HDI, 0.953 ± 0.011; P < 0.001, one-way ANOVA). Prediction of the MIRs for individual United States states using best-fitted non-linear models showed little deviation from the actual MIRs in the United States. Except for 28 data points (9.93% of 282), the actual MIRs of all gastrointestinal cancers were mostly located in the prediction

  3. Landscape shape index, as a potential indicator of urban development in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Gyenizse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study of settlement shape, morphology and structure is a classic topic of urban geography. Since the 1960s multiple shape indices have been developed. Urban patterns were then compared with geometric forms or, alternatively their temporal changes were tracked and analysed. In the current study we adapted the landscape shape index (LSI to analyse the historical shape development of eight Hungarian cities. The LSI is capable to demonstrate the functional and mutual relationship between the developed area and their immediate physical and natural environment. Over the past 230 years the land area of the studied cities has increased manifold for several reasons: on average, an areal increase of 10.4 to 24.5 was observed for the eight settlements, while their perimeter increased by 8.8 to 30.3 times. Simultaneously with their size growth, the studied cities are characterized by an increasingly fragmented and dissected ground plans. Consequently, due to the longer border between the developed areas and the adjacent natural zones, urban areas have become increasingly sensitive to environmental effects over the past century, while mutual ecological and environmental interactions has also considerably increased between the adjoining zones. In general, cities of hilly and low-mountain areas had the highest LSIs, whereas cities located on relatively flat grounds had comparatively low LSIs. We also investigated the rank correlation of the historical change of LSI of the studied settlements. Cities of high positive correlations (> 0.9 were classified into two major categories. Miskolc, Pécs, Szeged and Kecskemét belonged to the group of higher LSIs, whereas Székesfehérvár and Nyíregyháza fell into the class of medium LSIs and the third category included Debrecen and Győr, cities of low (< 0.9 LSIs. Based on the temporal trends of the LSIs, our results provide applicable information for decision makers in order to monitor, manage and track their

  4. Comparison of Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and standard score with the Bayley Mental Development Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggio, D J; Massingale, T W; Bass, J D

    1994-08-01

    The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form standard score, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Survey Form age equivalent and Bayley scales' Mental Development Index were given to 44 high-risk infants age 12 mo. and suspected of developmental delay. The VABS-Survey Form, a revision of the Vineland Social Maturity Scale is frequently used in assessment of developmental delay; however, questions have arisen as to whether the standard score or age equivalent is the better measure. A developmental quotient based on VABS-SF age equivalent and VABS-SF standard score was compared with the Bayley Mental Development Index. The mean VABS-SF standard score was significantly higher than the age equivalent quotient and the Bayley Mental Development Index. Implications for the use of VABS-SF age equivalent in evaluating such infants are discussed.

  5. Cancer incidence and mortality are associated with human development index and health setups in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Ruqiya; Faisal, Faisal

    2017-06-29

    This study aimed to analyse the correlation between cancer incidence and mortality and the Human Development Index (HDI) in Africa. Furthermore, to analyse the variations in cancer Mortality to Incidence Ratio (MIR) based on health care systems in African countries. Cancer incidence and mortality data for 53 countries were obtained from GLOBOCAN database. Country-wise data on National-HDI were obtained from Human Development Report 2015. Health System Attainment (HSA) data were acquired from World Health Report 2000. The parametric data were analysed by Pearson-correlation and Linear-regression analysis for the effect of HDI and HSA on MIR in African Countries. One-way ANOVA was used to test the differences of MIR in each HDI group. All analyses were performed in SPSS version 20. An inverse correlation was revealed by cancer MIR with both HDI (r=-0.897, p<0.001) and HSA (r=-0.750, p<0.001). A significantly low MIR was reported from high HDI countries compared to medium and low HDI countries by one-way ANOVA analysis (p<0.001). Linear regression analysis also reported a negative effect of MIR with both HDI (adjusted R(2)=0 0.801, β=-0.897, p<0.001) and HSA (adjusted R(2)=0.554, β=-0.750, p<0.001). Based on their HDIs, different African countries has different health system attainments, which is the cause of variations in MIR in these countries. To control their cancer burden, these low and medium HDI countries should focus on improvement of their economic status and policies making, regarding the provision of better health systems to the masses. Copyright © 2017 National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidence and mortality of kidney cancers, and human development index in Asia; a matter of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Masoumeh; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Ghoncheh, Mahshid; Hadadian, Fatemeh; Towhidi, Farhad; Vafaee, Kamran; Salehiniya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of kidney cancer have steadily increased by 2%- 3% per decade worldwide, and an increased risk of kidney cancer has been observed in many Asian countries. The information on the incidence and mortality of a disease and its distribution is essential for better planning for prevention and further studies. This study aimed to assess the incidence and mortality of kidney cancer and their correlation with the human development index (HDI) in Asia. This ecological study was based on GLOBOCAN data Asia for assessment the correlation between age-specific incidence rate (ASIR) and age-specific mortality rate (ASMR) with HDI and its details that include life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and gross national income (GNI) per capita. We use of correlation bivariate method for assessment the correlation between ASIR and ASMR with HDI and its components. A total of 121 099 kidney cancer cases were recorded in Asian countries in 2012.Overall, 80 080 cases (66.12%) were males. Sex ratio was 1.95. The three countries with the highest number of new patients were china (66 466 cases), Japan (16 830 cases), India(9658 cases), respectively. Positive correlation were seen between HDI and ASIR of kidney cancer 0.655 (P = 0.001), and HDI and ASMR of kidney cancer 0.285 (P = 0.055). A positive relationship between ASIR and the HDI was seen. The relationship is due to risk factors in countries with high development such as older age, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and diet. However, ASMR showed no significant relationship with HDI.

  7. Characterization of Urban Heat and Exacerbation: Development of a Heat Island Index for California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Taha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To further evaluate the factors influencing public heat and air-quality health, a characterization of how urban areas affect the thermal environment, particularly in terms of the air temperature, is necessary. To assist public health agencies in ranking urban areas in terms of heat stress and developing mitigation plans or allocating various resources, this study characterized urban heat in California and quantified an urban heat island index (UHII at the census-tract level (~1 km2. Multi-scale atmospheric modeling was carried out and a practical UHII definition was developed. The UHII was diagnosed with different metrics and its spatial patterns were characterized for small, large, urban-climate archipelago, inland, and coastal areas. It was found that within each region, wide ranges of urban heat and UHII exist. At the lower end of the scale (in smaller urban areas, the UHII reaches up to 20 degree-hours per day (DH/day; °C.hr/day, whereas at the higher end (in larger areas, it reaches up to 125 DH/day or greater. The average largest temperature difference (urban heat island within each region ranges from 0.5–1.0 °C in smaller areas to up to 5 °C or more at the higher end, such as in urban-climate archipelagos. Furthermore, urban heat is exacerbated during warmer weather and that, in turn, can worsen the health impacts of heat events presently and in the future, for which it is expected that both the frequency and duration of heat waves will increase.

  8. Decreased body mass index as an independent risk factor for developing chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokashiki, Kaori; Tozawa, Masahiko; Iseki, Chiho; Kohagura, Kentaro; Kinjo, Kozen; Takishita, Shuichi; Iseki, Kunitoshi

    2009-02-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Few studies have examined the effect of change in body mass index (DeltaBMI) on CKD incidence in a general screening setting. Subjects of this study were screenees that participated in the screening program of the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association in 1993 and 2003 in Okinawa, Japan. Using identification number, birth date, sex, and other recorded identifiers, we identified 33,389 subjects among the 1993 screening participants (N = 143,948) who also participated in the 2003 screening. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate diet in renal disease study equation. Obesity was defined as BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2). CKD prevalence was 13.8% in 1993 and 22.4% in 2003. The incidence of developing CKD in 10 years was 15.5%. The effect of DeltaBMI on CKD incidence was evaluated after considering other confounding factors such as age, sex, blood pressure, BMI, fasting plasma glucose, and proteinuria. Median DeltaBMI was 1.0%. The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for the effect of DeltaBMI on CKD incidence was 1.111 (1.026-1.204, P or = 1% was taken as a reference. DeltaBMI was an independent predictor of CKD incidence. The present results suggest that there was an inverse relationship between DeltaBMI and CKD incidence among screened subjects. The reasons for this observation are not clear, but careful follow-up for DeltaBMI is necessary, particularly in obese men with proteinuria.

  9. Black bile and psychomotor retardation: shades of melancholia in Dante's Inferno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, David A J

    2004-03-01

    The history of melancholy depression is rich with images of movement retardation and mental dysfunction. The recent restoration of psychomotor symptoms to the diagnostic terminology of affective disorder is not novel to the students of medieval melancholia. The move back to the biology of this psychomotor dysfunction with the technical advances in brain imaging in recent years only echoes centuries-old writings on the centrality of movement changes in the depressive condition. The Inferno, the first cantica of Dante Alighieri's Commedia, has a wonderful abundance of allusions to the importance of psychomotor symptoms in describing the depressed individual. Slowed steps, garbled speech, frozen tears, these and many other images keep the physical manifestations of psychomotor suffering in the forefront of the reader's mind. Considering Medieval and Renaissance writings on melancholy suffering, it is fitting that Dante shows a bodily illness reflected in the hellish torments visited on the damned. From the souls of the sullen to those of the violent, the panorama of psychomotor symptoms plays a prominent role in the poem as well as in the medical and literary prose of succeeding centuries.

  10. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationships of cognitive and psychomotor effects of intravenous buprenorphine infusion in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mette L; Sjøgren, Per; Upton, Richard N; Foster, David J R; Bonde, Peter; Graae, Christian; Skram, Ulrik; Stevner, Lene; Christrup, Lona L

    2008-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of the effects of buprenorphine on cognitive functioning in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three male volunteers received 0.6 mg buprenorphine as an intravenous infusion over 150 min. The cognitive and psychomotor performance was evaluated before and at various times after drug administration by a test battery consisting of trail-making test for visual information processing, finger-tapping test for psychomotor speed, and continuous reaction time for attention. Non-linear mixed effect modelling was used in the analysis of the PK/PD relationships. Buprenorphine caused significant deficits in cognitive and psychomotor functioning. The time course of cognitive and psychomotor impairment was found to have a slow distribution to the biophase from plasma with PK/PD models involving an effect compartment providing the best descriptions of the time course of the data. The values for half-life of biophase equilibration were consistent between the neuropsychological tests in the range of 66.6-84.9 min. The time to onset and duration of the cognitive and psychomotor impairment of buprenorphine was determined by a slow distribution to the biophase.

  11. Correlation of psychomotor findings and the ability to partially weight bear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruckstuhl Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Partial weight bearing is thought to avoid excessive loading that may interfere with the healing process after surgery of the pelvis or the lower extremity. The object of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ability to partially weight bear and the patient's psychomotor skills and an additional evaluation of the possibility to predict this ability with a standardized psychomotor test. Methods 50 patients with a prescribed partial weight bearing at a target load of 15 kg following surgery were verbally instructed by a physical therapist. After the instruction and sufficient training with the physical therapist vertical ground reaction forces using matrix insoles were measured while walking with forearm crutches. Additionally, psychomotor skills were tested with the Motorische Leistungsserie (MLS. To test for correlations Spearman's Rank correlation was used. For further comparison of the two groups a Mann-Withney test was performed using Bonferroni correction. Results The patient's age and body weight significantly correlated with the ability to partially weight bear at a 15 kg target load. There were significant correlations between several subtests of the MLS and ground reaction forces measured while walking with crutches. Patients that were able to correctly perform partial weight bearing showed significant better psychomotor skills especially for those subtests where both hands had to be coordinated simultaneously. Conclusions The ability to partially weight bear is associated with psychomotor skills. The MLS seems to be a tool that helps predicting the ability to keep within the prescribed load limits.

  12. Psychomotor retardation in depression: a systematic review of diagnostic, pathophysiologic, and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  13. Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamila Bennabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

  14. A Low-Cost Point-of-Care Testing System for Psychomotor Symptoms of Depression Affecting Standing Balance: A Preliminary Study in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization estimated that major depression is the fourth most significant cause of disability worldwide for people aged 65 and older, where depressed older adults reported decreased independence, poor health, poor quality of life, functional decline, disability, and increased chronic medical problems. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1 to develop a low-cost point-of-care testing system for psychomotor symptoms of depression and (2 to evaluate the system in community dwelling elderly in India. The preliminary results from the cross-sectional study showed a significant negative linear correlation between balance and depression. Here, monitoring quantitative electroencephalography along with the center of pressure for cued response time during functional reach tasks may provide insights into the psychomotor symptoms of depression where average slope of the Theta-Alpha power ratio versus average slope of baseline-normalized response time may be a candidate biomarker, which remains to be evaluated in our future clinical studies. Once validated, the biomarker can be used for monitoring the outcome of a comprehensive therapy program in conjunction with pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, the frequency of falls can be monitored with a mobile phone-based application where the propensity of falls during the periods of psychomotor symptoms of depression can be investigated further.

  15. Evaluating Muscle Mass by Using Markers of Kidney Function: Development of the Sarcopenia Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Kianoush B; Frazee, Erin N; Kukrálová, Lucie; Sarvottam, Kumar; Herasevich, Vitaly; Young, Phillip M; Kashyap, Rahul; Lieske, John C

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with a poor prognosis in the ICU. The purpose of this study was to describe a simple sarcopenia index using routinely available renal biomarkers and evaluate its association with muscle mass and patient outcomes. A retrospective cohort study. A tertiary-care medical center. High-risk adult ICU patients from October 2008 to December 2010. The gold standard for muscle mass was quantified with the paraspinal muscle surface area at the L4 vertebrae in the subset of individuals with an abdominal CT scan. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, serum creatinine-to-serum cystatin C ratio was found to be the best performer in the estimation of muscle mass. The relationship between sarcopenia index and hospital and 90-day mortality, and the length of mechanical ventilation was evaluated. Out of 226 enrolled patients, 123 (54%) were female, and 198 (87%) were white. Median (interquartile range) age, body mass index, and body surface area were 68 (57-77) years, 28 (24-34) kg/m, and 1.9 (1.7-2.2) m, respectively. The mean (± SD) Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III was 70 (± 22). ICU, hospital, and 90-day mortality rates were 5%, 12%, and 20%, respectively. The correlation (r) between sarcopenia index and muscle mass was 0.62 and coefficient of determination (r) was 0.27 (p sarcopenia index was independently predictive of both hospital (p = 0.001) and 90-day mortality (p sarcopenia index (-1 d for each 10 unit of sarcopenia index [95% CI, -1.4 to -0.2; p = 0.006]). The sarcopenia index is a fair measure for muscle mass estimation among ICU patients and can modestly predict hospital and 90-day mortality among patients who do not have acute kidney injury at the time of measurement.

  16. Cephalic Index in the First Three Years of Life: Study of Children with Normal Brain Development Based on Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirginia Likus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic index is a highly useful method for planning surgical procedures, as well as assessing their effectiveness in correcting cranial deformations in children. There are relatively very few studies measuring cephalic index in healthy Caucasian young children. The aim of our study was to develop a classification of current cephalic index for healthy Caucasian children up to 3 years of age with normal brain development, using axial slice computer tomography performed with very thin slices (0.5 mm resulting in more accurate measurements. 180 healthy infants (83 females and 97 males were divided into 5 age categories: 0–3, 4–6, 7–12, 13–24, and 25–36 months. The average value of cephalic index in children up to 3 years of age amounted to 81.45 ± 7.06. The index value in case of children under 3 months was 80.19, 4 to 6 months was 81.45, 7 to 12 months was 83.15, in children under 2 years was 81.05, and in children under 3 years was 79.76. Mesocephaly is the dominating skull shape in children. In this study, we formulated a classification of current cephalic indices of children with normal brain development. Our date appears to be of utmost importance in anthropology, anatomy forensic medicine, and genetics.

  17. Exploring Electrical and Magnetic Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative Refractive-Index Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-03

    Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative Refractive - Index materials Grant/Contract Number AFOSR... Refractive - Index Materials Subtitle: Task 1: Radicals Based Molecular Metamaterials Task 2: Thin-Film Based Polymer Thermoelectric Devices 5a...and Magnetic Resonances from Coherently Correlated Long-Lived Radical Pairs towards Development of Negative - Index Materials Principle Investigator

  18. Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need

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    Passafiume Jason

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of benefits from meditation have been claimed by those who practice various traditions, but few have been well tested in scientifically controlled studies. Among these claims are improved performance and decreased sleep need. Therefore, in these studies we assess whether meditation leads to an immediate performance improvement on a well validated psychomotor vigilance task (PVT, and second, whether longer bouts of meditation may alter sleep need. Methods The primary study assessed PVT reaction times before and after 40 minute periods of mediation, nap, or a control activity using a within subject cross-over design. This study utilized novice meditators who were current university students (n = 10. Novice meditators completed 40 minutes of meditation, nap, or control activities on six different days (two separate days for each condition, plus one night of total sleep deprivation on a different night, followed by 40 minutes of meditation. A second study examined sleep times in long term experienced meditators (n = 7 vs. non-meditators (n = 23. Experienced meditators and controls were age and sex matched and living in the Delhi region of India at the time of the study. Both groups continued their normal activities while monitoring their sleep and meditation times. Results Novice meditators were tested on the PVT before each activity, 10 minutes after each activity and one hour later. All ten novice meditators improved their PVT reaction times immediately following periods of meditation, and all but one got worse immediately following naps. Sleep deprivation produced a slower baseline reaction time (RT on the PVT that still improved significantly following a period of meditation. In experiments with long-term experienced meditators, sleep duration was measured using both sleep journals and actigraphy. Sleep duration in these subjects was lower than control non-meditators and general population norms, with no apparent

  19. Development and validation of a Greek language version of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index

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    Menz Hylton B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI is a 19 item questionnaire used to assess the severity and impact of foot pain. The aim of this study was to develop a Greek-language version of the MFPDI and to assess the instrument's psychometric properties. Methods The MFPDI was translated into Greek by three bilingual content experts and two bilingual language experts, and then back-translated into English to assess for equivalence. The final Greek version was administered, along with a questionnaire consisting medical history and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36, to 104 Greek-speaking, community-dwelling people (64 female, 40 male, aged between 64 and 90 years (mean 73.00, SD 5.26 with disabling foot pain. Results The Greek translation of the MFPDI was found to have high internal consistency (Cronbach's α= 0.89, and item-total correlation coefficients from 0.33 to 0.72. Principal components analysis revealed a four-factor structure representing the constructs of functional limitation, pain intensity, concern with appearance and activity restriction, which explained 60.8% of the variance, with 38.9% of the variance explained by the first construct (functional limitation. Six items demonstrated different factor loadings to the original English version. Conclusion The Greek-language version of the MFPDI appears to be a valid tool in assessing foot pain in Greek-speaking older people. The total MFPDI scores are comparable between the Greek and English version, however due to differences in the factor loadings of some items, between-language comparisons of MFPDI should be undertaken with some caution.

  20. Development of relative thermal stress index (RTSI) for Monitoring and Management of Dry Deciduous Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Vijayan, D.

    Gir wildlife sanctuary located between 20 r 57 to 21 r 20 N and 70 r 28 to 71 r 13 E is the last home of Asiatic lions Its biodiversity comprises of 450 recorded flowering plant species 32 species of mammals 26 species of reptiles about 300 species of birds and more than 2000 species of insects As per 1995 census it has 304 lions and 268 leopards The movement of wildlife to thermally comfortable zones to reduce stress conditions forces the changes in management plan with reference to change in localized water demand This necessitates the use of space based thermal data available from AVHRR MODIS etc to monitor temperature of Gir-ecosystem for meso-scale level operational utility As the time scale of the variability of NDVI parameter is much higher than that for lower boundary temperature LBT the dense patch in riverine forest having highest NDVI value would not experience change in its vigour with the change in the season NDVI value of such patch would be near invariant over the year and temperature of this pixel could serve as reference temperature for developing the concept of relative thermal stress index RTSI which is defined as RTSI T p -T r T max -T r wherein T r T max and T p refer to LBT over the maximum NDVI reference point maximum LBT observed in the Gir ecosystem and the temperature of the pixel in the image respectively RTSI images were computed from AVHRR images for post-monsoon leaf-shedded and summer seasons Scatter plot between RTSI and NDVI for summer seasons

  1. Development of a water quality loading index based on water quality modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Kim, Kyehyun

    2009-03-01

    Water quality modeling is an ideal tool for simulating physical, chemical, and biological changes in aquatic systems. It has been utilized in a number of GIS-based water quality management and analysis applications. However, there is considerable need for a decision-making process to translate the modeling result into an understandable form and thereby help users to make relevant judgments and decisions. This paper introduces a water quality index termed QUAL2E water quality loading index (QWQLI). This new WQI is based on water quality modeling by QUAL2E, which is a popular steady-state model for the water quality of rivers and streams. An experiment applying the index to the Sapgyo River in Korea was implemented. Unlike other WQIs, the proposed index is specifically used for simulated water quality using QUAL2E to mainly reflect pollutant loading levels. Based on the index, an iterative modeling-judgment process was designed to make decisions to decrease input pollutants from pollutant sources. Furthermore, an indexing and decision analysis can be performed in a GIS framework, which can provide various spatial analyses. This can facilitate the decision-making process under various scenarios considering spatial variability. The result shows that the index can evaluate and classify the simulation results using QUAL2E and that it can effectively identify the elements that should be improved in the decision-making process. In addition, the results imply that further study should be carried out to automate algorithms and subsidiary programs supporting the decision-making process.

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring early after acute myocardial infarction: development of a new prognostic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Lanfranco; Pasceri, Vincenzo; Greco, Salvatore; Colivicchi, Furio; Malfatti, Solferina; Pede, Sergio; Guido, Vincenzo; Kol, Amir; Santini, Massimo

    2007-04-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the possible role of a prognostic index based on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in a large cohort of patients with recent myocardial infarction. The study population included 1335 consecutive patients admitted for ST elevation myocardial infarction and discharged alive from 48 Italian hospitals participating in the multicentric IMPRESSIVE (Infarto Miocardico, Pressione arteriosa e frequenza cardiaca. Studio Italiano di Valutazione Epidemiologica) study. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed 3 weeks after discharge, with a clinical follow-up of 12 months. End-points included cardiac death and new admission for heart failure. A prognostic index was obtained from the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring variables according to the formula: (220-age)-mean 24 h heart rate (m24hHR)+mean 24 h diastolic blood pressure (m24hDBP). Among many potential predictors only left-ventricular ejection fraction, creatinine levels, Killip class and the prognostic index were independently associated with events during the follow-up. In particular, higher values of the prognostic index were associated with a lower incidence of events, with an odds ratio of 0.958 (95% confidence intervals 0.943-0.974) and a 4% reduction in risk for each point of the prognostic index. Overall incidence of cardiac events was 6-fold higher in patients within the lowest quartile of the prognostic index (< or =148) compared with the other three quartiles (12 vs. 2, 1.4 and 2% respectively in the other three quartiles; P<0.0001). A simple prognostic index based on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and age may be a useful tool in predicting cardiac death and heart failure in patients with recent myocardial infarction.

  3. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  4. Climate Risk and Production Shocks: Using Index Insurance to Link Climate Science to Policy for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney, G. R.; Osgood, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    Smallholder farmers in developing countries are often severely impacted by droughts and other climate related events. However, agricultural insurance programs are largely unavailable in lower-income countries because of limitations in traditional loss-based indemnity insurance. As a result, it is often the case that farmers who are the most vulnerable to climate shocks lack access to the insurance tools that could help to reduce their production risk. Index insurance, a recent financial innovation, has the potential to increase access to insurance for smallholder farmers (Barrett et al. 2007). Index insurance allows farmers to insure their production risk based on a weather index (such as total seasonal rainfall) rather than on crop yields. The use of a weather index addresses many of the perverse incentive problems found in traditional crop insurance, and greatly reduces the costs of insuring smallholder farmers. The trade-off in index insurance, however, is limited accuracy in calibrating payouts to actual losses, a phenomenon commonly known as basis risk. While index insurance has promise as a risk-smoothing instrument, many argue it has greater promise as a mechanism for improving access to credit for smallholder farmers in developing countries (e.g. Barnett, Barrett & Skees 2008). In these areas, farmers are often fully exposed to climate shocks, which greatly affect their willingness to borrow. By smoothing the uncertainty in climate shocks, insurance may allow farmers to take credit for productive risks. There has been much discussion as to the optimal strategy for combining index insurance with credit, specifically if the financial institutions or the individual farmers themselves should hold the insurance policy. Many existing insurance implementations insure the farmer directly. However, since a weather index is a proxy for yield loss based on regional data, there is basis risk due to uninsured idiosyncratic differences between farmers. As a response to

  5. A pressure ulcer and fall rate quality composite index for acute care units: A measure development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Diane K; Jayawardhana, Ananda; Burman, Mary E; Dunton, Nancy E; Staggs, Vincent S; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Gajewski, Byron J

    2016-11-01

    Composite indices are single measures that combine the strengths of two or more individual measures and provide broader, easy-to-use measures for evaluation of provider performance and comparisons across units and hospitals to support quality improvement. The study objective was to develop a unit-level inpatient composite nursing care quality performance index-the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index. Two-phase measure development study. 5144 patient care units in 857 United States hospitals participating in the National Database of Nursing Quality Indictors(®) during the year 2013. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index was developed in two phases. In Phase 1 the formula was generated using a utility function and generalized penalty analysis. Experts with experience in healthcare quality measurement provided the point of indicator equivalence. In Phase 2 initial validity evidence was gathered based on hypothesized relationships between the Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index and other variables using two-level (unit, hospital) hierarchical linear mixed modeling. The Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index=100-PUR-FR, where PUR is pressure ulcer rate and FR is total fall rate. Higher scores indicate better quality. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated agreement between pairs of experts and provided evidence for inter-rater reliability of the formula. The validation process demonstrated that higher registered nurse skill mix, higher percent of registered nurses with a baccalaureate in nursing or higher degree, higher percent of registered nurses with national specialty certification, and lower percent of hours supplied by agency staff were significantly associated with higher Pressure Ulcer and Fall Rate Quality Composite Index scores. Higher percentages of unit patients at risk for a hospital-acquired pressure ulcer and higher unit rates of physical restraint use were not associated with higher Pressure

  6. Web-based Learning and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning for psychomotor skill acquisition: perspectives of medical undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Jansen; Cheung, Jeffrey J H; Mackinnon, Kim; Brett, Clare; Kapralos, Bill; Dubrowski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence for the use of Web-based Learning (WBL) and Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) for acquiring psychomotor skills in medical education. In this study, we surveyed medical undergraduate students attending a simulation based training session for central line insertion on their perspectives and utilization of WBL and CSCL for acquisition of a complex psychomotor skill.

  7. Modafinil for attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in advanced cancer: a double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundorff, L E; Jønsson, B H; Sjøgren, P

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment seems to be highly prevalent in patients with advanced cancer. Modafinil, a novel vigilance and wake-promoting agent, may be an alternative treatment. We wanted to investigate this treatment on attentional and psychomotor dysfunction in cancer patients. 28 cancer patients...... cognitive tests of psychomotor speed and attention. Furthermore subjective scores of depression and drowsiness were significantly improved by modafinil....

  8. The Development of a Warm-Weather Relative Stress Index for Environmental Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Jill D.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.

    2004-04-01

    The heat stress index (HSI) is a new, comprehensive summer index that evaluates daily relative stress for locations throughout the United States based on deviations from the norm. The index is based on apparent temperature and other derived meteorological variables, including cloud cover, cooling degree-days, and consecutive days of extreme heat. Statistical distributions of meteorological variables are derived for 10-day periods of the annual cycle so that percentile values for each parameter can be determined. The daily percentile values for each variable are then summed, and a statistical distribution is fit to the summed frequencies. The daily HSI value is the percentile associated with the location of the daily summed value under the summation curve. The index is analyzed and spatially verified by comparing intra- and interregional results. Although stations from various climate regions have different criteria defining an excessive heat stress event, neighboring stations typically produce similar HSI results because they are usually affected by the same air mass. To test the effectiveness of the HSI, a relationship between the index results and mortality values is made. Overall, the highest mortality days are associated with the highest HSI values, but high-HSI days are not always associated with high numbers of deaths. A mortality study such as this one is just one of many potential environmental applications of the HSI. Other applications include implementing the index to correlate extreme weather conditions with resource consumption, such as electric-utility load, to determine conditions for which load levels are excessive. The ability to forecast the HSI using a variety of weather forecasting tools has also generated interest within various industries that have a need to issue weather stress advisories, watches, and warnings.

  9. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  10. The Development of the Organizational Climate Index for High Schools: Its Measure and Relationship to Faculty Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Smith, Page A.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    A parsimonious measure of organizational climate of high schools is developed and tested in this research. The Organizational Climate Index (OCI) captures open and healthy dimensions of high school climates at the student, teacher, principal, and community levels. Next the relationship between the climate of schools and faculty trust is examined…

  11. Client's Perspective on Quality of Audiology Care: development of the Consumer quality index (CQI) Audiology Care for measuring client experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Dahlhaus-Booij, J.; Plass, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Clients’ perspective on the quality of audiology care has not been investigated thoroughly. Research has focused primarily on satisfaction with, and limitations of hearing aids. We developed a Consumer Quality Index (CQI) questionnaire ‘Audiology Care’ to systematically assess client

  12. Development and application of a soil organic matter-based soil quality index in mineralized terrane of the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. W. Blecker; L. L. Stillings; M. C. Amacher; J. A. Ippolito; N. M. DeCrappeo

    2012-01-01

    Soil quality indices provide a means of distilling large amounts of data into a single metric that evaluates the soil's ability to carry out key ecosystem functions. Primarily developed in agroecosytems, then forested ecosystems, an index using the relation between soil organic matter and other key soil properties in more semi-arid systems of the Western US...

  13. Development, application, and sensitivity analysis of a water quality index for drinking water management in small systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheili, A; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, R

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a drinking water assessment tool for operators of small distribution systems. A drinking water quality index (DWQI) was developed and applied to small systems based on the water quality index of the Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment. The drinking water quality index was adapted to specific needs by creating four drinking water quality scenarios. First, the temporal and spatial dimensions of drinking water quality variability were taken into account. The DWQI was designed to express global drinking water quality according to different monitoring frequencies. Daily, monthly, and seasonal assessment was also considered. With the data made available, it was possible to use the index as a spatial monitoring tool and express water quality in different points in the distribution system. Moreover, adjustments were made to prioritize the type of contaminant to monitor. For instance, monitoring contaminants with acute health effects led to a scenario based on daily measures, including easily accessible and affordable water quality parameters. On the other hand, contaminants with chronic effects, especially disinfection by-products, were considered in a seasonal monitoring scenario where disinfection by-product reference values were redefined according to their seasonal variability. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out to validate the index. Globally, the DWQI developed is adapted to the needs of small systems. In fact, expressing drinking water quality using the DWQI contributes to the identification of problematic periods and segments in the distribution system. Further work may include this index in the development of a customized decision-making tool for small-system operators and managers.

  14. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Li, Q.; Lu, G.; Wang, H.; Li, P.

    2015-06-01

    Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI) which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI), the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), Z Index (ZIND), the Soil Moisture Index (SMI) with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI), the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI), the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  15. Developing a Forest Health Index for public engagement and decision support using local climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Katzenberger, J.; Cundiff, J.

    2013-12-01

    analysis and indexing for the index, and a synthesis of lessons learned during this two-year development process.

  16. Development and Examination of an Alternative School Performance Index in South Carolina. REL 2015-097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Hughes, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the measures that make up each of the three separate accountability indices of school performance in South Carolina could be used to create an overall, reliable index of school performance. Data from public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2012/13 were used in confirmatory factor…

  17. Developing a City Governance Index: Based on Surveys in Five Major Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Guo; Wenhao, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the establishment of a City Governance Index to evaluate the levels of governance of cities. We identified seven key dimensions of governance and then divided each of them into four stages: input, mechanism, result and effect. Each dimension/stage mix is correlated with indicators that can be measured with both objective and…

  18. Development of an Objective Autism Risk Index Using Remote Eye Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Thomas W; Klingemier, Eric W; Beukemann, Mary; Speer, Leslie; Markowitz, Leslie; Parikh, Sumit; Wexberg, Steven; Giuliano, Kimberly; Schulte, Elaine; Delahunty, Carol; Ahuja, Veena; Eng, Charis; Manos, Michael J; Hardan, Antonio Y; Youngstrom, Eric A; Strauss, Mark S

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal eye gaze is a hallmark characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and numerous studies have identified abnormal attention patterns in ASD. The primary aim of the present study was to create an objective, eye tracking-based autism risk index. In initial and replication studies, children were recruited after referral for comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation of ASD and subsequently grouped by clinical consensus diagnosis (ASD n = 25/15, non-ASD n = 20/19 for initial/replication samples). Remote eye tracking was blinded to diagnosis and included multiple stimuli. Dwell times were recorded to each a priori-defined region of interest (ROI) and averaged across ROIs to create an autism risk index. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses examined classification accuracy. Correlations with clinical measures evaluated whether the autism risk index was associated with autism symptom severity independent of language ability. In both samples, the autism risk index had high diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.91 and 0.85, 95% CIs = 0.81-0.98 and 0.71-0.96), was strongly associated with Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Edition (ADOS-2) severity scores (r = 0.58 and 0.59, p  .095). The autism risk index may be a useful quantitative and objective measure of risk for autism in at-risk settings. Future research in larger samples is needed to cross-validate these findings. If validated and scaled for clinical use, this measure could inform clinical judgment regarding ASD diagnosis and track symptom improvements. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. TAKE, development of the refractive index measurement technology for industrial needs; TAKE, taitekerroinmittaustekniikan kehittaeminen teollisuuden tarpeisiin - MPKT 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raety, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Refractive index is one of the basic physical phenomena of materials. Traditional refractive index measurement has been widely used e.g. In research, in quality inspection of products and raw materials. It is also used for follow up of the different industrial processes. A measuring and research environment, by which it is possible to determine the complex refractive index of liquid samples, was developed in 1996 at the Measuring Instrument laboratory of the University of Oulu. This equipment, based on the reflectance of light measures both the refractive index and absorption factor of liquids simultaneously. While the commercial refractometers are best suitable for research of clear liquids, by the developed equipment it is possible to investigate by the side of clear fluids also dark strongly light absorbing samples. The measuring wave length can be chosen continuously inside the UV-Visual range. The knowing of the wave-length dependence of the complex refractive index gives additional information on the state of the fluid under inspection. The main objective of the task is to solve measuring problems of biotechnology, food industry and forest industry by a new type of refractometric method. This means the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and absorption, and the utilisation of this knowledge in wide spectral region. A refractometer, based on the technology, suitable for applied research of new measuring targets will be designed and constructed in the research. The above mentioned goals also require the survey of the present situation of the refractometry. This one and a half year project will be started in spring 1998. (orig.)

  20. Double Xp11.22 deletion including SHROOM4 and CLCN5 associated with severe psychomotor retardation and Dent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanet, Narjes; Metay, Corinne; Brisset, Sophie; Deschenes, Georges; Pineau, Dominique; Petit, François M; Di Rocco, Federico; Goossens, Michel; Tachdjian, Gérard; Labrune, Philippe; Tosca, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the clinical and molecular characterization of two Xp11.22 deletions including SHROOM4 and CLCN5 genes. These deletions appeared in the same X chromosome of the same patient. The patient is a six-year-old boy who presented hydrocephalus, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, facial dysmorphism and renal proximal tubulopathy associated with low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hyperaminoaciduria, hypophosphatemia and hyperuricemia. Standard and high resolution karyotypes showed a 46,XY formula. Array-CGH revealed two consecutive cryptic deletions in the region Xp11.22, measuring respectively 148 Kb and 2.6 Mb. The two deletions were inherited from the asymptomatic mother. Array-CGH allowed us to determine candidate genes in the deleted region. The disruption and partial loss of CLCN5 confirmed the diagnostic of Dent disease for this patient. Moreover, the previously described involvement of SHROOM4 in neuronal development is discussed.

  1. The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Knsger National Park)

    OpenAIRE

    Wepener, V.; Euler, N.; J.H.J. van Vuren; H.H. du Preez; Astri Kohler

    1992-01-01

    The development of an aquatic toxicity index and its application is described. In this index the protection of aquatic life is always referred to in terms of toxic effects of different water quality variables to fish, as health indicators of the aquatic ecosystem. The final index score is produced by means of standard additive techniques as well as by using the water quality variable giving the lowest index score (minimum operator). The minimum operator is employed in order not to conceal imp...

  2. Psychomotor and Motor Speed in Power Athletes Self-Administering Testosterone and Anabolic Steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Era, Pertti; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Self-administered testosterone and anabolic steroids resulted in insignificant improvement in psychomotor and motor speed tests of power athletes. This study is part of a larger study on the effects of such drugs on endocrinology, metabolism and neuromuscular functions. Methodolgy and results are discussed. (Author/JL)

  3. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj;

    2016-01-01

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively...

  4. Video capture on student-owned mobile devices to facilitate psychomotor skills acquisition: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Glori; Bergmann, Thomas F

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We evaluated the feasibility of using mobile device technology to allow students to record their own psychomotor skills so that these recordings can be used for self-reflection and formative evaluation. Methods : Students were given the choice of using DVD recorders, zip drive video capture equipment, or their personal mobile phone, device, or digital camera to record specific psychomotor skills. During the last week of the term, they were asked to complete a 9-question survey regarding their recording experience, including details of mobile phone ownership, technology preferences, technical difficulties, and satisfaction with the recording experience and video critique process. Results : Of those completing the survey, 83% currently owned a mobile phone with video capability. Of the mobile phone owners 62% reported having email capability on their phone and that they could transfer their video recording successfully to their computer, making it available for upload to the learning management system. Viewing the video recording of the psychomotor skill was valuable to 88% of respondents. Conclusions : Our results suggest that mobile phones are a viable technology to use for the video capture and critique of psychomotor skills, as most students own this technology and their satisfaction with this method is high.

  5. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  6. Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on psychomotor performance in children with HIV disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koekkoek; L. Eggermont; L. de Sonneville; T. Jupimai; S. Wicharuk; W. Apateerapong; T. Chuenyam; J. Lange; F. Wit; C. Pancharoen; P. Phanuphak; J. Ananworanich

    2006-01-01

    Objective This study assesses the effects of HAART on psychomotor performance of symptomatic HIV-infected children. It is one of the first studies to look at neurobehavioral functioning in children infected with HIV in resource-limited countries. Design A longitudinal pilot study of vertically HIV-i

  7. How to objectively classify residents based on their psychomotor laparoscopic skills?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.K. Chmarra; C.A. Grimbergen; F.W. Jansen; J. Dankelman

    2010-01-01

    In minimally invasive surgery (MIS), a surgeon needs to acquire a certain level of basic psychomotor MIS skills to perform surgery safely. Evaluation of those skills is a major impediment. Although various assessment methods have been introduced, none of them came as a superior. Three aspects of ass

  8. Comparative Effect of Newer Antihistamines on Psychomotor Functions in Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. David, Dinesh K. Badyal, Ashish Varghese*, Emy Alexander**

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to comparatively evaluate the effect of newer antihistamines onpsychomotor functions in Indian population. Seventy five patient volunteers were included in the study.Volunteers were put into 5 groups based on the type of antihistamine prescribed. Group-1 volunteersincluded those who were prescribed no antihistamine, group-2 were prescribed first generation antihistamines,group 3, 4 & 5 were prescribed second generation antihistamines cetrizine, fexofenadine and loratadinerespectively. A battery of four psychomotor function tests: critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT, digitsymbol substitution test (DSST, finger tapping (FT and visual analogue scale (VAS for day time sedationwas used in the study. First generation antihistamines impaired psychomotor functions establishing thevalidity of psychomotor function tests chosen for the study. Second generation antihistamines did notsignificantly affect CFFT frequency, but DSST score was significantly reduced. Fexofenadine significantlyreduced FT score. All antihistamines produced sedation except loratadine on VAS. Second generationantihistamines impaired psychomotor performance in Indian patients, however there were individualdifferences evident in respect to the effect of drugs.

  9. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical traini

  10. Do Basic Psychomotor Skills Transfer Between Different Image-based Procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Schoon, E.J.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing dif

  11. Allogeneic fetal stem cell transplantation to child with psychomotor retardation: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The consequences of autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation (stem cells of hematopoiesis), applied in adults and children suffering from leukemia or some other malignant disease, are well-known and sufficiently recognizable in pediatric clinical practice regardless of the indication for the treatment. However, the efficacy of fetal stem cell transplantation is unrecognizable when the indications are psychomotor retardation and epil...

  12. Some aspects of the effects of clobazam on human psychomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarch, I

    1979-01-01

    1 Three studies are described, the first being a comparison of the effects of acute night-time doses of clobazam 20 mg, amylobarbitone sodium 100 mg, nitrazepam 5 mg and placebo, on choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion (CFF) and stabilometer performance. Clobazam improved early morning performance on a choice reaction test, in contrast to the other two active drugs. 2 Repeated doses of clobazam 10 mg three times daily, chlordiazepoxide 10 mg three times daily and diazepam 5 mg three times daily were given for 5 days. Again clobazam did not produce any impairment of psychomotor performance, and noticeably increased CFF thresholds. 3 The effects of an acute night-time dose of clobazam 20 mg on psychomotor performance the morning after night-time medication were correlated with the neuroticism scores (on the EPI) of the subjects. Clobazam exerts a differential effect on psychomotor performance dependent on the basic personality trait. 4 Clobazam seems to differ significantly from the 1,4-benzodiazepines in that, although it reduces anxiety, it does so without any apparent impairment of psychomotor performance.

  13. Movement. Proceedings of Seventh Symposium in Psychomotor Learning and Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Activity Professionals of Quebec, Montreal.

    The symposium on the physical and psychomotor aspects of sports covered a variety of topics. Among those contained in this report are: discussions on the taxonomies of sports; the time dimension of physical activity including response variables, judgment of temporal order, and duration discrimination; memory; information and its use in physical…

  14. Criterion-Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the Initial Acquisition of a Psychomotor Skill with Exceptional Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhich, Dolores

    1976-01-01

    Criterion Referenced Measurement (CRM) in the initial acquisition of the psychomotor skill of typewriting demonstrated speed gains from 8 hours of instruction distributed over a 6-week interval for 4 male adolescent underachievers of above- and below-average intelligence. (Author)

  15. Studies on psychomotoric effects and pharmacokinetic interactions of the new calcium sensitizing drug levosimendan and ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, S; Järvinen, A; Akkila, J; Honkanen, T; Karlsson, M; Lehtonen, L

    1997-07-01

    Levosimendan (CAS 141505-33-1) is a calcium sensitizing drug intended for the treatment of congestive heart failure. In animal experiments levosimendan has potentiated the sedative effects of ethanol. Due to poor water solubility of the compound, ethanol is used as a diluent in the intravenous formulation. In this study the possible interactions between levosimendan and ethanol in human have been studied. Twelve healthy male volunteers were included in this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. The study consisted of three treatment periods: levosimendan 1 mg intravenously, levosimendan combined with ethanol orally and ethanol 0.8 g/kg alone. Blood samples for determination of levosimendan and ethanol concentrations were collected for 8 h after the dosing. To observe possible pharmacodynamic interactions psychomotoric tests were made before drug administration and 1h, 2h, 3h and 6h thereafter. These tests included Digit symbol substitution test, Maddox wing, Critical Flicker fusion and VAS-test for subjective assessment of performance status. Plasma levosimendan concentrations were not changed by the concomitant ethanol administration. Ethanol did not alter the pharmacokinetics of levosimendan except the volume of distribution of central compartment which was decreased. Levosimendan did neither affect elimination of ethanol. Levosimendan did not potentiate the psychomotoric effects of ethanol neither did it have any psychomotoric effects itself. In conclusion, levosimendan is not likely to have any psychomotoric adverse effects or any clinically significant interactions with ethanol.

  16. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical traini

  17. Looking into learning: visuospatial and psychomotor predictors of ultrasound-guided procedural performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh M; Kopp, Sandra L; Johnson, Rebecca L; Long, Timothy R; Cerhan, Jane H; Hebl, James R

    2012-01-01

    Despite widespread use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia, little understanding of the psychomotor and visuospatial skills required to achieve and maintain procedural proficiency exists. Despite its procedural nature, anesthesiology lags behind other fields in assessing technical aptitude among practitioners and trainees. The goals of this study were to measure relevant visuospatial and psychomotor aptitudes of anesthesia residents-in-training and to evaluate the relationship between these skill sets and the performance of ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Forty residents from the Mayo Clinic Department of Anesthesiology were enrolled, and 39 (PGY-1 through PGY-4) voluntarily completed a demographic survey, 4 psychomotor and 4 visuospatial aptitude assessments, and an ultrasound-based performance assessment. The Block Design Test, a subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale - III, correlated with ultrasound guided skill performance (correlation coefficient, 0.47; P hand-eye coordination visual feedback (projected image) compared with direct hand-eye coordination (P hand dominance. This study reveals that visuospatial aptitude is a better predictor of ultrasound-based procedural performance than psychomotor ability. The type of real-time visual feedback (indirect versus direct) used for hand-eye coordination significantly impacts procedural performance and has implications for anesthesia and other procedural specialties. The learning effect noted during initial ultrasound skill trials suggests visuospatial assimilation and underscores the importance of early ultrasound instruction.

  18. Microcomputer Useage for Data Based Psychomotor Performance Measures in Adapted Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, P. J.

    The paper describes Project RISPE (Rural/Remote Interdisciplinary Special Physical Education) and its data-based psychomotor curriculum for profoundly/severely handicapped children ages 0-21. The curriculum, divided into five diagnostic/prescriptive areas (placement, baseline, instruction, post-test, and maintenance), includes over 300 specific…

  19. A new index of abdominal obesity which effectively predicts risk of colon tumor development in female Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Rena; Nakazaki, Natsuko; Tagawa, Teppei; Ohishi, Chitose; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Kim, Miniru; Baba, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Masazumi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    A relation between abdominal obesity and colorectal tumor development has been reported repeatedly, and is believed to be more remarkable in man than in women. However, the details vary depending on scientific reports. This may be due at least partly to the selected surface anthropometric index in addition to the influence of gender and ethnic groups. To cope with this, we considered a new index of abdominal obesity and evaluated its risk prediction potential. Six hundred ninety five Japanese (262 women and 433 men) who had a colonoscopy were studied. The new index was named as waist circumference to height index (WHI) and was calculated by the formula of waist circumference (cm)/height (m)/height (m). Biochemical and lifestyle factors were investigated preceding the colonoscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows. Increase of WHI was associated with altered metabolism of carbohydrate and lipid in both women and men. WHI was positively related with the development of colon tumor of women, while not with that of men. Logistic regression analysis performed for stratified age groups (45-54, 55-64 and 65-74 years) showed that WHI significantly increased odds ratio to 1.31 (CI 1.05-1.64 p=0.01) in women of 55-65 years. In contrast, in men this index WHI reduced the odds ratio insignificantly, while low density lipoprotein and triglyceride significantly increased the odds ratio to 1.01 (CI 1.00-1.03 p=0.02) in the 55-65 year group and to 1.02 (CI 1.00-1.03 p=0.02) in the 45-55 year group. In Japanese the risk factors for colon tumor development are different between women and men. WHI is a simple and efficient predictor of colon tumor risk in Japanese women and may be used to select those who should have colonoscopy.

  20. Young adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation exhibit genetically modulated impairments in visuospatial tasks controlled for psychomotor speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Ling M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous study reported enhanced psychomotor speed, and subtle but significant cognitive impairments, modulated by age and by mutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene in adult female fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs. Because male carriers, unlike females, do not have a second, unaffected FMR1 allele, male fXPCs should exhibit similar, if not worse, impairments. Understanding male fXPCs is of particular significance because of their increased risk of developing fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS. Methods Male fXPCs (n = 18 and healthy control (HC adults (n = 26 aged less than 45 years performed two psychomotor speed tasks (manual and oral and two visuospatial tasks (magnitude comparison and enumeration. In the magnitude comparison task, participants were asked to compare and judge which of two bars was larger. In the enumeration task, participants were shown between one and eight green bars in the center of the screen, and asked to state the total number displayed. Enumeration typically proceeds in one of two modes: subitizing, a fast and accurate process that works only with a small set of items, and counting, which requires accurate serial-object detection and individuation during visual search. We examined the associations between the performance on all tasks and the age, full-scale intelligent quotient, and CGG repeat length of participants. Results We found that in the magnitude comparison and enumeration tasks, male fXPCs exhibited slower reaction times relative to HCs, even after controlling for simple reaction time. Conclusions Our results indicate that male fXPCs as a group show impairments (slower reaction times in numerical visuospatial tasks, which are consistent with previous findings. This adds to a growing body of literature characterizing the phenotype in fXPCs who are asymptomatic for FXTAS. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these impairments

  1. Development of a Barthel Index based on dyspnea for patients with respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitacca M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michele Vitacca,1 Mara Paneroni,1 Paola Baiardi,2 Vito De Carolis,3 Elisabetta Zampogna,4 Stefano Belli,5 Mauro Carone,3 Antonio Spanevello,4,6 Bruno Balbi,5 Giorgio Bertolotti7 1Respiratory Rehabilitation Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Lumezzane, Brescia, 2Scientific Direction, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Pavia, Pavia, 3Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Cassano delle Murge, Bari, 4Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Tradate, Varese, 5Respiratory Division, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Veruno, Novara, 6Respiratory Diseases Unit, University of Insubria, Varese, 7Psychology Unit, Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, IRCCS, Institute of Tradate, Varese, Italy Background: As Barthel Index (BI quantifies motor impairment but not breathlessness, the use of only this index could underestimate disability in chronic respiratory disease (CRD. To our knowledge, no study evaluates both motor and respiratory disability in CRD during activities of daily living (ADLs simultaneously and with a unique tool. The objective of this study was to propose for patients with CRD an additional tool for dyspnea assessment during ADLs based on BI items named Barthel Index dyspnea.Methods: Comprehensibility, reliability, internal consistency, validity, responsiveness, and ability to differentiate between disease groups were assessed on 219 subjects through an observational study performed in an in-hospital rehabilitation setting.Results: Good comprehensibility, high reliability (interrater intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 [95% confidence interval 0.892–0.964] and test–retest intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.99 [95% confidence interval 0.983–0.994], good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.89, strong concurrent validity with 6 minute walking distance (Pearson r=–0.538, P<0.001 and Medical Research Council

  2. Development and validation of a pretreatment prognostic index to predict death and lung metastases in extremity osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Tu, Jian; Yin, Junqiang; Zou, Changye; Wang, Jin; Huang, Gang; Xie, Xianbiao; Shen, Jingnan

    2015-11-10

    To develop a prognostic index to predict the 5-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year lung metastasis-free survival (LMFS) of patients with extremity osteosarcoma at the time of diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated 454 patients with extremity osteosarcoma at our center from 2005 to 2013. The cohort was randomly divided into training and validation sets. The association of potential risk factors with OS and LMFS was assessed by Cox proportional hazards analysis in the training set, and a prognostic index was created according to scores that were proportional to a regression coefficient for each factor. This prognostic index was assessed in the validation set. For the 5-year OS, 5 independent prognostic factors were identified: tumor size, Enneking stage, pretreatment platelet, alkaline phosphatase(ALP), and neutrophils. The multivariate Cox model identified tumor size, pretreatment platelets, ALP, and neutrophils as associated with the 5-year LMFS. A prognostic index for death and lung metastases was calculated. Three risk groups were defined for each survival point: low, intermediate, and high risk for the 5-year OS; low, intermediate, and high risk for the 5-year LMFS. The C statistic for the 5-year OS was 0.723 in the training set and 0.710 in the validation set. The C statistic for the 5-year LMFS was 0.661 and 0.693 respectively. This prognostic index is based on routine tests and characteristics of extremity osteosarcoma patients and is a useful predictor of OS and lung metastases. This index could be applied to clinical practice and trials for individualized risk-adapted therapies.

  3. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEX IN AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF TECHNOLOGY OF COTTON ORGANIC COLOR IN BOM SUCESSO -PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesinaldo Ataíde Cândido

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study it has the objective to evaluate the global index of sustentability (IGS of the technology of production of the cotton colored in the state of the Paraíba, in its dimensions social, ambient, economic and institucional. To reach the considered objective a research of study of case was used based on the model considered for González and Carvajal (2002 that it measures the IGS of the producing unit in agroecological system. The results disclose that although to present a considered index of sustentability satisfactory, are necessary that mechanism of participation of the social actors in the decisions of the company is developed, as well as, to develop a research on the repercussion that this technology brings for the involved population, also identifying the social demand of the deriving products of the technology of the cotton in the population.

  5. Development and characterization of adjustable refractive index scattering epoxy acrylate polymer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Thomas; Preinfalk, Jan; Gleißner, Uwe; Lemmer, Uli; Hanemann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    This work presents different polymer diffusing films for optical components. In optical applications it is sometimes important to have a film with an adjusted refractive index, scattering properties and a low surface roughness. These diffusing films can be used to increase the efficiency of optical components like organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this study three different epoxy acrylate mixtures containing Syntholux 291 EA, bisphenol a glycerolate dimethacrylate, Sartomer SR 348 L are characterized and optimized with different additives. The adjustable refractive index of the material is achieved with a chemical doping by 9-vinylcarbazole. Titanium nanoparticles in the mixtures generate light scattering and increase the refractive index additionally. To prevent sedimentation and agglomeration of these nanoparticles, a stabilization agent [2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid is added to the mixture. Other ingredients are a UV-starter and thermal starter for the radical polymerization. A high power stirrer (ultraturrax) is used to mix and disperse all chemical substances together to a homogenous mixture. The viscosity behavior of the mixtures is an important property for the selection of the production method and gets characterized. After the mixing, the monomer mixture is applied on glass substrates by blade coating or screen printing. To initiate the chain growing (polymerization) the produced films are irradiated for 10 minutes long with UV light (UV LED Spot Hönle, 405 nm). After this step a final post bake from the layers in the oven (150°C, 30 min.) is operated. Light transmission measurements (UV-Vis) of the polymer matrix and roughness measurements complement the characterization.

  6. Development of a new index of balance in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio; Giné-Garriga, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The first objective was to propose a new model representing the balance level of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) using Principal Components Analysis (PCA); and the second objective was to use the results from the PCA recorded by regression method to construct and validate summative scales of the standardized values of the index, which may be useful to facilitate a balance assessment in adults with IDD. A total of 801 individuals with IDD (509 males) mean 33.1 ± 8.5 years old, were recruited from Special Olympic Games in Spain 2009 to 2012. The participants performed the following tests: the timed-stand test, the single leg stance test with open and closed eyes, the Functional Reach Test, the Expanded Timed-Get-up-and-Go Test. Data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) with Oblimin rotation and Kaiser normalization. We examined the construct validity of our proposed two-factor model underlying balance for adults with IDD. The scores from PCA were recorded by regression method and were standardized. The Component Plot and Rotated Space indicated that a two-factor solution (Dynamic and Static Balance components) was optimal. The PCA with direct Oblimin rotation revealed a satisfactory percentage of total variance explained by the two factors: 51.6 and 21.4%, respectively. The median score standardized for component dynamic and static of the balance index for adults with IDD is shown how references values. Our study may lead to improvements in the understanding and assessment of balance in adults with IDD. First, it confirms that a two-factor model may underlie the balance construct, and second, it provides an index that may be useful for identifying the balance level for adults with IDD.

  7. Development of a new index of balance in adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cuesta-Vargas

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: The first objective was to propose a new model representing the balance level of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD using Principal Components Analysis (PCA; and the second objective was to use the results from the PCA recorded by regression method to construct and validate summative scales of the standardized values of the index, which may be useful to facilitate a balance assessment in adults with IDD. METHODS: A total of 801 individuals with IDD (509 males mean 33.1 ± 8.5 years old, were recruited from Special Olympic Games in Spain 2009 to 2012. The participants performed the following tests: the timed-stand test, the single leg stance test with open and closed eyes, the Functional Reach Test, the Expanded Timed-Get-up-and-Go Test. Data was analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA with Oblimin rotation and Kaiser normalization. We examined the construct validity of our proposed two-factor model underlying balance for adults with IDD. The scores from PCA were recorded by regression method and were standardized. RESULTS: The Component Plot and Rotated Space indicated that a two-factor solution (Dynamic and Static Balance components was optimal. The PCA with direct Oblimin rotation revealed a satisfactory percentage of total variance explained by the two factors: 51.6 and 21.4%, respectively. The median score standardized for component dynamic and static of the balance index for adults with IDD is shown how references values. CONCLUSIONS: Our study may lead to improvements in the understanding and assessment of balance in adults with IDD. First, it confirms that a two-factor model may underlie the balance construct, and second, it provides an index that may be useful for identifying the balance level for adults with IDD.

  8. The development in body mass index, overweight and obesity in three regions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Ulla; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Finn Breinholt;

    2015-01-01

    .8% among men and women, respectively. Of the overweight men 12.8% were obese and 11.8% women were obese. The prevalence was highest in the Northern region and among those who were older, had short education, was outside labour market, had low income and residents in rural areas. In 2010, the prevalence...... of overweight had increased to 56.3% and 39.6% in men and women, respectively (P mass index was found among men in the Capital Region. Among women prevalence of overweight increased but not in those...

  9. Associations between body mass index and development of metabolic disorders in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders are relatively uncommon in young women, but may increase with obesity. The associations between body mass index (BMI) and risks of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in apparently healthy, young women have been insufficiently investigated, and are the aims...... of this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI...

  10. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Index of Publications, 1986-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    blltttedettt ttgntata fators peso N87-13955 Pumtpingaostatns and ctittiattaceas rut taptd respotnse IAGARDA8-730r pa 30aN-27276 vibrattion measenents ott tt...6052nlnn ccmponrt heCoptar User anpldno secoe Maca compansattntetlremants tot hig.h Illsetut~n HO 131TTI PRESSING2 p23 N89-rc430 spetttght TAO p t26...of l secoe jpgnee Opsoat~of 0 gas 7 lsp -gees5 In cut-laden Bnq-00 p 239 NOD7 13295 p270 68M0-0VO mplnnents P 63 NN0- 1 50 A-42 SUBJIECT INDEX LASER

  11. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and its application for agriculture over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Elius; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-03-01

    A new drought index is introduced that explicitly considers both water supply and demand. It can be applied to aggregate demand over a geographical region, or for disaggregated demand related to a specific crop or use. Consequently, it is more directly related than existing indices, to potential drought impacts on different segments of society, and is also suitable to use as an index for drought insurance programs targeted at farmers growing specific crops. An application of the index is presented for the drought characterization at the county level for the aggregate demand of eight major field crops in the conterminous United States. Two resiliency metrics are developed and applied with the drought index time series. In addition, a clustering algorithm is applied to the onset times and severity of the worst historical droughts in each county, to identify the spatial structure of drought, relative to the cropping patterns in each county. The geographic relationship of drought severity, drought recovery relative to duration, and resilience to drought is identified, and related to attributes of precipitation and also cropping intensity, thus distinguishing the relative importance of water supply and demand in determining potential drought outcomes.

  12. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50 and free-ranging (n = 57 female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01, indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5 was lower (P<0.001 than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5. In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  13. The Gender Inequalities Index (GII) as a New Way to Understand Gender Inequality Issues in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrant, Gaëlle

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of gender inequalities has become an important topic in the academic literature. First, appropriate indicators are needed to compare the relative situation of women in developing countries. Second, there is renewed attention given to the relationship between gender inequality and economic growth. Measuring gender inequalities contributes to knowing whether greater inequality promotes or hampers growth. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, the Gender Inequalities Index (GII...

  14. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Miller, Marshall G; Chu, Yi-Fang; Lyle, Barbara J; Joseph, James A

    2013-12-01

    The complex mixture of phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables provides protective health benefits, mainly through additive and/or synergistic effects. The presence of several bioactive compounds, such as polyphenols and caffeine, implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic in aging. Moderate (three to five cups a day) coffee consumption in humans is associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing certain chronic diseases. However, the ability of coffee supplementation to improve cognitive function in aged individuals and the effect of the individual components in coffee, such as caffeine, have not been fully evaluated. We fed aged rats (19 months) one of five coffee-supplemented diets (0, 0.165, 0.275, 0.55, and 0.825% of the diet) for 8 weeks prior to motor and cognitive behavior assessment. Aged rats supplemented with a 0.55% coffee diet, equivalent to ten cups of coffee, performed better in psychomotor testing (rotarod) and in a working memory task (Morris water maze) compared to aged rats fed a control diet. A diet with 0.55% coffee appeared to be optimal. The 0.165% coffee-supplemented group (three cups) showed some improvement in reference memory performance in the Morris water maze. In a subsequent study, the effects of caffeine alone did not account for the performance improvements, showing that the neuroprotective benefits of coffee are not due to caffeine alone, but rather to other bioactive compounds in coffee. Therefore, coffee, in achievable amounts, may reduce both motor and cognitive deficits in aging.

  15. Ground water quality evaluation near mining area and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bably; Kumari, Puja; Bano, Shamima; Kumari, Shweta

    2014-03-01

    Opencast as well as underground coal mining are likely to disturb the underground water table in terms of quantity as well as quality. Added to this is the problem of leachates from the large number of industrial waste and overburden dumps that are in abundance in mining areas, reaching the ground water and adversely affecting its quality. Enhancement of heavy metals contamination of the ground water is one eventuality. In the present work, concentrations of 7 heavy metals have been evaluated at 20 important ground water sampling stations at Dhanbad township situated very near to Jharia coalfields. The concentration of heavy metals in general was found to be below the permissible levels although concentration of iron and manganese was found above the permissible limits at a few stations. These data have been used for the calculation of heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The HPI of ground water in total was found to be 6.8860 which is far below the critical index limit of 100 pointing to the fact that the ground water is not polluted with respect to heavy metals in spite of the prolific growth of mining and allied industrial activities near the town.

  16. The development of an aquatic toxicity index as a tool in the operational management of water quality in the Olifants River (Knsger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wepener

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of an aquatic toxicity index and its application is described. In this index the protection of aquatic life is always referred to in terms of toxic effects of different water quality variables to fish, as health indicators of the aquatic ecosystem. The final index score is produced by means of standard additive techniques as well as by using the water quality variable giving the lowest index score (minimum operator. The minimum operator is employed in order not to conceal important water quality information. The aquatic toxicity index development has been linked to toxicological data, international water quality standards and South African guidelines. The index provides valuable information concerning toxic effects of a specific variable on fish should the threshold level for normal maintanence of aquatic life be exceeded. This index is intended as an aid in the interpretation of water quality information in order to facilitate management decisions.

  17. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  18. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Heidrich, O; Namdeo, A; Bandaru, V; Calfapietra, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation. A performance index (PI) is conceived using the following seven traits, specific to the street environments - Pollution Flux Potential (PFP), Carbon Sequestration Potential (CSP), Thermal Comfort Potential (TCP), Noise Attenuation Potential (NAP), Biomass Energy Potential (BEP), Environmental Stress Tolerance (EST) and Crown Projection Factor (CPF). Its application is demonstrated through a case study using fifteen street vegetation species from the UK, utilising a combination of direct field measurements and inventoried literature data. Our results indicate greater preference to small-to-medium size trees and evergreen shrubs over larger trees for streetscaping. The proposed PI approach can be potentially applied two-fold: one, for evaluation of the performance of the existing street vegetation, facilitating the prospects for further improving them through management strategies and better species selection; two, for planning new streetscapes and multi-functional biomass as part of extending the green urban infrastructure.

  19. Developing a thermal characteristic index for lithology identification using thermal infrared remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiali; Liu, Xiangnan; Ding, Chao; Liu, Meiling; Jin, Ming; Li, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    In remote sensing petrology fields, studies have mainly concentrated on spectroscopy remote sensing research, and methods to identify minerals and rocks are mainly based on the analysis and enhancement of spectral features. Few studies have reported the application of thermodynamics for lithology identification. This paper aims to establish a thermal characteristic index (TCI) to explore rock thermal behavior responding to defined environmental systems. The study area is located in the northern Qinghai Province, China, on the northern edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where mafic-ultramafic rock, quartz-rich rock, alkali granite rock and carbonate rock are well exposed; the pixel samples of these rocks and vegetation were obtained based on relevant indices and geological maps. The scatter plots of TCI indicate that mafic-ultramafic rock and quartz-rich rock can be well extracted from other surface objects when interference from vegetation is lower. On account of the complexity of environmental systems, three periods of TCI were used to construct a three-dimensional scatter plot, named the multi-temporal thermal feature space (MTTFS) model. Then, the Bayes discriminant analysis algorithm was applied to the MTTFS model to extract rocks quantitatively. The classification accuracy of mafic-ultramafic rock is more than 75% in both training data and test data, which suggests TCI can act as a sensitive indicator to distinguish rocks and the MTTFS model can accurately extract mafic-ultramafic rock from other surface objects. We deduce that the use of thermodynamics is promising in lithology identification when an effective index is constructed and an appropriated model is selected.

  20. Effect of NGF combined with citicoline + cerebroprotein hydrolysate on neurobehavioral development and serum indexes in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Ning Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of NGF combined with citicoline + cerebroprotein hydrolysate on neurobehavioral development and serum indexes in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.Methods: A total of 68 children with neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) were randomly divided into observation group and control group, control group received supportive treatment + NGF combined with citicoline therapy, observation group received supportive treatment + NGF combined with citicoline and cerebroprotein hydrolysate treatment, and then differences in the levels of neurobehavioral development, creatine kinase and brain band, illness-related indexes,etc. were compared between two groups. Results: Serum nerve indexes NSE and S100B levels as well as myocardial enzyme spectrum-related parameters CK, CK-BB and CK-MB levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum MBP, ET-1, NO and CO levels were lower than those of control group, and FN level was higher than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusions: NGF combined with citicoline + cerebroprotein hydrolysate therapy for children with HIE can reduce brain tissue damage and optimize physical status, and it is of positive clinical significance.

  1. Relationship between pickiness and subsequent development in body mass index and diet intake in obesity prone normal weight preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Händel, Mina Nicole; Stougaard, Maria

    2017-01-01

    the consequence of pickiness on subsequent changes in diet intake and weight are limited. Objectives: To examine whether pickiness influences body mass index as well as diet intake over subsequent 15 months among obesity prone normal weight children aged 2–6 years. Methods: Data was obtained from the “Healthy...... children seemed to develop a lower protein intake despite similar total energy intake and diet composition....... by trained health professionals and both measured twice over a 15 month period. Linear regression models were performed to assess the influence of pickiness on body mass index and diet with adjustments for possible confounders. Results: No differences in mean BMI Z-score were seen between picky/non-picky (P...

  2. Trends in Parent-Child Correlations of Childhood Body Mass Index during the Development of the Obesity Epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The intergenerational resemblance in body mass index may have increased during the development of the obesity epidemic due to changes in environment and/or expression of genetic predisposition. OBJECTIVES: This study investigates trends in intergenerational correlations of childhood...... body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) during the emergence of the obesity epidemic. METHODS: The study population was derived from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, which includes height and weight measurements since birth year 1930. Mothers and fathers with BMIs available at ages 7 (n = 25......,923 and n = 20,972) or 13 years (n = 26,750 and n = 21,397), respectively, were linked through the civil registration system introduced in 1968 to their children with BMIs available at age 7 years. Age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated. Correlations were estimated across eight intervals...

  3. Development of a Convection Risk Index to forecast severe weather, and application to predict maximum wind speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, M. A. E.; Wanik, D. W.; Scerbo, D.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a tool, the Convection Risk Index (CRI), to represent the severity, timing and location of convection for select geographic areas. The CRI is calculated from the Convection Risk Matrix (CRM), a tabulation of numerous meteorological parameters which are categorized into four broad factors that contribute to convection (surface and lower level moisture, atmospheric instability, vertical wind shear, and lift); each of these factors have historically been utilized by meteorologists to predict the likelihood for development of thunderstorms. The CRM ascribes a specific threshold value to each parameter in such a way that it creates a unique tool used to calculate the risk for seeing the development of thunderstorms. The parameters were combined using a weighted formula and which when calculated, yields the Convection Risk Index 1 to 4 scale, with 4 being the highest risk for seeing strong convection. In addition, we also evaluated the performance of the parameters in the CRM and CRI for predicting the maximum wind speed in areas where we calculated the CRI using nonparametric tree-based model, Bayesian additive trees (BART). The use of the CRI and the predicted wind speeds from BART can be used to better inform emergency preparedness efforts in government and industry.We have developed a tool, the Convection Risk Index (CRI), to represent the severity, timing and location of convection for select geographic areas. The CRI is calculated from the Convection Risk Matrix (CRM), a tabulation of numerous meteorological parameters which are categorized into four broad factors that contribute to convection (surface and lower level moisture, atmospheric instability, vertical wind shear, and lift); each of these factors have historically been utilized by meteorologists to predict the likelihood for development of thunderstorms. The CRM ascribes a specific threshold value to each parameter in such a way that it creates a unique tool used to calculate the risk for

  4. Development of a single crystal with a high index of refraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosawa, Shunsuke, E-mail: kurosawa@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kochurikhin, Vladimir V. [General Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Yamaji, Akihiro [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Yokota, Yuui [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Kubo, Hidetoshi; Tanimori, Toru [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); New Industry Creation Hatchery Center (NICHe), Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2013-12-21

    Time-of-flight Positron emission tomography (TOF-PET) is one of the next-generation medical imaging methods, which requires scintillators with a very short decay time. However, the shortest scintillation decay times are typically 20–30 ns, and these values are not sufficient for TOF-PET. Cherenkov counters are used in high energy physics and they are expected to be applied in medical imaging due to their short decay time. Here, high-refractive index materials are necessary for Cherenkov radiators to reach a high light output. We measured refractive indices of Gd{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (GGG), Y{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (YGG) and Lu{sub 3}Ga{sub 5}O{sub 12} (LuGG) crystals grown by a micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. The GGG, YGG and LuGG crystals were found to have refractive indices of ∼2.5, ∼2.3 and ∼2.3 at 400 nm, respectively. Then we grew a 40 mm diameter GGG crystal by the Czochralski method, and the emission decay times of the GGG crystals irradiated with muons and gamma rays were 10±1ns and 10±2ns, respectively, using a photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu R6231-100). Cherenkov light of the GGG crystal could be observed for the gamma-ray irradiation.

  5. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse...

  6. Teaching psychomotor skills in the twenty-first century: Revisiting and reviewing instructional approaches through the lens of contemporary literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Delwyn; Sweet, Linda; Muller, Amanda; Hyett, Jon

    2016-10-01

    A diverse range of health professionals use psychomotor skills as part of their professional practice roles. Most health disciplines use large or complex psychomotor skills. These skills are first taught by the educator then acquired, performed, and lastly learned. Psychomotor skills may be taught using a variety of widely-accepted and published teaching models. The number of teaching steps used in these models varies from two to seven. However, the utility of these models to teach skill acquisition and skill retention are disputable when teaching complex skills, in contrast to simple skills. Contemporary motor learning and cognition literature frames instructional practices which may assist the teaching and learning of complex task-based skills. This paper reports 11 steps to be considered when teaching psychomotor skills.

  7. Examination of 2015 Human Development Index in Terms of Education: Comparison of the Continents and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartgün, Senay Sezgin; Sezen-Gültekin, Gözde; Limon, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare Turkey to the first three countries from each continent in terms of educational indicators in 2015 Human Development Report. In line with this aim, it is a case study utilizing document review method. Analysis of the data has been carried out on a single document which is United Nations Development Report (2015). To…

  8. The development of the Hong Kong Heat Index for enhancing the heat stress information service of the Hong Kong Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. L.; Chan, Y. H.; Lee, T. C.; Goggins, William B.; Chan, Emily Y. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a heat index, for use in hot and humid sub-tropical climate in Hong Kong. The study made use of hospitalization data and heat stress measurement data in Hong Kong from 2007 to 2011. The heat index, which is called Hong Kong Heat Index (HKHI), is calculated from the natural wet bulb temperature, the globe temperature, and the dry bulb temperature together with a set of coefficients applicable to the high humidity condition in the summer of Hong Kong. Analysis of the response of hospitalization rate to variation in HKHI and two other heat indices, namely Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) and Net Effective Temperature (NET), revealed that HKHI performed generally better than WBGT and NET in reflecting the heat stress impact on excess hospitalization ratio in Hong Kong. Based on the study results, two reference criteria of HKHI were identified to establish a two-tier approach for the enhancement of the heat stress information service in Hong Kong.

  9. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  10. Development of a Seaweed Species-Selection Index for Successful Culture in a Seaweed-Based Integrated Aquaculture System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Hee Kang; Jae Ran Hwang; Ik Kyo Chung; Sang Rul Park

    2013-01-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species (e.g.,finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species (e.g.,shellfish/seaweed).In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture,seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems.Thus,selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance.The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system.The index was synthesized using available literature-based information,reference data,and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species.Undaria pinnatifida,Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI).Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems.Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment,it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  11. Developing a quantitative index system for assessing sustainable forestry management in Heilongjiang Province, China:a case study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-shan Yang; Feng-you Wang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed a comprehensive index system for forestry sustainability of Heilongjiang Province, which includes forest resources sustainability, sustainable economic development, sustainable social development and sustainable advancement in science and technology. Based on this system and the regional forest development, we further evaluated the sustainability of Heilongjiang Province for year 2008–2013. The results show that even though the regional forestry has been pre-liminarily on the track of sustainable development, it is fragile. Four indicators, e.g. soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of national investment and the annual carbon sequestration have important impact on the sustainability, with a weight of 39.0%in all the indicators. We also analyzed the factors hindering the sustainable development. It turns out that soil and water retention rate, forest stand growth (per unit area), the proportion of science and technology funds, per capita GDP and the proportion of the tertiary industry production are the main factors hindering regional sustainable devel-opment, which accounts for 50.94% of the total obstacle degrees in the system. At last, we discussed how to pro-mote the regional sustainable development from the perspectives of forest resources sustainability, economic development sustainability, society development sustain-ability and the sustainable advancement of science and technology.

  12. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. Methods For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different ...

  13. Developing a Quality Assessment Index System for Scenic Forest Management: A Case Study from Xishan Mountain, Suburban Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The public’s demand for more and better forest landscapes is increasing as scenic forest tours flourish in China, especially in the capital, Beijing. How to improve the quality of scenic forests has become one of the greatest concerns of urban foresters. Although numerous studies have focused on scenic forest management, to date, no reports have been found on developing a quality assessment index system for scenic forest assessment. In this study, a simple and scientific index system was established using an analytical hierarchy process (AHP to quantitatively assess scenic forest quality. The index system is composed of four scales: individual tree landscape quality, in-forest landscape quality, near-view forest landscape quality and far-view landscape quality. The in-forest landscape quality was determined by horizontal and vertical stand structures, species composition and under-canopy landscape traits. Near-view forest landscape quality was mainly determined by patch characteristics, seasonal change, visibility, color change of patches and stand age class. To test the validity of our quality assessment index system, scenic forests in Xishan were used as a case study. The results show that near-view forest landscape was the most important scale for the overall quality of the scenic forest, according to the priorities of the criterion layer, and the second most important scale was far-view forest landscape. Seasonal change, patch color contrast, patch distribution and patch shape accounted for 52.2% of the total of 13 indices in the near-view forest landscape. The integrated quality of scenic forests in Xishan was at an average level, and the in-forest landscape, near-view landscape and far-view landscape had below average quality.

  14. Development and validation of a prognostic index for fracture risk in older men undergoing prostate cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Steed, Tisheeka R.; Soulos, Pamela R.; Dearing, Natalie; Concato, John; Tinetti, Mary E.; Gross, Cary P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer have an increased risk for fractures. Given uncertainty as to whether specific clinical factors can identify men at increased risk, we sought to develop a prognostic index for risk of fracture in this population. Materials and methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify men who received ADT or RT after being diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in 2007-2009. Cox proportional hazards models tested the association of potential risk factors with fracture. In a derivation group, hazard ratios were used to assign points for factors independently related to fracture. The prognostic index was then applied to a validation group. Results The sample of 5,824 men had a median age of 73.0 years; 82.9% were white and 8.6% had a fracture within 2 years of treatment for prostate cancer. The Cox model identified 8 variables (age, race, hormone treatment, Elixhauser score, anxiety, Parkinson's, fall-inducing medications and disability status) independently associated with fracture. In the derivation cohort, 4.3% of the sample experienced a fracture in the low-risk group, 8.9% in the intermediate group, and 19.2% in the high-risk group (C statistic, 0.749). The index was applied to the validation cohort (C statistic, 0.782). Conclusion The prognostic index can help to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. This underscores the importance of identifying risk factors for fracture, given the substantial variation in fracture risk in men treated with ADT or RT. PMID:25240918

  15. Development and validation of a prognostic index for fracture risk in older men undergoing prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham-Steed, Tisheeka R; Soulos, Pamela R; Dearing, Natalie; Concato, John; Tinetti, Mary E; Gross, Cary P

    2014-10-01

    Men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer have an increased risk for fractures. Given uncertainty as to whether specific clinical factors can identify men at increased risk, we sought to develop a prognostic index for risk of fracture in this population. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify men who received ADT or RT after being diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in 2007-2009. Cox proportional hazards models tested the association of potential risk factors with fracture. In a derivation group, hazard ratios were used to assign points for factors independently related to fracture. The prognostic index was then applied to a validation group. The sample of 5824 men had a median age of 73.0 years; 82.9% were white and 8.6% had a fracture within 2 years of treatment for prostate cancer. The Cox model identified 8 variables (age, race, hormone treatment, Elixhauser score, anxiety, Parkinson's, fall-inducing medications and disability status) independently associated with fracture. In the derivation cohort, 4.3% of the sample experienced a fracture in the low-risk group, 8.9% in the intermediate group, and 19.2% in the high-risk group (C statistic, 0.749). The index was applied to the validation cohort (C statistic, 0.782). The prognostic index can help to identify patients at increased risk for fracture. This underscores the importance of identifying risk factors for fracture, given the substantial variation in fracture risk in men treated with ADT or RT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a water quality index (WQI) for the Loktak Lake in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Kangabam, Rajiv; Bhoominathan, Sarojini Devi; Kanagaraj, Suganthi; Govindaraju, Munisamy

    2017-06-01

    The present work was carried out to assess a water quality index (WQI) of the Loktak Lake, an important wetland which has been under pressure due to the increasing anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters like temperature (Tem), potential hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F), sulphate ({SO}4^{2-} ), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (PO4^{3-} ), sodium (Na), potassium (K), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), total carbon (TC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard procedures. The values obtained were compared with the guidelines for drinking purpose suggested by the World Health Organization and Bureau of Indian Standard. The result shows the higher concentration of nitrite in all the location which is beyond the permissible limit. Eleven parameters were selected to derive the WQI for the estimation of water potential for five sampling sites. A relative weight was assigned to each parameter range from 1.46 to 4.09 based on its importance. The WQI values range from 64 to 77 indicating that the Loktak Lake water is not fit for drinking, including both human and animals, even though the people living inside the Lake are using it for drinking purposes. The implementation of WQI is necessary for proper management of the Loktak Lake and it will be a very helpful tool for the public and decision makers to evaluate the water quality of the Loktak Lake for sustainable management.

  17. Developing a Soil Moisture Index for California Grasslands from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamme, H. E.; Roberts, D. A.; Miller, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture is a key environmental factor controlling vegetation diversity and productivity, evaporation, transpiration, and rainfall runoff. Despite the contribution of soil moisture to ecological productivity, the hydrologic cycle, and erosion, it is currently not being monitored as accurately or as frequently as other environmental factors. Traditional soil moisture monitoring techniques rely on in situ measurements, which become costly when evaluating areas of unevenly distributed soil characteristics and varying topography. Alternatively, satellite remote sensing, such as passive microwave from SMAP, can provide soil moisture but only at very coarse spatial resolutions. Imagery from the Airborne Visible / Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has the potential to allow better spatial and temporal monitoring of soil moisture. This study established a relationship between plant available water and hyperspectral reflectance via linear regressions of data from 2013-2015 for two grassland field sites: 1) near Santa Barbara, California, at Coal Oil Point Reserve (COPR) and 2) Airstrip station (AIRS) at UC Santa Barbara's Sedgwick Reserve near Santa Ynez, California. Volumetric soil moisture measurements at 10 cm and 20 cm depths were provided by meteorological stations situated in COPR and AIRS while reflectance data were extracted from AVIRIS. We found strong correlations between plant available water and bands centered at wavelengths 704 nm and 831 nm, which we used to create Hyperspectral Soil Moisture Index (HSMI): 0.38((ρ831-ρ704)/(ρ831+ρ704))-0.02. HSMI demonstrated a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.71 for linear regressions of reflectance versus plant available water with a lag time of 28 days. We applied HSMI to the AIRS and COPR grasslands for 2011 AVIRIS scenes. Plant available water values predicted by HSMI were 0.039 higher at AIRS and 0.048 higher at COPR than the field measurements at the sites. Differences in grass species, soil

  18. Quantitative Indexes of Leukocytes in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats During Various Periods of Arterial Hypertension Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, O I; Anishchenko, A M; Sidekhmenova, A V; Shamanaev, A Yu; Fedorova, E P; Plotnikov, M B

    2015-10-01

    SHR rats were examined in the period before arterial hypertension development (5th week), during the increase in BP (6th-10th weeks), and under conditions of constantly elevated BP (11th-12th weeks). The total number of leukocytes did not differ in SHR and normotensive WKY rats. However, the relative number of lymphocytes and monocytes was shown to differ in various periods of arterial hypertension development. Our results suggest that white blood cells (primarily lymphocytes) are involved in the development of arterial hypertension.

  19. Effects of Shift Work on the Postural and Psychomotor Performance of Night Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Veruska Narciso

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of shift work on the psychomotor and postural performance of night workers. The study included 20 polysomnography technicians working schedule of 12-h night shift by 36-h off. On the first day of protocol, the body mass and height were measured, and an actigraph was placed on the wrist of each participant. On the second day of protocol, sleepiness by Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, postural control by force platform (30 seconds and psychomotor performance by Psychomotor Vigilance Task (10 minutes were measured before and after 12-h night work. Results showed that after 12-h night work, sleepiness increased by 59% (p<0.001, postural control variables increased by 9% (p = 0.048, and 14% (p = 0.006. Mean reaction time, and the number of lapses of attention increased by 13% (p = 0.006 and 425% (p = 0.015, respectively, but the mean reciprocal reaction time decreased by 7%. In addition, there were correlations between sleepiness and postural control variables with opened eyes (r = 0.616, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.361-0.815; r = 0.538; 95% CI = 0.280-0.748 and closed eyes (r = 0.557; 95% CI = 0.304-0.764, r = 0497; 95% CI = 0.325-0.715 and a pronounced effect of sleepiness on postural sway (R2 = 0.393; 95% CI = 0.001-0.03. Therefore, 12-h night work system and sleepiness showed a negative impact in postural and psychomotor vigilance performance of night workers. As unexpected, the force platform was feasibility to detect sleepiness in this population, underscoring the possibility of using this method in the workplace to prevent occupational injuries and accidents.

  20. Role and feasibility of psychomotor and dexterity testing in selection for surgical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Anthony G; Leonard, Gerald; Traynor, Oscar J

    2009-03-01

    The practice of Surgery has undergone major changes in the past 20 years and this is likely to continue. Knowledge, judgement and good technical skills will no longer be enough to safely practice surgery and interventional procedures. Fundamental abilities (e.g. psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception) are critically important for catheter-based interventions, NOTES, robotic surgery and other procedural interventions of the future. Not all individuals possess the same amount of these innate fundamental abilities and those less endowed are likely to struggle during surgical training and thereafter in surgical practice. In contrast to other high-skill professions/industries (e.g. aviation) we do not have a tradition of testing prospective surgical trainees for abilities/attributes that we now recognize as being important for surgical practice. Instead, we continue to rely on surrogate markers of future potential (e.g. academic record). However, many studies have shown that psychomotor ability is an important predictor of both learning rate and performance for complex laparoscopic tasks. Psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception can all be tested objectively by validated tests. At the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, all short-listed candidates for Higher Surgical Training now undergo formal testing of both technical skills and fundamental abilities (psychomotor skills, visuospatial ability and depth perception). Reports on each candidate's performance are supplied to the interview committee. Furthermore, a prospective database is being kept for correlation with future surgical performance. We believe that selection into surgical training should take account of attributes that we know are important for safe and efficient surgical practice.

  1. The effects of aging and oxidative stress on psychomotor and cognitive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Decrements in motor and cognitive function occur in aging, possibly due to oxidative stress-induced damage to the brain. Declines in antioxidant defense mechanisms have been postulated as a causative factor in these age-related decrements, however a clear link between oxidative stress (OS) and behavioral changes in aging has yet to be established. This review shows that age-validated psychomotor and cognitive tests are sensitive to behavioral deficits under different models of OS, including: ...

  2. Effects of Voluntary Fluid Intake Deprivation on Mental and Psychomotor Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Petri, Nadan M.; Dropulić, Nataša; Kardum, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess if there is deterioration in mental and psychomotor performance during 24-hour voluntary fluid intake deprivation. Methods: A battery of computer generated psychological tests (Complex Reactionmeter Drenovac) was applied to 10 subjects to test light signal position discrimination, short-term memory, simple visual orientation, simple arithmetic, and complex motor coordination. We measured total test solving time, minimum (best) single task solving time, total ballast time, an...

  3. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronized, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance) but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functi...

  4. The Effects of Plyometric Education Trainings on Balance and Some Psychomotor Characteristics of School Handball Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadenizli, Zeynep Inci

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to search the effects of plyometric education trainings which was applied for 10-week on static-dynamic balance and some psychomotor characteristics of students who were been handball team of school. The female students-players (N = 16) who are in age 14,57 ± 0,92 years. All student have got 3,66 ± 0,63 years sport experience.…

  5. The catatonia conundrum: evidence of psychomotor phenomena as a symptom dimension in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Gabor S; Caroff, Stanley N; Gerevich, Jozsef

    2010-03-01

    To provide a rational basis for reconceptualizing catatonia in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition), we briefly review historical sources, the psychopathology of catatonia, and the relevance of catatonic schizophrenia in contemporary practice and research. In contrast to Kahlbaum, Kraepelin and others (Jaspers, Kleist, and Schneider) recognized the prevalence of motor symptoms in diverse psychiatric disorders but concluded that the unique pattern and persistence of certain psychomotor phenomena defined a "catatonic" subtype of schizophrenia, based on intensive long-term studies. The enduring controversy and confusion that ensued underscores the fact that the main problem with catatonia is not just its place in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders but rather its lack of conceptual clarity. There still are no accepted principles on what makes a symptom catatonic and no consensus on which signs and symptoms constitute a catatonic syndrome. The resulting heterogeneity is reflected in treatment studies that show that stuporous catatonia in any acute disorder responds to benzodiazepines or electroconvulsive therapy, whereas catatonia in the context of chronic schizophrenia is phenomenologically different and less responsive to either modality. Although psychomotor phenomena are an intrinsic feature of acute and especially chronic schizophrenia, they are insufficiently recognized in practice and research but may have significant implications for treatment outcome and neurobiological studies. While devising a separate category of catatonia as a nonspecific syndrome has heuristic value, it may be equally if not more important to re-examine the psychopathological basis for defining psychomotor symptoms as catatonic and to re-establish psychomotor phenomena as a fundamental symptom dimension or criterion for both psychotic and mood disorders.

  6. Assessing sustainability of building materials in developing countries: the sustainable building materials index (SBMI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring sustainability of building materials is complex. Despite this a wide range of different methodologies and systems have been developed. Most of these focus on environmental issues and are based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), or similar...

  7. [Developmental dysplasia of the hip in children with a psychomotor disorder. A risk factor for a poor outcome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipa-Muñiz, Iván; de Los Llanos Rodríguez-Rodríguez, María; Felgueroso-Juliana, M Blanca; Riera-Campillo, Manuela; González-Herranz, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has a high success rate in cases that are diagnosed early. However, the outcomes of these patients are not really known when they are subsequently diagnosed with some type of cerebral impairment. A retrospective observational study was conducted on cases of DDH with a poor outcome after orthopaedic treatment, being unknown if they had any type of psychomotor disorder. The patients were clinically and radiologically assessed, and afterwards received neurological valuation by the Child Neurology Unit. Of the 325 cases of DDH diagnosed in 293 patients, 10 patients (3%) with 16 hips with DDH were diagnosed of any cerebral impairment. All them were initially treated orthopedically. Clinical and radiologically evolution was succesful only in 4 cases (25%) being necessary any surgical procedure in the remaining 12 cases. After surgical treatment we got an improvement in the Acetabular Index (p=0.005) and Reimers Extrusion Index (p=0.042). Neck-shaft angle and Wiberg CE angle also improved but this difference was not statically significant. Cerebral impairment was diagnosed at 2,5 years of age and the begining of walking was delayed at 2.4 years of age. Cerebral impairment can lead to an unfavourable outcome in the treatment of DDH, with the relative risk of a poor outcome being 7.2 times higher in these patients. An unfavourable outcome with conventional treatment of DDH must make us suspect the presence of some type of neurological disorder, particularly if there is a delay in walking. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective: This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. Methods: The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). Results: AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. Conclusion: The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions. PMID:27802228

  9. Development and application of a soil organic matter-based soil quality index in mineralized terrane of the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecker, S.W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, M.C.; Ippolito, J.A.; DeCrappeo, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Soil quality indices provide a means of distilling large amounts of data into a single metric that evaluates the soil’s ability to carry out key ecosystem functions. Primarily developed in agroecosytems, then forested ecosystems, an index using the relation between soil organic matter and other key soil properties in more semi-arid systems of the Western US impacted by different geologic mineralization was developed. Three different sites in two different mineralization types, acid sulfate and Cu/Mo porphyry in California and Nevada, were studied. Soil samples were collected from undisturbed soils in both mineralized and nearby unmineralized terrane as well as waste rock and tailings. Eight different microbial parameters (carbon substrate utilization, microbial biomass-C, mineralized-C, mineralized-N and enzyme activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and fluorescein diacetate) along with a number of physicochemical parameters were measured. Multiple linear regression models between these parameters and both total organic carbon and total nitrogen were developed, using the ratio of predicted to measured values as the soil quality index. In most instances, pooling unmineralized and mineralized soil data within a given study site resulted in lower model correlations. Enzyme activity was a consistent explanatory variable in the models across the study sites. Though similar indicators were significant in models across different mineralization types, pooling data across sites inhibited model differentiation of undisturbed and disturbed sites. This procedure could be used to monitor recovery of disturbed systems in mineralized terrane and help link scientific and management disciplines.

  10. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  11. Development of a Late-Life Dementia Prediction Index with Supervised Machine Learning in the Population-Based CAIDE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkala, Timo; Hall, Anette; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Mattila, Jussi; Soininen, Hilkka; Ngandu, Tiia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Kivipelto, Miia; Solomon, Alina

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a late-life dementia prediction model using a novel validated supervised machine learning method, the Disease State Index (DSI), in the Finnish population-based CAIDE study. The CAIDE study was based on previous population-based midlife surveys. CAIDE participants were re-examined twice in late-life, and the first late-life re-examination was used as baseline for the present study. The main study population included 709 cognitively normal subjects at first re-examination who returned to the second re-examination up to 10 years later (incident dementia n = 39). An extended population (n = 1009, incident dementia 151) included non-participants/non-survivors (national registers data). DSI was used to develop a dementia index based on first re-examination assessments. Performance in predicting dementia was assessed as area under the ROC curve (AUC). AUCs for DSI were 0.79 and 0.75 for main and extended populations. Included predictors were cognition, vascular factors, age, subjective memory complaints, and APOE genotype. The supervised machine learning method performed well in identifying comprehensive profiles for predicting dementia development up to 10 years later. DSI could thus be useful for identifying individuals who are most at risk and may benefit from dementia prevention interventions.

  12. Psychomotor Impairment Detection via Finger Interactions with a Computer Keyboard During Natural Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p language of the text typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population.

  13. Psychomotor profile of a child with specific language impairment and Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Tânia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Projecting beyond the ideia of the organic and expressive body and cementing a close relationship between motor skills, cognition and language, the current practices Psychomotricity reach a new conceptual field. In this paper of qualitative nature, it was intended to draw the psychomotor profile of a 8 years old child with Specific Language Impairment (SLI and Dyslexia, by using the Vitor da Fonseca ‘s Observation Psychomotor Battery (OPB and correlate it with the linguistic and cognitive profiles. Through the triangulation of the results obtained in psychomotor, cognitive and language tests, the data in literature was corroborated, which clearly point to the existence of co-morbidity between PEL, Dyslexia and disturbances in the psychomotor’s profile, thereby demonstrating a strong correlation between psychomotricity, cognition and language. Therefore, it’s urgent, and possible, to sensitize the family, the health and education professionals for the need to a multidisciplinary approach in the areas of psychomotricity and language, both at a prophylactic or rehabilitative level.

  14. Psychomotor Impairment Detection via Finger Interactions with a Computer Keyboard During Natural Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancardo, L.; Sánchez-Ferro, A.; Butterworth, I.; Mendoza, C. S.; Hooker, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modern digital devices and appliances are capable of monitoring the timing of button presses, or finger interactions in general, with a sub-millisecond accuracy. However, the massive amount of high resolution temporal information that these devices could collect is currently being discarded. Multiple studies have shown that the act of pressing a button triggers well defined brain areas which are known to be affected by motor-compromised conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that the daily interaction with a computer keyboard can be employed as means to observe and potentially quantify psychomotor impairment. We induced a psychomotor impairment via a sleep inertia paradigm in 14 healthy subjects, which is detected by our classifier with an Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) of 0.93/0.91. The detection relies on novel features derived from key-hold times acquired on standard computer keyboards during an uncontrolled typing task. These features correlate with the progression to psychomotor impairment (p typed, and perform consistently with different keyboards. The ability to acquire longitudinal measurements of subtle motor changes from a digital device without altering its functionality may allow for early screening and follow-up of motor-compromised neurodegenerative conditions, psychological disorders or intoxication at a negligible cost in the general population. PMID:25882641

  15. Effect of chlorpromazine or sulpiride and alcohol on psychomotor skills related to driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, T

    1976-10-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted with 20 healthy paid volunteers for the evaluation of the subacute effects of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and sulpiride, in oral doses used for anxious outpatients, on psychomotor skills related to driving. Psychomotor performance was measured on the 7th and 14th days of treatment at 30, 90 and 150 min after the intake of 0.5 g/kg of an alcoholic or placebo drink. After the neuroleptics alone, reaction and coordination skills, but not attention, were slightly impaired, CPZ differing significantly from the placebo on the 14th day. Both drugs interacted additively with alcohol. The combined administration of CPZ and alcohol led to inaccuracy, a slowing of reactions and impaired proprioception and coordination. The combination of sulpiride and alcohol increased the error rate in the choice reaction test and impaired coordination in the coordination test driven at a free speed. It is concluded that the psychomotor decrement that occurs after 2 weeks of treatment with small doses of CPZ may effect the ability to control a motor vehicle. The concurrent administration of alcohol during treatment with CPZ or sulpiride may cause some extra risk in traffic or occupational life.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

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    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  17. Correlation of psychomotor skills and didactic performance among dental students in Saudi Arabia

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    Afify AR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance

  18. Thermal hyperalgesia assessment for rats after spinal cord injury: developing a valid and useful pain index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hung Tae; Kim, Taehee; Novotny, Brianna; Khan, Nayab; Aksamit, James; Siegel, Steven; Miranpuri, Gurwattan S; Resnick, Daniel K

    2014-06-01

    Ongoing research to understand the mechanism behind pain is heavily dependent on animal testing. However, unlike humans, animal subjects cannot directly communicate with researchers to express the degree of pain they are experiencing. Therefore, measuring the presence of pain in animal studies is based on behavioral tests. The use of arbitrary values for determining the presence of pain in animal studies is an oversimplification of a complex and cortically dependent process. The purpose of the present study was to identify a statistically supported latency time indicator that can be used as an accurate index for hyperalgesia to thermal stimuli in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to T9 contusive spinal cord injury (SCI). A statistical analysis of latency of withdrawal from stimulus-mediated spinal reflex in 979 Sprague-Dawley rats that had been subjected to a T9 contusive SCI was performed. This is a retrospective review of a large research database derived from a series of studies performed evaluating thermal hyperalgesia in rats after SCI. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a T9 contusive SCI and were tested for withdrawal latency from a heat stimulus. Assessment was done preinjury and on Postinjury Days 21, 28, 35, and 42 of the chronic phase of injury via a plantar withdrawal test. The baseline test results of the 979 rats showed a significant resemblance to the normal distribution. The observed change in withdrawal showed mean latency drops of 0.42 second (standard error of the mean [SEM], 0.18; p=.026), 0.57 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.004), 0.63 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.002), and 0.69 second (SEM, 0.19; p=.0003). The standard deviation from the mean at all four postsurgical assessments was between 2.8 and 2.9 seconds. Interpretation of withdrawal latency times as a marker for thermal hyperalgesia must be based on an appreciation for the normal distribution of pain scores. Recognizing that withdrawal latency is normally distributed both before and after injury allows for

  19. Two-dimensional Model of Ciliwung River Flood in DKI Jakarta for Development of the Regional Flood Index Map

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    Adam Formánek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present a sophisticated method of developing supporting material for flood control implementation in DKI Jakarta. High flow rates in the Ciliwung River flowing through Jakarta regularly causes extensive flooding in the rainy season. The affected area comprises highly densely populated villages. For developing an efficient early warning system in view of decreasing the vulnerability of the locations a flood index map has to be available. This study analyses the development of a flood risk map of the inundation area based on a two-dimensional modeling using FESWMS. The reference event used for the model was the most recent significant flood in 2007. The resulting solution represents flood characteristics such as inundation area, inundation depth and flow velocity. Model verification was performed by confrontation of the results with survey data. The model solution was overlaid with a street map of Jakarta. Finally, alternatives for flood mitigation measures are discussed.

  20. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)